VOLUME 1
2001 ELSEVIER
Amsterdam  London  New York  Oxford  Paris  Shannon  Tokyo
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Preface
Mathematical modeling and numerical solution is today firmly established in science and engineering. Research conducted in almost all branches of scientific investigations and the design of systems in practically all disciplines of engineering can not be pursued effectively without, frequently, intensive analysis based on numerical computations. The world we live in has been classified by the human mind, for descriptive and analysis purposes, to consist of fluids and solids, continua and molecules; and the analyses of fluids and solids at the continuum and molecular scales have traditionally been pursued separately. Fundamentally, however, there are only molecules and particles for any material that interact on the microscopic and macroscopic scales. Therefore, to unify the analysis of physical systems and to reach a deeper understanding of the behavior of nature in scientific investigations, and of the behavior of designs in engineering endeavors, a new level of analysis is necessary. This new level of mathematical modeling and numerical solution does not merely involve the analysis of a single medium but must encompass the solution of multiphysics problems involving fluids, solids, and their interactions, involving multiscale phenomena from the molecular to the macroscopic scales, and must include uncertainties in the given data and the solution results. Nature does not distinguish between fluids and solids and does not ever exactly repeat itself. This new level of analysis must also include, in engineering, the effective optimization of systems, and the modeling and analysis of complete life spans of engineering products, from design to fabrication, to possibly multiple repairs, to end of service. The objective of the M.I.T. Conferences ^ on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics is to bring together researchers and practitioners of mathematical modeling and numerical solution in order to focus on the current state of analysis of fluids, soUds, and multiphysics phenomena and
to lead towards the new level of mathematical modeling and numerical solution that we envisage. However, there is also a most valuable related objective indeed a "mission"  for the M.I.T. Conferences. When contemplating the future and carving a vision thereof, two needs stand clearly out. The first is the need to foster young researchers in computational mechanics, because they will revitaUze the field with new ideas and increased energy. The second need is to bring Industry and Academia together for a greater synthesis of efforts in research and developments. This mission expressed in 'To bring together Industry and Academia and To nurture the next generation in computational mechanics'' is of great importance in order to reach, already in the near future, the new level of mathematical modeling and numerical solution, and in order to provide an exciting research environment for the next generation in computational mechanics. We are very grateful for the support of the sponsors of the Conference, for providing the financial and intellectual support to attract speakers and bring together Industry and Academia. In the spirit of helping young researchers, fellowships have been awarded to about one hundred young researchers for travel, lodging and Conference expenses, and in addition. Conference fees have been waived for all students. The papers presented at the Conference and published in this book represent, in various areas, the stateoftheart in the field. The papers have been largely attracted by the session organizers. We are very grateful for their efforts. Finally, we would like to thank JeanFrangois Hiller, a student at M.I.T, for his help with the Conference, and also Elsevier Science, in particular James Milne, for the efforts and help provided to publish this book in excellent format and in due time for the Conference.
K.J. BATHE, M.I.T.
Session Organizers
We would like to thank the Session Organizers for their help with the Conference. G. Astfalk, HewlettPackard Company, U.S.A. N. Bellomo, Politecnico di Torino, Italy Z. Bittnar, Prague Technical University, Czech Republic D. Boffi, University of Pavia, Italy S. Borgersen, SciMed, U.S.A. M. Borri, Politecnico di Milano, Italy M.A. Bradford, University of New South Wales, Australia M.L. Bucalem, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil J. Bull, The University of Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K. S.W. Chae, Korea University, South Korea D. Chapelle, INRIA, France C.N. Chen, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan G. Cheng, Dalian University of Technology, PR. China H.Y. Choi, HongIk University, South Korea K. Christensen, HewlettPackard Company, U.S.A. M.A. Christon, Sandia National Laboratories, U.S.A. R. Cosner, The Boeing Company, U.S.A. S. De, Massachusetts Institute of Technology., U.S.A. Y.C. Deng, General Motors, U.S.A. R.A. Dietrich, GKSS Forschungszentrum, Germany J. Dolbow, Duke University, U.S.A. E.H. Dowell, Duke University, U.S.A. R. Dreisbach, The Boeing Company, U.S.A. E.N. Dvorkin, SIDERCA, Argentina N. ElAbbasi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. C. Felippa, University of Colorado, Boulder, U.S.A. D. Ferguson, The Boeing Company, U.S.A. D. M. Frangopol, University of Colorado, Boulder, U.S.A. L. Gastaldi, University of Pavia, Italy P. Gaudenzi, University of Rome, Italy A. Ghoniem, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. R. Glowinski, University of Houston, U.S.A. P. Gresho, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, U.S.A. N. Hadjiconstantinou, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M. Hafez, University of California, Davis, U.S.A. K. Hall, Duke University, U.S.A. 0. Hassan, University of Wales, U.K. A. Ibrahimbegovic, ENSCachan, France S. Idelsohn, INTEC, Argentina A. Jameson, Stanford University, U.S.A. 1. Janajreh, Michelin, U.S.A. R.D. Kamm, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. S. Key, Sandia National Laboratories, U.S.A. W. Kirchhoff, Department of Energy, U.S.A. W.B. Kratzig, RuhrUniversitat Bochum, Germany A. Krimotat, SC Solutions, Inc., U.S.A. C.S. Krishnamoorthy, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India (deceased) Y. Kuznetsov, University of Houston, U.S.A. L. Martinelli, Princeton University, U.S.A. H. Matthies, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany S.A. Meguid, University of Toronto, Canada K. Meintjes, General Motors, U.S.A. C. Meyer, Columbia University, U.S.A. R. Ohayon, CNAM, France M. Papadrakakis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece K.C. Park, University of Colorado, Boulder, U.S.A. J. Periaux, Dassault Aviation, France O. Pironneau, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, France E. Rank, Technical University of Munich, Germany A. Rezgui, Michelin, France C.Y Sa, General Motors, U.S.A. G. Schueller, University of Innsbruck, Austria T. Siegmund, Purdue University, U.S.A. J. Sladek, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovak Republic S. Sloan, University of Newcastle, Australia G. Steven, University of Sydney, Australia R. Sun, DaimlerChrysler, U.S.A. S. Sutton, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, U.S.A. B. Szabo, Washington University, St. Louis, U.S.A. J. Tedesco, University of Florida, U.S.A. T. Tezduyar, Rice University, U.S.A. B.H.V. Topping, HeriotWatt University, U.K. F.J. Ulm, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. J.M. Vacherand, Michelin, France L. Wang, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong X. Wang, Polytechnic University of New York, U.S.A. N. Weatherill, University of Wales, U.K. J. White, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. P. Wriggers, University of Hannover, Germany S. Xu, General Motors, U.S.A. T. Zohdi, University of Hannover, Germany
Fellowship Awardees
M. AlDojayli, University of Toronto, Canada B.N. Alemdar, Georgia Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M.A. Alves, Universidade do Porto, Portugal R. Angst, Technical University of Berlin, Germany D. Antoniak, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland S. J. Antony, University of Surrey, U.K. A. Badeau, West Virginia University, U.S.A. W. Bao, The National University of Singapore, Singapore M. Bathe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. A.C. Bauer, University of New York, Buffalo, U.S.A. C. Bisagni, Politecnico di Milano, Italy S. Butkewitsch, Federal University of Uberlandia, Brazil S. Cen, Tsinghua University, China G. Chaidron, CNAM, France M. Council, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden A. Czekanski, University of Toronto, Canada C. E. Dalhuysen, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa D. Dall'Acqua, Noetic Engineering Inc., Canada S. De, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. D. Demarco, SIDERCA, Argentina J. Dolbow, Duke University, U.S.A. J.E. Drews, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Germany J.L. Drury, University of Michigan, U.S.A. C.A. Duarte, Altair Engineering, U.S.A. F. Dufour, CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Australia A. Ferent, INRIA, France M.A. Fernandez, INRIA, France Y. Fragakis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece A. Frangi, PoUtecnico di Milano, Italy T. Fujisawa, University of Tokyo, Japan J.R. Fernandez Garcia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain J.F. Gerbeau, INRIA, France M. Gliick, FriedrichAlexander University, Erlangen, Germany C. Gonzalez, Politecnica de Madrid, Spain K. Goto, University of Tokyo, Japan S. Govender, University of Natal, South Africa T. Gratsch, University of Kassel, Germany B. Gu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. Y. T. Gu, National University of Singapore, Singapore S. Gupta, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India M. Handrik, University of Zilina, Slovakia
L. Haubelt, Rice University, U.S.A. V. Havu, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland N. Impollonia, University of Messina, Italy R. lozzi. University of Rome, "La Sapienza", Italy H. Karaouni, Ecole Polytechnique, France R. Keck, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany C.W. Keierleber, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, U.S.A. K. Kolanek, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland L. Ktibler, University of ErlangenNiimberg, Erlangen, Germany D. Kuzmin, University of Dortmund, Germany N.D. Lagaros, National Technical University of Athens, Greece R. Garcia Lage, Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Portugal P.D. Ledger, University of Swansea, Wales, U.K. J. Li, Courant Institute, New York, U.S.A. J. Li, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. G. Limbert, University of Southampton, U.K. K. Liu, Polytechnic University of New York, U.S.A. M.B. Liu, National University of Singapore, Singapore J. Long, University of New York, Buffalo, U.S.A. I. Lubowiecka, Technical University of Gdansk, Poland A.A. Mailybaev, Moscow State Lomonosov University, Russia M. Malinen, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland E.A. Malsch, Columbia University, U.S.A. Y. Marzouk, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M. Meyer, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Germany B. Miller, Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland D.P. Mok, University of Stuttgart, Germany G. Morgenthal, University of Cambridge, U.K. M. Moubachir, Laboratoire Central des Fonts et Chaussees, France S.K. Nadarajah, Stanford University, U.S.A. J. Nemecek, Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic T.S. Ng, Imperial College, U.K. N. Nuno, Universita di Parma, Italy M. Palacz, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland H. Pan, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore G. Pedro, University of Victoria, Canada X. Peng, Northwestern University, U.S.A. R.C. Penmetsa, Wright State University, U.S.A. R. Premkumar, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India
Fellowship Awardees C. Prud'homme, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. K. Roe, Purdue University, U.S.A. S. Rugonyi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M.L. Munoz Ruiz, Universidad de Malaga, Spain N. Ruse, University of Stuttgart, Germany S. Sarkar, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India C.A. Schenk, University of Innsbruck, Austria S. Shankaran, Stanford University, U.S.A. D. Slinchenko, University of Natal, South Africa D.O. Snyder, Utah State University, U.S.A. K.A. S0rensen, University of Swansea, Wales, U.K. A. Takahashi, University of Tokyo, Japan S. Ubal, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina U.V. Unnithan, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, India F. Valentin, National Laboratory of Brazil for Scientific Computing, Brazil R. Vodicka, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia V.M. Wasekar, University of Cincinnati, U.S.A. S. Wijesinghe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M.W. Wilson, Georgia Institute of Technology, U.S.A. W. Witkowski, Technical University of Gdansk, Poland A.M. Yommi, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina Y. Zhang, Dalian University of Technology, China K. Zhao, General Motors Corp., U.S.A.
Sponsors
The following organizations are gratefully acknowledged for their generous sponsorship of the Conference:
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Contents Volume 1
v vi vii ix
Plenary Papers
Alum, N., Ye, W., Ramaswamy, D., Wang, X., White, J., Efficient simulation techniques for complicated micromachined devices Brezzi, R, Subgrid scales, augmented problems, and stabilizations Dreisbach, R.L., Cosner, R.R., Trends in the design analysis of aerospace vehicles Ingham, T.J., Issues in the seismic analysis of bridges Lions, J.L., Virtual control algorithms Makinouchi, A., Teodosiu, C, Numerical methods for prediction and evaluation of geometrical defects in sheet metal forming McQueen, DM., Peskin, C.S., Zhu, L., The Immersed Boundary Method for incompressible fluidstructure interaction Ottolini, R.M., Rohde, S.M., GMs journey to math: the virtual vehicle 2 8 11 16 20 21 26 31
xii Bauchau, O.A., Bottasso, C.L., On the modeling of shells in multibody dynamics
Contents Volume 1
Bay lot, J.T., Papados, P.P., Fragment impact pattern effect on momentum transferred to concrete targets Becache, E., Joly, P., Scarella, G., A fictitious domain method for unilateral contact problems in nondestructive testing Belforte, G., Franco, W., Sorli, M., Timefrequency pneumatic transmission line analysis Bohm, R, Duda, A., Wille, R., On some relevant technical aspects of tire modelling in general Borri, M., Bottasso, C.L., Trainelli, L, An index reduction method in nonholonomic system dynamics Boucard, PA., Application of the LATIN method to the calculation of response surfaces Brunet, M., Morestin, R, Walter, H., A unified failure approach for sheetmetals formability analysis Bull, J. W., Underground explosions: their effect on runway fatigue life and how to mitigate their effects Cacciola, P., Impollonia, N., Muscolino, G., Stochastic seismic analysis of RFBI isolation system Carter, J.P, Wang, C.X., Geometric softening in geotechnical problems Cen, S., Long, Y., Yao, Z., A new hybridenhanced displacementbased element for the analysis of laminated composite plates Chakraborty, S., Brown, D.A., Simulating static and dynamic lateral load testing of bridge foundations using nonlinear finite element models . . Chapelle, D., Rerent, A., Asymptotic analysis of the coupled model shells3D solids Chapelle, D., Oliveira, D.L., Bucalem, M.L., Some experiments with the MITC9 element for Naghdis shell model Chen, X., Hisada, T, Frictional contact analysis of articular surfaces Choi, H.Y., Lee, S.H., Lee, LH., Haug, E., Finite element modeling of human headneck complex for crashworthiness simulation Chun, B.K., Jinn, J.T., Lee, J.K., A constitutive model associated with permanent softening under multiple bendunbending cycles in sheet metal forming and springback analysis Crouch, R.S., RemandezVega, J., Nonlinear wave propagation in softening media through use of the scaled boundary finite element method . . . . Czekanski, A., Meguid, S.A., Time integration for dynamic contact problems: generalizedof scheme Dai, L., Semianalytical solution to a mechanical system with friction Davi, G., Milazzo, A., A novel displacement variational boundary formulation David, S.A., Rosdrio, J.M., Investigation about nonlinearities in a robot with elastic members
Contents Volume 1 De, S., Kim, /., Srinivasan, M.A., Virtual surgery simulation using a collocationbased method of finite spheres Deeks,AJ.,WollJ.R, Efficient analysis of stress singularities using the scaled boundary finiteelement method Djoudi, M.S., Bahai, K, Relocation of natural frequencies using physical parameter modifications Duddeck, F.M.E., Fourier transformed boundary integral equations for transient problems of elasticity and thermoelasticity Dufour, E, Moresi, L., Muhlhaus, H., A fluidlike formulation for viscoelastic geological modeling stabilized for the elastic limit Dvorkin, E.N., Demarco, D., An Eulerian formulation for modehng stationary finite strain elastoplastic metal forming processes Dvorkin, E.N., Toscano, R.G., Effects of internal/external pressure on the global buckling of pipelines ElAbbasU N., Bathe, K.J., On a new segmenttosegment contact algorithm ElAbbasi, N., Meguid, S.A., Modehng 2D contact surfaces using cubic splines Eelippa, C.A., Optimal triangular membrane elements with drilling freedoms FemdndeZ'Garcia, J.R., Sofonea, M., Viaho, J.M., Numerical analysis of a sliding viscoelastic contact problem with wear Frangi, A., Novati, G., Springhetti, R., Rovizzi, M., Numerical fracture mechanics in 3D by the symmetric boundary element method Galbraith, P.C., Thomas, D.N., Finn, M.J., Spring back of automotive assembhes Gambarotta, L., Massabd, R., Morbiducci, R., Constitutive and finite element modehng of human scalp skin for the simulation of cutaneous surgical procedures Gebbeken, N., Greulich, S., Pietzsch, A., Landmann, F, Material modelling in the dynamic regime: a discussion Gendron, G., Fortin, M., Goulet, R, Error estimation and edgebased mesh adaptation for solid mechanics problems Gharaibeh, E.S., McCartney, J.S., Erangopol, D.M., Reliabilitybased importance assessment of structural members Ghiocel, D.M., Mao, H., ProbabiUstic life prediction for mechanical components including HCF/LCF/creep interactions Giner, E., Fuenmayor, J., Besa, A., Tur, M., A discretization error estimator associated with the energy domain integral method in linear elastic fracture mechanics Gonzalez, C, Llorca, J., Micromechanical analysis of twophase materials including plasticity and damage Goto, K., Yagawa, G, Miyamura, T, Accurate analysis of shell structures by a virtually meshless method Guilkey, J.E., Weiss, J.A., An implicit time integration strategy for use with the material point method Gupta, S., Manohar, C.S., Computation of reliabihty of stochastic structural dynamic systems using stochastic FEM and adaptive importance sampling with nonGaussian sampling functions
xiii
140 142 146 150 153 156 159 165 168 171 173 177 180 184 186 192 198 201
220
xiv
Contents Volume 1
Guz, LA., Soutis, C., Accuracy of analytical approaches to compressive fracture of layered solids under large deformations Hadjesfandiari, A.R., Dargush, G.F., Computational elasticity based on boundary eigensolutions Haldar, A., Lee, 5.K, Huh, / , Stochastic response of nonlinear structures Han, S., Xiao, M., A continuum mechanics based model for simulation of radiation wave from a crack Handrik, M., Kompis, V., Novak, P., Large strain, large rotation boundary integral multidomain formulation using the Trefftz polynomial functions . . Hamau, M., Schweizerhof, K., About linear and quadratic 'SolidShell elements at large deformations Hartmann, U., Kruggel, R, Hierl, T., Lonsdale, G., Kloppel, R., Skull mechanic simulations with the prototype SimBio environment Havu,V,Hakula,H, An analysis of a bilinear reduced strain element in the case of an elliptic shell in a membrane dominated state of deformation Ibrahimbegovic, A., Recent developments in nonlinear analysis of shell problem and its finite element solution Ingham, T.J., Modeling of friction pendulum bearings for the seismic analysis of bridges lozzi, R., Gaudenzi, P., MITC finite elements for adaptive laminated composite shells Janajreh, L, Rezgui, A., Estenne, V., Tire tread pattern analysis for ultimate performance of hydroplaning Kanapady, R., Tamma, K.K., Design and framework of reduced instruction set codes for scalable computations for nonlinear structural dynamics Kang,M.S.,Youn,S,K., Dof splitting padaptive meshless method Kapinski, S., Modelling of friction in metalforming processes Kashtalyan, M., Soutis, C., Modelling of intra and interlaminar fracture in composite laminates loaded in tension Kawka, M., Bathe, K.J., Implicit integration for the solution of metal forming processes Kim, H.S., Tim, HJ., Kim, C.B., Computation of stress time history using FEM and flexible multibody dynamics Kong, J.S., Akgul, K, Frangopol, DM., Xi, Y., Probabilistic models for predicting the failure time of deteriorating structural systems Koteras, J.R., Gullemd, A.S., Porter, V.L., Scherzinger, W.M., Brown, K.H., PRESTO: impact dynamics with scalable contact using the SIERRA framework Kratzig,W.B.,Jun,D., Layered higher order concepts for Dadaptivity in shell theory Krishnamoorthy, C.S.,Annamalai, V, Vmu Unnithan, U., Superelement based adaptive finite element analysis for linear and nonlinear continua under distributed computing environment KUbler, L, Eberhard, P., Multibody system/finite element contact simulation with an energybased switching criterion
302 306
Contents Volume 1 Laukkanen, A., Consistency of damage mechanics modeling of ductile material failure in reference to attribute transferability . . . LeBeau, K.H., WadiaFascetti, SJ., A model of deteriorating bridge structures Leitdo, VM.A., Analysis of 2D elastostatic problems using radial basis functions Limbert, G., Taylor, M , An explicit threedimensional finite element model of an incompressible transversely isotropic hyperelastic material: application to the study of the human anterior cruciate ligament Liu, G.R., Liu, M.B., Lam, K.Y., Zong, Z., Simulation of the explosive detonation process using SPH methodology Liu, G.R., Tu, Z.H., MFree2D: an adaptive stress analysis package based on meshfree technology Lovadina, C, Energy estimates for linear elastic shells Lubowiecka, L, Chroscielewski, J., On the finite element analysis of flexible shell structures undergoing large overall motion Luo, A.C.J., A numerical investigation of chaotic motions in the stochastic layer of a parametrically excited, buckled beam . . Lyamin, A.V., Sloan, S.W., Limit analysis using finite elements and nonlinear programming Malinen, M., Pitkdranta, J., On degenerated shell finite elements and classical shell models Martikainen, J., Mdkinen, R.A.E., Rossi, T, Toivanen, J., A fictitious domain method for linear elasticity problems Massin, R, Al Mikdad, M., Thick shell elements with large displacements and rotations Mathisen, K.M., Tiller, L, Okstad, K.M., Adaptive ultimate load analysis of shell structures Matsumoto, T, Tanaka, M., Okayama, S., Boundary stress calculation for twodimensional thermoelastic problems using displacement gradient boundary integral identity Mitchell, J.A., Gullerud, A.S., Scherzinger, W.M., Koteras, R., Porter, V.L., Adagio: nonhnear quasistatic structural response using the SIERRA framework Toukourou, M.M., Gakwaya, A., Yazdani, A., An objectoriented finite element implementation of large deformation frictional contact problems and applications Nemecek, J., Patzdk, B., Bittnar, Z., Parallel simulation of reinforced concrete column on a PC cluster Noguchi, H., Kawashima, T, Application of ALEEFGM to analysis of membrane with sliding cable Nuno, N., Avanzolini, G., Modeling residual stresses at the stemcement interface of an idealized cemented hip stem Obrecht, H., Briinig, M., Berger, S., Ricci, S., Nonlocal numerical modelling of the deformation and failure behavior of hydrostaticstressdependent ductile metals Olson, L, Throne, R., Estimation of tool/chip interface temperatures for online tool monitoring: an inverse problem approach .
xv
319 323 327 330 332 336 338 342 346 351 355
359 361
378 381
xvi
Contents Volume 1
Pacoste, C, Eriksson, A., Instability problems in shell structures: some computational aspects Palacz, M, Krawczuk, M , Genetic algorithm for crack detection in beams Papadrakakis, M., Fragakis, K, A geometricalgebraic method for semidefinite problems in structural mechanics PatzdK B., RypU D., Bittnar, Z , Parallel algorithm for explicit dynamics with support for nonlocal constitutive models Pawlikowski, M., Skalski, K., Bossak, M , Piszczatowski, S,, Rheological effects and bone remodelling phenomenon in the hip joint implantation PeiLu,X., Computational synthesis on vehicle rollover protection Peng,X., Cao,J., Sensitivity study on material characterization of textile composites Penmetsa, R.C., Grandhi, R.V, Uncertainty analysis of largescale structures using high fidelity models PerezGavildn, J.J., Aliabadi, M.H., A note on symmetric Galerkin BEM for multiconnected bodies Pradhan, S.C., Lam, K.Y., Ng,TY., Reddy, J.N., Vibration suppression of laminated composite plates using magnetostrictive inserts Pradlwarter, H.J., Schueller, G.I., PDFs of the stochastic nonlinear response of MDOFsystems by local statistical linearization Proppe, C, Schueller, G.L, Effects of uncertainties on lifetime prediction of aircraft components Randolph, M.F., Computational and physical modelling of penetration resistance Rank, E., Duster, A., h versus pversion finite element analysis for J2 flow theory Roe, K., Siegmund, T, Simulation of interface fatigue crack growth via a fracture process zone model Rosson, B.T, Keierleber, CM, Improved direct time integration method for impact analysis Rucker, M., Rank, E., The /7version PEA: high performance with and without parallelization Ruiz, G., Pandolfi, A., Ortiz, M., Finiteelement simulation of complex dynamic fracture processes in concrete Sdez, A., Dominguez, J., General traction BE formulation and implementation for 2D anisotropic media SanchezHubert, J., Boundary and internal layers in thin elastic shells Sanchez Palencia, E., General properties of thin shell solutions, propagation of singularities and their numerical incidence Savoia, M., Reliability analysis of structures against buckling according to fuzzy number theory Scheider, I., Simulation of cupcone fracture in round bars using the cohesive zone model Schenk, C.A., Bergman, L.A., Response of a continuous system with stochastically varying surface roughness to a moving load
385 389 393 396 399 403 406 410 413 416 420 425 429 431 435 438 441 445 449 452 454 456 460 463
Contents Volume 1 Schroder, J., Miehe, C, Elastic stability problems in micromacro transitions Semedo Gargdo, J.E., Mota Soares, CM., Mota Soares, C.A., Reddy, J.N., Modeling of adaptive composite structures using a layerwise theory Sladek, /., Sladek, V, Van Keer, R., The local boundary integral equation and its meshless implementation for elastodynamic problems Slinchenko, D., Verijenko, VE., Structural analysis of composite lattice structures on the basis of smearing stiffness Soric, J., Tonkovic, Z., Computer techniques for simulation of nonisothermal elastoplastic shell responses Stander, N., The successive response surface method applied to sheetmetal forming Szabo, BA.,Actis, R.L, Hierarchic modeling strategies for the control of the errors of idealization in FEA Tahar, B., Crouch, R.S., Techniques to ensure convergence of the closest point projection method in pressure dependent elastoplasticity models Takahashi, A., Yagawa, G., Molecular dynamics calculation of 2 billion atoms on massively parallel processors Tedesco, J.W., Bloomquist, D., Latta, T.E., Impact stresses in AJacks concrete armor units Thompson, L.L., Thangavelu, S.R., A stabilized MITC finite element for accurate wave response in ReissnerMindlin plates Tijssens, M.G.A., van der Giessen, E., Sluys, L.J., Modeling quasistatic fracture of heterogeneous materials with the cohesive surface methodology Tsukrov, I., Novak, J., Application of numerical conformal mapping to micromechanical modeling of elastic solids with holes of irregular shapes TylerStreet, M., Francis, N., Davis, R., Kapp, J., Impact simulation of structural adhesive joints Vermeer, P.A., Ruse, N., On the stability of the tunnel excavation front Verruijt, A., Numerical aspects of analytical solutions of elastodynamic problems Vidrascu, M., Delingette, H., Ayache, N., Finite element modeling for surgery simulation Vlachoutsis, S., Clinckemaillie, J., Distributed memory parallel computing for crash and stamp simulations Vodicka, R., The firstkind and the secondkind boundary integral equation systems for some kinds of contact problems with friction Wagner, W., Klinkel, S., Gruttmann, E, On the computation of finite strain plasticity problems with a 3Dshell element Wang, J.G., Liu, G.R., Radial point interpolation method for noyielding surface models Wang, X., Bathe, K.J., Walczak, J., A stress integration algorithm for /sdependent elastoplasticity models Whittle, AJ., Hsieh, Y.M., Pinto, E, Chatzigiannelis, ., Numerical and analytical modeling of ground deformations due to shallow tunneling in soft soils
xvii
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Contents Volume 1
Witkowski, W, Lubowiecka, /., Identification of chaotic responses in a stable Duffing system by artificial neural network Yang, C., Soh, A. K., Special membrane elements with internal defects Zarka, 7., Kamouni, //., Fatigue analysis during oneparametered loadings Zdunek, A., Nonlinear stability analysis of stiffened shells using solid elements and the pversion FEmethod Zhang, K, Lin, J., Random vibration of structures under multisupport seismic excitations Zhao, K., On simulation of a forming process to minimize springback Zhou, X., Tamma, K.K., Sha, D., Linear multistep and optimal dissipative singlestep algorithms for structural dynamics Zhu, P., Abe, M, Fujino, K, A 3D contactfriction model for pounding at bridges during earthquakes Zohdi, T.L, Wriggers, P., Computational testing of microheterogeneous materials
Contents Volume 1 Gu, Z, Zhao, G., Chen, Z, Optimum design and sensitivity analysis of piezoelectric trusses Hagiwara, L, Shi, Q.Z., Vehicle crashworthiness design using a most probable optimal design method Harte, R., Montag, U., Computer simulations and crackdamage evaluation for the durability design of the worldlargest cooling tower shell at Niederaussem power station Hartmann, D., Baitsch, M., Weber, H., Structural optimization in consideration of stochastic phenomena  a new wave in engineering Hollowell, W.T., Summers, S.M., NHTSAs supporting role in the partnership for a new generation of vehicles Ivdnyi, P., Topping, B.H.V., Muylle, J., Towards a CAD design of cablemembrane structures on parallel platforms James, R.J., Zhang, L, Schaaf, DM., Wemcke, G.A., The effect of hydrodynamic loading on the structural reliability of culvert valves in lock systems Kolanek, K., Stocki, R., Jendo, S., Kleiber, M., An efficiency of numerical algorithms for discrete reliabilitybased structural optimization Krishnamoorthy, C.S., Genetic algorithms and high performance computing for engineering design optimization Launis, S.S., Keskinen, E.K., Cotsaftis, M., Dynamics of wearing contact in groundwood manufacturing system Liu, S., Lian, Z , Zheng, X, Design optimization of materials with microstructure Liu, C, Wang, T.L., Shahawy, M., Load lateral distribution for multigirder bridges Maleki, S., Effects of diaphragms on seismic response of skewed bridges Matsuho, A.S., Frangopol, D.M., Applications of artificiallife techniques to reliability engineering Maute, K., Nikbay, M., Farhat, C, HPC for the optimization of aeroelastic systems Miller, B., Ziemiahski, L., Updating of a plane frame using neural networks Ogawa, Y., Ochiai, T, Kawahara, M., Shape optimization problem based on optimal control theory by using speed method Papadrakakis, M., Lagaros, N.D., Reliability based optimization using neural networks Papadrakakis, M., Lagaros, N.D., Fragakis, Y., Parallel computational strategies for structural optimization Peak, R.S., Wilson, MM, Enhancing engineering design and analysis interoperability. Part 2: A high diversity example Peri, D., Campana, E.F, Di Mascio, A., Development of CFDbased design optimization architecture Peterson, DM., The functional virtual prototype: an innovation framework for a zero prototype design process Prasad Varma Thampan, C.K., Krishnamoorthy, C.S., An HPC model for GA methodologies applied to reliabilitybased structural optimization
xix
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641 645 649 652 655 660 663 668 672 676 681 685 688 692 696 698 701 704 708 711 714
XX
Contents Volume 1
Rovas, D.V, Leurent, T, Prud'homme, C , Patera, A.T., Reducedbasis output bound methods for heat transfer problems Schramm, U., MultidiscipUnary optimization for NVH and crashworthiness Sedaghati, R., Tabarrok, B., Suleman, A., Optimum design of frame structures undergoing large deflections against system instability Senecal, PK., Reitz, R.D., CFD modeling applied to internal combustion engine optimization and design Shan, C, Difficulties and characteristics of structural topology optimization Shankaran, 5., Jameson, A., Analysis and design of twodimensional sails Sheikh, S.R., Sun, M., Hamdani, H., Existence of a lift plateau for airfoils pitching at rapid pitching rates Stander, N., Burger, M., Shape optimization for crashworthiness featuring adaptive mesh topology Steven, G.P, Proos, K., Xie, Y.M., Multicriteria evolutionary structural optimization involving inertia Wilson, MM, Peak, R.S., Fulton, R.E., Enhancing engineering design and analysis interoperability. Part 1: Constrained objects Wolfe, R.W,Heninger,R., Retrofit design and strategy of the San FranciscoOakland Bay Bridge continuous truss spans support towers based on ADINA Wu, J., Zhang, R.R., Radons, S., Vibration transmissibility of printed circuit boards by calibrated PEA modeling
718 721 725 729 733 737 739 743 747 750
755 758
Plenary Papers
Abstract In this short paper, we briefly describe techniques currently used for simulating micromachined devices. We first survey the fast 3D solvers that make possible fluid and field analysis of entire micromachined devices and then describe efficient techniques for coupleddomain simulation. We describe the matriximplicit multilevelNewton method for coupling solvers which use different techniques, and we describe a mixedregime approach to improve the individual solver's efficiencies. Several micromachined device examples are used to demonstrate these recently developed methods. Keywords: M E M S ; Fast Stokes; CAD; Precorrected FFT; Simulation; Mixed regime
1. Introduction In this short paper, we briefly describe techniques currently used for simulating micromachined devices. We first survey the recently developed fast 3D solvers that make possible the fluid and field analysis of entire micromachined devices. Then, we discuss the recently developed techniques for efficient coupled domain and mixed regime analysis, as they have made it possible to efficiently simulate devices whose operation involves several physical domains. In each section, we present computational results on real micromachined devices both to make clear the problem scale and to demonstrate the efficiency of these new techniques.
2. Fast 3D solvers The exterior fluid and electrostatic force on a surfacemicromachined device can, in principle, be computed using finitedifference or finiteelement methods. Such methods are becoming less popular, primarily due to the development of fast 3D solvers which are much more efficient in this setting. In particular, for surfacemicromachined * Corresponding author. Email: white@rlevlsi.mit.edu 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
devices: (1) exterior forces need only be evaluated on poly silicon surfaces, (2) the geometries are innately 3D and extremely complicated, (3) the exterior fields usually satisfy linear spaceinvariant partial differential equations. Since forces are not needed in the volume of the exterior, only on the surface, the exterior volumefilling grid for finiteelement and finite difference methods seems inefficient. In addition, the geometrically complicated nature of micromachined devices makes generating such an exterior volume grid difficult. The electrostatic problem is linear and space invariant, and so the Laplace's equation that describes the exterior electrostatics can be replaced with an integral equation which relates the surface potentials to the surface normal electric fields. In many cases, the fluid forces are reasonably well described by the linear Stoke's equation, and so an integral formulation involving only surface quantities can be used to determine fluid traction forces. The electrostatic potential and the fluid velocity, assuming Stoke's flow, both satisfy an integral equation over the poly silicon surface given by Green's theorem: u(x) / G{x,x)^ \ ^ 9n M(x)dfl, (1)
9n
N. Alum et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics where u is either the electrostatic potential or the fluid velocity, ;c is a point on the surface, and d/dn is the derivative in the direction normal to the polysilicon surface. Discretization of the above integral equation leads to a dense system of equations which becomes prohibitively expensive to form and solve for complicated problems. To see this, consider the electrostatics problem of determining the surface charge given the potential on conductors. A simple discretization for the electrostatics problem is to divide the polysilicon surfaces into n flat panels over which the charge density is assumed constant. A system of equations for the panel charges is then derived by insisting that the correct potential be generated at a set of n test, or collocation, points. The discretized system is then Pq = ^ (2) Shortrange stiiiimed direct!J
Fig. 1. A cluster of collocation points separated from a cluster of panels. products [4,5]. Perhaps the first practical use of such methods combined the fast multipole algorithms for charged particle computations with the above simple discretization scheme to compute 3D capacitance and electrostatic forces [6]. Higherorder elements and improved efficiency for higher accuracy have been the recent developments [8,10]. The many different physical domains involved in micromachined devices has focussed attention on fast techniques which are Green's function independent, such as the precorrectFFT schemes [3,9]. 2.1. Example fluid simulation As an example of using a fast solver, consider determining the quality factor of a combdrive resonator packaged in air. To compute the quality factor, it is necessary to determine the drag force on the comb. The small spatial scale of micromachined combs implies that flow in these devices typically have very low Reynolds numbers, and therefore convection can often be ignored. In addition, fluid compression can be ignored for devices which use lateral actuation, like many of the combdrive based structures fabricated using micromachining. The result of these two simpUfications is that fluid damping forces on laterally actuated microdevices can be accurately analyzed by solving the incompressible Stokes equation, rather than by solving the compressible NavierStokes equation. That the fluid can be treated as Stokes flow, and that the quantity of interest is the surface traction force, makes it possible to use a surface integral formulation to compute comb drag [11]. Then, the methods described above can be used to rapidly solve a discretization of the integral equation [12,13]. In Fig. 2, the discretization of a comb is shown. Notice that only the surface is discretized, yet still the number of unknowns in the system exceeds 50,000. An accelerated Stoke's flow solver completed the simulation in under 20 min, direct methods would have taken weeks and required over 16 gigabytes of memory. The simulated traction force in the motion direction is shown in Fig. 3. Note the surprisingly high contribution to the force from the structure sides. It should be noted that the quality factor computed from the numerical drag force analysis matched measure quahty factor for this structure to better than 10% [14].
where q is the nlength vector of panel charges, ^ is the wlength vector of known collocation point potentials. Since the Green's function for electrostatics is the reciprocal of the separation distance between x and x\
'' = f
panel.
4n.!.
X^
' ^'
(3>
where xt is the iih collocation point. Since the integral in (3) is nonzero for every panelcollocationpoint pair, every entry in P is nonzero. If direct factorization is used to solve (2), then the memory required to store the dense matrix will grow like n^ and the matrix solve time will increase like n^. If instead, a preconditioned Krylovsubspace method like GMRES [1] is used to solve (2), then it is possible to reduce the solve time to order n^, but the memory requirement will not decrease. In order to develop algorithms that use memory and time that grows more slowly with problem size, it is essential not to form the matrix explicitly. Instead, one can exploit the fact that Krylovsubspace methods for solving systems of equations only require matrixvector products and not an explicit representation of the matrix. For example, note that for P in (2), computing Pq is equivalent to computing n potentials due to n charged panels and this can be accomplished approximately in nearly order n operations [2,3]. To see how to perform such a reduction in cost, consider Fig. 1. The shortrange interaction between closeby panels must be computed directly, but the interaction between the cluster of panels and distant panels can be approximated. In particular, as Fig. 1 shows, the distant interaction can be computed by summing the clustered panel charges into a single multipole expansion (denoted by M in the figure), and then the multipole expansion can be used to evaluate distant potentials. Several researchers simultaneously observed the powerful combination of integral equation approaches, Krylovsubspace matrix solution algorithms, and fast matrixvector
N. Alum et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
2.5
2.5
Fx
2351.96 4937.22 7522.49 10107.7 12693 ^ 15278.3 17863.5 20448.8 23034.1 II 25619.3 28204.6 30789.8 33375.1 35960.4 38545.6
' ~ ^
E05
0.00015
0.0001
5E05
Fig. 3. Drag force distribution on the resonator, bottom (substrateside) view. 3. Coupleddomain mixedregime simulation Selfconsistent electromechanical analysis of micromachined polysilicon devices typically involves determining mechanical displacements which balance elastic forces in the polysilicon with electrostatic pressure forces on polysilicon surface. The technique of choice for determining elastic forces in the polysilicon is to use finiteelement methods to generate a nonlinear system equations of the form Fiu)P{u,q)=0 (4)
where w is a vector of finiteelement node displacements, F relates node displacements to stresses, and P is the force produced by the vector representing the discretized surface charge q. Note that as the structure deforms, the pressure changes direction, so P is also a function of u. One can
N. Aluru et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics view this mechanical analysis as a 'black box' which takes an input, q, and produces an output u as in HMiq) (5)
150
200 h
In order to determine the charge density on the polysilicon surface due to a set of appHed voltages, one can use a fast solver, as described above. One can view the electrostatic analysis as a 'black box' which takes, as input, geometric displacements, w, and produces, as output, a vector of discretized surface charges, ^, as in q=
HE{U)
100
(6)
Selfconsistent analysis is then to find a u and q which satisfies both (5) and (6). 3.1. MultilevelNewton 50 h A simple relaxation approach to determining a selfconsistent solution to (5) and (6) is to successively use (5) to update displacements and then using (6) to update charge. Applying (5) implies solving the nonlinear equation, (4), typically using Newton's method [15]. Although the relaxation method is simple, it often does not converge. Instead, one can apply Newton's method to the system of equations
100
50 0 50
Fig. 4. Comb drive accelerometer. tion. Computing Huiq + oid\) means using an inner loop Newton method to solve (4), which is expensive, though improvements can be made [19]. An important advantage of matrixfree multilevelNewton methods is that it is not necessary to modify either the mechanical or electrostatic analysis programs. 3.2. Mixed regime simulation
q u
HE(U)
HM{q)_
0 0
(7)
in which case the updates to charge and displacement are given by solving
/
L
dHE\ _
du I Aq Au
\HE
U
HAA
(8)
^q
The above method is referred to as a multilevel Newton method [16,17], because forming the righthand side in (8) involves using an inner Newton's method to apply HM. In order to solve (8), one can apply a Krylovsubspace iterative method such as GMRES. The important aspect of GMRES is that an explicit representation of the matrix is not required, only the ability to perform matrixvector products. As is clear from examining (8), to compute these products one need only compute (dHM/dq)Aq and (dHE/du)Au. These products can be approximated by finite differences as in ^HM ^ dq ^ Huiq+aAq) a Huiq) (9)
In many micromachined devices, such as the mechanical structure in Fig. 4, much of the structure acts as a rigid body. Therefore, many finiteelement degrees of freedom can be eliminated and replaced with a rigid body with only 6 degrees of freedom i/rigid = {^, 0. V^, ^R^ jR, zR). The u in (4) is then ^elastic U Mrigid. The rigid/elastic mechanical solver greatly reduces the size of the stiffness matrix with the bulk shrinking to a dense 6 x 6 block (see Fig. 5). The surface of the rigid body still has to be discretized finely to properly resolve the electrostatic forces. The rigid/elastic interface should be intruded into the rigid block for a small area around the tetherblock mass interface in order to avoid sharp singularities in stress across the tetherblock interface. 3.3. Tilting mirror example A coupled domain mixed regime solver was tested against the experimental data of a scanning mirror (see Figs. 6 and 7) [20] with 12 x 50 x 1.1 xm SiN hinges (Young's Modulus = 243.2 MPa, Poisson's Ratio = 0.28)
where is a very small number. Therefore, this matrixfree multilevelNewton method [18] can treat the individual solvers as black boxes. The black box solvers are called once in the outer Newton loop to compute the right hand side in (8) and then called once per each GMRES itera
N. Alum et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Rigid/elastic ; fully elastic (8x10x2 block 2x2x3 hinges)
Ov
12 500
251
.22
37.5 +v 37.5 V All dim in microns Fig. 7. Crosssection of scanning mirror.
o experiment ;  simulation (30x30x3 block 3x4x3 hinges)
20
Fig. 5. Elastic/rigid matrix reduction. and 500 x 600 x 25 [xm SiN on Si central plate kept at 0 v. The ground electrodes are kept at 37.5 v volts. The plot (Fig. 8) shows a close match of the simulation in the linear regime and convergence failure corresponding to pullin is obtained at 12.13 v as opposed to 13.4 v of the experimental data. On an average each load step took 80 min (Digital Alpha 433 MHz). For a coarse mesh the elastic/rigid simulation is compared with the fully elastic simulation (Fig. 5) to show a very close match. The CPU time for 10 load steps for the fully elastic case was 16.8 h as opposed to 58 min for the rigid/elastic case.
Fig. 8. Mirror tilt with differential voltage v. for coupleddomain analysis, and mixedregime techniques. It is now possible to simulate the coupleddomain behavior of an entire micromachined design in under an hour on a workstation rather than days or weeks on a supercomputer. The next step is to use these tools to automatically generate macromodels of micromachined devices, and make possible accurate simulation of systems which use micromachined devices.
4. Conclusions Simulation of entire microdevices is becoming more routine in engineering design thanks to a combination of fast integral equation solvers, multilevelNewton methods
"^
200
A^. Aluru et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the many students who have developed codes described above including Keith Nabors, Joel Phillips, and Joe Kanapka. This work was supported by the DARPA composite CAD, microfluidics and muri programs, as well as grants from the Semiconductor Research Corporation and the National Science Foundation. [11] pole method for the Laplace equation in three dimensions. Acta Numer 1997, pp. 229269. Pozrikidis C. Boundary integral and singularity methods for linearized viscous flow, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992. Aluru NR, White J. A fast integral equation technique for analysis of micro flow sensors based on drag force calculations. International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, Semiconductors, Sensors and Actuators, Santa Clara, April 1998, pp. 283286. Ye W, Kanapka J, Wang X, White J. Efficiency and accuracy improvements for FastStokes, a precorrectedFFT accelerated 3D Stokes Solver. International Conference on ModeHng and Simulation of Microsystems, Semiconductors, Sensors and Actuators, San Juan, April 1999. Ye W, Wang X, Hemmert W, Freeman DM, White J. Viscous drag on a lateral microresonator: fast 3D fluid simulation and measured data. IEEE SolidState Sensor and Actuator Workshop, HiltonHead Island, SC, June 1999. Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures, PrenticeHall, Englewood Chffs, NJ, 1996. Rabbat NB, SangiovanniVincenteUi A, Hsieh HY. A MultilevelNewton algorithm with macromodeling and latency for the analysis of large scale nonlinear circuits in the time domain. IEEE Trans, on Circuits and Systems, CAS26(9):733741, Sept. 1979. Brown PN, Saad Y Hybrid Krylov Methods for Nonlinear Systems of Equations, SIAM J Sci Statist Comput 1990;11: 450481. Aluru NR, White J. A coupled numerical technique for selfconsistent analysis of microelectromechanical systems, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). ASME Dynamic Systems and Control (DSC) Series, New York 1996;59: 275280. Ramaswamy D, Aluru N, White J. Fast coupleddomain, mixedregime electromechanical simulation. Proc. International Conference on SolidState Sensors and Actuators (Transducers '99), Sendai Japan, June, 1999, pp. 314317. Dickensheets DL, Kino GS. Silicon  Micromachined Scanning Confocal Optical Microscope. J Microelectromech Syst Vol. 7, No. 1, March 1998.
[12]
[13] References [1] Youcef Saad, Schultz MH. GMRES: A generalized minimal residual algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems. SIAM J Sci Statist Comput 1986;7(3): 105126. [2] Barnes J, Hut P. A hierarchical 0{N\ogN) forcecalculation algorithm. Nature 1986;324:446449. [3] Hockney RW, Eastwood JW. Computer simulation using particles. New York: Adam Hilger, 1988. [4] Rokhlin V. Rapid solution of integral equation of classical potential theory J Comput Phys 1985;60:187207. [5] Hackbusch W, Nowak ZP. On the fast matrix multiplication in the boundary element method by panel clustering, Numer Math 1989;54:463491. [6] Nabors K, White J. Fastcap: a multipole accelerated 3D capacitance extraction program. IEEE Transactions on ComputerAided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, November 1991;10:14471459. [7] Nabors K, Korsmeyer FT, Leighton FT, White J. Preconditioned, adaptive, multipoleaccelerated iterative methods for threedimensional firstkind integral equations of potential theory. SIAM J Sci Statist Comput 1994;15(3):713735. [8] Bachtold M, Korvink JO, Bakes H. The Adaptive, MultipoleAccelerated BEM for the Computation of Electrostatic Forces, Proc. CAD for MEMS, Zurich, 1997, pp. 14. [9] Phillips JR, White JK. A precorrectedFFT method for electrostatic analysis of complicated 3D structures. IEEE Trans, on ComputerAided Design, October 1997; 16(10): 10591072. [10] Greengard L, RokhUn V. A new version of the fast multi
[14]
[15] [16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
Abstract We present an overview of some recent approaches to deal with instabiUties of numerical schemes and/or subgrid phenomena. The basic idea is that of enlarging (as much as one can) the finite element space, then to do an elementbyelement preprocessing, and finally solve a problem with the same number of unknowns as the one we started with, but having better numerical properties. Keywords: Residual free bubble; Stabilization
1. Introduction In a number of applications, subgrid scales cannot be neglected. Sometimes, they are just a spurious byproduct of a discretized scheme that lacks the necessary stability properties. In other cases, they are related to physical phenomena that actually take place on a very small scale, but still have an important effect on the solution. In recent times, it was discovered that some mathematical tricks to deal with these problems can help in both situations. One of these tricks is based on the socalled Residual Free Bubbles (RFB). In what follows, we are going to discuss its application, by considering two typical examples, one for each category: the case of advection diffusion problems and the case of composite materials. For dealing with these problems, in a typical mathematical fashion, we shall choose very simple toy problems that will, however, still retain some of the basic difficulties of their bigger industrial counterparts. In particular, we consider: 1: Advectiondominated scalar equations: find umV:= H^(Q) such that Lu:= sAu{cS/u = f in ^ , w = 0 on dQ. (1.1) Here Q is, say, a convex polygon, c a given vectorvalued smooth function (convective term), / a given smooth forcing term, and s a positive scalar (diffusion coefficient). Clearly, x = (xi,X2). The numerical approximation of the problem becomes nontrivial when the product of s times a characteristic length of the problem (for instance, the * Email: brezzi@dragon.ian.pv.cnr.it 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
diameter of Q) is much smaller than c in a nonnegligible part of the domain. The variational formulation of (1.1) is find u e V such that
C(u, v) := I eVu Vvdx \ /
i"
CVUV&K
(1.2)
doc Vi; V.
2: Linear elliptic problems with composite materials: find M in V := H^(^) such that: Lu :=  V . (a{x)Vu) = / in ^ , M = 0 on dQ. (1.3)
As before, Q is, say, a convex polygon, and / a given smooth forcing term. The (given) scalar function a{x) is assumed to be greater than a given positive constant ao in the whole domain Q, and represents, somehow, the characteristics of a composite material. The numerical approximation of (1.3) becomes nontrivial when a has a fine structure, exhibiting sharp changes on a scale that is much smaller than the diameter of ^ . The variational formulation of (1.3) is find M e V such that (M, V) := / a(jc)Vw Vvdx
I
fvdx
VUG V
(1.4)
The first example corresponds to problems where an unsuited numerical scheme can generate spurious oscillations in the numerical solution, which are not present in the exact solution (that in general, will just exhibit a boundary layer
F. Brezzi/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics near the part of the boundary where c n > 0, where n is the outward unit vector normal to 9 ^ . On the contrary, the second example corresponds to problems where a fine structure is already present, all over the domain, and needs to be captured by the numerical scheme, at an affordable cost. In the sequel, we are going to give the basic idea of a general strategy that can prove useful, possibly in different ways, for both types of problems. V e Bh(K) and obtain, from (2.4) that the restriction wf of UB to K is the unique solution of the following local bubble equation: find UB ^ Bh(K) such that C(u^s, V) = C(UH, V) + (/, V) Wv e Bh(K). (2.5) Equation (2.5), if solvable, would allow to express each wf in terms of Uh. At the formal level, we can introduce the solution operator SK, that associates to every function g (for instance in L^(K)) the solution SK(g) e H^{K) of C{SK{g),v) = {g,v) yveH^(K) (2.6) and write the solution i/f of (2.5) as wf = SK^/  Luh). We are now ready to go back to (2.4), take v = Vh, and substitute in UA = Uh + UB its expression as given by (2.5) and (2.6) to obtain C{uh, Vh)  Y^C{SK{Luh), Vh) = (/,^/.)X!>^(<5i^(/).^A) ^Vh^Vh. (2.7)
2. The residual free bubbles approach We notice, to start with, that the two problems presented in the Section 1 have variational formulations sharing the same structure: I find u ^V such that I C{u, v) = (/, i;) Vi; e V, (2.1)
where, in both cases, V := HQ(Q) and, from now on, ( , ) denotes the inner product in L^(^). The difference is just in the type of biUnear form C(u,v) to be used for each problem. Fixing our ideas on either one of the abstract formulations (2.1), we assume now that we are given a decomposition 7^ of ^ into triangles, with the usual nondegeneracy requirements. For the sake of simplicity we assume that we start with finite element spaces Vh made of piecewise linear continuous functions vanishing on 9^. We also play the game that the dimension of Vh is the biggest one we are ready to afford, in the end, when we solve the final system of linear equations. However, we are ready to afford some extra work, as a preprocessor before building the stiffness matrix, provided that such work could be done in parallel, and in particular elementbyelement. Under these assumptions (that is given these rules) we can proceed as follows. We start by considering the space of bubbles BnTlKBhiK), Bh(K):=H^(K) V^ 7^. (2.2)
We consider now the augmented space VA:=VheBh, and the corresponding augmented problem Ifindu e VA such that
C(UA, VA)
(2.3)
This is the linear system that, in the end, we are going to solve. It can be seen (see e.g. [24,6,7]) that, for the first example, this corresponds to classical stabilized methods like SUPG (see e.g. [8,9]). For the second example, this would correspond to a twolevel method of the type of the ones studied, for instance, in [13,14]. Clearly, the major difficulty is in the actual solution of the local problems (2.5) that, in principle, present difficulties that look similar to solving the original problems. However, looking at (2.7), we notice that, in practice, we have to evaluate only terms of the type C(SK(g), Vh) that, in turn, can be written as (SKig), L*Vh), where L* is the adjoint operator of L. In our two examples, we have L*v = sAu c  Vu for the first one, and L* = L for the second one (where L is selfadjoint). An important observation is now that, considering for instance the first example, L*Vh will be constant in each element. Hence, only the mean value of SK(g) is needed. This implies that a rough approximate solution of (2.5) could still be acceptable. This will not be the case for our second example, where SKig) will be integrated against a term depending on a(x). This term, however, will have a very definite structure, that we might think of to exploit. It is also possible to check that, in order to compute the terms depending on SK appearing in (2.7), it is sufficient to compute the quantities Sl:j:=(SK(vi),L''vi) Fr.= L%SK(f),vi) and V/,7 WKeTh, (2.8)
= (/, VA)
^VA
e VA
(2.4)
Notice that (2.4) is infinite dimensional, and therefore unsolvable. Still we can consider it, for the moment, at the level of an abstract speculation. We then notice that, according to (2.3), we can split UA as UA = UU + UB. In its turn, UB will be a sum of local bubble functions wf, that is: UB = J2K "f Therefore, in each K e % ^Q can take
where the v^ are the usual nodal basis for Vh. Clearly the terms appearing in (2.8) have to be computed in some approximate way, see for instance [5,7,10]. However, the implementation could also follow a path that is apparently quite different. Indeed, to every basis
10
F. Brezzi / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics priori error analysis of a finite element method with residualfree bubbles for advecfiondominated equations. SIAM JNumer Anal 1999;36:19331948. Brezzi F, Marini D, Russo A. Applications of pseudo residualfree bubbles to the stabilization of convectiondiffusion problems, Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1998; 166:5163. Brezzi F, Marini D, SUli E. Residualfree bubbles for advectiondiffusion problems: the general error analysis. Numer Math, to appear. Brezzi F, Russo A. Choosing bubbles for advectiondiffusion problems. Math Mod Methods Appl Sci 1994;4:571587. Brooks AN, Hughes TJR. Streamline Upwind/PetrovGalerkin formulations for convection dominated flows with particular emphasis on the incompressible NavierStokes equations. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng. 1982;32:199259. Franca LP, Frey SL, Hughes TJR. Stabilized finite element methods: I. Applications to advectivediffusive model, Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1992;95:253276. Franca LP, Macedo AP. A twolevel finite element method and its application to the Helmholtz equation. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1998,43:2332. Franca LP, Russo A. Deriving upwinding, mass lumping and selective reduced integration by residualfree bubbles. Appl Math Lett 1996;9:8388. Franca LP, Russo A. Approximation of the Stokes problem by residualfree macro bubbles. EastWest J Numer Math 1996;4:265278. Hou TY, Wu XH. A multiscale finite element method for elliptic problems in composite materials and porous media. J Comput Phys 1997;134:169189. Hou TY, Wu XH, Cai Z. Convergence of a multiscale finite element method for elliptic problems with rapidly oscillating coefficients. Math Comp 1999;68:913943. Mitchell AR, Griffiths DF. Generalised Galerkin methods for second order equations with significant first derivative terms. In: Proc. Bienn. Conf., Dundee, 1977, Lect Notes Math 1978;630:90104.
function v'^ G VH we can associate two other functions wi and If* that, in each K, are solutions of the problems Lwi =Q and
L*K;* = 0 in ^
mK
Wi = v[
on dK,
(2.9)
[5]
ondK.
(2.10)
[6]
Clearly wt = w* whenever L is selfadjoint. It can be checked that the nodal values of the solution M^ of (2.4) coincide with the nodal values of the solution of the problem: find Wh, linear combination of the wj/s, such that C(wh, w*) = (/, O V/ = 1 , . . . , dim(V,). (2.11)
[7]
[8]
On the other hand, the computation of the solution in the form (2.11) requires essentially the same amount of work as the computation in the form (2.7). It is also interesting to notice that, for the first example, this corresponds to the use of suitable basis functions (adapted to the operator) in the PetrovGalerkin formulation, as discussed, for instance, in [15]. For the second example, (2.11) is actually the original formulation of [13]. For applications of these concepts to different problems see for instance [1,1012].
[9]
[10]
[11]
References [ 1 ] Arbogast T. Numerical subgrid upscaling of twophase flow in porous media. In: Chen Z, Ewing RE, Shi ZC (Eds), Mulfiphase Flows and Transport in Porous Media: State of the Art. Lecture Notes in Physics. Berlin: Springer, 2000. [2] Brezzi F, Bristeau MO, Franca LP, Mallet M, Roge G. A relationship between stabilized finite element methods and the Galerkin method with bubble functions. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1992;96:117129. [3] Brezzi F, Franca LP, Hughes TJR, Russo A. b = f g. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1997;145:329339. [4] Brezzi F, Hughes TJR, Marini LD, Russo A, Suli E. A
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
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Abstract Evolution of the airframe design analysis process during the past seven (7) decades is summarized from engineering technology, computing and process viewpoints. Ongoing trends are presented, using examples of typical structural and aerodynamic applications, especially that of the finite element method and the computing architecture that supports these tools. Current thrusts and overall integration strategies for product simulation integration (PSI) in Boeing are highlighted relative to the objectives of reducing costs and cycle time in the design, analysis, manufacturing and support of conmiercial airplanes. Finally, opportunities for advancing certain engineering, information, and computing technologies are enumerated, by identifying selected problem areas being addressed by today's industries. Keywords: Computational structures technology (CST); Aeroelastic analysis; Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
1. Background A highlevel overview is presented of how the designanalysis process for airframe vehicles has evolved from 1930 to the present time. Beginning with a 'real' single design office that relied on drawing boards, this process changed dramatically during the 1960s when computers were introduced into the technical workplace. Specific engineering technologies, however, were advanced by independent organizations. As we moved into the 1970s, faster and larger computers were best, but specialized engineering applications and data had to be interfaced from one computer code to another. As the 21st century is entered, the primary objective is to perform product lifecycle simulation with a design office that is virtually collocated using geographically distributed, collaborative computing. 2. The aeroelastic design process The aeroelastic design process for aerospace vehicles, as shown in Fig. 1, is iterative because of the complex * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (425) 2343407; Fax: +1 (425) 2348539; Email: rodney.l.dreisbach@boeing.com 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
operating environments in which the vehicles must perform, the tightly coupled system integration of different disciplines, and because of the complex structural arrangements required within the vehicles. To obviate exhaustive static and dynamic physical laboratory and flights tests for optimally designing the aerodynamic vehicle and sizing the various structural components for all flight regimes, extensive use of analytical and computational methods are currently used during the design, development and certification of flight vehicles. These methods rely heavily on the wellestablished FEA (finite element analysis) and finite volume techniques initially developed for industrial applications during the late 1950s.
3. The finite element method for structural analysis Whereas the FEA method was used only for structural verification purposes during the 1960s, it is currently used in the design development of all primary aerospace structure beginning with the configuration development phase, through certification activities and customer support. The mainframe computing capabilities during the 1960s limited the maximum size of the mathematical system of equations to less than 6000. This constraint provided the impetus
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R.L. Dreisbach, R.R. Cosner /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Sttffness
Balaiioed toads
Presses
to develop the substructured FEA analysis method that is published widely and is provided as an optional solution technique in many vendorsupplied codes. Today's use of the FEA method is extremely diverse, where its use for structural analysis spans static, dynamic and weight computations, crossfunctional interactions between aeroelastics, flutter, propulsion and acoustics, linear and nonlinear geometry and material characteristics, including tool design and manufacturing process improvements. FEA models of total transport airplanes typically represent fairly detailed structural arrangements when the analysis objectives are to predict internal loads and stresses in the airframes. As a result, typical airplane FEA model sizes have exceeded 300,000 degrees of freedom (equations). This is quite a contrast to being limited to 6000 equations during the 1960s. Another recent trend is use of the FEA method much earlier in the product definition process. That is, the FEA tools have become very easy to use by designers interested in earlylooks at how their structural design will perform in its operating environment. This change from the previously used, sequential 'designthenanalyze' process allows early computerbased analyses performed by designers to be shared with the analysts. Frontloading the design process by having designers perform rudimentary analyses is a step toward true con
current engineering. This approach has resulted in early FEA models of complex single parts that exceed 300,000 degrees of freedom! However, with the ongoing revolutionary advancements in computing power, solution of this type of large problem for a single load case can be performed in less than 30 minutes! Furthermore, shape optimization of structural parts using designgeometry parameters having automated associativity can be performed just as easily. These techniques have allowed flow times for selected design/analysis processes to be reduced by orders of magnitude!
4. Aerodynamic analysis characteristics The general trends in aerodynamic analysis are the same as previously discussed for structural analysis. With everincreasing computing power and more capable tools, there is a clear desire for steadily improving the geometric fidelity of the CFD models, and for increasing the sophistication and detailed resolution of the fluid physics models (e.g., turbulence models). These factors lead to larger computational grids, more solution variables per grid point, and more stringent convergence criteria to attain high accuracy. Today, for 3D multiblock analyses on structured grids, computational grids of 5,000,000 points are very common.
R.L Dreisbach, R.R. Cosner /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
13
^ r ^ s Ar^lyas Ftepc^itwy
liliiliBiiiii
^ructurari T ^ Data Ftediwtbn
FJI
h
"'^
Fig. 2. Product simulation integration (PSI) technology and data relationships for aerospace vehicle design.
and grids of up to 20,000,000 points are fairly common. In perfect gas analyses, there are five to seven solution variables per point. For more complex problems involving chemical reactions, there can be several dozens of solution variables per point. For the larger problems, computing times of a few hundred CPUhours are fairly common. Parallel computing has been widely adopted for these types of analyses. Typical solution files can range from a few hundred megabytes up to nearly a gigabyte today, with the problem sizes steadily increasing.
6. The PSI (product simulation integration) project A strategic initiative at BCAG, known as the PSI for Structures project, is underway to reduce costs and cycle time in the design, analysis, and support of commercial airplanes. The 'Product' is the airplanes we design and build, and the services we provide to customers for their airplane operations. 'Simulation' is the analytical and test processes performed to predict inservice behavior of the airplane structure in support of design requirements and objectives. 'Integration' is the close binding of our design, analysis, manufacturing and support processes with the associated product information, as it supports reduced costs and cycle time. The overall technologies and data relationships associated with the PSI project are shown in Fig. 2. The primary objectives of PSI are: (1) establish and enhance preferred engineering and business processes; (2) improve the suite of engineering methods and tools, and migrate legacy applications and data; and (3) integrate structural analysis and test with product definition information and manufacturing to reduce cycle time and costs. Fundamental to the success of the PSI project in meeting its goals are establishing standard processes, associating lifecycle information to the product definition data for easy, reliable, and consistent retrieval, and adopting industry standards for sharing of these data to facilitate longterm data access.
5. Computing architecture The trend in computing hardware architecture for aerospace vehicle design and analysis processes have been moving away from mainframe computing campuses to that of clientserver distributed networked configurations. Current trends are away from using multiple computers in support of different technological functions, to that of using a single computing workstation userinterface to perform all of the necessary computing functions. Another significant trend in computing is tighter vertical integration of functionalities within single computing systems. This allows data to be reused and shared by multiple technologies, where data translators are passe and commonality in the manmachine interfaces is unified.
14
R.L. Dreisbach, R.R. Cosner /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tion is difficult; proprietary data representations are used; need standards for data modeling and information sharing. Product data redundancy is prevalent; many different data models are created by translations to specific technology application codes. Focus has been on optimizing the mathematical models and not the product itself (e.g., strength optimization of structural gages vs. shape vs. topology vs. topography). Increased demands on the operational requirements of products have provoked interactions between multiple technology domains; focus has been on a federated data environment, but an integrated data environment is preferred; need fully coupled solution techniques (e.g., combustion simulation on structural response). Design constraints with different fidelities across multidisciplines are different; need smart techniques for product definition information representation, mapping and integration in support of the continuous design evolution process. Simulation of lifecycle systems using a common, singlesource, product information management system is essentially nonexistent. Costing tools and methods in support of product design are inadequate. Transfer of new technologies into practice takes many years; need stronger university/industry internships and innovative facilitated educational (advisory) techniques for 'justintime' learning. Solutions to multiphysics problems are overly compromised by expansive assumptions (decoupling of analysis fields such as combustion simulation from structural response simulation). The current throughput of computational mechanics solutions is marginally acceptable for singledisciplined engineering problems; need concurrent engineering solutions of multiphysicsbased problems based on knowledge sharing.
6.1. Standard processes and computing systems Standard processes reduce variability in the way we design, analyze, and support our airplane products, thus lowering training, computing, process support, and sustaining costs. Standard computing systems reduce training due to a common look and feel of the system, as well as provide easy access to multiple computing operating systems and environments, where required. 6.2. Tie to digital product definition By linking analyses to the product definition data, records that substantiate the design decisions, strength, durability, damage tolerance analyses, and service history of the airplane parts and assemblies are made available for derivative airplane design and analysis, as well as sustaining. To be successful, these data must be available for the life of the airplane products. Current efforts are underway to extend the definition of SSPD (single source product definition) to include analysis and test data that may not necessarily be physically linked, but at a minimum will be logically linked. 6.3. Data exchange standards Evolving computing software and hardware systems have made the task of information retrieval increasingly difficult with time. Out best opportunity to preserve the data we generate today and minimize regeneration tomorrow is through the adoption of standards for information exchange. Then, in principal, we can unplug the old analysis or information management tool and plug in a new one without extensive conversion and disruption to the engineers and customers.
7. Opportunities for advancement In developing future aerospace vehicles during the 21st century, challenges abound for more innovative technologies and products than ever before. These needs are being driven by increased demands for efficiency, safety and multifunctional operational requirements placed on future aerospace systems [1,2]. Opportunities that currendy exist for advancing numerous areas of computational mechanics to virtually simulate, in a realistic manner, the lifecycle of an aerospace vehicle before physical prototyping, are noted below. Current design/analysis tools are mostly standalone; most tools operate in a local environment, with little integration. An integrated, comprehensive computing architecture for a global design/analysis system does not exist. Free exchange of accurate product definition informa
8. Summary Incredible advances have been made in multiple areas of computational mechanics technologies and in process implementations within industry for developing new aerospace vehicles during the past seven (7) decades. However, more advanced computational engineering techniques for performing designanalysisoptimizationsynthesis activities concurrently, in satisfying the multifunctional operational specifications of an aerospace vehicle, are needed to attain higher levels of product functional prototyping in a virtual environment. Major advances are required in numerous areas of computational mechanics to virtually simulate, in a realistic manner, the lifecycle of an aerospace vehicle before physical prototyping.
R.L. Dreisbach, R.R. Cosner /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics References [1] Dreisbach RL, Peak RS. Enhancing engineering design and analysis interoperability. Part 3: Steps toward multifunctional optimization. In: First MIT Conference on Compu
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tational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Cambridge, MA, June 1215, 2001. [2] Noor AK, Venneri SL, Paul DB, Hopkins MA. Structures technology for future aerospace systems. Comput Struct 2000;74(5):507519.
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Abstract The use of local and global models and the tradeoffs between simple and detailed models are discussed in the context of the seismic analysis of bridges; examples are presented from various projects. The management of time history analysis using a database is also presented. Keywords: Seismic analysis; Bridge; Database
1. Introduction Three issues related to the complexity of modeling bridges for seismic analysis are discussed in this paper: the use of local and global models, the tradeoffs between simple and detailed models, and the management of analysis using a database.
2. Local and global modeling It is often impractical to include every detail of a large bridge in a comprehensive 'global' seismic analysis. A global model is a complete model of a bridge, from abutment to abutment, including the foundations, piers, and superstructure. The size of this model is limited by the demanding requirements of a time history analysis, which may include 20003000 time steps. A commonly used strategy to deal with this issue is to conduct detailed 'local' analyses to supplement the 'global' analysis. This issue is illustrated by the analysis of the towers of the Golden Gate Bridge, made for the seismic retrofit of that bridge [5,7]. The global model of the bridge is shown on the left in Fig. 1; the figure only shows a portion of the model, near one of the towers. The modeling of the base of the tower is the minimum able to capture the important nonlinear response of the tower. This includes yielding of the extreme fibers of the base, which is modeled by *Tel.: +1 (415) 2913781; Fax: + \ (415) 4330807; Email: tingham@tylin.com 1 Ph.D., S.B. Associate. 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
finite elements with an elastoplastic material, and rocking of the base, which is modeled by gap elements supporting the finite element mesh. The global model is used to compute the total response of the bridge, including the overall demands on the tower. The local model of the tower base, used for detailed evaluation and the design of retrofit measures, is shown on the right in Fig. 1. This shell element model, with nonlinear geometry and an elastoplastic material, was used to analyze the stability of the plates making up the individual cells of the tower. The local buckling predicted by the analysis will be prevented by installation of stiffeners inside the cells.
3. Simple versus direct modeling Another issue related to the level of detail used in a global model is the use of 'simple' models versus 'direct' models. A simple model is one that is easily constructed and understood, with a minimum number of parameters. An example of a simple model is the model of the pile foundation supporting a typical pier of the new East Bay Bridge, shown on the left in Fig. 2. This model uses a 6 x 6 stiffness matrix to represent each pile below the mudline; the pile behavior is simple and readily understood. A more 'direct' model of the same foundation is shown on the right in Fig. 2; only the piles are shown. Each pile is modeled with a beam element and the surrounding soil is modeled with nonlinear py springs (perpendicular to each pile) and nonlinear tz springs (parallel to each pile). The relationship between the two models is that the simple model is a linearization of the direct one.
T.J, Ingham /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
17
Fig. 1. Local and global models for analysis of the Golden Gate Bridge.
Superstructure
Fig. 2. Simple and direct models for analysis of the East Bay Bridge. The simple model has the virtue of running more quickly, and the volume of results to be handled is less, but underlying its simplicity is the linearization of the behavior. This depends on the level of deformation of the pile, so the analyst must constantly verify that the linearization is compatible with the results obtained. With the direct model the computer solves the equations of motion of the pile and soil at each time step, and the initial work of linearization and the tedious job of constantly checking it are eliminated. The virtue of the direct model is that the assumptions (about soil behavior, in the case of the pile) are at a more fundamental level and more easily appreciated, hence the term 'direct'. If automated methods are used to generate the more detailed model and to process the results (see below) the direct model only has the disadvantage of needing more CPU time for its solution. In any case, the level of detail to include in a model is the analyst's choice, balancing the effort required to generate the model and to process the results against the clarity of the assumptions involved. Other examples of this tradeoff may be found in references [24].
4. Data management The time history analysis of a large bridge, like the replacement spans of the East Bay Bridge [6], produces a large volume of data. The management of this data is an important issue in the design process. For instance, using ADINA [1], the analysis of the model shown in Fig. 3 for 60 s of an earthquake (3000 time steps at 0.02 s) produces a result filethe porthole filethat is over three gigabytes in size. This file must be searched for the critical
t^^ h^
K k
Fig. 3. East Bay Bridge, model of main span. combinations of axial force, shear, and moment for each member and the results summarized for easy interpretation and design. Also, the maintenance of the model to reflect design changes is a significant problem. On the East Bay Bridge project, both of these issues were addressed by using a database to store structure and model data, to generate input files for analysis, and to summarize analysis results for design. This approach is shown schematically in Fig. 4, which shows the different files involved, and in Fig. 5, which shows the process of analysis and interpretation of results. As shown in Fig. 4, the process is managed by a compiled Microsoft Access database that contains the forms used to define the structure, the code needed to generate models and input files for analysis, and the reports used to present results. The ground motions and the data defining the structure are kept in separate Access data files. The structure file contains the data describing the complete structure; using the database system an analyst may choose to analyze the complete structure or just a part of it e.g., the main span, or a single pier. For the chosen portion of the structure the elements and nodal connectivity describing the resulting model are written to the model data file at the same time that the ADINA input files are produced. The ADINA program stores results in a 'porthole' file; which is a binary file with a complex structure. A 'porthole reader' program is used to scan this file and transfer the maximum and minimum forces for each member to the result data file. This program may be contained in a dynamic link library integrated with the compiled database or it may be a standalone program [8]. Finally, combining the model and result data, the compiled database produces the reports needed for design, and passes the data onto specialty design programs. A typical form in the database system is shown in Fig. 6. This particular form is used to describe the layout of the piles at each pier, and to specify the pile type. The advantages of the database are several. The structure data file provides a central location for the storage of design data. Analysts working on different parts of the structure can generate models from this single file and they have ready access to common data e.g. standard pile types. Automating and standardizing the production of input files eliminates tedious work and minimizes errors. And, the database is ideally suited to summarizing the results for a large number of members and for several ground motions.
Access
Database; Forms
Code Reports
^.rf
J A D I M A >
TJ. Ingham /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
19
_ W W^ Im
kin ^ B
Deflection Damping Factor Re Lajfout Sdtrfamr ^rMod^io yge Cap" to tem aph cap mpedegxem^k^
o.i v The ctef)K:tai and dampBig facfty ^e onKf used "]> fix piie ird^ce matriK aid hytrid models aid 0.015915 X for pfe cap Irrf)edarc8 matrix mocteis
u u
Fig. 6. Access database for model generation, pile modeling and layout form. 5. Conclusions The seismic analysis of large bridges presents many choices regarding the level of detail to include in a global model and the analysis of critical components. The use of automated methods for data storage, model generation, and the manipulation of results is an important factor in the complexity of the models that can be practicably handled.
[4]
[5]
[6] References [1] ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide. ADINA R&D, Cambridge, MA, 1999. [2] Baker G, Ingham T, Heathcote D. Seismic retrofit of Vincent Thomas suspension bridge. Transportation Research Record No. 1624. Transportation Research Board, 1998. [3] Ingham TJ. ModeUng of friction pendulum bearings for
[7]
[8]
the seismic analysis of bridges. In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Cambridge, MA, June 1215, 2001. Ingham TJ, Rodriguez S, Donikian R, Chan J. Seismic analysis of bridges with pile foundations. Comput Struct 1999;72:4962. Ingham TJ, Rodriguez S, Nader M. Seismic modeling and analysis of the Golden Gate Bridge. Proceedings of the Structural Engineers World Congress, San Francisco, CA, 1998. Nader M, Manzanarez R, Ingham T, Baker G. Seismic Design Strategy for the New San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge Suspension Span. Proceedings of the 16th International Bridge Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, 1999. Rodriguez S, Ingham TJ. Seismic Protective Systems for the Stiffening Trusses of the Golden Gate Bridge. Proceedings of the National Seismic Conference on Bridges and Highways, San Diego, CA, 1995. SCPorthole7 Program. SC Solutions, Santa Clara, CA.
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Abstract Some recent advances in the development of virtual control algorithms for the approximate solution of boundary value problems are presented. Keywords: Virtual control algorithms; Controllability; Domain decomposition; Heterogeneous decomposition
A(u) = f
(1)
in a domain ^ c R'^, where A is an elliptic operator (linear or not, scalar or vectorial), and where u is subject to boundary conditions, not specified here. We embed the problem in a family of relaxed problems By = g + k (2)
(4) Heterogeneous decompositions: follows a paper by Gervasio et al. [5], to appear in Numerische Mathematik. (5) High precision with low order finite elements: [6], to appear. (6) Time decomposition: [7], [8]. Cf. also a paper in preparation with Y. Maday. (7) Towards meshless methods: paper in preparation.
in a domain Q (which can coincide with Q, or not), where B is an elliptic operator, related to A but 'simpler' than A, where y is subject to adequate boundary conditions on 9 ^ . In (2) the RHS contains two terms. The function g is constructed depending on / and the function X (scalar or vectorial) is a virtual control. It is to be chosen in such a way that y allows to recover the solution u of (1), exacdy (resp. approximately). In control theory terminology, it corresponds to exact (resp. approximate) controllability. This type of idea, of course made precise, allows a lot of flexibility in the construction of algorithms for the approximation of the solution of (1), the socalled virtual control algorithms. The idea was introduced in a note by JL Lions and O Pironneau [1] and since then it has been applied to a number of situations. The lecture will try to present the main ideas of the following ones. (1) Domain decomposition methods: see [1] above and [2]. (2) Decomposition of operators: [3]. (3) Decomposition of energy spaces: [4]. *Tel.: +33 (1) 44271708; Fax: +33 (1) 44271704; Email: jacqueslouis.lions@collegedefrance.fr 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
References [1] Lions JL, Pironneau O. Algorithmes paralleles pour la solution de problemes aux limites. C.R.A.S. Paris 1998;327(I):947952. [2] Lions JL, Pironneau O. Domain decomposition methods for CAD. C.R.A.S. Paris 1999;328(I):7380. [3] Lions JL, Pironneau O. Virtual control, replicas and decomposition of operators. C.R.A.S. Paris 2000;330(I):4754. [4] Glowinski R, Lions JL, Pironneau O. Decomposition of energy spaces and applications. C.R.A.S. Paris 1999;329(I):445452. [5] Gervasio P, Lions JL, Quarteroni A. Heterogeneous coupling by virtual control methods. Numer Math, to appear. [6] Lions JL, Pironneau O. to appear. [7] Lions JL. Virtual and effective control for distributed systems and the decomposition of everything. J Anal Math, Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem 2000;80:257297. [8] Lions JL. Remarks on the control of everything. Eccomass, Barcelona, September 2000.
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Numerical methods for prediction and evaluation of geometrical defects in sheet metal forming
A. Makinouchi^'*, C. Teodosiu^
^ The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN, Materials Fabrication Laboratory, 21 Hirosawa, Wako 3510199, Japa ^ LPMTM CNRS, University Paris Nord, Villetaneuse , France
Abstract This paper presents a short overview of the stateoftheart prediction and evaluation of geometrical defects in sheet metal forming, focusing on recent advances in the finite element (FE) simulation, on the benchmark tests organized to obtain reference experimental data for appraising ability of simulation codes, and on the attempt to define numerical measures for quantitatively evaluating various geometrical defects. Keywords: Sheet metal forming; Geometrical defects; Springback; Benchmark test
1. Introduction Sheet forming simulation is becoming a key technology for automotive manufacturers, sheet metal parts producers and stamping tool makers, aiming at predicting forming defects by using finite element software, in order to replace the actual tryout of stamping dies by a computer tryout. The main types of defects occurring in sheet metal forming are tearing, surface deflection, wrinkling, and springback (see Fig. 1). The last three types are also called geometrical defects. Among the three geometrical defects springback is a very sensitive forming defect, as the cumulative geometrical inaccuracy of the stamped parts may lead to serious trouble during assembling of various parts. Moreover, this difficulty tends to increase with the recent use of aluminum alloys and highstrength steels by the car manufacturers. Fig. 2 illustrates the main types of geometrical defects produced by springback (edited by Yoshida [1]).
2. Requirement from industries In 1998, the authors visited automotive industries and sheet steel suppliers in Europe, Japan and the United States, * Corresponding author. Tel.: +81 (48) 4679314; Fax: +81 (48) 4624657; Email: akitake@postman.riken.go.jp 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
to discuss with engineers and researchers working at die shops and in sheet stamping sections. The reason of this visit was to prepare our keynote paper on the advance in FEM simulation and its related technologies in sheet metal forming for the CIRP Annual Meeting [2]. The visited companies were Daimler Benz, Renault Automobiles, Volvo Car Corporation and SOLLAC in Europe, Mazda, Nissan Motor, Toyota Motor and Nippon Steel in Japan, and Ford Motor, Chrysler Corporation, US Steel and National Steel in the United States. A large number of international conferences have been devoted to the sheet metal forming simulation, and an extensive literature has been published on this topic throughout the last two decades. However, the information obtained from these sources was not considered sufficient to address the above issues, because the very trend of sheet forming simulation had undergone significant changes during the last ten years. Indeed, most engineers working in automakers and sheet suppliers are software users, and their opinion does rarely appear in publications. Therefore, the authors considered that a direct contact with the technical staff involved in sheet metal forming simulations was a highly necessary prerequisite for learning the actual evaluation of the software used for industrial applications. A quite interesting bulk of information has been obtained in this way. Although a wide variety of FE codes are employed in the industries, these codes may be divided into five categories based on the formulation and solution
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A. Makinouchi, C. Teodosiu /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Tearing
Surface deflection
Wrinkling
Springback
Fig. 1. Main types of defects encountered in sheet metal forming. Table 1 Assessment of FE codes by industrial researchers and engineers for each category classified by formulation and solution strategy Solution strategy Formulation FE codes Dynamic explicit Incremental method LSDYNA3D PAMSTAMP OPTRIS All the companies Static explicit ITAS3D Static implicit Large step method MTLFRM AUTO FORM One step method SIMEX ISOPUNCH A F ONE STEP FAST FORM3D Renault Benz Volvo Sollac National Steel
Ford
Defects predicted: wrinkling thickness/tearing surface defects geometrical defects after springback
A, X o, A X A, X A, X X X
: satisfactorily predicted; A = possible to simulate but poor results; x = impossible to simulate. strategy used. The assessment of the codes by industrial researchers and engineers is summarized for each category in Table 1. Inspection of this table reveals that the tearing and wrinkling are rather satisfactorily predicted, while prediction of the springback is very poor, while the surface deflection is not simulated. Most of the engineers strongly emphasized the importance of an accurate springback prediction.
A. Makinouchi, C. Teodosiu /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Rail Panel
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Springback angle
Twisting
Warping
3. FE approach to simulate geometrical defects We shall recall here briefly some of the merits and drawbacks of three main types of FE approaches employed in the simulation of sheet metal forming, namely the dynamic explicit, the static implicit, and the static explicit codes. The dynamicexplicit codes are very robust and efficient for largescale problems. The central difference expUcit scheme is used to integrate the equations of motion, whereas the nonequilibrated forces are transformed into inertial forces at each step. Lumped mass matrices are used, and hence no system of equations has to be solved. In spite of its success for industrial applications, dynamic explicit codes have also some intrinsic drawbacks. Thus, in order to reduce the number of steps necessary to simulate the almost quasistatic deformation processes, several numerical artifacts have to be employed, e.g. the increase
of the mass density and of the punch velocity by at least one order of magnitude and the introduction of artificial damping in order to limit the inertial effects. Moreover, the results obtained when simulating the springback depend on the type and dimensions of the finite elements and even of the number of integration points [3]. Thus, the simulation of forming defects requires a considerable experience on the user side for adequately designing the finite element mesh and choosing the scaling parameters for mass, velocity and damping (see, e.g. [4]). The staticimplicit approach may seem ideally suited for metal forming problems, since the equilibrium equations are solved iteratively, thus ensuring that the equilibrium conditions are fulfilled at every step. However, in practice, complex nonlinear problems involving many contacts, may result in slow, or even lack of convergence. In the staticexplicit approach, the rate forms of the
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A. Makinouchi, C. Teodosiu /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. Numerical representation of geometrical defects Assuming that a powerful FE code could accurately predict all geometrical defects illustrated in Fig. 2, this will be still not enough for the present requirements of the stamping industry. Indeed, the final goal of simulations is to quantitatively evaluate the geometry of stamped parts and, on this basis, to find the optimized die shapes that are able to produce parts of the exactly designed shape. To meet such requirements, it is essential to have clear definitions of forming defects and of the intrinsic values used to evaluate each geometrical defect. This problem is also a major concern in the 3DS Project. The surface of each defect model possesses some global features, which describe the overall distortions, such as the surface being 'bent' or 'twisted', and local features, which describe local distortions and their locations. There are many ways of defining such measures. One of the most promising way is to describe the local intrinsic character of the surface by the Gaussian curvature, and to represent the global features by the aggregate normal vectors to the surface [11].
kinematic, constitutive and equilibrium equations are integrated by a simple forward Euler scheme, involving no iterations (see, e.g. [5]). This implies that equilibrium equations are satisfied only in rate form, and thus the obtained solution can gradually drift away from the true one. In order to reduce the errors involved by linearizing the incremental analysis, a relatively large number of small incremental steps have to be used. The main advantage of this approach is its robustness, since it requires no iterative processes. Furthermore, by the very existence of intrinsic deviations from perfect equilibrium, the staticexplicit algorithm is able to simulate defects arising from local instabilities, like wrinkling (see, e.g. [6]), while the static implicit codes are hardly able to treat such situations, unless such instabilities are allowed for by special numerical techniques, which require a considerable computational effort.
4. Benchmark tests to evaluate ability of FE codes for prediction of geometrical defects At several international conferences, like the VDI International Conference held at Zurich, Switzerland in 1991 [7], NUMISHEET'93 at Isehara, Japan in 1993 [8], NUMISHEET'96 at Dearborn, USA in 1996 [9], and NUMISHEET'99 at Besangon, France in 1999 [10], benchmark tests were organized in order to appraise the capability of FE codes to predict forming defects. The experimental benchmark tests have been concurrently performed by several teams over the world, in order to obtain reference data. However, most of the benchmark experimental results obtained by different participants disagreed greatly with each other and thus provided rather poor reference data for evaluating the codes. It is eventually possible to find out a posteriori the reasons for this scattering of experimental data. However, because the benchmark results are evaluated by the conference organizing committee, which dissolves after the event, it has been practically impossible to further analyze the discrepancies noticed during the conference. For the purpose of solving this problem, a threeyear international research project named Digital Die Design System (3DS) started its activity in 2(XX), under the framework of the international collaborative program. Intelligent Manufacturing System (IMS). Fourteen industrial partners and seven academic and research institutes participate to the project from Canada, European Union and Japan, the present authors being deeply involved with the technical management of this project. The obtaining of reliable experimental data, with a controlled and minimized scatter, is one of main targets of the project. Such carefully performed and comprehensively documented experimental tests are expected to become a worldwide recognized database for the validation of numerical methods and codes dealing with the simulation of sheet metal forming processes.
6. Conclusions A short overview of recent activity in numerical methods to predict and evaluate geometrical defects in sheet metal forming is presented. Although FE codes were introduced into many industries, further intensive research effort is necessary to approach to the final goal: designing the optimum tool geometry directly by simulation.
References [1] Yoshida K (Ed). Handbook of Ease or Difficulty in Press Forming, Tokyo, 1987. (English translation, Ann Arbor, MI: National Center for Manufacturing Science, Inc., 1993.) [2] Makinouchi A, Teodosiu C, Nakagawa T. Advances in FEM simulation and its related technologies in sheet metal forming. Ann CIRP 1998;47(2):641649. [3] Mattiasson K, Thilderkvist P, Strange A, Samuelsson A. Simulation of springback in sheet metal forming. In: Shen S, Dawson PR (Eds), Proc. NUMIFORM'95. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1995, pp. 115124. [4] Lee SW, Yang DY. An assessment of numerical parameters influencing springback in explicit finite element analysis of sheet metal forming processes. J. Mater Process Technol 1998:8081:6067. [5] Kawka M, Makinouchi A. Shellelement formulation in the static explicit FEM code for the simulation of sheet stamping. J Mater Process Technol 1995;50: 105115. [6] Kawka M, Olejnik L, Rosochowski A, Sunaga H, Makinouchi A. Modeling wrinkling phenomena in sheet metal forming. Proceedings of AEPA'98, 1998. [7] Proceedings of VDI International Conference. FE Simula
A. Makinouchi, C. Teodosiu/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tion of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Processes in Automotive Industry, Zurich, Switzerland, 1991. [8] Proceedings of NUMISHEET'93, Isehara, Japan, 1993. [9] Proceedings of NUMISHEET'96, Dearborn, USA, 1996.
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[10] Proceedings of NUMISHEET'99, Besan9on, France, 1999. [11] Kase K, Makinouchi A, Nakagawa T, Suzuki H, Kimura F. Shape error evaluation method of freeform surfaces. ComputAided Design 1999;31(8):495505.
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Abstract In this paper the Immersed Boundary Method is presented, with some recent developments. The method is used to analyze fluidstructure interaction problems. Different aspects of the method are illustrated by applying it to blood flow in the heart and a flapping filament (flaginwind) problem. Keywords: Immersed Boundary Method; Fluidstructure interaction; Cardiac fluid dynamics; Flapping filament; Flag in wind; Computational fluid dynamics; Incompressible elasticity; Heart valves
1. Introduction In the study of fluidstructure interaction, it is useful to think of the structure as a part of the fluid where additional forces are applied, and where additional mass may be localized. In this paper, we consider the case of a viscous incompressible fluid that interacts with an immersed structure that is made of an incompressible viscoelastic material. To keep things as simple as possible, we assume that the viscosity is Newtonian and uniform throughout the system. This restriction can certainly be removed, but we shall not address that complication here. The mass density of the ambient fluid is also assumed to be uniform, but the structure is allowed to have a nonuniform mass density which may be greater or lower than that of the fluid. Instead of separating the system into its two components coupled by boundary conditions, as is conventionally done, we use the incompressible NavierStokes equations, with a nonuniform mass density and an applied elastic force density, to describe the coupled motion of the hydroelastic system in a unified way. In order to do this, however, we need to supplement the NavierStokes equations by a Lagrangian description of the elastic material, from which the elastic force density and the nonuniform mass density that appear in the NavierStokes equations may be calculated. Moreover, we need a mathematical apparatus to translate in either direction between Lagrangian quantities * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (212) 9983126; Fax: Hi (212) 9954121; Email: peskin@cims.nyu.edu 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
and the corresponding Eulerian quantities. This apparatus is conveniently provided by the Dirac delta function. The equations of motion that result from this point of view directly motivate a numerical method known as the "Immersed Boundary Method" [15]. This name emphasizes an important feature of the method: that it can handle not only immersed elastic structures that displace a finite volume, but also immersed elastic boundaries like heart valve leaflets (for which the method was originally designed), insect wings, sails, and parachutes, all of which may be idealized as surfaces which, despite having zero volume, nevertheless apply finite forces to the fluid in which they are immersed. Clearly, the Dirac delta function is particularly well suited to this situation.
2. Equations of motion As described in Section 1, we use an Eulerian description of the system as a whole (fluid h structure) supplemented by a Lagrangian description of the structure. The independent variables of the Eulerian description are the Cartesian coordinates x and the time t, and the independent variables of the Lagrangian description are curvilinear material coordinates q,r,s and again the time t. The Eulerian description of the system as a whole involves the velocity field w(jc, r), the hydrostatic pressure field p(x,t), th^ mass density p{x, t) and the Eulerian elastic force density/(jc, 0The Lagrangian description of the immersed elastic material involves its configuration X{q,r,s,t), its Lagrangian
D.M. McQueen et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics elastic force density F{q, r,s,t), and its Lagrangian additional mass density M(q,r,s), the integral of which over any chunk of the material gives the mass of that chunk minus the mass of the fluid displaced. Since both the mass and volume of any such chunk of the immersed elastic material are conserved, M is independent of time. Note that M = 0 in the case of a neutrally buoyant structure, and that M will be negative at any material point for which the mass density of the immersed elastic material is less than that of the ambient fluid. To complete the Lagrangian description of the elastic material, we need to specify the elastic potential energy functional, E[X], which is used in the calculation of the elastic forces from the configuration X(, , ,t) at any given time. The mass density po of the ambient fluid and the viscosity /x of the system as a whole are constant parameters. With this notation, our equations of motion read as follows: p{x,t) (^JrU'Vu\+Vp W u=0 fix, t)= F{q, r, s, t) 8 (x  X(q, r, s, t)) dq dr ds = ixV^u +f{x, t) (1)
(2)
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(3)
Note that Eq. (1) also involves the nonuniform mass density p{x, t). Since the fluid and the structure are both incompressible, it must be the case that p{x, t) at any given material point is independent of time, i.e., that Dp/Dr = 0, where D/Dr is the material derivative: 9/9f I a V. This constraint is implicit in Eqs. (4) and (5); it does not have to be imposed separately. Eqs. (3) and (4) provide conversions from the Lagrangian force and mass densities F{q, r,s,t) and M(q, r, s) to the corresponding Eulerian force and mass densities,/(x, t) and p(x, t), respectively. The relationship between corresponding densities is not that their values are the same at corresponding points, but rather that their integrals over corresponding regions are equal. One can confirm that this is satisfied in our case by integrating Eq. (3) or Eq. (4) over some arbitrary region of space, changing the order of the integrals on the righthand side, and noting that the integral of the Dirac delta function yields 1 or 0 depending on whether or not the domain of integration includes the point x = X(q, r,s,t). It is important to note that Eqs. (3) and (4) still make sense in the special case that the immersed elastic structure takes the form of a surface instead of displacing any volume. In the case of such a structure (like a sail or parachute canopy), we need only drop one of the three Lagrangian coordinates q,r,s so that Eqs. (3) and (4) become
fix, t)
I
F(r, s, t)8(x
X(r, s, t)) dr ds
(7)
Tt
p(x,t) = Po +
dx (5)
= I u(x, t)8(xX(q,r,s,t))
F = dE
"dx
(6)
These equations (without the viscous term) can be formally derived from the principle of least action, see [6] for details. Here we just give an informal discussion of their meaning. Eqs. (1) and (2) are the famihar NavierStokes equations of a viscous incompressible fluid, with a variable mass density p(x,t) and an applied force density/(jc, r). Although it may be unconventional to use these equations in the case of an elastic material, one should recall that in the derivation of the incompressible NavierStokes equations the only ingredients are Newton's laws of motion, incompressibility, and a particular form of the stress tensor. It follows that the incompressible NavierStokes equations are applicable to any incompressible material, provided that appropriate allowance is made for the particular stresstensor of the material, which may, of course, be different from that of a fluid. Here, the applied force density/(jc, t), the divergence of the elastic stress tensor, plays that role.
In each of these equations, the Dirac delta function is still threedimensional, but there are only two integrations to perform so the result is singular like a onedimensional delta function. Again, the integral off(x, t) or p(x, t) over any finite threedimensional region gives a finite result. Eq. (5) states that the velocity of any material point of the structure may be found by evaluating the Eulerian velocity field u{x,t) at the current location of that material point. This is essentially the definition of the Eulerian velocity field, but it also enforces the noslip condition at the interface between the fluid and the structure, since we require that u be continuous. The second form of Eq. (5), in which the Dirac delta function appears, shows that the conversion from Eulerian to Lagrangian velocity can be expressed in a manner that resembles the conversions from Lagrangian to Eulerian force and mass densities, Eqs. (3) and (4). All of these conversions involve integral operators in which the Dirac delta function appears as a kernel. In Eq. (5), however, the integral is over the fixed Cartesian coordinates x, whereas in Eqs. (3) and (4) the integrals are over the moving curvilinear material coordinates q,r, s. Eq. (6) is shorthand for the statement that F is minus the Frechet derivative of E. That is, d^" =  / F dZd^ dr d^.
M(r,s)S{xX(r,s,t))drds
(8)
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D.M. McQueen et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
for any perturbation dX, up to terms of higher order in 6X. This is essentially the principle of virtual work.
3. Numerical method The Immersed Boundary Method is obtained by discretization of the above equations of motion. For details in the uniform density case, see [25]. The case of nonuniform mass density is similar, except that the NavierStokes solver involves the solution of difference equations with nonconstant coefficients at each time step. Thus, Fourier transform methods are no longer applicable, and some iterative method such as multigrid must be used. An example of such a computation can be found in [7], and we report on another such example here.
4. Results In this section, we present results of two different immersed boundary computations, illustrating different aspects of the method. The first is a computer simulation of the heart. It involves all aspects of the mathematical formulation mentioned above except that the density of the system is considered uniform. In particular, heart muscle is modeled as an anisotropic, incompressible, elastic material that is neutrally buoyant in blood, and the heart valve leaflets are modeled as massless fiberreinforced elastic membranes. The elastic parameters of the heart muscle are timedependent, which is what makes it possible for the model heart to beat. The second computation presented here is a simulation of a laboratory experiment involving a flexible filament suspended in a flowing soap film with the upstream end of the filament held fixed. Because the fluid is in the form of a soap film, the whole problem is inherently twodimensional, and the immersed boundary (the flexible filament) is onedimensional. Filament mass, we have found, is an essential feature of the problem. Therefore, this computation illustrates those aspects of the Immersed Boundary Method that are concerned with nonuniform density. The heart model [2,8] is shown in Figs. 13. It is made entirely of elastic and contractile fibers immersed in viscous incompressible fluid. The model includes the four cardiac chambers and all four valves; it also includes the great vessels to which the heart is connected. These great vessels of the model have blind ends but are equipped with sources and sinks that provide appropriate loads for the model heart. An external source/sink allows for changes in cardiac volume and also provides a convenient reference pressure. The specific form of the Immersed Boundary Method used for these computations is described in [5], see also [4]. Parameters, including the Reynolds number, are those of the human heart.
Fig. 1. Cutaway view of the threedimensional heart model during ventricular filling. The heart is viewed from the front, so the left ventricle is on the right side of the figure and the right ventricle is on the left. Structures that appear above the ventricles are (from left to right in the figure) the main pulmonary artery (with closed pulmonic valve), the ascending aorta (with closed aortic valve), and the left atrium (with open mitral valve). Two pulmonary veins are visible behind and connecting to the left atrium. Fluidflowis shown in terms of streaklines: dots mark the current positions of blood particles, and tails attached to these dots show the trajectories of these particles over the recent past. Note the prominent vortex that was shed from the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve and has migrated down towards the apex of the left ventricle. Figs. 1 and 2 show cutaway views of the heart in diastole from different perspectives. In Fig. 1 the clipping plane cuts through the mitral valve, the aortic valve, and the apex of the heart. Note the prominent vortex that was shed primarily from the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve and has then been convected towards the apex of the heart by the jet of left ventricular filling. In Fig. 2 the model heart has been turned so that the right ventricle faces the viewer. A large swirling vortex with an interesting 3D structure fills the relaxing right ventricular chamber. Fig. 3 shows the flow pattern of blood on the left side of the heart during ejection. Note the closed mitral valve, supported by papillary muscles and chordae tendineae, that prevents backflow into the left atrium, and the open aortic valve that allows the left ventricle to eject blood into the aorta.
DM. McQueen et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
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Fig. 3. The computed flow pattern of left ventricular ejection. Note the tension in the closed mitral valve and the jet of blood entering the ascending aorta through the open aortic valve. Fig. 2. Transparent view of the predicted flow pattern of right ventricularfilUng.The heart model has been turned so that the free wall of the right ventricle is in front. At the upper left in the figure, the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava join to form the right atrium. The open tricuspid valve is visible at the atrioventricular junction. Other structures seen above the ventricle are (from left to right in the figure) the ascending aorta and the main pulmonary artery. Note the flow pattern of the prominent vortex that seems to fill the entire right ventricle. There is a hint of 3D structure in the way that the flow comes down through the tricuspid valve in the foreground but swirls around the vortex core into the background behind that inflow jet. It is our hope that this model will prove useful as a computer test chamber for the design of prosthetic cardiac valves. (For early studies of this kind in a twodimensional left heart model, see [911].) Computer simulation of a flapping filament in a flowing soap film is shown in Fig. 4. The filament, a flexible thread, is anchored at its upper end in a soap film which flows downwards under the influence of gravity, constrained by two vertical wires at the edges of the film. Air resistance flattens the velocity profile of the flowing soap film. This simulation is based on an experiment performed in the Courant Institute WetLab by Jun Zhang [12]. Zhang's key discovery is that under a range of conditions the filament exhibits bistable behavior. Its two stable states are: (1) a steady state in which the filament points straight downstream; or (2) a sustained oscillation in which the filament flaps like a flag in the wind and alternately sheds vortices of opposite sign creating a wake that resembles the Karman vortex street behind a cylinder. Either state is stable against small perturbations (hence the term 'bistable') but can be converted to the other state by a sufficiently large perturbation. Our principal finding is that the flapping state requires filament mass. With a massless filament, the steady state in which the filament points straight downstream is globally stable. Fig. 4 shows a simulation in which the filament mass per unit length is twice that of the experimental filament (saturated with water), the extra mass being explained by a bulge in the soap film that forms around the thread as a consequence of surface tension, thus raising the effective filament mass. Although the Reynolds number of the computation (Re = 210) is lower than that of the laboratory experiment by two orders of magnitude, the results of the simulation are in good agreement with those of the experiment, including the observed flapping frequency of about 50 Hz.
5. Conclusions The Immersed Boundary Method is a practical way to simulate fluidstructure interaction in the incompressible case. It can handle immersed elastic structures which displace finite volumes (like muscle), and also immersed
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D.M. McQueen et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Center under an allocation of resources MCA93S004P from the National Resource Allocation Committee.
References [1] Peskin CS. Flow Patterns Around Heart Valves: A Digital Computer Method for Solving the Equations of Motion. Ph.D. Thesis, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, July, 1972, 211 pp. (available at http://www.umi.com/hp/ Products/DisExpress.html, order number: 7230378) [2] Peskin CS, McQueen DM. Fluid dynamics of the heart and its valves. In: Othmer HG, Adler FR, Lewis MA, Dallon JC (Eds), Case Studies in Mathematical Modeling: Ecology, Physiology, and Cell Biology. Englewood Cliffs NJ: PrenticeHaU, 1996, pp. 309337. [3] McQueen DM, Peskin CS. Sharedmemory parallel vector implementation of the immersed boundary method for the computation of blood flow in the beating mammalian heart. J Supercomput 1997;ll(3):213236. [4] Lai MC, Peskin CS. An immersed boundary method with formal second order accuracy and reduced numerical viscosity. J Comput Phys 2000;160:705719. [5] McQueen DM, Peskin CS. Heart Simulation by an Immersed Boundary Method with Formal SecondOrder Accuracy and Reduced Numerical Viscosity. ICTAM 2000 Proceedings, New York: Kluwer (in press), [6] Peskin CS, McQueen DM. Computational biofluid dynamics. Contemp Math 1993;141:161186. [7] Fogelson AL, Zhu J. Implementation of a variabledensity Immersed Boundary Method. Unpublished, http:/www. math.utah.edu/~fogelson. [8] McQueen DM, Peskin CS. A threedimensional computer model of the human heart for studying cardiac fluid dynamics. Comput Graph 2000;34:5660. [9] McQueen DM, Peskin CS. Computerassisted design of pivotingdisc prosthetic mitral valves. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1983;86:126135. [10] McQueen DM, Peskin CS. Computerassisted design of butterfly bileaflet valves for the mitral position. Scand J Thor Cardiovasc Surg 1985;19:139148. [11] McQueen DM, Peskin CS. Curved Butterfly Bileaflet Prosthetic Cardiac Valve. US Patent Number 5,026,391; June 25, 1991. [12] Zhang J, Childress S, Libchaber A, Shelley M. Flexible filaments in a flowing soap film as a model for onedimensional flags in a twodimensional wind. Nature 2000;408:835.
Fig. 4. Computer simulation of a flapping filament in a flowing soap film. Selected time step from a simulation showing sustained oscillation at about 50 Hz. Two different visualization techniques are used. The left panel of the figure shows the instantaneous positions of fluid markers created in bursts along the upper (inflow) boundary, as in a hydrogen bubble flow visualization. The right panel of the figure shows the corresponding vorticity contours. In both panels flow is from top to bottom (driven by gravity, working against air resistance) at an inflow velocity of 280 cm/s. The filament length is 3 cm, and the width of the channel is 8.5 cm. The Reynolds number of the computation (based on inflow velocity and filament length) is Re = 210. The flapping filament sheds vortices of alternate sign which then form the sinuous wake seen in the figures. elastic membranes (like sails, parachutes, and heart valve leaflets). Recent developments have extended the range of Reynolds numbers that the method can handle (up to and including that of the human heart), and have also made possible the simulation of immersed elastic structures which are not neutrally buoyant in the ambient fluid.
Acknowledgements The authors are indebted to the National Science Foundation (USA) for support of this work under KDI research grant DMS9980069. Computation was performed in part on the Cray T90 computer at the San Diego Supercomputer
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Abstract A recent study sponsored by the United States Government^ concluded that enterprisewide "... modehng and simulation are emerging as key technologies to support manufacturing in the 21st century, and no other technology offers more potential than modeling and simulation for improving products, perfecting processes, reducing designtomanufacturing cycle time, and reducing product realization costs..." General Motors has understood this potential for many years and has developed a mathbased strategy to implement it. That strategy, termed 'MathBased Synthesis Driven Vehicle Development Process', spans all facets of the vehicle creation process including the use of mathematical models to: optimally position products in the marketplace; translate the customers' voice into product functional characteristics; and synthesize robust physical reahzations, i.e., vehicle designs to meet both the physical and functional requirements, as well as producibility requirements. This involves the utilization of a multitude of different types of mathematical models and computerbased methods at different levels of detail. The logical integration of these models into the GM Vehicle Development Process (VDP), together with the exphcit definition of discrete virtual 'build events', yields the 'Virtual Vehicle,' a key component of the GM strategy and the subject of this paper. More specifically, the virtual vehicle is defined, and examples of its use and associated benefits throughout the VDP are shown. In addition, to effectively create virtual vehicles consistent with the timing requirements of a 'fast' VDP, a 'virtual environment' including a superior IT infrastructure is required. The approach presented leads to shorter product development cycles at reduced cost, fewer prototype hardware builds, and improved quality product for the customer. Keywords: Mathbased; Virtual vehicle; Synthesis/analysis; Computeraided engineering; Systems engineering; Vehicle development process
1. Introduction A major driver in the automotive industry today is the competitive pressure to shorten the product development cycle, and to provide superior functionality and quality to the customer at affordable prices. Vehicle development times have decreased from 60 months to less than 18, and will continue to decrease. Safety, environmental friendUness, and energy efficiency are additional paramount customer requirements. To help achieve these goals computers and electronics, new materials, and other technologies have been integrated into vehicles, increasing the complexity and required degree of integration of vehicle subsystems. Indeed, modem automotive vehicles are at an integration * Corresponding author. Email: steve.m.rohde@gm.com ^ Integrated Manufacturing Technology Roadmapping Project: Modeling and Simulation, http://imtr.ornl.gov 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
level associated with 'mechatronics'. To design such vehicles requires a considerably more sophisticated approach than that which had been used in the past, particularly to do so in a timely fashion. Fortunately, in tandem with the increasing sophistication and complexity of automotive vehicles, there has been a very rapid growth in the ability to design and engineer vehicles using computerbased methods, i.e., simulation technology. Historically, mathematical models were used to 'troubleshoot' designs, i.e., a posteriori. More recently, mathematical models have been used extensively to create and evaluate product designs via CAD and CAE tools. In General Motors a processdriven approach based on a systems engineering paradigm using mathematical models has been developed to define, design, and engineer vehicles. That process, termed 'MathBased, Synthesis Driven', differs from traditional simulationbased design in the use of mathbased synthesis. With this approach, mathmodels
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R.M. Ottolini, S.M. Rohde/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics quirements engineering. It includes developing and allocating the requirements for the vehicle, and for the manufacturing and assembly processes, to build the vehicle. These requirements 'flow' directly from, and are thus traceable to the customers' wants and needs. The flow is from the customer to the vehicle, then to the subsystems, and then to the components. On the bottom of the trapezoid we show the detailed design of the individual parts and components, which are assembled and developed to form the vehicle as shown on the right leg of the trapezoid. In the middle of the trapezoid is the validation process which includes both validation of the requirements and of the design to meet those requirements. Validation of the design is done at the component, subsystem, and vehicle levels in that order. Synthesis and analysis are key to the effective implementation of systems engineeringbased vehicle development. Synthesis is a process for designing a system in which multiple and competing requirements are balanced and allocated to the subsystems and components through a systematic analytical process. Thus, synthesis forms the basis for requirements engineering and for design a synthesis process by definition. Analysis, on the other hand, is the use of mathematical models to assess the performance of a given system, or to better understand its behavior. Analysis is used for validation at the component, subsystem, and vehicle levels as well as hardware development, e.g., debugging/tuning. More simply put, synthesis is creation driven by requirements whereas analysis is evaluation to those requirements.
are used in all phases of the vehicle development process: from quantifying the needs of the customer to validating the product using detailed, computationally intensive simulations. The logically configured mathematical representations of the vehicle as it evolves through the VDP are termed 'virtual vehicles'. These virtual vehicles are used to ensure that the vehicle will meet its specific requirement set.
2. GM's MathBased Synthesis Driven Vehicle Development Process GM's MathBased Synthesis Driven Vehicle Development Process is based upon systems engineering, which may be simply defined as an orderly process for the design of manmade systems to satisfy operational needs. It requires the explicit determination of functional requirements from the operational needs, and then using welldefined procedures, to translate those requirements into a physical realization that meets the needs in an optimal manner. During this translation, interactions among components are treated explicitly to ensure compatibility of all functional, physical, and program interfaces. Analytical models typically are used extensively in the systems engineering process. General Motors, beginning in the mideighties, has converged on a systems engineeringbased vehicle engineering process as depicted by the icon in Fig. 1. The process is driven by the customers' wants and needs from the top, lefthand comer of the trapezoid. The left leg represents re
CUSTOMER
4. Perform Analytical Validation to Minimize the Use of Hardware Based Techniques
1. Support the Requirements Definition Process*: Define Specific Requirements Allocate & Balance Functional Requirements Optimize & Integrate Requirements i * At vehicle, subsystem, & component levels
MANUFACTURING
2. Perform Synthesis and Analysis to Achieve Optimal Balanced Vehicle, Subsystem and Component Designs That Meet Customer Requirements
iiNlMlliiiii
PROCESS
Fig. 1. Systems engineeringbased vehicle development process showing the role of synthesis and analysis.
R.M. Ottolini, S.M. Rohde/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
33
Fig. 2. GM's mathstrategy. A key point here is the use of math models with an appropriate level of detail. For example, early in the development process, conceptual models based upon regressions or algebraic equations are often used. Conversely, for validation, finiteelement models containing hundreds of thousands of degrees of freedom are often used. Having introduced the concepts of a systems engineeringbased vehicle development process that is implemented through the use of synthesis and analysis, GM's mathbased strategy can be simply stated as moving from a hardwaredriven, analysissupported VDP to a synthesisdriven, hardwaresupported VDP as shown in Fig. 2. This simple statement has a profound influence on how vehicles are engineered. It involves moving from a 'bottoms up' VDP paradigm in which hardware is built and tested to determine what was 'done wrong' to a 'top down' VDP paradigm in which hardware is built to confirm the math modeHng. Viewing the VDP as a 'learning process', the learnings transit from a sequential set of hardwarebased learnings to a more overlapping set using mathbased synthesis and analysis; and, ultimately, to a continuous learning process via the mathematical representations as also shown in Fig. 2. Of course, some prototype hardware will still be built to correlate and confirm the math models and to ensure that the customers' needs are indeed met.
3. The virtual vehicle Given the process described above, the virtual vehicle concept can be viewed as the extensive use of coordinated math models to guide decisions regarding the definition.
Styling
Design
CAD
&Fit
Virtual Velilcle
\ Correiation/ I Feedback PhysmMGbMrmati&m:
Lab/PG
]
CAT::
:^
34
R.M. Ottolini, S.M. Rohde/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
V S A S CAPABILITY
Energy Management Powertrain Harmony & Optimization & Human Factors Robust Engineering j  : , i;~r fN ^ O OI^S ^HBBBftl^ structures .^^^^H ^^^HV^^HD Noise & H ^ ^ L ^ S n B ^ P    ^ ^ _ Vibration

I 1 1   1 1 1 1
Aerodynamics
4^ 0
(^^^HUHH^B^B^SBM
Vehicle Dynamics
Crash/Safety
^^^^I^^^^^^^^^HH^PT
\ Control Systems \
1 1
1 PaP^
1 sSUassr
1 =W^
I
8.21430 1
Fig. 4. Scope of applications used in GM. form, fit, function, manufacturing, assembly, marketing, and sales and service of a vehicle through the VDP. Fig. 3 shows this conceptually. To implement the virtual vehicle concept requires the integration of math capabilities that span the vehicle's functionality as shown schematically in Fig. 4. GM has been developing this capability since the 1960s, but only in the recent past has the computing infrastructure and application software been at the point of making 'virtual test labs and proving grounds' a reality. Fig. 5 shows GM's recent rapid growth in high performance computing
^ 350
Year
Fig. 6. Growth in the number of finite elements in a typical crash worthiness simulafion. to support the virtual vehicle. The growth rate is almost 100% per year, significantly outpacing Moore's law. That growth is mandatory and enables the development of higher fidelity math models in areas such as structures and CFD as shown in Fig. 6.
4. Closure In this paper we have attempted to give the reader a flavor for the benefits and the potential of using modem computational methods in a systems engineering processdriven framework to define and engineer automotive vehicles. The concepts of mathbased synthesis and analysis were introduced. Examples drawn from actual product development were presented to illustrate the approach.
1995
1996
1997
1998
36
Abstract In this paper we present the effect of size ratio on the shear resistance of dense granular media containing large inclusions. We also present the microscopic evolution of contact orientations in terms of fabric anisotropy tensor. We present how the structural orientations of the contacts are influenced by the size ratio of large inclusions. It has been shown that, as the size of submerged particle in the periodic granular cell increases, the overall shear resistance of the granular system decreases. This could be attributed to the weak fabric anisotropy of the system develops for an increase in size of large inclusion. These findings help us to understand the fundamental flow characteristics of granular media under slow shear regime. Keywords: Granular material; Shear resistance; Slow shear flow; Fabric anisotropy; Size effects; Discrete element analysis; Particle interactions
1. Introduction Granular materials are an important part of several engineering and industrial processes. The properties of the constituent particles strongly influence the deformation characteristics of the particulate medium. An estimate of the shear resistance of the particulate medium is of great importance to facilitate better process control. It is often necessary to specify the mechanical conditions required for such an operation. To control the behaviour of granular materials needs understanding of the physical processes that control the behaviour and interactions of their constituent particles. This has been facilitated greatly by the rapid growth of computer power, which has enabled an insight to be gained of the complex and often mysterious behaviour of granular materials using numerical simulations. Studies on the influence of inclusion on the behaviour particulate medium has been of recent interest. For example, the vibration induced size segregation problem, also known as 'brazilnut effect' has been the subject of several investigations [4]. When a container having larger particles embedded in smaller granular particles is vibrated, for ex* Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 (1483) 789477; Fax: f44 (1483) 876581; Email: s.antony@surrey.ac.uk 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
ample vertically, the bigger particles tend to move toward the top of the container. Conflicting reasons have been attached to this phenomena. Nevertheless, twodimensional studies have indicated that [5] there exists a threshold size ratio (diameter ratio of large particle to the surrounding monodispersed particle), above which, the movement of larger particle increases. For smaller size ratio (less than about 3), no ascent of the large particle (intruder) was observed; for size ratio 5.3, the intruder undergoes an intermittent ascent; and for size ratio greater than ca. 10, the intruder ascents continuously and hence the fluidity (movement) of the large particles becomes higher. Recent studies on the size effects in compacted beds based on experiments and micromechanical modelling have shown interesting characteristics. Bonnenfant et al. [6] have studied the effect of presence of hard inclusions (glass) in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix on compaction in a triaxial cell. Their experimental and analytical studies have shown no influence of large inclusions on the global stiffness for the size ratio of the inclusion equal to 2 as considered by them. In this paper, we carry out threedimensional simulations in a periodic cell for the shear resistance of granular media containing large inclusions (Fig. 1) using DEA. The interaction between contiguous particles are modelled as a
S.J. Antony, M. Ghadiri /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
I T^ . D<4I
37
M\
Size ratio=D/d
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram (front/top view) showing the periodic cell with inclusion.
'hard' particles (Young's modulus E = 10 GPa Poisson's ratio V = 0.3, coefficient of interparticle friction fi = 0.3, and interface energy F = 0.6 J m~^). After the particles were initially generated, a servocontrol algorithm was used to isotropically compress until a mean stress p = 100 kPa was achieved. At the end of the isotropic compression, the microstmcture of the samples was isotropic. At this stage, the solid fraction and mechanical coordination number (average number of load bearing contacts) of the samples considered in this study were 0.650 0.017 and 5.83 0.26, respectively. For shearing, a strain rate of 10~^ s~^ was employed in the simulations. The samples were subjected to the axisymmetric compression test (ai > a2 = 03). During shearing, the mean stress p = (ai \ a2 \ 03)73 was maintained constant at 100 kPa using the servocontrol algorithm.
dynamic process. This allows us to get an insight into what happens inside the granular media during shearing. Vital information on the influence of inclusion on the macroscopic shear resistance and internal contact orientations of the granular assembly are obtained during shearing.
3. Results and discussion Fig. 2 shows the variation of macroscopic shear resistance of the granular systems during shearing (deviator strain = Si S3). The shear resistance has been presented in terms of the shear stress ratio q/p, defined as the ratio of deviator stress q (= ai as) to the mean stress p. For an increase in size ratio, the granular system tends to develop maximum shear resistance at an early stage of shearing. It is shown that the mobilised shear resistance of the granular system (at steady state) reduces for an increase in the size of the submerged particle. Earlier numerical investigations on the quasistatic behaviour of granular systems have revealed [79] new insights into the physics of granular media. For a granular system undergoing slow shearing, the shear strength of the system depends on the ability of the system to build strongly anisotropic fabric network of contacts carrying greater than average (strong) normal force. The fabric anisotropy in the granular assembly is defined by the distribution of contact orientations, defined
2. Simulations The simulations were carried out using Discrete Element Method (DEM), which was originally developed by Cundal and Strack [1]. The interactions between contiguous particles are modelled as a dynamic process and the time evolution of the particles is advanced using an explicit finite difference scheme. The interactions between the neighbouring particles are modelled by algorithms based on theoretical contact mechanics provided by Thornton and Yin [2] and Thornton [3]. For detailed information about the numerical methodology, the readers could refer to Cundall and Strack [1]. The simulations are performed in a periodic cell in which a large size particle (submerged particle) is created at the centre of the cell and surrounded by monodispersed spherical particles (generated randomly). The boundaries of the periodic cell from the centre of the cell were at a distance of more than ca. 4 times radius of the submerged particle. The following periodic systems were considered: (i) For comparison, an entirely monodispersed system of particles, (ii) System with a large inclusion, otherwise all other particles in the periodic cell are monodispersed. Different values of size ratio (ratio of the diameter of submerged particle to that of surrounding particles) were considered, viz., 5 and 10. The random assembly created were isotropically compressed to a stress level of 100 kPa. All the samples considered here were having elastic properties corresponding to
0.20
38
S.J. Antony, M. Ghadiri /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics submerged particle increases. The weak contacts for all the systems are nearly isotropic at all stages of shearing. It may be recalled that (Fig. 2), the granular system developed less shear resistance for an increase in the size of inclusion and this could be attributed to the fact that the system is unable to build up strong anisotropic fabric net work as the size of inclusion increases. However, this trend could change if the size of the periodic cell reduces (boundaries are at a distance of more than ca. 4 times radius of the inclusion in this study) and this is yet to be investigated.
0.00 0.00
0.15
0.20
(a)
0.75 0.65
a 0.55 o
Monodispersed (strong contacts)  Size ratio  5 (strong contacts) "Size ratio 10 (strong contacts) Monodispersed (weak contacts) Size ratio  5 (weak contacts) Size ratio 10 (weak contacts)
Acknowledgements This work has been supported by EPSRC and ICI Strategic Technology Group Technology Ltd., Wilton, U.K (Grant No. GR/M33907).
References [1] Cundal PA, Strack ODL. A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies. Geotechnique 1979;29:4765. [2] Thornton C, Yin KK. Impact of elastic spheres with and without adhesion. Powder Technol 1991;65:153166 [3] Thornton C. Coefficient of restitution for collinear collisions of elasticperfectly plastic spheres. J Appl Mech 1997;64:383386 [4] Huntley JM. Fluidization, segregation and stress propagation in granular materials. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 1998;356:25692590. [5] Duran J, Mazozi T, Clement E, Rajchenbach J. Size segregation in a two dimensional sample: Convection and arching effects. Phys Rev E 1994;50(6):51385141. [6] Bonnenfant D, Mazerolle F, Suquet P. Compaction of powders containing hard inclusions: experiments and micromechanical modelling. Mech Mater 1998;29:93109. [7] Antony SJ. Evolution of force distribution in three dimensional granular media. Phys Rev E 2001; 011302. [8] Thornton C, Antony SJ. Quasistatic deformation of particulate media. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 1998;356:27632782. [9] Thornton C, Antony SJ. Quasistatic deformation of a soft particulate system. Powder Technol 2000;109:179191. [10] Satake M. In: Vermeer PA, Luger HJ (Eds), Deformation and Failure of Granular Materials. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1982, pp. 6368.
0.051^ 0.00
0.05
0.15
0.20
(b) Fig. 3. Variation of fabric anisotropy during shearing, (a) Entire system, (b) due to strong contacts only.
where M is the number of contacts in the representative volume element and rij define the components of the unit normal vector at a contact between two particles. The variation of deviator fabric (0i (ps) of the entire assembly is presented in Fig. 3(a) while in Fig. 3(b), the deviator fabric of contacts carrying strong and weak force are bifurcated. It may be observed that there is a strong anisotropic structure for contacts carrying strong forces within the overall system. However, the granular system develops a less anisotropic fabric structure of strong forces as the size of
39
Abstract In this work we present a recent a posteriori parameter free error estimate of hierarchical type that we apply to the finite element solution of elasticity problems involving heterogeneous and piecewise incompressible materials. This estimate is proved to be optimal, independently of the material heterogeneities or Poisson ratio. Insight on the industrial relevance, numerical implementation and various numerical examples will also be presented. Keywords: Error estimates; Reliability; Heterogeneity; Elasticity
1. Introduction Recent accidents have clearly demonstrated that reliable a posteriori error estimates and mesh adaption techniques were imperatively needed at an industrial level when computing large scale structures. From the theoretical point of view, this problem can apparently be solved either by using consistent residual estimates or by solving local auxiliary equilibrium problem at the element level. When used on real industrial problems, such as in tire industry, these theoretical strategies are faced with two main difficulties: the constitutive materials are complex, anisotropic and strongly heterogeneous, most engineering codes use second order or higher order elements, for which the theoretical tools are harder to implement and to derive. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed a parameter free optimal a posteriori error estimator. For this purpose, we have extended the general theory developed by Bank and Weiser (cf. [3]), and have proposed different choices of local spaces. The resulting estimate uses easy to compute element and interface residuals, and inverts them locally by solving local tangent elasticity problems. By adding a weighted estimate of the error on the pressure term, it can be extended to handle the case of incompress* Corresponding author. Tel.: +33 1 69 33 40 02; Fax: +33 1 69 33 30 31; Email: patrick.letallec@polytechnique.fr 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
ible materials. It is completely parameter free, and as such is easy to implement within an industrial code. On the theoretical side, this estimate can be proved to be correctly adimensionalized with respect to the physical data, and to be uniformly valid with respect to material heterogeneities, and bulk modulus, even at the limit of incompressible or almost incompressible materials.
2. The continuous problem Let ^ be a bounded domain of R^ occupied by an elastic body. The body is supposed to be fixed on a part TB of its boundary F := 9^, with meas{Tj)) ^ 0, and subjected to applied loads on its remaining part F^^. In this framework, we consider the following elasticity problem
I diva = f
(P) I [
in ^,
u = 0 onFz), a n = g on Fjv,
where f e L^(^)^ and g e l?{Tj^)^ are the given external forces and a is the stress tensor. For compressible materials, this tensor satisfies the constitutive law <r = {Gij) = A(x)e(u), with A(x) the elasticity tensor of the constitutive material and Sij(u) := \(uij \Ujj) the components of the linearized strain tensor e(u) associated to u.
40
R. Araya, P. Le Tallec/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics that this finer space can be easily split into small local finite element subspaces, meaning that there exist M subspaces H, of W/, such that
For incompressible or almost incompressible materials with locally very large Lame coefficients X, the stress tensor involves in addition a pressure like term, and can be split into a = (aij) = A(x)e{vL) + pX, p = div u on Qjnc,
A
W, =HO
+ X]H
(5)
where A{x) denotes a bounded compressible like elasticity tensor, and where the very large value of volume change stiffness is transformed into a very large value of the coefficient X{x). Nonlinear elastic laws can be handled in a similar way, and in particular, such formulations characterize the pressure in terms of the stored energy gradient by W\p) = d e t ( / + V u )  1.
with Ho = H;,. Associated with each subspace H/ there is a projection operator P/ : H > H, given by the solution of the local, easy to solve, compressible equilibrium problem fl(P/V, w/) = fl(v, w/), "iy/i G H/, P/V G H/.
Similarly, we can introduce the global projection operator Pw : H ^ W;, defined by fl(PwV, Zh) = (V, Zh) VZ;, G W;,, P^^V G W/,.
For the compressible case, the standard weak formulation of problem (P) is then: Find u H such that
a{u,Y) = (F,\) ,VVGH, (1)
Under this notation, we obviously have W/j = P^u. In a compressible framework, the error e = u u/j in the finite element approximation of the displacement solution of (1) by elements of H/, satisfies the variational equation a(e,\) = {Rh,y), VVGH, (6)
(F,v> : = ^ f . v + / ^ ^ g . v . Similarly, partially incompressible materials are governed by the mixed formulation Find u G H and p in P such that a(u, v) + / pdiw\= (divu p)q =0, (F, v>, Vv G H , (2) (3)
where the residual} Rh is the element of H' given by the abstract form
(P,,v>:=(F,v)(u,,v), VVGH.
(7)
Using the Green's theorem, the residual Rh is given as a sum of local components (P,,v>= ^ ( P r , v ) o T + Yl (^^'^)o,F (8)
"iq e P.
where the local element and face components Rj and RE are given by RT = (div<Th+f)\T, and T eTh (9)
A(x)ei\)
: e{\)
Vv G H.
(4)
RF =
fO
gcTh [a,n] n
if
FeShrWo. (10)
if F G^'/JOFA^, if F G ^ ,  F .
3. Hierarchical intrinsic error estimator 3.1. Abstract construction and fundamental example Let us approximate this basic elasticity problem by an initial finite element space H/, c H, with finite element solution Uh. In order to estimate the quality of the numerical solution obtained on this finite element mesh, we assume that we can construct a finer finite element space W/, such that H/j c W/j C H and we denote by W/, the corresponding unique solution of problem (1) in this finer space W/,. This solution is not to be computed explicitly. We only assume
With the above definitions our hierarchical a posteriori error estimate rjn in the compressible case is simply defined by the local additive decomposition
( M
.1/2
(11)
where each local displacement P/C is solution of the local equilibrium subproblem: Find e, G H, such that a{ei,\i) = {Rh,yi), Vv/ G H / . (12)
R. Araya, P. Le Tallec/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics This error estimate can be formally justified by the abstract calculation outlined below: {Res, vf e ^^= A ^Res j = sup UGH
41
' sup
{Res, vY
\2
= a{P^^v, Pwv)
^ Y^aiPrVR,
T
nn
Z ! ^^Rj I
(16)
PTVR)
(partition lemma)
^ ^a{A:^^VjRes,
T
A^I'j^Res) A'llRes)
Proof outline. We define the subspace W/^ by W/^ = Hh + E ^ i H/ where the one dimensional subspaces H/ are spanned by the functions b^ = l];=i ^F^y with F e Sh, yielding {Rh,hF) _ fl(b^,b/.)i/2 ~ _ {F,hF)a(Uh,hF) ^(b/.,b/.)i/2 L^'^Ff^(r(Uh):e{hF)
fl(bF,b^)i/2
+ ^fl(A;i/;/?^^,
e
Instead of detailing the above proof, we restrict our attention to the choice of the finite dimensional subspaces H/. The idea is to choose these subspaces as local as possible and thus to compute the projections P/e in a cheap way. As a basic example we will use local face (one per face F e Sh) and element (one per finite element T) subspaces given by HBT = span{bjRT], HB, = span{b*j,RF}, T eTh, F e EH, (13) (14)
^ ^ [
~ ^ 
a(hF,hFy/^ f/^^.(f+div(T,).bF]
a(hF,hFy/^ j"^
J /^[g, nlb^
(bF,bF)i/2
E
+
f+divcT/, 0,7 b/7 0^7. V^ e(hF) o,Ti Wh ' n] o,F b/7 o,F E\ e(bF) o,ri + V ^2 ei^^p) 0J2
where b^ = A1A2A3A4 and b*p = A1A2A3 are the usual element and face polynomial bubble functions with support strictly included in the corresponding element or face, respectively. Thus, our error estimate Y)H can be written as the following weighted sum of element and face residuals
( 11/2
rjH
Whn]\\ \\Q,F'
with weights automatically obtained from the local elasticity tensor at considered point. 3.2. A particular case In the particular case where the local subspaces Hj are one dimensional (H/ = span{\i}, i = 1,... , M), it is easy to prove that we have simply
^H
=E
1/2
a{\i,\i)
We can then show the relationship between the weighted residual error estimate proposed by Araya and Le Tallec [2] and the above hierarchical error estimate. Lemma 3.1. For isotropic heterogeneous materials, let rinj be the error estimator given by
Up to now, our hierarchical error estimate has only been introduced for compressible materials. The introduction of locally very large values of Lame coefficients X changes the definition of the local (bounded) elasticity tensor A, and motivates the introduction of an auxiliary pressure space to approximate the extra stress term p = A div M. This constitutive law is no longer exactly satisfied at the finite element level, and therefore, the full a posteriori error estimate must add an energy error term associated to this volume change, and given by II^PII'
= Yl f\\A\\{det(I^VuH)  1  W/{C,pH)y.
T ^
(17)
42
The above formula can be proved to be scale invariant, and to be asymptotically correct for heterogeneous isotropic materials independently of coefficients jumps, and of the local values of the Poisson coefficients. In other words, we can prove that there exists constants independent of mesh parameters h and of elasticity constants A and X such that
Uh
as it would be the case by using more sophisticated balanced residuals as advocated by Ainsworth and Oden [1], or Ladeveze and Pelle [4].
Acknowledgements The work of RA was partially supported by FIRTECH Calcul Scientifique. References
\ln<Cri\
hi.
T'CWT ^ 1/2
(18)
EG(T)nSM ^
Experimental results to be presented at the conference indicate the relevance of the proposed estimate. It turns out to be both practical and theoretically sound. It can be implemented in a fully automatic and local way in any industrial finite element code. Its present limitations are twofold: On one hand, the theory cannot handle strong anisotropic effects. On the other hand, the practical calculations do not permit a locally accurate stress reconstruction,
[1] Ainsworth M, Oden JT. A posteriori error estimation in finite element analysis. Comp Methods Appl Mech Eng 1997;142:188. [2] Araya R, Le Tallec R Adaptive finite element analysis for strongly heterogeneous elasticity. Rev Eur Elem Finis 1998;7:635655. [3] Bank RE, Weiser A. Some aposteriori error estimators for elliptical partial differential equations. Math Comput 1985;44:283301. [4] Ladevze P, Pelle JP, Rougeot PH. Error estimation and mesh optimization for classical finite elements. Eng Comput 1991;8:6980.
43
Abstract Stochastic finite elements are obtained within the setting of multifield theories of soHds for randomly microcracked bodies. Strain localization effects appear even if the constitutive relations are linear and microcracks are elastic and do not grow. Keywords: Strain localization; Microcracks; Multifield theories; Random finite elements
1. Introduction To analyze a microcracked body as a continuum, the relevant region B of the three dimensional Euclidean space can be described by two fields: the placement field x and an order parameter field d [1]. Both fields are considered as observable variables, thus balanced interactions are associated to them and their gradients. Interactions pertaining to the field d and its gradient Vd (called sub structural) provide extra power and satisfy appropriate balances besides Cauchy's. Substructural interactions are represented through a tensor S (microstress) and a vector z (selfforce). The problem of finding coupled constitutive relations for the stress measures has been tackled in [2,3]: they were obtained from a discrete model by means of an identification procedure based on power equivalence with the continuum model. The discrete model is made by two lattices connected each other by elastic links: the former (macrolattice) describes the body at the molecular level and is constituted by rigid spheres connected by elastic links, while the latter (mesolattice) represents the mesolevel of the microcrack distribution and is made by empty shells connected by elastic links. In the present paper the attention is focused on the case in which the distribution of microcracks is stochastic within the body. This may be accounted for by considering random the number of microcracks and their position [4,5] in the discrete model or by introducing some random stiffness in the links connecting the two lattices and determining the * Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 06 44585276; Fax: +39 06 4884852; Email: paolo.mariano@uniromal.it 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
degree of coupling. Finite elements already obtained in the deterministic case in [6] may show random features.
2. Continuum model Let B be the regular connected region of the threedimensional Euclidean space 8^ occupied by the body in its reference configuration. Points in B are labeled by X. We consider B as free of discontinuities due to microcracks but define on it two fields: x() and d(').ln particular, d() accounts for the presence of microcracks. At each X, x(X) is the actual placement of the point X, then u = x X is the displacement field and d its perturbation induced by microcracks so that (u f d)(X) is the overall displacement. Motions are indicated by x(X, t) and d(X, t), with t the time, and velocity fields by x and d. In particular, if q(0 is the characteristic vector of a time parameterized family of rotations, velocity fields are called 'rigid' if [1,3] : c(0 + q(0 X (x  xo), d = d X q(t) (1)
with c(0 representing translational velocity and XQ some fixed point. The order parameter d is not affected by translational velocity because it is a relative displacement. If we indicate with the term part any regular connected subset of B and indicate it with B*, then the overall power V(B*) developed by interactions on B* is given by V{B*) = / (Tn 11 + <Sn . J)  MX . F + z . J + SVd) 35* I (2) where n is the outward unit normal to dB*,F = Vx, T the
44
G. Augusti et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Stress tensor. Body forces are here neglected for simplicity. The balance of 'forces' is assured by assuming that V(B*) vanishes for any choice of the velocity fields and of B*. This implies Div T = 0, DiwSz = 0 inB (3) The balance of 'torques' is assured by requiring that the internal power /^^ (T F + z ^ + 5 V j ) vanishes for any choice of 'rigid' velocity fields and of B*: it follows that SkwCTF^ + z 0 J + (VdfS) (4) where Skw() extracts the symmetric part of its argument. Cauchy stress TF^ is not symmetric in this treatment unless the microcrack distribution is such that the second order tensor z ^ d ~\ {Wd)^S be symmetric. It is just the analytical structure implied by equation (3) (a partial differential equation) and the constitutive dependence on Vd that assure the possibility of obtaining localization phenomena.
VR
E^s
^zS(8)(hx)
(8)
VR
+ ]z,0(hk) ^z/0(hx)j
j=\
(9)
/=i
When appropriate constitutive equations are chosen for the interactions in the lattices, tensors T, S and vector z can be expressed in terms of Vu, J, Vd. In the simplest case one may write T = AVu + A'VJ, z = Cd, <S = A^Vu + GVJ (10)
3. Discrete model, constitutive equations and finite element The topology of the discrete model has been described in the introduction; we assume additionally that the discrete model is periodic and focus our attention on its characteristic cell (RVE). Measures of deformation in the discrete model are d^, d^  d^, u^  d^, u^  u^ where d^ is the displacement between the margins of the shell at h and u^ the displacement of the sphere at a. There are links between h and k, a and h, a and b: they carry only axial forces. In the following, t, represents the force exerted by the /th link in the macrolattice, ZQ the force due to the relative displacement d^ of the margins of the hih shell, Zj the force in the 7 th link of the microlattice, Z/ the force in the /th interlattice link. The identification procedure of the constitutive equations in the continuum model goes as follows: first one equalizes the power developed in the RVE with the density of the internal power in the continuum, then deformation measures in the RVE are expressed in terms of the measures in the continuum [2,3]. In particular, we choose a point x in the RVE such that
where k, h!,Q are fourth order tensors, C is second order and all of them have major symmetries (see [3] for explicit expressions). Finite elements can be built up by selecting any regular tessellation less of B and indicating nodal displacements for each element B^ e tess with u^ and d^. The element displacements u^ and d^ are related to u^ and d^ by matrices of shape functions: u^ = O^u^ d^ = OJ J^ Different discretized problems can be obtained: the simplest one is given by K
j{V<t>lYAV<^l
Be
(VcD^)VvcI>^,
Be
9 Be
d^ =
dix)\Vd(x)(hx),
d^d^ = Vd(x)(h~k)
u ^  u ^ ^ Vu(x)(ab), u^d^ = Vu(x)(a  x) + VJ(x)(h  x)
(5)
where t and r are boundary data. The extended stiffness matrix K in (11) depends on the number M of the shells in the RVE. If this number is a random variable we can expand K(M) by Taylor expansion as follows: K = K + dMK\^dM + i9^^K^dMdM . . . (12)
(6)
At the end of calculations one obtains the measures of interaction in the continuum in terms of the forces in the links of the RVE [3]: 1
L
LN
t, 0 (a  b) + ^ z/ (g) (a  x)
(7)
where the superposed line indicates mean value and dM the first variation of M about M. However, the choice of an expansion about the mean value of M need be matched by some rule establishing the topology of links between shells: many lattices correspond to any given number of shells. M could be also considered as a random field: in each cell we could have random geometry of the microlattice and hypothesis of lattice periodicity would result weakened. This
G. Augusti et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
45
CMSPLACEMENT2
2.S2E03 2.82E03
; "til II i*fcJvlS!ll*lk*"''" 
nil
"""
Fig. 1. Inplane overall displacements of a membrane in tension, shown in a normalized intensity color scale (a, b) and by the magnitude of the nodal overall displacement vector (c, d). (a, c) Horizontal component (Displacement 1); (b, d): vertical component (Displacement 2). procedure could introduce great difficulties in developing calculation. Alternatively, to account for the influence of randomly distributed microcracks on the gross mechanical behavior of the body, one could fix a microlattice and assume that interlattice links, which govern the degree of coupling in the mechanical problem, have all the same random stiffness H. Under these assumptions, expansion (12) becomes: Fig. 1): interaction measures T, z, S associated to K need be considered as averaged quantities on some class of admissible geometries for the microlattice. By indicating with ()graph the average on some class of admissible graphs, we may interpret T, z, S as 1
VR
^ t ,  0 (a  b) + ^ z / (8) (a  x ) 
graph
(14)
K = K + anKlj^de + a2jjKjdMde...
(13)
VR
Even M could be considered a random field and procedures in [7] appHed. Fig. 1 (taken from [3]) is an example of inplane displacements calculated for a square membrane of stiffness K, fixed on the lefthand side and loaded by a concentrated force in the middle of the righthand side. The constitutive equations have been derived considering a discrete model with square symmetry (4 spheres, 4 shells). Fig. la,c show, by two different representations, the horizontal component (Displacement 1) of the overall displacement while Fig. lb,d show the vertical component (Displacement 2). If the relevant quantities are random in the sense explained above, K can be taken as the average value K (see
E^
(15)
graph
s=
^zS(8)(hx)
(16)
Of course, in the sense of (13) ( )graph must be interpreted as the average with respect to H at a fixed graph.
46 References
G. Augusti et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [4] Klain DA, Rota GC. Introduction to Geometric Probability. Lezioni Lincee. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. [5] Kolchin VF. Random Graphs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. [6] Mariano PM, Augusti G, Stazi FL. Finite element simulations of strain localization induced by microcracks. Mech Mater, in print. [7] Liu WK, Belytschko T, Mani A. Random field finite elements. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986;23:18311845.
[1] Mariano PM. Some remarks on the variational description of microcracked bodies. Int J Nonlinear Mech 1999;34:633642. [2] Mariano PM, Trovalusci P. Constitutive relations for elastic microcracked bodies: from a lattice model to a multifield continuum description. Int J Damage Mech 1999;8:153173. [3] Mariano PM, Stazi FL. Strain localization in elastic microcracked bodies. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng, in print.
47
A method to analyse the nonhnear dynamic behaviour of rubber components using standard FE codes
PerErik Austrell *, Anders K. Olsson, Martin Jonsson
Department of Mechanics and Materials, Division of Structural Mechanics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE221 00 Lund, Sweden
Abstract For filled elastomers damping is caused by two different mechanisms at material level, resulting in viscous (rate dependent) and frictional (amplitude dependent) damping respectively [1,3] In the onedimensional case this can be modelled with a rheological model consisting of a viscoelastic component coupled in parallel with an elastoplastic component according to Fig. 1. Constitutive models for rubber used in standard FE codes are usually either hyperelastic or viscoelastic. Elastoplastic models, needed to model the frictional damping, are also normally supplied in order to model the plastic behaviour of highly stressed metal. The aim of this work is to propose an FE procedure that is able to represent the dynamic behaviour of rubber materials including both rate and amplitude dependence as well as nonlinear elastic behaviour. The overlay method offers a method to obtain such a model using only the already implemented constitutive models in standard FE codes. The result is an FE model corresponding to the onedimensional generalized rheological viscoplastic model discussed in Section 1. Keywords: Filled rubber; Viscoelastic; Elastoplastic; Damping; Finite element method; Amplitude dependence
1. Introduction Carbon black filled rubber consists of long polymer chains and a structure of microscopical carbon particles connected by weak crosslinks. Reorganization of the rubber network during periodic loading results in a viscous type of damping. The frictional damping is attributed to the filler structure and the breaking and reforming of the structure which take place during loading and unloading. The stresses obtained in a filled rubber material can thus be divided into a dominant elastic part, but also a viscous and a frictional part. Combining the viscoelastic and the elastoplastic models in parallel yields a material model which sums the elastic, viscous and frictional stresses. A simple fiveparameter model of this viscoplastic type is shown in Fig. 1. The model simulates the rate and amplitude dependence in a physically correct manner. Filled rubber materials subjected to harmonic loading show combined frequency and amplitude dependence of * Corresponding author. Tel: +46 (46) 2224798; Fax: +46 (46) 2224420; Email: pea@byggmek.lth.se; URL: http://byggmek.lth.se/ 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
the dynamic modulus and phase angle. The behaviour of the material model in Fig. 1 in harmonic loading is illustrated in Fig. 2. The phase angle is a measure of the damping and thus also a measure of the hysteresis, i.e., a large phase angle yields a large difference between the loading and unloading curves. Values of the modulus and phase angle, for which the amplitude and frequency results in a power output which exceeds a certain limit have been excluded from the figure. The onedimensional model shown in Fig. 1 can be generalized by adding more viscous and frictional elements in parallel. The model can then be given a quantitative better fit to experimental data. In Section 2 this model is
Fig. 1. Mechanical analogy illustrating a simple viscoplastic material model resulting in a frequency and amplitude dependent dynamic modulus and damping.
48
RE. Austrell et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Dynamic shear modulus: Gdyn(A,f) Equivalent phase angle: Arg(A,f)
100
Shear strain amplitude
100
Fig. 2. Onedimensional viscoplastic material model. Amplitude and frequency dependence of the dynamic modulus and phase angle.
generalized into three dimensions for the purpose of finite element calculations. 2. The overlay method According to the onedimensional viscoplastic model shown in Fig. 1, the total stress is obtained by adding the elastic stress, the viscous, and the plastic stress. A direct generalization for a three dimensional stress state would be to add the elastic, plastic and viscous stress tensors. The total stress tensor a is then given by a ^a' +G'P + G' (1)
where the terms are obtained from a nonhardening plasticity model, according to von Mises, implemented for large strains. The model used in this paper uses three terms in the summation above. The viscoelastic stress contribution is also given by a summation according to
E<^
k=\
(3)
where the terms are obtained from a viscohyperelastic model, suitable for large strains. 2.1. Implementation of the overlay method An easy way to obtain a model according to Section 2 using standard FE codes, without having to program a new constitutive model, is to use an overlay of FE meshes. The basic approach using the overlay method, is to create one hyperelastic, one viscoelastic and one elastoplastic FE model, all with identical element meshes. Assembling the nodes of these models according to Fig. 3, yields a finite element model that corresponds to the fiveparameter model discussed earlier. In order to create a model corresponding Hyperelastic FEmodel
where the different stress tensors are obtained from a hyperelastic, a elastoplastic and a viscoelastic material model. The hyperelastic contribution is in this paper according to a model by Yeoh [5]. The elastoplastic part of the stress tensor is given by a summation
M
(2)
Rheological model
^r ^
FEmodel containing: Nonlinear elasticity Frequency dependence Amplitude dependence
Fig. 3. Basic idea of the overlay method. The different basic FE models are assembled into one model containing both frequency and amplitude dependent properties as well as nonlinear elastic characteristics.
P.E. Austrell et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
5r
49
2 4 6 Displacement [mm]
Fig. 4. Amplitude dependent dynamic stiffness. Analysis of the cylindric component submitted to a radial cyclic load. to the generalized viscoplastic rheological model, a suitable number of viscoelastic or elastoplastic FE models are added in parallel. Preliminary investigations indicate that the material parameters needed for the finite elements models can simply be copied from the onedimensional model which has been fitted to experimental data. The reason why the onedimensional rheological model seems to be easily generalized into threedimensions has not been thoroughly investigated. However, one reasonable explanation for this behaviour is that the isotropic and incompressible characteristics of rubber provides a constraint that reduces the degrees of freedom in the threedimensional model. and cyclic, with gradually increasing amplitude. The graph shows the relation between the radial force F, obtained from the finite element analysis, and the radial displacement. The graph also shows the influence of the nonlinear elastic stress contribution on the hysteretic response. The sharp corners of the hysteretic response is characteristic for the behaviour of highly filled rubber materials. If only the viscous damping was modelled the shape of the hysteretic response would be almost elliptic. References [1] Austrell PE. Modeling of elasticity and damping for filled elastomers. Lund University, Lund Institute of Technology, Division of Structural Mechanics, Sweden, 1997, Report TVSM1009 [2] Austrell PE, Jonsson M. Analys av nagra axialsymmetriska gummikomponenter. Lund University, Lund Institute of Technology, Division of Structural Mechanics, Sweden 1999, Report TVSM99/7129SE (142) [3] Kaliske M, Rothert H. Constitutive approach to rate independent properties of filled elastomers. Int J Solids Struct 1998;35(17):20572071. [4] Simo JC. On a fully threedimensionalfinitestrainviscoelastic damage model: formulation and computational aspects. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1987;60:153173. [5] Yeoh OH. Characterization of elastic properties of carbonblackfilled rubber vulcanizates. Rubber Chem Technol 1993;66:754772.
3. Cylindric rubber bushing A cylindric component according to Fig. 4 has been studied in [2]. The component is submitted to large amplitudes at low frequencies. The very slow load rate makes it possible to neglect the viscous contribution. Hence, the material model used in this paper contains only the hyperelastic and the elastoplastic stress contributions. The component has been submitted to a variety of different load cases. Only the radial load case is presented in this abstract. Fig. 4 shows the cylindric component submitted to a radial loading. The load case is displacement controlled
50
Simulation of large deformations in shell structures by the pversion of the finite element method
Y. Baa^^ U. Hanskotter% O. KintzeP*, Ch. Schwab''
" Institute for Structural Mechanics, RuhrUniversity Bochum, Bochum, Germany ^ Seminar for Applied Mathematics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland
Abstract For the analysis of shell structures with large strains finite elements are developed ensuring an optional selection of the kinematic assumption, interpolation polynomials and particularly hyperelastic constitutive models. The essential idea of the development is to construct all the partial derivatives of the finite element procedure, e.g. with respect to the strains via the analytical tool of MATHEMATICA. The actual shell configuration is described by nonhierarchical as well as hierarchical higherorder polynomials. The reference configuration is considered exactly by means of algorithms applicable to various practically relevant cases e.g. geometry intersections. The use of higherorder interpolation polynomials substantially reduces the wellknown locking phenomena connected with lowerorder finite element formulations. The possibility to compute an entire shell which may be additionally bounded by arbitrary curves turns out to be a further significant advantage. The effectivity of the formulation particularly concerning the application of the hierarchical pextension will be demonstrated by adequate numerical examples. Keywords: Finite shell elements; Hierarchical and nonhierarchical interpolations; Large strains; Finite rotations; Hyperelasticity
1. Shell equations Upper case letters denote geometrical elements of the reference state and lower case ones their counterparts in the actual configuration. Latin indices represent the numbers 1, 2, 3 and the greek ones the numbers 1, 2. The notations used are essentially adopted from [3]. We consider the reference state of a finite element continuum with a variable thickness H measured in the direction of the unit normal vector N of the midsurface. Let X = Xi^"",^^) be the position vector of an arbitrary point, where f' (/ = 1,2,3) are curvilinear coordinates selected such that the values ?' = dzl determine the curved boundaries of the finite element. The vector X is described by the following linear expression in thickness coordinate
with 0 1
X =  (Xr + Xs),
1
X = i (Xr
Xfl),
(2)
shells the director X is selected as X = y N, while in the case of geometry intersections it can be advantageously determined according to (2) in terms of the position vectors XT and X^ of the top and bottom faces of the finite element continuum. The position vector x = xi^"^,^^) of the deformed configuration (actual state) is approximated by
;' = 0,1
(1)
pending on x and x. Note that, within the present concept, the polynomial (3) may be enriched by further higherorder
2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
Y. Baar et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
51
terms in ^^. However, if more accuracy is required, the combined application of (3) with the multilayer concept [4] has been proved to be decisively more efficient. Starting from (1) and (3) the geometrical elements of the reference and actual states can be derived by the standard procedure [3], e.g. the covariant base vectors G/ = X,/ and g/ = x,/, whereas in other cases the partial differentiation ( ),/ with respect to ' is to be carried out
through MATHEMATICA.
As deformation (strain) measures the right CauchyGreen tensor C and the GreenLagrange strain tensor E are utilized subjected to the following kinematic constraints: E := Eij G' (g) G^' = i (C  G) (g/g;G,Gy)G^'0G^ (4)
Any hyperelastic material can be modelled by a strain energy function W = W(Eij, G'J, a^) depending on the covariant components of E, the contravariant metric tensor components G'^ and a number of material parameters a^. An example is the MooneyRivlin model W = Ci(/c  3) + 2(1 Ic 3) given in terms of the invariants /c, / / c of C and including two material constants Ci,C2. This model is appHcable to incompressible rubberlike materials. Once a special function is selected for W the associated stress tensor can be obtained by partial differentiation with respect to E as S = W,E, which is again to be formed
through MATHEMATICA.
the classical shape functions is their direct applicability for the interpolation. But, if higherorder approximation is required by adaptive strategies, they have to be completely reconstructed. The hierarchical shape functions do not use solely nodal values. They are built in this contribution by means of the Legendre polynomials. The wellknown orthogonality property of these polynomials provides the significant advantage that, with increasing of the polynomial order, the new shape functions are obtainable from the foregoing ones simply through an additional extension, which saves considerably the computational efforts. This explains clearly the significance of the hierarchical shape functions for the application of adaptive hierarchical pextension [5]. In both cited cases the 2D shape functions ^^Ar'"() = ^N'^(^^)^N''(^^) are constructed starting from the ID ones ^N"^, ^N"". Thus, the interpolation of the unknown parameter x' can be presented in a unified form by
X
Pi
J:'<
Ij^m
(7)
where the indices mn are used to define a sum over the chosen 2D shape functions ^^N"^^. Note that in the case of a hierarchical approach the x^^ are not only nodal values. The construction of the shape functions are described in [2, 6]. In the latter work explanations are also given concerning the numerical implementation.
For the finite element procedure the nonlinear shell equations are to be linearized. The linearization of the variation of the strain energy function 8W = 8W(\) and the kinematic constraint (4) with respect to the column vector v^ = [x x x] at the state x delivers: L8W = AS: 8E\S: A8EhS:8E (5)
3. Reference shell geometry A crucial point in developing higherorder shell models is the consideration of the reference configuration with an adequate accuracy. The first problem to be solved in this context is the definition of a finite element volume being convenient for the requirements of the given shell structure. This aspect will be enlighted here by two practically relevant cases. For more on this, especially concerning problems with geometry intersections we refer to [1].
A8E = {A 8gi g, + Ag, 8gj + 8gi Agj + giA8gj)G'^GJ. (6)
The symbol A used above defines an operation to be performed similar to the variation 8. Both operations 8 and A imply partial differentiations with respect to the kinematic unknowns v to be built systematically through
MATHEMATICA.
2. Finite element formulation For more flexibility the primary kinematic parameters p p . X = xJ ij (p = 0,1,2) involved in (3) are interpolated by nonhierarchical (classical) as well as hierarchical shape functions. The classical shape functions are closely related to the nodal points and are constructed here by means of Lagrange and Serendipity polynomials. The advantage of
Fig. 1. Discretization.
52
Y. Baar et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Table 1 Geometry and material data Geometry: A = 1.00 B= 1.00 Z = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 7 d = 0.01 Material data: E= 1.0010^
V = 0.20
We first assume that the shell is determined by its thickness H and its midsurface AQ described through the equation X = X ( 0 " ) in terms of arbitrary parameters @". To define a finite element area we first select four arbitrary nodal points A' ( ^ = 1 to 4) with the coordinates 0^^^ on AQ. If the transformation
Fig. 2. Boundary conditions. 0 = 0 [t (?2)] replaced by V 0 = AT, 0 + T ^ 0 +  ( l  f ^1) 0 (^2) 0 ^ (?^) the transformation (8) is then
(9)
?')(i + r)e^
(8)
= E^^(?")5^
0 0 0
In some cases it may be suitable to determine the finite element volume through the bottom Ag and top faces AT. Then, the finite element faces on A^ and AT can be determined by the same procedure as described above. The consideration of the corresponding results in (1) and (2) finally defines the finite element volume, more strictly, the
0 1
with ^" G (1, 1) is considered in the midsurface equation X = X [ 0 " (^^)] = X ( ^ ^ ) , then a finite element area AAQ on AQ is determined whose boundaries are described by the discrete values ^'^ = 1 . Now, we suppose that one of the boundaries of the finite element area A A Q , e.g. the boundary passing through the nodes 2 and 4, has to correspond to a given curve C given by the relations 0 " = 0 J (t). In this case the first step is to replace the parameter t = r (^^) by the dimensionless coordinate ^^ e (  1 , 1). By using the corresponding result
vectors X and X so that the problem is reduced to the one discussed above.
0 1
The vectors X and X entering in (1) can be considered in an exact form (classical formulation) or alternatively
0
approximated in the same form as their counterparts x and X in the actual state (isoparametric approach). To save computation efforts the classical formulation is used in the present development. A wellknown failure of this approach is that the rigid body motion criterion is not satisfied exactly. But it has been proved that this is only
0.05
0.15
0.20
0.25
200
400
600
Y. Baar et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 100.0 r ^ f e r = = = r : # ^ ^ ^
53
10.0 ^
Fig. 4. Relative error e of the total potential energy jr. a minor weakness having no particular influence on the numerical response. 4. Example The example is a thin plate under constant dead load P = 1.00, which has been applied on the face of the plate, acting in negative Xadirection (Fig. 1). It is discretized with two elements, which will be distorted with a varying factor b: 0 means no distortion and 1 means distortion to a triangle. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the insensitivity of highorder FEdiscretization to element distortion and irregular element shapes. Linear elastic material properties are taken into account (Table 1) and furthermore all boundaries in horizontal direction are fixed (Fig. 2). The convergence behaviour of the vertical displacement can be seen in Fig. 3. Each displacement curve mirrors a different mesh distortion and each point of the curve characterises a polynomial order. From polynomial order 4 all curves converge to the exact solution. In Fig. 4 the asymptotic convergence of the relative error of the total potential energy in double logarithmic scale is to be seen.
References [1] Baar Y, Hanskotter U, Omurtag MH, Schwab Ch. On the exact geometry description in the pfinite element formulation for hyperelastic shells withfiniterotations. 2001, in prep. [2] Baar Y, Hanskotter U, Schwab Ch. A general highorder finite element formulation for shells at large strains and finite rotations. 2001, in prep. [3] Baar Y, Weichert D. Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics of SoHds. Berlin: Springer, 2000. [4] Baar Y, Ding Y Interlaminar stress analysis of composites. Layerwise shell finite elements including transverse strains. Composites Eng 1995;5(5):485499. [51 Szabo BA, Actis R, Schwab Ch. Hierarchic models for laminated plates and shells. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999;172:79107. [6] Szabo B, Babuska I. Finite Element Analysis. New York: Wiley, 1991.
54
Abstract An algorithm for applying frictional contact conditions in threedimensions using the Material Point Method is described. The algorithm is computationally efficient, robust, and avoids the use of an interface stiffness parameter. Performance is assessed via a simple test problem involving large material deformations. Preliminary results on the dynamic compaction of granular material are presented. Keywords: Frictional contact; Arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian; Material point method; Finite deformations; Dynamic compaction; Granular material
1. Introduction During the performance of engineering systems, the majority of the loading applied to components is by contact with other components. Component contact loading can often be idealized in simulations of systems operating under design conditions, where these interactions are tightly controlled (e.g. by using bearings, lubrication or joints). However, the performance of a system outside of normal operating conditions may be equally important. Under severe loading, large deformation or failure of one component may result in unanticipated contact with other components. The classic example is a car crash. Contact and impact have received substantial attention over the past several decades, as witnessed by a review of the subject by Zhong [1], which lists nearly 500 papers. The majority of these papers describe numerical modeling approaches and/or applications using the finite element method. The problem is a very difficult one, as contact must be sensed, surface normals constructed, and interaction forces imposed to prevent interpenetration without making the system of equations to be solved illconditioned. Here we briefly describe an alternate approach using an arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian (ALE) particleincell numerical technique for solid mechanics, the Material Point Method (MPM) [2]. * Corresponding author. Tel: +1 (801) 5879819; Fax: +1 (801) 5859826; Email: bard@golden.mech.utah.edu 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
The numerical simulations described here are performed using the University of Utah's Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) in support of large scale, massively parallel computations, under the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions (CSAFE). The simulation scenario ultimately of interest to the Center is the thermo/mechanical/chemical response of a container filled with plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) in a fire. Algorithms designed to handle contact between container and explosive during initial heating, chemical decomposition, and fragmentation are needed. An MPM code has been implemented in the UCF to model the mechanical response of the container and explosives, and will ultimately couple with a fluid dynamics (fire) code. Simulation of the compaction of granular material provides a test of the mechanics code and an opportunity to model the response of a complex system only practical using large scale numerical simulations.
2. Approach Inherent in the MPM algorithm is a no slip contact condition between adjacent materials [3]. In addition, the MPM algorithm provides a convenient framework for applying more general contact conditions, including frictional contact and debonding. This framework avoids the use of an interface stiffness parameter (as for a penalty formulation), which can be difficult to select. The algorithm takes advantage of the overlying Eulerian grid to define
S.G. Bardenhagen et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
120 Rigid Splnere Total Energy J e l l  0 Sphere Total Energy J e l l  0 Sphere Kinetic Energy J e l l  0 Sphere Strain Energy Rubber Sphere Total Energy Rubber Sphere Kinetic Energy Rubber Sphere Strain Energy
55
' /V // // // // // // // / //
^ 80
en
60
40
/y/
///
/ /
' ^^r
y^!^^^y
0.5
2.0
Fig. 1. Specific energies for rigid and deformable sphere on inclined plane test problems. interfaces, calculate frictional forces and surface normals, and apply Coulomb frictional contact conditions [4]. The algorithm is computationally efficient, the cost is linear in the number of contacting materials. A separate contact detection step is unnecessary, and a solution is achieved with one sweep through the computational mesh. The algorithm reduces to the no slip condition inherent in the MPM algorithm when interfaces stick. These qualities make calculations involving large numbers of contacting materials tractable. However, extensive testing revealed a shortcoming. The formulation was found to violate the explicit stability condition on rare occasions when material point registration on the overlying computational grid met specific conditions. An addition to the algorithm was made to check for violation of the stability criterion and rescale the contact impulse as necessary. The modified algorithm retains the efficient qualities of the original, plus greatly increased robustness. One of the test problems investigated was that of a sphere on an inclined plane under gravity, initially at rest. For rigid bodies an analytic solution exists corresponding to rolling without slipping. For the (elastic) deformable cases the computational cell size is Z)/8, where D is the sphere's initial diameter. Eight material points per cell are used. Energies developed during rolling are plotted for the rigid sphere and two deformable sphere simulations in Fig. 1. For the rigid case, the total energy is equal to the kinetic energy, and is plotted with a thick black line. For the deformable cases, the total energy is the sum of the sphere's kinetic and strain energies. The first case is shown in gray and corresponds to both sphere and plane having stiffnesses approximately that of natural rubber. The strain energy reflects the regular occurrence of mild collisions, the contact algorithm results in the sphere skipping slightly.
Fig. 2. Initial and deformed configurations for the 'Jell0' sphere, depicted by plotting material points. Simulation times for the deformed configurations are indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 1.
The majority of the energy is kinetic for the rubber case. Although natural rubber is fairly soft, deformability plays a small role and a reasonable resolution of the geometry results in a total energy very similar to the rigid case. Note that the rubber case has larger total energy in part because it free falls for a fraction of a cell length before contacting the plane. There is also some error accumulated during the simulation, which can be reduced by decreasing the explicit time step. To demonstrate the algorithm's ability to easily handle large deformations and the corresponding variation in the contact area, the sphere's elastic properties were reduced by a factor of 1000, resulting in a material approximating 'Jell0'. The Jell0 case is plotted in black, and inspection reveals the trade off between kinetic and strain energy as the sphere slumps down the plane. Snapshots displaying the initial configuration and deformed configurations at approximately 0.8s intervals (indicated with dotted vertical lines in Fig. 1) are shown in Fig. 2. For this case, there is variation in interface velocity over the contact area resulting in some sliding during rolling, and corresponding dissipation of kinetic energy.
3. Application The behavior of granular material has received a fair amount of attention within the scientific community recently [5]. Because of the rich behavior granular material has been found to exhibit, and the ability to collect data
56
S.G. Bardenhagen et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Fig. 3. Initial configuration consisting of 1000 spheres in a 1mm cube. The grains are shaded differently only to distinguish one from another.
both on the scale of the individual grains and en masse, there is a large database available for validation. It has been found that a prevalent load carrying mechanism in granular material is provided by a small subset of the grains forming highly loaded connected paths of contacting grains, or 'force chains'. Dry granular material provides a relatively simple starting point and data for validation, but requires accurate modeling of many contacting grains. The simulation of the dynamic compaction of dense granular material further requires accurate modeling of grain deformation. These capabilities are precisely the strengths of the current state of the MPM code. A tool to generate dense packings of spheres with given size distribution using MonteCarlo techniques was developed and used to create the initial configuration depicted in Fig. 3. There are 1000 spheres in a 1 mm cube with an 80% packing fraction. The size distribution is representative of that for the energetic grains in the PBX ultimately of interest within CSAFE. The grains are modeled using a compressible NeoHookean plasticity formulation [6] with elastic material properties determined by molecular dynamics simulations, Sewell et al. [7]. The stress wave structure from a preliminary calculation with 10^ cells and 6 x 10^ material points is shown in Fig. 4. This resolution provides for five cells across the diameter of the smallest grains. The packing has been impacted from above by a piston with velocity 100 m / s . Only stressed grains are shown, displaying the nonuniform structure of the stress wave 0.12 JJLS after impact. Stress propagates most quickly through the large grains. It propagates more slowly through the smaller grains because grains must be brought into contact, and a meandering path must be traversed to reach a given depth. A closer look at an interior slice in the inset of Fig. 4
Fig. 4. Depiction of a stress wave propagating through the granular bed. Only stressed grains are shown, with maximum stresses in white. Two large grains are prominent in approximately opposite comers. Stress propagates more slowly in areas rich in smaller grains, as also seen in the diagonal slice inset.
(with the stress rescaled to emphasize stress paths) indicates the development of force chains among the smaller grains. The large grain in the middle of the slice carries large stresses, as do chains of small grains on either side. The sample size is too small to determine the effects on the stress wave structure of the interplay between large and small grains. Much larger simulations will be performed to provide a better representation of the measured grain size distribution, and to determine the sample size required for statistics representative of an essentially infinite number of grains (i.e. statistical information representative of the continuum scale).
4. Conclusions MPM is found to provide a convenient environment for the implementation of frictional contact. Preliminary results on granular compaction are encouraging, with simulations indicating preferential load paths developing during dynamic compaction. Ultimately of interest is a fundamental understanding the load carrying mechanisms and connections with continuum constitutive models via state statistics at the microscale. The inhomogeneous stress state resulting from the development of force chains may play a role in energy localization by promoting frictional sliding, plastic deformation and/or fracture. Work to incorporate fracture in these simulations is ongoing. The longer term objective is to include an interstitial material and simulate initiation mechanisms in PBXs and
S.G. Bardenhagen et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics support the development of constitutive models. Composed of >90% by volume energetic grains in a weak matrix, there is evidence that force chains occur in PBXs as well [8]. It is generally agreed upon that nonshock initiation of PBXs is due to energy localization at the microscale and the development of 'hot spots'. Experimental information, already difficult and expensive to obtain for bulk energetic materials, is decidedly more difficult to obtain on the microscale. A fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of initiation in energetic materials will likely yield only to multidisciplinary expertise and a closely coupled combination of numerical simulation and experimental validation.
57
Acknowledgements This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions, under Grant W7405ENG48.
[2] Sulsky D, Zhou SJ, Schreyer HL. Application of a particleincell method to solid mechanics. Comput Phys Commun 1995;87:236252. [3] Sulsky D, Schreyer HL. The particleincell method as a natural impact algorithm. Adv Comput Methods Mater Model 1993;268:219229. [4] Bardenhagen SG, Brackbill JU, Sulsky D. The material point method for granular materials. Comput Methods Appl Mechan Eng 2000;187:529541. [5] Herrmann HJ, Hovi JP, Luding S. Physics of Granular Media. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1998. [6] Simo JC, Hughes TJR. Computational inelasticity. New York: Springer, 1998. [7] Sewell TD, Menikoff R, Bedrov D, Smith GD, Ayyagari C. Elastic coefficients and sound speeds for HMX polymorphs from molecular dynamics simulations. J Appl Phys, submitted. [8] Foster JC Jr, Glenn G, Gunger M. Mesoscale origins of the low pressure equation of state and high rate mechanical properties of plastic bonded explosives. In: Furnish MD, Chabildas LD, Hixson RS (Eds), Shock Compression of Condensed Matter1999. Woodbury: AIP Press, 2000.
References [1] Zhong ZH, Mackerie J. Contactimpact problems: a review with bibhography. Appl Mechan Rev 1994;47(2):5576.
58
Abstract Energy preserving/decaying schemes are presented for the simulation of the nonlinear multibody systems involving shell components. The proposed schemes are designed to meet four specific requirements: unconditional nonlinear stability of the scheme, a rigorous treatment of both geometric and material nonlinearities, exact satisfaction of the constraints, and the presence of high frequency numerical dissipation. The kinematic nonlinearities associated with arbitrarily large displacements and rotations of shells are treated in a rigorous manner, and the material nonlinearities can be handled when the constitutive laws stem from the existence of a strain energy density function. Keywords: Shell analysis; Multibody dynamics; Energy preserving schemes
1. Introduction and motivation This work is concerned with the numerical simulation of geometrically exact shell models within the context of multibody system dynamics. While the partial differential equations that govern shell problems are well known, their numerical treatment is still the subject of active research. Indeed, numerical analysis tools for partial differential equations have significantly changed in recent years. In the past, general purpose discretization methods were developed, with emphasis on robustness, performance, and accuracy. These methods aimed at solving vast classes of problems such as ordinary differential equations, differential/algebraic equations, or hyperbolic conservation laws. This approach is now changing. Indeed, the differential equations that govern many problems in mathematical physics possess qualitative and structural characteristics that can be determined by studying their geometry. Classical examples of such characteristics are the invariants associated with Hamiltonian systems, the symplectic structure of the governing equations, or symmetries and attractors. There is increasing evidence that numerical methods that correctly recover the qualitative features of the underlying differential equations are often endowed with superior com* Corresponding author. Email: olivier.bauchau@aerospace.gatech.edu 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
putational performance, greater robustness and improved accuracy. This new paradigm has resulted in the development of a new mathematical discipline, called geometric integration: a bridge that links the work of pure, applied and computational mathematicians. Simo and his coworkers were among the first to develop special integration procedures for nonlinear structural dynamics. They analyzed the problem of the dynamics of nonlinear elastodynamics [1], geometrically exact shells and beams [2]. In all cases, the idea was to design algorithms that ensure the discrete preservation of the total mechanical energy of the system, therefore obtaining unconditionally stable schemes in the nonlinear regime. However, increasing evidence points toward the fact that geometric integration is not sufficient, per se, to obtain robust integration schemes. While these schemes perform well for problem with a small number of degrees of freedom featuring a "smooth" dynamic response, they tend to be quite unsatisfactory when applied to the complex simulations encountered in many engineering applications [3]. In fact, the predicted time histories of internal forces and velocities can present a significant high frequency content. Furthermore, the presence of these high frequency oscillations hinders the convergence process for the solution of the nonlinear equations of motion. These oscillations are particularly violent in multibody dynamics simulations because these systems are rather stiff due to the presence of numerous algebraic constraints, while the nonlinearities of
O.A. Bauchau, C. L Bottasso /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
59
Shell
(0.0,0) (0.0.0)
Revolute joints
Crank
Fig. 1. Schematic of tlie snapthrough problem of a cyhndrical shell activated by a crank and link mechanism.
the system provide a mechanism to transfer energy from the low to the high frequency modes. Consequently, the presence of high frequency numerical dissipation appears
to be an indispensable feature of robust time integrators for multibody systems. This paper focuses on the development a geometric integrator for shell structures that preserves important qualitative features of the underlying equations, and is equipped with high frequency numerical dissipation. In order to achieve these goals, the specific features of the equations governing nonlinear flexible multibody systems with shells are reviewed. First, the governing equations are characterized by linear and rotational tensorial fields describing kinematic (displacements, velocities) and cokinematic (forces, momenta) quantities. Second, the equations are nonlinear because of large displacements and finite rotations (geometric nonlinearities), and possibly because of nonlinear constitutive laws (material nonlinearities). Third, the presence of joints imposes different types of kinematic constraints between the various bodies of the system. In this work, the Lagrange multipliers technique is used to enforce the constraints, giving the governing equations a differential/algebraic nature. Fourth, the equations of motion imply the preservation of a number of dynamic invariants, in particular the total mechanical energy, and the total linear and angular momenta. The proposed geometric integration procedure is designed to satisfy specific requirements. First, a discretiza
t= 0.086 sec
t=0.156sec
t=0.265sec
t= 0.291 sec
60
OA. Bauchau, C. L. Bottasso /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics radius r = 5 m and thickness t = 0.1 m. Material properties are: Young's modulus E = 210 GPa, Poisson ratio y = 0.25 and density p = 10"* kg/m^. The two straight edges of the shell are simply supported, and one of the curved edges is free. The last edge is connected at its midpoint to a link by means of a revolute joint. Furthermore, its displacement along x and its rotations about the y and z directions are constrained to zero. The crank length is Lc = 1.5 m and its axis of rotation is located 5 m below the connection point with the shell. The crank is modeled as a rigid body, while the link is represented by a beam of rectangular cross section of side s = 0.2 m, with the same material properties as the shell. The two elements are connected by a revolute joint. The crank rotates at constant angular velocity ^ = 0.1 rad/s for half a revolution, and stops at time ^ = TT 10~^ s, while the simulation is continued until t = 0.4 s. Fig. 2 shows the response of the shell.
tion process is developed that preserves the total mechanical energy of the system at the discrete solution level. This process is independent of the spatial discretization procedure that is left arbitrary. In the present implementation, the finite element method is used, and the mixed interpolation of tensorial components [4] is implemented to avoid the shear locking problem. Next, the reaction forces associated with the holonomic and nonholonomic constraints imposed on the system are discretized in a manner that guarantees the satisfaction of the nonlinear constraint manifold, i.e. the constraint condition will not drift. At the same time, the discretization implies the vanishing of the work performed by the forces of constraint at the discrete solution level. Consequently, the discrete energy conservation laws proved for the flexible members of the system are not upset by the introduction of the constraints. The resulting Energy Preserving (EP) scheme is a geometric integrator for multibody systems with shells that provides nonlinear unconditional stability. Using a simple procedure [5,6] based on the EP scheme, it is possible to derive a new discretization that implies a discrete energy decay statement. In the resulting Energy Decaying (ED) scheme, the system no longer evolves on the constant energy level set, but is allowed to drift away from it in a controlled manner. The discretization process for the forces of constraint is left unchanged: the work they perform vanishes exactly, while the system evolves on the constraint manifold without drifts. ED schemes satisfy all the requirements set forth earlier.
References [1] Simo JC, Tamow N. The discrete energymomentum method conserving algorithms for nonlinear dynamics. ZAMP 1992;43:757792. [2] Simo JC, Tamow N. A new energy and momentum conserving algorithm for the nonlinear dynamics of shells. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994;37:25272549. [3] Bauchau OA, Damilano G, Theron NJ. Numerical integration of nonlinear elasfic mulfibody systems. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1995;38:27272751. [4] Bucalem ML, Bathe KJ. Higherorder mite general shell elements. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993;36:37293754. [5] Bauchau OA. Computational schemes forflexible,nonlinear mulfibody systems. Multibody Syst Dyn 1998;2:169225. [6] Bauchau OA, Bottasso CL. On the design of energy preserving and decaying schemes forflexible,nonlinear multibody systems. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999;169:6179.
2. Snapthrough of a cylindrical shell A crank and link mechanism is used to drive a cylindrical shell through an unstable, snapthrough configuration. The system geometry is depicted in Fig. 1. The shell consists of a 60 sector of a cylinder of height h = 2.5 m.
61
Abstract Impulses resulting from metal fragment impacts on concrete targets are needed to predict the structural response of those targets. Recent experiments indicate that the momentum transferred to the target exceeds the momentum of the fragments impacting the slab. These experiments indicate that the amount of the excess impulse is a function of the pattern of impact of the fragments on the slab. Finite element (FE) analyses have been used successfully to predict damage to concrete targets from multiple fragment impacts. In this paper, these same analysis techniques are used to investigate the effect of fragment impact pattern on momentum transferred to the concrete target. Keywords: Reinforced concrete; Dynamic loads; Impact loads; Momentum transfer; Finiteelement analyses
1. Introduction In this paper, excess impulse is defined as the percent difference between the impulse applied to the slab and the total momentum of all fragments striking the slab. The momentum transferred to reinforced concrete slabs by steel fragments impacting the slabs has been studied in two recent series of experiments, Dallriva [1]. In the first set of experiments, a single steel fragment was fired at a reinforcedconcrete target. On average, the excess impulse was approximately 70%. The concrete on the front face of the slab near the impact point was ejected towards the direction of the fragment launcher at a reasonably high velocity. The excess impulse has been attributed to the ejection of this concrete. Thirty similar experiments were conducted for multiple fragment impacts. In these experiments, 24 fragments were fired at the concrete target. The excess impulse ranged from 24 to 54%, indicating a loss in effectiveness as compared to a single fragment impact. The experiments indicated that the reinforcing steel does not have a large effect on the momentum transferred to the slab.
Damage to the concrete targets in some of these experiments has been successfully predicted using FE models and applying the loads as a pressuretime history on the surface of the slab, Papados [2]. Papados used the largedeformation, explicitdynamic FE code, ParaDyn [3], which is the scalable version of the code, DYNA3DLLNL [4]. Details of the constitutive model are discussed in [2]. The constitutive model is a threeinvariant, threefailure surface model as suggested by Willam and Warnke [5]. The surfaces represent the yield, maximum, and residual capacity of the concrete. Failure in tension is based on fracture energy. Once the material has reached the residual surface, it cannot support tension and cannot support shear in the absence of pressure.
2. Analyses performed Finiteelement analyses were performed to assess the effect of the fragment impact pattern on the impulse transferred from 150grain steel fragments impacting a 9in.thick concrete target at about 4,200 fps. Analyses were performed for one, two, and three fragments. Maximum concrete ejecta velocity and damaged surface area were used as a measure of excess impulse applied to the target.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (601) 6342137; Fax: +1 (601) 6342309; Email: baylotj@wes.army.mil 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
62
J.T. Baylot, P.P. Papados / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
18,000 15.000 12.000 (0 9.000 6,000 3,000
A 30 by 30 by 9in. slab was discretized into 518,400 1/4in. cube constant stress continuum elements. The constitutive model and rate effects curves used were identical to those used by Papados. Reinforcing steel was not modeled. The fragment impacts were represented using pressure boundary conditions that preserve the momentum of the fragment. The pulse duration was selected to match the expected fragment penetration. The fragment size is consistent with the surface area of four of the 1/4in. cube elements. The peak pressure and pulse duration were 224,000 psi and 0.1 ms, respectively. A rise time of l/4th of the pulse duration gives a good estimate of the damage for the multiple fragment experiments, and was used for these simulations.
/ /" u
rz<
\ ^"' j^
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
Time, ms
Fig. 2. Velocity histories near impact point.
3. Single fragment impact A simulation for a single fragment impacting the center of the target was performed (4 elements are loaded). The impact location (displacements scaled by 5) at the end of the fragment pulse duration is shown in Fig. 1. This figure shows that the FE model initially captures the ejection of the concrete off of the front surface of the model. Positive displacements (shown as white) are displacements in the direction of the initial fragment velocity. Velocity histories of the nodes near the fragment impact are shown as Fig. 2. The nodes at 0 and 0.25 in. were loaded by the pressure boundary condition representing the fragment impact. These nodes initially moved in the direction of the fragment velocity, but reversed at a high velocity at the end of the pulse duration. The nodes not loaded by the fragment impact immediately moved opposite to the fragment velocity. Later in time, all of the nodes reversed direction and moved away from the fragment source. Because of this behavior, the concrete did not actually eject in the simulation, and the momentum initially gained was lost. Analysis results were examined to determine the source of the force that caused these 'ejected' nodes to be pulled back into the remainder of the slab. At 0.11 ms, the node at the fragment impact location accelerated with the velocity very quickly becoming positive. The externally applied forces were zero after 0.1 ms. Each of the elements connected to this node has failed and all stress histories for these elements remained at zero. The only other forces that could have been acting on this node are the hourglass control and the bulk viscosity. Since the bulk viscosity forces are only active in compression, the forces must have been due to hourglass control. Attempts were made to adjust the hourglass control and to delete the failed elements on the exposed surface. Neither of these efforts was successful in overcoming the problem of the reversal of direction of the failed concrete. The mass of the element was maintained upon element deletion, and apparently so were the hourglass forces. Since the recovery of the ejecta material could not be prevented, the ejecta velocities before the recovery were used to evaluate the excess impulse. Velocity histories of nodes totally surrounded by failed elements were examined to determine, the mass and average velocity of concrete that would be ejected. The area of failed elements on the surface of the slab is shown in Fig. 3. The maximum and average magnitudes of the ejecta velocity were 11,456 ips and 1,457 ips, respectively. Average velocities and damage volumes for the next two layers were also computed. Based on the first three layers, the excess impulse applied to the target would be about 41%. Since 75% of the simulated excess impulse was due to the ejection of the first layer of elements, the firstlayer impulse was selected as a measure of excess impulse applied to the target.
J.T. Bay lot, P.P. Papados / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
63
a) Single
e) Tliree
Fig. 3. Front surface damage.
4. Multiple fragment impact Simulations were performed for the four multiple fragment impact cases listed in Table 1. The maximum and average magnitudes of the ejecta velocity did not vary significantly in the five simulations performed. Therefore, the Table 1 Multiple fragment simulations
Simulation ^ Fragment no. 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 x^ (in.) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.25 0.25 0.0 y' (in.) 0.0 0.25 0.25 0.75 0.75 1.5 1.5 0.25 0.25 0.25 Damaged area (in.^) 16.25 32.5 26.75 29.75 42.19 Excess impulse
(%)
70 70 40 55 47
^ Fragment spacing is listed for two fragment impacts. ^ The origin of the coordinate system is at the center of the slab. Horizontal and vertical coordinates are represented by x and y, respectively. Up and to the right are positive.
total area of surface damage is a relative measure of excess impulse. Exposed surface concrete damages for the four multiplefragment simulations are compared with the single fragment analysis in Fig. 3. Excess impulses were estimated for the multiple fragment runs by dividing the damaged area for that run by the damaged area in the single fragment run and by the number of fragments. That number was multiplied by 1.7 in order to adjust the excess impulse to match the single fragment experiments. As seen in Fig. 3 and in Table 1, the damaged area increases by a factor of two when two fragments are placed very close together. This results in an excess impulse equivalent to the single fragment result. The damaged area further increases with the addition of a third fragment close to these two. In this case, however, the increase in area does not offset the addition of the third fragment, and the excess impulse is reduced to 47%. When the two fragments are moved further apart, the damaged area is greater than for the single fragment, but less than for two fragments hitting close to each other. This results as an excess impulse of 40%. The damaged area then grows as the fragments are moved further apart. At a spacing of 3 in., the excess impulse grows to 55%. The limit on the growth of damaged area of twice the single fragment area would be reached in the case when the two fragments are so far apart that their areas of influence would not overlap.
64
J.T. Bay lot, P.P. Papados / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics References [1] Personal Communication with Mr. Frank D. Dallriva, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, on Aug 16, 2000. [2] Papados PP. A reinforced concrete structure under impact: response to high rate loads. In Jones N, Brebbia CA (Eds), Structures under Shock and Impact Loads VI. Wessex Institute of Technology: WIT Press, 2000. [3] Hoover CO, DeGroot AJ, Pocassini RJ. Paradyn: DYNA3D for massively parallel computers. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL 5383894, 1995. [4] Whirley RG, Engelmann BE. DYNA3D a nonlinear explicit, threedimensional finite element code for solid and structural mechanics users manual. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRLMA107254, rev. 1, 1993. [5] Chen WF. Plasticity in Reinforced Concrete. New York: McGraw Hill, 1982.
5. Conclusions The analyses initially captured the frontface ejection of concrete that leads to the excess impulse applied to concrete targets by steel fragment impacts. The excess momentum could not be maintained because the ejected elements could not be effectively removed from the simulation. The analyses did indicate the importance of fragment impact pattern on the impulse applied to the target. The addition of an option allowing the user to effectively delete a failed element, and the associated mass would allow the problem to be computed more accurately.
Acknowledgements This research was conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. The authors gratefully acknowledge permission from the Chief of Engineers to present and publish this paper.
65
Abstract In this work, we present a numerical method for solving the diffraction of transient elastic waves by cracks of arbitrary shapes in complex media, with Signorini's boundary conditions on the crack. We use a fictitious domain method based on a mixed displacementstress formulation for elastodynamics. We propose an offcentered time discretisation scheme for enforcing the stability. Keywords: Elastodynamics; Unilateral contact; Fictitious domain method; Nondestructive testing; Crack
1. Introduction In this paper, we are interested in solving the diffraction of transient elastic waves by cracks of arbitrary shapes in complex media, with Signorini's boundary conditions on the crack. This is the continuation of a previous work [1] done on the linear problem, that is when the boundary condition on the crack is a free surface boundary condition. To get an efficient method, we want to use regular meshes and at the same time respect the geometry of the crack. This is possible thanks to the fictitious domain method, which takes into account the boundary condition via a Lagrange multiplier defined on the crack, which can be interpreted as the jump of the displacement through the crack. This allows to work with a uniform mesh in the whole domain and an independent mesh on the crack. In order to consider the unilateral contact boundary condition as a constraint, we are led to use the mixed displacementstress formulation for elastodynamics. We will present a fictitious domain formulation of this problem in which the boundary conditions are taken into account by a variational inequality for the Lagrange multiplier. For the space discretisation of this problem, we propose to use the mixed finite element using spaces of symmetric tensors for the stress [1]. This choice was shown to allow the obtention of an explicit time discretization scheme (masslumping) in the linear case. In the nonlinear case, we cannot use a centered difference scheme for the time discretisation which would lead to an
* Corresponding author. Email: eliane.becache@inria.fr 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
unconditionally unstable scheme. That is why we propose an offcentered scheme that we show to be stable. This scheme is explicit in the volume unknowns (displacement and stress), but impHcit in the Lagrange multiplier: one has to solve an optimisation problem with bound constraints at each time step.
2. Presentation of the dynamic unilateral contact problem We want to solve the displacementstress formulation of elastodynamics in a domain ^ = C \ F G R^ (see Fig. 1): pdiver ^ dt^ Aa =/" ^ =s(u) i n ^ x ] 0 , r[, (1) in Qx]0,Tl
66
E. Becache et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. Discretisation 4.1. Semidiscretisation in space
where u is the displacement field, a the stress tensor, and s{u) the strain tensor defined as ,;() == (9/Wy + djUi)/2. We add to (1) Dirichlet boundary conditions on the exterior boundary: u = 0 on dCx]0,T[ \ Signorini boundary conditions without friction on the crack F, [3]:
[UN]T Oyv
>0
< 0
on r , on r , on r , on r , on r . (2)
a^[w/v]r = 0
[an]r
GT
=0
=0
We now introduce some finite dimensional spaces Xh C X, Mh C M, QH C Q of dimensions, respectively, Nx, NM, Ng. We define, respectively, (LM)H = GH (^ L^ and {LT)H = {{^T)H ^ (^r)// ^ GH) where t is the unit tangent vector to F. The semidiscretisation in space can then be written in a matricial form as: finding ll^ X R^G such that (f/, E, AA.,Ar)
Mai:\D*U \B*AT
where, if n denotes the unit normal to F, we set: MA^ = M , a^ on n, oj an a^n and prescribed initial data that we will systematically omit.
BTI:
+ B*AA.
= 0, = F, = 0,
(i)
(ii) (iii)
V/XAT e E+^.
(4)
3. A fictitious domain formulation The fictitious domain method consists in extending the two unknowns (w, a ) in the whole domain C and introducing Lagrange multipliers to take into account Signorini's boundary conditions (2). Setting Q = H^^iV), we introduce
{BNH,
P^M
Ayv)
< 0,
(iv)
M
X ={Te
={uelLHC)Y},
[LHC)]\divT e [L\C)f/Tij = r,,},
In practice, and this is the interesting point in the fictitious domain method, we introduce two meshes: the volumic unknowns U and E are defined on a regular grid, Th made of squares Kj of size h while the surfacic unknowns A/v and A^ are computed on a nonuniform mesh on V, TH made of segments Sj of size / / / , H = sxxpjHj (see Fig. 2). Remark 1. The inequality (4)(iv) can be reinterpreted as Ayv = n(Ayv + fiA.E) (5)
LN = ^ J o + ( r ) = {fiM ^ G/l^N > 0 a.e. on F j , LT = [/foo^^(F)]2 =. {^r e S V ^ r n = O] The fictitious domain formulation consists in finding (a, u, Ayv, XT) : ]0, T[> X x M x L/^ x Lj
a{a, r)  d(T, u) + ^/(T,
where Y\ is the orthogonal projection on R^^. Choice of the finite elements. We intend to use the same discretisation than for the linear problem (see [1]). For the lowest order element, this choice corresponds to:
XH = {cJh e X/WK e %, e %, (JHIK e {QdK)) VHIK }
Ar)
>^N)
+ /?yv(r
)  d{G, v)
= 0
Vr X, (3)
= iL v) Wv e M,
= 0 < 0
^f^T VjUyv
Mh = {vh e M/WK
{Qo{K)f}
Z?r(o, Mr)
[Z?yv(a,/XA^ ^N)
eLr,
Pi(S)}
LN
with
fl(a, r ) d(T, w) = 1 Aa : T dx,
Its main interest is that it leads to block diagonal mass matrices (even diagonal for My) so that My and M^ are very easy to invert.
I
^ ... 11
14 
To
Z?Ar(T,/x/v) = {TN, lJ^N)g'.g
>
/f
*
^1
iT "
The Lagrange multipliers can be interpreted SLS X^ = [MTV] and Xj = [uj], with uj = u u^n.
J f^ i2 yC
4^
[1  
^T ~ '
H
E. Becache et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4.2. The fully discretised scheme It would be tempting to discretize (4) using centered finite difference operators, for instance:
A n+l I A n1
67
This quantity is an energy under the CFL condition (7), and one has the identity
E;^+I  E \ =
At
which shows that ^"+^ < E^ thanks to 6(iv). which would give an explicit scheme. However, one can show that this choice leads to an unconditionally unstable scheme! That is why we propose the following offcentered scheme: M,E"f Z)*f/" + 5*A"^ + 5;^A^ M
A^2
5. Numerical aspects The implementation of the method amounts to combine an explicit scheme for the unknowns U and S with an optimisation problem (quadratic functional with bounds constraints) to be solved at each time step for the unknown A. The algorithm has been tested in ID (comparison with analytic solutions). We are currently developing a 2D code, the optimisation procedure being handled by an algorithm combining the active set method with gradient projection method [2]. Numerical results will be presented at the conference.
=0, = F\  0,
DTP IT + S^+^ ^
r = n (A/+ Bj
Note that if the mass matrices are block diagonal, this scheme is only impHcit in A^^ and is explicit in the other unknowns. We can show a stabiUty result: Theorem 1. Scheme (6) is stable under the usual CFL stability condition   D*D < 1, with D*D =sup^^ (7) 4 ~ E (M.E,!:) For proving this result, we show the decay of an energy. The precise result is the following. We set
yn+l/2 _ Ijn+l _ jjn
References [1] Becache E, Joly P, Tsogka C. Fictitious domains, mixed finite elements and perfectiy matched layers for 2d elastic wave propagation. J Comp Acous (Tech. Report INRIA 3889, 2000), to appear. [2] Nocedal J, Wright SJ. Numerical Optimization. Springer, 1999. [3] Willis JR, Smyshlyaev VR Effective relations for nonlinear dynamics of cracked solids. J Mech Phys SoUds 1996;44(l):4975.
(8)
68
Abstract This paper presents a theoretical and experimental method for analyzing pneumatic transmission lines in both the time and frequency domains. The test bench developed for this purpose is described together with the experimental analysis method. The theoretical analysis models implemented in the MatlabSimulink environment are then briefly illustrated. The paper concludes with a comparison of some of the theoretical and experimental results obtained in the investigation. Keywords: Pneumatic transmission line; Pneumatic transient; Pneumatic servosystem; Impedance method; Characteristics method; Fluid borne noise
1. Introduction Transmission line dynamic behavior affects the dynamic performance and noise of pneumatic servosystems. A line having a length of 1 m, for example, introduces a delay of several ms [1]. In addition, the flow and pressure pulses generated by the compressor propagate towards the user through the lines, generating noise [2]. The dynamic performance of transmission lines must thus be considered in designing a pneumatic servosystem. Experimental studies in this field, though indispensable, are timeconsuming and must be backed up by a preliminary theoretical analysis. In particular, they call for easily used computer codes capable of predicting the dynamic behavior of a line in both the time and frequency domains on the basis of the line's geometry and mechanical properties and of the properties of the air. In addition, the models' parameters must be readily identifiable. This paper describes a theoretical and experimental method for dynamic analysis of pneumatic lines. A test bench developed for this purpose is illustrated. The use of the characteristics method and the impedance method in theoretical analyses of pneumatic lines is then discussed. Finally, a number of theoretical and experimental results are presented, compared and discussed.
2. Experimental setup Fig. 1 shows a photograph of the test bench developed for investigating the dynamic behavior of pneumatic lines in the time and frequency domains [3]. The bench can accommodate lines of different geometry and material, which may feature pressure pulsereducing devices such as accumulators, T filters, and Helmholtz resonators. Two resistive transducers (TRl) and (TR2) (ENTRAN EPNMIO, F S . 10 bar, Unearity 0 . 1 % FS.) for measuring mean pressure and two piezoelectric transducers (TPl) and ^^^WB
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 (Oil) 5646939; Fax: +39 (Oil) 5646999; Email: francow@polito.it 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics KJ. Bathe (Editor)
69
(TP2) (Kistler 701a, FS 2.5 bar, linearity 0.5% FS, risetime 6 xs) for measuring pressure pulses are installed upstream and downstream of the line under test (TL) by means of appropriate adapters. The line includes a resistive load (ZL). In the present configuration, the hne is excited by switching valve (V) which connects it in alternation to two reservoirs which are maintained at different constant pressures by means of reducers (Rl) and (R2). Valve switchover is controlled by the signal generator (SG). Pressure signals from transducers (TPl) and (TP2) are acquired over time at a frequency of 10 kHz, after which the line's frequency response function (FRF) is calculated in terms of the modulus of the ratio of upstream to downstream pressure, expressed in dB.
z. 
(3)
3. Time domain analysis Line modehng in the time domain was carried out using the characteristics method [4] implemented in the MatlabSimulink environment. The equations of motion, assuming onedimensional viscous motion with propagation of small isoentropic oscillations, have the following solutions for the internal points of the grid (Fig. 2): Pi(t + ^t) _ 1 Pi^iit) + P,+i(0 + Ze (G/_i(0  Qi+i(t)) ~ 2 2 AD
Zc (Qii(t)\Qidt)\ Qi+i(t)\Qi+i(t)\)
The investigation was carried out for a line with known upstream pressure. The downstream boundary conditions were calculated by combining the characteristics equations with the equation for flow through a nozzle, expressed by means of conductance C and critical ratio b as per ISO 6358 [5]. The characteristics method makes it possible to investigate line behavior in the time domain for different input pressure laws after identifying the following parameters: line geometry and characteristics (length, inside radius, friction coefficient), air characteristics (mean pressure, mean temperature, dynamic viscosity, specific heat ratio) and exhaust nozzle conductance and critical pressure ratio. The results of time simulation carried out on a line excited with a pressure step can then be postprocessed to determine the FRF of the line under test. 4. Frequency domain analysis Line modeling in the frequency domain was carried out using the impedance method [6,7] implemented in the MatlabSimulink environment. Upstream pressure and flow rate (Pi and Q\) and downstream pressure and flow rate (P2 and G2) are linked by a four pole equation:
Pi Qi
(1)
cosh r l/Z^sinhr
Zc sinh F coshr
P2 Qi
(4)
p,_i(0P.+i(0
(G/i(Oiai(OI + G/+i(OIG/+i(OI)
(2)
where Zc is the characteristic impedance of the line, and F is the propagation operator of the line. On the basis of the assumptions made, the expressions for both Zc and F can be calculated in relation to frequency. Once load impedance Zi is known:
ZL =
02
(5)
i1
yu
Pi(t+At) Qi(t+At,
4
P Z = cosh r + sinh F
Pi
ZL
(6)
Pi^l(t) Qi.i(t)
>
pipe axial position
i+l
Simulating the line's dynamic behavior in the frequency domain calls for defining the following parameters: line geometry (length, inside radius, thickness), mechanical properties of the Hne (complex Young's modulus), air characteristics (mean pressure, dynamic viscosity, mean density, specific heat ratio) and load impedance.
70
G. Belforte et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics culated by postprocessing the time simulation performed with the characteristics method. As can be seen, the resonance peaks on both the experimental curve and that produced with the impedance method become smaller as frequency increases. This phenomenon was not modeled with the simplified characteristics method adopted for the investigation.
5. Results A number of graphs of line dynamic behavior are presented by way of example. The graphs refer to a poly amide line with length of 1 m, inside diameter of 4 mm and thickness of 1 mm connected downstream to a 0.5 mm diameter nozzle. Fig. 3 shows downstream pressure as measured experimentally and as calculated using the characteristics method with the line excited by an upstream pressure step. The values for the downstream nozzle's conductance C and critical pressure ratio h measured as per ISO 6358 are 3.5 x 10~'^ m^/(sPa) ANR and 0.4, respectively. The line's friction coefficient was considered to be independent of frequency and equal to 0.06. Despite the extensive simplifications introduced in modeling, there is a good degree of agreement between the experimental and calculated curves. The experimental step response curve shown in Fig. 3 was used to evaluate the line's FRF. In Fig. 4, this curve is compared with the curve calculated using the impedance method {ZL = 1/C = 2.8 x 10^ Pas/m^^) and with that cal
6. Conclusions The theoretical and experimental method presented herein provides a simple means of analyzing line dynamic behavior in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Only the following parameters need be known in order to identify a line's dynamic behavior: the length, inside diameter, thickness, complex Young's modulus and friction coefficient of the line; the mean pressure, mean temperature, dynamic viscosity and specific heat ratio of the gas; and the conductance and critical pressure ratio or impedance of the exhaust nozzle. In particular, the load conductance and critical pressure ratio can be measured in accordance with ISO 6358, while load impedance as a function of excitation frequency can be measured on the same bench or estimated in subsequent simulations.
:\
h:
\l I \
h^2.6 2.5 0 0.02 0.04
/V/V''^^
7. Notation A b c C D line cross section area critical pressure ratio of the load propagation velocity conductance of the load line inside diameter friction coefficient specific heat ratio pressure volume flow rate time characteristic impedance load impedance time step propagation operator mean density
m2
m/s
mV(s Pa)
m
0.06
0.08
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
k P Q t
Zc
ZL
f %.
:AT
At Po \ /:
\\. . . /
References
+ Experimental CM model IM model
200
400
Fig. 4. Comparison between experimental characteristics method (CM), and impedance method (IM) FRF of the line.
[1] Romifi A, Raparelli T. A simulation program for analysis of any type of fluid mechanical systems 'FLOWSIM'. Proceeding of 12th World Congress International Federation of Automatic Control, Sydney, 1993, pp. 523530. [2] Edge K. Designing quieter hydraulic systems some recent developments and contributions. Fluid Power, Forth JHPS International Symposium, Tokyo, 1999, pp. 327.
G. Belforte et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [3] Sorli M, Franco W. Gas line pulse analysis. Flucome 2000, Sixth International Symposium on Fluid Control, Measurement and Visualization, Sherbrooke, 2000. [4] Streeter VL, Wylie EB. Fluid Transients. New York: McGrawHill, 1978. [5] Romiti A, Raparelli T. Rigorous analysis of transients in gas and liquid circuits and comparison with experimental data. J Fluid Control 1993;21(4):727.
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[6] Stecki JS, Davis DC. Fluid transmission linesdistributed parameter models Part 1: a review of the state of the art. Proc Inst Mech Eng 1986;100:215228. [7] Krus P, Weddfelt K, Palmberg JO. Fast pipehne models for simulation of hydraulic systems. Trans ASME J Dyn Syst Meas Cont 1994;116:132136.
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Abstract The study of pneumatic tire mechanics is divided into external tire mechanics that deals w^ith the effect of tires on the vehicle dynamics and internal tire mechanics that focus on the computation of stressstrain and heat states in tires. Internal tire mechanics employs models founded on physical understanding, but not on empirically obtained curves. The objective of this paper is to use the results of internal tire mechanics for improving the external tire models in vehicle model systems. These tire models are applied to rolling contact also on deformable ground. Keywords: Tire models; Rolling contact; Tire mechanics; Terramechanics
1. Comparison of different tire models Deriving from the paper [1] presented on the 2nd International Colloquium Tyre Models for Vehicle Dynamic Analysis different tire models (Timoshenko type ringbeam, layered shell model, space continuum, multimasspoint model) and their transitions one to another are investigated. The main focus was directed to composite shell models and to the application of the Bohm multimasspoint approach on the rolling tire [24]. In order to treat the dynamic contact problems the pneumatic tire is described geometrically nonlinear as a multilayered anisotropic torus shell with low transfer shear stiffness. The membrane and bending deformations were assumed small and the crosssection will exhibit moderate rotation angles. The possibilities of describing the tire composite by different layer models are discussed. For practical tire calculations, which take into account the significant transfer shear deformation, the Timoshenko type shell model and 3 or 5layer sandwich models with weak rubber layers are adequate. In order to reflect energy losses the viscoelastic behavior of rubbercordcomposite is taken into account. The investigations are based on results of Bohm [5], Duda and Wille [6], INTASRFBR [7], Kulikov et al. [8], and Belkin et al. [9].
2. Stationary and transient rolling of tires The stationary rolling problem, quasistatic with friction, is investigated in a coordinate axis rotating simultaneously with the tire. The real dynamic behavior of the rolling tire is nonconservative and selfexcited. Appropriate damping of cords and rubber is to be taken into account in order to stabilize the dynamic system. The static equilibrium and the equations of motion of a membrane/shell model are treated. This model is modified for the real structure of an agricultural tire with ribs. Data of 3D models are fitted from given design parameters. The parameters used for 2D masspoint models are extracted from measurements of tire section for variable inner pressure loads and from the eigenvalues of the tire. The nonlinear and hysteretic system of Newton equations of this method is solved by explicit predictorcorrector integration with respect to time. The numerical integration procedure needs short time steps. The highest eigenvalue of masspoint model and the shortest relaxation time of the rheological models for tire material and for soil needs to be in correlation with Shannon criterion in order to achieve numerical stable solutions. New theoretical and numerical results and comparison with FEMresults, e.g. [10], will be discussed.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 (30) 31472411; Fax: +49 (30) 31472433; Email: dudahdg3@linux.zrz.tuberlin.de 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
F. Bohm et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. Rolling contact on deformable ground Tire models described above can be used for vehicle dynamics analysis. It can adequately be used for computing the tireground interaction in accordance to the technical demand for tire durability, road cover resistance and soil protection in agriculture and forestry. A new mechanical multipoint measurement technique for displacements in the inner of a rolling tire was developed [11]. For high frequency tire deformation and quick driving manoeuvres an acoustic measurement system is in development. The slip between tire ribs and ground cannot be assumed as constant because of the elastodynamical tire motions. At present only the 2D masspoint model has an acceptable amount of computational time on PC and is suitable for application in vehicle dynamics. The soil under the tire is described by different rheological laws of the ground surface behavior in the normal and tangential direction [12]. The soil models are tested for simple rigid and elastic tire models in rolling contact. Frohlich/Sohne approach is used for describing the soil compaction. The apphcability of this method is tested by a finite element computation on the basis of a critical state soil model. References
73
4. Conclusion Analytical and numerical analysis of different level tire models is an important precondition for suitable choosing of practical calculation schemes for tires and for better understanding of the rolling tire behavior. Investigations are aimed at applications in vehicle dynamics and in tire design. The Bohm multimasspoint model was used for determining the rolling contact forces on a rigid and deformable ground. The later simulation is meant to avoid the negative effects of soil compaction in agriculture and road damage by truck tires.
[I] Belkin AE, Bukhin BL, Mukhin ON, Narskaya NL. Some models and methods of pneumatic tire mechanics. 2nd International Colloquium on Tyre Models for Vehicle Dynamic Analysis, 1997, pp. 250271. [2] Bohm F. Dynamic rolling process of tires as layered structures. Mech Composite Mater 1996;32(6):824834. [3] Tang T. Geometrisch nichtlineare Berechnung von rotationssymmetrischen faserverstarkten Strukturen. Dissertation, TU Berlin 1985. [4] Feng K. Statische Berechnung des Giirtelreifens unter besonderer Beriiksichtigung der kordverstarkten Lagen. Dissertation, TU Berlin 1995. [5] Bohm F Reifenmodelle und ihre experimentelle Uberpriifung. In: F. Bohm, K. Knothe (Eds.), Hochfrequenter Rollkontakt der Fahrzeugrader, Ergebnisse aus dem DFG Sonderforschungsbereich 181. WileyVCH 1998, pp. 80115. [6] Duda A, Wille R. Mechanische Grundlagen des umweltvertraglichen RadBodenKontaktes. Zwischenbericht zum Projekt DFG  Bo 648/61, June 1999, 144 p. [7] INTAS Final Report: Mathematical models and solving methods of the static and dynamic stressstrain state in composite shell structures. INTASRFBR 950525, 18.04.2000. [8] Kulikov GM, Bohm F, Duda A, Wille R. Zur inneren Mechanik des Radialreifens. Teil 1 und Teil 2. Technische Mechanik 2000;20(1): 112,8190. [9] Belkin AE, Narskaya NL, Bohm F, Duda A, Wille R. Dynamischer Kontakt des Radialreifens als viskoelastische Schale mit einer starren Stiitzflache bei stationarem Rollen. Technische Mechanik 2000;20(4):355372. [10] Gleu U. Berechnung des nichtlinearen dynamischen Verhaltens des Luftreifens beim instationaren Rollkontakt mit einer Vielteilchenmethode und der Methode der Finiten Elemente. Dissertation, TU Berlin 2001. [II] Bohm F, Duda A, Wille R, Zachow D. Investigation of the nonstationary rolling contact of a tire on natural soils. Proc. 13th International Conference of the ISTVS, Munich, Sept. 1417, 1999, pp. 353360. [12] Wille R, Bohm F, Duda A. Rheologie und Hysterese beim dynamischen ReifenBodenKontakt. Annual Scientific Conference GAMM 27 April 2000, Gottingen.
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Abstract We present a general methodology for nonholonomically constrained mechanical systems where the governing equations are reformulated employing differentiated multipliers and modified momenta. This procedure allows the algebraic and differential parts of the problem to be completely uncoupled, so that the two subproblems can be solved separately. Any suitable ordinary differential equation integration algorithm can be applied to solve the differential part, bypassing the need for a specialized differentialalgebraic equation solver. The approach may be interpreted as a consistent index reduction from 2 to 1 that simplifies the numerical solution of the problem. Keywords: Differentialalgebraic equations; Embedded projection; Index reduction; Constraint stabilization; Multibody dynamics; Nonholonomic systems; Constrained systems
1. Introduction A considerable effort within the scientific community has been devoted in the past years towards the development of efficient and reliable numerical methods for the simulation of constrained dynamical systems. These systems are usually cast in terms of sets of differentialalgebraic equations (DAEs). Solving general DAE systems still represents an open field of research, since their intrinsic numerical difficulty has prevented to date from reaching the same degree of maturity achieved in the numerical treatment of ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems. This difficulty is usually measured by the differential index of the DAE problem, a concept discussed in [7,9,10]. While index 1 DAEs may be dealt with by using a variety of available numerical methods, for DAEs of index greater than 1 obtaining a good numerical solution may still prove to be a difficult task. In the present work, we are concerned with systems governed by index2 DAEs, or systems subjected to nonholonomic constraints. It must be pointed out that these systems cannot, in general, be directly solved by applying a standard offtheshelf ODE integrator, because of its inability to exactly solve algebraic equations. Here we seek a complete uncoupling of the DAE system into separate * Corresponding author. Tel: +39 (2) 23998399; Fax: +39 (2) 23998334; Email: borri@aero.polimi.it 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
algebraic and differential parts. To this end, we introduce differentiated Lagrange multipliers and define a new variable, the 'modified momentum'. While the 'standard' momentum must obey the nonholonomic constraints imposed on the system, the modified momentum must not, and in this sense it represents a completely free (unconstrained) variable. This way, we obtain an ODE for this quantity that can be integrated using any suitable ODE solver. The original momentum is then recovered by means of an 'embedded projection' onto the constraint space. In general, this procedure allows the same order of accuracy to be attained for all the fields of a DAE problem (and, in particular, for the algebraic variables) that is provided by the chosen solver when applied to a purely ODE problem. This framework was presented originally for both holonomic and nonholonomic problems in [3,4] and its successful application to the parallel computation of the dynamics of general topology rigid multibody systems was reported in [11]. Apart from minor developments, the main novel contributions of this work are to be found in the interpretation of the procedure as a consistent index reduction and in the recovery of the reaction forces by a second 'embedded projection' onto the space defined by the constraint derivative. This process, which recovers even the multiplier derivatives with the same order of accuracy of the primary variables, indeed completes the whole picture, in close analogy to the methodology recently presented in [5,6]
M. Borri et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics in the context of index3, i.e. holonomically constrained, dynamical systems.
75
2. Lagrangian framework Let a generic dynamical system with n degrees of freedom, be characterized by a Lagrangian function (q, q, 0 , where q G R" represents the vector of Lagrangian coordinates describing the system configuration, and let the system be subjected to m < n linearly independent nonholonomic constraints through a constraint function j/r, ^(q,q,O = 0^ (1)
We note that the classical Lagrange multipliers k are related to our multipliers fi by /i = X. Furthermore, note that, with the substitution X = ft, the first equation of set (6) is exactly equivalent to Eq. (3), while the second simply expresses Eq. (1), being * = 0^ and C^ = f. Remarkably, in the case of integrable constraints f =^, i.e. those velocity constraints which correspond to the total time derivative of position constraints 0(q, 0 we get Q* = Q, since (d^q/d/ ^q) vanishes identically. Therefore, the additional force Qnh := Q*  Q is peculiar to proper nonholonomic constraints. The gyroscopic nature of this quantity was analyzed in [4], where it was shown that it may be cast in the following form Qn/.(q, q, /^, 0 = B(q, iij)q + b(q, ti, t), (7)
We require that this function be linear in the Lagrangian velocities q, or f (q, q, t) = A(q, t)^q + a(q, t). (2)
where B is a skewsymmetric matrix linearly depending on fi, while b := (aq dA/dt) fi. From the preceding we infer that the power Wnh = q Qnh of this additional force on the Lagrangian velocities reads Wnh = qh, Vq. (8)
where the constraint matrix A := f^ e W''"' has fullrow rank. In passing, we remark that, under suitable smoothness assumptions, f vanishes together with all its time derivatives. This obvious feature is not inherited by the numerical solution obtained via conventional methods, which, due to time discretization, satisfies only the velocitylevel constraint (1). In the following, we show how a more consistent numerical solution can be obtained, exactly satisfying both Eq. (1) and its first time derivative, i.e. the accelerationlevel constraint. It is well known that the governing equations for this system are given by the following augmented Lagrange equations  q  q = Q + A)., (3)
This power clearly vanishes identically whenever b = 0^. In particular, when A is timeindependent and a does not depend on the coordinates q.
3. Hamiltonian framework As shown, the introduction of new multipliers ft (the reaction impulses) instead of the classical X (the reaction forces) leads to an important theoretical result: the extension of Hamilton's variational principle to nonholonomic mechanical systems through the definition of a modified Lagrangian * and a modified force Q*. In the following, we show that this procedure inspires analogous extensions in the Hamiltonian framework, where a modified Hamiltonian 1L* can be defined accordingly. In this case, however, the interest of the proposed methodology is not limited to theoretical issues, but also possesses algorithmic implications on the numerical solution that shall become clear in the following. We switch to the Hamiltonian formulation by means of a standard Legendre transformation, defining the momentum p := q, inverting this relation to find q as a function of p, or q = VH(P, q, 0 . and obtaining the Hamiltonian function H(p, q, t) as n = pyHjCH, (9)
together with Eq. (1). Clearly, X G E'" represent the vector of Lagrange multipliers, while Q G M" denotes the vector of Lagrangian external forces conjugated to q. The term AX accounts for the reaction forces associated to the constraints (1). It has been shown in [4] that equations equivalent to the set formed by Eqs. (1) and (3) may be derived from a variational statement by defining a modified Lagrangian function C*(q, q, fi,t) and a modified Lagrangian external force Q* as (4) (5) where fi e W^ is a. new multiplier vector. The EulerLagrange equations of the system are found as A/2* /2* O* (6)
where >Cif(p, q, 0 = >^(v//(p, q, 0 , q. 0 ^^^ following 'mixed form' canonical equations P + ' H q ^ Q + AX, (10)
76
M. Borri et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. Consistent index reduction The differential system (17), explicitly cast in terms of (q, p*), may be directly integrated by means of any suitable ODE solver from consistent initial data q\tQ and p\f^ p*^Q. As an example, take a generic onestep integrator, such as a 5stage RungeKutta method: the procedure calls for solving the problem composed of Eqs. (13) and (11) at each of the s internal stages. This, when a general quadratic form in q is assumed for the original Lagrangian , turns out to be a linear problem for (p, fi). When (p//, fif^) are known, one solves the equations corresponding to the discretized ODEs (16) or (17) at that internal stage and moves on to the next. This shows the profound difference existing between this methodology and a conventional projection method, where the projection is performed only at the end of the time step. Such an approach, referred to as the (imethod or the modified phase space method, has been presented in [3,4]. Experience has shown that this formulation positively impacts the accuracy and stability of the numerical solution [11]. In fact, comparison with the widely adopted Baumgarte stabilization technique [2] has shown much lower constraint violations (for holonomic constraints imposed at velocity level) and a considerable robustness. However, we presently do not favor the treatment of holonomically constrained mechanical systems by imposing velocitylevel constraints, since the 'drift' phenomenon cannot be completely eliminated. We presently recommend the approach presented in [5,6] for holonomic problems, and the present one for proper nonholonomic problems. It may be proved that the method oudined here is strictly equivalent to a process of reduction of the differential index of the problem. In fact, the original DAE problem corresponding to Eqs. (10) and (11) has index 2, while in the proposed framework the DAE problem given by Eqs. (16) or (17), (13), and (11) has index 1. It is worth noting that, in index 1 problems, the algebraic equation may always be interpreted as a definition of the algebraic variables rather than as a constraint acting on the state variables.
point in this process lies in the fact that the momentum p is intrinsically constrained by the algebraic equation ^//=0,,, where f ^(p, q, t) := ^(v//(p, q, r), q, r), or ^ ^ ( p , q, 0 = A(q, 0 V ( P , q, 0 + a(q, 0(12) (11)
At this point, we introduce the modified momentum p* := *. Since * = q  fl ft, we get p* = p  A / i . (13)
Now, coupling this equation with the algebraic constraint (11) we can solve for p and fi as functions of (p*, q, r), obtaining P =P//*(p*,q,0, (14)
This enables us to get q = V//*(p*, q, t) and, performing a Legendre transformation on *, to obtain a modified Hamiltonian 1L*(p*, q, t) as ^ * = P* v//* CH*
(15)
where //*(p*,q, r) := (v//*(p*, q, r), q, r). Now, the canonical equations governing the system can be found as P*+H; = Q*, qn;.=On. (16)
Note that, in contrast to the Lagrangian framework, in the Hamiltonian case, there is no appended constraint equation to the system (16), since the modified momentum p* adopted as the independent variable together with the vector of Lagrangian coordinates q, is an unconstrained quantity under all respects: it yields, by construction, a solution for the original momentum p which exactly satisfies the constraint equation (11). Therefore, the set of canonical equations (16) may be directly integrated in terms of (qp*) It is worth looking at an alternative form assumed by the governing ODEs (16), in view of its numerical implementation. In fact, the canonical equations are formally equivalent to the following set (17)
5. Preservation of accuracy In the approach followed in [3,4,11], recovering of the reaction forces (essentially, (i) was performed by numerical differentiation, thus loosing the chance of retaining the same order of accuracy for these quantities as that obtained for the primary variables (q, p*) and, consequently, for (P, l^) The following developments are carried out for the explicit purpose of overcoming such a limitation in accuracy and are closely related to the ideas presented in [5,6] in the context of holonomically constrained systems, with the
qn^ =o,
provided that Eqs. (14) are understood in the dependencies of the terms (Tiq, Tip, Q, A, JJL) on (q, p*). However, these equations are much simpler than Eqs. (16) to implement and evaluate in the context of numerical integration since all the quantities involved are easily retrieved, the only additional burden being the knowledge of A when compared to a conventional integration method.
77
procedure termed the Embedded Projection Method. We consider the original equiUbrium equation (10a) and the time derivative of Eq. (11), both viewed as linear algebraic equations in the variables (p, //.): p + 'Hq^Q + A ^ , (18) By using eqs. (14), we can evaluate each term in the previous equations as a function of (p*, q, t) and solve for p and /t, giving P = ^i/*(p*,q,0, (19)
vides the reaction forces. The outcome of the method is a substantially enhanced accuracy, in particular with respect to reactions, plus an intrinsical gain in robustness due to the exact preservation of both the constraint and its time derivative. The methodology is closely related to the Embedded Projection Method recently presented in the context of holonomically constrained systems. Preliminary applications, not detailed in this work, have been implemented and tested, confirming the properties predicted in the analysis.
References [1] Ascher U, Chin H, Petzold LR, Reich S. Stabihsation of constrained mechanical systems with daes and invariant manifolds. J Mech Struct Mach 1995;23:135158. [2] Baumgarte J. Stabilization of constraints and integrals of motion in dynamical systems. Comput Math Appl Mech Eng 1972;1:116. [3] Borri M, Mantegazza R Finite time element approximation of dynamics of nonholonomic systems. AMSE Congress, WiUiamsburg, VA, 1986. [4] Borri M, Bottasso CL, Mantegazza P. A modified phase space formulation for constrained mechanical systems differential approach. Eur J Mech, A/Solids 1992;11:701727. [5] Borri M, Bottasso CL, Trainelli L. An embedded projection method for constrained dynamics. NATOARW on Computational Aspects of Nonlinear Structural Systems with Large Rigid Body Motions, Pultusk, Poland, 2000. [6] Borri M, Trainelli L. A new formulation of constrained dynamical systems. 16th IMACS World Congress, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2000. [7] Brenan KE, Campbell SL, Petzold LR. Numerical solution of initialvalue problems in differentialalgebraic equations. New York: Elsevier Science, 1989. [8] Eich E. Convergence results for a coordinate projection method applied to constrained mechanical systems with algebraic constraints. SIAM J Numer Anal 1993;30:14671482. [9] Gear CW. Differentialalgebraic equation index transformations. SIAM J Sci Stat Comput 1988;9(l):4047. [10] Petzold LR. Order results for implicit RungeKutta methods applied to differential/algebraic systems. SIAM J Numer Anal 1986;23(4):837852. [11] Sika Z, Valasek M. ParalleHzation of multibody formalism for rigid bodies using natural coordinates and modified state space. Eur J Mech, A/Solids 1997;16(2):325339. [12] Yen J, Petzold LR. Convergence of the iterative methods for coordinate splitting formulation in multibody dynamics, TR 95052, Tech Report, Dept of Comput Sci, University of Minnesota, July 1995.
In summary, these quantities are recovered by using the equilibrium equation and the accelerationlevel constraint as an algebraic problem, just as (p, JLC) are obtained by using the modified momentum definition and the velocitylevel constraint. This process has been termed the 'embedded projection'. It is clear that, within the context of exact mathematics, JT//* = Pif* and XH* = /i,^*. However, when dealing with time discretization processes, the present procedure allows to compute {KH*,XH*) independently from (Pi/*/^H*) This improves the consistency of the solution, and also allows the same accuracy for the algebraic variables (p, p, /t, (i) to be retained as for the independent variables (q, p*). In other words, the outcome of the methodology may be described as the retrieval of both the augmented state (p, q, /t) and its time derivative (p, q, /t) fully satisfying the constraints in the original and differentiated forms.
6. Concluding remarks In this work, we presented a general methodology for the consistent index reduction of the equations governing the dynamics of mechanical systems subjected to nonholonomic constraints. We showed how the governing equations may be split into uncoupled algebraic and differential parts. This process, which involves the definition of a modified, unconstrained momentum, leads to the formulation of an ODE which can be solved by any suitable standard numerical integrator, bypassing the need for specialized DAE solvers. The solution of a first algebraic subproblem allows to recover the original momentum, while a second one pro
78
Abstract The aim of the present work is to develop an apphcation of the LArge Time INcrement (LATIN) approach [6] to the calculation of response surfaces used for parametric analysis. The scheme followed was previously introduced to solve multiplesolution problems [2,3]. Here, applications concern elastic buckling and viscoelastic structures. Keywords: Nonincremental method; Multiple solutions; Response surface methodology; Parametric uncertainty
1. Introduction The solutions to deterministic problems are often calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). Incorporating system parametric uncertainties into the problem represents a challenge for structural engineers; yet, without this information, the structural response could not be analyzed accurately. These system parametric uncertainties include mechanical properties of the material (modulus and strength, etc.), geometric properties (crosssectional properties and dimensions), boundary conditions, magnitude and distribution of loads, etc. Assessing the stability or the calculation of the limit states of structures taking these parametric uncertainties into consideration is much more difficult than the general parametric field problem because highly nonlinear structural behavior must be considered. To obtain such responses of structures, the perturbation method [1,7] is one of the important approaches. In recent years, many researchers have focused on the stochastic finite element method, in which the system parametric uncertainties mentioned above can be included. The response surface methodology (RSM) was developed initially by Veneziano et al. [9]. The RSM is already a widely accepted procedure in structural reliability analysis [5]. Schueller et al. [8] used the RSM to model the actual limit state function of large structures subject to static *Tel.: +33 (1) 47402186; Fax: +33 (1) 47402185; Email: boucard@lmt.enscachen.fr 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
and dynamic loading. The calculation of response surfaces and, further, of the response of the structure along the whole loading path involves multiple solutions. Each set of data considered necessitates a separate, fullscale calculation. Consequently, a significant number of problems of the same type must be solved. The goal of the work presented here is to develop a strategy wellsuited to multiplesolution problems. Thus, the choice of an appropriate and efficient computational method is of vital importance. The LATIN method [6] is nonincremental in nature and, consequently, would appear to be a promising approach, considering that its inherent principles tend to be more applicable than most conventional incremental algorithms. The strategy proposed is based on the LATIN method and, more specifically, on its capacity to reuse the solution to a given problem in order to solve similar problems [2,3]. It allows total computing costs to be minimized with respect to the determination of response surfaces.
2. Review of the LATIN method The principles of this method can be found in [6]. The method uses quantities (displacement, strain, stress and internal variables) defined over the spacetime domain Q. X [0, r ] , where [0, T] is the time interval studied and Q is the domain occupied by the structure (assuming small displacements). It takes advantage of the remarkable properties of the equations. The procedure is iterative and
PA. Boucard /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
FC/FCQ ratio
79
0.95
0.85
""'m,
Cer/J^e
'W'^'"'
Fig. 1. Response surface.
creates at each iteration an approximation of the displacement, strain, stress and internal variables over the spacetime domain Q x [0, T]. Each iteration consists of two stages. For simplicity's sake, one can say that in the first stage the constitutive relations are integrated; therefore, this is a local stage with respect to the space variable. In the second stage, a global, linear problem on ^ x [0, T] is solved. The direct solution of the global linear problems with time as a parameter required at the global linear stage can
lead to considerable computing times. Mechanicsbased approximations of unknowns are introduced as a means of reducing these computing times. The separation of the functional dependencies both in time and in space yields satisfactory results for quasistatic loadings. Corrections are then sought by superimposing solutions of the radial loading type. Such solutions are recognized as good approximations of nonlinear, quasistatic problem solutions.
80
PA. Boucard/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Number of draws 400
300
200
0.5
0.5
Probability of collapse
123456789101112131415
max/Fco ratio
Fig. 3. Probability of collapse and distribution of perturbations. 3. Multiplesolution method The LATIN method leads to an approximation of the problem's solution in the form of a sum of products of both time and space functions. In this sense, the LATIN method builds an optimal basis for representing the solution. The idea is, therefore, to reuse this special basis in order to find the solution to a problem similar to the one for which it was built in the first place. The multiplesolution method uses the fact that the LATIN algorithm can be initialized with any solution which verifies the admissibility conditions (usually an elastic solution). Therefore, the idea here is to initialize the process associated with the similar problem (the 'perturbed' structure) using the results of the calculation carried out on the 'initial' structure. In this manner, a basis of space functions with a strong mechanical content is immediately available at the onset. In this case, the preliminary stage plays a vital role: it enables one both to verify that the basis of the space functions is wellsuited to the target problem and to search for new time functions leading to the solution of the 'perturbed' problem. In the bestcase scenario where the basis is sufficient, no new space function is generated and, thus, the solution to the problem is obtained at low cost. Otherwise, new space functions are generated in order to enhance the initial basis. If the solutions to the 'initial' and 'perturbed' problems are close enough, the solution to the latter problem can still be derived at a significantly lower cost than using fullscale calculation.
4. Example The example presented here is the buckling of a cantilever beam. Additional details on the formulation used can be found in Boucard et al. [4]. The first example considers a straight beam builtin at one end and subject to a prescribed displacement at the other. The structural perturbation introduced consists of variations of the Young's modulus in different elements (15 in all) ranging from 50% to +50%. The influence of a particular perturbation on the value of the critical buckling load (Fc/Fco ratio) is examined. The results are presented on Fig. 1. Fig. 2 shows the number of space functions added at the initial basis level during the calculations (six groups of timespace functions). This number provides an indicator of the total computing cost, given that this phase is the most costly stage of the algorithm. It can be observed that no more than one space function is added in the majority of
PA. Boucard /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the cases processed. Therefore, the basis of initial functions enables us to conduct many 'perturbed' calculations at a much lower cost than that of a fullscale calculation: in the cases presented here, the computing time necessary to obtain the solution on the 'perturbed' bar is between 10 and 20% of that of a fullscale calculation. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the method. Using these results, one can carry out a MonteCarlo simulation using the response surface to determine the probability of collapse of the beam. In this case, we assume a normal distribution for the Young's modulus perturbation. The position of the perturbation is randomized on all 15 elements. Fig. 3 shows the results. Ten thousand draws were carried out to obtain the probability of collapse as a function of the ratio of the maximum loading force F^ax to the buckling force obtained on the initial beam Fco.
81
References [1] Benaroya H, Rehak M. Finite element methods in probabilistic structural analysis: a selective review. Appl Mech Rev 1998;41(5):201213. [2] Boucard PA, Ladeveze R Une application de la methode LATIN au calcul multiresolution de structures non lineaires.
Rev Eur Elem Finis 1999;8(8):903920. [3] Boucard R\, Ladeveze R A multiple solution method for nonlinear structural mechanics. Mech Eng 1999;50(5):317328. [4] Boucard PA, Ladeveze P, Poss M, Rougee P. A nonincremental approach for large displacement problems. Comput Struct 1997;64(l4):449508. [5] Faravelh L. Responsesurface approach for reliabiUty analysis. ASCE J Eng Mech 1989;115(12). [6] Ladeveze P. Nonlinear Computational Structural Mechanics New Approaches and NonIncremental Methods of Calculation. Springer, 1999. [7] Macias OF, Lemaire M. Elements Finis stochastiques et Fiabilite Application en mecanique de la rupture. Rev Fr Gen Civil 1997;1(2). [8] Schueller Gl, Bucher CG, Pradlwarter HJ. The response surface method, an efficient tool to determine the failure probability of large structural systems. Proceedings of the International Conference on Spacecraft Structures and Mechanical Testing, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2426 April 1991. ESA SP321, pp. 247251. [9] Veneziano D, Casciati F, Faravelli L. Method of seismic fragility for complicated systems. Proceedings of the 2nd Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Specialistic Meeting on Probabilistic Methods in Seismic Risk Assessment for NPP, Livermore, CA, 1983.
82
Abstract A macroscopic yield criterion for anisotropic porous sheet metals is first proposed to investigate failure of sheet metals under arbitrary strain paths. The hardening behavior of the matrix material combines isotropic and nonlinear kinematic hardening. An inverse identification technique is proposed based on bendingunbending experiments on anisotropic sheetmetal strips. The void coalescence failure mechanism by internal necking is also considered by using a modified Thomason's plastic limitload model. Finally, a plastic instability criterion coupled with damage is used here to predict failure in a sheetmetal forming analysis by finite element. Keywords: Damage; Plastichardening; Sheetmetal forming; Failure; Necking
1. Introduction Plastic deformation in sheet metal consists of four distinct phases, namely, uniform deformation, diffuse necking, localized necking and final failure. The last three phases are commonly known as nonuniform deformation. New sheetmetals such as aluminum alloys, titanium alloys and Nibased superalloys, present from experimental evidence neckingfailure behavior where the localized thinning is hardly visible. Plastic instability of these sheetmetals has been found to suffer material degradation which confirmed the need to properly characterize their forming limit using a theory of damage mechanics. Coupling the incremental theory of plasticity with damage and a plastic instability criterion, the new criterion can be used to predict not only the forming limit but also the fracture limit under proportional or nonproportional loading and then is suitable for sheetmetal forming simulation by finiteelement analysis.
represent the damage of anisotropic sheetmetals, an extension of the Gurson's model for anisotropic sheetmetals is used where an analytical formulation for planestress has been found by Liao et al. [1]. For all possible planestress conditions, the anisotropic yield function is approximate as: C = ^+2^1/*cosh ( D (l+^3/n=0
r*2.
l + 2 r 3p 6(1+F)^ (1)
where 7 is the mean normal anisotropy parameter of the matrix material, and / * the effective void volume fraction. Consider x,y to be the 'rolling' and 'cross' directions in the plane of the sheet, z is the thickness direction. Based on Hill quadratic yield function, the macroscopic effective stress q in Eq. (1) is defined as [3]: q = {a aj'^lMUa g + /i h f\h 0 a] 0 0 2n (2b) (2a)
2. Yield criterion Most metallic materials contain different sizes and degrees of particles, including precipitates and inclusions, which may cause microdefects including microvoids and microcracks. As fracture in sheetmetals forming processes is mainly due to the development of ductile damage and to * Corresponding author. Tel.: +33 472 43 81 46; Fax: +33 472 43 85 28; Email: brunet@insalyon.fr 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
h 0
where the relative macroscopic stress tensor with respect to the center of the current yield surface is defined as:
f
Ox Olx
\a a]
= 1 ^.v ay
(3)
[Oxy  a ^ j j
M. Brunei et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics In Eq. (1), /? represents the hydrostatic stress of the relative stress tensor of Eq. (3) and the size of the elastic range Oy is defined as a function of the equivalent plastic strain ^ : or, = ao + Goo(le^^') (4)
83
where (TQ is the yield surface size at zero plastic strain, and goo and b are material parameters that must be calibrated from cyclic test data. The evolution of the kinematic components of the model is defined as, [3]:
y{a}dF
(5)
4. Damage parameters identification 3. Constitutive parameters identification The initial anisotropy parameters (the rvalues) are first determined independently with our Digital Image Correlation method (DIC) [2] by mean of uniaxial tests and to obtain the test data for the kinematichardening parameters identification, a bendingunbending apparatus has been built [3]. As an example. Fig. 1 depicts the moment versus curvature for one loading and reverse loading. The material is an aluminum alloy of strip thickness 0.8 mm, E = 69000 Mpa, Go = 137 Mpa, RQ = 0.71 and Rgo = 0.74. It can be seen, that very substantial agreement of experimental and simulated data is obtained with the converged values: C = 740.4, y = 4.167, G = 111.6 and ^ = 13.56 for the mixed hardening model. Fig. 2 compares the theoretical stressstrain curves to the experimental data for the case of the uniaxial monotonic tensile tests. Very good agreement for the stressstrain curves has been obtained due to the fact that the optimization is carried out both on the uniaxial monotonic curve and on the momentcurvature curve. The damage model can take into account the three main phases of damage evolution: nucleation, growth and coalescence. An optimization procedure could be also performed to match the experimental and numerical finite element results as regards the loads vs. displacement curve in a tensile test. However, the critical void volume fraction is not unique due to the fact that the void nucleation parameters are difficult to monitor in experiments and are usually arbitrarily chosen. To overcome this shortcoming, the void coalescence failure micromechanism by internal necking is considered by using a modified Thomason's plastic limitload model, [4]:
Rz
XRx
t)l
f ^n
(6)
e 0^10
^.CB
^.06
0.04
OLOE
0.20
Curvature (mm"^)
where F and G are constants, A and M are exponents, ^ Rx, Rz are the radii of the ellipsoidal void and X denotes half the current length of the cell. What is interesting in the plastic limitload criterion is that void coalescence is not only related to void volume fraction but also to voidmatrix geometry, stress triaxiality and initial void spacing. By mean of a void spacing ratio parameter, the anisotropic nature of rolled sheet is better account for in the coalescence micromechanism, moreover this effect is more pronounced at low stress triaxiality [4]. The modified Gurson's model is used to characterize the macroscopic behavior assuming that the void grows spherically and to calculate the void and matrix geometry changes using the current strain and void volume fraction. Once the equality Eq. (6) is satisfied, the void coalescence starts to occur and the void volume fraction at this point is the critical value fc provided that the stress triaxiality is greater than 0.33 (1/3) which is always the case just after necking.
84
M. Brunet et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
5. Neckingfailure criterion The strain ratio ^ = Aez/Asi has an evident influence on the internal damage of sheet metals. At the same level of deformation, it is generally noted that the damage increment is the greatest at plane strain such that Asji = 0 when the localized necking occurs, which requires a drift to the plane strain state and then an additional hardening. The formulation follows our previous work [2], the unified neckingfailure criterion is formulated in terms of the principal stresses and their orientation with respect to the orthotropic axes leading to an intrinsic formulation including damage: q [dG\ dq dcFy ds
Gy \_ dq day d'e ds\
'. (y\
(7)
where an analytical form of the lefthand side has been formulated and implemented in our implicit and explicit FE codes suitable for sheet metal forming simulation.The deepdrawing of a square box has been conducted experimentally and numerically, the material is the previous analysed aluminum alloy. The failure of a critical point of the aluminum alloy in an FEM forming simulation (Fig. 3) is determined by using the failure prediction methodology describe above.
References [1] Liao KL, Pan J, Tang SC. Approximate criteria for anisotropic porous ductile sheet metals. Mech Mater 1997; 26:213226. [2] Brunet M, MguilTouchal S, Moresdn F. Analytical and experimental studies of necking in sheet metal forming processes. J Mater Proc Technol 1998;80/81:4046. [31 Brunet M, Moresdn F, Godereaux S. Nonlinear kinematic hardening identification for anisotropic sheetmetals with bendingunbending tests. In: ASME MED12A Symp. on Advances in Metal Forming, IMECE 2000 Congress, Orlando, FL, USA, Nov 510, 2000. [4] Benzerga AA, Besson J, Pineau A. Coalescencecontrolled anisotropic ductile fracture. J Eng Mater Technol 1999;121: 221229.
6. Conclusion In this work, a unified failure approach has been presented based on the theory of damage mechanics including the nonlinear kinematic hardening of the matrix material and void coalescence by internal necking of the intervoid ligament. In sheetmetals, developing of damage makes the strain state gradually drift to plane strain, this fact leads to propose a unified instability criterion for localized necking and rupture.
85
Underground explosions: their effect on runway fatigue life and how to mitigate their effects
John W. Bull*
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NEl 7RU, UK
Abstract The detonation of an explosive device underneath a runway causes an underground void (a camouflet) to be formed. This paper describes how such a void can be detected, repaired and the fatigue life of the runway determined. Keywords: Underground explosion; Runway repair; Fatigue life; Finite element
1. Introduction This present paper assumes a detonation has formed an underground void as shown in the half section of Fig. 1. Around the void is a shell of highly compacted subgrade, with the disturbed subgrade above the void forming a cone, zones 25 of Fig. 1, that extended to the underside of the runway. The vertex of the cone is the detonation point, with the base of the cone being on the underside of the runway. The size of the void is linked to dimensional analysis, statistical reasoning and scahng laws [16]. Any linear dimension L, in metres, can be related to L/W^^^ where W, in kg, is the mass of the explosive charge [7]. The factors determining crater size and shape are W, X^ and the subgrade. Ac is the detonation depth (in metres) divided by W^^^ The resulting crater being a camouflet if Ac < 1.388. When a camouflet is formed, in time, the walls of the void will collapse. Collapse is complete when one of three following conditions is satisfied: the height of the collapsed cone extends to the underside of the runway; the void is completely filled but the collapsed subgrade does not extend to the surface; and the material in the collapse path forms a stable dome. The first condition will cause immediate loss of runway support. Loss of subgrade support due to the second condition will take time to develop. For the third condition, once the void has been detected, it can be filled. *Tel.: +44 (191) 2227924; Fax: +44 (191) 2616059; Email: john.bull@ncl.ac.uk 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
Fig. 1. Half section of the camouflet showing zones 18. 2. Camouflet location Experimental work shows that for no surface disturbance, the detonation depth requires a minimum of L39 Q ^0.333 j ^ ^ 2.78 W^^^^ m [7]. Detonations at these and greater depths present considerable repair difficulties. Laboratory tests have shown that a saturated clay subgrade subjected to superimposed cyclic loads has an initial set
86
tlement of between 60 and 80% of the total permanent settlement and is attained within the first 10 cycles of the loading [8]. This is followed by slower secondary settlement that continues for up to 20,000 load cycles, until equilibrium is reached. For runways, it is possible to obtain deflection and settlement measurements along the length of the undamaged runway to determine the runway's settlement stage. The introduction of a void changes the settlement conditions. Overrunning of the camouflet will show altered settlement readings enabling the repair team to identify the location and extent of the camouflet. Deflection data and cone penetration test results allow the repair team to determine the type of camouflet to be repaired [16].
ouflet was modeled by setting the cyUnder radius to 14.112 m. The axial length of the cylinder was 16.128 m. Four thousand and eighty threedimensional isoparametric finite elements were used in the model of the camouflet with the polystyrene infill and 2940 for the camouflet without the infill. The effect of an aircraft was modelled by a single downward point load of 100 kN at a succession of 15 nodes, equally spaced between the boundary and the centre of the upper surface of the runway. Elastic analysis was used as it gives sufficiently accurate results [16].
5. The numerical model Following detonation, the Young's modulus of the runway; zones 1 and 8 did not change, but zones 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were introduced. The detonation depth was 8.354 m, with the void having a horizontal diameter of 6.246 m and a vertical diameter of 6.183 m. The outer radius of the compacted zone, the interface between zones 4 and 5 and 6 and 7 was 3.776 m. The radius of the interface between zones 3 and 4 was 5.149 m, with the radius of the interface between zones 2 and 3 being 6.601 m. The Young's modulus of subgrade zones were calculated using = 10 CBR(%) MPa [16].
3. Camouflet size and material requirements Bull and Woodford [16] describe the dimensions and material properties of the camouflet and the subgrade. That is a 213kg explosive charge has created a camouflet in a previously homogenous, isotropic 9.5% California Bearing Ratio (CBR) subgrade. The loosened subgrade on the underside of the runway having a diameter of 16.128 m. A number of subgrade strengths between two extremes are considered. The first is when the detonation is contained within the outer diameter of the compacted shell; material set 1 of Table 1. The second is where significant changes have been made in the subgrade; material sets 29 of Table 1. Fig. 1 shows the eight zones. Table 1 gives the Young's modulus for the zones that are changed. In all cases, zones 1 and 8 had a Young's modulus of 36,000 MPa. The Young's modulus of the polystyrene void filler was 10 MPa, Zone 7 was 95 MPa and zone 6, 950 MPa with the exception of material set 10 where zone 6 was 95 MPa. The Poisson's ratio for zones 1 and 8 was 0.2, for the polystyrene, 0.1 and for zones 27, inclusive 0.3. 4. The finite element model The finite element model was idealized within a circular cylinder with its axis lying vertically in the ground. The notional infinite nature of the ground surrounding the camTable 1 Young's modulus (MPa) for the 10 material sets Zone number Material set 1 95 95 95 950 2 95 95 95 95
6. Filled and empty camouflets Material set 10, provided the benchmark displacements, stresses and fatigue life for the undisturbed subgrade and runway. The deflection results for the filled camouflet and for the unfilled camouflet, showed that for all material sets, the change in the corresponding displacements was no more than 0.01 mm. The fatigue life of the runway is found from Ac = ^ 225,000[MR/ac]'^, where A c is the aflowable number of ^ overruns, MR the modulus of rupture of the concrete and Gc the principal tensile stress induced by the load [16]. The number of load repetitions A^s the subgrade can sustain is predicted using as the maximum downward vertical stress in the subgrade, the CBR and the equation, A s = ^ [[280 X CBR(%)]/crs]'^ [16]. Where a reduction in fatigue
3 95 95 95 190
4 7 95 95 190
5 7 7 95 190
6 7 7 7 190
7 7 95 190 190
10 95 95 95 95
2 3 4 5
J.W. Bull/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 2 Fatigue life of the filled and the unfilled camouflet Zone number 1 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 Material set 1 NC NC NC 87.2 55.5 I I NC 2 NC NC NC I 24.3 I I NC 3 NC NC NC 95.7 72.8 I I NC 4 38.4 1.0 5 26.3 I 1.0 0.1 I I I 8.6 6 31.5 I 1.0 0.2 0.04 I I 8.5 7 38.8 1.0 8 I NC 89.2 I 54.7 I I NC 9
87
8.9
8.9
I NC I I 79.9 I I I
life occurred, the difference between the corresponding filled and unfilled void was no more than 1.1%. Thus, both the filled and the unfilled camouflet are recorded as having the same fatigue life, as shown in Table 2. The remaining fatigue life is given as a percentage of the fatigue life of material set 10. Where there was no change or an increase in the fatigue life, this is indicated by NC or I, respectively. All nine material sets have a reduced fatigue life in the subgrade.
[2]
[3] 7. Conclusions The major cause of the large surface deflections is the weakening of zone 2. The extent of the surface deflection indicates inversely the fatigue life remaining in the pavement. The filling of the camouflet has little effect on reducing the runway deflections or on increasing fatigue life, although it does prevent the runway from collapsing completely. Once a camouflet has been identified, it should be excavated and refilled with the runway surface being cut back beyond the zone 18 interface. [4]
[5] [6]
[7]
[8] References [1] Bull JW, Woodford CH. Computer simulation of explosion effects under concrete runways, B, Advances in Civil and
Structural Engineering Computing and Practice. In: Topping BHV (Ed), 4th International Conference on Computational Structures Technology. Edinburgh: CivilComp Press, 1998, pp. 369376. Bull JW, Woodford CH. The effect on the fatigue life of an airfield runway when a large void beneath a runway is left unfilled or is filled. In: Seventh International Conference on Civil and Structural Engineering Computing, Oxford, UK, A, Computer Techniques for Civil and Structural Engineering, 1999, pp. 165174. Bull JW, Woodford CH. The effect of camouflets on subgrade surface support, Comput Struct 1999;73:315325. Bull JW, Woodford CH. The prevention of runway collapse following an underground explosion, Eng Failure Anal 1998;5(4):279288. Bull JW, Woodford CH. Camouflets and their effect on runway support. Comput Struct 1998;69(6):695706. Bull JW, Woodford CH. The effect of the tensile stress in the subgrades on the fatigue life of an airfield runway. In: Fifth International Conference on Computational Structures Technology, B, Computational Civil and Structural Engineering, Leuven, Belgium, 2000, pp, 265274. Chadwick P, Cox AD, Hopkins HO. Mechanics of deep underground explosions, Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond Ser A Math Phys Sci, 196364:256;235300. Das BM, Shin EC, Cyclic loadinduced settlement of foundations on clay. In: Teeming MB, Topping BHV (Eds), Mouchel Centenary Conference on Innovation in Civil and Structural Engineering. Edinburgh: CivilComp Press, 1997, pp. 241246.
Abstract The response of a structure isolated by a ResilientFriction Base Isolator (RFBI) subjected to a ground motion modeled as a stochastic process is studied. The moment equation approach is applied and the probability density function of the nonGaussian response is evaluated adopting a Ctype GramCharlier expansion. The results are compared with those obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulation. Keywords: RFBI isolation system; Friction damping; NonGaussian response; Closure technique
1. Introduction In recent years considerable attention has been focused on the use of base isolation systems to protect structures against earthquake effects. The isolation system decouples the structure from the horizontal components of the ground motion by interposing a mechanism between the structure and the foundations. Several base isolation systems have been proposed and developed for various type of structures, and they are reviewed by Kelly [1]. The resilientfriction base isolator (RFBI) system, proposed by Mostaghel and Kelly [2], is considered herein. The isolator combines rubber bearing and friction element in parallel and belongs to friction type systems. The simplest base isolators of this kind are pure friction base isolators. Generally it is assumed that the friction characteristics observe the Coulomb friction law. Consequently, the structure shding on a RFBI system posses non linear behavior and equivalent linearization technique or stochastic averaging [3] can be resorted to determine the response with short computational time. In the present paper, an alternative method [4] evaluating the response by applying the moment differential equations approach is considered. A nonGaussian closure technique is required due to non normality of the response process. Moreover, the use of the Ctype GramCharlier expansion is proposed for the evaluation of the response probability
density function which requires the knowledge of the statistical moments obtained solving a set of linear equations. The simple structural model considered refers to a rigid structure with a resilientfriction base isolator system under white noise excitation. As no closed form solution are available, in the numerical application the stationary response obtained with the proposed formulation will be compared with Monte Carlo simulation.
2. Mathematical formulation The rigid structure on friction devices is mathematically represented by a SDOF with viscous and Coulomb damping [2]. Under the assumption of high intensity base excitation, the stick phases do not occur so that the equation of motion is given as X h l^cox f o/x 4 Mg sgn(i) = Xg(t) (1)
where x is the displacement of the rigid structure relative to its foundation, oj is the natural frequency of the base isolator, ^ is the damping ratio, g is the gravity acceleration, sgn() is the signum function, /x is the friction coefficient and Xg(t) is the ground acceleration assumed to be a Gaussian, stationary white noise process, so that
Xg{t) = W(t).
* Corresponding author. Tel.: f39 (90) 6765618; Fax: +39 (90) 395022; Email: nicola@ingegneria.unime.it 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
In order to evaluate the stochastic response, the statistical moments of the response have to be evaluated. To this aim Eq. (1) is converted into an equivalent firstorder system and the Ito's differential rule [5] is utilized so that
R Cacciola et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
<fo
0.12 I
0.04
^W^..,.. 10
20
10
20
20
10
10
20
(a)
(b)
Fig. 1. Stationary marginal probability density function of the displacement (a) and the velocity (b) by Ctype GramCharlier expansion (CGC) and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS).
EWi"^] :: lEix^^x"^^^]
 l^comEWk"^] + \m{m 
co^mEW+'x"^^] sgn(i)]
r]Q=
00
x^po(x)dx,
+00
 iigmEWi"^^ l)E[x^x^^]q
(2)
where q = ITCSQ is the strength of the white noise. The latter equations are not closed, as the averages with the signum functions appear which have to be evaluated starting from the knowledge of all moments. In what follows an evaluation of these averages is performed in approximate form, by adopting a closure technique of the probability density function expressed by a Atype GramCharlier expansion and observing that all odd order moments vanish p(x,x) = po(x)po(x) &Po(x)
iJiA 6 /+;=4,6 'J '
r^\ = {iy I X
+00
i&poix) dx'
dx,
xj = {ly
sgn(x)
dJpoix) dxJ
dx
(6)
dJpo(x) dxJ
djc'
(3)
where r is the closure order and po(x), po(x) are the probability density functions of jc, x assumed as Gaussian ones PoM = 1 V27ro, 1 exp
(S?)'
/x^'
Poix) =
(4)
can be easily evaluated in closed form and the coefficients Cij[x,x] are related to the statistical moments of order equal or lower than (/ h j) [4]. Substitution of Eq. (5) into Eq. (2) gives a set of nonlinear differential equation where only statistical moments up to rth order appear. However, if the variances a^ and a  are first obtained with enough accuracy, for example by means of Monte Carlo Simulation, than the system become a linear one and the evaluation of statistical moments up to order r is straightforward. The approximate response probability density function resulting from Eq. (3) posses some inconsistency, in particular the Atype GramCharlier expansion can lead to negative values around the tails. For these reason a Ctype G r a m Charlier expansion is adopted p(x,x) = A/'exp
Then, in Eq. (2), the averages with signum functions become E[x'x'"sgn(i)] = n',X'S+ E
,_L = 4 A j + ; iA, 6
tj"'i^A)
yj[x,x]
(7)
rl/i^'JCij[x,i]
'J '
(5)
where A/" is a normalization constant, Hj l^, fj is the multidimensional Hermite polynomial vector and yj[x, x]
90
P. Cacciola et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tory accuracy for the displacement (Fig. la). On the other hand, a higher order closure is needed to approximate the stationary marginal probability density function of the velocity (Fig. lb) which is strongly nonGaussian.
is the yth coefficient vector linear function of the statistical moments of the response, both of order 2^ [6]. The coefficient vector are linearly related to the coefficients appearing in the Atype expansion and can be evaluated by an efficient procedure [6]. Note that if Eq. (7) is utilized a closure of order r = 2A^ 2 is needed.
References 3. Numerical application An RFBI isolator system with the following parameters has been considered: natural period 7 = 4 s, damping coefficient ^ = 0 . 1 , friction coefficient /x = 0.04. The ground acceleration is assumed to be a white noise with spectral density SQ = 55.44 cm^/s\ The stationary marginal probability density functions of the displacement and the velocity have been evaluated through Eq. (7) and reported in Fig. 1 along with those resulting from Monte Carlo simulation. Note that for the evaluation of the stationary characteristics the algebraic system arising from Eq. (2), where the left side is set equal to zero, has to be solved. The figure reveals that a low closure order (A^ = 4) produces satisfac[1] Kelly JM. EarthquakeResistant Design with Rubber. London: Springer, 1996. [2] Mostaghel N, Kelly JM. Design procedure for RFBI bearings. Report UCB/EERC87/18, 1987. [3] Fan FG, Ahmadi G. Random response analysis of frictional base isolation system. J Eng Mech 1990;116:18811901. [4] Muscolino G, Pirrotta A, Ricciardi G. Non Gaussian closure techniques for the analysis of RFBI isolation system. J Struct Control 1997;4(l):2346. [5] Ito K. On a formula concerning stochastic differential. NagoyaMathJ 1951;3:5565. [6] Muscolino G, Ricciardi G. Probability density function of MDOF structural systems under nonnormal deltacorrelated inputs. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999; 168:121133.
91
Abstract An investigation is made of some of the circumstances under which softening of overall system response can occur in geotechnical boundary value problems, even when no material softening is permitted. It is demonstrated that a finite deformation formulation is required in order to capture this phenomenon in finite element computations. Comments are also made on the type of large deformation analysis likely to produce the most accurate results for footing penetration and plate uplift problems. Keywords: Large deformations; Finite strain; Footing penetration; Anchor uplift
1. Introduction Large deformation analyses of boundary value problems are not common in geotechnical engineering despite the fact that finite deformations may be important, particularly in problems involving penetration of relatively rigid bodies, such as footings, spudcan foundations, and in situ test probes, into much softer soil deposits. Although methods have been proposed for the numerical solution of this type of problem, detailed assessments of their capabilities and limitations are also rare in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a number of applications where a large deformation analysis is essential to capture some subtle but important aspect of soil behaviour. Boundary value problems involving footing penetration and anchor uplift are discussed, in order to demonstrate particular features that cannot be captured using conventional infinitesimal strain analysis. In particular, softening of the overall system response is identified as a possibility in some circumstances. A number of formulations for large deformation problems in geotechnical engineering have been published in the literature, e.g. [13]. Detailed discussion of similarities and key differences between these methods are given by Chen and Mizuno [2] and Wang [4]. Example problems solved using an updated Lagrangian approach published by
Carter et al. [1] and the remeshing technique proposed by Hu and Randolph [3] are described in the following sections. Comments on the suitability of these published finite element formulations are also provided.
2. Penetration of a strip footing The problem of penetration of a smooth rigid strip footing of width B into purely cohesive soil has been analysed for both a homogeneous and a twolayered soil deposit. In all cases the material behaviour is characterised by an initial linear elastic response at small strains, followed by perfectly plastic behaviour. Yield is determined by the Tresca criterion and an associated flow rule, so that shearing occurs at constant volume. Undrained conditions have been simulated. 2.1. Homogeneous clay The normalised loadpenetration curves for this case, obtained using the remeshing technique of Hu and Randolph [3], are presented in Fig. 1. These curves indicate that at larger penetrations of the footing the mobilised penetration force is a function of the rigidity index of the soil {G/c). Generally, the stiffer the elastic response the greater the force required to cause a given penetration of the footing, even after the behaviour becomes dominated by plastic yielding. For these homogeneous soils, the curves continue to rise monotonically until an ultimate value is reached.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 (2) 93512299; Fax: +6\ (2) 93513343; Email: j.carter@civil.usyd.edu.au 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
92
J.P. Carter, C.X. Wang/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
MESH
"(a)"
1950.0
^^X^^x^>'^^~>^t^X^
"'*">< \
V'^
:50.a i 100.0 n5o.D REMESH* Slnp tooting on the surlace of elasticMmple plastic soil
1200.0
20 Gs/Bc
30
(b)
Fig. 1. Normalised loadsettlement curves for a strip footing on homogeneous clay {H/B = 1).
corresponding to the solution for a footing deeply buried in a halfspace. Large deformation analyses were also conducted using an updated Lagrangian (UL) approach [1]. Deformed mesh plots from each analysis are shown in Fig. 2, for a footing displacement equal to 40% of the footing width. By comparing these plots, the relative advantage of the remeshing technique can be clearly seen. In the UL approach elements near the edge of the footing have become highly distorted at this footing displacement, and ultimately unfavourable element configurations will affect the accuracy of the numerical results. 2.2. Twolayered clay The bearing response of strip footings on a stronger clay layer of thickness H overlying a weaker clay deposit was also examined, and a comparison is made between the results given by the small and large deformation analyses. Various cases corresponding to H/B = 1, and C2/C1 = 0.1, 0.2, 1/3, 0.5, 2 / 3 and 1 (homogeneous soil) were investigated. For these particular analyses the effect of soil selfweight has been ignored, so that these results are strictly relevant in practice whenever yB <C c i , where y $ is the unit weight of the soil, i.e., for relatively narrow footings or strong soils. Normalised loaddisplacement curves for a weightless soil are shown in Fig. 3, for cases where H/B = 1. Typically, the curve given by the small deformation analysis reaches an ultimate value after a relatively small footing penetration, and generally the loaddisplacement curve given by the large deformation analyses is quite different from that given by the small displacement analysis.
'
^C
Fig. 2. Finite element meshes for penetration of homogeneous clay by a strip footing, (a) Mesh configuration using the remeshing method, (b) Mesh configuration using the updated Lagrangian method.
2+2n
0.8
0.8(2+2)t)
2/3
2^3{2+2K)\
" ^
2/3 0.5(2+2rt)
Q2
Fig. 3. Normalised loadsettlement curves for a strip footing on layered clay (H/B = 1).
J.p. Carter, C.X. Wang/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics For cases where a stronger top layer overlies a much weaker bottom layer (e.g., C2/C1 = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5), the overall response is characterised by some brittleness (softening), even though the behaviour of both component materials is perfectly plastic and thus characterised by an absence of softening. For these cases, the loadpenetration curves given by the large deformation analysis rise to a peak, at which point the average bearing pressure is generally lower than the ultimate bearing capacity predicted by the small deformation analysis. With further penetration of the footing into the clay, it appears that the loaddisplacement curve approaches an asymptotic value. It is reasonable to expect that even footings exhibiting a brittle response should ultimately behave much like a deep strip footing buried in the lower clay layer, so that the ultimate value of the average bearing pressure should then be approximately (2 h 2n)c2, where C2 is the strength of the lower layer. These theoretical limits for a deeply buried smooth footing are also indicated in Fig. 3. Curves obtained from the large deformation analysis appear to approach these limiting values at deep penetrations. It is also interesting to note that for this geometry, H/B = 1, and when ci/ci is greater than about 2/3, the large deformation curves appear to rise monotonically to their asymptotic ultimate values. For these cases the ultimate values are reached only when the footing has penetrated into the bottom layer and the top layer has separated into two distinct parts. Wang [4] has demonstrated that brittle behaviour of the footing tends to be suppressed as the selfweight effects become more significant, i.e., as yB increases relative to the strengths of the clay layers, ci and C2. Clearly this trend is to be expected, because with increasing penetration the surcharge effect of the soil to the sides of the footing becomes more significant. This aspect of penetration behaviour has also been demonstrated previously in the numerical solutions obtained by Hu and Randolph [5] for spudcan footing penetration into inhomogeneous soil. 3. Uplift of a rigid strip anchor The problem of a horizontal strip anchor embedded beneath the surface of a homogeneous, elastoplastic, purely cohesive halfspace and pulled vertically upward has been investigated. Fig. 4 indicates predictions of the loaddisplacement behaviour of anchors at relatively shallow depths of embedment, i.e., at depths given by H/B = 0.5, 1, 2, where H is the depth of embedment and B is the width of the strip anchor. For all cases shown in this figure perfect bonding was assumed between the underside of the rigid anchor plate and the underlying soil. In addition, no limit has been placed on the tensile capacity of the soil. Solutions for both a weightless soil, which is a reasonable idealisation for
93
Small deformation analysis " Large deformation analysis Rowe & Booker (1979) elastic solution
__
16
z
i 1 /
,
......
"
2
TH/C=O
sii^aji cjeformatlon analysis Large deformation analysis Rowe & Booker (1979) elastic solution (b) H/B=l
to 10 8 6
1 4 1
GSi^c
. , . . r.JUi.^S^met^' ' '' '^*^*^^^^^^' r,.v  " 16 ^
7H/c=0
Small deformation analysis Large deformation analysis Rowe & Boolter (1979) elastic solution (c) H/B=2
2 \ n
15 Gs/8c
20
cases of relatively shallow burial in relatively strong soils, and soils with significant selfweight are included in Fig. 4. It is clear from this figure that a softening response occurs for cases where the strength of the soil, c, is relatively large compared to the overburden pressure at the plate level, yH. Softening tends to become suppressed as the depth of burial and the selfweight effects increase. From a practical perspective it is also of interest to examine the case where separation of the rigid anchor from the soil immediately beneath it is allowed to occur. It was assumed that separation will occur and a gap under the plate will form once the initial total overburden pressure is offset by the uplift load applied to the plate. Small and large deformation solutions for this important case are presented in Fig. 5. Comparison of Fig. 5 with Fig. 4b reveals that bonding of the soil has a very significant influence on the mobilised uplift capacity. Indeed for the case where yHjc = 0, the difference between the ultimate capacities in these two cases is approximately the same as the reverse bearing capacity of a strip footing on a purely cohesive half space, i.e., (2 + 7t)c.
94
12
J.P. Carter, C.X. Wang/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the softening behaviour could only be predicted using an appropriate large deformation analysis; the small strain analysis could not capture this type of response. For the footing and anchor problems it was also found that selfweight of the soil medium tends to suppress the tendency for a brittle system response.
10
/
)*x^..,,^^ ^^''>^f^r=m
YH/C=4
yH/c=2 Smalt deformation Large deformation Rowe & Booker(1979) elastic solution O X Breakaway (large deformation) Breakaway (smal! deformation)
Acknowledgements The work described in this paper has been supported by grants from the Australian Research Council.
1/^
"~7H7C^O
10
15 Gs/Bc
20
25
30
35
References [1] Carter JP, Booker JR, Davis EH. Finite deformation of an elastoplastic soil. Int J Num Anal Methods Geomech 1977;l(l):2543. [2] Chen WF, Mizuno E. Nonlinear Analysis in Soil Mechanics, Theory and Implementation. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1990. [3] Hu Y, Randolph MP. A practical numerical approach for large deformation problems in soil. Int J Num Anal Methods Geomech 1998;22:327350. [4] Wang e x . Applications of Large Deformation Analysis in Soil Mechanics. PhD Thesis, University of Sydney, 2000. [5] Hu Y, Randolph MP. Deep penetration of shallow foundations on nonhomogeneous soil. Soils Pound 1998;38(l):241246. [61 Meyerhof GG. The ultimate bearing capacity of foundations. Geotechnique 1951;2(4):301332. [7] Rowe RK, Booker JR. A method of analysis for horizontally embedded anchors in an elastic soil. Int J Num Anal Methods Geomech 1979;3:187203.
Fig. 5. Loaddeflection curves for strip anchors with separation (H/B = 1). As for the footing problem, ultimately unfavourable element configurations in the UL formulation will affect the accuracy of the numerical predictions. More reliable solutions at large displacement were obtained using the remeshing technique.
4. Conclusions Two boundary value problems have been examined using both small and large deformation analyses. In each case it was discovered that softening of the overall system response occurs under certain conditions. Furthermore,
95
A new hybridenhanced displacementbased element for the analysis of laminated composite plates
Song Cen ^, Yuqiu Long ^, Zhenhan Yao ^* '
^ Tsinghua University, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing, 100084, China ^ Tsinghua University, Department of Civil Engineering, Beijing 100084, China
Abstract A simple displacementbased, quadrilateral 20 DOF (5 DOF per node) bending element based on the firstorder shear deformation theory (FSDT) for analysis of arbitrary laminated composite plate is presented in this paper. This element is constructed by the following procedure: (i) the variation functions of the rotation and shear strain along each side of the element are determined using Timoshenko's beam theory; and (ii) the rotation, shear strain and inplane displacement fields in the domain of the element are then determined using the technique of improved interpolation. The stress solutions are improved by a simple hybrid procedure. The proposed element, denoted as CTMQ, possesses advantages of both displacement element and hybrid element. Thus, very excellent solutions for both displacements and stresses, especially for the transverse shear stresses, can be obtained. Keywords: Finite element; Laminated composite plates; Timoshenko's beam theory; Firstorder shear deformation theory (FSDT); Hybridenhanced procedure
1. Introduction In the past 40 years, the formulation of robust plate bending elements based on FSDT (ReissnerMindlin plate theory) has attracted the attention of many researchers. One of the best approaches is the mixed interpolation method, in which the displacement fields and the shear strain field are interpolated independently [1]. In this paper, a new similar method is proposed to construct bending element for analysis of laminated composite plates. Furthermore, a simple hybrid method is also presented to improve the stress solutions. Thus, good results can be obtained for both displacements and stresses, and no shear locking will happen even the thickness of plate approaches zero.
{UY = [Ui Vi Wi
\ll^i
ifyi
: U2 V2 W2 fx2
fy2
2.1. Lockingfree Timoshenko's beam element The formulas of deflection ic, rotation f and shear strain y for the Timoshenko's laminated composite beam element, as shown in Fig. 2, are as follow: w = Wi(l  r) + Wjr + {f,i ^  xlf,j)F2   F d  28)F3 (2a) (2b) (2c)
F = l^^i + ^ y ) ~ ^^i ~ ^^J
2. Formulation of the new quadrilateral element The nodal displacement vector for the quadrilateral 4node element is (as shown in Fig. 1):
8= where k = F2 =
6X 1 + 12A
(3)
* Corresponding author. Tel.: h86 (10) 62772913; Fax: +86 (10) 62781824; Email: demyzh@tsinghua.edu.cn 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
r(lr)
F3 = r ( l  r ) ( l  2 r )
96
S. Cen et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Wx3 4< ^. H'
r={) V2 til
^  '
r=
/
bi = yjyk
Ci=XkXj
(i,j,k=\,2,3,4)
(8)
11
i
ITT
/=1
0 0
0 0
0 0
^3^3 ^4^4
0 0 25i 0
0 0
ci(5i 0
bi8i 0
0 ^454
^6
"^1
[r*] =
0 0 0
0 0 0 0 253 254
0
0 0
0
0 254
C353 C454
0 C454
0 0
28i
2^2 0
ciSi
C252 0
bi8x
^2^2 0
0 0
0 0 0 0
0
2^2 253
0
C282 C3(53
0
b2h b^h
Fig. 2. The Timoshenko laminated beam element. Di and C/ in Eq. (3) are the bending and shear stiffness of the beam, respectively. It can be proved that when the thickness r ^ 0, 5 ^ 0. No shear locking will happen. 2.2. Interpolation formulas for the shear strain fields From Eq. (Ic) and some simple geometrical relations, the shear strain fields can be obtained as follows:
0 0
0 0
(9)
0 0 0
where A^^ (/ = 1, 2, 3, 4) are the bilinear shape functions. 5/ are given by Eq. (3). 2.3. Interpolation formulas for the rotation fields The rotation fields can be obtained using 8node isoparametric nodal shape functions A^, (/ = 1, 2 , . . . , 7, 8): ^x = T^^ii^x, (10)
[A^?][xj[r*] [A^?][Fj[r]
[A^?] = [ <
A^o
0
{uY =
[B,][uY
(4)
^0
^0]
(5)
i=\
bi
Since the rotations of the midside nodes can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacement vector by using Eq. (2), the rotation fields can be rewritten as follows:
b\C4
[^.]
b^cx
0
b2
b2CT, byC2
0
0
0
C4
bT,C4 b^CT,
b2,C4 ^4C3
2.4. Interpolation formulas for inplane displacement fields of the midplane (7) The inplane displacement fields are expressed by the bilinear shape functions. Finally, the stiffness matrix can be obtained by the standard procedure.
[Ys} =
Z?4Ci
biC4
b4Ci
bxC4
blC2
b2C\
b\C2
b2C\ ^3
0 0
blC^
b2,C2
^ 2 ^ 3 Z73C2
S. Cen et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. The hybridenhanced procedure for element stresses The bending moment field {M} and the shear force field {J} are only required to satisfy C~^continuity between two elements based on FSDT [2]. Thus, [M] can be assumed as follows: [M] = [M, I ^
[PM] =
97
ai  \(xi
as = \(xi
 X2 + ^3 + X4)
h = \(yi
yi
+ ys + yd
(19)
My
M,yf
= [PM]{aM} 0 0 0 0 0 0
(12)
{M = [Pi ft ft ft ft]
ri ^T] 0 0 0 0 0 I ^
0 0 0 0 0 0
Y] ^7] 0 0 0 0 I ^
(13)
0 0 0
T) ^T]
Q^IQ
ft (/ = 1, 2, . . . , 5) are 5 unknown parameters. Then the stresses of the element can be obtained by using HellingerReissner variational principle and hybrid element method. Note this procedure doesn't influence the element stiffness matrix, it is only for improving stress solutions.
{(XM)
Otn
a^^
(14) at (/ = 1, 2, 3 , . . . , 12) are 12 unknown parameters. From the equilibrium equation of a plate, the shear field {T] can be obtained:
4. Numerical examples Several numerical examples are presented to evaluate the performance of the new element. One of them is showed in Fig. 3 and Table 1.
{T] = [r,
r,r
9 M , ^ dM^y dx dy
dM^y dx
dMy dy (15)
= [PrUaM]
5. Conclusions The presented element, CTMQ, can pass all the patch tests, is free of shear locking and insensitive to mesh distortion. It possesses advantages of both displacement element and hybrid element: Relatively simple formulation, high accuracy for both displacements and stresses.
(16)
1
[PN] =
0 1 0
0 0 1
air]
a\^
0 0
t^
(17)
aibiY]
a^b^^
STl
GKOMHrRY 1=1000.; ^=250,100,20,10,1,0.1 MATERIAL (orthotropic) Skins: Er^25.; Er'U Git^S; Gif^^S; Gw^l; pi2=^.25 STl: 0/90/0/90/0/90/0/90/0 symmeMc BOUNDARY CQNDmONS (simplygupported: SS2) on AB: tt=w=\r/=0; oa EC: 1^^^^ on CD: v=%=0 ; on DA: v=H?=^y^ LQADINe (doubly sinusoidal) . nx . nv Fig. 3. Square plates with 9 layers.
98
S. Cen et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Table 1 Maximum deflection and stresses in 9ply laminate L/h 4 Mesh and model 4x4 8x8 16 X 16 DST 10 X 10^ FSDT 4x4 8x8 16 x 16 DST 10 X 10^ 3D elasticity FSDT 4x4 8x8 16 X 16 DST 10 X 10^ 3D elasticity FSDT 4x4 8x8 16 X 16 3D elasticity FSDT 4x4 8x8 16 X 16 FSDT CPT w
(iJQ)
4.283 4.252 4.244 4.242 4.242 1.529 1.524 1.523 1.526 1.512 1.522 1.021 1.021 1.021 1.020 1.021 1.021 1.005 1.005 1.005 1.005 1.005 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
^x
(L L lL)
V2 ' 2 ' ^ 2 /
"^xy
(Q^Q^I)
=F0.0214 TO.0217 TO.0217
ixz (Q^JQ) 0.234 0.237 0.237 0.225 0.238 0.246 0.249 0.249 0.219 0.247 0.250 0.251 0.256 0.257 0.190 0.258 0.258 0.249 0.254 0.257 0.259 0.259 0.247 0.250 0.250 0.259 0.259
'^yz
(f^Q^Q) 0.243 0.245 0.246 0.231 0.245 0.228 0.230 0.231 0.257 0.226 0.230 0.213 0.218 0.220 0.263 0.219 0.219 0.210 0.215 0.218 0.219 0.219 0.207 0.210 0.210 0.219 0.219
0.498 0.493 0.492 0.547 0.491 0.526 0.521 0.519 0.541 0.551 0.519 0.545 0.539 0.538 0.522 0.539 0.538 0.545 0.540 0.539 0.539 0.538 0.545 0.540 0.539 0.539 0.539
0.494 0.489 0.487 0.419 0.487 0.461 0.456 0.455 0.425 0.477 0.454 0.438 0.434 0.433 0.447 0.433 0.432 0.437 0.433 0.432 0.431 0.431 0.436 0.432 0.431 0.431 0.431
10
50
TO.0214 =F0.0213 TO.0209 TO.0212 TO.0213 =F0.0213 =F0.0213 =F0.0210 TO.0212 =F0.0213 TO.0213 =F0.0213
100
100000
References [1] Bathe KJ, Dvorkin EN. Short communication: A fournode plate bending element based on Mindlin/Reissner plate theory and a mixed interpolation. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1985;21:367383. [2] Ayad R, Dhatt G, Batoz JL. A new hybridmixed variational approach for ReissnerMindlin plates: The Misp Model. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1998;42:11491179.
[3] Pian THH, Sumihara K, Rational approach for assumed stress finite element. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1984;20:16851695. [4] Lardeur P, Batoz JL. Composite plate analysis using a new discrete shear triangular finite element. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1989;27:343359.
Simulating static and dynamic lateral load testing of bridge foundations using nonlinear finite element models
S. Chakraborty ^'*, D.A. Brown^
^ Wilbur Smith Associates, P.O. Box 92, Columbia, SC 292020092, USA ^ Auburn University, Civil Engineering Department, Auburn, AL 36849 USA
Abstract The response of bridge foundations to large amplitude lateral loads was the subject of a study conducted at Auburn University. As part of the study, static and dynamic load tests were carried out on two fullscale instrumented test foundations on the Pascagoula River at Pascagoula, Mississippi. The measured response was used to develop and calibrate nonlinear finite element models for a detailed analysis of the parameters that govern the lateral behavior of such systems. The results of this study have been summarized in this paper. Keywords: Bridge foundations; Lateral load testing; Finite element analysis; Soilstructure interaction; PY Nonlinear dynamic analysis curves;
1. Introduction and background Bridge foundations are subject to dynamic lateral loads in the form of earthquakes and ship impact, which usually involve the transfer of large amounts of energy to the foundation in short periods of time. The response of the foundationsoil system under such conditions is usually highly nonlinear, and difficult to define mathematically. Since dynamic load testing on instrumented foundation groups can be extremely expensive, not much data are available to assess the reliability of existing modeUng techniques. This paper provides a brief description of a load test program carried out on the Pascagoula River in Mississippi [1]. The testing was conducted to provide guidelines for the design of a new bridge over the river at Pascagoula, which would replace an existing bridge. In addition to extensive insitu and laboratory testing to determine soil properties, lateral static and dynamic load tests were carried out on two test foundations. The tests were designed to induce significant nonlinearities in the structural elements (piles and shafts) and the soil in which they were embedded. Displacements, strains and accelerations, along with appUed load, were monitored and recorded for further analysis. * Corresponding author. Tel +1 (803) 7584643; Email: sanjoy_chak@hotmail.com 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
The program SeaStar/CAP (PMB Engineering, [2]) was used to develop finite element models of both groups. The models were designed to account for the nonlinear behavior of the system under static and dynamic loads. The fundamental soil properties used in the model were established using the static load data, and the parameters governing dynamic response were studied using the measured dynamic response (displacements, and bending and axial forces).
2. Load test program The foundations along with the applied loads are shown in Fig. 1. The foundation on the east side consisted of six driven 0.76 m square prestressed concrete piles, four of which were driven on a 1:4 batter. The second group consisted of a pair of 2.13 m diameter reinforced concrete drilled shafts. Each shaft had a permanent steel casing extending from the bottom of the shaft for a length of 11.0 m. Both foundations were instrumented with displacement transducers, accelerometers, and strain gauge pairs placed at selected elevations down the length of the piles and shafts. A static lateral load test was conducted by pushing the foundations apart with a hydraulic jack (*S in Fig. 1). A series of five dynamic lateral load pulses at increasing amplitude were then applied to each foundation using a
100
S. Chakraborty, DA. Brown / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
*P  applied statnamic load *S  applied static load
PLAN
10.67
N
1.45
^ I 1.52
Two 2.13m diameter drilled shafts Six 0.76m square prestressed concrete piles
k 2.44
1:4 Batter
Fig. 1. Load test setup at Pascagoula, Mississippi. Statnamic device (*P). The Statnamic device is a loading mechanism that uses rapid bum fuel to generate gas pressure and accelerate a large mass away from the test foundation, thereby imparting an impulsive load to it. Most of the energy delivered to the foundation lies between 1 and 10 Hz, and the test simulates extreme event loads such as seismic, transient wind loading, and vessel impact. The peak dynamic loads recorded at Pascagoula ranged from 1.3 MN to 7.4 MN, with the ramp time (zero to peak load) decreasing from 0.25 to 0.13 s. The data were recorded using a Megadac data acquisition system at a sampling frequency of 2000 Hz. A detailed analysis of the measured data is available in Chakraborty [3]. The PY model for the soil reactions combined with a finite element formulation of the foundation structure provides an effective solution to the problem of laterally loaded deep foundations. PY curves can be used to model short term static, cyclic (including degradation effects), and dynamic loading conditions. The effects of soil (internal) damping are accounted for during hysteretic cycling through the curve, while the effects of radiation damping are modeled through use of mechanical dashpots, which have been described in Dobry et al. [8].
4. Structural models The finite element model for each group was setup using a combination of linear and nonlinear beam elements, along with appropriate soilsprings and dashpots. The model for the pile group is shown in Fig. 2. The pilecap was modeled using seven linear beam elements, with section and material properties simulating the rigidity and mass of the concrete block. Each pile was represented by twenty six beam elements, 1.219 m each in length. The topmost element (where significant cracking was observed at the larger loads) was modeled as nonlinear, and its flexural rigidity was computed as a function of the applied moment (M vs. EI) at the prestress load using the program STIFF 1 [9]. Lateral and axial soilsprings were attached at the pile nodes as shown in Fig. 2, along with axial springs at the pile toes to simulate resistance in end bearing. The loads were applied at the center of the pilecap in the plane depicted by the front view, and outofplane displacements and rotations were eliminated in order to reduce problem
3. Pilesoil interaction: the PY approach The lateral load displacement relationship between the foundation and soil is usually defined using the so called PY curves. P represents soil resistance per unit length of pile, expressed as a nonlinear function of its lateral deflection, F. The formulation of these curves are empirical, and based on the results of load test programs conducted in the 1970's and the 1980's. Details on the formulation of PY curves in different soil types may be found in Matlock [4], Matlock et al. [5], and Reese et al. [6,7], amongst others. The structural components (piles/shafts/cap) are usually modeled using linear or nonlinear beam elements, and the complex soil reactions are modeled using nonlinear lateral springs (PY curves), axial springs {TZ curves), and tip springs (QZ curves), along with dashpots attached at the node points.
S. Chakraborty, DA. Brown/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
101
Front View
Side View
Total number of groups = 8 1 linear group representing the cap 1 nonlinear group  topmost element of each pile 6 linear groups  each pile from second to bottom element
Top View
Used to define the radiation damping coefficient under dynamic loading. The models were verified and calibrated by comparing the computed response to the measured static and dynamic response (load test data). The following response parameters were used in the comparison: lateral displacement/rotation of the cap lateral/axial deformation profiles along selected piles/shafts lateral/axial force profiles along selected piles/shafts The measured and computed static axial force profiles for the batter piles in tension and compression are shown in Fig. 3. The profiles have been plotted at two levels of lateral load. The measured axial forces were derived from the strain readings at each load level, and agree with the predicted axial load distribution for the piles in uplift and in compression. Fig. 4a plots the measured and computed static lateral load displacement response of the pilecap. Fig. 4b shows the measured and computed lateral displacement time history of the pilecap for the largest dynamic loading event (Statnamic load case 5). Figs. 3 and 4 are representative of the nature of the results obtained for the other load cases, as well as for the shaft group. A detailed discussion of the results has been presented in Chakraborty [3].
Fig. 2. Finite element model of pile group. size. The forcing function used as input for each dynamic load case was derived by resampling the corresponding measured load vector at 400 Hz.
6. Summary and conclusions The program SeaStar incorporates a dynamic soilstructure interaction model, and was able to simulate the nonlinear response of the test foundations to lateral loading through the use of P  F , TZ and QZ curves. It is believed however, that the performance of the program can be improved through the incorporation of a nonlinear material model for reinforced concrete. The results of the static load test were used quite effectively to establish the fundamental soil strength parameters and verify the model. The absence of damping and inertial forces reduced the complexity of the problem and the number of parameters that needed to be established initially. The shaft group exhibited a significantly higher degree of nonlinearity than the pile group. For the pile group, a time step ranging from 0.02 to 0.015 s appeared to produce acceptable results. For the shaft group, a much smaller time step was required to get the solver to converge, decreasing from 0.006 to 0.001 s from the first Statnamic load case to the last. The response of the pile in end bearing appeared to have a significant influence on the lateral stiffness of the foundations. For both groups, a large proportion of the compressive axial load in the piles and shafts was carried by the toe. The recommended value of the Maximum Displacement Factor, Ai appeared to be too conservative
5. Verification and analysis Based on the soiltest data, the soil profile was described using four layers (top to bottom):  Sand: angle of friction, 0 = 30, 2.44 m thick  Clay: undrained shear strength, c = 27.58 kPa, 4.57 m thick  Clay: c = 41.37 kPa (top) to 82.74 kPa (bottom), varying hnearly, 5.18 m thick  Sand: 0 = 38, 28.0 m thick In addition to the fundamental properties (c, 0), the following parameters (amongst others) were used to control soil response (PMB Engineering, Inc. [2]):  Maximum Displacement Factor (A i) Ratio of the displacement at which the maximum spring resistance is mobilized, to the effective pile diameter (default/recommended = 0.1).  Rate Effect Parameter (P) A scaling factor for the Pordinates (^ < I for creep effects, ^ > 1 for dynamic loading).  Shear Modulus of Soil (Gmod)
102
5. Chakraborty, D.A. Brown/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Batter Pile in Compression Batter Pile in Tension
10
''
^ 15 E
20
20
25
o Measured , * Computed
30 h
o Measured * Computed
200
400
600
800
1000
35 1000
800
600
400
200
 I lOOOh
Measured Computedl 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 Displacement (m) 0.03 0.035 0.04
0.06r
Fig. 4. (a) Static lateral load displacement response pile group, (b) Dynamic lateral displacement history pile group.
and resulted in an underprediction of the lateral stiffness. The inclusion of cyclic degradation and gap formation in the soil model caused the free vibration time period to elongate significantly, but did not affect the amplitude of the response.
References [1] Crapps DK, Brown DA. East Pascagoula river bridge test program. Project report prepared for Mississippi Dept. of Transportation, Vol. I and II, 1998. [2] PMB Engineering, Inc. SeaStar P3.20: Offshore analysis and
S. Chakraborty, DA. Brown/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics design software. User's manual, San Francisco, California, 1994. [3] Chakraborty S. Dynamic lateral load testing of deep foundation groups. Doctoral Dissertation, Auburn University, 2000. [4] Matlock H. Correlations for design of laterally loaded piles in soft clay. In: Offshore Technology Conference, Vol. 1, Paper No. 1204, Houston, Texas, 1970. [5] Matlock H, Ingram WB, Kelley AE, Bogard D. Field tests of the lateral load behavior of pile groups in soft clay. In: Offshore Technology Conference, Paper No. OTC 3871, Houston, Texas, May, 1980.
103
[6] Reese LC, Cox WR, Koop FD. Analysis of laterally loaded piles in sand. In: Offshore Technology Conference, Vol. II, Paper No. 2080, 1974. [7] Reese LC, Welch RC. Lateral loading of deep foundations in stiff clay. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 1975;101(GT7). [8] Dobry RE, Vicente MJ, Roesset JM. Horizontal stiffness and damping of single piles. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 1992;108(GT3). [9] Wang ST, Reese LC. STIFFl: Computation of nonhnear stiffnesses and ultimate bending moment of reinforcedconcrete and pipe sections. For Ensoft, Inc. Austin, Texas, 1987.
104
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to find a mathematical model for coupling a thin shell with a softer 3D elastic material. One of the main issues involved pertains to the treatment of interfaces. We have the choice of using or neglecting the rotations in the coupling conditions. We justify the use of one or the other strategy by an asymptotic analysis, the model with free rotations being the limit problem of the model with coupled rotations, when the thickness goes to zero. We also present some numerical results. Keywords: Shell; Linear elasticity; Asymptotic analysis; Penalized problem; Singularly perturbed problem
1. Variational formulation of the coupled problem We denote by Q^^ and Q^j the elastic body domains, by Q' the shell domain and by co the middle surface of the shell (Fig. 1). We also introduce ^5 and Qi as the domains occupied by one of the elastic bodies together with the superior and the inferior part of the shell, respectively. Hence: ^ '  = (^s \ ^ s ) U ( Q / \ ^ )
V, = {(u, ^) G H\OJ)^ X
and where z represents the distance to the midsurface o) counted positively in ^ 5 and negatively in Q/. The variational formulation of the coupled problem is given by: {Vt) : Find (w^, u\e\u\) e V such that
and
H\a))\
co =
Qs(^^i
Let us introduce the following spaces: ^a3=0, V(Qs) = v\r^ = rj\r^ = 6 } , =0],
V{Qi) = [v e H\Q,)\v^^i^
{veH\Qs)\v\ri,=0], V(Q;)
(C,)
on Q5 \ ^\
on Qf \ Q'j * Corresponding author. Tel: +33.1.39.63.57.56; Fax: +33.1.39. 63.58.82; Email: Dominique.Chapelle@inria.fr 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
D. Chapelle, A. Ferent/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics In Eq. (1), tEsD{u\ 0\ v\ ^ 0 + t^EsA{u\ 0\ v', ^ 0 represents the contribution of the shell to the internal virtual work, provided by the Naghdi linear shell model. We denote by t the shell thickness and by Es Young's modulus for the shell material. The contributions of the elastic bodies are given by the bilinear forms 5 ^ and B\ corresponding to a tridimensional linear elastic model defined on the volumes Q^^ and ^ ; , respectively. Finally, the linear form F represents the virtual work of external forces. We then have the following result [4]: Proposition 1.1 VF G L^(Qs)^ X L^(co)^ X L^(Qi)^ there exists a unique (u's, u',d\ u\) G V solution of Problem (Vt). Like in the asymptotic analysis of a shell alone, the space of pure bending displacements plays an important role. It is defined by: Vpb = {{V, ri)eVs\ D(v, ^, V, ^) = 0}. strongly influspace contains coupled probthe two cases. where yo = [(vl v\ ri\ v1) G V(Qs) X V. X V(^i)
105
ri^) = 0},
3. Inhibited pure bending Unlike in the previous case, a shell with inhibited pure bending has a membranedominated behaviour and the bending energy can be neglected if the shell thickness is small. Then, the tridimensional elastic body must have an energy with the same order of magnitude as the shell membrane energy to obtain a coupled 3Dmembrane problem, as t goes to 0, as in: Assumption 2 EQ = Est ^ E^oLsD
The asymptotic behaviour of the shell is enced by whether or not this pure bending nonzero displacements. Of course, for the lem, this is also crucial. We then distinguish
2. Noninhibited pure bending A shell with noninhibited pure bending has a bendingdominated behaviour, namely the membrane and shear energies tend to 0 with t [3]. In order to obtain a model with a real coupling, we need to assume that the dominant energies are of the same order of magnitude in the shell and in the elastic body. This leads to the following assumption: Assumption 1
EQ
Under this assumption, (Vt) becomes a singularly perturbed problem, where the perturbation corresponds to the shell bending energy. Since Vp, = {(0,0)}, D(', y^^ provides a norm on Vs and we can introduce
aer ^
^ HH^S) ' + D (  ,  ) +
 HH^I) '
1/2
= Est
where L^D represents a characteristic dimension of the 3D body. Under this additional assumption the solution of (Vt) remains uniformly bounded. Then (Vt) becomes a penalized problem and the constraint that we tend to impose is that membrane and shear energies vanish. Theorem 2.1 Under Assumption 1, the solution (u^^, u\0\ u\) of (Vt) converges strongly with respect to the norm of H^(Qs)^ x H\cof X H\Qj)\ as t goes to zero, to (u^^lP J^,iPj), the solution of the following problem: (V^^"")
EQA(U\
the corresponding norm on V^ As Vs is not a complete space for D(', ')^^^, we define V^ as its completion with respect to this norm. With this definition, V^ is less regular than Vs and the difficulty consists in establishing its exact nature. This nature depends on the boundary conditions and the shell geometry. As an example, we consider a situation where we can characterize the space V^, namely the case of an elUptic shell clamped along the whole boundary. In this case, we have V, = H^(o)) X H^(co) X LHCO) X 7^,, where IZs is the regularity space of the rotations, defined so that the shear strains are in L^(co). The global space V that takes into account the 3D parts is the following space: V = {(vl v\ ri\ 5?) G V(Qs) X V. X V(Qi)
(3)
= F(vl
v\ ri\ 5^),
^(vl
v\ ri\ S?) G V ^
(2)
Note that, in the specific case of the clamped elliptic shell, the coupling conditions (Co) can be understood as holding in L^(a)). These conditions, however, can also be
106
20
40 60 number of elements
100
used in the more general case where V, is a distribution space. In this general framework, we can show the following result [4]. Theorem 3.1 Under Assumption 2, if F e V, the solution (w^, u\6\ u)) of (Vt) converges strongly with respect to the norm v, ^^^ ^ goes to 0, to (M^, w^, 5^, i/^) the solution of the following problem: (p^^D^ EoD{u\ : Find (M^, U\ e\ w?) e V such that
inated asymptotic behaviour. In this respect, we point out that we used a lockingfree finite element procedure for beam analysis [1]. We compared these solutions with the solution of the asymptotic problem (characterized in Theorem 2.1), as shown in Fig. 2. We thus observe how neglecting the thickness in the kinematical constraints on interfaces can introduce significant errors with respect to the limit model unless the thickness is very small.
References e\ v\ f) h Bsiu'^s^ u?) + 5;(i?5, u) [1] Bathe, KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. [2] Bemadou, M. Finite Element Methods for Thin Shell Problems. John Wiley, New York, 1996. [3] Chapelle, D, Bathe, KJ. Fundamental considerations for the finite element analysis of shell structures. Comput Struct 1998;66(l):1936. [4] Chapelle, D, Ferent, A., in preparation. [5] Ciarlet, PG. Introduction to Linear Shell Theory, Series in Applied Mathematics. GauthierVillars and NorthHolland, 1998. [6] Lions, JL. Perturbations Singulieres dans les Problemes aux Limites et en Controle Optimal. Springer, 1973.
(4)
4. Numerical results Finite element simulations were performed in the case of a beam coupled with 2D plane stress linear elasticity. We obtained the solutions for several values of t, using the asymptotic assumption t^E,
L3DE3
107
Some experiments with the MITC9 element for Naghdi's shell model
D. Chapelle^ D.L. Oliveira*''*, M.L. Bucalem''
^ INRIARocquencourt, BP 105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex, France ^ Laboratorio de Mecdnica Computacional, Departamento de Engennharia de Estruturas e Fundagdes, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Abstract A ninenode mixedinterpolated shell element based on Naghdi's theory is presented and analyzed in the Hght of some fundamental considerations for the finite element analysis of shells. The element is based on the Mixed Interpolation of Tensorial Components (MITC) approach, but the assumed covariant strain fields are applied only for the membrane and shear components. The proposed element is used in the analysis of judiciously selected test problems to evaluate to what extent its behavior satisfies the ideal requirements for general shell analysis. Keywords: Locking; Shell element; Mixed interpolation; Mixed interpolation of tensorial components elements; Naghdi's model
1. Introduction A topic that continues to challenge researchers is the development of lockingfree shell finite element. Much progress, however, has been made and there is a family of quadrilateral elements (MITC) [13] that has shown a good behavior both in membrane and bendingdominated shell problems [5]. The MITC elements have been constructed from their displacementbased counterparts which are formulated using the degenerated solid approach. This approach is widely accepted as being the most attractive for engineering appUcations, as discussed in [2,3]. However, the way these elements are constructed the shell behavior is introduced together with the degeneration process (see [4]) does not provide the best setting for a mathematical analysis with respect to locking. One could mention that the interpolation of the geometry is inherent to the degenerated solid approach. Also, the bending energy is combined with the membrane energy. The objective of this paper is to summarize the formulation of a ninenode mixed element constructed for Naghdi's shell theory and report upon some numerical ex* Corresponding author. Tel. f55 (11) 38185246; Fax: +55 (11) 38185181; Email: dlpik@usp.br 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
periments performed with this element, which is referred to as MITC9N element, since it is formulated based on the same strain interpolation assumptions used for the MITC9 of the degenerated solid approach. We follow the numerical evaluation strategy suggested in [6].
2. The linear model of Naghdi The basic assumptions of the Naghdi model are that the material line normal to the midsurface in the original configuration remains straight and also unstretched during deformation and that the stresses in the direction normal to the midsurface are zero. We also assume that the material of the shell is elastic, homogeneous and isotropic. Using the Naghdi shell theory, the structural problem may be formulated in the form: Find Ut eU such that: (1)
yy
eU,
} n BC (2) is the space of admissible displacements, v is the displacement vector of the shell midsurface, r) lists rota
, r]_ e [H\Q)f
108
D. Chapelle et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Full cylinder with free ends (a bendingdominated case); Full cylinder with clamped ends (a membranedominated case). These problems were also analyzed in detail in [9]. We consider a cylindrical shell of uniform thickness t, length 2L and radius R loaded by an axiallyconstant pressure distribution p{(p) acting on the outer surface of the shell, p((p) = Pocos(2(p) (5)
tions of the sections (originally normal to the midsurface) and EC symbolically represents the essential boundary conditions imposed. The bilinear forms A(, ) and D(, ) = /)'"(,) + /)'(,) are, respectively, the bending and membrane/shear strain energies. We refer to the work of Bemadou [7] for the detailed expressions of A(, ), Z)(., ) and F(.).
3. The finite element formulation A conforming displacementbased approximation is obtained if we consider a space of admissible discrete displacements U^' c U. Let us denote by f/J' the finite element solution, with h denoting a representative mesh size. The displacementbased finite element problem corresponding to Eq. (1) is: Find r/J' G U^' such that: t^AiU^l V^) + rD(^f, V'') = F{V^) V y'' UK (3)
As proved in [6], the solution using the above approach is effective only when considering shell problems in which pure bending is inhibited. An effective approach to formulate reliable and quite efficient loworder shell elements is the use of mixed interpolation on strains and displacements. This mixed formulation can be written as the following discrete variational problem: Find U^l e W' such that: (4)
where (p denotes the circumferential angle. We take L = R = I. Furthermore, the material is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic with Young's modulus E = 200x 10^ and Poisson's ratio v = 1/3. At any point on the cylinder's midsurface, the formulation presented lead to the selection of the axial displacement Ml, circumferential displacement W2, radial displacement Ml and the rotations of the normal ^i about the tangent vector and ^2 about the longitudinal axis as the displacement variables. For the noninhibited case, we also impose the essential boundary conditions MI = U2 = UT, = P\ = PI = 0 on the clamped ends. Finally, the scalings applied to the loading were chosen accordingly, i.e. (6) for the noninhibited case and Po = t Po (7)
where D* is obtained by considering mixedinterpolated membrane and shear strain fields. The actual form of the membrane and shear strain fields and the details of D* can be found in [8].
4. Numerical experiments Since a mathematical analysis is at present out of reach, we must resort to judiciously selected numerical tests in order to assess the convergence behavior of shell elements. The aim of such a selection of problems is to determine whether a finite element discretization is equally well applicable to both categories of shell behaviors (membrane and bendingdominated) and whether its convergence properties are independent of the shell thickness. In other words, these requirements mean that locking must not occur (in bendingdominated cases) and consistency must not be lost in all terms (in particular, when a membranecase is analyzed). With due regard to these considerations, a suitable numerical evaluation strategy is presented in [6], where some wellposed test problems are also given. We use here two of such problems for the convergence studies:
for the inhibited case, where po = 2 x 10^ is a constant independent of t. We consider here uniform NxN meshes, where A^ is the ^ number of subdivisions per side in the angular direction of the discretized domain, with element sides aligned with the principal directions of curvature. A mesh grading scheme must be considered to appropriately capture the effect of stress gradients in the boundary layer region. Based on the results presented in [9], we consider a boundary layer width of 2^/t in which A layers of elements are also placed. We ^ use in ours tests A = 4, 8, 16 and 32. ^ Since locking corresponds to a deterioration of convergence behavior as the shell thickness decreases, it is crucial to compare the results of the same discretization for different values of t. Hence, the sequence of meshes is repeated for each problem considered for values of dimensionless thickness parameter t/R ranging from 1/10 to 1/1000. We take, as the reference solution, a finite element solution obtained with a very refined mesh, since the solution of the mathematical model is not available. The sequence of proposed meshes is solved and we use E^ as the error measure, where Er =
r^ def
(8)
D. Chapelle et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
INHIBITED CASE : CLAMPED CYLINDRICAL SHELL  t = 1/100 NONINHIBITED CASE: FREE CYLINDRICAL SHELL  Q2 Element
109
t / R = 1 / 1 0 9 t / R = 1/100 + t / R = 1/1000 E3ITHK)
" , .
0.1
\. \
U^ is the reference solution and (, ) is a casedependent symmetric bilinear form defined below. The error is then measured on an energy norm V \ = a(V,V). In the bendingdominated case, to render the error indicator Er independent of the thickness t, we define a( )'^d' A(,.) + Z)(,) (9)
0.01
^^^ ^^:^
"^f^^^^
'V..^^^'"""...
"Q
0.001
where J is a characteristic geometric dimension of the problem other than the shell thickness t. For membranedominated problems, we recall that D(, ) is a norm [6]. Therefore we use
"".
Fig. 3. Convergence for the free cyhnder problem, MITC9N element. (1) Considering noninhibited cases, we must have no shift of the error curves as the thickness t changes; (2) The curves obtained for the MITC9N element must be close to those of the Q2 element when inhibited cases are analyzed; (3) All curves must approach the direction parallel to the dashed line, corresponding to ^ = 2. Hence, any deviations from what is prescribed above will imply: locking, if (1) is violated; a lack of consistency of the mixed element solution, if (2) is not observed or that a reasonable convergence behavior is not attained, if (3) is not verified. Let us consider first the inhibited case. Fig. 1 shows the results obtained for both the Q2 and the MITC9N elements when t/R = 1/100. As expected, the little shift of MITC9N error curve (when compared to the corresponding Q2 curve) provides an evidence of the better performance of the displacementbased element in this
^(, ) = /)(, ).
(10)
The reference solutions U^ were calculated using the finest mesh (with A = 32), using the Q2 displacement^ based element for membranedominated cases or using the MITC9N element for bendingdominated cases. In Figs. 13 we plot the Er values vs. the number of elements per side N in the logarithmic scale. The aim is to estimate the magnitude of the constant c and the order of convergence k defined in \Er\=ch' (11)
and how these constants behave as we change the dimensionless thickness parameter t/R. Ideally, an element should have both constants c and k independent of the shell thickness t regardless of the nature of the problem (i.e. membrane or bendingdominated). In addition, k should approach its optimal value 2, considering that the loading is sufficiently smooth and the meshes were designed to reflect the exact solution [9]. We translate these requirements to the convergence methodology assessment considered here, i.e.:
no
D. Chapelle et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics The evaluation of this element has shown that we may expect an efficient and sufficiendy reliable performance in shell analysis. The numerical tests suggest that a relatively lockingfree behavior in the analysis of bendingdominated problems is achieved when the remarks concerning mesh properties are observed. In addition, consistency errors are kept in a reasonable magnitude for realistic small values of the ratio t/R. Finally, since the proposed element represents a connection between the easytouse general shell elements and a consistent 2D shell theory, we consider that a valuable step was taken towards providing a mathematically oriented guidance to obtain reliable and improved finite shell elements for general use.
case, due to the consistency errors deriving from the use of the modified biUnear form /)*(,). We recall that a better convergence behavior of the MITC9N element than that for the Q2 element should not be expected in this case. We note, however, that both elements present an excellent convergence behavior: the convergence is very close to the asymptotic rate ~ /z^. A similar behavior is obtained for the other values of t/R and of course the superiority of the displacementbased element (i.e. the distance between the error curves) becomes more and more clear as the ratio t/R decreases. We chose t/R = 100, in particular, because this represents a rather realistic value in practical applications and neither the influence of other energy terms than membrane (as for r//? = 1/10) nor of roundoff errors (as a result of a very fine mesh refinement for the boundary layer region when t/R = 1/1000) may significantly affect the results obtained. Let us consider now the noninhibited case. Figs. 2 and 3 show the results obtained for the Q2 and the MITC9N elements, respectively, for each one of the three values considered for the relation t/R. Again, there is no surprise in the displacementbased element behavior. In this case, as expected, its performance is strongly affected by locking effects, as it becomes clear from the shift of the curves as t decreases. We may also observe the deterioration of the order of convergence h accordingly. On the other hand, the MITC9N element shows an excellent performance: the error indicator E^ is essentially of the same order regardless of the case being solved (although we may observe a slight deviation in the convergence behavior for t/R = 1/10). Even though these results are very encouraging, we must not expect the same performance for the MITC9N element when either distorted or not graded meshes are used [8].
References [1] Dvorkin EN, Bathe KJ. A confinuum mechanics based fournode shell element for general nonlinear analysis. Eng Comput 1984;1:7788. [2] Bucalem ML, Bathe KJ. Higherorder MITC general shell elements. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993;36:37293754. [3] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures, 2nd edn., Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prenfice Hall, 1996. [4] Chapelle D, Bathe KJ. The mathemafical shell model underlying general shell elements. Int J Num Methods Eng 2000;48(2):289313. [5] Bathe KJ, losilevich A, Chapelle D. An evaluation of the MITC shell elements. Comput Struct 2000;75:130. [6] Chapelle D, Bathe KJ. Fundamental considerations for the finite element analysis of shell structures. Comput Struct 1998;66:1936. [7] Bemadou M. Finite Element Methods for Thin Shell Problems. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1996. [8] Chapelle D, Oliveira DL, Bucalem ML. On the reliability of MITC elements based on Naghdi's model. To appear. [9] Malinen M, Pitkaranta J. A Benchmark Study of ReducedStrain Shell Finite Elements: Quadratic Schemes. To appear.
5. Concluding remarks A ninenode mixedinterpolated finite shell element based on Naghdi's theory was formulated using the MITC approach.
Ill
Abstract Finite sliding between articular surfaces occurs during the motion of loaded diarthrodial joint. In this work, an attempt is made for frictional contact analysis of articular surfaces by introducing convected coordinates and redefining the sliding term as a spatial vector in the reference configuration to deal with finite sliding. Keywords: Finite element method; Frictional contact problem; Finite sliding; Articular surface
1. Introduction Force transmission by contact between articular surfaces plays an important role in mechanically initiated osteoarthritis. Ateshian and Wang [1] indicated that the interstitial fluid pressurized articular cartilage supports most of the load and thus significantly reduces the friction coefficient of the articular surface. However, the protection due to interstitial fluid pressurization may become less effective in degenerative cartilage. Taking into account the friction effect is considered to be necessary for revealing the factors causing and advancing osteoarthritis. Diarthrodial joints generally undergo considerable motion and finite sliding between contact surfaces during cyclical loading. To preserve the objectivity of the friction law, Laursen and Simo [2] developed a finite element method based on the convected coordinate system for analyzing frictional contact problems. In this method, a difficulty arises in dealing with finite sliding that occurs over the element boundary where local coordinates are discontinuous. Chen et al. [3] proposed a procedure to overcome this difficulty by redefining the sliding term as a spatial vector in the reference configuration. In this work, we attempt to apply the procedure of Chen et al. [3] to the frictional contact in articular surfaces.
2. Formulation for frictional contact problems with finite sliding In the formulation of Laursen and Simo [2], based on the convected coordinates, the friction force is derived as
Par =
(ti
where ptt denotes the covariant component of the friction force vector p ^ and tt and t' indicate covariant and contravariant base vectors at the contact point with convected coordinate ', respectively, s is the penalty parameter for the stick state. The relative velocity of contact points is given by (tt tj)^H\ It is noted that the lefthand side of Eq. (1) and the first term on the righthand side are in the form of the Oldroyd rate of a vector. Additionally, the second term on the righthand side includes a scalar and a product of the friction force vector with its norm. Thus, it is clear that the friction equation satisfies the objectivity requirement. Using the backward Euler integration for incremental analysis, the incremental form of Eq. (1) becomes
Ptk{i+\)t (^i^i^ = Ptk(i)t(i+i)
Pt_k{im+i)
'''^sn.
(1)
+ s (tk r^Oo'+DC^o'+i)  t ( o ) AX
1 ^k
t{i+\)\\
(2)
* Corresponding author. Tel/Fax: F81 (3) 58416321; Email: xchen@sml.k.utokyo.ac.jp 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
where subscripts (/) and (/ + 1) indicate the incremental steps. Considering Eq. (2), the increment of the convected coordinate appears as the result of incremental decomposition. In the finite element method, the contact surface is divided into elements and the local coordinate of every element is used practically as a convected coordinate. Thus, the increment of a convected coordinate cannot be com
112
X. Chen, T. Hisada /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Current configuration
Reference configuration
Fig. 1. Motion of contact surface.
puted if the contact point slides over the boundary of the element. To overcome this difficulty, the following approach is proposed. Defining incremental relative displacement as Ar^(^,.r,),+o(?^.^j^?^^,)rf,^,^ (3) and referring to the discretized contact surfaces shown in Fig. 1, Ar can be approximated using
^^<i+l)~<iy (4)
The mapped contact point can be obtained from its element local coordinate in the current configuration and the node coordinate before deformation.
3. Numerical example Although the mechanical property of articular cartilage exhibits viscoelasticity and the friction coefficient between articular surfaces depends generally on load, time and relative velocity, a numerical example is carried out focusing on the treatment of frictional contact problems with finite sliding. The distribution of contact stress is computed for a twodimensional simplified finite element model shown in Fig. 2. A hexahedral type of element with eight nodes is
66mm
where x[^^^^ is the position vector of the contact point at increment / + 1, whereas x\^ is the position vector, at increment / + 1 , of the material point where the contact point has been located at increment /. However, because of movement due to deformation, x\^ is unknown at increment / + 1. Because this movement affects the tangent stiffness due to friction, it is not convenient to use Eq. (4) directly. Now a mapping of the contact point to the reference configuration, as shown in Fig. 1, is considered. Let ^y(/+i) be the covariant base vector at the contact point x\^^^ in the current configuration (increment / + 1), and f JC+D and ff.^,j the covariant and contravariant base vectors, respectively, at the mapped point X[.^,j in the reference configuration. Use of the dyadic expression of the deformation gradient based on ^yo+i) and ^t\.^^^ gives Ar  (^,(,+1) . r.o+i))(^4+i^ ^'r)t{^^y,. where (5)
E = 5GPa, v = 0.3
50mm
Ar^(t,^^,,^.,)%,,^
(6)
t.
30mm
is the relative displacement increment mapped to the reference configuration and can be calculated as
AV
^ X'
 x\^
(7)
Finally, the use of Eqs. (3) and (5) with Eq. (2) results
Pr/:(/+l)^(, + l)  /?rA:(/)^(/+i)
+ e (^^^;)(/+i)('4+i)A'r)AX
(8) Fig. 2. Finite element model.
113
OH
'^
Vi
25
20
ju= 0.05
I 10 u
\ F = 400N Fig. 3. Deformation of two contact bodies. used and the degree of freedom in the direction leading out of the plane is constrained to simulate plane strain condition. Threedimensional analyses for real diarthrodial joints are currently under way. Fig. 3 shows the deformation of two bodies. By defining the relative movement of the contact points as a spatial vector in the reference configuration, the large amount of sliding of the contact node over the element boundary is successfully simulated. The distributions of contact stress with different values of friction coefficient fi are shown in Fig. 4. High contact stress occurs near the center of the contact area and is clearly affected by the friction coefficient.
of articular surfaces. Finite shding of the contact node over the boundary of the element is treated by redefining the relative movement in the reference configuration. The applicability of the proposed procedure was investigated by using a simplified twodimensional model. In further threedimensional analysis, to reveal the relevance between the friction phenomenon and the cause of mechanically initiated osteoarthritis, it is necessary to consider viscoelastic behavior of the articular cartilage and the dependence of the friction coefficient on the load, time and relative velocity.
References [1] Ateshian GA, Wang H. A theoretical solution for the frictionless rolling contact of cylindrical biphasic articular cartilage layers. J Biomech 1995;28(11): 13411355. [2] Laursen TA, Simo JC. A continuumbased finite element formulation for the implicit solution of multibody, large deformation frictional contact problems. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993;36:34513485. [3] Chen X, Nakamura K, Mori M, Hisada T. Finite element analysis for large deformation frictional contact problems with finite shding. JSME Int J Ser. A 1999;42(2):201208.
4. Conclusions A finite element approach that enables the analysis of frictional contact problems with finite sliding was introduced in an attempt to perform frictional contact analysis
114
Abstract A finite element human headneck model is under development for the car occupant safety simulation. The model is constructed based on the precise anatomical geometry and currently under validation process. In this paper, structural and physiologic explanations of the human headneck complex will be introduced as well as the modeling methodology. Some of the simulation results are also chosen to present major features of the model. Keywords: Human headneck; Finite element model
1. Introduction A finite element model of the human headneck complex has been developed in order to study the basic injury mechanisms due to the dynamics loading such as a car crash. The human headneck complex is well exposed to the abrupt translational and rotational movement compared to the rest of the body parts during a crash accident. These kinds of movements often cause serious injuries of the headneck complex even without direct contact with foreign objects. Relative movement of brain inside the skull, mainly caused by its inertia, could cause vascular injury on the connecting vessels and also may induce a negative pressure in subarachnoidal space, which result in axonal injuries. Soft tissues such as ligaments and muscles in the human cervical spine are easily injured when their connected bony parts undergo excessive motions in relation to each other. The causes of whiplash injury, for example, are known to be closely related to the damages of soft tissues located between the adjacent vertebrae that experience extraordinary movements in relation to each other. The understanding of the basic injury mechanisms of the human headneck complex, however, is quite limited and many studies have been carried out, both experimen* Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 (2) 3201699; Fax: +82 (2) 3260368; Email: hychoi@wow.hongik.ac.kr 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
tally [16] and analytically [712]. Recently, numerical simulations, especially using the finite element method, have been utilized to investigate the hypothetical theories based on experiments and clinical findings. Quite many numbers of finite element human head and neck models have been developed for this purpose and the evolution of computational models has been remarkable thanks to the advance of computational powers and the FE codes. The finite element model of the human headneck complex to be introduced in this paper is one of the submodules for the HModel family [12]. The HModel consists of articulated rigid skins with flexible joints (HARB), and detailed local models for important internal body components (e.g. head, neck, thorax, pelvis, ankle, etc.). These local modules can be selectively added to the HARB model when needed. In practice, the HModel is an assembly of the HARB model and the local modules that are selected depending upon the purpose of the investigation of the moment. The one with the distinguishing feature of the headneck model in this study would be the precise modeling of the fluidsolid interactions. The structural role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occupying the subarachnoidal space in the brain is a cushioning and buffering role between the skull and the brain as well as for transmitting forces. The Mumaghan equation of state for a solid element has been employed to model the CSF layers in the head and dura sec of the cervical spinal foramen. The incompressible behavior of CSF in the head, which has a closed volume,
H.Y. Choi et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics also induces a 'cavitation' when the brain has sufficient relative motions inside the skull. The ideal gas equation is, thus, apphed in order to simulate this cavitational phenomenon. These new attempts in the head model produce more realistic results than the previous head models do. Onedimensional Hill type bar elements recently became available in PamCrash^^ [13] and were used to simulate neck muscle forces. Active muscle forces according to the various activation times and level, restrict neck motions and therefore have an important function in the injuries. Multiply segmented twentythree neck muscles are included in the model.
115
ation with interconnecting ligamental rupture and vertebral burst fractures are typical injury patterns in the neck due to dynamic loading on the human neck (Fig. 2).
3. FE modeling of the human headneck complex Data from Visible human projects and View point datalab^^ are used to construct the geometry of the finite element model (Fig. 3). Fig. 4 shows the FE model of the headneck complex. Material properties assigned to bony components (Table 1), brain matter and soft tissues in the model are acquired from the Uterature [512].
2. Injury of the human headneck complex due to dynamic loading Major head injuries are skull fractures and brain damages. Most of the skull fractures result from direct impact of a foreign object on the head; brain damage, on the other hand, is caused by secondary impact within the cranial space and/or relative motions between skull and brain. Brain injury is often classified into diffuse and focal injuries according to their causes and symptoms. Fig. 1 shows typical MR and CT images of brain injuries. Sublux
4. Case studies: selected simulation results 4.1. Frontal pendulum impact on the head The experimental study using the cadavers performed by Nahum et al. [1] was used to vaUdate the head model for the case of Hnear acceleration loading. Since the neck was excluded in this simulation, a freeboundary condition was applied to the headneck joint. This constraint is justified by the findings of Willinger et al. [9] and Ruan et al. [10]
Fig. 1. MR and CT images of (a) hypointense lesion inside corpus callosum (hemorrhagic type of DAI) and (b) hypointense left frontal lesion (non hemorrhagic type of DAI), (c) frontal extradural haematoma, (d) acute subdural haematoma shift, (e) parietal contusion with midline shift.
.^" !
1^
116
I \
*
/t
^ni
Fig. 3. Process of building thefiniteelement model of the human head. about 45 to the Frankfort plane in the midsagittal plane (Fig. 5a). The mass and initial velocity of the pendulum were 6 kg and 5.9 m/s, respectively. Model responses were compared with the measured cadaver test data in terms of impact force, head acceleration (CG), and epidural pressures. We could observe the relative motion between the brain and the dura, posterior cavity, and flow of the CSF layer. High positive peak pressures appeared beneath the impact site in the frontal region and the greatest negative pressures were generated at the posterior fossa which, due to the inclination of the skull, was the area opposite the impact site. The coupcontrecoup pressures were considerably asymmetric. The head model predicted a maximum pressure of 250 kPa in the frontal region and a minimum pressure of 40 kPa in the contrecoup region. The overall trends of pressure histories from the calculation and test correlate quite well considering the possible geometric discrepancies between model and specific cadaver specimen. Fig. 5b shows the movement of head components and the pressure contour of the brain surface. The pressure gradients changed smoothly from the frontal to the posterior regions and a higher negative pressure, which representing
Fig. 4. Finite element headneck model (left: skeleton with neck muscles, right: quarter sectional view of head). who showed that the neck does not influence the kinematic head response during the pulse duration. The impact was delivered by a pendulum along the axis inclined at Table 1 Material properties of the Hmodel
Component Skull Outer table Inner table Diploe E 7.3 X 10^ 7.3 X 10^ B
P 3000 3000 1410 2700 2700 1133 1000 1000 1133 1133 1133 1040 1040 1000 1040
2.02 X 10^ 7.3 X 10^ 7.3 X 10^ 3.15 X 10* 1 X 10^ 1 X 10^ 3.15 X IC* 3.15 X 10* 3.15 X 10*
1.39 X 10^
Facial bone Mandible Dura mater Venous sinus CSF Falx Pia Tentorium Brain
E = Young's modulus (kPa); B = Bulk modulus (kPa); v  Poisson's ratio; p = mass density (kg/m^). =
H.Y. Choi et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
111
Impact pendulum
t = 0,0 ms
t = 2.5 ms
t = 5.0 ms
Stress_press(*e <GPa>
B ^^
1 _ _
6.2fe00S 3,75e00S
IF ^'"^^
STftTE 3.50004 STftTE 3.50004
Z _ ^ ^ M
t = 7.5 ms
(b)
Fig. 5. (a) Impact condition, and (b) coup and contrecoup pressure distribution on the brain due to the frontal pendulum impact. a probability of cavitation, occurred at the occipital and posterior areas. 4.2. Lowvelocity rear impact on the headneck complex Fig. 6 shows the extension of the headneck model due to the rear impact. Horizontal linear acceleration with maximum 5 g for 100 ms was applied at the thoracic level, which is a typical condition for the real accident. Responses of head and each cervical vertebra were verified with cadaver and live human volunteer test results and showed a good correlation. 5. Conclusion The objective of the finite element human model including the headneck model presented in this paper for car occupant safety simulation is to understand the basic injury mechanism and quantitatively assess the injury levels due to the dynamic loading. By applying the precise anatomic structures and material properties of each body component, constructed finite element model(s) could simulate the deformational behavior of the human body similar to the real event. In order to utilize these FE models and simulation results to predict
118
H. Y. Choi et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
.^ .
j
~^^^^H
1
STATE1:G STATE1:0
 VV
nM!^:lMw^ 11KN$yi18ll J
i^<M^ii^^.^MMii^ J ^ ^

STATEe:60i)(M)7
STATE6:e0j0007
'^ 1
dw^mm^m
mmm^^^^^tmet wmmmm
wmm^^e^^^t ^^^mumm ^ I I M I N ; ^ l i f p ^
fW^%timmi^
IHJim^y^ll^ JIM)4<mC^MRg
STATE 18:180.001
STATE 18:180.001
H.Y. Choi et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the detailed injury levels, a further validation procedure is needed.
119
References [1] Nahum M, Smith R, Ward CC. Intracranial pressure dynamics during head impact. In: Proceedings of the 21st Stapp Car Crash Conference, 1977, pp. 339366. [2] Bandak FA. Biomechanics of impact traumatic brain injury. In: Proceedings of the NATOASI on Crashworthiness of Transportation Systems, 1996, pp. 213253. [3] Donnelly R, Medige J. Shear properties of human brain tissue. J Biomech Eng 1997;119:423432. [4] Koshiro Ono et al. Relationship between Localized Spine Deformation and Cervical Vertebral Motions for Low Speed Rear Impacts Using Human Volunteers. IRCOBI Conference, Spain, 1999, pp. 149164. [5] Van der Horst MJ et al. The Influence of Muscle Activity on HeadNeck Response During Impact. SAE 973346. [6] Szabo TJ, Walcher JB. Human Subject Kinematics and Electromyographic Activity During Low Speed Rear Impacts. SAE 962432.
[7] Bandak FA, Eppinger RH. A threedimensional finite element analysis of the human brain under combined rotational and translational accelerations. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1994. [8] Claessens M, Sauren F, Wismans J. Modeling of the human head under impact conditions: a parametric study. In: Proceedings of the 41st Stapp Car Conference, 1997, pp. 315328. [9] Willinger R, Kang HS, Diaw B. Threedimensional human finiteelement model validation against two experimental impacts. Ann Biomed Eng 1999;27:403410. [10] Ruan JS, Khahl TB, King AL Finite element modeUng of direct head impact. In: Proceedings of the 37th Stapp Car Crash Conference, 1993, pp. 6981. [11] Voo L, Kumaresan S, Pintar FA, Yoganandan N, Sances A Jr. Finiteelement models of the human head. Med Biol Eng Comput 1996, pp. 375381. [12] HyungYun Choi, InHyeok Lee, Eberhard Haug, Advanced Finite Element Modeling of the Human Body for Occupant Safety; HModel for the next Millennium. Proceedings of 5th HanPam, 1999. [13] PamCrash, PamSafe, Theory Notes Manuals, version 2000, ESI Software.
120
A constitutive model associated with permanent softening under multiple bendunbending cycles in sheet metal forming and springback analysis
B.K. Chun *, J.T. Jinn \ J.K. Lee
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Abstract It is essential to model the Bauschinger effect correctly under cyclic bending for simulation of the sheet metal forming process and springback prediction. However, most cyclic plasticity models are designed so that the reverse flow stress always converges to the initial loading curve. These models cannot represent permanent softening which occurs in certain materials, such as high strength steel and aluminum alloys. Anisotropic nonlinear kinematic hardening rule is proposed to represent the Bauschinger effect including permanent softening under multiple bendingunbending cycles, which allows the bounding yield surface to grow at different rates for loading and reverse loading. Comparisons with the affordable tests, tensioncompression test and drawbead test, show that this model can predict cyclic bending behavior of sheet metal more accurately. Keywords: Bauschinger effect; Permanent softening; Cyclic bending; Nonlinear kinematic hardening; Sheet metal forming; Springback
1. Introduction Cyclic behavior of metal sheet plays a very important role in the sheet metal forming processes. A material point in a blank may experience 13 cycles (tensioncompressiontension) during the forming processes, which will influence springback. For example, bendingunbending on the die shoulder and rebendingunbending at the punch can be expected during a typical deep drawing process. Therefore the material model in the simulation of sheet metal forming should represent the proper behavior under multiple bendingunbending cycles. A reduction of yield stress due to reversal staining is known as the Bauschinger effect. It has been also observed that the Bauschinger curves (or reversal stressstrain curve) asymptotically approach or run parallel to the initial loading curve. For some high strength steels and aluminum alloys, offset of reversal flow * Corresponding author. Tel/Fax: +1 (614) 2923566; Email: chun.31@osu.edu ^ Present address: Scientific Forming Technology Company, 5038 Reed Rd., Columbus, OH 43220, USA. 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
curves have been reported in various references (see, for example, [1,2,17]). It is generally believed that three basic requirements for the material model to incorporate the Bauschinger effects in sheet metal forming are: correct nonlinearity of stressstrain loop; reduced elastic limit at reversal staining; permanent softening for some materials. Most material models for cyclic plasticity, including the Chaboche model [35,8], are designed so that the reverse flow stress always converges to the monotonic tensile stress curve. Therefore these models cannot represent permanent softening. The same issue has been investigated by Geng and Wagoner [12] and Wagoner et al. [17] with different approaches. An anisotropic nonlinear kinematic hardening model (ANK model) has been proposed to represent the Bauschinger effect including permanent softening [9,10]. By allowing the bounding surface evolve differently during the reversal straining in the nonlinear kinematic hardening rule, permanent softening can be expressed consistently over multiple bending cycles. In this way, the nonlinear evolution rule for the total back stress can be represented consistently during the whole deformation as in
B.K. Chun et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the Chaboche model. This feature always produces correct nonlinearity of the stressstrain loop at reversal straining.
Nk
121 (5c)
R=
KNc'^''s'
ai = CiS
YiOiiS
2. Material models for sheet metal forming with multiple bending 2.1. Nonlinear kinematic hardening model A material model for cyclic plasticity in simulation of sheet metal forming has been developed by Chaboche and colleagues [38,15]. This model has been recently implemented into most commercial finite element packages, such as ABAQUS, PamStamp and LSDYNA 3D. The back stress vector is assumed to be a sum of Nk vector components,
where K and N represent material parameters obtained by curve fitting the tensile data and overhead bar is used to signify scalar quantities for the uniaxial tension data. Hence the parameters to be determined are Ct and yt after the tensile data fit. The combined case, Eqs. (1), (2) and (5), has different evolution of yield surface size compared with Chaboche model, Eqs. (1), (2), and (3). Thus this modification is referred to as Modified Chaboche model. 2.2. Anisotropic nonlinear kinematic hardening model By superposing several backstress vectors which evolve individually. From the observation of experimental results [1,2,18], it is assumed that the amount of permanent softening can be expressed as the following; Aa = f{sPrs^ ) (6)
a = J2^,
(1)
Each component of back stress is assumed to evolve independently as, di = (a  a)s  Yiats (2)
where s^ is a current equivalent plastic strain and s^* is a prestrain at initial loading. Eq. (6) can be extracted from the evolution equation by introducing the anisotropic kinematic hardening term;
a = Oil + oi2
where Ct and yt represent material parameters that can be obtained from a cyclic test. The y, term determines the rate at which the saturation value of kinematic hardening decreases with increasing plastic deformation. When Q and Yi are zero, the model reduces to an isotropic hardening model. The expansion of yield surface size is governed as below:
Go + R
(7)
where oii and a 2 evolve differently during initial loading and subsequent reversal loading;
G^
ays' (a  a)s
yx{ax)s^
(8)
(3a) (3b)
Ri)^' (3c)
Oil =
G^
R=J:R^
Ri = bi(Qi ~
3. Numerical examples 3.1. Simulation of tensioncompression test To evaluate the effects of material models on the stress calculation of a tensioncompression test with AL6022T4 and EGDQ, one element is tested. Strain history is input and the corresponding stress and backstress are output. The lack of compression information is a common problem with flat metal sheets because compressive loads are difficult to apply in the sheet plane [19]. Therefore, the identification of the proper material model is another issue on the application in FEA of sheet metal forming processes. Details can be seen in references [9,10,1922]. The material parameters associated with the material models are shown in Table 1.
where Go represents the initial yield stress; Qi, bt, k, n are material parameters. This evolution rule can be modified to utilize the uniaxial tensile data directly through a simple curve fit with the following equation:
G=Go^K{lQ'''') (4)
If tension data is introduced, then Eq. (3c) can be modified, including the evolution of kinematic hardening as follows:
G"" =Go^R
(5a)
R=
K(lQ
^)E^^
(5b)
122
B.K. Chun et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Material models
Modified Chaboche ANK Tensile data by OSU Modified Chaboche ANK Tensile data by OSU
C (Mpa)
Ci C2
R values RO 74.2 200 N/A 300 310 N/A 0.73 0.73 R45 0.44 0.44 1.29 1.29 R90 0.63 0.63
C^o
EGDQ
reduced yield stress at reversal loading, but the reversal flow curves always converged to initial loading. While ANK model showed the permanent softening as well as the reduced reversal yield stress. Both Modified Chaboche and ANK models always produce a smooth transient stressstrain relation at the beginning of reverse loading. 3.2. Drawbead test A drawbead simulator has been popularly used for evaluating the drawing forces during sheet metal forming process. Recently Jiang et al. [14] used this test for the predictability of springback. The same test is employed to observe the effects of the material models on springback prediction in this study. Two material models, Modified Chaboche and ANK models are implemented into ABAQUS/Standard through UMAT and compared with conventional isotropic hardening model. Normal anisotropic yield criterion is used for all materials models of EGDQ. The blank was drawn to a maximum of 165 mm in the rolling direction with 1.6 mm fixed gap condition. The specimen thickness is 0.8 mm. Total analysis is composed of four steps; move die for bead formation with displacement control, drawing the blank with fixed gap, pseudo step for remove dies, and springback. For more accurate calculation of internal stress, 25 integration points through thickness are used for a fournode shell element (S4R). Along the length direction, 100 elements are used for smooth change of contact history. One element is used for half of width with plane strain assumption. Friction coefficient between the specimen and dies are assigned as 0.138. Die shapes and dimension are shown in Fig. 3. The final deformed shapes after springback are highly dependent on the material models as shown in Fig. 4. Two reference lines separated by a distance of 102 mm are used for the calculation of radius as described in [14]. These two lines are marked as points in Fig. 4. The corresponding clamping force and drawing force are compared with measured ones by Jiang [14] in Table 2. Isotropic hardening model requires higher forces both clamping and drawing with fixed 1.6mm gap, which makes a larger curvature. Even the Modified Chaboche model cannot predict
0.04
0.12
0.16
tension curve ; ^
2 S
(D
200
^ H
i
\ 1
1 l
0
^
0.04
0.12
0.16
Fig. 2. Comparison of Bauschinger curves for EGDQ. The generated stresses of Modified Chaboche and ANK models are obtained and compared with the measured tensioncompress data by Balakrishnan [1] in Figs. 1 and 2. Considering the three features of Bauschinger effects as described before, Modified Chaboche model showed the
B.K. Chun et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 2 Comparison of modified Chaboche model and ANK model for drawbead test: EGDQ Isotropic hardening Radius ^ (mm) Clamping force (kN) Drawing force (kN) 70 5.048 5.736 Modified Chaboche model 150 3.602 4.256 ANK model 250 2.114 2.604
123
t
A
99
D r a w i n g Force
^^
Die T Gap 1
Jf4
1 R=65 \
162
.1
^R=6.5 Specimen
Unitimm
Fig. 3. Die shape and dimension for drawbead forming and springback.
models, Modified Chaboche model and ANK model, are proposed. Based on comparisons with tensioncompression tests, the fundamental multiple bending behaviors are compared. It is shown that the ANK model can present permanent softening correctly, while the Modified Chaboche model does not. Therefore, the ANK model is very effective in calculating cyclic bending behavior. Finally, springback prediction of the proposed model is evaluated by using a drawbead test. From comparison, the accurate considering of the Bauschinger effects through the material model is essential for better springback prediction in the sheet metal forming processes.
Acknowledgements
Isotropic hardening d Chaboche
The authors would like to express sincere gratitude to the following: SPP committee for financial support; Ohio supercomputer Center for providing generous computing services; Professor R.H. Wagoner and Mr. Balakrishnan for providing the experimental data of the tensioncompression test; Ms. Jiang for drawbead test results; Mr. Allen for providing tensile data and proofreading the manuscript.
References Fig. 4. Comparison of deformed shapes after springback: EGDQ. the measured curvature properly. The generated forces of these models can be overestimated due to no permanent softening during multiple bending actions. Only the ANK model can give us closer values compared to measured values. However, error between ANK model predictions and measured ones still exist. Assumptions for plane strain condition through width direction and normal anisotropic yield function may be possible sources of error. [1] Balakrishnan V. Measurement of inplane Bauschinger Effect in metal sheets, Master thesis, The Ohio State University, 1999. [2] Bate PS, Wilson DV. Analysis of the Bauschinger effect. ActaMetall 1986;34(6): 10971105. [3] Chaboche JL. Viscoplastic Constitutive Equations for the Description of Cyclic and Anisotropic Behavior of Metals. Bull Acad Polonaaise Sci Sevie Sc Techn 1977;25(1):33. [4] Chaboche JL, DangVan K, Cordier G. Modelization of the strain memory effect on the cyclic hardening of 316 stainless steel. SMIRT5, Division L., Berlin, 1979. [5] Chaboche JL, RousseUer G. On the Plastic and Viscoplastic Constitutive Equations Based on the internal variables concept, SMIRT6 Post Conf, Paris, TP ONERA no. 811, 1981. [6] Chaboche JL, RousseUer G. On the plastic and viscoplastic constitutive equations. J. Pressure Vessel Technol 1983;105:153164. [7] Chaboche JL. Time independent constitutive theories for cycUc plasticity. Int J Plast 1986;2(2):149.
4. Concluding remarks The effect of material models on springback prediction is discussed in this paper. To incorporate the Bauschinger effects of metal sheet under multiple bending, two material
124
B.K. Chun et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [16] Takahashi H, Shiono I. Backlash model for large deformation behavior of aluminum under torsional cyclic loading. Int J Plastic 1991;7:199217. [17] Wagoner RH, Geng L, Balakrishnan V. Role of hardening law in springback. Proceedings of Plasticity, 2000. [18] Wilson DV, Bate PS. Analysis of the Bauschinger effect, Acta Metall 1983;34(6): 10971105. [19] Zhao K. Cyclic stressstrain curve and springback simulation, Ph.D dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1999. [20] Zhao K, Lee JK. On simulation of bending/reverse bending of sheet metals. ASME, MEDVol. 10, Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 1999, pp. 929933. [21] Zhao K, Lee JK. Inverse estimation of material properties for sheet metals. Commun Num Methods Eng, in press. [22] Zhao K, Lee JK. Material properties for accurate simulation of springback, ASME Trans J Eng Mat Technol, submitted.
[8] Chaboche JL. Constitutive equations for cyclic plasticty and cyclic viscoplasticity. Int J Plast 1989;5:247302. [9] Chun BK, Jinn JT, Lee JK. Modeling the Bauschinger Effect for sheet metals, part I: Theory. Int J Plast, to appear. [10] Chun BK, Kim HY, Lee JK. Modeling the Bauschinger Effect for sheet metals, part H: Applications. Int J Plast, to appear. [11] Crisfield MA. NonLinear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures, Vol. 2. John Wiley and Sons, 1997. [12] Geng L, Wagoner RH. Springback analysis with a modified nonlinear hardening model, SAE2000010410, 2000. [13] Geng L. Application of plastic anisotropy and nonisotropic hardening to springback prediction, Ph.D dissertation, The Ohio State University, 2000. [14] Jiang S, Garnett M, Liu SD. Springback of sheet metal subjected to multiple bendingunbending cycles, SAE 2000011112,2000. [15] Lemaitre J, Chaboche JL. Mechanics of Solid Materials, Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 161241.
125
Nonlinear wave propagation in softening media through use of the scaled boundary finite element method
Roger S. Crouch*, Jens FernandezVega
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield SI 3JD, UK
Abstract This paper reports on the use of a novel Finite Elementbased substructure method to model the dynamic farfield in Mode I localisation analyses. The requirement for accurate yet efficient representations of an elastic domain extending to infinity in wave propagation studies is discussed. In particular, the need to cope with arbitrarily oriented stress waves arriving at an interaction horizon is recognised. The work presented here forms part of a larger study into ratedependent regularisation techniques which are designed to recover objectivity in fracture simulations using an equivalent continuum (smeared crack) approach. After briefly describing the Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method, the paper shows how this attractive scheme may be incorporated into a nonlinear implicit dynamic FE code. The use of an elementbyelement, nonsymmetric, iterative solver is discussed and an example given of strain localisation using an advanced, generalised elastoplasticity constitutive model for concrete. Keywords: Strainsoftening; Wave propagation; Dynamic farfield; Elementbyelement iterative solver; Generalised elastoplasticity model for concrete
1. Introduction Considerable interest currently exists in identifying robust, efficient equivalent continuum methods of simulating fracture in concrete structures. Todate most localisation investigations (which are designed to explore the sensitivity of the solutions to the FE mesh density and mesh orientation) have been based on the use of simplified constitutive models. While findings from these preliminary studies are valuable, there is a strong need to undertake further analyses using more advanced constitutive models which are able to account for the brittleductile transition under increasing confinement. One difficulty in modelling dynamic fracture propagation (for example, when simulating the splitHopkinson bar experiments) is that of extending the mesh sufficiently far away from the region of interest to prevent stress wave reflections corrupting the results. The additional degrees of freedom lead to high CPUtimes. Use of local transmitting boundary methods can introduce errors when the wave strikes the boundary nonorthogonally. * Corresponding author. Tel.: F44 (114) 2225716; Fax: ^44 (114) 2225700; Email: r.crouch@sheffield.ac.uk 2001 PubHshed by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
Recently, a highly innovative global (that is, spatially and temporally coupled) technique has emerged which mimics the response of unbounded domains in a rigorous manner. This paper briefly describes the method in Section 2, presenting the FE dynamic equilibrium equation. Section 3 identifies the form of the hardeningsoftening elastoplasticity model adopted and subsequently reports on a Mode I localisation study. After presenting these FE results, some comments are given on the value of monitoring the evolution in the determinant of the acoustic tensor. Such a measure expresses the state of the material during softening and may be used to drive automatic remeshing strategies.
2. The scaled boundary finite element method The Scaled Boundary Finite Element (SBFE) Method is constructed from an assumption of geometric similarity in the unbounded medium [2]. A scaling centre is identified and the unit response impulse matrices obtained by forming a relationship between two nested regions. The method converges to the solution in the Finite Element sense in the
126
R.S. Crouch, J. FernandezVega/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
tangential direction and is exact in the radial direction (satisfying the radiation condition at infinity). The technique (similar to the Boundary Integral Method) reduces the number of dimensions by one on the structureunbounded domain interface but operates with fullypopulated symmetric substructure matrices [ModThe dynamic forces at the structureunbounded medium interface (representing the presence of the farfield) are discretised as
{V*} = 
1 i^(AO
:[M]
PAt I'd)
'M^
'Ad'
'^11
convolution
El ?+i,Moc]{!k,^}
f tAt
^11
(1)
where [M^] represents a piecewise constant acceleration unit impulse matrix with units the same as those of a damping matrix. Full details of how these are constructed is given by [2]. The velocity and acceleration approximations are taken as identical to those used in the Newmark algorithm (for example, see [6]). Incremental nonlinear equilibrium is expressed as [K*]l'+'''8d''^'} = {8f*] [K'] = ^K' (2)
where the superscript k refers to the (NewtonRaphson) iteration number, [K] and [M] are the familiar system matrices [7] and {/im} and {/ext} are the internal and external forces, respectively. P and y represent the Newmark parameters and [d] identifies the nodal displacements (overdots refer to time derivatives thereof). The second equation in (2) and equation (3) may be assembled in an elementbyelement approach allowing the first equation in (2) to be solved efficiently using an iterative scheme. In the work reported here, a GMRES stabilised, diagonally preconditioned, biconjugate gradient algorithm is used [8]. This solver routine can treat nonsymmetric systems (which arise through a lack of normality in the plastic flow rule).
3. Dynamic localisation analysis A prism comprising sixteen 20noded isoparametric elements is used to represent a 0.05 x 0.05 x 0.005 m concrete specimen under dynamic tensile loading. Four SBFE elements are attached to the top face of the structure and four to the bottom. Two scaling centres are used in this novel analysis (each placed 10^ m away from the SBFEFE interfaces; one below and one above). A ramped tensile load (in the form of a uniformly distributed pressure) is applied at the upper SBFEFE interface (Fig. la). Fig. lb shows a portion of an equivalent extended mesh analysis. Note that the use of simple transmitting boundaries (local in space and time [1]) rather than the SBFE approach would have resulted in runtime savings, but errors would be introduced as the stress waves do not strike the interface normally, once localisation initiates. An advanced, generalised elastoplasticity constitutive model is used to represent the concrete. This formulation includes nonlinear, pressuredependent hardening and fractureenergycontrolled softening [3]. Considerable care has been taken to provide a robust, accurate stress return algorithm in this model [4]. Extensions to include a form of DuvautLions viscosity are reported elsewhere [5]. Here an inviscid simulation is given. The multiaxial hardening and softening surface is de
s^'
.c^^^
(a)
Fig. 1. (a) 16element mesh with 8 SBFE interface elements, (b) Equivalent extended mesh.
R.S. Crouch, J. FernandezVega /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
stagel stagell stagelll 4'" determinantof acoustictensor
111
H>j
of the minimum determinant of the acoustic tensor versus the timestep number (for point A) shows a steady drop followed by a slight recovery in the final stages of the analysis despite continued softening. The acoustic tensor is calculated (using a hierarchical search algorithm) at each sampling point, at the end of each timestep, using
Qjk=niD\.j^ini (5)
50
axialstress(MPa)strain
Fig. 2. Acoustic tensor determinant maps (top), stressstrain response at point A (right, front) minimum determinant of acoustic tensor at point A (right, rear) cohesion contour (left, rear) strain profile (left, front). scribed by
i"
+ ^cky
mky 
2
V3
=0 (4)
where n is the search direction. The determinants resulting from the nonlinear constitutive tangent tensors (Z)y^/) have been normalised with respect to the linear elastic constitutive tensor (>fy^/). Note that the spheres have been plotted in a skewed orientation. The black lines show the true axial directions. Dark red regions indicate that the nonlinear acoustic tensor has changed little from the corresponding elastic tensor, whereas blue zones show where the determinant has become negative. The latter leads to a loss of wellpossedness in the problem, creating inobjective results as mesh densities change (not shown here). The introduction of an effective material length into the constitutive formulation can recover objectivity. Note that the onset of localisation has been used by Pearce [9] as a monitoring device to trigger realignment of the element boundaries and refinement of the local mesh density. Preliminary use of the SBFE has illustrated its potential to produce useful dynamic strain softening simulations, avoiding spurious wave reflections.
where c represents a measure of cohesion (which degrades under increasing fracture strain) and k represents a measure of material hardening, p and ^ are the HaigWestergaard deviatoric and hydrostatic stress invariants, respectively, and r provides a Lode angle dependent function. Fig. 2 shows two contour plots of the structure. The rear mesh illustrates the degree of softening achieved at the end of the analysis (the blue zone at the top indicates almost a complete loss of cohesion, whereas the red region at the base suggests almost no degradation). The mesh to the front of Fig. 2 gives the corresponding strain profile at the end of the run. Once localisation occurs (in a single row of Gauss points at the top of the structure) and axial stretching continues, the lower portion unloads elastically, as indicated by the blue zone. A representative axial stressstrain plot from the analysis (at the point A, identified by the white circle) is given in Fig. 2. A tensile strength of approximately 3.5 MPa is realised, whereafter softening occurs. The three circles on this stressstrain diagram refer to three stages in the analysis. Note that a softer element at the lower lefthand comer of the specimen was introduced to provide nonsymmetry in the problem; thereby creating nonnormal stress waves striking the SBFE interfaces. The contoured spheres at the top of Fig. 2 illustrate the directional variation of the determinant of the acoustic tensor at the three different stages in the analysis (I, prepeak; II, just postpeak; and III, at the end of the run). The plot
References [1] Lysmer J, Kuhlemeyer RL. Finite dynamic model for infinite media. J Eng Mech ASCE 1969;95:859877. [2] Wolf JP, Song C. FiniteElement Modelling of Unbounded Media. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1996. [3] Tahar B. C2 Continuous Hardening/Softening ElastoPlasticity Model for Concrete. PhD Thesis, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, UK, 2000. [4] Tahar B, Crouch RS. Techniques to ensure convergence of the closest point projection method in pressure dependent elastoplasticity models. In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Cambridge, MA, June 1215, 2001. [5] Mesmar S. On the Use of DuvautLions Viscosity as a Regularisation Technique in Softening Media. PhD Thesis, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, UK, 2000. [6] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. [7] Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. The Finite Element Method, 5th Edn. New York: McGrawHill, 2000. [8] Smith IM. General Purpose Parallel Finite Element Programming. 7th Annual Conference of the Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering, Durham, UK, 1999, pp. 2124. [9] Pearce CJ. Computational Plasticity in Concrete Failure Mechanics. PhD Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea, UK, 1996.
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Abstract In this paper, we employ the generalizeda time integration scheme for treating elastodynamic contact problems. The criteria invoked for the selection of the time integration parameters are motivated by our desire to ensure that the solution is unconditionally stable, second order accurate, provides optimal high frequency dissipation and preserves energy and momentum transfer in dynamic rigid impact problems. The selected parameters help in avoiding the spurious high frequency modes, which are present in the traditional Newmark method. New closedform expressions for the time integration parameters are determined in terms of a userspecified high frequency spectral radius. The dynamic contact problem is formulated in terms of the variational inequalities approach and solved using quadratic programming. In order to demonstrate the versatility and accuracy of the proposed time integration scheme, two numerical examples are examined. The results show a significant improvement compared to existing solution techniques. Keywords: Contact; Impact; Time integration; Generalizeda scheme; Modified Newmark
1. Introduction Dynamic finite element analyses usually employ time integration methods. The implicit schemes are unconditionally stable and involve larger time steps. Although the Newmark method is the most popular implicit scheme, its commonly used values {y = ip = 0.5) result in excessive numerical oscillations and is therefore unsuitable for contact problems. For such problems, the use of }/ = ^ = 0.5 is recommended [1]. These parameters result in second order accuracy and satisfy energy and momentum conservation during rigid impact. However, they also result in spurious high frequency modes for small time steps. Introduction of numerical dissipation in the Newmark scheme reduces these oscillations, but leads to a loss of second order accuracy. In this paper, the variational inequalities expressions representing the contact problems are solved through a sequence of mathematical programming problems. The generalizedQf scheme is used for time marching. The four * Corresponding author. Tel.: hi (416) 9785741; Fax: Hi (416) 9787753; Email: meguid@mie.utoronto.ca 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
time integration parameters are selected to satisfy unconditional stability, second order accuracy, provide optimal high frequency dissipation and preserve energy and momentum transfer in dynamic rigid impact problems. The resulting values avoid numerical oscillations often present in impact and dynamic frictional problems.
2. Time integration scheme 2.7. Introduction The time integration scheme establishes a relationship between the acceleration, velocity and displacement fields at time t and r 4 Ar as follows: '+^'U = 'U + [(1  yyt f y^+^^tJ]A^ ^+^^U] (la) (lb)
The use of the trapezoidal rule (y = ip = 0.25) with a fully implicit treatment of the contact constraints produces oscillations, which can be significant as the time steps and spatial discretizations are refined. Recently, the
A. Czekanski, SA. Meguid/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics generalizedQf method was developed for solving structural dynamics problems with second order accuracy even if numerical dissipation is presented [2]. In this method, the equation of motion is modified by introducing two new parameters ag and an'. jYI (f+Aoas^ + C (^+^^)wu + K (^+^oa//u _ a+Aoan jr (2) where (r+AOa//u = (1 _ an) '+^'U + au 'U a+AOanu ={\an) ^+^'U + an 't (3) P = 0.25 {2al f 0^5(3 + 2aH)  2) /{aB  1) K = 0.5 + Of//  aB
129
(6)), and energymomentum conservation criterion (Eq. (7)): otH = Poo/(poo  1) (8a)
an = (2al + of^  1 + ^ 2 ^ 1  3 ^ 5 + 2^ / ( I  a^) for  0.5 <aB< 0.5 (8b) (8c) (8d)
where poo is a userspecified high frequency spectral radius. Note that Eq. (5b) is not used.
2.2. Criteria for selecting time integration parameters A second order accurate solution is obtained for the generalizeda method when [2]:
/ = 0 . 5 +Of// as
3. Finite element implementation For each time increment, the solution algorithm can be summarized as follows: (i) evaluate the equivalent stiffness matrix and load vector using the generalizedof time integration scheme, and (ii) solve the current timeinstant iteratively to obtain the displacement, velocity and acceleration fields as well as the current contact surface and contact forces. In conjunction with the generaUzedof method, the reduced variational inequalities formulation is equivalent to solving the following minimization problem [4]:
minfi^+^^AU^'+^'^K^+^^AU'+i  ^+A^AU''+IT^+A.^P+I
?+ A?ATT + ^+^^AU''+^ TS'+^'Fy.} V'+^^AUi + l
(4)
In order to maintain unconditional stability, the following inequalities must be satisfied:  1 < c^5 < // < 0.5 and ^ > 0.25 + 0.5(0?^  as) (5) It is also desirable to filter the high frequency components of the response. This condition is satisfied when [2]: y = 0.25(1^5+Of/,)' S (6)
For frictionless contact problems another criterion can be derived based on conservation of momentum and energy during rigid impact. This criterion is formulated based on the generic problem of two dissimilar stiffnessfree masses in contact. The time integration scheme should ensure that the rebound velocities of the two point masses satisfy energy and momentum conservation. Furthermore, the contact should last for only one time step. The analytical solution is satisfied when ^ is given by [3]: P = 0.25 {2al + a^O + 2^^)  2)/{aB  1) subject to: P<0.5(aB\)(l + 2y)/{aB2) (7)
(9)
subject to: (10a) and jr+Ar^U/+i < ST('+^'U^'  ^U) where K = {\ ' aH)K + {\  aB) ^M (11a) (10b)
For elastic problems, a small amount of energy is lost during impact. This amount depends on the selected time integration parameters as well as the mesh size. 2.3. Optimal time integration parameters for contact problems The values of the time integration parameters can now be selected based on the following criteria: second order accuracy (Eq. (4)), optimal high frequency damping (Eq.
;6Af2
fiM
\2fi
)i
(lib)
The first constraint (Eq. (10a)) represents the assembly of the kinematic contact conditions of the nodes on the candidate contact surface Fc Eq. (10b) represents the assembly of the nondifferentiable frictional constraint for the nodes on the candidate contact surface. In this expression, the matrix T extracts the discretized tangential displacement components from the global displacement vector. The
130
A. Czekanski, SA. Meguid/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2.0o.i: H^O.4*
t
sign matrix S, which allows to switch between two complementary frictional subproblems, is unknown a priori, and is part of solution. 3.1. Springmass system
1^.
0.5
2.5x10'
4. Numerical examples 4.1. Impact of two identical bars In bars. (Fig. ities. this example, we consider the impact of two identical These bars were modeled using fournoded elements 1). Both bars were given initial opposing unit velocFig. 2 shows the time history of the contact force
Beam:E,= 10\ v, = 0, p, = 0.01 Rigid block: E,= 10', v,= 0, p, = 2.5 Fig. 3. FE model of springmass system investigated.
'rMiiiiiiiiiiiiinnii
I
h
10
10.02
4<
[nn
10
for two time integration schemes and two time increments. The results show that the time increment strongly affects the contact force when using the classical Newmark approach. This scheme also fails to represent contact for the smaller time step. Superior results (displacement, velocity, acceleration and contact forces) are obtained using the generalizeda scheme with the newly selected parameters. In this example, we examine the springmass system. The spring and mass are modeled using 4noded elements (Fig. 3). In order to model a nearly rigid mass and a flexible weightless spring, the material properties satisfied the 10
1 At=5xlO' At=8xlO'
(b)
c o o
4 V 2
..
A
E2
^
0.04
^
0.02 Time
^
0.03 0.04
0.01
Fig. 2. Total contact force for colliding bars for two selected time increments using: (a) Newmark scheme {y = ^ = 0.5), and (b) generalizeda {y =2^ = an = OCB = 0.5). 0.5 0.5
(a)
(b)
E2
0.5 1 Time,s 2
llllli
imiiyii
E2
0.5
'J
1 Time,s 2
Fig. 4. Total friction force for springmass system using: (a) Newmark scheme (y = ^ = 0.5), and (b) generalizedo? (y = 2^ = an = as = 0.5).
A. Czekanski, SA. Meguid/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics following conditions: pi < p2 and Ei ^ E2. The mass was subjected to a constant prescribed vertical displacement 8. A horizontal step load F was then applied. The time histories of the total friction force shown in Fig. 4(a) and Fig. 4(b) were obtained using Newmark and generalizedQf schemes. The newly proposed method experienced smaller numerical oscillations in contact forces compared to the classical Newmark scheme, when the system experiences transition from slip to stick.
131
lations in impact and dynamic frictional contact problems and is less sensitive to variations in the time increment.
References [1] Chaudhary AB, Bathe KJ. A solution method for static and dynamic analysis of threedimensional contact problems with friction. Comput Struct 1986;24:855873. [2] Chung J, Hulbert GM. A time integration algorithm for structural dynamics with improved numerical dissipation: the generalizeda method. J Appl Mech 1993;60:371375. [3] Czekanski A, ElAbbasi N, Meguid SA. Optimal time integration parameters for elastodynamic contact problems. Commun Numer Methods Eng 2000; submitted. [4] Czekanski A, Meguid SA. Solution of dynamic frictional contact problems using nondifferentiable optimization. Int J Mech Sci 2000; submitted.
5. Conclusions In this work, a generalized^ scheme, with optimal contact parameters, was employed for the time integration of the dynamic frictional contact problem. The proposed technique leads to a significant reduction in numerical oscil
132
Abstract This investigation is devoted to the development of a novel semianalytical solution for a nonlinear dynamical system involving frictional interaction. A piecewiseconstant procedure is employed in developing the solutions which are continuous everywhere in terms of displacement and velocity. Keywords: Friction interaction; Piecewiseconstant argument; Nonlinear dynamics; Oscillation; Approximate analysis; Brushspring system
1. Introduction Friction is the primary source of oscillations in many mechanical systems. The friction and nonlinear damping forces produce nonlinearity in mechanical systems. Uncertainties are always presented in modeling the motions involving contacts and interfaces, and the interactions of friction and the overall system lead to the possibility of unstable and complex dynamic behavior. In this paper, the motion of a highly nonlinear dynamical system with frictional interactions is investigated. A semianalytical solution of a nonlinear system is produced by a piecewiseconstant technique reported by Dai and Singh [1,2]. The solution developed is in a closed form and continuous everywhere. The numerical results based on the semianalytical solution provide convergence with sufficient accuracy.
expressible in the following form. x//" f IQ^xJ/' + ^ V = ^ [ ( K + M) sin lA  (1  fjiy) cos ir] (1) where F = F\sin xj/ y\y cos x// \2^xl/' cos x// 2^ yxj/'sin xl;\xjf''cos xfr xl^' sini//yxlf" sin xj; yxjr' cos xjr (2) The corresponding motion is governed by the following equation if ^ < 0, xj; ^IQ^xj/' where F = F sinxlf y \ y cos x// l^x//' cos xj/ It; yxjf'sin xj/ xf;" cos^\xjr' sinxjr yxl/" sin xjr yx//' sini/r (4) + Q^xl; = F[{y \ /i) sin x// + (I \ fiy) cos xj/] (3)
2. Governing equation and the corresponding semianalytical solution Swayze and Akay recently investigated the behavior of a brushspring system from a window lift electric motor [3]. A steady friction force excites the system. The oscillatory motion of the brush of the system is governed by the following equations of motion for the two conditions of positive and negative values of the angular displacement of the brush x//. For positive x//, the governing equation is *Tel.: +1 (306) 5854498; Fax: +1 (306) 5854855; Email: liming.dai@uregina.ca 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
In the above equations, the prime ( )' represents the derivative with respect to a nondimensional time r; F, y, ^, IJL and ^ are parameters related to physical and geometrical measurements of the system. To approximately or numerically solve the governing equations (1) and (3), the piecewiseconstant technique presented by Dai and Singh [1,2] can be employed. By the piecewiseconstant technique, a nonlinear dynamical system is converted into a linear oscillatory system on an arbitrary time interval, [Nz]/N < r < ([A^r] 1)/A^, to obtain a continuous
L. Dai/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics solution. A is a parameter controlling accuracy of the ^ solution. When N is large enough, the corresponding solution can be sufficiently accurate. As A approaches infinity, ^ theoretically, the approximate solution produced by piecewiseconstant technique becomes the accurate solution. For solving the nonlinear differential equations (1) and (3) by the piecewiseconstant technique, the terms on the righthandside of the equal sign in equations (1) and (3) are considered as constants in a tiny time interval, [A^r]/A^ < T < ([A^r] \)/N, such that the nonlinear differential equations are converted to linear ordinary differential equations in the following form. f'; + 2Qi^lf[ + Q^^lft=Ai
(5)
133
R =
For the case xjr > 0, At in Eq. (6) is considered as a constant Ai = Fi[(y + /x) sindi (1 /xy) cos J/] (6)
and the iih interval is random, for r > 0, general solution of the problem can thus be obtained in the following form on the entire time range considered.
C S ( r ^O
NT]\
(9) cos A ^ ^ N Eq. (7) is an approximate solution to Eq. (1) in a closed form. The recurrence relations can be directly derived from Eq. (7) for numerically solving for governing equation (1). It can be seen from Eq. (7), the approximate solution is continuous everywhere in the time range r > 0. In numerically calculating for the motion governed by equations (1) and (3), the solutions developed through the recurrence relations provide results with sufficient accuracy in comparing with the fourthorder RangeKutta method, except that the solution produced by RangeKutta method is discrete. As can be seen from the discussion above, the motions of the nonlinear dynamical system involving frictional interaction are complex. With the help of the piecewiseconstant technique, continuous closedform approximate solution for the nonlinear dynamical system is derived allowing further theoretical analysis, and a numerical simulation for the motion of the system can be conveniently carried out on the basis of the solutions.
A^
Kf)' 1
'OK"
cos A^
sm
A^
1 . ?  sm ? A^
cos \^x i
References N
(7)
[1] Dai L, Singh MC. An analytical and numerical method for solving linear and nonlinear vibration problems. Int J Solids Struct 1997;34:27092713. [2] Dai L, Singh MC, On oscillatory motion of springmass systems subjected to piecewise constant forces. J Sound Vibrat 1994;173(2):217232. [3] Swayze JL, Akay A. Effects of system dynamics on frictioninduced oscillations. J Sound Vibrat 1994;173:599609.
M/N
cos
sm
^2
(8)
134
Abstract This paper deals with a novel displacement variational formulation for elasticity. The mathematical model is obtained from the stationarity condition of a modified hybrid functional expressed in terms of displacements and tractions. The domain displacement field is approximated by suitable trial functions, whereas the boundary variables are expressed by using their nodal values. The final system is expressed in terms of nodal displacements only and it is symmetric and positive definite. Moreover, the domain integrals can be directly transformed into boundary ones to recover the boundary nature of the method. Keywords: Variational approaches; Quadrature methods; Numerical methods; Boundary methods
1. Introduction Fundamental properties of selfadjoint problems, as the symmetry and definiteness of discrete operators, play a crucial role from both theoretical and numerical point of view. The FEM possesses the abovementioned requisites of the energy based domain discretization methods. On the other hand, the conventional BEM destroys the continuum properties, but leads to accurate results with some computational advantages compared to field methods. In this paper, a novel displacement variational formulation is derived basing on a hybrid variational formulation of BEM [14]. With such a formulation, the mathematical model involves nodal displacements only and its matrix operators preserve the symmetry and definiteness properties of the continuum. Additionally, these operators are computed running boundary integrations of regular kernels only with the consequent computational advantages.
ment and traction vectors. The functions u, u and t are assumed as independent variables. According to references [46], let us introduce the following modified functional d^
 f {uuYidr fu^lc
r r2
(1)
where e is the strain vector, p is the mass density, ii is the acceleration, f are the domain forces and t are the prescribed tractions on the free boundary r2. Assuming that the compatibility and constitutive equations and the kinematical boundary conditions are satisfied, the solution of the elasticity problem is given in terms of the functions u, u and t which make U stationary [35].
3. Discrete model 2. Modified variational principle The formulation proposed in this paper is based on a modified variational principle previously presented by the authors [25]. Let u be the vector of displacements in the domain Q and let again u and t be the boundary displace* Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 (91) 6657110; Fax: +39 (91) 485439; Email: davi@unipa.it 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor) Let us consider the boundary of the body F discretized by boundary elements and some additional nodes within the domain Q, other than those introduced by the boundary discretization [5]. The domain displacement field is approximated by means of a superposition of trial functions u*
u = J2^*s
:U*S
(2)
G. Davi, A. Milazzo /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics The trial functions are elasticity solutions in an infinite domain, subjected to given body forces. The boundary displacement and traction variables are expressed as u = m = [Ni N2] (3) M = p^l f u*Tu^ d ^ ^ 2 (4)
135
where the stiffness matrix K and the mass matrix M are given by K DU*dr + // U*^2^U*d^ ^2 (11)
(12)
t = ^p
where 5 and p are the nodal displacements and tractions, N and ^ are matrices of shape functions and the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to constrained and free nodal displacements, respectively. By substituting the expressions of u, u, and t in Eq. (1), the discretized form of the functional n is obtained. The stationarity conditions of n with regard to s, ^2 and p, after some manipulations, yield j j V^^VnWdT + j W^VV"" d^ j s + p /" U*TU*d ^ s
Notice that the model involves nodal displacements only and the matrices K and M are frequency independent, symmetric and positive definite [25]. Therefore, in the proposed approach, these two fundamental properties of the continuum, i.e. symmetry and definiteness of the structural operators, are preserved. Now, the idea is to associate the trial functions with the point load solutions, so that it results V (Pu*) = c*5 (P  Po) (13) where c*(5 (P PQ) denote the Dirac function of amplitude c*, applied at PQ. By so doing, the trial functions are regular, as required by the formulation, and they enable us to transform the domain integrals that appear in the definition of the stiffness and mass matrix into boundary integrals. Indeed, let us consider a set of auxiliary functions W* (/ = 1,2...), which satisfy the following equation
(5)
/ ^ N j ^ d r p  / N ^t d r = : 0
(6)
r>w* = w* f ^ ^ u M r s  f ^^^Ndr^ = 0
(7)
(14)
where WQ U*. The reciprocity theorem for the auxiliary functions and the trial functions provides CV*dQ
where V is the static equilibrium differential operator and Vn is the boundary tractions operator. Eq. (7) is satisfied for every choice of ^ if it results U*s = N8 on r (8)
The relations between the unknown parameters s and the nodal displacements 8 can be established according to [5]. Evaluating Eq. (8) at the boundary nodal points, by virtue of the properties of the shape functions, we directly obtain some relationships between s and the boundary nodal displacements. Further relationships between s and the domain nodal displacements can be established collocating Eq. (2) at the internal nodes. If the number of trial functions is equal to the number of nodal displacements and these functions are regular and linearly independent, one obtains s = U* ^8 = ^8 = [^1 ^2] (9)
where C is any operator. Applying recursively Eq. (15), the domain integrals of the stiffness and mass matrices are transformed into boundary integrals, because at least we obtain a domain integral involving the Dirac function. In conclusion, the computation of the stiffness and mass matrix requires only boundary integrations of regular kernels and the pure boundary nature of the formulation is recovered. Additionally, the class of trial functions presented, which are associated with particular points, are well suited for computer implementation, since they can be generated using the same nodes as those defined for the model.
where ^ is the inverse of the collocation matrix U*. Premultiplying Eq. (5) by ^ 2 ' t>y using Eqs. (2) and (9), one obtains the dynamic model which can be written as M8' + K 5 2  / N ^ t d r [N.l^dQ (10)
4. Numerical application To check the soundness of the proposed method the membrane vibration problem [7] has been solved. For this
136
G. Davi, A. Milazzo /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics show the accuracy and the good convergence properties of the method.
Table 1 Errors of the dimensionless frequency parameter for a simply supported square membrane Nodes 21 32 45 60 77 96 Error (%) Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4 Mode 5 Mode 6 0.3398 0.0247 0.0112 0.0025 0.0023 0.0022 1.8661 0.2249 0.0284 0.0072 0.0056 0.0042 5.1729 0.7734 0.1260 0.0168 0.0083 0.0067 6.2993 3.1949 0.7489 0.1651 0.0443 0.0040 8.6006 4.8248 1.1547 0.3160 0.0953 0.0335 13.0378 1.7752 4.0677 1.2684 0.4393 0.1691
5. Conclusion A novel variational formulation for elasticity problems has been presented. The model obtained involves nodal displacements only and it preserves the fundamental properties of symmetry and definiteness of the continuum. The model exhibits the same nature of the more popular finite element models and the standard numerical procedures available for FEM resolving systems can be used in the present approach. Moreover, the present method has significant computational advantages due to the reduction in dimensionality typical of boundary element formulation. The results obtained show that the method is efficient and accurate.
11.3272 12.9531
problem, the static equilibrium operator T> coincides with the Laplacian operator and one has the following trial and auxiliary functions ' In r, (16) Inn  (17)
References [1] De Figueiredo TGB, Brebbia CA. A new hybrid displacement variational formulafion of BEM for elastostatics. In: Brebbia CA (Ed), Advances in Boundary Elements. Berlin: Springer, 1989, pp. 4758. [2] Davi G. A hybrid displacement variational formulation of BEM for elastostatics. Eng Anal Bound Elem 1992; 10(3): 219224. [3] Davi G, Milazzo A. A symmetric and positive definite variational BEM for 2D free vibration analysis. Eng Anal Bound Elem 1994;14(4):343348. [4] Davi G, Milazzo A. A symmetric and positive definite BEM for 2D forced vibrations. J Sound Vibr 1997;206(4):611617. [5] Davi G, Milazzo A. A new symmetric and positive definite boundary element formulation for lateral vibration of plates. J Sound Vibr 1997;206(4):507521. [6] Washizu K. Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1968. [7] Rayleigh JSW. Theory of Sound. New York: Dover PubHcations, 1976.
<^iA
where w^ is the kih column of W^ and r, = r, (P, PQ) is the distance between the generic point and the /th source point. By virtue of the operator properties, the resolving model becomes a linear algebraic eigenvalue problem, which can be solved by standard routines. Results are presented for a simply supported square membrane in terms of the dimensionless frequency parameter
Xi = cOiy/p/Ta^
wA'D
(18)
(19)
where coi is the /th mode angular frequency, T is the surface tension and a is the membrane dimension. Table 1 lists the error of the dimensionless frequency parameter with respect to the exact value [7]. The results obtained
137
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Cidade Universitdria Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, Brazil
Abstract The need for fast and precise robots in the industrial environment, capable of attending the productivity and quality demands and that allow a high volume of work, needs the usage of manipulators with flexible links. Besides this, aeronautic applications demand the usage of long and thin arms, which leads to remarkable structural changes. Therefore, the development of manipulators with structural flexibility and its automatic control has become an important research area [1,4,6,9]. The main goal of this work is to model the dynamic behavior of flexible manipulators. It is also presented a comparative study with rigid robots. It is possible to use the model for computer simulations to aid the development of efficient control. Keywords: Robotics; Dynamic modeUng; Nonlinear dynamics; Industrial robots
1. Introduction Most of the industrial applications that involve a manipulator robot use rigid links. The increase in the rigidity of the links has the main objective of avoiding structural vibration. For this reason the manipulators are designed with overdimensioned crosssections in order not to degrade the control accuracy. When flexible link manipulators are compared to rigid link ones, they need less material for their fabrication, are lighter, faster, can handle larger loads, show less power consumption, need smaller drivers and usually are easier to be transported. Because of those reasons, the usage of manipulators with flexible links is directly related to the optimization of the elements that comprise a robotics system. 1.1. Problem description A robotics manipulator is a mechanical device that has the function of positioning and orienting its terminal element. This terminal element has the function of handling tools suitable to the work to be performed. Two main parts are to be considered in the design of a manipulator structure. The first part is the arm that comprises at least three degrees of freedom and is used for the positioning *Tel.: M9 4661172, Email: sergiodavid@scientist.com 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
of the concentration point and also for the orientation of the referential. The second part is the wrist. It is normally constituted of three rotational degrees of freedom and has the function of orienting the terminal referential. Not considering the deformation of the joints, the degree of freedom related to the movement of the base of the robot can be treated as rigid, as well as the three degrees of freedom related to the orientation. Thus, one notes that the flexibility of the system is related to the two degrees of freedom related to the movement of the two links of the manipulator, as shown in Fig. 1.
138
SA. David, J.M. Rosdrio /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
 Rigid S ^ t e m Re^ibie System (subtractedfleMbilltyIn t B term J^
t6
47
s 13
t9i
%O Q
02
04 T!me(s)
06
O B
to
SIstemaR^pdo SstemaRBduzidoaoR^do^F^rdoReBJvel
V
t8
^ ^1
1
CM
06
I 04
h ^
001
02 041
t9
^,O Q
OBI
02
04 Tfme(s)
06
08
to
00
02
04
06
Fig. 2. Simulations.
For a flexible manipulator the structure presents a considerable flexibility and therefore an efficient control system must be developed. It is well known that in general a control problem consists of the manipulator dynamic model formulation [1]. This model is further used to establish the control laws that provide the desired performance. In this work the dynamic modeling is performed for a system that contains two flexible links and two rotational joints. For the sake of comparison, a rigid structure with two links and two rotational joints is also analyzed. In this case two degrees of freedom are defined. A convenient parameterization of the terms of the motion equations, which makes it easier to compare the simulation results for the rigid and for the flexible system is also developed. We outline the fact that the motion equations are treated with all nonlinearities taken into account, without the usage of any simplifying linearization procedure, as found in most of the works present in the literature. This linearization procedure may not to consider small contributions of
physical effects that are sunmied or superimposed and that may significandy influence the system behavior. For this reason, one of the tasks of this work is to treat the motion equations according to a general approach, without simplifying linearizations, and to assess the system behavior through controlled simulations.
2. Simulation and results This flexible system may be mathematically reduced to the rigid one by vanishing the terms related to system flexibility, which characterizes the possibility of finding a frontier between both systems. With this fact in mind, mathematical simulations are performed according to the following methodology: (1) initially the rigid system is simulated in a separate manner; (2) following, the flexible system is simulated with all its contributions taken into account;
S.A. David, J.M. Rosdrio /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (3) after that, the effects are individually and cumulatively subtracted and the system behavior is analyzed; (4) the effects are subtracted until the limit condition in which the flexible system is reduced to a rigid one and the system response converges as expected for the case of the rigid system modeled separately. Some results are presented in this article correspond to simulations realized for the angular position Oi and 02 (Fig. 2). The other simulations may be found in [4]. 3. Conclusion The way in which the motion equations are treated in this paper may allow the monitoring of each contributing factor for the system flexibility. The flexible manipulator may be mathematically reduced to a rigid one by means of vanishing the flexibility related terms. The same procedure may be extended to the simulations, which makes it possible to find a frontier between both systems. It is also possible to consider the development of controllers that compensate the physical effects which in accordance to dynamic simulations results is relevant for the system flexibility in order to correct the response of the terminal element of the manipulator with respect to the signals from the control system. References
139
[1] Book WJ. Recursive Lagrangian dynamics of flexible manipulator arms. Int J Robot Res 1984;3(3):87101. [2] Craig JJ. Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control. Addison Wesley, 1986. [3] David SA, Rosario JM. Dynamic modeling and simulation of robot manipulator with twoflexiblelinks. Proceedings of Sixth Pan American Congress of Applied Mechanics, 1999. [4] David SA. Modelagem, Simula9ao e Controle de Robos Flexiveis. MSc Thesis, State University of Campinas (in Portuguese), 1996. [5] Farid M, Lukasiewicz SA. Dynamic modeling of spatial flexible manipulators. Comput Methods Exp Meas 1997;3:255264. [6] Li CJ, Sankar TS. A systematic method of dynamics for flexible robot manipulators. J Robot Syst 1992;9(7):861891. [7] Nathan PJ, Singh SN. Nonlinear ultimate boundedness control and stabilization of aflexiblerobotic arm. J Robot Syst 1992;9(3):301326. [8] Nayfeh AH, Mook DJ. Nonlinear Oscillations. New York: John Wiley, 1979. [9] Rosario JM. Modelisation Dynamique Dun Robot Industriel. Ministere de I'Education Nationale. Institut Superieur des Materiaux et de la Constmction Mecanique, France, 1987. [10] Schielen IW. Technische Dynamik. s.l.p.; s.c.p., s.d.p. 106 pp.
140
Abstract The method of finite spheres using moving least squares interpolants and point collocation as the weighted residual scheme is applied to the development of a virtual reality based training system for laparoscopic surgical procedures. The localization of approximation and the lack of numerical integration results in very high computational speeds required for real time simulation with graphical and haptic feedback. Keywords: Method of finite spheres; Meshless technique; Haptics; Medical simulation
1. Introduction The objective of this paper is to illustrate how the method of finite spheres [1] may be applied to develop a laparoscopic surgical simulator which will enable the user to interact with threedimensional computer models of biological tissues and organs in real time, using both visual and haptic sensory modalities. As minimally invasive surgery is gaining popularity, the need to train medical students and also to provide surgeons with appropriate computer tools to experiment with new surgical techniques, without having to use cadavers or animals, is becoming increasingly important. The main challenge in real time virtual surgery is computational speed. For real time visual display an update rate of about 30 Hz is sufficient. To enable the user to interact with the computer models using the sense of touch we use a three degreeoffreedom haptic interface device called Phantom ^. For stable real time simulation, the haptic loop requires to be updated at a rate of about 1 kHz. A variety of simulation techniques, ranging from purely geometrical procedures without any physical basis to springmassdashpotbased models, are found in the literature (see reference [2] for a summary of the existing techniques). Although the finite element technique [3] is a * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (617) 2538503; Email: suvranu@mit.edu ^ Developed by SensAble Technologies, Inc. 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
physically based procedure, it is computationally very slow since the entire domain needs to be meshed and numerical integration has to be performed. In this paper we develop a specialized version of the method of finite spheres based on moving least squares interpolants and point collocation for the purpose of real time surgical simulations.
2. The numerical scheme In our technique, A nodal points are sprinkled around ^ the surgical tool tip (see Fig. 1). Moving least squares interpolants hj(x) = Wj{x)F(xfA\x)F(xj) J = l,...,N (1)
are used to generate the local finite dimensional approximation spaces. In Eq. (1) A(x) = J]f=i W/(X)P(X/)P(X/)T. ^he vector P(x) contains polynomials ensuring consistency up to a desired order (in our implementation we have ensured consistency up to degree one). Wj is a compactly supported radial weighting function at node J (which we have chosen as a quartic spline function). We assume linear elastic tissue behavior. A point collocation technique is used to generate the discrete equations KU (2)
141
rameters as U = [Utooitip U/,] where U^ is the vector of nodal unknowns which maybe obtained as Vt = ^hh K/,U i'a^toooltip The reaction force to be delivered to the haptic interface device is obtained as ftooitip = K^aUtooitip +
^ab^b
3. Simulation demonstration Fig. 2 shows the deformation field computed using the technique described in the previous section when a tool interacts with a hemispherical object. Linear elastic tissue behavior was assumed. The undeformed surface as also the deformation obtained using ADINA with a finite element discretization of the object are presented for reference. The point collocation based method of finite spheres provides reasonable deformation fields near the tool tip but the errors are quite high further away. This technique is however very fast. Computational rate of about 100 Hz is obtainable for the example shown in Fig. 2 when 34 spheres are used for discretization. Real time rendering rates of about 1 kHz is obtained using a force extrapolation technique (refer to [2] for details).
Fig. 1. A schematic showing the distribution of nodal points around a surgical tool tip. taining nodal loads. We note here the stiffness matrix K is nonsymmetric, but banded. For the purpose of surgical simulation, the tool tip may be modeled as having point interaction with the tissue (see Fig. 1). A node is placed at the tool tip and all other nodes are placed such that their spheres do not intersect the node at the tool tip (or do so only minimally to ensure the invertibility of A(jt:)). The node at the tool tip bears the applied displacement, Utooi tip at the tool tip. The stiffness matrix in Eq. (1) may be partitioned as K (3)
References [1] De S, Bathe KJ. The method offinitespheres. Comput Mech 2000;25:329345. [2] De S, Kim J, Srinivasan MA. The method of finite spheres in real time multimodal medical simulations. To appear. [3] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Englewood Cfiffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. Undeformed Surface
MFS solution with 34 spheres Fig. 2. The deformation field obtained when MFS is used for the simulation of a surgical tool tip interacting with a hemispherical object is shown. The undeformed surface and the deformation field obtained using afiniteelement discretization are also shown.
142
Efficient analysis of stress singularities using the scaled boundary finiteelement method
Andrew J. Decks ^'*, John P. Wolf"'
" Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6907, Australia ^Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Hydraulics and Energy, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, CH1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Abstract The scaled boundary finiteelement method is reviewed, and an adaptive implementation is applied to the classical elastostatic problem of an Lshaped domain. The method is shown to outperform a similar adaptive finiteelement implementation, in terms of both computational time and memory requirements. Keywords: Scaled boundary finiteelement method; Singularities; Adaptivity
1. Introduction The scaled boundary finiteelement method is a semianalytical method that combines the advantages of the numerical and analytical approaches to solve linear partial differential equations. It also has appealing features of its own, such as the ability to model certain free and fixed boundaries without spatial discretisation. As an analytical solution is obtained in the 'radial' direction, the method is particularly useful in situations involving stress singularities. Stress recovery and error estimation techniques have recently been developed for the method, and these have allowed adaptive techniques to be implemented. This paper applies these techniques to a classical problem containing a stress singularity, and compares the efficiency of an adaptive scaled boundary finiteelement procedure with the efficiency of a similar adaptive finiteelement procedure. This is the first time a direct comparison of computational efficiency between the two methods is presented.
of twodimensional plane stress elastostatics. Omitting body loads, the governing differential equation can be represented as [L]V(x,^)}{0} (1)
where [L] is the linear operator, and the stresses {o{x, y)} are related to the strains {s{x, y)} by the elasticity matrix [/)], and in turn to the displacements {u{x, y)} {a(x, y)] = [D][e{x, y)] = [D][L]{u{x, y)} (2)
The differential equation is subject to certain boundary conditions on displacements and surface tractions. The method defines a new coordinate system based on a scaling centre O within the domain, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The normalised radial coordinate ^ has zero value at the scaling centre, and unit value at the boundary. The circumferential coordinate s measures the distance around
2. The scaled boundary finiteelement method Since the scaled boundary finiteelement method [13] is not widely known, a brief summary of the method will be given here. The method will be discussed in the context * Corresponding author. Tel: +61 (8) 93803093; Fax: +61 (8) 93801018; Email: deeks@civiLuwa.edu.au 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
^^ = 0.5 Scaling centre (XQ, yo) Fig. 1. Scaled boundary domain with sidefaces.
A.J. Deeks, J.P. Wolf/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the boundary from some origin. The boundary may include two 'sidefaces', 0  P i and OP2, as indicated in Fig. 1. The linear operator can be mapped to the scaled boundary coordinate system using standard methods. of 5 OS (3)
143
and  7  is the Jacobian at the boundary. The [E] matrices can be assembled element by element on the boundary. The governing equation will be satisfied exactly in the I direction when this equation is satisfied for any set of functions {8u(^)}, and so [E]t2{,(^)},jj + [[0] + [l]T  [l]] X {.(?)},^  [']{*(?)) = {0) This is the scaled boundary finiteelement equation displacement. B y inspection, solutions are of the form {u{^,s)] = [N{s)]r^{cl>} (10) in (11)
where [b^{s)] and [/?^(5)] are dependent only on the boundary definition. The scaled boundary finiteelement method seeks a solution to the differential equation in the form
[Uh
(,5)} = Y,Ni{s)uhi{^)
= [N{s)][uh{^)}
(4)
This represents a discretisation of the boundary with the n shape functions contained in [^(5)], where n is the number of nodal degrees of freedom on the boundary. The unknown vector {uh{^)} is a set of n functions of . The method proceeds by first seeking the stiffness matrix of the scaled boundary domain with respect to the degrees of freedom on the boundary (without applying boundary conditions around the i'boundary), and then solving for the nodal displacements on the boundary in the usual finiteelement manner. The stiffness of the domain is obtained by applying the virtual work equation. Virtual displacement fields of the Galerkin form {8u{^,s)} = [N{s)]{8u{^)] (5)
Substituting this solution into Eq. (10) yields the quadratic eigenproblem [X\E']  X[[E']^  [E'i\  [E^]] {0} = {0} (12)
are used, where {5w()} contains n functions describing the variation of the virtual displacements in the radial direction. Substituting into the virtual work equation, and integrating terms in the internal virtual work integral by parts with respect to ^, the surface integrals cancel out and the work statement becomes
1
This equation can b e solved using standard techniques, yielding 2n modes. For a bounded domain only the modes with nonpositive real components of X lead to finite displacements at the scaling centre. This subset of n modes will be designated by [<I>i], where the vectors in the set form the columns of the matrix. Any particular solution of the differential equation will b e a weighted s u m of these modes. For each mode the approximate stresses on the boundary are determined. After transformation to surface tractions and integration with the shape functions along the boundary, the equivalent nodal forces for the modes follow as {q} = [[E']^k[E'i\{(t>} (13)
The subset of these modal force vectors corresponding to the n modes in [OJ is denoted as [Q\\. For any set of boundary node displacements {uh}, the modal participation factors required are {c} = {^xT'iuh} (14)
(6)
(7a)
= j{B\s)V [D][B'(5)]7di
(7b)
(16)
(7c)
(17)
(8) (9)
Boundary conditions place constraints on subsets of {uh} and { P } , and the solution proceeds in the same manner as in standard finiteelement analysis. However, unlike that method, only boundary degrees of freedom are present. The modal participation coefficients are then obtained using Eq. (14), and the displacement field is recovered as
144
{Uh (,j)}
A.J. Deeks, J.P. Wolf/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics = [yv(5)]^c,r''{<^,} (18)
w^^^^^
\^
A stress recovery technique has been developed by Deeks and Wolf [4]. A recoverybased estimator compatible with the widely used ZienkiewiczZhu [6] estimator has also been developed by the same authors [4], allowing implementation of an /zhierarchical adaptive procedure [5]. This procedure can be compared directly with an /zhierarchical adaptive finiteelement implementation [7]. At the present time a generalpurpose eigenvalue extraction procedure has been used in the scaled boundary finiteelement implementation. Considerable improvement in efficiency may be expected when the solution routines are optimised. A fast active column solver with profile optimisation is used in the finiteelement implementation.
p'M' ^ 1^ L_!
^<
>
Fig. 2. Model of square plate with square hole under uniaxial tension.
10 7.5 h ^ 1 5 ^ 2.5 V
0 1
3. Example The example represents a quarter of a square plate with a square hole under uniaxial tension, as illustrated in Fig. 2. Advantage is taken of the biaxial symmetry. The true stress field contains a singularity at the interior comer O. Poisson's ratio is taken as 0.3, and Young's modulus as 1000. This example has been used extensively in the adaptive finiteelement literature (e.g. [5]). In the scaled boundary finiteelement analysis the scaling centre is selected at O. No spatial discretisation is required on the sidefaces 0Pi and OP2. The problem was analysed using both the adaptive scaled boundary finiteelement procedure and the adaptive finiteelement procedure with target error levels of 5%, 2% and 0.5%. The number of degrees of freedom, the solution time in milliseconds, and the displacement at point A in Fig. 2 were recorded for each target error. The results are presented in Table 1. The scaled boundary finiteelement solutions and the finiteelement solutions are in close agreement, as indicated by the displacements. The number of degrees of freedom (and hence the memory requirement) of the scaled boundary finiteelement solution is significantly less than the equivalent finiteelement solution at each error level. The time taken for the scaled boundary finiteelement solution at the 5% error level is about 20% of the time taken for the Table 1 Superior performance of the scaled boundaryfiniteelementmethod
Error target Finite element DOF 5% 2% 0.5% 670 1774 4986 Time 1805 6775 37136 Displacement 2.109 X 105 2.113 X 105 2.113 X 105
2.5 p 5 ^ 1.0
HZTTT"
1 ,
^
^
v/
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
Fig. 3. Stresses along the line BB at the 5% target error level. finiteelement solution, representing a considerable saving. This advantage reduces as the target error is decreased, but the scaled boundary finiteelement method still takes only about 50% of the time of the finiteelement method to achieve a 0.5% error. The scaled boundary finiteelement method yields a solution with a singular point at the interior comer, and the power of the singularity follows directly. In contrast, the finiteelement method returns finite stresses at the interior comer. This is illustrated in Fig. 3, where the variation of all the stress components along the line designated BB in Fig. 2 calculated by the two methods for the 5% analysis is plotted. There is excellent agreement between the methods (which is expected since the error level is the same, and is only 5%), except in the vicinity of the singular point, where the scaled boundary finiteelement method results are clearly superior.
Scaled boundaryf finiteelement DOF 20 38 74 Time 398 2565 18524 Displacement 2.114 X 105 2.113 X 105 2.113e X 105
A J. Deeks, J. P. Wolf/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. Conclusions This paper shows that problems containing stress singularities can be solved accurately and efficiently using the scaled boundary finiteelement method. The example shows that the cost in both computing time and memory usage is lower for the scaled boundary finiteelement method than for the finiteelement method at all target error levels. In addition, the stresses near the singularity are more accurately modelled. These results were achieved using generalpurpose eigenvalue extraction routines, and considerable improvement in the scaled boundary finiteelement results can be expected when the solution routines are optimised. [2]
145
References [1] Song Ch, Wolf JP. The scaled boundary finiteelement method alias consistent infinitesimal finiteelement cell
method for elastodynamics. Comp Meth Appl Mech Eng 1997;147:329355. Wolf JP, Song Ch. The scaled boundary finiteelement method a semianalytical fundamentalsolutionless boundaryelement method. Comp Meth Appl Mech Eng, in press. Wolf JP, Song Ch. FiniteElement Modelling of Unbounded Media. Chichester: Wiley, 1996. Deeks AJ, Wolf JP. Stress recovery and error estimation for the scaled boundary finiteelement method. Submitted for publication. Deeks AJ, Wolf JP. An /zhierarchical adaptive procedure for the scaled boundary finiteelement method. Submitted for publication. Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. A simple error estimator and adaptive procedure for practical engineering analysis. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1987;24:337357. Deeks AJ. An adaptive /?hierarchical finite element system. In: Advances in Finite Element Techniques and Procedures, 4th Int. Conf. Computational Structures Technology, Edinburgh 1998, pp. 115124.
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Abstract An efficient relationship between physical properties of pinjointed structures and their eigenvalues is established. The formulation allows the determination of the necessary modifications on the structural members to achieve the specified frequency. The calculations involved do not include any iteration or convergence and therefore it is computationally efficient. The modification can either be global or local. In addition to the modification of the existing structural elements the formulation can also be used to add new structural elements to achieve the desired natural frequencies. Although in the present paper only simple structures are considered the formulation can be applied to large and more complex structures. Keywords: Inverse problem; Structural modifications; Desired frequencies; Structural vibration; Eigenvalues; Pinjointed structures; Crosssectional area
1. Introduction Many engineering constructions such as highway bridges, aerospace structures and ship structures are frequently subjected to dynamic loads and thus, dynamic analysis is necessary to determine the vibration response of these structures. It is a common design requirement to ensure that all the natural frequencies are far away from the frequency caused by the exciting forces. The common industrial practise for optimising the design is to subject the proposed structure to a series of structural modifications based on the engineer's experience. Each series requires the analysis of modified structure, which is usually slightly different from a structure previously analysed. This complete reanalysis of the structure is often very expensive and a time consuming task. To eliminate the need to reanalyse the whole structure, more research effort was conducted towards developing new concept with sufficient information to find the exact modified parameters, which yield the required natural frequencies. Early work in this direction done by Wilkinson [1], Van Belle [2] and Vanhonacker [3] utilised the 1st order terms of Taylor's series expansion and
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 (1895) 274000; Fax: +44 (1895) 812556; Email: emsrmsd@brunel.ac.uk 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
is based on Rayleigh's work. Chen and Garba [4] used the iterative method to modify structural systems. Further research on structural modification was carried out by Tsuei and Yee [57] who presented a method of shifting the desired eigenfrequencies using the forced response of the system. More recently Kim [8] investigated the use of mass matrix modification to achieve desired natural frequencies. Sivan and Ram [911] extended further the research on structural modification by studying the construction of mass spring system with prescribed natural frequencies, they obtained stiffness and mass matrices using the orthogonality principles. However, the resulting stiffness or mass matrix may not be physically implemented. In reference [9] Sivan and Ram developed a new algorithm based on Joseph's work [12] which involves the solution of the inverse eigenvalue problem. In the last few years the work on the inverse problem done by Gladwell [13] started to be taken seriously by engineers and researchers interested in this field of engineering. The work is applied to both discrete and continuous systems. In this paper an efficient formulation between the geometric and material properties of structures and their eigenvalues is established. The formulation allows the shifting of the natural frequencies and solves for the required modification on chosen geometric and material properties.
M.S. Djoudi, H. Bahai/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2, Theoretical consideration To construct a system with desired eigenfrequencies it is necessary to find a relationship between the structural parameters of the system and its eigenfrequencies. For a discrete system such as mass spring systems, and when only one or two degrees of freedom are involved. The formulation, which accounts for such relationship is easily obtained and hence the change of stiffness or mass required for shifting the eigenvalues can easily be evaluated. However, for systems with a large number of degrees of freedom and continuous systems special algorithms have to be developed. A contribution in this direction was made by Esat and Akbar [14]. They presented the stiffness of the system as a function of the desired eigenvalues and showed that the stiffness varies linearly with the eigenvalues. The formulation is very simple, however the resulting stiffness of the modified system cannot be physically implemented. For the new system to be constructed, the modification carried out on the structural properties of the system must have a physical meaning (realisable). For example in the case of truss structures both the elastic modulus and the crosssectional area of the bars can be modified to shift the eigenfrequencies. Any modification on the elastic modulus would cause only stiffness modification of the structures. Whereas, a modification in the area parameter would result in both stiffness as well as mass modification. In the following section a formulation giving the crosssectional area modification as function of the required eigenfrequency is first developed. This formulation can then be used to obtain the elastic modulus variation as function of the desired eigenfrequency. For a pinjointed truss structure both the stiffness and mass modifications can be given as functions of the area modification of any member in the structure. ^K = AA[K'] AM = AA[M'] (1) equation of motion becomes: (K\AKXdM  XdAM)8 = 0
141
(3)
where Xd is the new eigenvalue of the modified structure. Eq. (3) can be transformed to modal coordinates by putting 8 = ^u where 0 is the mass normalised modal matrix. Hence, (K]AK(/TO + AK^
XdM  Xd^M)^u
 XdM^
=0
(4)
(5)
 Af A M O ) M = 0 r
If we premultiply the above equation by O^ and use the orthogonality characteristic of O with respect to K and M we obtain the following equation: iSl + ^^ AK^  Xdl  Xd^'^AM^)u =0 (6)
where Q is the diagonal eigenvalue matrix and / is the unity matrix. Eq. (6) can be written as: u = (QXdir\^^AK^  Xd^^AM^)u (7)
By premultiplying both sides by O and rearranging the equation, we obtain ^u =  0 ( ^  Xdiy^<^^{AK  XdAM)^u (8)
By substituting for AK, AM and Ow by AA [K'], A A [M'] and 8 respectively we obtain: 8 = AAcD(^  Xdiy^^^(K' This can be written as {8} = AA[F][G]8 = AA[R]{8} (10)  XdM')8 (9)
where [F] = <^(Q  Xdl)'^^^, [G] = [K'  XdM'] and [R] = [F][Gl Eq. (10) can be written in matrix form as: AA^ + /?i,i
/?2,1
Ri,2
A A  l + R2,2
Rl,n R2,n
where AK and AM are the variations or modifications on the system stiffness and mass matrices respectively, AA is the change in the area of the modified member and [K'] and [ M ' ] are the stiffness and mass matrices of the modified member where the area is taken as unity. The equation of motion for the free vibration of a dynamic system is given by: (K  XoM)8 = 0 (2)
Rn,2
where the terms Rij are function of the eigenvalue Xd. The characteristic equation of the modified system for the eigenvalue Xd is given by:
^1,1 ^1,2
where K is the stiffness matrix of the system, M is the mass matrix, 8 is the displacement vector and ko is the eigenvalue of the original system. If a modification A A is carried out on any member of the structure, this would result in modifications in both stiffness and mass matrices of the structure and hence the
Rl,n Rl,n
AA1 + R2
= 0
(12)
. A A  1 + Rn,n
148
M.S. Djoudi, H. Bahai/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
bar1 bar9 bar2 bar3 bar 11 bar? bar 12 bar 10 
Eqs. (12) are for global modification where all the bars are to be modified at the same time and in this case n is equal to the total number of unconstrained degrees of freedom. However, if this is not the case then only the terms corresponding to the nodes associated with the modified bars are retained. A solution for the above problem can be obtained by solving the characteristic equation (12) and obtaining A A. 3. Numerical examples: 3.1. Plane truss The first example is a twelve bar truss cantilever as shown in Fig. 1. This example is used to illustrate the modification required on the cross sectional area of the bars to shift the lowest frequency. The addition of new bars is also considered in this example. The material properties and the cross sectional area of the bars are shown on Fig. 1. The lowest natural frequency of the structure has been increased by A / = 5% through steps of 0.5% and for each step the required change in the cross sectional area of each bar is obtained. These are shown in Fig. 2. It can be seen that while an increase in the cross sectional area of some bars, for example 1,2,3 and 7, is necessary to achieve the desired frequency, other bars require their areas to be decreased. This is due to the fact that the cross sectional area affects both the mass and stiffness matrices of the structure. It is also noticed that the fixed frequency may not be achieved by varying the area of some bars, for example in this case, a shift in the frequency by 2% cannot be obtained by modifying the cross sectional area of bars 1, 3 and 9 only. Therefore, if no restriction is made on which bar is to be modified to shift the frequency, the designer can compare the set of results and choose the structural member to be modified. 3.2. Space truss structure The second example consists of the tower shown in Fig. 3. The dimensions and material properties are shown
E=2xlO"N/m2 p=7860kg/m^ A=5xl0^m^for all bars
200
150 4
V, 100 o S
5
50
0
>
^
50
100
% Variation of first frequency
E=2.1xlO"N/m2 p=7860kg/m3
in the same figure. The cross sectional areas for each bar is given by: A = 3 X 10""^ m^ for Ci and C2 bars (comer columns in bottom and top levels respectively) A = 1.5 X 10""^ m^ for Bi bars (horizontal members in bottom level) A = 0.8 X 10"'^ m^ for B2 bars (horizontal members in top level) A = 0.8 X 10""^ m^ for Ti bars (diagonal members in bottom level) A = 0.4 X 10"'* m^ for T2 bars (diagonal members in top level) The sensitivity of the lowest natural frequency to any modification on the crosssectional area of the different bars is first investigated. Fig. 4 shows the percentage variation of the first natural frequency with the required percentage variation on the crosssectional area of the bars. It is seen that the first frequency is most sensitive to bars Ci and C2.
M.S. Djoudi, H. Bahai/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
!C1 bars  C 2 bars  A  B 1 bars  ^ B 2 bars UdT1 bars HT2 bars
149
References [1] Wilkinson JH. The Algebraic Eigenvalue Problem. Oxford University Press, 1963, pp. 62109. [2] Van Belle H. Higher order sensitivities in structural design. AIAA J 1982;20:286288. [3] Vanhonacker P. Differential and difference sensitivities of natural frequencies and mode shapes of natural structures. AIAA J 1980;18:15111514. [4] Chen JA, Garba JA. Analytical model improvement using modal test results. AIAA J 1980;18:684690. [5] Tsuei YG, Yee E. A method for modifying dynamic properties of undamped mechanical systems. J Dyn Syst Meas Control 1989;111:403408. [6] Yee E, Tsuei YG. Modification of stiffness for shifting natural frequencies of damped mechanical systems. DEVol. 38, Modal Analysis, Modelling, Diagnostics and Control Analytical and Experimental ASME 1991, pp. 101106. [7] Yee E, Tsuei YG. Method for shifting natural frequencies of damped mechanical systems. AIAA J 1991 ;29( 11): 19731977. [8] Kim KiooK. A review of mass matrices for eigenproblems. J Comput Struct 1993;46:10411048. [9] Sivan D, Ram YM. Mass and stiffness modification to achieve desired natural frequencies. Commun Numer Methods Eng 1996;12:531542. [10] Ram YM. Enlarging a spectral gap by structural modification. J Sound Vib 1994;176(2):225234. [11] Sivan D, Ram YM. Optimal construction of massspring system with prescribed model and spectral data. J Sound Vib 1997;201(3):323334. [12] Joseph KT. Inverse eigenvalue problem in structural design. AIAA J 1992;30(12):28902896. [13] Gladwell GML. Inverse vibration problems for finite element models. Inverse Probl 1997;29(4):421434. [14] Esat II, Akbar S. Synthesis of multibody systems for desired eigenfrequencies. ASME, ASIA976, Congress and exhibition, Singapore.
100
60 20
I 20 r^\ ^ 4
60
;>
'm
100
% Variation of first frequency
Fig. 4. Variation of first frequency with the required modification in the crosssectional area of bars.
4. Conclusion In this paper a method for determining the required structural modification to achieve desired frequencies for pinjointed structure is established. The formulation allows the determination of the necessary modifications on the material and geometric structural properties to shift any of the frequencies to desired positions. The approach can be used to increase as well as decrease the natural frequencies, and the structural modifications can also include the addition of new structural members. This approach provides the structural designers with efficient algorithm, which is formulated in such a way that no iterations or convergence are involved in the process and only few calculations are required to obtain the necessary modifications.
150
Fourier transformed boundary integral equations for transient problems of elasticity and thermoelasticity
F.M.E.Duddeck*
Technical University of Munich, Lehrstuhl fiir Baumechanik, Arcisstrasse 21, D80333 Munich, Germany
Abstract To overcome the restriction of actual boundary element methods (BEM) to cases where fundamental solutions are known, an alternative BEMapproach was presented in Duddeck and Pomp [6] and Duddeck and Geisenhofer [5]. This approach is based on new boundary integral equations (BIE) for the computation of the entries of the standard BEM matrices which are obtained by a spatial and temporal Fourier transform of the traditional BIE. In these equations, we only need the transform of the fundamental solution and not the fundamental solution itself. The former is always available as long as the underlying differential operator is linear and has constant coefficients. Here, this method is extended to dynamic problems. Transient problems can be tackled by a Galerkin timestep scheme. Keywords: Boundary element method; Galerkinboundary integral equations; Fourier transform; Fundamental solution; Transient problem; Elasticity; Thermoelasticity
1. Prototypic example: FourierBIE for the bar To illustrate the general principle of the new approach we start with the simple example of an elastic bar. The insights gained from this prototype are transferred later to isotropic and anisotropic elasticity and thermoelasticity. The differential equation and its Fourier transform are {EAd^.\pd^) u{x,t) = fix,t) f> (EAP pa)^)ii{x,co) = f{x,co) with EA,p as the stiffness and the mass density respectively, u is the displacement and / the volume force. (?) denotes a Fourier transformed quantity and 9^, dt are differentiations according space and time, a;, JC are the circular frequency and the wave number, respectively. The displacement boundary integral equations (BIE) are for vanishing initial conditions, e.g. Bonnet [2], K(x)u{x,t) = / f(y,T)U(x  y,t  T)d^vdr
y,t T)drvdT
with the traction ^ = A9yM on the boundary F^ with outer normal y, the fundamental solution U, and the fundamental traction Q = EAd^U. K is the free term. The boundary quantities u,q are approximated by spatial (Pi{x) and temporal trial functions (j)j{t) u(x, t) ^ ^Uij(pi{x)(t)j{t), 'J q(x, t) ^^qij(Pi{x)(l)j{t). '^J (2)
Temporal and spatial weighting with 0^:, (pi leads to the GalerkinBIE, cf. Barbier [1],
R+Tv
Jf
(t)(piix)K(x)uix, t) dF^ dt =
= JlMt)(Piix)fjf(y,r)
R+ r V R+ ^
+ 11 qiy,T)Uix
7/
R+Tv
R+Tv
u(y,T)Q(xy,tT)dr,dT.
(1)
xU(x y,t
 r) dVy dr dF;, dt
~ X ! / / ^kiO(piM / / iiij(Pi(y)(pj(r)
^'j R+ r , R+ Fy
*Tel.: +49 (89) 26025472; Fax: +49 (89) 26025474; Email: fabian.duddeck@bv.tum.de
2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
X Q(x y,t
(3)
FM.E. Duddeck/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics All quantities are extended formally to M x M to apply spatial and temporal Fourier transform. We abbreviate by defining the convolution a ^ b = /RXE^(>'' '^)^(^ ~ y,t  T)d};dr and the scalar product {a, h) = f^^^ a(x, t)b(x, t) dx df. {(pk(pi, KU) = {(pkCPl, f^U)\Y^{(pk(Ph C\ij(Pi(l)j * U)
151
L/4
(4)
Fig. 1. Geometry and loading of the bar. Due to the convolution theorem a * Z ^ a^ and ? Parseval's theorem {a,h) = {2n)^[a^,b) with a^ = a{x, 0)) we get the equivalent FourierBIE, cf. Duddeck and Pomp [6], test functions we have for w(L): forg(O): (pi{x) = 8(x L) (P2(x) = 8{x) ^f> ^ <^i(^) = e"'^^ (^2(^) = 1.
where the factor {2ny^ was cancelled. The double integrations in the original domain are replaced by single intet ]dt t dt Po = 7[Ha + dO  H(0] + ^ [ H ( 0  H(/  dO grations in the Fourier domain. The transformed BIE lead d^ dt to the same matrices as the conventional BIE, for example 1 C S (o; do O {(l>k(ph qij(Pi(l)j^U) = ^[$T^T^ qij(pi$jU). Therefore, the 0 0 2dtco^ ' processus after construction of the boundary element methWith homogeneous initial conditions and with boundary ods (BEM) matrices can directly be taken from standard conditions u(0,t) = 0,q(L,t) = 0 we get the displaceBEM algorithms. The Fourier transformed fundamental soments and tractions at w(L, 0 , ^(0, t), cf. Fig. 2. lution U as the response to / = 8(x)8(t) ^ / = 1 is obtained by simple inversion, i.e. U(x, co) = [EAppa)^]K The traction BIE needed for symmetric BEM is es2. Extension to elasticity and thermoelasticity tablished by derivation dy of the BIE, we get with
The linear temporal trial and test functions (pj for the yth time step were constructed by translations t ^ t j dt in the original domain and by modulation with e''^^^"^ in the transformed domain of the reference element
S = dyQ^S
= ivxQ:
(6)
In the full paper, we present the dynamic FourierBIE for arbitrary anisotropic elastic and thermoelastic media. Due to the limited space here, we give only the crucial point of constructing the Fourier transformed fundamental solution
u(L,t)
I  ^; I ;   1
+ J2{^Iv!,^,jV'ihs) (7)
We regard as an example a transient volume force, cf. Fig. 1, fix, t) = 8(x  L/4)[H(0  H(^  1/2)]
_ f(x,co) = e ^ixL/4_ i(oL/A 100
t
'^ '
^0
(8)
\\
q(0,t)
The wave velocity is Cp = s/EA/p = .JYfA [m/s], and the length of of the bar is L = 2 [m]. As spatial trial and
Fig. 2. Boundary displacement u(L,t) and boundary traction ^(0,0 for the bar.
152
for linearized thermoelasticity. The four differential equations are (cf. Nowinski [7]): fiUijj  (A h /ji)ujji + yOj + pt^ijt = fi and Ojj + ^^,r + Wjjt = PI^ 0, p sue the increment of the temperature and the heat sources, ^, y,r] are constants of heat conduction. The fourdimensional Fourier transform of these equations is P{x,co)u(x,a)) = f(x, co) with the symbol
/xx"
ex1^2
CX\XT,
References [1] Barbier D. Methode des potentiels retardes pour la simulation de la diffraction d'onde elastodynamique par une fissure tridimensionnelle. Ecole Polytechnique, PhD thesis, 1999. [2] Bonnet M. Boundary Integral Equation Methods for Solids and Fluids. New York: Wiley, 1999. [3] Duddeck F Funktional Analysis in Solid Mechanics Spatial and Temporal Fourier Transform of Energy Methods (in German). PhD thesis, TU Munich, 1997. [4] Duddeck F. A general boundary element method for homogeneous differential operators linear or nonlinear. ECCOMAS 2000, Barcelona. [5] Duddeck F, Geisenhofer M. A general boundary element method for anisotropic plates. Comput Mech, submitted for publication. [6] Duddeck F, Pomp A. Calculation of BEM matrices by Fourier transform. Math Comput, submitted for publication. [7] Nowinski W. Dynamic Problems of Thermoelasticity. Leyden: Noordhoff, 1975.
iyx\
+pa)^
CX2X\
/xx
c.
CX2X3,
lyxi
(9)
and the vectors u = [uuU2,u^,9],f = [/i,/2,/3, p/x]. The transformed fundamental solution is obtained by simple matrix inversion, i.e. U = [P]"'. This approach can be transferred to all linear and homogeneous differential operators. Anisotropic elasticity and thermoelasticity problems can be treated in two or three dimensions.
153
A fluidlike formulation for viscoelastic geological modeling stabilized for the elastic limit
Frederic Dufour*, Louis Moresi, Hans Miihlhaus
CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Perth 6009, Australia
Abstract We present and discuss a new stabilization procedure for viscoelastic flow models of large deformation, such as geological folding. Viscoelastic equations are solved for an increment of observation time At^ different from the advection timestep A^ An averaging procedure for the stresses is needed over a number of advection timesteps. We study the relative values of the relaxation time a, the elastic timestep At^ and the advection timestep required to prevent any numerical instabilities and to obtain accurate results. Keywords: Viscoelasticity; Stabihzation; Folding; Large deformation; Deborah number
1. Introduction Within the geological record, there is evidence of numerous occasions where creeping flow of sohd crustal rocks dominates deformation. Strains are typically very high, strainrates are low (10"^"* s~0, viscous, elastic and brittle effects influence the observed structures (for example, Fig. 1 (top) shows folds in Archean migmatitic gneiss). The particleincell finite element scheme [1] was designed to deal with very large deformation geological problems including folding (Fig. 1, center). It uses an Eulerian mesh to solve modified viscoplastic equations of motion, and a Lagrangian set of particles which carry material history including stresses. As with other strainrate based formulations for viscoelasticity, the method is optimized for the viscous rather than the elastic limit [2,3]. However, through a simple stabilization procedure, we are able to study problems where the relaxation time is longer than any characteristic timescale of the deformation.
where cr is the Cauchy stress tensor, a its Jaumann derivative, D is the stretching, p =   t r ( a ) , X is a penalty parameter, /x and r] are the elastic shear modulus and the shear viscosity, respectively. Eq. (1) can be written in a finite difference form:
^t+At^ _ = '/eff 2Z)
/x \At'
orW
(2)
where At^ is the elastic timestep, W is the material spin tensor, a = r]//! is the relaxation time and y/eff is an effective viscosity defined by ^^7^2.1. Stability in the elastic limit We need to choose a timestep which is both stable, and accurately represents the physics of the problem. The extent to which a Maxwell viscoelastic system behaves elastically depends greatly on the timescale of observation (see [2,3]), and so may depend subjectively upon what we consider worth resolving in the time evolution of a problem. By "elastic" problems, we refer to cases where the timescale of interest is small relative to the time over which stresses relax. As elasticity becomes more important, the representation of the material as a viscous fluid with additional stored stresses becomes less appropriate. Problems in the elastic range correspond to very soft effective viscosity, and a more explicit character to the solution strategy. Elastic displacements are calculated by integrating comparitively large velocities over short times. There are two related
2. Mathematical model We use a Maxwell viscoelastic constitutive relationship ao\a = 2r]D, tr(D) \ p = 0
A,
(1)
* Corresponding author. Tel.: f61 (8) 92848463; Fax: +61 (8) 93891906; Email: frederic@ned.dem.csiro.au
Crown Copyright 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
154
F. Dufour et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics times between the calculation of new velocity solutions, A^ In the update of internal stresses we now write:
0?eff I
(i(ip + Wa'
 (T^W (3)
f(l0V^^
where A^ ... 0 = ^ (4) This amounts to a running average of the stress over a time Af. This procedure allows the choice of a physically relevant time to model elastic effects, independent of that required by other physical processes, mesh dependencies etc. Secondly, if we require that Ar is always less than Ar^ (in other words, requiring a maximum value of 0), the averaging is strongly stabilizing for elasticity dominated problems.
3. Application The choice of At' and 0 is illustrated by the following example. We compress a viscoelastic compressible unit square block on one edge with a constant velocity (V = 0.1) to 90% shortening. The stresses are then relaxed without further shortening. The pressure is benchmarked (Fig. 2) against the analytical solution for a given material {a 1.0), a given advection timestep (Ar = 0.0037) and different observation times {At'). As expected from Eq. (2), the smaller the elastic timestep the more accurate the result. An instablity occurs if the advection timestep is larger than a certain fraction of the observation time. In order to determine the value of this fraction, we repeated this study for a range of materials with different relaxation times. We plot (Fig. 3)
T o Theoretical solution   Af^ = 10.0  M"" = 1.0 'M" = 0.1 At*^ = 0.0098 ' 1 A* = 0.0095 t=
0.05 Dimensionless time Fig. 1. Quartzofeldspathic layers (light colors) defining asymmetric folds in Archean migmatitic gneiss, Simo, northern Finland (top). A numerical simulation of a viscoelastic layer with a yield stress (centre). Stress measured at a point with the folding layer as a function of time (bottom). difficulties which may arise: (1) in the limit of elastic behaviour, this system is not well conditioned, and may be numerically unstable; and (2) if other physical processes, such as thermal diffusion, porous flow or chemical reaction, impose a very short timestep then we may be forced to consider an unstable, quasielastic solution when there is little physical reason to do so. We address both these problems by the following stabilization. First we consider that the timescale over which we differentiate the stress rate, At^, may be larger than the
4 6 Dimensionless time Fig. 2. Stability and accuracy of the solution for different observation timesteps (Ar^) and for fixed relaxation time and advection timestep. 0
F. Dufour et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 0.55
155
20 10 15 Relaxation time Fig. 3. Linear regression on numerical values of the stability factor for different materials.
the less competent. Initially the competent layer is straight and axial stress increases with a constant shortening velocity, then the buckling occurs and leads to a drop in the stress (Fig. 1 (bottom)). The layer is broken by yielding concomitant with folding and the different parts of the beam straighten due to the elastic effect. The doublescale integration scheme presented solves accurately and effectively the model equations for Maxwell materials undergoing very large deformation. Although the code was initially designed for viscous fluids, this scheme is able to solve any problems even in the elastic limit for large a. Empirically established stability criteria for the two timesteps are t^f < a/100 and A^ < Ar''.
References the stability factor 0 as a function of the relaxation time, for all computations we keep the ratio Ar^ = or/100 (constant Deborah number). In the limit of short observation times we find that the value of 0 required to stabilize the method is greater than 0.35. This result also holds for other values of the ratio between Ar^ and a. We apply the stabilization procedure with (p 0.35 to a folding problem (Fig. 1) with two incompressible viscoelastic layers, the more competent layer embedded into [1] Moresi L, Miihlhaus HB, Dufour F. Particleincell solution for creeping viscous flows with internal interfaces. Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Localization, Perth, WA, Balkema, 2000. [2] Tanner RI, Jin H. A study of some numerical viscoelastic schemes. J NonNewtonian Fluid Mech 1991;41:171196. [3] Debbaut B, Marchal JM, Crochet MJ. Numerical simulation of highly viscoelastic flows through an abrupt contraction. J NonNewtonian Fluid Mech 1988;29:119146.
156
An Eulerian formulation for modeling stationary finite strain elastoplastic metal forming processes
Eduardo N. Dvorkin *, Dolores Demarco
Center for Industrial Research, FUDETEC, Av. Cordoba 320, 1054, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Abstract Lagrangian formulations are suitable for modeling a material behavior that incorporates elasticity but are not specially appropriate for modeling stationary processes; on the other hand, the available Eulerian formulations are very appropriate for modeling stationary processes but fail to properly incorporate the elastic material behavior. In the present paper we outline a new solid mechanics Eulerian formulation that properly describes a finite strain elastoplastic deformation process and therefore seems to be specially suited for modeling stationary elastoplastic metal forming processes. Keywords: Metal forming; Finite elements; Stationary problems; Eulerian formulation; Finite strain; Elastoplasticity
1. Introduction In previous publications [17] we presented the development of finite element models for simulating stationary metal forming processes under the assumption of rigidviscoplastic material behavior. Those models were based on the flow formulation [8] and were implemented using an Eulerian description of motion via the pseudoconcentrations technique [9,10]. The resulting numerical model is equivalent to the one that describes the flow of an incompressible nonlinear fluid (at every point the viscosity is a function of the strain rate); in our formulation the free surfaces are described using the pseudoconcentrations procedure which does not incorporate the complications of the standard free surface algorithms that require shifting nodes and the use of remeshing procedures. When modeling certain metal forming processes it is not realistic to neglect the elastic deformations; for example, when modeling the cold rolling of thin steel plates; also, in some cases the model objective is to investigate phenomena that are governed by the elastic deformations such as spring back effects or the build up of residual stresses; in all of the above mentioned cases it is necessary to use an elasticviscoplastic model rather than a rigidviscoplastic one. * Corresponding author. Tel: h54 3489435302; Fax: h54 3489435312; Email: dvk@siderca.com 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
Lagrangian formulations are suitable for modeling a material behavior that incorporates elasticity but are not specially appropriate for modeling stationary processes; on the other hand, the available Eulerian formulations are very appropriate for modeling stationary processes but fail to properly incorporate the elastic material behavior. In the present paper we outline a new solid mechanics Eulerian formulation that properly describes a finite strain elastoplastic deformation process and therefore seems to be specially suited for modeling stationary elastoplastic metal forming processes.
2. The Eulerian solid mechanics formulation Let us consider the solid in Fig. 1 that evolves from its reference configuration (/ = 0) to its spatial one {t). Using the standard multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient we can write [1115], 'F(1)
For the strain rates we define in the spatial configuration the velocity gradient (^/) and the elastic velocity gradient (7 ); hence we can write the following material derivatives ^' F Dt dt
vV'F='l
(2a)
E.N. Dvorkin, D. Demarco /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Reference Configuration Spatial Configuration
157
where ^a/y are the Cartesian components of the Cauchy stress tensor, ^dtj are the Cartesian components of the spatial strain rate tensor, ^Rt are the Cartesian components of the external loads and ^ V is the volume of the body in the spatial configuration.
3. The pseudoconcentrations technique In 9^^, at time t, we define a variable ^c such that the spatial configuration of the body is the locus of the set of points that have ^c > 0. If we assume a trial distribution of ^c we can use Eqs. (17) to determine the velocity field ^i; (for the points with ^c < 0 we consider "small" elasticity constants and a "small" viscosity, as compared with the points where actual material is present). Defining ^c as "pseudoconcentration per unit mass" we can postulate the conservation of ^c in a control volume V
Intermediate Configuration
Dt
dt
+ 'v'YLL
='L 'iK
(2b)
where ^y_ is the material velocity field. In the intermediate configuration we define the viscoplastic velocity gradient CL ); its pushforward to the spatial configuration is [17],
vp
=0
(8)
(^r.=t^L CM', t r ^
+ v_(;p'c'v) = o.
(9)
We can decompose lyp into a symmetric component (dyp) and an antisymmetric one (coyp); for isotropic elasticity we assume cOyp = 0 [18]. Hence [18],
For a stationary process, and considering also mass conservation, we get. 'v'V'c = 0. (10)
u =n
d =vp
(4)
Using Perzyna's viscoplastic constitutive relation we can write in the spatial configuration [19], 'r,f = 2/x(?,)(5,),. (5)
where ^T^ are the Cartesian components of the deviatoric Kirchhoff stress tensor. Calling ^r_ the tensor we get by pullingback the components Tij from the spatial configuration to the intermediate one we can write the following hyperelastic constitutive relation, using the elastic Hencky strain tensor ('^, = l n ( / l f ^ ) ) [ 1 8 ] , TAB = [!,^c*('^a(>)]^g T =a : 'H (6a) (6b)
Please notice that being the material elastoplastic, the flow is not incompressible and therefore, incompressibility was not invoked for deriving the above equation. A new ^cdistribution is determined using Eq. (10) and afterwards the velocity field is updated. The iteration loop is followed until at two successive iterations the ^c and ^i;distributions are coincident, within prescribed tolerances.
4. Conclusions A new soUd mechanics formulation was developed for the modeling of stationary elastoplastic metal forming processes. The new formulation is based on: An Eulerian description of motion implemented via the pseudoconcentrations technique. A sound description of finite strain elastoplastic deformation processes, based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient and on a hyperelastic constitutive equation for the elastic part. In a forthcoming paper we will discuss the finite element implementation of the proposed Eulerian formulation.
At each point of the spatial configuration the stress tensor has to fulfil the relations (5), (6a) and (6b); also the velocity field has to fulfil the Principle of Virtual Work [20],
^aij 8dij ^ dv
'RiSvi
(7)
158 References
E.N. Dvorkin, D. Demarco /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics creeping viscous flows during transient analysis. Int J Numer Methods Fluids 1986;6:749761. Thompson E, Smelser RE. Transient analysis of forging operations by the pseudoconcentrations method. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1988;25:177189. Lee EH, Liu DT. Finite strain elasticplastic theory with application to planewave analysis. J Appl Phys 1967;38:1727. Lee EH. Elastic plastic deformation at finite strain. J Appl Mech 1969;36:16. Simo JC, Ortiz M. A unified approach to finite deformation elastoplastic analysis based on the use of hyperelastic constitutive equations. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1985;49:221245. Simo JC. A framework for finite strain elasto plasticity based on maximum plastic dissipation and the multiplicative decomposition. Part I: Continuum formulation. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1988;66:199219. Simo JC. A framework for finite strain elastoplasticity based on maximum plastic dissipation and the multiplicative decomposition. Part II: Computational aspects. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1988;68:131. Malvern LE. Introduction to the Mechanics of a Continuous Medium. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1969. Marsden JE, Hughes JR. Mathematical Foundations of Elasticity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1983. Dvorkin EN, Pantuso D, Repetto EA. A Finite element formulation for finite strain elastoplastic analysis based on mixed interpolation of tensorial components. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1994;114:3554. Perzyna P. Fundamental problems in viscoplasticity. Advances in Applied Mechanics, vol 9. Academic Press, 1966. Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996.
[1] Dvorkin EN, Petocz EG. An effective technique for modelling 2D metal forming processes using an Eulerian formulation. Eng Comput 1993;10:323336. [2] Dvorkin EN, Cavaliere MA, Goldschmit MB. A three field element via augmented Lagrangian for modelling bulk metal forming processes. Comput Mech 1995;17;29, [3] Dvorkin EN, Goldschmit MB, Cavaliere MA, Amenta PM. On the modelling of bulk metal forming processes. In: Proc. Second ECCOMAS (European Community on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences) Conference on Numerical Methods in Engineering. Wiley 1996. [4] Dvorkin EN, Goldschmit MB, Cavaliere MA, Amenta MP, Marini O, Stroppiana W. 2D finite element parametric studies of the flat rolling process. J Mater Process Technol 1997;68:99107. [5] Cavaliere MA, Goldschmit MB, Dvorkin EN. 3D modeling of bulk metal forming processes via the flow formulation and the pseudoconcentrations technique. In: Owen DRJ et al (Eds), Proceedings Fifth Int. Conf. on Computational Plasticity. CIMNE, 1997. [6] Dvorkin EN, Cavaliere MA, Goldschmit MB, Amenta PM. On the modeling of steel product rolling processes. Int J Forming Process (ESAFORM) 1998; 1:211242. [7] Dvorkin EN, Cavaliere MA, Zielonka MG, Goldschmit MB. New developments for the modeling of metal rolling processes. In: Wunderlich W et al. (Eds), Proceedings European Conference on Computational Mechanics, Munich, 1999. [8] Zienkiewicz OC, Jain PC, Onate E. Flow of solids during forming and extrusion: some aspects of numerical solutions. Int J Solid Struct 1977;14:1528. [9] Thompson E. Use of the pseudoconcentrations to follow
[10]
[11]
[12] [13]
[14]
[15]
[19] [20]
159
Abstract The global buckling (Euler buckling) of slender cylindrical pipes under internal/external pressure and axial compression is analyzed. For perfectly straight elastic pipes an approximate analytical expression for the bifurcation load is developed. For constructing the nonlinear paths of imperfect (non straight) elastoplastic pipes a finite element model is developed. It is demonstrated that the limit loads evaluated via the nonlinear paths tend to the approximate analytical bifurcation loads when these limit loads are inside the elastic range and the imperfections size tends to zero. Keywords: Internal pressure; External pressure; Axial compression; Euler buckling; Pipeline
1. Introduction When a straight pipe under axial compression and internal (external) pressure is slightly perturbed from its straight configuration there is a resultant force, coming from the net internal (external) pressure, that tends to enlarge (diminish) the curvature of the pipe axis. Hence, for a straight pipe under axial compression, if the internal pressure is higher than the external one, there is a destabilizing effect due to the resultant pressure load and therefore, the pipe Euler buckling load is lower than the Euler buckling load for the same pipe but under equilibrated internal/external pressures; on the other hand when the external pressure is higher than the internal one the resultant pressure load has a stabilizing effect and therefore the pipe Euler buckling load is higher than the Euler buckling load for the same pipe but under equilibrated internal/external pressures. The analysis of the buckling load of slender cylindrical pipes under the above described loading is important in many technological applications; for example, the design of pipelines. In Fig. 1 we present a simple case, for which the axial compressive load (T) has a constant part (C) and a part proportional to the internal pressure (p/). That is to say.
T = C + kpi
(1)
where ^ is a constant depending on the particular application. In the second section of this paper we develop an approximate analytical expression for calculating the Euler buckhng load for elastic perfectly straight cylindrical pipes (bifurcation limit load) and in the third section we develop a finite element model to determine the equilibrium paths of imperfect (non straight) elastoplastic cylindrical pipes. From the analysis of the nonlinear equilibrium paths it is possible to determine the limit loads of pipes under axial compression and internal/external pressure. Of course, this limit loads depend on the pipe imperfections; however, we show via numerical examples that, for the cases in which the bifurcation limit loads are inside the elastic range, the pipe limit loads tend to the bifurcation limit loads when the imperfections size tends to zero.
2. Elastic buckling of perfect cylindrical pipes 2.1. Internal pressure In Fig. 1 we represent a perfectly straight slender cylindrical pipe, in equihbrium under an axial compressive load and internal pressure; let us assume that we perturb the straight equilibrium configuration getting an infinitely close
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +54 (3489) 435302; Fax: F54 (3489) 435310; Email: sidrto@siderca.com 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
160
E.N. Dvorkin, R.G. Toscano /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics I T=c + k Pj 1^^^ p^^ ^j^^ length has horizontal and vertical components that in our case {v'{x) <^\) are, qh{x) = q{x) cos [v'{x)], qy{x) = q(x) sin [v\x)] . (5)
Using a series expansion of the trigonometric functions and neglecting higher order terms, we get:
qh(x) = pi7Trfv\x),
qv(x)=0.
(6)
To analyze the equilibrium of the perturbed configuration, being this an elastic problem, we use the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy [1,2]. When only conservative loads are acting on the pipe, equilibrium is fulfilled if, in the perturbed configuration.
sn = 0
where 77 is the potential energy,
(7)
n = u V
(8)
U: elastic energy stored in the pipe material, V: potential of the external conservative loads. In our case we have to consider the displacement dependent loads (nonconservative) given by Eq. (6), therefore [3]:
L
8{U Fig. 1. Cylindrical pipe under internal pressure and axial compression. configuration defined by the transversal displacement, v{x), of the points on the pipe axis. If for some loading level, defined by /?, and by Eq. (1), this perturbed configuration is in equilibrium we say that the load level is critical (buckling load) because a bifurcation of the equilibrium path, in the loadsdisplacements space, is possible. Due to the polar symmetry of the problem we consider that all the displacements v{x) are parallel to a plane. For a longitudinal fiber defined by the polar coordinates ix,r,0) (see Fig. 1) we have, for the case of small strains, xx = v'\x)rcosO (2)
= 0
(9)
and [1], EI
f [v'\x)f dx,
0 L
(10a)
(10b)
0 L
I qh8v{x)dx=
0
j
0
pi7Trfv"(x)8v{x)dx
(10c)
where e^^ is the axial strain and v"{x) = ^^^. On a differential pipe length, the resultant pressure force due to the pipe bending is normal to the bent axis direction (follower load) and its value is. q(x)dx = 2 C S 0(1 +,.,)^/d0djc O (3)
E: Young's modulus of the pipe material, /: inertia of the pipe section with respect to a diametral axis. Hence, introducing the above in Eq. (9) we get for the fulfillment of equilibrium,
L L
&]^^j[v"(x)f<^x'^j[v'(x)]'Ax
(11)
where r, is the pipe inner radius.Using Eqs. (2) and (3) we get, q{x) = piTtrfv'Xx) (4)
which is the resulting force per unit length produced by the internal pressure acting on the deformed configuration. This
We search for an approximate solution of the above equation using the Ritz Method [1], therefore we try as an approximate solution, . nnx ^_^
n=l,2,...
asm^.
(12)
E.N. Dvorkin, R.G. Toscano/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
161
"P
T"
rr
An example of this case is the hydraulic testing of a pipe. In this case: C = 0, k = TT (r^ rf). Hence, using Eq. (14b) we get, _
Pier
Eljt
J 2 2'
cL"
Obviously, if there are {n I) intermediate supports we have, n^EIn L^r] 2.2. External pressure
tl
For the cases in which the pipe is submitted to external pressure we rewrite Eq. (6) as. qhM = Pe7rrfv'\x), qy(x) = 0. (15)
Hence, after some algebra we get for the equilibrium of the perturbed configuration,
L
Fig. 2. Simply supported pipe open on both ends under internal pressure.
0 0 L
dx
Introducing the proposed approximate solution in Eq. (11) and taking into account that the an are arbitrary constants we get for equilibrium, / n 4^4 V
2^ Tn^Tt 2
= 0
(16)
 Pin
an=0
n =
l,2,.. (13)
using as an approximation for the equilibrium configuration the one written in Eq. (12), we finally get, Eln'^Tt'^
2^ Tn^Tt 2
The above equations have two possible solution sets: Un = 0 ; which corresponds to the unperturbed straight configuration. [^T^  ^  Pi^f^] = 0; which corresponds to an equilibrium configuration different from the straight one. The second solution gives the location of the bifurcation point (critical loading),
Tcr + PicrTCrf =
^2^3
+ Perf
n =
l,2,... (17)
n^EIic^
L2
C c r H~ K^Pecr
Pecr^^i
n^ElTT^ L2
(14a) (14b)
Ccr ^kpicr
\
PicrT^rf
It is interesting to realize that the above equations predict that there is a critical (buckling) pressure also if there is no axial compression {T = 0) and even if there is axial tension on the pipe (T < 0). Let us consider the following cases: Simply supported pipe, closed on both ends, under internal pressure. In this case, C = 0 and k = Jtrf; hence, from Eq. (14b) it is obvious that the only possible solution is the straight configuration and no bifurcation is possible. Simply supported pipe, open on both ends, under internal pressure (Fig. 2).
From the above equations it is obvious that the external pressure has a stabilizing effect on the pipe; that is to say, the axial compressive load that makes the pipe buckle is higher than the Euler load of the pipe under equilibrated internal/external pressures. Let us consider the following case: Simply supported pipe, closed on both ends, under external pressure. For this case C = 0 and k = nr^ therefore from Eq. (18b) we get,
Peer
EiTt
LHrj  rf)
n^EIn
162
E.N. Dvorkin, R.G. Toscano /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the pipe axis, that for the case of internal pressure is (see Eq. (6)), qh = piiTr^[v"{x)+^\x)]
Comparing this result with the one corresponding to the pipe under internal pressure it is obvious that the pipe under external pressure can withstand a higher pressure without reaching the bifurcation load; hence, it is obvious the stabilizing effect of the external pressure.
3. Nonlinear equilibrium paths for nonstraight elastoplastic cylindrical pipes An actual pipe is not perfectly straight, and its random imperfections will have a projection on the buckling mode of the perfect pipe; hence, when analyzing the equilibrium path of a nonperfect pipe we shall encounter a limit point rather than a bifurcation point [4]. The load level of this limit point shall depend on the pipe imperfections, will be lower than the bifurcation load of the perfect pipe and will tend to this value when the imperfections size tends to zero. In order to analyze the nonlinear equilibrium paths of imperfect pipes we developed a finite element model using the general purpose finite element code ADINA [5]. Some basic features of the developed finite element model are: The pipe behavior is modelled using Hermitian (Bernoulli) beam elements [6]. The pipe model is developed using an Updated Lagrangian formulation with an elastoplastic (associated von Mises) material model (finite displacements and rotations but infinitesimal strains) [6]. Acting on the beam elements we consider a conservative load ( r ) and a deformation dependent load normal to
where f (x) is the initial imperfection of the pipe axis. We simply calculate, in our finite element implementation,the second derivatives using a finite differences scheme. To provide a numerical example, we use the finite element model to analyze the following case: Pipe outside diameter Pipe wall thickness Pipe length Intermediate grips Pipe yield strength Hardening modulus 60.3 mm 3.9 mm 12,200 mm 4 38.70 kg/mm^ 0.0
C = 0,k =
n{rlr}).
3.1. No clearance between the pipe and the grip We consider the following initial imperfection for the pipe axis, ^{x) = a 0 . 2
looo^'U ;
11
/57Tx\ I
(19)
which is obviously zero at the grips and is coincident with the first buckling mode predicted using the Ritz method (Eq. (12)). In Fig. 3 we plot the loaddisplacement equilibrium path for various values of a and in the same graph we plot the bifurcation limit load obtained using Eq. (14b).
E.N. Dvorkin, R.G. Toscano/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
163
f7 E
 Case with clearance at the grips  ^ Case with no clearance at the grips
V
Lateral displacement at the tube center [mm]
We can verify from this figure that the limit load increases when the size of the imperfection (a) diminishes, and that it tends to the bifurcation limit load when a ^ 0. 3.2. Clearance between pipe and grips This is a more realistic case because, unless the grips are welded to the pipe body, there is usually some clearance between the pipe and the grips. We analyze the same case that was considered in the previous subsection but allowing for a clearance between the grip and the pipe body of 5 mm. We consider the following initial imperfection for the pipe axis, ^W = 0.2
4. Conclusions We derived an approximate analytical expression for calculating the Euler buckling load of a pipe under axial compression and internal/external pressure. This expression incorporates the destabilizing/stabilizing effect of the internal/external pressure. We constructed a finite element model to determine the nonlinear equilibrium paths, in the loadsdisplacements space, of imperfect (nonstraight) elastoplastic pipes. From the analysis of the nonlinear equilibrium paths it is possible to determine the limit loads of pipes under axial compression and internal/external pressure. Of course, these limit loads depend on the pipe imperfections; however, we showed via numerical examples that, for the cases in which the bifurcation limit loads are inside the elastic range, the pipe limit loads tend to the bifurcation limit loads when the imperfections size tends to zero.
( 5nx\
1000
)"(T)
(20)
and between the rigid grip and the pipe we introduce a contact condition. In Fig. 4 we plot the nonlinear equilibrium paths corresponding to the cases: Clearance between grips and pipe body (initial imperfection as per Eq. (20)). No clearance between grips and pipe body (initial imperfection as per Eq. (19) with a = 1.0). From the results plotted in Fig. 4 it is obvious that the only imperfection that has an influence on the pipe critical load is the imperfection that is coincident with the first pipe buckling mode.
Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from SIDERCA (Campana, Argentina).
References [1] Hoff NJ. The Analysis of Structures. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY: 1956. [2] Washizu K. Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity. New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 1982.
164
E.N. Dvorkin, R.G. Toscano/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [5] ADINA R&D. The ADINA System. Watertown, MA, USA. [6] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Englewood CUffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996.
[3] Crandall SH, Kamopp DC, Kurtz EF, PridmoreBrown DC. Dynamics of Mechanical and Electromechanical Systems. McGrawHill, New York, NY: 1968. [4] Brush DO, Almroth BO. Buckhng of Bars, Plates and Shells. McGrawHill, New York, NY. 1975.
165
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Abstract A new contact algorithm is presented which satisfies both stability and the contact patch test. The segmenttosegment algorithm involves a contact pressure interpolation and an accurate integration of the contact constraints over the surfaces of the contacting bodies. Numerical integration is carried out over subsegments based on the element topologies of both contacting surfaces. The algorithm is applicable to both linear and quadratic element surface interpolations. Keywords: Contact algorithm; Finite element solution; Stability; Patch test
1. Introduction To guarantee stability and optimal convergence, contact formulations, like other mixed formulations, should satisfy an ellipticity and an infsup condition [1,2]. Furthermore, the contact algorithm should satisfy a contact patch condition, which describes its ability to represent a state of constant normal traction between two flexible contacting bodies. However, a review of the literature indicates that current contact algorithms do not satisfy both, the stabiHty and contact patch conditions [3]. In this paper, we present a new contact algorithm, which satisfies both requirements. We classify the algorithm as a segmenttosegment procedure since it involves an accurate integration of the contact constraints over the surfaces of the contacting bodies, not just using values at the nodes. We describe the solution approach using 2D conditions but the theory is directly applicable to 3D conditions as well.
where v represents any admissible displacement. Hi denotes the total potential of body I not accounting for contact effects, and K represents the set of functions satisfying the nopenetration contact constraint K = {\\\eV, g(\) > 0 on F d (2)
and H^ is the usual Sobolev space. Using a Lagrange multiplier to enforce the contact constraint, and assuming contact, the minimization problem is
Body A 2. Contact formulation Consider a system consisting of two bodies in contact (Fig. 1). Assuming infinitesimally small displacements, a linear elastic material and frictionless conditions, the contact problem can be expressed as a constrained miniBodyB * Corresponding author. Tel: +1 (617) 2536645; Fax: +1 (617) 2532275; Email: kjb@mit.edu 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor) Fig. 1. Two bodies in contact.
166
N. ElAbbasi, K.J. Bathe/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
r ('+!)*
Target / surface T T I
sCV
Contactor surface F^ f

\ X> 1
(4)
Qh = [x, \ h e H'^\
X,\i^eP/{k)]
(8)
(5)
and X is the contact pressure which can only be zero or positive. The variational form of the contact problem can be obtained by extremizing Eq. (4) with respect to the field variables v and X. Note that the constraint function method can be used to solve the contact problem without the need for distinguishing between active and inactive contact constraints [1].
where P/ denotes a polynomial of degree j , with Ocontinuity between elements, and ^ is a reference contact segment. The polynomial degree j must be less than or equal to that of the element interpolation, and the segments K are defined on Fc . Thus, the Lagrange multiplier value at integration point / is obtained as follows: A^^ = ^ / f ^ X (9)
3. New contact algorithm The algorithm involves a masterslave approach. One of the surfaces, Fc, is assumed to be the contactor, and the other, F j , is the target as shown in Fig. 2. The contact constraint is evaluated at the integration points (not necessarily the nodes) along Fc. Let the superscript / denote an integration point. For a point with coordinates x'^^^, the displacement v'^ can be interpolated from the nodal displacements on Fc as follows:
where the A^ are the independent (usually nodal) multipliers on Fc and the interpolation function values /f^^ depend on the polynomial degree and interelement continuity of the contact pressure field. The contact integral of Eq. (5) is then converted to a summation over the integration points (see Fig. 2) n c = J2^c^'^(^c  V;) N' + g'o'] (10)
=j:h'^<
(6)
where h'^ is the interpolation function (evaluated at point /) relating the displacement of the contactor point to the displacements of the contactor nodes. For each integration point on the contactor surface Fc the displacement of the target point on Fr is interpolated as follows:
y^ = J2hH
(7)
where w' is the integration weight factor, N' is the unit normal vector to measure the gap, and g^^ is the initial gap width; all given at integration point /. It is important that we select a numerical quadrature rule that accurately evaluates the contact integral. This expression is piecewise continuous with possible discontinuities occurring at the nodes of either contact surfaces. Accordingly, any integration scheme involving integration points that are dictated by only one of the two surfaces cannot exactly evaluate Eq. (5) regardless of the number of integration points used. If, however, the integration intervals are based on 'subsegments' corresponding to any two neighboring nodes regardless of their surface of origin, an exact evaluation is possible. This accurate integration feature enables the algorithm to pass the patch test for both linear and quadratic elements.
A . ElAbhasi, KJ. Bathe/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics ^ O Contactor node Target node x Integration point
167
4 ^eO^<
4^ i ><r^KO
\.j<
A.'p
A.J'
^^
(a)
(b)
Fig. 3. Location of integration points based on: (a) Gaussian quadrature, and (b) trapezoidal rule. Hence, the algorithm involves two main steps. In the first, the subsegment boundaries are determined by projecting the nodes of the target surface onto the contactor surface (only the edge nodes need to be projected for quadratic and higher order elements). In the second step, the contact expression on each subsegment is integrated using Gaussian or NewtonCotes integration rules as shown in Fig. 3.
elements the quadratic continuous pressure interpolation is optimal [3]. As mentioned above, the patch test is also passed by the algorithm [3].
5. Conclusions A new segmenttosegment contact algorithm was developed which accurately evaluates the contact constraints between the contacting bodies. The algorithm provides optimal performance by satisfying both the stability and the contact patch conditions, using linear or quadratic element displacement interpolations. While the theory given here is directly applicable to 3D contact problems, the actual detailed solution algorithm needs still to be developed.
4. Stability and patch conditions for contact algorithms Contact algorithms should satisfy the stability and patch conditions. Stability is represented by an ellipticity and an infsup condition. Satisfying the ellipticity condition depends on the use of appropriate finite elements and boundary conditions, not on the contact formulation. The infsup condition for contact problems can be represented as follows [3] inf sup frc^hg(yh)drc
i/2,r V/j
References [1] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. [2] Brezzi F, Bathe KJ. A discourse on the stability conditions for mixed finite element formulations. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1990;82:2757. [3] ElAbbasi N, Bathe KJ. Stability and patch test performance of contact discretizations. Comput Struct, submitted.
>P>0
(11)
The infsup condition is satisfied if the constant P is independent of the element size. The stability of the new contact algorithm has been assessed numerically, and it was found that with linear elements it is best to use a Hnear continuous pressure interpolation, whereas with quadratic
168
Abstract A new algorithm for representing 2D contact surfaces is developed and implemented, based on C^continous cubic splines. The new surface interpolation does not influence the element calculations, and possesses a local support characteristic, which simplifies the representation of the contact constraints. Consequently, it can be easily implemented in standard FE codes. A numerical example is used to illustrate the advantages of smooth representation of contact surfaces. The results show a significant improvement in accuracy compared to traditional piecewise elementbased surface interpolation. The predicted contact stresses are also less sensitive to the mismatch in the meshes of the different contacting bodies. Keywords: Contact; Cubic splines; Surface approximation; Lagrange multipliers; Splines; Ring compression; Smooth surfaces
1. Introduction Most finite element based contact formulations rely on the element interpolation functions to describe the contact surface and to impose the kinematic contact conditions. Consequently, the contact surface is defined as a sequence of lines (or curves) connecting the FE nodes with only Ccontinuity. In this case, the normal vector is not uniquely defined at the nodes. Even when higher order elements, such as the 8 and 9noded elements, are used the contact surface is still nonsmooth at the exterior nodes. In cases involving contact with a rigid target, analytical surface profiles and spline interpolation functions have been used to describe the rigid surface and its normal vector [1]. This approach has resulted in significant improvement in the solution accuracy, especially in metal forming applications [2]. However, it has not been used to describe the surfaces involved in contact between flexible bodies since the analytical surface profiles that describe the initial geometry cannot be used to describe the deformed one. In this paper, we develop an algorithm for smooth contact surface interpolation (Fig. 1). The contact surfaces * Corresponding author. Tel/Fax: +1 (416) 9785741; Email: meguid@mie.utoronto.ca 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
are described using cubic splines passing through the FE nodes and possessing C^continuity. The normal vector associated with the resulting surface profile is uniquely defined at all points. This interpolation is applicable to both rigid and flexible bodies and it can be easily implemented in finite element codes.
2. Spline interpolation Fig. 1 shows a parametric cubic spline segment connecting two FE nodes. The interpolation function passes through the end points po and p3, while the intermediate points pi and p2 dictate the shape of the curve. The end
N. ElAbbasi, S.A. Meguid/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics control points po and ps are located at the finite element nodes, while the intermediate points dictate the smoothness of the curve. Their location is selected based on the specific spline form adopted. C^ is the highest degree of continuity that is achievable using cubic splines. In this case, the location of the intermediate control points for all the spline segments are coupled. They can be obtained by solving a predominantly tridiagonal matrix expressing the continuity equations [3]. When the location of the FE nodes changes, the matrix must be solved again for the new location of the intermediate points. The overhead associated with this process does not offset the advantages of second order continuity. By employing C^continuity, however, simple and fast interpolation functions can be constructed where the intermediate control points can be obtained without resorting to matrix solution. In this case, the location of the intermediate control points is governed by a few nodes adjacent to the segment. This property is known as local support. Interpolation functions can be constructed to satisfy a prescribed tangential vector, a prescribed tangential direction or a prescribed normal direction [3]. However, these vectors are generally not available in standard FE meshes. Overhauser splines offer an alternative approach that ensures C^continuity without requiring prescribed tangential or normal vectors [4]. Accordingly, they are the most suitable interpolation form for finite element contact problem involving flexible bodies. For each segment a, the spline curve can be considered as a linear blend of two parabolas q"~^ and q"', where each parabola passes through the two surface nodes pg and p" as well as a neighboring surface node (one from each side) x'^ (w) = {\u) q"^ {u + \) + uct{u), 0 < M < 1 (1)
169
cedure. To overcome this, the contact search is divided into two stages. The purpose of the first stage is to obtain a quick estimate of the proximity of a master node to a specific spline segment. In this stage, interference is checked between the master node and the control polygon of the spline segment. According to the convex hull property, the spline curve cannot exceed the geometric bounds of the control polygon [3]. If the master node is inside the search region, an accurate iterative contact check is performed in the second stage of the search. In this stage, the exact target point and gap/penetration are determined.
4. Solution strategy The contact can generally be expressed in the form of a variational inequaUty [5]. In this work, the active contact constraints are imposed using Lagrange multipliers. UnUke penaltybased methods, Lagrange multipliers satisfy the contact constraints exactly without any interpenetration between the contacting bodies. The solution to the saddlepoint problem can be expressed in matrix form as: K C^ C 0 (3)
where the C matrix is the assembled constraint matrix, and G is the gap vector. The active constraint set is modified after each iteration step and a full contact search is performed. More details on the solution algorithm are provided in Ref. [6].
5. Numerical example One numerical example was selected to assess the accuracy of the newly developed smooth surface interpolation technique. It involves a ring compressed between two beams. The following dimensions were selected (Fig. 2(a)): L = Vd, h = t \ and /? = 8. In view of the symmetry condition, only one quarter of the model was discretized (Fig. 2(b)). An incremental vertical displacement da = 0 . 2 was applied to the symmetry surface of the ring. The beam was modeled using 40 x 5 fournoded elements as shown in Fig. 2(b), while a variable mesh of A^ x 5 elements was / used for the ring. Fig. 3 shows the contact stress distribution when the applied displacement is da = 2.8. The contact stresses were normahzed by the bending stiffness of the beam. The results reveal that using splines (A^ = 20 and 'N = 40) leads to a uniform contact stress distribution. The element interpolation results in unrealistic numerical stress oscillations. For A = 20, these oscillations lead to ^ intermediate regions of noncontact between the beam and the ring. A higher number of elements results in more uniform contact stress profiles. However, even when N 60,
The spUne curve can be expressed directly in terms of the coordinates of the two nodal points defining the segment and their two adjacent surface nodes: ^w' \ u^ \u
x() = [p
pf
lu^  fw^ + l
\u' \u^ (2)
0< w < 1
Two modified interpolation function are applied for spline segment at sharp comers and for those that intersect a lines of symmetry.
3. Contact search The use of high order polynomial functions to represent the contact surface can slow down the contact search pro
170
N. ElAbbasi, 5.A. Meguid / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
PI
PI
(a)
(b)
Fig. 2. Compression of a ring between two beams: (a) schematic, and (b) FE mesh through the finite element nodes to provide an accurate description of the contact surfaces. The selected splines were shown to possess a local support characteristic, which simplifies the representation of the contact constraints. The selected numerical example illustrates the advantages of the newly developed representation of contact surfaces. The results reveal a significant improvement in the prediction of contact stresses and contact area.
"S
0.2
0.0 0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
References [1] Hansson E, Klarbring A. Rigid contact modelled by CAD surface. Eng Comput 1990;7:344348. [2] Santos A, Makinouchi A. Contact strategies to deal with different tool descriptions in static explicit FEM for 3D sheetmetal forming simulation. J Mater Proc Technol 1995;50:277291. [3] Farin G. Curves and Surfaces for Computeraided Geometric Design A Practical Guide. Toronto: Academic Press, 1997. [4] Brewer JA, Anderson DC. Visual interaction with Overhauser curves and surfaces. Comput Graphics 1977;11:132137. [5] ElAbbasi N, Meguid SA. On the treatment of frictional contact in shell structures using variational inequalities. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1999;46:275295. [6] ElAbbasi N, Meguid SA, Czekanski A. On the modelling of smooth contact surfaces using cubic splines. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2000, accepted.
Contact length (x/L) Fig. 3. Contact stress distribution along ring for different ring mesh densities.
these stresses are still less accurate than those obtained using splines. Other numerical examples provided in Ref. [6] show that the predicted contact stresses are less sensitive to the mismatch in the meshes of the different contacting bodies.
6. Conclusions A new technique for interpolating the contact surface in 2D finite element problems was developed and implemented. Cubic splines with C^continuity were interpolated
171
Abstract The construction of optimal 3node, 9degrees of freedom triangular membrane elements with comer drilling freedoms is studied in some generahty. It is shown that all elements of this geometry and freedom configuration that pass the patch test can be generated through a template with six free parameters: one basic and five of higher order. The selection of optimal parameters that optimize inplane bending behavior for arbitrary aspect ratios is shown to coincide with a triangle element published in 1991. A similar study isconducted for an optimal quadrilateral macroelement formed with four triangles. The macroelement assembly may possess internal degrees of freedom represented as the tangential displacement deviation at midpoints to further improve performance. Keywords: Finite element method; Membrane; Plane stress; Comer drilling degrees of freedom; Normal rotational freedom; Triangular element; Quadrilateral element; Shell element; Template; Free parameter; Macroelement; Optimal element
1. Summary The idea of including normalrotation degrees of freedom at comer points of planestress finite elements the socalled drilling freedoms is an old one. The main motivations behind this idea are: (1) To improve the element performance while avoiding the use of midpoint degrees of freedom. Midpoint nodes have lower valency than corner nodes, demand extra effort in mesh definition and generation, do not fit the data stmctures of standard commercial FEM codes, and can cause modeling difficulties in nonlinear analysis and dynamics. (2) To solve the 'normal rotation problem' of smooth shells analyzed with finite element programs that carry six degrees of freedom per node. This is done by using the triangular element with drilling degrees of freedom as the membrane component of a facet triangular shell element with 18 degrees if freedom. (3) To simplify the modeling of connections between plates, shells and beams, as well as the treatment of junctures in shells and folded plates.
* Corresponding author. Tel: +1 (303) 4926547; Fax: +1 (303) 4924990; Email: carlos@titan.colorado.edu 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
Many efforts to develop membrane elements with drilling freedoms were made during the period 19641975 with inconclusive results. A summary of this early work is given in the Introduction of an article by Bergan and Felippa [1], where it is observed that Irons and Ahmadin in their 1980 book [2] had dismissed the task as hopeless. In fact, the subject laid largely dormant throughout the 1970s. It was revived in various publications [1,38] that appeared in the mid and late 1980s, and which present several solutions to this challenge. A threepart paper pubhshed in 1992 [911] presented a triangle that performs optimally as regards inplane bending for rectangular mesh units of arbitrary aspect ratio. In those papers, elements was derived with two different techniques: the Extended Free Formulation, and the Assumed Natural Deviatoric Strain formulation. Both formulations involved free parameters. The optimal elements provided by both formulations coalesced. The present paper studies the results from the point of view of finite element templates [12] and confirms that the 1992 optimal element is indeed unique for an individual triangle. The present study goes beyond that point in leaving tangential hierarchical midpoint freedoms in the triangle template. These freedoms are troublesome for individual triangles since they conflict with data structures of most generalpurpose FEM codes. They are useful, however.
172
C.A. Felippa /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics triangular membrane element with drilling freedoms. In: Hughes TJR, Hinton E (Eds), Finite Element Handbook series. Swansea: Pineridge Press, 1986, pp. 139152. Allman DJ. A compatible triangular element including vertex rotations for plane elasticity analysis. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1988;26:26452655. MacNeal RF, Harder RL. A refined fournoded membrane element with rotational degrees of freedom. Comput Struct 1988;28:7588. Alvin K, de la Fuente HM, Haugen B, Felippa CA. Membrane triangles with comer drilling freedoms: I. The EFF element. Finite Elem Anal Des 1992;12:163187. Felippa CA, Militello C. Membrane triangles with comer drilling freedoms: II. The ANDES element. Finite Elem Anal Des 1992;12:189201. Felippa CA, Alexander S. Membrane triangles with corner drilling freedoms: III. Implementation and performance evaluation. Finite Elem Anal Des 1992;12:203239. Felippa CA. Recent advances in finite element templates. In: Topping BHV (Ed), Computational Mechanics for the TwentyFirst Century. Saxe Cobum Publications: 2000, pp. 7198.
in the construction of quadrilateral macroelements, where tangential freedoms on internal edges can be eliminated by static condensation.
[7]
References [1] Bergan PG, Felippa CA. A triangular membrane element with rotational degrees of freedom. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1985;50:2569. [2] Irons BM, Ahmad S. Techniques of Finite Elements. Chichester: Ellis Horwood, 1980. [3] Allman DJ. A compatible triangular element including vertex rotations for plane elasticity analysis. Comput Struct 1984;19:18. [4] Cook RD. On the Allman triangle and a related quadrilateral element. Comput Struct 1986;22:10651067. [5] Cook RD. A plane hybrid element with rotational D.O.F. and adjustable stiffness. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1987;24:14991508. [6] Bergan PG, Felippa CA. Efficient implementation of a
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
173
Abstract We consider a mathematical model which describes the sliding frictional contact with wear between a viscoelastic body and a rigid moving foundation. The process is quasistatic and the wear is modeled with a version of Archard's law. We present a summary of our recent results on the variational and numerical analysis of the model. Finally, we provide numerical results in the study of a onedimensional test problem. Keywords: Viscoelasticity; SUding contact; Wear; Archard's law; Finite elements; Error estimates; Numerical simulations
1. Introduction Wear is one of the plagues which reduce the lifetime of modem machine elements. It represents the unwanted removal of materials from surfaces of contacting bodies occurring in relative motion. Wear arises when a hard rough surface slides against a softer surface, digs into it, and its asperities plough a series of grooves. Generally, a mathematical theory of friction and wear should be a generalization of experimental facts and it must be in agreement with the laws of thermodynamics of irreversible processes. A general model of quasistatic frictional contact with wear between deformable bodies was derived in Stromberg et al. [6] from thermodynamic considerations. This model was used in various papers (see, for example, Rochdi et al. [4,5]), where existence and uniqueness results of weak solutions have been proved. The present paper is devoted to the study of a quasistatic problem of sliding contact with wear. We model the process as in Stromberg et al. [6] by introducing the wear function which measures the wear of the contact surface and which satisfies Archard's law. The variational analysis of the model was provided in Ciulcu et al. [1], while the numerical analysis was performed in FernandezGarcia et al. [3]. Here, we summarize our main results and provide * Corresponding author. Tel.: ^34 (981) 563100; Fax: +34 (981) 597054; Email: jramon@usc.es 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
numerical simulation in the study of a onedimensional test problem. The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we present the variational formulation of the mechanical problem and state an existence and uniqueness result, which shows that under a smallness assumption on the given data, the mechanical problem has a unique weak solution. In Section 3, we analyze a fully discrete scheme, using finite elements with implicit discretization in time. We also derive error estimates and, under appropriate regularity assumptions on the exact solution, we obtain optimal order error estimates. Finally, in Section 4 we present numerical results.
2. The problem of sliding frictional contact with wear The physical setting is as follows. A viscoelastic body occupies the domain ^ C M^ (^ = 1, 2, 3) with outer Lip" schitz boundary F, divided into three disjoint measurable parts Fi, F2 and F3, such that measTi > 0. Let [0, T] be the time interval of interest. We suppose that the body is clamped on Fi x (0, J ) , surface tractions act on r2 x (0, T), and a volume force acts in ^ x (0, T). On F3 x (0, T) the body is in contact with a moving rigid foundation, which results in the wear of the contacting surface. We assume that there is only sliding contact, which is always maintained. The wear is modeled with a simplified version of
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J.R. FernandezGarcia et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the normal depth of the material that is lost. Since the body is in bilateral contact with the foundation it follows that w f wov on F^ X (0, 7). (2)
Archard's law. Moreover, we assume that the tangential displacements on the contact surface vanish, the process is quasistatic and we use a KelvinVoigt viscoelastic constitutive law. With these assumptions, the variational formulation of the mechanical problem of sliding frictional contact with wear is the following one (see Ciulcu et al. [1]). Problem P. Find a displacement field u : [0, T] ^ V, and a stress field a \[0,T]^ Q such that cf{t) = ^e{u(t)) + (5e{u(t)) = Wt e [0, T], {f(t).v)^ Vr V, r e [0,7], w(0) = MoHere V and Q denote the spaces V = {v e H\Q.Y \ v = 0 on Ti, r, = 0 on r3}, Q = [a = (Oij) \ aij = ajj e = L^(Q) i, j = l,d], {,)Q represents the inner product on Q and (, ')Y denotes the inner product on V given by (u,v)v = {e{u),e(v))Q where e : V ^ Q is the deformation operator. The operators 21 and 0 , related to the constitutive law, are defined on Q with the range in 2 , and the dot above represents the derivative with respect to the time variable. The element / : [0, 7] ^ V represents the body forces and tractions and UQ e V is the initial displacement. Finally, j denotes the functional j( u, v) = P\Hv\Vv dfl VM, V V,
Eq. (2) allows us to obtain the wear of the contact surface, when the displacement field u is known.
3. Fully discrete approximation Following FemandezGarcia et al. [3], we now consider a fully discrete approximation of problem P. To this end, let V^ c V and Q^ C Q be finite element spaces to approximate the spaces V and Q. Here /? > 0 is a discretization parameter. Let ^QH : G ^ G^ be the orthogonal projection operator defined through the relation ("^Q^q, q')Q = (q, q')Q V^ e Q, q'e Q\
{a(t),e(v))Q + j{u{t),v)
To discretize in time, we consider a partition of the time interval [0, 7]: 0 = ro < fi < < r/v = 7, we denote ^ the step size kn = tn  ?i for n = 1, 2 , . . . A and let k = max kn be the maximal step size. For a sequence {^n]n=o^ we denote 8wn = (Wn Wni)/kn.ln this section no summation is considered over the repeated index n and, everywhere in the sequel, c will denote positive constants which are independent on the parameters of discretization h and k. The fully discrete approximation method is based on the backward Euler scheme. It has the following form: Problem P*^ Find u^'' = {wf }lo ^ ^^ and a^^ = {af }% C Q' such that: a f = q3^.2le(5Mf) + ^ g / , 0 e ( M f ) (erf, eiw'))^ a.e. t e (0, 7), Vu;^ e V\
where ^ is a given function related to the velocity of the foundation and u^, v^ denote the normal traces of the elements u and v, respectively. Under reasonable assumptions on the constitutive functions it follows that 21 is a Lipschitz continuous strongly monotone operator on Q and 0 is a Lipschitz continuous operator on Q. Moreover, under appropriate regularity assumptions on the body forces and tractions, it follows that / G C([0, 7], V). The wellposedness of this problem is given by the following result. Theorem 1. Assume that p e L^CFs) and there exists P^ such that P(x) > y * > 0 a.e. x e Vj,. Then, there exists S Po > 0 which depends only on Q, Fi, F3 and 21 such that problem P has a unique solution {, a} if
I^IL^CFJ) < Po
Here Q G V^ is an appropiate approximation of MQWe have the following existence and uniqueness result. Theorem 2. Under the assumptions of Theorem 1, if (1) holds, then problem P^^ has a unique solution. In practice, the fixed point algorithm used in the proof of Theorem 2 is directly applied. To solve the semilinear equality obtained, a penaltyduality algorithm is suggested (see FemandezCara et al. [2]). In the study of the discrete problems, we have the following result. Theorem 3. Let {u, a) e C^([0, 7], V) x C([0, 7 ] , Q) be the solution of problem P, and let {wf, (xf l^^Lo C V^ x g^ denote the solution of fully discrete problem P^^. Assume the conditions stated in Theorem 2 and ii e L~(0, 7, V).
(1) a e
Now, we recall that in our model, the wear function is identified as an increase in gap in the normal direction between the body and the foundation or, equivalently, as
J.R. FemdndezGarcia et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Then we have the following error estimate: m^a^x^((r  a f Ig + \Un  uf\v) < c( \uo  M^IV w^\v)].
y
175
4. Numerical results In order to verify the accuracy of the numerical method described in the above section, some numerical experiments have been done in the study of onedimensional test problems. In this section, we resume the numerical results obtained, which exhibit the performance of the algorithm. The test problem P has been considered for the following data: Q = (0, 1), Ti = {0}, ^e = lOOe,
1
From Theorem 3, we derive the convergence of the fully discrete method. Corollary 4. Assume the conditions stated in Theorem 3. Assume moreover that the initial value UQ is chosen in such a way that
\UQ
T =
lOs, r 3 = {i},
r 2 = 0, 6 e = e, 99Ae'vdx,
VT G e.
UQ{X)
 w f v) ^
0 as /z, A ^ :
0.
The following error estimate is obtained as in Corollary 4. Corollary 5. Let the assumption in the above corollary hold. Assume, moreover, that the initial value UQ is chosen in such a way that wo
UQ\V
9900  0.005 The exact solution of the above problem, called problem n Z ) , is given by
= A \x
Wx e (0, 1),
u(x, t) o{xj)
(4+^)^"'
99 =  {Ax + l)e\
< ch,
and there exists c > 0 such that inf \vw^\v<ch (/^eO(r)lG<c/z Wv eVnH^(QY, VTGg. ] J
Then the following error estimate is obtained: m^ax^(a  a f Ig + M  uf\y) < c(h + k). (3)
By using the discrete method described in the above section, we have implemented the numerical method in a standard workstation. In Fig. 1, the displacement fields for several time values {t = 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 s), calculated with parameters h = 0.01 and k = 0.01, are drawn. Also, the difference with exact solution (4) at these time values is shown. Moreover, in Fig. 2, we show the evolution in time of the displacement of the points x = 0.25, 0.5, 1 provided by the algorithm and the corresponding error with the exact solution.
Exact error
Displacement field
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Fig. 1. Problem TID: displacement field and exact error for different time values.
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J.R. FerndndezGarcia et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Displacement field x 10* Exact error
25 1 x0 5
XKO
0,5 k
0.45
" "
~ ^
L
i ^ ^
x=1 1
0,4 ^
^ 0.35f 0,3.
3
0.25
,
~ ^ . _ . ^
" " ^
^\.,^
^ ~ 
"
"
 .
^ . ^ ._
0.2 
^ ^  ^ ^ ^
0,15
" ^ ^   ^
^~^^_
0.1on?i_
^
0.7 0.8 0.9
i
_
0.1 0.2 0.3 0,4
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Fig. 2. Problem 7 I D : evolution of displacements of points x = 0.25, 0.5, 1 and corresponding scaled exact error.
Evolution of the wear function through the time
In Table 1, the exact error values for several discretization parameters k and h are shown. From here, asymptotic behaviour (3) is obtained with c = 0.13874157, independent of h and k. Finally, from Eq. (2), the wear function can be obtained. Its evolution through the time is shown in Fig. 3.
References [1] Ciulcu C, HoarauMantel TH, Sofonea M. Viscoelastic sliding frictional contact problems with wear. Submitted. [2] FemandezCara E, Moreno C. Critical Point Approximation through exact regularization. Math Comput 1988;50:139153. [3] FemandezGarcia JR, Sofonea M, Viano JM. Numerical analysis of a quasistatic viscoelastic sliding frictional contact problem with wear. Submitted. [4] Rochdi M, Shillor M, Sofonea M. A quasistatic viscoelastic contact problem with normal compliance and friction. J Elast 1998;51:105126. [5] Rochdi M, Shillor M, Sofonea M. A Quasistatic contact problem with directional friction and damped response. Appl Anal 1998;68:409422. Table 1 Exact error values for several discretization parameters
[6] Stromberg N, Johansson L, Klarbring A. Derivation and analysis of a generalized standard model for contact friction and wear. Int J Solid Struct 1996;33:18171836.
ki 01 .
0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005 0.0025 0.001
h ^
177
Abstract Threedimensional linear elastic fracture mechanics problems are addressed by means of the symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method (SGBEM). The technique is first shown to be efficient and accurate with reference to the stress intensity factors evaluations for a nonplanar crack; subsequently it is utiUzed to simulate a propagation process for an elliptical crack within a finite body. Keywords: 3D linear fracture mechanics; Fracture propagation; Boundary element method
1. Introduction In the numerical modelling of linear elastic fracture mechanics problems, boundary element methods have distinct advantages over domain approaches, especially when cracks are directly represented as displacement discontinuity loci and the traction integral equation is employed to enforce static conditions on the crack itself. The displacement discontinuity method, the dual BEM and the symmetric Galerkin BEM (SGBEM) share the above features and permit single domain formulations for problems with single or multiple cracks embedded in finite bodies or in the infinite medium. At difference from the other two techniques, the SGBEM (see the review paper by Bonnet et al. [1]) is based on a variational (weak) version of the integral equations, thus entaiUng double integrations, and, through the adoption of a Galerkin discretization scheme, leads to a symmetric linear equation system. The evaluation of the double surface integrals in the singular cases represents probably the main obstacle which has hampered the application of the method in the 3D context. However, recent results obtained by applied mathematicians have led to innovative algorithms which are now being adopted by the engineering BE community and have served as a basis for the fractureoriented implementation of the SGBEM in 3D recently presented by Frangi et al.
[2]. The approach is here extended to deal with a simple example of fracture propagation, in order to explore the potentialities of the SGBEM in this domain. Compared with the finite element method, the SGBEM appears to be a very attractive tool to carry out incremental crack extension analysis for two reasons: (1) the required remeshing work is greatly reduced; and (2) SIFs can be accurately evaluated through extrapolation from the displacement discontinuity field even for rather coarse meshes.
2. Numerical examples 2.1. Sphericalcap crack Let us consider a sphericalcap crack bounded by a circular front and subjected to a remote stress 033 (see ^ Fig. 1); a is the radius of the spherical surface and 2a is the subtended angle. For this problem, numerical results in terms of SIFs are given in [4] for a given range of a. The analysis has been carried out for three values of a (a = 15, 30, 45) and v = 0.3, using three meshes with 40, 112 and 240 elements on the spherical surface. Fig. 1 gives a planar representation of the actual meshes adopted for the sphericalcap crack, obtained by prescribing that the polar coordinate p equals a(j). Results in terms of SIFs are presented in Table 1 (quarterpoints elements are used along the crack front and the SIFs are evaluated through extrapolation from the displacement discontinuity field).
* Corresponding author. Email: attilio.frangi@ponmi.it 2001 PubHshed by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
178
A. Frangi et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics mesh A
A A A A A
mesh 2
Table 1 Sphericalcap crack: computed SIFs {K ^ = {llTi)\l7ta sin a ) for different values of the subtended angle 20?} Mesh 1 2 3 Ki/K^ (15) 0.964 0.966 0.966 (15) 0.263 0.266 0.267 (30) 0.845 0.849 0.851 (30) 0.520 0.525 0.527 (45) 0.655 0.662 0.665 (45) 0.769 0.774 0.776
crack
point along the front, propagation occurs in the plane perpendicular to the crack front itself, along the polar angle ^o^ ^0 tan = 2 2Kij (1)
Let us now consider a cylinder of length h and radius R containing an elliptical shaped crack of major semiaxis a and minor semiaxis b {b/a = 0.5, R/a = 10, h/R = 6), positioned in the middle and inclined at an angle y = 45 with respect to the horizontal plane (Fig. 2). The fatigue crack growth of the crack is analyzed by adopting the same criteria for incremental propagation as in [3]. For each
Kieff = Kj { B\Kiji\ The crack front extension a{l) (l being a curvilinear coordinate running along the front) is described by means of the generalized Paris law: Aa AN and Aa{i) is scaled so that, at each step, the maximum value Aa^ax is equal to a prescribed value. Material parameters are chosen as follows: E = 100, 000 MPa, v = 0.3, C = 1.5463 X 10^^ m = 3.88, B = 1; a cyclic loading (J^^i^) is applied to the cylinder bases (03^3 ^^ax = 100 MPa, ^33 min = 0 MPa). Fig. 2 illustrates the configuration of the crack after the first propagation steps which compares well with the results presented by Mi [3].
= CK:,,,
(2)
References [1] Bonnet M, Maier G, Polizzotto C. Symmetric Galerkin boundary element method. Appl Mech Rev 1998;51:669704.
A. Frangi et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [2] Frangi A, Novati G, Springhetti R, Cazzani A. On the numerical implementation of the symmetric Galerkin BEM in 3D fracture analysis. In: Atluri SN, Brust FW (Eds), Advances in Computational Engineering Sciences, Vol. 1. Tech Science Press, 2000, pp. 8186. [3] Mi Y. ThreeDimensional Analysis of Crack Growth. Southampton 1996, Computational Mechanics Pubhcations.
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[4] Xu G, Ortiz M. A variational boundary integral method for the analysis of 3D cracks of arbitrary geometry modelled as continuous distributions of dislocation loops. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993;36:36753701.
180
Abstract This paper presents results from a forming simulation of an experimental component that is representative of an automotive assembly. An inner panel (1.6 mm AA5754 aluminum sheet) and an outer panel (0.93 mm AA6111T4 aluminum sheet) are stamped from tooling to produce a square pan. After trimming and assembly by spotwelding, the component is allowed to spring back. The manufacturing process (including forming, trimming, assembly, and spring back) is simulated using LSDYNA software. Results show that including contact between the inner and outer panel during spring back is important for obtaining realistic spring back predictions. Spring back of the assembly is shown to be a function of the spring back of its components and the method by which they are connected. Keywords: Spring back; Finite element analysis; Sheet metal forming; Assembly; Hemming
1. Introduction Many authors have examined spring back of automotive panels with the finite element method [17]. Earlier papers focused on the spring back of the first draw panel [ 1 5]. In later years, as the technology for conducting finite element simulations increased, spring back analyses were conducted on panels that underwent subsequent forming operations such as restriking, trimming, and flanging [6,7]. Spring back analysis is undertaken largely to determine the final shape of a component. For example, hood panels are often the subject of spring back analyses because hoods are highly visible products and prone to low spots. The analysis may reveal the tendency for low spots to appear, but these may be corrected after assembly with the inner panel. In accordance with the concept of the functional build [8], emphasis should be placed on tuning the shape of the assembly and not on the shapes of the unassembled components. The methods outlined in this paper allow computer simulations to assume a role in constructing a functional build.
2. Approach 2.1. Experimental An inner and outer panel were each stamped on an experimental press using tooling shown in Fig. la. For the inner panel (Fig. lb), a 470 mm square blank made of AA5754 aluminum sheet was first stamped into a square pan with a dome in the bottom. This panel was then trimmed to create a channel 200 mm wide with a dome in the bottom (Fig. Ic). The channel height and dome heights were each 38.1 mm. The outer panel (Fig. Id) was 19.05 mm deep and did not have a dome. The outer was formed from 0.93 mm thick AA6111T4 aluminum sheet. After forming, the outer panel was trimmed to the same width, 200 mm, as the inner panel (Fig. le). When the panels are removed from the tooling, their shape will change due to spring back. The 'sprung' shape of the panels was determined after forming and after trimming. After trimming, the inner and outer panels were attached with spot welds. The shape of the new assembly was determined after it was removed from the spot welding fixture.
* Corresponding author. Tel: +1 (613) 5475395; Fax: Hi (613) 5475397; Email: mfac@post.kosone.com 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
EC. Galbraith et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics a) b)
181
d)
Fig. 1. (a) Tooling for forming the inner panel. For forming the outer, the tools are inverted, and the backup is not used, (b) The inner panel, (c) The inner panel after trimming, (d) The outer panel, (e) The outer panel after trimming.
2.2. Modelling The experimental approach outlined above was simulated using LSDYNA version 950d running on a COMPAQ XPIOOO workstation. A forming model was run for each of the inner and outer panels. The blank material was modelled as an isotropic material with a Von Mises yield criterion. Coulomb friction was implemented between the blank and the tooling. Only one quarter of the geometry was modelled due to symmetry conditions. Initially, the blank in each model contained only 400 'type 16' fully integrated shell elements, but due to adaptive meshing this increased to 11,401 elements for the outer panel and 13,333 for the inner panel (Fig. 2). The tools were constructed from 4,377 elements. Tool elements were considered to be rigid. After simulating the first draw process, LSDYNA wrote out a file named 'dynain' that contained the final nodal
locations, element connectivity, and adaptive constraints. As well, this file contained the effective plastic strain and the stress tensor for each integration point of each element. Seven integration points were selected for the blank elements in order to accurately map the through thickness stress distribution for the spring back calculation. The spring back analysis was conducted for each part individually as it came out of the forming tooling. In order to trim the excess material from the inner and outer panels, the dynain file was read into DYNAFORM [9]. Within DYNAFORM, the excess material was removed, and a new dynain file was created for each of the inner and outer panel, containing only those nodes and elements inside the trim line. Spring back predictions were obtained for the inner and outer panels after trimming. Also within DYNAFORM, the nodes in the region of the spot welds were identified. Nodal rigid bodies were created
a)
b)
Fig. 2. The blank, (a) Initially the blank was made up of 400 elements, (b) After forming the inner, the blank had 13,333 elements, (c) the formed outer had 11,401 elements.
182
P.C. Galbraith et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics In Fig. 5, the assembled component is shown prior to spring back. After spring back (Fig. 5b) the flange of the outer panel has passed through the inner panel, indicating that contact between inner and outer panels should be enforced if a proper shape prediction is to be obtained. The addition of contact between inner and outer panels prevented the flanges from passing through each other. Obviously, the spring back prediction would differ for the two cases. In Fig. 6, the effect of the assembly operation on the outer panel is shown. The low spot at the centre of the outer panel is 0.25 mm higher after assembly.
at 4 locations to simulate the effect of the spot welds, thus simulating the assembly process. The dynain file output by DYNAFORM was used for the spring back calculation of the assembly. The spring back predictions were obtained by using the implicit solver built into LSDYNA. A BFGS solver, which is a modified Newton's method, was used with automatic time step control and artificial stabilization. Spring back predictions for the full assembly were obtained at either two or three intermediate time steps based on convergence rates and the automatic time step controls.
3. Results 4. Discussion and conclusions The 'as formed' inner and outer panels are shown in Fig. 3 with contours of effective plastic strain calculated by LSDYNA plotted on the deformed geometry. In Fig. 4, the panels are shown after trimming and spring back. The contours in Fig. 4 represent the amount of displacement in the zdirection that occurs during spring back. The zdirection corresponds to the direction of the normal to the blank prior to forming. In order to remove rigid body translations in the zdirection, the zdisplacement at the location of one of the spot welds was set to zero, so all zdisplacements shown are relative to this point. Currently, tool engineers attempt to make dimensionally accurate parts that can then be assembled with mating parts. Conversely, in a functional build, parts are evaluated by assembling them with their mating parts, and determining if the assembly meets its function. With a functional build, automakers can save time and cost on die tryout. The techniques outlined here allow the benefits of sheet forming simulations (particularly the evaluation of tooling designs prior to manufacturing a forming tool) to be applied to the functional build process. For example, if the analysis shows Effective Plastic Strain 0.35 T  0.28 ^ 0.21  a 0.14 ^"^ 0.07 ^
a)
0.00 i Hi
Fig. 3. LSDYNA model predictions of effective plastic strain after forming. The inner panel (a) has higher strains because it is drawn deeper than the outer panel (b) and has a dome stretched in the bottom. Zdisp acen (mm) 1.30 0.64 0.02 0.68 1.34 2.00
3 1
'
zconstraints Fig. 4. Spring back of the unassembled inner and outer panels. The outer panel (b) springs more than the inner panel (a) because it has higher yield strength, thinner gauge and lower strains. Zdisplacements are relative to the displacement of the nodes pointed to by the arrows. These nodes were selected because they are the sites of the spot welds to be used during assembly. Note the low spot in the centre of the outer panel.
RC. Galbraith et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
183
a)
b)
!!
Fig. 5. Assembly before and after spring back. After spring back (b), the flanges have passed through each other because contact between the inner and outer panel was not modelled. Zdisplacement (mm)
Fig. 6. The effect of assembly on the outer, (a) The spring back shown in Fig. 4b is repeated here, showing the spring back of the outer prior to assembly, (b) The outer panel after assembly shows a reduced low spot in the centre of the panel, indicating that the spring back is less problematic in the assembly than in the outer panel alone for this example.
that the low spots in a hood outer are corrected by the assembly with the inner panel, further work need not be done to correct the shape of the outer. For these techniques to be widely applicable, it will be necessary to have a computerbased analogue to the inspection rooms commonly used for evaluating surface appearance of automotive assemblies. In these rooms, bright lights are used to search for any surface defects such as low spots or teddy bear ears. Presumably ray tracing techniques could be implemented in postprocessors to achieve on the computer screen what is obtained from these inspection rooms.
References [1] Finn MJ, Galbraith PC, Wu L, Hallquist JO, Lum L, Lin TL. Use of a coupled exphcitimplicit solver for calculating springback in automotive body panels. J Mater Pro Tech 1995;50:395409. [2] Various Authors. Benchmark B3. 2D draw bending. In: Makinouchi A, Nakamachi E, Onate E, Wagoner RH (Eds), Proceedings of Numisheet '93. 2nd International Conference: Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Process, 1993. [3] Various Authors. Benchmark B2. Srail benchmark problem. In: Lee JK, Kinzel L, Wagoner RH editors. Proceedings
of Numisheet '96. 3rd International Conference: Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Process, 1996. [4] Suh YS. Virtual manufacturing applications to stamping and structural analyses. In: Sheh M (Ed), High Performance Computing in Automotive Design, Engineering, and Manufacturing. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on High Performance Computing in the Automotive Industry, 1996, pp. 499522. [5] Wu LW, Du C, Zhang, L. Iterative FEM die surface design to compensate for springback. In: Shen SF, Dawson PR (Eds), Simulation of Materials Processing: Theory, Methods and Applications. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1995, pp. 637641. [6] Valente F, Traversa D. Springback calculation of sheet metal parts after trimming and flanging. In: Gelin JC, Picart P (Eds), Proceedings of Numisheet '99. The 4th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3d Sheet Forming Processes, 1999, pp. 5964. [7] Various Authors. Benchmark A. Forming of a front door panel. In: Gelin JC, Picart P (Eds), Proceedings of Numisheet '99. The 4th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3d Sheet Forming Processes, 1999. [8] Hammett PC, Wahl SM, Baron JS. Using flexible criteria to improve manufacturing validation during product development. Concurr Eng Res Appl 1999;7(4):309318. [9] Eta/DYNAFORM User's Manual, Version 3.1. Engineering Technology Associates, Inc. 2000.
184
Constitutive and finite element modeling of human scalp skin for the simulation of cutaneous surgical procedures
L. Gambarotta*, R. Massabo, R. Morbiducci
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, University ofGenova, Via Montallegro 1, 16145, Geneva, Italy
Abstract A constitutive and finite element model of human scalp skin is formulated for the simulation of reconstructive surgical procedures. The model is calibrated using experimental results of tests on in vivo scalp flaps. Keywords: Biomechanics; Constitutive modeling; Human skin; Large deformation analysis; Parameter estimation
1. Introduction The paper deals with the formulation of a numerical model for the simulation of the mechanical behavior of human skin. The model will be used inside a virtual reality environment for computerassisted reconstructive and aesthetic surgery simulation. The software allows preoperative planning of surgery procedures concerning the reconstruction of skin defects resulting from trauma, bums or tumor resection. The theoretical work is part of a broad research program, which includes also a campaign of experimental tests on human skin. To formulate the theoretical model, the constitutive equations of the human skin are firstly defined. Different large deformation hyperelastic models are considered which are able to reproduce the stiffening phenomenon characterizing the behavior of the skin at large deformations. The constitutive model is then implemented into a finite element code. Finally, the parameters of the model are identified from indirect experimental measurements using an inverse procedure. The experimental measurements are load versus displacement curves on in vivo skin flaps obtained through the nondestructive technique designed by Raposio and Nordstrom [1,2].
2. Constitutive and finite element modeling of human skin It is generally accepted that the stress versus strain curve of the skin in uniaxial or biaxial tension is characterized by an initial lowstiffness region followed, on increasing the strain, by a dramatic increase in stiffness, 'locking', [3]. The typical stress state of the skin under normal working conditions falls into the first region. On the other hand, in reconstructive surgery procedures, where the requirement of maximum skin extension needs to be satisfied, the skin can approach stressstrain configurations which are close to the 'locking' condition. The model proposed here refers to both the low stiffness and the high stiffness ranges. Other important features of the mechanical behavior of the skin are the time dependency, a moderate hysteretic behavior and a more or less marked anisotropy [3]. The model proposed here is restricted to shortterm and monotonic loading processes, such as those which are typically applied to the skin during reconstructive surgery. The present analysis is based on a phenomenological constitutive model. This choice requires only the identification of the empirical parameters of a response function chosen in order to satisfy the main features of the observed macromechanical behavior of the skin. The other possible choice, that of a mechanicsbased model (e.g., [4]), would imply a micromechanical interpretation of the in vivo skin response based on assumptions that, in this phase of the work, would put undesired restrictions on the range of solutions.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: h39 (010) 3532517; Fax: +39 (010) 3532534; Email: gambarotta@diseg.unige.it 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
L. Gambarotta et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Following the above observations, a large deformation hyperelastic model is considered. Different hyperelastic models have been proposed in the past for materials exhibiting stiffening under large deformations, such as skin and rubber [3,5]. Several isotropic constitutive models have been formulated and calibrated for different soft biological tissues (e.g., lung tissue, cat skin, arterial walls, rabbit mesentery, . . . ) . On the other hand, only a few models have been formulated which account for the anisotropy of some soft tissues (e.g., [6]). The proposed numerical model focuses in this initial phase on the simulation of surgery procedures concerning the reconstruction of scalp skin defects. Experimental observations by Raposio and Nordstrom [1,2] seem to indicate that the scalp skin has no preferred material directions. Consequently the compressible forms of the isotropic model formulated by Ogden [7] and the isotropic version of the model formulated by Tong and Fung [6] are considered. The models, which assume strain energy functions having different mathematical expressions, are able to capture the different aspects of the stress versus strain response observed in the experiments. In the surgical procedures to be simulated the scalp skin is cut, undermined within a predefined region and loaded tangentially to the hull surface. Taking into account the weak curvature of the hull, which supports the skin during the test, the domain of the model is approximated as twodimensional and discretized in finite elements. The finite element model is assumed to be totally constrained at the boundaries between the undermined region and the surrounding skin. The finite element procedure examines incremental loading processes in terms of prescribed displacements or applied forces. The solution is obtained at each loading step using an 'eulerian updated lagrangian' formulation [8,9] coupled with the NewtonRaphson iterative technique. 3. Calibration of the model The numerical model is calibrated using the experimental results of a testing methodology designed by Raposio and Nordstrom [1,2] which can be applied, due to its simplicity, also during surgery. The testing methodology consists of: incision of the scalp skin; undermining of a predefined portion of the skin; measurements of the relaxed configuration of the undermined skin; application of two concentrated forces along the incision at a distance of a few centimeters by means of a suture fixed by a full thickness bite; measurements of the displacements at different points along the incision for different values of the applied loads; extension of the undermined region of the skin and repetition of the previous steps. In the calibration of the model the reference configuration is geometrically known and it corresponds to the
185
configuration of the undermined skin after the incision. This configuration is only partially relaxed and some of the stresses that are present in the skin in normal conditions, the in vivo initial stresses, are still active. This stress field must be evaluated together with the model parameters, on the basis of the experimental measurements previously described. A simplified approach is proposed here which requires the evaluation of the parameters of the model and the in vivo isotropic initial stress (before the incision). This can be done by simultaneously satisfying two conditions. The first is that the initial isotropic stress uniformly applied along the incision in the reference configuration must restore the virgin configuration. The second condition is that the numerical model must reproduce the experimental load versus displacement curves. The simplified approach assumes that the results of the process incision j undermining coincide with the results of the fictitious process undermining \incision. The identification procedure is based on the minimization of the norm of the residuals between the experimental measurements and the theoretical predictions. The minimization problem is solved using classical algorithms (e.g., LevenbergMarquadt method). The search of the unknown quantities will be facilitated by the utilization of more than one load versus displacement curve in the minimization problem. This can be done using load versus displacement curves corresponding to undermined regions of different sizes.
References [1] Raposio E, Nordstrom REA. Tension and flap advancement in the human scalp, 4. Ann Plast Surg 1997;39:2023. [2] Raposio E, Nordstrom REA. Biomechanical properties of scalp flaps and their correlations to reconstructive and aesthetic surgery procedures. Skin Res Technol 1998;9498. [3] Fung YC. Biomechanics. New York: Springer, 1984. [4] Bischoff JE, Armda EM, Grosh K. Finite element modeling of human skin using an isotropic, nonUnear elastic constitutive model. J Biomech 2000;33:645465. [5] Ogden RW. NonLinear Elastic Deformations. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1984. [6] Tong P, Fung YC. The stressstrain relationships for the skin, J Biomech 1976;9:649657. [7] Ogden RW. Elastic deformations of rubberlike solids. In: Hopkins, Sewell (Eds), Mechanics of Solids. London: Pergamon Press, 1982, pp. 499537, . [8] McMeeking RM, Rice JR. Finite element formulations for problems of large elasticplastic deformation. Int J Solids Struct 1975;11:611616. [9] Crisfield MA. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Sohds and Structures, 2. Chichester: Wiley, 1997.
186
Abstract Wherever the mechanical behavior of materials is of interest, mathematical material models are needed to describe the physical phenomena. The higher and/or shorter the dynamic loading, the less known and validated from experiments are the material properties. Therefore, the material behavior can only be postulated in the high dynamic regime. The physical properties, the mathematical description and the numerical application are discussed critically in the example of the inhomogeneous, compressible, brittle material concrete. Keywords: Macroscopic material modelling; High dynamic loading; Rate effect; Damage property; Experiment; Equation of state; Hydrocode
1. Introduction High dynamic loadings like explosions have the capability to release large amounts of energy within microseconds. This causes high pressures in the kilobar range (1 kbar = 100 MPa) and high strain rates up to 10^ s~' in the affected bodies. For the numerical simulation of high frequent stress wave propagations, hydrocodes have been successfully applied. They are based on Finite Difference Methods [1]. And, the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy in addition to an equation of state (EoS) are solved simultaneously in time, whereas the EoS is a functional correlation of two unknown variables in the conservation equations. Its mathematical correlation gives an additional constitutive law and its data has to be determined from expensive experiments. Furthermore, material models are required characterizing the elastic, nonelastic and damage behavior. As a result of the high dynamic loadings, strainrate effects have to be taken into account.
2. Physics, material modelling and numerical algorithms In order to model the microscopic mixture of materials like concrete, a homogenization hypothesis is adopted which enables the formulation of the constitutive equations on the level of macromechanics (see Fig. 1). Even though the numerical modeling of structures subjected to shock waves leads to element sizes in the millimeter regime, it is too complicated and computing time too consuming to approach on the micromechanical level. The material modeling of concrete is based on the macromechanical constitutive law of Ruppert and Gebbeken [2,3]. Characterizing the physical material behavior properly, the current stress state is depicted in the threedimensional stress space, whereas the hydrostatic tensor can be separated from the stress tensor resulting in the deviatoric stress tensor. Illustrating the material behavior of concrete, the current material state will be explained by means of a loading, unloading and reloading path, see Figs. 2 and 3. 2.1. Elastic material behavior In the elastic response (Figs. 2 and 3; loading, POPl; unloading, P3P4), the incremental form of Hooke's law has been adopted, whereas the stress state is divided into a hydrostatic and deviatoric part. The bulk modulus and the
* Corresponding author. Tel.: H49 (89) 60043414; Fax: 449 (89) 60044549; Email: norbert.gebbeken@unibwmuenchen.de 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
187
homogeneous microstructure
^ ^
microplane formulation
macroscopic models
theory of elasticity theory of plasticity
damage and fracture application to structural behaviour Fig. 1. Homogenization of a microscopic material to a macroscopic scale.
P =;^oct
t
'S \ 1
PO,P4
P2
crush
eloadin2=unloading lock P4 ref Fig. 3. Loading and unloading path in a 3D stress space and in a porous Hugoniot EoS. the MieGrueneisen surface. The basis are any of the two unknown variables of the equation of state and the energy. Since the data are coming from largescale experiments, the energy is considered implicitly. Considering the energy explicitly would be problematic because it is not possible to distinguish between different energy contributions in the tests. The three dimensional curve of the EoS, called the Hugoniot curve, is projected in the two dimensional plane of the remaining variables. For concrete, experimental results of different authors are depicted in Fig. 4 in a
yCPl
"^oct
7P
Fig. 2. Loading and unloading path in a 3D stress space and in a porous Hugoniot EoS. shear modulus are the only parameters. The nonlinearity occurring in compressible materials is taken into account with the bulk modulus, which is responsible for the volume change. 2.2. Equation of state The full EoS giving a complete material characterization is a threedimensional function of a surface in space, called
w^
j^^W^
experimental data from explosive field tests, carried out at the WTD 52, provide assured data up to 40 kbar. 2.3. Strainrate effects: enhancement of strength Experimental data for various materials have shown that their strength enhance by increasing strainrates. For metals, it can be shown that there is a linear correlation between strength and strainrate in a logarithmic scale. This is more complex for porous materials like concrete. Bischoff and Perry [4] have assembled experimental results from different authors using different concrete mixtures and no consistent testing devices (see Fig. 5). Furthermore, experimental data are only available up to e < 10^ s~^ High dynamic loadings lead to strainrates over > 10^ s~^ Therefore, a reasonable enhancement function has to be postulated, which can be easily adapted to experimental results. 2.4. Invariant yield surface
H  ^ Raverage
1 [\ Yieldsuiface
ill
EoS . /
A ^
2,4 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,8 2,9 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 p[g/cm]3 Fig. 4. Experimental strain data to obtain an equation of state. pressuredensity plot, which is an advantageous form for porous media. It is obvious that measurements in the high pressure regime are widespread. Here, a multilinear approximation of the test results has been adopted. It contains an elastic path from tensile limit T to the Hugoniot elastic limit at Pcrush (Figs. 2 and 3; POPl). Densities greater than Pcrush cause compaction and gradually, concrete converts into a granular kind of material (Figs. 2 and 3; P1P3). Unloading and reloading are following the same path, which is interpolated between the slopes c^ and c]^^^ (Figs. 2 and 3; P3P4). But in order to develop a complete Hugoniot curve, a sufficient set of measurement data is needed for a wide range. It should be mentioned that own
Commonly, yielding of materials can be determined from experimental data, e.g. uniaxial tension tests for metals. The more complex the material the more difficult is the derivation of the yield surface in the threedimensional stress state. Here, concrete is an anisotropic composite, it is brittle in tension as well as in shear, and ductile under high pressure. Fig. 6 shows the essential features of the yield surface. It was fitted to test results in the range of a^ < 10, where (To = (Toct/fc'' and To = Tocr///^". Herein, aoct, roct are octahedral stresses and fc is the characteristic strength (see Fig. 7) [5]. Experimental as well as numerical simulations of high explosive loadings revealed that relative hydrostatic
 I (tanhlilogi*  2) 0.4])
W^
+ iyw^
Fig. 5. Enhancement for extreme strainrates (based on Bischoff and Ferry [4]).
A^. Gebbeken et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
189
To = a
c(Jo
\2.0 + Cc{sinl.he)
c = CticoslMy^
a
,
9=60CQinpressive meridian
^0
Fig. 6. Yield surface for concrete and its experimental results [5].
Versuche Mould & Levine1987 : q=0,60(fc:variiert) *s^ : Ausgleichskurven Vers. Hanchak & Forrestal1992 V : q=60Xfc=48MPa) *., : Ausgleichskurve
7
0
~B
4
a
2
1
Fig. 7. Yield surface for concrete and its experimental results [5]. pressures up to GO = 100 have to be expected. Consequently, this yield surface description has to be refined with data of further experiments. In high pressure region, the von Mises (J2) flow theory is adopted. 2.5. Yield curve shifting Strainrate effects as well as damage cause an isotropic shifting of the strength and stiffness. The first part, ex
190
N. Gebbeken et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics i^^ decrease in  ^ stiffness and ^^strength ^^v.Mises ^!:^assoc ^aQ ^ ^ assoc.
Fig. 8. Loading, unloading and reloading in the uniaxial case (aeplane) and the yield surface in the triaxial case (cap, plastic flow and shift). plained in Section 2.3, is implemented in the normalization of Go and To, whereas the characteristic strength /,. increases with respect to the strainrate (Formula in Fig. 5). The second part, depends on a damage parameter D [3]. The yield limit and static tensile limit parameters (see Fig. 8) starts at QQ, bo and ends at au b\. The subscripts 0 and 1 represent the initial (undamaged, D = 0) and the damaged (D = 1) parameters. Isotropic shifting is assumed, because cyclic loading is not taken into account in this case. For certain reasons, an additional yield surface part (called cap) can be used. This is of importance, especially if an EoS is not necessarily needed. Numerical problems as well as questions regarding the physical interpretation occur by using a cap. Essentially problems are: the transition between the standard yield function and the cap is not continuous, radial return vector is overestimated in accordance with a nonassociated flow rule, whereas a perpendicular (associated) return onto the cap surface would cause a negative dilatation which is nonphysical. Therefore, the yield surface is 'open' (Fig. 6), which is part of the classical theory of plasticity and physically correct. 2.6. Monotonia convergence in hydrocode simulations high dynamic loadings with It should be mentioned that other convergence studies have shown the same material independent problems in a critical range nearby an explosion.
3. Conclusion A physical problem can only be simulated satisfyingly within constitutive models if the appearing phenomena are known from experiments, and if they are adequately described by mathematical formulations. Up to now, the physical behavior of a large number of materials is well known from experiments concerning static or dynamic loading up to a strain rate s < 10^ s~K If strain rates exceed this value, gathering data is complicated and reliable results are rare. As it was shown, it is only possible to state
air
Finite methods are approximate methods. Hydrocode inherent problems of discretization in space (e.g. mesh size sensitivity) and in time (timestep) have to be detected in sensitivity investigations and their errors have to be reduced to an acceptable minimum. Within the scope of a convergence study [6], based on the convergence theorem [7], an explosive charge is initiated on a concrete structure (Fig. 9). The pressure is measured in different targets by scaling down the element size. The evaluation of targets #0 to #2 in Fig. 10 show, that in a limited region (target #0) convergence problems concerning pressure near the high pressure zone have occurred.
explosive charge
> o o
mm] _30
A^. Gebbeken et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 6_Euler pressure 1
[mm]
0,1 0,5 1 1,5 2 4
191
[kbar]
132,0 90,0 79,2 88,0 51,0
[!H(30/5)
150 n
130110
90 
43,0
1 50 30
70
V ^ *">rA,
1
()
\ .,._ ^ 1
2 3 4 5
1 1
decreasing element size, as is demanded for the numerical algorithms used in finite element formulations. This paper points out the enormous demand for research in the high dynamics field. Especially the measurement engineering is in charge to provide reliable data. Just then it will be possible to validate postulates and to extend the constitutive models.
6 Euler pressure 1
[mm]
0,5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
^(0/30)
^""^^v References
[kbar]
80,8 76,5 74,0 57,6 68,8 44,3 46,3 40,0
80 70 60 50 40 30
X ^\ \ ^<
1 1 \.rV^,^t
>
49,3
[kbar]
7,5 6,9 6,9 6,6 6,1 5,3 5,7 7,5
a,,
r
r J
A
*'^T'*'
Fig. 10. Pealc pressure vs. mesh fineness for different targets. postulates extrapolating experimental data. But, one should avoid the prediction of physical contradictions. Furthermore, the numerical tools, the hydrocodes, are not capable for certain regions of explosive loading. It was shown that for the region adjacent to the explosives, the Lagrangian formulation does not converge asymptotically for
[1] Benson DJ. Computational methods in Lagrangian and Eulerian hydrocodes. Comput IVlethods Appl Ivlech Eng 1992;99:235394. [2] Ruppert M, Gebbelcen N. Material formulations for concrete, high strainrates and high pressures, elasticityplasticitydamage. 9. International Symposium on Interaction of the Effects of Munitions with Structures, Strausberg, 1999, pp. 397405. [3] Gebbeken N, Ruppert M. A new concrete material model for high dynamic hydrocode simulations. Arch Appl Mech 2000;70:463478. [4] Bischoff PH, Perry SH. Impact behavior of plane concrete loaded in uniaxial compression. J Eng Mech 1995;121(6):685693. [5] Guo Z, Zhou Y, Nechvatal D. Evaluation of the multiaxial strength of concrete tested at Technische Universitat Munchen. DAfStb447. Berlin: Beuth, 1995, pp. 591600. [6] Gebbeken N, Ruppert M. On the safety and reliability of high dynamic hydrocode simulations. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1999;46:839851. [7] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996.
192
Error estimation and edgebased mesh adaptation for solid mechanics problems
G. Gendron*, M. Fortin, P. Goulet
GIREF Research Center, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada GIK 7P4
Abstract A simple error estimator based on a loworder finite element interpolation is described in details. The estimator is used to guide a meshadaptation procedure for solid mechanics problems. The overall procedure is illustrated and validated on a 2D elasticity and a platebending problem. It is shown that the procedure automatically generates welladapted meshes for which the error is uniformly distributed and is thus very attractive in the context of complex structural analysis problems. Keywords: Error estimator; Mesh adaptation; Plate bending; Elasticity; Finite elements
1. Introduction It is wellestablished that the accuracy of finite element results strongly depends on the appropriateness of the mesh. Complex stress concentration areas that develop in reallife structural components can only be predicted accurately if appropriate mesh densities and element formulations are selected. To obtain an appropriate mesh, two main ingredients are required. These are an error estimator and a mesh adaptation strategy. In this study, the methodology proposed in [1] is reviewed in details, and applied to the design of finite element meshes for 2D elasticity and plate bending problems.
chosen. The principles of the method are simple: (1) A local quadratic representation of the function can be built using, for example, a Taylor series expansion. (2) This quadratic function can be interpolated linearly on a triangular mesh using piecewise linear triangular elements. The interpolation error, E, then depends on the Hessian matrix. In fact, on an element edge, one has:
2. Error estimator By a now classical procedure [1], our error estimator is based on the use of a metric associated with the second derivatives of some scalar function g computed from the solution. The choice of g is delicate and problemdependent. For the procedure to be successful, g must be sensitive to the features of the solution that must be predicted accurately. For CFD problems, the Mach number has been used [1]. For the structural mechanics problems presented in Section 5, one component of the nodal displacement is * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (418) 6567892; Fax: +1 (418) 6562928; Email: guy.gendron@gci.ulaval.ca 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
where h is the length of the edge, and d^g/d^^ is the secondorder derivative of g along the edge. (3) Taking the absolute value of the Hessian (through its eigenvalue decomposition) the error on the edges can be seen as a length in a Riemannian metric. The problem with the evaluation of the estimate 1 is that the function g is not known and thus its Hessian H cannot be evaluated. This difficulty can be circumvented by replacing g by gh, its finite element approximation. However, to keep the procedure general and make the use of linear interpolation functions possible, a weak formulation is used to calculate H. The procedure is presented here for d^g/dxdy, it is identical for the other components of H. First, we write:
where Qi represents the domain formed by the elements connected to node /, and 0/ is any test function that is 0
G. Gendron et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
193
0.00613
0.00525
body force
100
XM
10
10
(c) Error
(d) Estimator
on 9Qj, the boundary of ^/. Eq. (2) can be applied to a piecewise linear approximation of g since the righthand side involves only firstorder derivatives. Also, we replace d'^g/dxdy by a constant on ^/, D^yt. With this assumption, the secondorder derivative d^g/dxdy at node Xj, internal to ^/, is approximated by:
basis function (pi does not vanish on the boundary of the domain. Consequently, a line integral should be added to Eq. (3). Unfortunately, this integral is difficult to evaluate. Instead, for a boundary node, we choose to extrapolate the values of the secondorder derivatives from neighboring internal nodes.
f
^xy,i
dg d(pi
dx dy /
dA
0/dA
(3)
3. Mesh adaptation strategies We define an optimal mesh as a mesh for which the error is approximately uniform on all edges. To obtain such a mesh, we start with an initial mesh and then tend to improve it by iteratively performing the following operations: OPl Refinement and coarsening (Amethod). OP2 Reconnection. Based on the fact that an edge be
Each node is successively processed to finally obtain a linear approximation of the secondorder derivatives. An approximation to the Hessian matrix is thus defined at the nodes and it is easy to take its absolute value or interpolate it where needed. For a boundary node, the piecewise linear
194
G. Gendron et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics )0i
^/^J
%
0.007 0.007
0.00613
0.00613
0.00525
0.00525
0.00438
0.00438
^m
0.0035
10.0035
m
0.00263 0.00263
0.00175
10.00175
0.000875
0.000875
10
10
(b) Error
(c) Estimator
tween two triangles is actually the diagonal of a quadrilateral, the orientation of the diagonal is such that the minimum internal angle of a triangle is maximized. OP3 Node relocation (rmethod). Each edge is replaced by a spring, the stiffness of which is proportional to the value of the estimator on that edge. The complete algorithm is as follows: (1) Select a scalar function g and an optimal edge length {Lopt) in the space of the Riemannian metric. The value of Lopt allows the calculation of more or less refined meshes. Fixed values of Lpt will be used in Section 5. (2) Define an initial mesh and calculate a solution and the error estimator on this mesh. (3) Iteratively use OPl through OPS to define an adapted mesh. (4) Calculate a new solution on the adapted mesh.
(5) If necessary, calculate the error estimator based on the new solution and return to step 3.
4. Model problems Two model problems are considered. The first one corresponds to twodimensional elasticity which is discretized using the wellknown Constant Strain Triangular (CST) element. The second problem corresponds to a plate bending problem which is studied using the DST element [2]. This element is convenient for the modeling of moderately thick to thin plates. The element has nine degrees of freedom only: the displacements w and rotation of the normal in the (x, z) plane, )6^, and in the {y, z) plane, Py. Shear locking is avoided through the use of appropriate approximation fields.
G. Gendron et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics w = Px =0 \EX = EY = 13800 MPa GxY =Gxz GYZ = 1870 MPa WxY = 0.12 ^ = 10 MPa \t 12 mm
195
w=
PY
=Q
100 mm. w =
/3Y
=0
100 TTim
j%;
J '''^^^^^^^^H ^m^'^i 1 ^ '^^^^H ' J ' ^^"^^^^Hl^^^^K.^ 1
^ ^^ S'
wwx
*v , ' . C ^ ^
W\
.:
W\\'''J
(c) Error
(d) Estimator
Fig. 3. Problem 2. Simplysupported square plate. 5. Numerical studies In this section, the results of two numerical tests are reported in order to validate the error estimator and demonstrate that it is suited to the design of meshes for which the error is reduced and uniform over every element edge. These problems have been selected because closedform solutions are known. This will allow the direct comparison of the exact error with the predicted estimator. In all cases, these quantities are calculated at the center of every edge.
196
G. Gendron et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
)0i
(b) Error Fig. 4. Problem 2. Results. 5.7. Problem 1: prismatic bar subjected to a uniform body force Fig. la shows a prismatic bar made of isotropic material subjected to a downward constant body force. Symmetry boundary conditions are applied along the jc = 0 line, and consequently only half of the bar is modeled using 2D elasticity elements. The function gh used to estimate the error corresponds to the finite element approximation of the vertical displacement, Vh. The exact solution for the vertical displacement is a quadratic function of x and y [3]. The initial mesh is shown in Fig. lb. The exact error calculated on this mesh along with the error estimator are
(c) Estimator
compared in Fig. lc,d. It is seen that the estimator and the exact error both calculated at the center of each element edge present the same distribution. The average error is 0.0041 and its standard deviation is 0.0016. Fig. 2 shows the adapted mesh along with the distributions of the exact error and the estimator. Elements of identical size are obtained throughout the domain. This result could be expected since the Hessian of the exact solution is constant. For the adapted mesh, the average error is 0.0029 and its standard deviation is 0.0010. The procedure has thus allowed the design of a mesh with significantly less elements, for which both the average error and its standard deviation have been reduced.
G. Gendron et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5.2. Problem 2: simplysupported square plate A simplysupported square plate 100 mm x 100 mm under a uniform lateral pressure is shown in Fig. 3a. The plate is made of an orthotropic material with the property values indicated. The plate is simply supported (hard conditions) on all four sides. The plate thickness t is 12 mm which corresponds to a sidetothickness ratio of 8. The pressure value q is 10.0 MPa. The function gh used to estimate the error corresponds to the finite element approximation of the transverse displacement Wh. For this problem, an infiniteseries solution based on a firstorder shear deformation theory has been derived by Reddy [4]. The initial mesh is shown in Fig. 3b. The exact error calculated on this mesh along with the error estimator are compared in Fig. 3c,d. The estimator and the exact error, both calculated at the center of each element edge, present the same distribution. The main differences are at the center of the domain where the estimator slightly underestimates the error. The average error is 0.040 and its standard deviation is 0.021. Fig. 4 gives the adapted grid along with the distributions of the exact error and the estimator. For this mesh, the average error is 0.018 and its standard deviation is 0.007. The procedure has thus allowed the design of a mesh for which the error is reduced and quite uniformly distributed over every edge. It could be reduced further by decreasing the value of Lopt. As it was the case for the initial mesh, the error and the estimator are in good agreement. 6. Conclusion
197
An error estimator based on a metric derived from the Hessian of a scalar function has been presented. Any scalar function that relates to the solution can be used. In this work, a nodal displacement component is proposed. The results presented herein confirm that the error estimator correctly predicts the value of the error. The estimator drives the adaptation process in such a way that the final adapted mesh presents a uniform distribution of the error. More work needs to be done to verify the applicability of the strategy to other structural problems. The choice of a displacement component to estimate the error also needs to be assessed.
References [1] Habashi WG, Fortin M, AitAliYahia D, Boivin S, Bourgault Y, Dompierre J, Robichaud MP, Tarn A, Vallet MG. Anisotropic Mesh Optimization: Towards a SolverTndependent and MeshIndependent CFD. VKI Lecture Series, 199606. [2] Batoz JL, Lardeur R A discrete shear triangular 9dof element for the analysis of thick to very thin plates. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1989;28:533560. [3] Timoshenko S, Goodier JN. Theory of Elasticity, 2nd edition. New York: McGrawHill, 1961. [4] Reddy JN. Mechanics of Laminated Composite Plates, Theory and Analysis. CRC Press, 1997.
198
Abstract When analyzing a structural system, it is often useful to identify critical members by quantifying the safety importance of individual members. In this process, several aspects have to be examined, including but not limited to the location of each member in the system, the safety level of each member, and the material behavior and stiffness sharing of each member. Two types of importance factors are formulated in this paper, the member reliability importance factor and the member postfailure importance factor. Each of the above factors has its area of application and may be of great significance in analysis, design and maintenance of structural systems. These factors measure the impact of each individual member on the performance of the overall system. Keywords: Critical members; Member importance; Member ranking; Reliability assessment; Sensitivity analysis; System performance; System reliability
1. Introduction In recent years, design codes have been continuously revised to include limit states based on probabilistic methods. In fact, the limit states design approach has been used in nearly all of the recent advances in codified design [1]. The use of structural reliability methods for design can lead to structures that have a more consistent level of risk [2]. However, most of the current assessment and design codes require safety checks at the member level only. This leads to either overconservatism in the assessment of structural systems which are able to continue to carry loads after one member becomes damaged, or underconservatism in the design of structural systems which are not able to redistribute loads [3]. To account for the system effect in structural assessment and design, safety importance of structural members must be quantified.
1 and 2 in parallel connected in series with member 3) is used to exemplify the proposed approach [35]. The system is subjected to a random load P with a mean of 0.5 and a coefficient of variation of 0.15. The data used to describe the seriesparallel system can be found in Gharaibeh [4]. The failure path approach [6] is used to formulate the Umit state of the multimember system, and the RELSYS software [7,8] is used to compute system failure probabilities for postfailure member behaviors ranging from perfectly britde (i.e. r]i = 0) to perfectly ductile (i.e. rit = 1).
3. System reliability analysis In reality, systems exist in any combinations of series and parallel subsystems. The process of finding the reliability of a complex structure made out of a combination of series and parallel subsystems can be simplified by introducing the concept of an equivalent system. The system can be represented by a series of equivalent subsystems, each of which represents a combination of either series or parallel components. These subsystems are broken down into simpler equivalent subsystems until the system is reduced to a single equivalent component [7,8]. The reliabiUty of the actual system can be assumed to be the same as the reliability of the single equivalent component.
2. Model A simple idealized threemember seriesparallel system model comprised of two subsystems in series (i.e. members
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (303) 4927165; Fax: \\ (303) 4927317; Email: frangopo@spot.colorado.edu 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
Emhaidy S. Gharaibeh et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. Reliability importance factor Member reliability importance factors can be derived from the sensitivity of the system reliability to changes in the reliability levels of its members. Each member has its own impact on the system reliability level. This impact depends on many factors such as the correlation between resistances of individual members, the stiffness sharing factor of each member, the member reliability level, the member postfailure behavior, the system failure criterion model adopted, and the position of each member in the system (i.e. system topology). In general, system reliability is a function of its individual members, /^system = / ( P , il), where P and r] are vectors of member reliabilities and postfailure behavior factors, respectively. The reliability importance factor of member / is derived from the sensitivity of system rehability index, ySsystem, to changes in rehability of member /, p^nA [35]. This measure can be defined as the gradient of the system reliability, y^system, with respect to the member reliability, Prn,i^ as follows: 9^s,
OPm,i
4.25
199
P,=3.0, P2= 3.0, p3=3.0 ; r = 0.50 A : p,=3.0, P2= 3 0 ' P3=3.0 A  I I : p,=3.0, p2= 4.0, p3=3.0 A  I : Pi=4.0, p2= 3.0, P3=3.0 A  H I : p,=3.0, ^^= 3.0, p3=4.0
I 4.00
3.50
3.25
2.75 O.l 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 STIFFNESS SHARING FACTOR OF MEMBER 1, Cj
Fig. 1. Effect of member reliability level on system reliability. 6. Example Based on the threemember seriesparallel model described in Section 2, Fig. 1 shows the reliability importance factor implementation for the default case of P]^ = ^2 = h = ^0 and postfailure behavior factor r]i = r]2 = r]3 = 0.50. The reliability of one member was changed to 4.0 while the other members retained their default reliability indices. The system reliability index ^system associated with each case considered is plotted in Fig. 1 against the stiffness sharing factor of member 1. The differences in the associated system reliability of these cases compared to the default case show the impact of each member on the overall system performance. Fig. 2 shows the normalized reliability importance factors obtained for the default case according to Eq. (2). Fig. 3 shows the variation of the default reliability index of the seriesparallel system described above with the stiffness sharing factor of member 1. Different combinations of extreme values of the postfailure behavior factors of members 1, 2, and 3 are assumed and the system reliabilities associated with each of these combinations are investigated. This figure shows that ySsystem is maximum and minimum for r]i = ri2 = r]3 = 100 and r]i = r]2 = r]3 = 0.0, respectively. It can be seen that y^system is not sensitive to rj^ due to its series system effect, while the postfailure behaviors of members 1 and 2 affect the system reliability. Finally, Fig. 4 shows the postfailure importance factors of the
Ti = O.SO ; P, = 3.00 , p2 = 300 , P3 = 3.00
(2)
^ where A = number of members in the system. In calculating the importance factors a small change in member reliability level is imposed and the corresponding system reliability is evaluated.
5. Postfailure importance factor System reliabihty is usually very sensitive to the postfailure behavior factor 77, of its members. In order to quantify this sensitivity, another importance factor, called the postfailure importance factor, is defined as follows [4]:
^system? ^0
(3)
where 7^,/ = importance factor with respect to the postfailure behavior of member /, ^system, ii = reliability index of the system given that member / has a perfectlyductile postfailure behavior (i.e. rji = 1), and ^^system, io = rehability index of the system given that member / has a perfectlybrittle postfailure behavior (i.e. r]i = 0). The most important member with respect to its postfailure behavior is the member that has the maximum effect on the system reliability index.
Fig. 2. Normalized reliability importance factors for each member of a seriesparallel system.
200
4.25 4.00 w 3.75 3.50 3.25 3.00 2.75
Emhaidy S. Gharaibeh et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
O < T, < 1
Acknowledgements
r,= l , T i 2 = 0 ^ ^ r,= l . T , 3 = l
n,=o, Ti^=i
This material is based upon work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants CMS9506435, CMS9522166, CMS9912525 and the University of Mutah, AlKarak, Jordan. This support is gratefully acknowledged. Opinions expressed in this paper are those of the writers and do not necessarily reflect those of the sponsoring organizations.
References [11 Ellingwood BR. Reliabilitybased condition assessment and LRFD for exisfing structures. Struct Safety 1996; 18(23):6780. [21 Zimmerman JJ, Corotis RB, Ellis JH. Structural system reliability considerations with frame instability. Eng Struct 1992;14(6):371378. [3] Frangopol DM, Gharaibeh ES, Heam G, Shing PB. System reliability and redundancy in codified bridge evaluation and design. In: Srivastava NK (Ed), Structural Engineering World Wide 1998. Paper Reference T1212, Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1998, 9 pp. on CDROM. [4] Gharaibeh ES. Reliability and Redundancy of Structural Systems with Application to Highway Bridges. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 1999. [5] Gharaibeh ES, Frangopol DM, Shing PB. Structural importance assessment of bridge members: A reliabilitybased approach. In: Dunaszegi L (Ed), Developments in Short and Medium Span Bridge Engineering'98. Canadian Society of Civil Engineering, Montreal, 2, 1998, pp. 12211233 (also on CD Rom). [6] Karamchandani A. Structural system reliability analysis methods. The John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 1987, Rep. No. 83. [7] Estes AC, Frangopol DM. RELSYS: A computer program for structural system reliability analysis. Struct Eng Mech 1998;6(8):901919. [8] Estes AC. A System Reliability Approach to the Lifetime Optimization of Inspection and Repair of Highway Bridges. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 1997.
S ^
Fig. 4. Postfailure importance factors for each member of a seriesparallel system, r/ = 0 . 5 . seriesparallel system for the default case. The postfailure importance factor is derived from the contribution of member postfailure factor to the overall system performance.
7. Conclusions This paper presents an approach to assess the reliability importance of members in any structural system modeled as a seriesparallel combination of failure modes. The proposed approach takes into account the system reliability as a whole and identifies the contribution of individual members to the overall system performance. Along these lines, the importance of a member is defined as the impact of that member on the overall system reliability. The results are useful for assessment, design and maintenance of structures in an overall system reliability perspective.
201
Abstract Stochastic life prediction of mechanical system components represents a difficult engineering problem involving modeling of multiple complex random phenomena. The paper presents a simulationbased stochastic approach for mechanical component life prediction under normal operating and accidental conditions. The paper addresses key aspects of stochastic modeling of component life prediction. Specifically, results computed for a generic aircraft jet engine blade are shown. The paper also discusses critical modeling issues that drastically impact on the component fife prediction. Keywords: Life prediction; Stochastic modehng; Crack initiation; Damage accumulation; Fatigue; Creep
1. Introduction A typical illustration of a jet engine life prediction problem is shown in Fig. 1. As shown in Fig. 1 for each critical location, the operational stress profiles and local damage accumulation are modeled as nonstationary stochastic processes [1,2]. Stochastic stress variation in a blade location is obtained by the superposition of a slowvarying
Operational (HCF, LCF, Creep, etc.) Extreme Events (Accidental impact, etc.)
Impact Occurence
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 TIME (Minutes)
Fig. 2. Flight stress profile. stress component (pulse process with holding times) due to pilot's maneuvers with a fastvarying stress component (intermittent continuous narrowband process) due to vibration under unsteady aeroforcing. The vibratory stresses occur when the excitation frequency is sufficiently close to blade natural frequencies a shown in Fig. 2. The random slowvarying stress cycles produce the lowcycle fatigue (LCF) damage and creep damage in the component, while the randomly occurring vibration stress cycle with lower amplitude produce the highcycle fatigue (HCF) damage. Herein, the stochastic HCF/LCF and creep damaging interactive effects are studied using simulated stress histories in
: Impact damage
Fig. 1. Stochastic environment and damage. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (716) 4242010; Fax: +1 (716) 2727201; Email: dghiocel@stitech.com 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
202
D.M. Ghiocel, H. Mao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics The total damage being defined by the sum of damages of all closed hysteresis loops. 2.2. Strainlife approach
engine blades. Both the crack initiation and crack propagation evolution stages are considered. However, the paper focuses on crack initiation modeling aspects.
2. Stochastic life prediction models 2.1. Crack initiation models Generally, stochastic stress/strain tensor in a blade location can be expressed by the equation of motion: X(r,5)=:g(X(r,5),(r,5),D(/,5))
For evaluating the stochastic crack initiation life, a local strainlife approach with a randomized strainlife curve parameters is used. The local notch plasticity is introduced using Neuber's rule [3]. Stochastic strainlife curve SaNf is described by s, = ^i2Nf)' + 8'fi2Nfy
(3)
(1)
where t is time and s is space coordinate. The stochastic stressstrain vector process, X(t,s), the input environmental/material vector process, the E(t,s), and the scalar damage parameter, D(t,s), are fully coupled. Such an approach includes both changes in strength and constitutive model using damage parameter as an internal variable in the material constitutive model. The damage growth depends on stress amplitude and reciprocally the stress amplitude depends on damage level. However, currently in engineering practice the influence of damage on stresses and strains is not considered. The damage accumulation models describe the damage evolution as a function of loading stressstrain history, or more specifically as a function of stressstrain closed cycle sequence. A key modeling aspect is to reduce the spatial stress/strain state problem to a uniaxial tensile stress/strain state problem similar to the lab test conditions, with an alternating stress component and a mean stress component. Most often, the equivalent (Von Mises) stress is used to define the alternating stress component and the hydrostatic stress (in fact the first stress invariant) to define the mean stress component [3]. There is a significant modeling uncertainty associated with the idealization of the multiaxial stress/strain case by a simple uniaxial stress/strain case. This modeling uncertainty should be reduced in the future through the development of more accurate physicsbased straindamage models based on stochastic micromechanics. This issue is not further addressed in this paper. After stress/strain state reduction to a simple uniaxial lab test case, typically the rainflow counting procedure is used to determine the closed stressstrain cycle sequence. The total cumulated damage due to cyclic loading can be directly computed by the convolution of damage function, DiX^m, ^max) with cycle counting distribution
where the quantities a^, b, e'^ and c are considered to be random material parameters. The mean stress effect (including temperature, static, residual stresses from previous damages or processing, etc.) is included using a randomized Morrow, modified Morrow and SmithWatsonTopper (SWT) correction procedures. An important aspect of using the strainlife curve is that it is possible to handle the random effects coming from surface finish, fretting effects, temperature effects, creep, etc. The mean stress correction procedures adjust Eq. (3) as shown below: (a) Morrow correction include mean stress effects for both the elastic and plastic strain terms:
l(5)
E
G r
c/b
{2Nff
+ E'^ 1 _
(2Nf)
(4)
(b) Modified Morrow correction removes the mean stress effect in plastic strain term:
(5)
changes
the
{a'f?
{INff+a'e'AlNf)
(6)
An approximately inverse function of strainlife equations (36) can be used to get the cycle life for a given pair of alternating strain and mean stress. The modeling uncertainty associated with mean stress correction is extremely large even for simple uniaxial lab tests. There is a high need in industry to set these mean correction procedures on a more adequate physical basis including key stochastic micromechanics aspects. 2.3. Cumulative damage mechanics models
DT = I d(t)dt=
J2
^i^i^^i)
dv dw dvdu
(2)
If
Theoretically, any cumulative damage process is defined by its firstorder differential kinetic equation dD = dN f{D,N,Nf{Sa,cr^),p)
(7)
NT {V, U)
D.M. Ghiocel, H. Mao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 10**8 10**9 LOF CYCLES y\ //J HCF CYCLES //
203
Nc,f
10**4 10**5 10**6 10**7
3. Computed results 3.1. Stochastic HCF/LCF interaction Fig. 4 shows the HCF/LCF interactive damage for the simulated stress profile given in Fig. 2. It should be noted that for this severe flight profile the vibratory stresses are highly damaging. About 90% of the damage produced is due vibratory stresses. Large vibratory stresses occur randomly at the minutes 9, 31 and 38 of the flight, as illustrated by the big three steps in the damage evolution. 3.2. Stochastic LCF/creep interaction Fig. 5 indicates the effect of creep damage (at 700C) on Ufe prediction. Results were computed for pure LCF damage and LCF/creep damage. Both crack initiation and propagation stages are included. As shown in Fig. 5 there is a significant Hfe reduction due to creep. It is interesting to note two modeling aspects: (i) the probability density of predicted life has a skewed shape for pure LCF damage and relatively symmetric shape for LCF/creep damage and (ii) the coefficient of variation is smaller for the LCF/creep damage. This last remark is due to the fact that the creep damage effects are drastic during the crack initiation stage reducing severely the statistical spread between the short and long LCF simulated lives. 3.3. Critical modeling issues Only two critical modeling issues are investigated in this paper: (i) the modeling uncertainty induced the selection of probability density function of cumulative damage and (ii) the modehng uncertainty introduced by mean stress correction procedures in crack initiation life prediction. Fig. 6 shows a simulated histogram of the fatigue damage cumulated after 1000 flights (crack initiation stage).
1.00
LIFE CYCLES, Nf
Fig. 3. Damage curves for different life levels. where constant amplitude cycle life is a function are alternating strain and mean stress. The letter p denotes the parameters of damage model. Experimentally, it has been shown that a damage curve, Nf{Sa, Om), can be accurately constructed based only on two experiments for extreme amplitude levels, i.e. maximum and minimum life levels. The damage curve parameters are determined so that for any arbitrary life, Eq. (7) can be applied. The greater the ratio between the (two) extreme life levels is, the more severe damage interaction is and the more deviation from linear damage rule is noted [4]. Herein, stress/strain amplitudedependent cumulative damage mechanics models, such as Damage Curve Approach, Double Damage Curve Approach [4] and LemaitreChaboche and modified RabotnovKatchanov [5] models were comparatively used. These stressdependent damage models or nonlinear damage rulebased models capture adequately the complex HCF/LCF/creep damage interactions. Stochastic damage models were obtained by randomizing the deterministic ones shown in Fig. 3. A key stochastic modeling aspect is that the damages produced by cumulative damage mechanisms of different nature such as LCF, HCF, creep, impact loading, etc. are not directly additive. Thus, appropriate stochastic adjustments of damage curves have to be used in addition to the randomization of the model parameters. 2.4. Crack propagation models For crack propagation, three stochastic fracture mechanics models derived using (i) Forman, (ii) SINH and (iii) MSE models. The random effects of cyclic loading frequency, stress ratio, holding time, and temperature are incorporated in these crack propagation models.
UJ
0.60
(5 Ii
J 1
; Sa"25ksi LOF+HCF
HCF
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
TIME (Minutes)
204
DM. Ghiocel, H. Mao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (a)
0.1
1 1 ' 1
0.12 r
''
1'
1""
>
(b)
s 0.06 m
S o
o
0.08
1
/tu^fs^^^^^suuilft
III
f //
^111
100QO
an
/ 1
1 ^
aoel
0.04 0,02
n
0.04
^J^^^^^m^y Jy
SQOO Number of Flights
^
1SQ00
aQ2
1 ^ 1
1^
Fig. 5. Simulated stochastic life, (a) LCF damage; (b) LCF/creep damage. 70 60 50 Mean Stress Effect
I 40
u.
I 30
20 10 0 o o o
I/) O
05 O
CO
T
en
CM
r^
CN
en
5000
10000
15000
20000
d Damage Index
The probability density function appears to have a skewed shape with an extreme long tail. A typical analytical distribution type does not fit accurately the histogram on the entire damage value range. It can be observed that the largest damaging flight sequence is a clear outlier for lognormal and Weibull probability density function. This result is a consequence of the highly nonlinear relationship between alternating strain and the incremental and cumulated damage. An early damaging flight condition in the component life may have a great impact on the life length. This modeling aspect has a great influence on component failure risks. Thus, it needs further research attention. Fig. 7 indicates the effect of using different mean correction procedures. The results are computed for deterministic flight conditions and material. The predicted life is 5000 flights for Morrow and SWT and 15,000 flights for modified Morrow. This result indicates that there is more
uncertainty in the predicted life due to modeling assumptions than due to randomness in the loading and material behavior. The research need for going in depth in the microscale physics of fatigue phenomena is obvious.
4. Concluding remarks The paper presents a simulationbased stochastic approach for component life prediction. Specifically, the stochastic life prediction a typical aircraft jet engine blade is studied. Computed results show that the stateoftheart of engineering tools for evaluating fatigue and creep effects did not reach yet the level of highly accurate fife estimates. Thus, it appears that the most rational approach to component life prediction is to compute stochastic lowerbounds and bestestimates of lives which include the mostconservative and the experimentallybestfitted engineering
DM. Ghiocel, H. Mao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics models, respectively. A key role of reducing the modeling uncertainty and increasing the accuracy of life estimates is played by the ongoing micromechanics research developments.
205
References [1] Ghiocel DM. ProbabiHstic fatigue life prediction for jet engine components: stochastic modehng issues. ECOMASS 2000, Barcelona, September, 2000, pp. 1114.
[2] Ghiocel DM. Factorable stochastic field models for jet engine vibration response. The 13th ASCE Speciahty Conference, Baltimore, June, 1999, pp. 1316. [3] Dowhng NE. Mechanical Behavior of Materials Engineering Methods for Deformation, Fracture, and Fatigue. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1993. [4] Halford GA. Cumulative fatigue damage modeling crack nucleation and early growth. The 1st International Conference on Fatigue Damage in Structural Materials, Hyannis, MA, September, 1996, pp. 2227. [5] Lemaitre C, Caboche F. Mechanics of Sohds. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1998.
206
A discretization error estimator associated with the energy domain integral method in Hnear elastic fracture mechanics
E. Giner*, J. Fuenmayor, A. Besa, M. Tur
Departamento de Ingenieria Mecdnica y de Materiales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46022Valencia, Spain
Abstract The implementation of the EDI method through the FEM introduces a discretization error that is inherent in the mesh and type of element employed. In this work, an error estimator for the evaluation of G or / in linear elastic problems in fracture mechanics is proposed, which is based on shape design sensitivity analysis. The reliability of the estimator is then analyzed solving a numerical problem using an /zadaptive process. Keywords: Finite element method; Fracture mechanics; Error estimation; EDI method; /integral; Sensitivity analysis; Adaptive refinement
1. Introduction In the context of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) there are two distinct approaches to the analysis of crack problems: one is the local approach, which is based on the wellknown concept of stress intensity factor K (SIF) as a single characterizing parameter of the state of stress in the vicinity of a crack tip. The other is the socalled global or energetic approach and takes the strain energy release rate G (SERR) as the characterizing parameter of the problem. Both are directly related and have been shown to be equivalent as can be found in any text on fracture mechanics (e.g. [1]). Closedform solutions for K have been derived for a small number of simple geometries and load configurations. In those real cases where complex geometries are involved, numerical methods have become customary, specially the Finite Element Method (FEM). The application of the FEM in order to obtain fracture mechanics parameters, such as K, G or the more general 7integral can be done through a great variety of postprocessing techniques. Those techniques related to the global approach are called indirect methods and they yield a value for G or / (both refer to the same concept in LEFM) by means
* Corresponding author. Tel: h34 (96) 3877626; Fax: H34 (96) 3877629; Email: eginerm@mcm.upv.es 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
of virtual crack extension and stiffness derivative methods [2,3], contour integrals like the /integral [4], their equivalent domain integrals, e.g. EDI [58] or the modified crack closure integral [9,10]. One major consideration in applying the finite element method to fracture mechanics is the order of magnitude of the error made in the calculation, which is greatly due to the socalled discretization error. This kind of error is inherent in the nature of the FEM and basically depends on the mesh and type of element used. Obviously, when the FEM is applied to the calculation of K or G, the discretization error introduces an error in the results for K or G. Besides, the postprocessing technique chosen may be another source of errors. Some computationally efficient estimators for the FE discretization error are currently available. In this work we will make use of an extension of the ZienkiewiczZhu discretization error estimator [11] in order to study the influence of the global discretization error on the calculation of G when the wellknown Energy Domain Integral Method is employed. The indirect (or energetic) methods can be applied to the whole domain of the problem and therefore they lend themselves to an estimation of the global discretization error. To obtain an efficient error estimator for G, an alternative approach to the EDI method is needed. As explained below, this approach is given by the shape design sensitivity analysis as applied to a crack problem. The effectivity
E. Giner et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics of the proposed error estimator is then checked by means of a numerical verification.
207
2. The EDI method as a shape design sensitivity analysis The Energy Domain Integral method is one of the most efficient methods for obtaining / in an elastic (not necessarily linear) problem. It is essentially a domain integral which results of applying the divergence theorem under certain assumptions to the J contour integral [58]. Thus, for a 2D elastic problem, in absence of body forces and tractions on crack faces and assuming that the crack propagates in a selfsimilar manner, / can be calculated as:
Eq. (1) can be obtained under the more general approach of shape design sensitivity analysis as applied to LEFM. The key assumption in the appUcation of SDSA to a crack problem is to interpret the crack length a as a design variable, whose change of length impUes a modification of the boundaries (shape). Several procedures are available to carry out a SDSA [14]. In Saliba et al. [12] and Taroco [13] a continuum approach is used to show that the sensitivity of the total strain energy t/ of a cracked component in LEFM is given by U = = fa:VudQo+ da J / [WI  ( V u ) V l : Vvd^o J n\
'^/(^^^S'^
(1)
with /, 7 = 1,2 and where ^* is a portion of the domain of the problem which completely surrounds the crack tip, Gij and Ui are the stress and displacement fields, V^ is the strain energy density, </ is the Kronecker's delta and qi 5 y is a sufficiently smooth function which must take values between 0 and 1, subject to the conditions (see Fig. 1) q\{xx,X2) = 0 1 if (jci,;c2) e Ti if (xi, X2) e Fs
(2)
The outer contour Fi and inner contour F3 are arbitrary: Fi can be the external boundary of the body (excluding the crack faces) and F3 is often reduced to a point (the crack tip). Physically, the qi function may be interpreted as a weight function which scales the virtual extension 8x1 of any point in Q* between 0 and 8a through the expression 8x1 = qi8a. deLorenzi [5] established a relationship between this method and the concept of material derivative of Continuum Mechanics. Recently, it has been shown [12,13] that
where ^0 is the domain of the problem, a is the stress tensor, Vii is the gradient of the sensitivity of the displacement field, I is the identity matrix and v is the socalled velocity field, which exactly corresponds to the qi function described above. Assume that the prescribed tractions T on the problem are held constant and that crack faces are traction free. If V satisfies the above conditions, then the sensitivity of the external work done by T (denoted here by V) equals the first integral in Eq. (3) for any kinematically admissible field li. This permits to establish an equivalence between the second integral in Eq. (3) and the Eq. (1). To do so, the change in sign must be taken into account since G = fl = tl  V in LEFM (where 77 denotes the sensitivity of the total potential energy). Moreover, the first integral in Eq. (3) equals exactly 2G and therefore Eq. (3) is also a way of calculating G and it will be employed in this work.
3. Error estimation The error estimator proposed here is based on the underlying principle behind the ZienkiewiczZhu estimator [11], i.e. the unknown exact fields for discontinuous magnitudes of the FE solution are replaced with improved fields, derived from the same FE solution. In this work, Eq. (3) forms the basis of the proposed estimator in G, which can be defined for a FE discretization with ne isoparametric elements as
ne ^es(G) p
(ff.
 fffe) (e 
Sfe)
[(Vu).  (Vu)fe]T (<r.  (Tfe) Fig. 1. Virtual extension 8a of the points enclosed by F3, which induces a virtual extension 8x1 of points in Q*.
: VvlJI dfi,
(4)
where Q^e is the local domain of the reference element, J is the Jacobian matrix and e is the infinitesimal strain tensor. The improved fields in Eq. (4) are denoted by ( )*
208
E. Giner et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Mesh 1
Mesh 2
Mesh 4
Mesh 6
Mesh 10
Fig. 2. Model for periodic array of collinear cracks (Mode I). Sequence of deformed meshes (quadratic elements).
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
F
O
L^
E
^ ^ V c v: ^^^^^^^"^"^"^'^^^
< ^
^^^^\^
^^'^^^^^...,^^^
>
P
p
F
100
" ^ '^r rex( G ) (linear elements) " ^ ' %^es{G) " ' 9c X] 1 (linear elements) (quadratic elements) 1 1 1 1 1 ^c T]^^^ ^ ^ (quadratic elements)
^^^'^<<..
^^^^^^<;;= :
J 310
LU 0.1
1 1 1
._ 1
D.O.F.
Fig. 3. Exact and estimated relative errors in G (%) for the sequences of /zadapted meshes: linear and quadratic elements. in contrast to the FE solution ( )fe. For linear elements, the improved fields were obtained through nodal averaging whereas a SPR technique [15] was employed for quadratic elements. Note that a sensitivity problem must be solved to getu. Using this error estimator an improved solution for G is given by
G^es = G f e + ees(G) (5)
'?ex(G) =
(8)
4. Numerical verification In order to check the validity of the error estimator and its convergence with refined meshes, an /iadaptive procedure was used. The specific problem discussed here is an infinite array of collinear cracks of the same length 2a in Mode I, whose exact solution for plane strain is [1]
where Gfe is obtained either through Eq. (1) or Eq. (3). The relative error can be estimated as
^es(G) = ^es(G) Gfe + ^es(G)
(6)
An effectivity index to validate the error estimator when the exact solution is known is defined as follows
^(G) '7es(G) ^ex(G)
(7)
v \
Kiex = O^jTta
2b
/7za\
1/2
(9)
209
 a  9 c /  \ (linear elements) G Q(^. (quadratic elements) ^^9 (ref. [16,17], linear elem.) .
\ l_i
D.O.F.
Fig. 4. Reliability of the error estimator: effectivity index for the sequences of /zadapted meshes: linear and quadratic elements. Effectivity indexes calculated according to [16,17] are included for comparison. having used a = \, b = 1 (half distance between similar points of two consecutive cracks), E = 10'^, v = 0.333 and a = 100. The height of the FE model was taken large enough {h = 6) to assume this exact solution as valid for comparison purposes. Fig. 2 shows the discretized model after deformation and some of the adapted meshes. The results for the estimated relative error r/es(G) are given in Fig. 3 compared to the exact relative error r^ex(G), both for linear and quadratic triangular elements. Note that the number of dof. of the first mesh is larger than for the second mesh due to the adaptive procedure. The reliability of the proposed estimator seems to be fairly high, as it is emphasized by the Fig. 4, where the effectivity index given by another error estimator in G [16,17] is included for comparison. Further refinement would not be appropriate in this example, since actually the FE model converges to a slightly different exact solution (which is unknown) due to its finite height. Other numerical examples yielded similar results and therefore this estimator can be regarded as acceptable. Acknowledgements This work was financially supported by CICyT in the framework of research project PB970696C0202.
References [1] Kanninen MF, Popelar CH. Advanced Fracture Mechanics. Oxford Engineering Science Series. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. [2] Parks DM. A stiffness derivative finite element technique for determination of crack tip stress intensity factors. Int J Fracture 1974;10:487502. [3] Hellen TK. On the method of virtual crack extensions. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1975;9:187207. [4] Rice JR. A path independent integral and the approximate analysis of strain concentration by notches and cracks. J Appl Mech 1968;35:379386. [5] deLorenzi HG. On the energy release rate and the /integral for 3D crack configurations. Int J Fracture 1982;19:183193. [6] deLorenzi HG. Energy release rate calculations by the finite element method. Eng Fract Mech 1985;21(1): 129143. [7] Li FZ, Shih CF, Needleman A. A comparison of methods for calculating energy release rates. Eng Fract Mech 1985;21(2):405421. [8] Shih CF, Moran B, Nakamura T. Energy release rate along a threedimensional crack front in a thermally stressed body. Int J Fracture 1986;30:79102. [9] Rybicki EF, Kanninen MF. A finite element calculation of stress intensity factors by a modified crack closure integral. Eng Fract Mech 1977;9:931938. [10] Shivakumar KN, Tan PW, Newman JC, Jr. A virtual crack closure technique for calculating stress intensity fac
5. Conclusions In this work, an error estimator for G based on a SDSA for linear elastic crack problems when solved through a FE analysis has been proposed. This estimator implies solving a sensitivity problem as well as computing improved fields for the FE solution. Through a numerical example, its high reliability has been checked. It has also been shown that this error estimator improves notably other estimators available in the literature.
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E, Giner et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [14] Haug EJ, Choi KK, Komkov V. Design Sensitivity Analysis of Structural Systems. Volume 177 of Mathematics in Science and Engineering. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press Inc., 1986. [15] Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. The superconvergent patch recovery and a posteriori error estimates. Part I: The recovery technique. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1992;33:13311364. [16] Fuenmayor FJ, Oliver JL, Rodenas JJ. Extension of the ZienkiewiczZhu error estimator to shape sensitivity analysis. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1997;40:14131433. [17] Fuenmayor FJ, Dominguez J, Giner E, Oliver JL. Calculation of the stress intensity factor and estimation of its error by a shape sensitivity analysis. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 1997;20(5):813828.
tors for cracked three dimensional bodies. Int J Fracture 1988;36:R43R50. [11] Zienkiewicz OC, Zhu JZ. A simple error estimator and adaptive procedure for practical engineering analysis. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1987;24:337357. [12] Saliba R, Venere MJ, Padra C, Taroco E, Feijoo RA. Shape sensitivity analysis and energy release rate of planar cracks embedded in threedimensional bodies. In: Idelsohn S, Ofiate E, Dvorkin E (Eds), Computational Mechanics: New Trends and Applications. Proceedings Congreso Buenos Aires. Barcelona: CIMNE, 1998. [13] Taroco E. First and second order shape sensitivity analysis in fracture mechanics. In: Idelsohn S, Ofiate E, Dvorkin E (Eds), Computational Mechanics: New Trends and Applications. Proceedings Congreso Buenos Aires. Barcelona: CIMNE, 1998.
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Abstract A model is developed to compute the mechanical behaviour of twophase materials including the effects of damage. The material is represented by an interpenetrating network of randomly distributed spheres, which are assumed to behave as isotropic elastoplastic solids. The incremental selfconsistent method is used to compute the effective response of the material as well as the elastic stress redistribution due to damage. As an example, the model predictions are compared with experimental results previously reported for a particlereinforced metalmatrix composite, which presented damage by reinforcement fracture during deformation. Keywords: Selfconsistent method; Plasticity; Damage; Effective property; Particlereinforced composite
1. Introduction Structural materials are usually made up of two or more phases which exhibit a nonlinear mechanical behaviour. Classical models assume that the volume fraction of each phase is constant. While this is often true, there are materials which exhibit phase changes triggered by the inhomogeneous stress and strain fields generated during deformation. This is the case, for instance, of progressive damage in metalmatrix composites by either reinforcement fracture or interface decohesion, which is known to play a critical role in their ductihty and strength [1]. In all these situations, the evolution of volume fraction of each phase is one critical factor to simulate with accuracy the mechanical behaviour. This paper presents an extension of the classical selfconsistent model to analyze the mechanical behaviour of a twophase material, where a phase change (due to damage, or any other physical process) may occur during deformation.
subindex u) stands for the behaviour of the undamaged phase, while the second phase (identified by the subindex d) represents the damaged phase. The model assumes that the behaviour of each phase in the material is adequately represented by an isotropic, elastoplastic soHd following the incremental (J2) theory of plasticity. The volume fraction of the damaged phase is given by p. The effective response of the twophase material can then be computed by integrating along the loading path the effective strain hardening rate, which is given by da
dF
dW a?
where the first term in (1) stands for the hardening contribution without any phase transformation. The second term introduces the stress redistribution due to the damage of dp material when the prescribed boundary conditions are held constant. The following two sections are devoted to calculate these terms. 2.1. Deformation without damage The strain hardening rate for the twophase material without damage is given by the effective tangent stiffness tensor, L, which can be computed as L = (lp)L,Au+pLdAd (2)
mi
(1)
2. Model description and application The material is made up of two spherical phases forming an interpenetrating network of randomly distributed spheres [2]. It is assumed that one of the phases (identified by the * Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 (91) 3366419; Fax: +34 (91) 3366680; Email: cgonzalez@mater.upm.es 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
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C Gonzalez, J. Llorca/ First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
600
der strain rate concentration tensors corresponding to the untransformed and transformed phases. To compute L is just necessary to determine the strain rate concentration tensors, which depend on the material properties as well as on the volume fraction, shape and spatial distribution of each phase. This problem was solved by Hill [3] within the framework of elastoplastic deformation for an isolated ellipsoidal inclusion of phase / [4]. 2.2. Stress redistribution due to damage The stresses and strains in the undamaged phase change after each strain increment and, as a result, a dp volume fraction of material is transformed. Two hypotheses are necessary to compute the associated stress redistribution. Firsdy, it is assumed that the damage occurs very rapidly (as compared to the strain rate) and thus that the prescribed boundary conditions remain constant. Secondly, the damage leads to an elastic stress relaxation in the effective material, J a , which can be calculated derivating its elastic constitutive equation given by a = L"ei and thus = U'^\,, (3) dp dp dp where a and ?^/ stand for the effective stress and elastic strain prior to damage. The right expression in (3) is a set of equations in which the terms of da/dp and d?^//dp corresponding to prescribed boundary conditions are zero. The derivative of the overall elastic stiffness tensor is also computed using the same self consistent method. 2.3. Model application The model developed in the previous section was used to compute the tensile stressstrain curve for a 2618 Al alloy
(a)
Peakaged condition
500
a.
S
L/i
300
on dJ UN
r/i
7,00
100
f , , ,,
Strain (%)
600
(b)
500
.400
300
10
12
Strain (%) Fig. 2. (a) Model (dashed) and composite (solid) curves for the tensile stressstrain behaviour of the peakaged metalmatrix composite, (b) Idem for the naturally aged composite.
COMPOSITE
INTACT
DAMAGED
Fig. 1. Geometric representation of a particlereinforced metalmatrix composite as an interpenetrating network of intact and damaged regions.
reinforced with 15 vol.%. SiC particles [5]. It was found that the dominant damage mechanism during deformation was reinforcement fracture, the SiC particles being broken by cracks perpendicular to the loading axis. According to the model, the composite was represented as an interpenetrating network of two spherical phases, both formed by the metallic matrix surrounding either an intact or broken SiC particle (Fig. 1). The broken SiC particles contained a pennyshaped crack perpendicular to the loading axis. The constitutive equation for each region (intact or damaged) in the composite was determined through the finite element analysis. The fraction of broken particles was assumed to be governed by a Weibull statistic. The simulations of the tensile stressstrain curves were in reasonable agreement with the experimental results, as shown in Fig. 2(a) and (b).
C. Gonzalez, J. Llorca/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. Conclusions A model to compute the effective response of a twophase material including the effect of damage was developed. It was assumed that damage occurs instantaneously and leads to an elastic stress relaxation. The stress redistribution was computed by solving the nonlinear set of equations obtained by derivating the equations of the selfconsistent method, where the elastic values of the stiffness and strain concentration tensors are used. References
213
[1] Llorca J, Gonzalez C. Microstructural factors controlling the strength and ductility of particlereinforced metalmatrix composites. J Mech Phys Solids 1998;46:128. [2] Gonzalez C, Llorca J. A selfconsistent approach to the elastoplastic behaviour of twophase materials including damage. J Mech Phys Solids 2000;48:675692. [3] Hill R. Continuum micromechanics of elastoplastic polycrystals. J Mech Phys Solids 1965;13:89101. [4] Eshelby JD. The determination of the elastic field of an ellipsoidal inclusion and related problems. Proc Roy Soc London 1957;A241:376396. [5] LLorca J, Martin A, Ruiz J, Elices A. Particulate fracture during deformation of a spray formed metal matrix composite. Metall Trans 1993;A24:15751588.
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" University of Tokyo, Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, 731 Hongo, Bunkyoku, Tokyo 1138656, Japan ^ The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Materials Fabrication Laboratory, 21 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan
Abstract A threenode triangular shell element is developed for the Free Mesh Method (FMM), which is a virtually meshless method modified from the nodebynode finite element method. To apply the FMM to the analysis of general shell structures, it is important to employ an accurate threenode triangular shell element. For this purpose, the discrete Kirchhoff triangular element is improved by introducing the mixed method to the membrane stiffness. Finally, an illustrative example is presented. Keywords: Finite element method; Free mesh method; Meshless method; Shell structures; Threenode triangular element; Mixed method
1. Introduction The Free Mesh Method (FMM, [1]) is a virtually meshless method, which is a kind of the nodebynode finite element method. In the FMM, elements are automatically created around each node in a local manner, and then a conventional nodebynode finite element analysis is conducted with those elements. Because the processes from the local mesh generation to the construction of equations are seamless and independent in every node, the FMM can be easily implemented on parallel environments [2]. A threenode triangular element is, however, desirable as a local element used in the FMM. It is known that the accuracy of membrane behavior of threenode triangular elements is poor in comparison with that of fournode quadrilateral elements. Hence it is important to develop the threenode triangular element that is accurate enough in membrane deformations to apply the FMM to the analyses of general shell structures. In this research, the threenode discrete Kirchhoff triangular element [3] is used with the FMM, and its membrane behavior is improved by using mixed method [4].
2. Free mesh method In the FMM, global mesh is not necessary as input data, but only the nodes distributed in the analysis domain and the boundary conditions are used as input data. Fig. 1 shows the conceptual figure of the FMM. First, a node is selected as a central node and nodes within a certain distance from the central node are selected as candidate nodes. This distance is usually decided from the prescribed density of the distribution of nodes. Then satellite nodes are selected from the candidate nodes, which form the local elements around the central node. For each local element,
* Corresponding author. Tel.: h81 (3) 58417005; Fax: hSl (3) 58416994; Email: goto@qs.t.utokyo.ac.jp 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
Lx)cal area
K. Goto et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the element stiffness matrix is constructed in the same way as the FEM. Then, the rows of the matrix concerned with the central node are stored in memory. Thus, the stiffness concerned with the central node is evaluated. The above procedures are carried out for all nodes. Table 1 Normalized displacement of ScordelisLo roof
Model 2x2 4x4 6x6 8x8 16 X 16 3Node DKT with mixed formulation (FMM) 1.231 1.030 0.993 0.983 0.985
215
3. Threenode triangular shell element To make the procedures in FMM independent, it is preferable that the element is triangular without midnodes. In this point of view, the threenode discrete Kirchhoff triangular (DKT) element is adopted in this study. The DKT element is suitable for thin shell analysis and has six degrees of freedom per each node. The total element stiffness matrix is formulated by superimposing a plane stress membrane stiffness, a bending stiffness and an inplane rotational stiffness. The membrane stiffness is the constant strain plane stress stiffness of a threenode element. In this study, the membrane behavior of the threenode DKT element is improved by using the mixed formulation. In the conventional displacement formulation, only the displacement is treated as the problem variable that will be independently approximated. When the displacement formulation is used for threenode element, the stress and the strain that are the function of the differential of the displacement are constant within an element, and are approximated discontinuously in the analysis domain. When the mixed formulation is used, it is possible to approximate independently not only the displacement but also the stress and the strain. In this case, the stress and the strain are approximated continuously in the analysis domain.
6.2055 X lO^Pa. In this problem most part of the strain energy is due to membrane deformation. The geometrical and material data of the problem are: radius R = 0.635 m, length L = 1.27 m, thickness h = 6.35 mm, arc AB = 40, Young's modulus E = 2.979 x lO^^Pa and Poisson's ratio V = 0. The exact value of vertical displacement at point C in a steady state is 7.838 mm [5]. Because of the symmetry of the geometry and the load, only one quarter of the roof is analyzed. Table 1 shows the vertical displacement at point C normalized by the exact value. The models are labeled as / X j where the integers / and j indicate numbers of nodal spacing along arcs AB and DC, and sides BC and AD, respectively. It is compared with the result obtained with a fournode quadrilateral element using MARC, which is a commercial FEA code. It is observed that almost the same accuracy is achieved by introducing the mixed method to the membrane stiffness with the same node distribution.
5. Concluding remarks To apply the FMM to the analysis of shell structures, it is important to develop an accurate threenode triangular shell element. For this purpose, the DKT element was improved by introducing the mixed method to the membrane stiffness. As a result, almost the same accuracy as the fournode quadrilateral element was attained with the present 'meshless' scheme.
4. Illustrative example The ScordelisLo roof shown in Fig. 2 is analyzed to demonstrate the present element. It is loaded vertically by its uniformly distributed dead weight of intensity of
References [1] Yagawa G, Yamada T. Free mesh method: a new Meshless finite element method. Comput Mech 1996;18:383386. [2] Yagawa G, Fumkawa T. Recent developments of free mesh method. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2000;47:14191443. [3] Bathe KJ, Ho LW. A simple and effective element for analysis of general shell structures. Comput Struct 1980;13:673682. [4] Zienkiewicz OC, Kui LX, Nakazawa S. Dynamic transient analysis by a mixed, iterative method. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986;23:13431353. [5] MacNeal RH, Harder RL. A proposed standard set of problems to test finite element accuracy. Finite Elements Anal Des 1985;1:320.
216
An implicit time integration strategy for use with the material point method
J.E. Guilkey^'M.A. Weiss''
^ Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA ^ Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
Abstract An implicit integration strategy for use with the Material Point Method (MPM) is described. This strategy uses an incrementaliterative solution strategy based on a Newton method to solve the equations of motion and Newmark integration to update the kinematic variables. An example problem was used to compare the implicit integration scheme to the traditional explicit integration scheme used with MPM, as well as with integration methods used with the Finite Element Method. Keywords: Implicit integration; Material point method
1. Introduction The Material Point Method (MPM) as described by Sulsky et al. [1,2] is a particle method for structural mechanics simulations. The method uses a regular structured grid as a scratchpad for computing spatial gradients. The grid also functions as an updated Lagrangian reference frame, moving with the particles during advection, then being reset to its original position at the end of a timestep. In addition to avoiding Eulerian diffusion, the method avoids the mesh entanglement problems frequently encountered with large deformation finite element calculations. Additionally, contact algorithms do not require searches for contact surfaces [3]. The use of the regular grid has also been exploited for doing fluidstructure interaction problems [4]. By sharing the grid with a multimaterial CFD code, tight coupling between the two phases can be achieved, while each phase still enjoys the benefits of its traditionally preferred frame of reference. One limitation of this approach has been that the stable timestep sizes for explicit time integration for the solid and fluid are often disparate by several orders of magnitude, with the solid phase requiring the smaller
timestep to maintain the conditional stabiUty of the explicit integration scheme. An implicit integration strategy was implemented to alleviate the small timestep required by the explicit integration strategy for the solid phase. The approach borrowed heavily from the strategies traditionally used in implicit Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations. The many similarities between these two methods will allow improvements to the algorithm described herein based on the large amount of work which has been done with implicit FEM codes.
2. Implicit time integration algorithm 2.1. Incrementaliterative solution of the linearized equations of motion A derivation of the linearized equations of motion in matrix form can be found in any standard finite element textbook (e.g., [5]). Linearization of the matrix form of the equations of motion about the current time t yields KK^^ (r + dr) du^ = Fext^(t h dO  Fint^"^ (t + dr)
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (801) 5855145; Fax: +1 (801) 5859826; Email: guilkey@humpback.mech.utah.edu 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
 M ,  a ^  H r + dr).
(1)
J.E. Guilkey, J. A. Weiss / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics incremental displacements, Fextg is the vector of external forces at the new time t \dt, Fint^ is the vector of internal forces to to the stress divergence, Mg is the mass matrix and 2Lg is the acceleration vector, k is the current iteration number, t the current time, and dt the increment in time. By solving Eq. (1) for the current estimate of incremental displacements du^, a new estimate for the displacement was obtained via
217
Interpolate to the grid: Particle data is interpolated to the grid to obtain M^, \g{t) and Fextg(r + dr): Mi = ^Sipmp, \i =
Mt
(7)
exti=j:^SipFexip,
where / refers to individual nodes of the grid. Sip is the trilinear shape function of the ith node evaluated at x^. Iterative solution of equations of motion on grid: The linearized equations of motion on the grid are solved iteratively using Newton's method. (1) Initialization: For the first iteration ( k = l ) , assume: u ^  i a + dO = 0,
(2)
With the new total displacements, the other kinematic variables, stiffness matrix, and internal forces were updated. On the background grid, note that u^ {t + dO is not the total displacement, but is the displacement from t to r + dr. The effects of the total displacement of the material were contained in the positions and total deformation gradient of the particles. Iteration continued until convergence is achieved, as determined the following criteria:
du^
< d and
du^
duOQ^
(3)
where Q^ is the right hand side of Eq. (1). 2.2. Kinematic update via trapezoidal rule
Once the nodal displacements u^(f + dt) were determined, the trapezoidal rule was used to find the nodal velocities, \g{t + dt), and accelerations, a(r + dt): dt u,(t + dt) =  ( v , ( 0 + VgCr h d o ) .
(4)
(5)
( / ( r + dO is determined from F^ and any relevant history variablesD^(r h dt) follows from o^ Here, G^ is the gradient of the interpolation functions evaluated at x^, and D^(r \dt) is the spatial elasticity tensor. Integrate to get the internal force vector and the material and geometric stiffness on the grid.
Eq. (4) can be solved for \g{t + dt), and, when (4) and (5) are combined with Eq. (2), the acceleration for the current iteration k at time t + dt can be approximated in terms of known quantities at time t and estimates at time t hdt from the previous iteration k 1:
Known quantities: At the beginning of each implicit timestep, including the initial one, the following particle quantities are known at time t\ mass m^, volume Vp, position Xp(0, velocity yp{t), deformation gradient p{t) and Cauchy stress cfpit). The known quantities on the grid are: Fintg(r),KKg(Oandag(0.
Here, B [ is the linear strain displacement matrix at x^, and B ^ ^ is the nonlinear strain displacement matrix at
218
J.E. Guilkey, J.A. Weiss/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. Numerical example: pressurization of a cylinder One scenario of interest to our research group is the response of a steel container filled with an energetic material (explosive) to a pool fire. Phase change of the contents results in pressurization of the container. A simplified problem is used here for demonstration. A onequarter symmetry, plane strain model of a long cylindrical container with properties p = 7.86 x 10"^ kg/cm^ ^ = 1.66 x 10^ N/cm^ and G = 7.70 x 10^ N/cm^, subject to pressurization via the load curve F = 71.1 x 10^ N/cm^ x time, was modeled with implicit and explicit MPM, and FEM (using NIKE3D and DYNA3D). For the explicit analyses, timestep size was 1 X 10"^ s, while for the implicit analyses a timestep size of 4 X 10""^ s was used. 2720 particles were used for the MPM calculation (Fig. 1, top left), while 340 trilinear finite elements were used for the FEM calculations (Fig. 1, bottom left). This provided approximately equivalent resolution since the material points function as integration points and the finite elements had eight integration points per element. Contours of von Mises stress at time 0.006 s demonstrated that differences between the explicit and implicit time integration schemes were small within a com
Xp. J2^ represents the standard finite element assembly operation, performed in this case on the regular grid mesh. (5) Convergence criteria: Convergence is checked using Eq. (3). Once a converged solution has been reached: Save p{t + dr), Fint^Cr + dr), KK^(r + dt). Compute Sig{t + dt) using Eq. (6). Interpolate Ug{t \ dt) and ag(r + dr) to the particles: Up(t + dt) = J2^ipUi{t^dt), ap(t ^dt) = J2 S'P^ii^ + dr). Update the particle position and velocity: Xp(t + dr) = Xp(t) + Up{t + dr), \p{t + dr) = \p{t) + 5 (a^(r) + a^(r + dr)) dr. Continue to the next timestep. Otherwise, return to step 2 and continue the iterations. j 1 i i i ijr: i i i i i MM! j I I M I [1
'^fji/7%^
!j:W4UT^ j j M M M h j i i 1 M M
(8) (9)
(10) (11)
J M 1 1 1 i i
MM M i ''(^A^}t^'/Z'(^S4''^U4i! M M i
'] 1 j
: M m ^ Pmi ^i : n IwS ij
1 1 lill ll^g^P 1
Fig. 1. Cylindrical container subject to pressurization at fime r = 0.006 s. Soludons via Material Point Method (top) and Finite Element Method (bottom). Contours indicate von Mises stress distribution. Left column  computational grids. Center column  results for implicit time integration.
J.E. Guilkey, JA. Weiss /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Quantitative comparisons of displacement and stress at inner, middle and outer radial locations on the cylinder MPM Disp. (cm) Inner Middle Outer 2.30 2.17 2.03 FEM Disp. (cm) 2.13 1.96 1.85 MPM von Mises Stress (N/cm^) 1.61 X 10^ 1.40 X 10^ 8.08 X 10^
219
FEM von Mises Stress (N/cm^) 1.72 X 10^ 1.34 X 10^ 1.08 X 10^
putational technique (Fig. 1). However, the results for the MPM analyses had larger circumferential and radial variations in von Mises stress than the FEM analyses. This can be attributed to the use of a rectilinear computational grid for the calculations. Although the algorithm can readily handle nonrectilinear grids, our current implementation requires a rectilinear grid. The variations decreased with increasing grid resolution. The rightmost frames show results from the explicit codes. The asymmetry of the stress distribution is more pronounced for the explicit MPM results. Explicit MPM is known to have difficulty in situations involving quasistatic loading, being better suited to highly dynamic problems. The implicit version clearly performed better for this particular situation. Quantitative comparisons of von Mises stress and radial displacement between the two implicit methods demonstrated generally good agreement (Table 1).
entanglement and the ability of the method to be coupled with CFD calculations. Because of the similarities between MPM and FEM, the implicit solution strategy approach can be easily modified to accommodate quasiNewtonian solution methods. The BEGS method introduced by Matthies and Strang [6] is an obvious choice as it has proven to be robust for a wide range of nonlinear problems in solid mechanics.
Acknowledgements This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions, under grant W7405ENG48.
References 4. Conclusions An implicit integration strategy was developed and implemented for MPM. The algorithm accommodates much larger timesteps than the explicit version of MPM without any apparent loss in accuracy for the problem presented here as well as other test problems. Timesteps several thousand times larger than the CFL condition have been used successfully. Additionally, the implicit method performs far better for quasistatic loading scenarios. Solution differences between the MPM and FEM can be attributed to the use of a nonconforming computational grid for the MPM calculations. Although this may appear to be a disadvantage of the method, the limitation is counteracted by the ability to treat extremely large deformations without mesh [1] Sulsky D, Chen Z, Schreyer HL. A particle method for history dependent materials. Comput Methods Appl Mech Engrg 1994;118:179196. [2] Sulsky D, Zhou S, Schreyer HL. Application of a particleincell method to solid mechanics. Comp Phys Commun 1995;87:236252. [3] Bardenhagen SG, Brackbill JU, Sulsky D. The materialpoint method for granular materials. Comput Methods Appl Mech Engrg 2000;187:529541. [4] Kashiwa BA, Lewis MW. Fluidstructure interaction modeling. LA13255PR 1997;1:283295. [5] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. New Jersey: PrenticeHall, 1996. [6] Matthies H, Strang G. The solution of nonlinear finite element equations, Int J Numer Methods Eng 1979; 14:16131626.
220
Computation of reliability of stochastic structural dynamic systems using stochastic FEM and adaptive importance sampling with nonGaussian sampling functions
Sayan Gupta, C.S. Manohar*
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
Abstract The problem of computation of reliability of randomly excited linear structural dynamical systems with stochastic parameter uncertainties is considered. The statistical fluctuations in the system properties are modeled as nonGaussian random fields with bounded ranges. The displacement fields are discretized using frequency dependent shape functions and the random fields using covariance dependent shape functions. An adaptive importance sampling scheme that uses nonGaussian sampling functions is developed to evaluate failure probabilities. Specific nonGaussian sampling distribution functions, that account for the bounded range of system property random fields, are constructed by invoking principle of maximum entropy. Numerical results illustrative of successful application of methods developed are presented. Keywords: Stochastic finite element; Maximum entropy method; Reliability; Failure probability; Adaptive importance sampling
1. Introduction A simulation based method for the computation of reliability of stochastically parametered curved Timoshenko beams under random loadings is developed. This study is in keeping with the current research interest in the vibration analysis of structures with parameter uncertainties [1,2]. The proposed method is based on evaluation of stochastic dynamic stiffness of the beam elements. Subsequently, Monte Carlo simulations are performed for computing the failure probabilities. The following are the salient features of this study: (a) discretization of the displacement fields using frequency and damping dependent shape functions [3], (b) modeling the system properties as nonGaussian random fields with bounded ranges thereby allowing for strict positivity of the physical parameters, (c) use of random field discretization scheme that retains the nonGaussian nature of the random fields [4] and (d) estimation of failure probabilities using a newly developed adaptive importance sampling scheme which employs nonGaussian sampling functions. * Corresponding author. Tel. +91 (80) 309 2667; Fax: +91 (80) 3600 404; Email: manohar@civil.iisc.ernet.in 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
2. Dynamic stiffness of stochastic curved beams The problem of evaluation of the dynamic stiffness matrix of curved Timoshenko beams with randomly varying Young's and shear moduli, mass density, damping coefficients and crosssectional dimensions has been studied recently by the present authors [5]. In this study, the system properties have been modeled as jointly homogeneous random fields. The information available on these random fields is taken to be limited to their range, mean and covariance functions. The range of these random fields are constrained to ensure the strict positivity of the physical parameters. This automatically implies that these fields are nonGaussian. The partial information available on these random fields has been complemented, by first invoking the principle of maximum entropy to construct the first order probability density functions (pdf), which are then combined with the information on the covariance functions to arrive at Nataf's models. This leads to marginal density functions of the form f{x) = Aiexp[A.2X  X^ix fif] (1)
where, the unknowns Ai, A2 and A.3 are determined by solving the following set of equations
S. Gupta, C.S. Manohar / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
111
f
a
fix) Ax = 1.0
(2)
xfix) dx = fi
/
a
(3)
scheme depends on the choice of the sampling function ^z(l) The procedure for selecting the sampling density function, as proposed by Bucher [6], involves the generation of samples according to the original density function /x(f). which are employed to evaluate the conditional moments (Z),
hzih
(9)
Here, a, b denote the range and /x and a^ are, respectively, the mean and variance. The study further employs frequency and damping dependent shape functions to discretize the displacement fields. The system property random fields have been discretized using covariance dependent shape functions. The system equilibrium equation in frequency domain has been shown to be of the form \y{(D, Xo)YM = F. (5)
b (x
 ii)^f{x)dx
= a^
(4)
(10)
Here, D((X>, Xo) is the stochastic dynamic stiffness matrix with Xo being the A/^dimensional vector of nonGaussian random variables resulting from discretizing the random fields and F is the vector of amplitudes of harmonic excitations, which could be random. The focus of this paper is on evaluating probability of failure with the performance function given by g(X): amax (D(a;, Xo)~^/C) (6)
Here, () denotes the mathematical expectation. This is followed by the formulation of N \ I dimensional normal density with mean and covariances computed from Eqs. (9) and (10). This normal pdf is chosen to be the importance sampling density function. In our studies, we encountered difficulties in evaluating failure probabilities below a certain level when this sampling density function was used. This difficulty has been attributed to the small variance associated with the sampling density function. To circumvent this difficulty, we propose to use Nataf's model for the sampling density function. To realize this, we first estimate the first order pdfs of samples in failure region by invoking maximum entropy principle. This leads to first order pdfs of the form as given in Eq. (1). The parameters of this pdf are now estimated by using the conditional mean and variances as given in Eqs. (9) and (10). Subsequently, the sampling density function according to Nataf's model is obtained as
hz,...zAl)=(t>V,...Vn(^U,^nAp])
where X = {Xo, F} is the extended vector oi N \\ random variables with joint pdf /x(f). The probability of failure Pf can be computed by evaluating the A^ + 1 dimensional integral
(l>Vi(^l)'(t>Vn(in)
(11)
^/
g(^)<o
S '^ (l)df.
(7)
where, Vi,... , K are standard normal variates obtained by the transformations on Zi, . . . , Z given by ^i = <PviHz,(^i)^ i= h , n. (12)
In this study, we propose to evaluate this probability of failure by using adaptive importance sampling simulation procedures.
3. Adaptive importance sampling using nonGaussian sampling function For a importance sampling function /iz(f), the probability of failure is well known to be given by
Here, hz^,...,Zn = d/d/{Hz^.(fj)} is the marginal probability distribution function and ^y^ .y^(^i,... , fn, [/)]) is the multivariate normal probability distribution function with zero mean, unit standard deviation and unknown correlation coefficient matrix [p] [7]. These correlation coefficients pij are expressed in terms of the correlation coefficients ^tj of Z through the integral relation
= y"%(f)<o]M2/,2(^)d
hz(^)
(8)
a a
where, I is an indicator function taking values of unity if ^(1) S 0 and 0 otherwise and IZ spans the range of the random variables. The efficiency of the importance samphng
(13)
222
S. Gupta, C.S. Manohar / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
Fig. 1. Example 1. Single degree of freedom system with random mass, stiffness, damping and excitation.
1 .O
_u
o o
'
and 0.07 respectively. The fact that this distribution is bounded between dzVs x0.05 must be noted. The estimates of probability of failure are shown in Fig. 3 as a function of threshold values a. This figure also shows results from extensive Monte Carlo simulations (with sample size of 10"^). The mutual agreement between the two results is found to be good. 42. Example 2 A harmonically driven curved Timoshenko beam with randomly inhomogeneous mass density is considered next (Fig. 4). The mass field is modeled as m(0) = m^Ll + 6^/(0)] where t/(0) is a zero mean Nataf random field with samples bounded in the region ^ 3 and covariance function of the form R{T) = exp[yr^] with y = 13. This random field is discretized using optimal linear expansion that leads to six random variables. The moment F is modeled as a Gaussian random variable with mean 10 kNm and standard deviation 10 x 0.05 kNm respectively. The performance function is as per Eq. (6) with a taken to range from 0.00170.012 rad. The initial Monte Carlo simulation run was done for threshold value a = 0.0017 rad with 1000 samples. The estimation of probability of failure subsequently employed 500 samples as per density given in Eq. (11). Fig. 5 shows the resulting estimates of probability of failure.
m = 2850 kg/m^
0 11
1.4
,^ ;^ ^
1 "
2^0.4 0.2 n
i; I..
;
2 1
^^r'
^V.
\
,''
^"'
Fig. 2. Example 1. Marginal probability density function of the random perturbation on mass: (1) parent density, (2) a = 0.06 m (3) a = 0.07 m.
 Importance Sampling i  e  Direct Simulation 
^.
[1.H0"
0 10^
Q10"
0.35 m *
^0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 Threshold a, m 0.11
L = 100 m
Fig. 3. Example 1. Estimates of probability of failure using importance sampling and Monte Carlo simulations. 4. Numerical examples and discussion 4.1. Example 1 Fig. 1 shows a harmonically driven single degree of freedom system. Here, the nominal values of stiffness and damping are perturbed by random variables which have a range in y/3 x 0.05. The excitation amplitude is assumed to be Gaussian with unit mean and standard deviation of 0.05. The procedure described in the previous section is employed to compute probability of failure as a function of the threshold value a. Fig. 2 shows the marginal pdf of the perturbation on the mass variable associated with the importance sampling density function for a = 0.05, 0.06
Fig. 4. Example 2. Curved Timoshenko beam with random mass variafion; radius of the beam = 82.03 m.
0.002
0.01
0.012
S. Gupta, C.S. Manohar /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. Conclusions A frequency domain stochastic finite element analysis is combined with an adaptive importance sampling simulation procedure to compute the probability of failure of randomly parametered curved beam structures that are excited by harmonic loads with random amplitudes. The procedure outlined handles successfully the nonGaussian nature of beam property random fields both in stochastic finite element analysis as well as in importance sampling computations. Limited numerical results that are presented show successful application of the proposed method.
223
References [1] Manohar CS, Ibrahim RA. Progress in structural dynamics with stochastic parameter variations: 19871998. Appl Mech Rev ASME 1999;52(5): 177197.
[2] Schueller GI (Guest Editor). A stateofart report on computational stochastic mechanics. Probab Eng Mech 1997;12(4):198321. [3] Adhikari S, Manohar CS. Dynamical analysis of framed structures with statistical uncertainties. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1999;44:11571178. [4] Li C, Der Kiureghian A. Optimal discretization of random fields. ASCE J Eng Mech 1993;119(6):11361153. [5] Sayan Gupta, Manohar CS. Dynamic stiffness method for circular stochastic Timoshenko beams: Response variability and reUability analysis. J Sound Vib, submitted. [6] Bucher CG. Adaptive sampling an iterative fast Monte Carlo procedure. Struct Safety 1988;5:119126. [7] Der Kiureghian A, Liu PL. Structural reliability under incomplete probability information. J Eng Mech ASCE 1986;112(1):85104.
224
Accuracy of analytical approaches to compressive fracture of layered solids under large deformations
Igor A. Guz *, Costas Soutis
Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BY, UK
Abstract Based on the results obtained within the scope of the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium and 3D stability theory (i.e. the most accurate approach), the accuracy of the continuum theory of compressive fracture is examined for layered solids undergoing large deformations. The investigation is carried out for the cases of uniaxial and biaxial compression as applied to compressible and incompressible, elastic and elastoplastic, isotropic and orthotropic layers. For all these cases, the asymptotic accuracy of the continuum theory is rigorously proved. The influence of the type of loading, layer thickness and their stiffness on the continuum theory accuracy is illustrated by several numerical examples for the particular linear and nonlinear models of materials. Keywords: Composite; Instability; Compression; Fracture; Nonlinear; Large deformation; Homogenization
1. Introduction The wide usage of the continuum theory in solid mechanics, due to its simplicity, puts into consideration the question of its accuracy and of its domain of applicability. The answer may be given only by comparison of the results delivered by both the continuum theory and the most accurate approach (i.e. the piecewisehomogeneous medium model). Indeed, the approach based on the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium (Fig. la), enables the investigation of the mechanical response in the most rigorous way at the microstructural level (exact solution). However, due to its complexity, this method is restricted matrix fibre (layer)
to a very small group of problems. This makes the continuum theory more attractive since it involves significant simplifications (Fig. lb). The continuum theory may be applied when the scale of the investigated phenomenon (for example, the wavelength of the mode of stability loss /) is considerably larger than that of a material structure (say, the layer thickness h), i.e. I ^ h. The results obtained by the continuum theory must follow from those derived using the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium when hl~^ > 0. If this is the case, the continuum theory can be considered as an asymptotically accurate one.
2. Investigation of accuracy of the continuum theory This paper is devoted to substantiation of the continuum theory applied to predict compressive fracture of layered solids (composites or rocks) with periodical structure. Within the scope of this theory, the moment of stability loss in the structure of material (internal instability according to Biot [1]) is treated as the beginning of the fracture process [2]. In the past, investigations of the continuum theory accuracy in relation to the model of piecewise homogeneous medium were performed only for other physical phenomena (for example, for the problems of wave propagation) or for other layer models [25]. But, there are not yet
Fig _^. 1. (a) Model of piecewisehomogeneous medium; (b) Continuum approximation. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 (20) 75945117; Fax: +44 (20) 75848120; Email: i.guz@ic.ac.uk 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
LA. Guz, C. Soutis /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics investigations of the influence of biaxiality of loading for problems of stability loss in solids under finite (large) deformations. This paper attempts to fill the gap. Along with the exact approach (i.e. the continuum theory or the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium which are based on the 3D stability theory [6]), there are also approximate approaches to the considered problems proposed by Rosen [7] and by many other authors. A detailed review of the approximate models was given, for example, by Soutis [8]. However, the approximate approaches do not describe the phenomenon under consideration even on the qualitative level. It is proved [25], that they give a significant discrepancy in comparison with the exact approach and with experimental data.
225
1st (shear) mode, cannot be described by the continuum theory. Estimation of accuracy of the continuum theory can be obtained by comparison with the critical values, calculated using the model of the piecewisehomogeneous medium [4,5,10]. The influence of the biaxiality of loading, layer thickness and their stiffness on the continuum theory accuracy was studied for several particular linear and nonlinear (including elastoplastic) models of materials. Special attention was given to calculation of the continuum theory accuracy for composites when the layers were assumed to be hyperelastic and the simplified version of Mooney's potential, namely neoHookean potential, may be chosen for their description in the following form c>2Cio/i(4) (2)
3. Asymptotic analysis and numerical results The investigation was carried out for the cases of uniaxial and biaxial compression as applied to compressible and incompressible, elastic and elastoplastic, isotropic and orthotropic, linear and nonlinear models of layers under finite (large) deformations (Fig. 2). For all these cases, characteristic determinants were derived for the plane and for nonaxisymmetrical 3D problems [2,9,10] using the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium and 3D stability theory (i.e. the most accurate approach) for four modes of stability loss. To perform the asymptotic analysis, the condition of applicability of the continuum theory hl0 (1)
where Cio is a material constant, and l\{s) is the first algebraic invariant of CauchyGreen strain tensor. This potential is also called Treloar's potential, after the author who obtained it from an analysis of model of rubber regarded as a system of long molecular interlinking chains [11]. The accuracy of the continuum theory A (i.e. the ratio of the results obtained in the context of the most accurate approach and continuum theory expressed in percentage) is given in Figs. 35 for different models of layers (including the abovementioned hyperelastic) and different values of layer thickness ratio, hrjhyn. These dependencies have a strongly nonlinear character proving the importance of
001
was applied to all formulae and the limits are calculated analytically under this condition. As a result of such manipulation, the longwave approximation was obtained and the characteristic equations were reduced to a much simpler form. It was rigorously proved that the results of the continuum theory follow as a longwave approximation from those for the 1st mode of stability loss obtained using the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium. It was also shown that modes of stability loss, other than the
[
/
99
98 
97
^96
h Am = 0.2\
hAm = o.n
hAm = 0A2
95 
94
93 
1 1
/>
;^
20
25
Fig. 2. The coordinate system and applied loads for the cases of biaxial compression.
Fig. 3. Values of parameter A plotted against the ratio of the material constants of layers CIQ/C'I'Q for the case of Treloar's potential (uniaxial compression).
226
100
LA. Guz, C. Soutis /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. Conclusions The asymptotic accuracy of the continuum theory of compressive fracture is established for composites consisting of compressible and incompressible, elastic and elastoplastic, isotropic and orthotropic layers. Following the general 3D approach developed in this paper, the accuracy of the continuum theory as applied to laminated solids with other properties of layers or other kinds of loads can also be investigated.
0 20 40 60
Fig. 4. Values of parameter A plotted against the ratio of the material constants of layers C\Q/C^Q for the case of Treloar's potential (biaxial compression). 100
References [1] Biot MA. Mechanics of Incremental Deformations. New York: Wiley, 1965. [2] Guz AN. Mechanics of fracture of composite materials in compression (in Russian). Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1990. [3] Guz lA, Soutis C. Continuum fracture theory for layered materials: investigation of accuracy. Z Angew Math Mech 1999;79(S2):S503S504. [4] Guz lA, Soutis C. A 3D stability theory applied to layered rocks undergoing finite deformations in biaxial compression. Eur J Mech A/Solids, to appear. [51 Soutis C, Guz lA. On analytical approaches to fracture of composites caused by internal instability under finite deformations. In: Soutis C, Guz lA (Eds), Impact and damage tolerance modelling of composite materials and structures. Proc. of Euromech Colloquium 400, London: Imperial College, 1999, pp. 5158. [6] Guz AN. Fundamentals of the ThreeDimensional Theory of Stability of Deformable Bodies. Berlin: Springer, 1999. [7] Rosen BW. Mechanics of composite strengthening. In: Fiber Composite Materials. Metals Park: American Society of Metals, 1965, pp. 3775. [8] Soutis C. Failure of notched CFRP laminates due to fibre microbuckling: a topical review. J Mech Behav Mat 1996;6(4):309330. [9] Guz lA. Spatial nonaxisymmetric problems of the theory of stability of laminar highly elastic composite materials. Sov ApplMech 1989;25(12):10801085. [10] Guz I A. Internal instability of laminated composites with a metal matrix. Mech Comp Mater 1990;26(6):762767. [11] Treloar LRG. Large elastic deformations in rubberlike materials. In: Proceedings of lUTAM Colloquium, Madrid, 1955, pp. 208217.
taking into account the materials' nonlinearity. One can also see that the larger the ratio hr/hj, the higher is the accuracy of the continuum theory. It means that the increasing volume fraction of the stiffer layers has a strong impact on the application of the continuum theory making it more accurate.
227
Abstract The theory of fundamental boundary eigensolutions for elastostatic problems is applied to formulate methods for computational mechanics. This theory shows that every elastic solution can be written as a linear combination of some boundary orthogonal deformations. One finds that the traditional boundary element method and finite element methods are largely consistent with this theory, but do not harness its power. Use of the new theory permits, for example, the systematic solution of nonsmooth problems. Keywords: Finite element method; Boundary element method; Nonsmooth problem; Eigenvalue problem
1. Introduction The general theory of fundamental boundary eigensolutions is presented in Hadjesfandiari [1]; Hadjesfandiari and Dargush [24]. Here we present application of this theory to computational mechanics, and more specifically to the development of boundary element and finite element methods for elastic bodies. The major traditional methods of computational mechanics do not have a common means to enforce boundary conditions. For an elastic boundary value problem, the traditional finite element method uses lumped nodal forces to model the tractions in a very approximated manner, but as a result generates a symmetric stiffness matrix. On the other hand, the standard boundary element method uses tractions as primary variables, but generates nonsymmetric matrices. The theory of fundamental boundary eigensolutions not only gives a new common view to both methods, but also directs us in modifying these methods and in understanding the source of some ill behavior. The computational methods based on this theory are completely consistent with the theory of elastostatic boundary value problems, including all of those problems that are classified as nonsmooth. This theory shows that the resulting computational methods are indirectly a general discrete Fourier analysis. The introduction of a weight function
alters the underlying orthogonal basis functions, thus enabling us to solve nonsmooth problems systematically.
2. Theory of fundamental boundary eigensolutions The fundamental boundary eigenproblem for elastostatic problem can be defined as follows: Find the nontrivial displacement u such that in the domain V ^ijJ = CijkiUk,ij 0 and on the boundary S ti = X(pij Uj (lb) (la)
In Eqs. (1), a, t and C represent the stress tensor, traction vector and elastic constitutive tensor, respectively, while X is the eigenparameter. Furthermore ^ is a positive definite, integrable tensorial weight function defined on the boundary S. Notice that this definition permits cpij to be discontinuous and even singular at some points. The eigensolutions of Eqs. (1) have a number of interesting and useful properties. The most important properties include the following: (1) All of the eigenvalues are real. (2) All nonzero eigenvalues are positive. (3) The sequence of eigenmodes are orthogonal on the boundary with respect to 0 . Thus,
(m) (n) 1 c
* Corresponding author. Tel: +1 (716) 6452114/2405; Fax: +1 (716) 6453733; Email: gdargush@eng.buffalo.edu 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
(fijU Uj ^ dS
(2)
228
A.R. Hadjesfandiari, G.F. Dargush /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics This problem has an infinite number of eigensolutions (A,M^"^) which are boundary orthogonal with respect to In terms of u and ^^, the boundary integral representation Eq. (7) reduces to Cij(^)uj(^) + j Fij(^, x)uj(x) dS(x) (3)
by assuming normalized eigenmodes. (4) The system of eigenfunctions is complete. As a result, these fundamental eigensolutions provide a basis for solutions to elastostatic boundary value problems in the form of generalized Fourier series or fundamental eigenexpansion
= / on 5 (4)
Gij{^,x)cpjk(x)t;^{x)dS(x)
(9)
t = ^J2^nKu^"^ with A= f u 0
i/<"^ dS=
f cpijUiU^"^ dS
(5)
Following [5], by discretizing the boundary into a finite number NE of elements, utilizing loworder polynomial shape functions within the elements and collocating at the nodes, we obtain a system of algebraic equations that can be written FU = G^r^ (10)
We assume that in physical problems u is continuous everywhere, but that t can be piecewise continuous. This allows t to exhibit discontinuities, and even singularities. With the present approach, we attempt to choose 0 such that the weighted traction ^^ is piecewise regular. Thus f^, defined by the relation
where U and T"^ represent nodal values of displacement and weighted traction, respectively, while F and G^ are system matrices formed through an assembly process. By using the fundamental boundary conditions, the boundary element version of the fundamental eigenproblem is FU XG U (11)
still may have discontinuities, but it now remains bounded everywhere on S. Then, the expansion for f^ is
DC
/^ = ^AA,M^">
on 5
(6)
3. Boundary element methods The boundary integral representation for the elastostatic problem without body force can be written Cij(^)uj(^) + j Fiji^, x)uj{x) dS(x)
While G^ in Eq. (10) is in general a rectangular matrix to allow for discontinuity in weighted traction T^, the matrix G for the eigenproblem Eq. (11) is a square version of G^ due to the continuity requirement inherent in the fundamental boundary condition T"^ = XU. We expect boundary orthogonality of the eigenmodes with respect to 0 in closedform from Eq. (2). In discretized form this becomes U(m)^S'^UM : 0 where 'NdS (13) m^ n (12)
= /
Giji^,x)tj(x)dS(x)
(7) with shape function matrix N(x). Since S depends on the boundary discretization and weight function 0 we call it the weighted boundary matrix.
where G(^,x) and F{^,x) are the elasticity kernels and c(^) is a tensor that characterizes the local geometry at 5 [5]. By substituting the fundamental boundary condition tj(x) X(pjk{x)uk{x) into Eq. (7), we obtain the fundamental eigenproblem in integral form as Cij{^)uj{^) + j Fij{^, x)Uj(x) dS(x) s = xj Giji^, x)(pjk{x)u,(x) dS(x) (8)
4. Finite element methods The formulation can be derived from the principle of virtual work or weak formulation in the form / ajj hSij dV = j (pijt'J huj dS (14)
A.R. Hadjesfandiari, G.F. Dargush /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Discretizing the domain and boundary, and interpolating weighted traction on the boundary, we obtain Table 1 Boundary eigenvalues for unit disc
Mode Exact 0.76923
229
s where C represents the elastic constitutive tensor in matrix form and B is the usual matrix of shape function derivatives [6]. Introducing the usual stiffness matrix K and the new matrix 5*^ from Eq. (13), this can be written (16) Finally, since W"^ is arbitrary, we establish KU = 0 (17)
W^B^CBUdV
(15)
BE
0.76923 1.2821 2.1376 3.0769 3.4263 5.3853 8.4469 11.532 16.637 27.914 34.581
FE
0.76933 1.2821 2.1370 3.0770 3.4237 5.3867 8.4859 12.084 19.845 47.074 126.47
3.0769
5.3846 8.4615
Partitioning the lefthand side of Eq. (17) to correspond with the righthand side, we obtain
KB KBI
Kl
Ku
(18)
where V B and U i are the vectors of nodal displacement for boundary and interior nodes, respectively. In terms of boundary nodes, we can write
'KBBUB = S^T^ (19)
= Kt
KBIKJJK^J
(20)
The corresponding generalized fundamental eigenproblem can also be formulated strictly in terms of boundary nodes and written as
KBBUB ^S UB
on the boundary. Both tractionoriented finite element and boundary element methods are investigated. A FEM mesh with 1345 nodes and 432 quadrilateral elements has been used. The number of nodes on the boundary is 96, thus forming 48 quadratic boundary elements. The eigenvalues for some eigenmodes are listed in Table 1. The modes with exact eigenvalues are completely shear deformations. Closedform expressions were obtained in [4]. It is seen that for lower modes, FEM has reasonably good eigenvalues similar to those of BEM. For higher modes, the eigenvalues in FEM become less accurate. However, increasing the number of internal nodes in FEM improves the eigenvalues and eigenmodes toward those obtained via BEM. This clearly shows why BEM can often solve problems more accurately for a given boundary discretization. In practice for FEM we usually increase internal and external nodes together. In this way with an
(21)
undeformed deformed60
Because KBB and S are symmetric, the eigenproblem associated with this tractionoriented finite element method has real eigenvalues and eigenvectors, which are orthogonal with respect to KBB and S
U^'^^^KBBU^''^ = 0
for m y^ n formT^n
(22) (23)
f/(m)T5V^"^ = 0
Solutions U of Eq. (19) implicitly utilize the eigenvectors of Eq. (21) as a basis.
5. Numerical examples 5.1. Eigenmodes of unit circular disc Consider an elastic circular disc with radius a = I. Here we generate the fundamental eigenmodes for the plane strain case with E = 1 and v = 0.3, assuming cp = I
230
A.R. Hadjesfandiari, G.F. Dargush /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
to
5.2. Plate with edge notch We now apply the new boundary element and finite element methods for plane strain loading of a plate with an edge Vnotch. Here we consider the geometry and boundary conditions shown in Fig. 2. Let h = 5, w = 5, a = 1 and to = I, while 2a = 270 where a is the included halfangle at the notch. Material properties are E = 1 and v = 0.3. For stress analysis at the notch tip we can use a multiregion method, but here we use halfsymmetry and model only the upper portion of the plate. From the asymptotic expansion of Williams [7] we know the singularity of stresses for freefree edges is r^~^ where y = 0.544484. Then the weight function cp = r^~^ is used on the cut line. On the rest of the boundary, we take (p = 1. In all cases, (pij = (p8ij. In the numerical analysis, a mesh with 200 boundary nodes and 100 quadratic boundary elements is used. Meanwhile, the finite element domain model consists of 600 eightnoded quadratic elements. Fig. 3 provides the numerical solutions for the weighted traction t'^ versus horizontal distance from the tip of the notch. Solutions away from the tip are converged. However, Gibbs' phenomenon is clearly visible in the vicinity of the notch. The boundary element solutions show much lower amplitude oscillation. This can be attributed to the improved resolution of the higher fundamental eigenmodes obtained with the BE formulation. Discontinuity induces
E=1, v=0.3
t t
FEM approach we increase the number of eigenmodes and improve the lowest ones. The FEM eigenmode 60 is shown in Fig. 1. This deformation is in good agreement with the closed form solution.
2.00
1.50
^J^
1.00
0.50
r
Fig. 3. Notched plate. Weighted normal traction.
A.R. Hadjesfandiari, G.K Dargush /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics participation from higher modes, and thus requires better accuracy of those modes to resolve the boundary variable. We should emphasize that in the FE formulation utilized here, the traction, or in this case weighted traction ff, is a primary variable that is interpolated to the same level as the displacement u. The traction component ^J is related to the general stress intensity factor Ki defined for the notch. Recent research has shown that the value of Ki is a controlling parameter for failure analysis of some materials [8,9]. Acknowledgements
231
Support for the work described in this paper was provided in part by the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research under a cooperative agreement from the National Science Foundation (Grant EEC970147 1). The authors gratefully acknowledge this support.
References [1] Hadjesfandiari AR. Theoretical and computational concepts in engineering mechanics. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1998. [2] Hadjesfandiari AR, Dargush OF. Theory of boundary eigensolutions in engineering mechanics. J Appl Mech ASME, in press. [3] Hadjesfandiari AR, Dargush OF. Computational mechanics based on the theory of boundary eigensolutions. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2001;50:325346. [4] Hadjesfandiari AR, Dargush OF. Boundary eigensolutions in elasticity. I. Theoretical development. Int J Solids Struct, in press. [5] Banerjee PK. The Boundary Element Methods in Engineering. London: McGrawHill, 1994. [6] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. [7] WilHams ML. Stress singularities resulting from various boundary conditions in angular corners of plates in extension. J Appl Mech ASME 1952;19:526528. [8] Carpinteri A. Stress singularity and generalized fracture toughness at the vertex of reentrant corners. Eng Fract Mech 1987;26:143155. [9] Dunn ML, Suwito W, Cunningham S. Stress intensities at notch singularities. Eng Fract Mech 1997;57:417430.
6. Conclusion The theory of fundamental eigensolutions gives a new view to the theory of elastostatic boundary value problems and their numerical solution. The numerical formulations based upon boundary element and finite element methodologies that have been developed here remain valid even for nonsmooth problems associated with notches, cracks and mixed boundary conditions. Most mathematical models of practical engineering problems are nonsmooth. For example, mixed boundary conditions may be specified, reentrant comers may be present or bimaterial interfaces may exist. In nonsmooth problems, using the proper weight function (p to make ^ ^ piecewise regular has several advantages. * Most importantly, calculations are then based on bounded functions. However, t"^ may be discontinuous. This results in oscillations associated with Gibbs' phenomenon. Additionally, the Fourier coefficients decrease faster for higher modes. This means that the participation of higher modes are less important than for the case with cp = I. Consequently we may expect higher quality solutions for a given mesh when cp is chosen properly.
232
Abstract A finite elementbased reliability evaluation procedure is proposed to evaluate the risk of linear and nonUnear structures subjected to static and shortduration timevarying loading including seismic loading. It is parallel to the deterministic finite element method, except that it can incorporate information on the uncertainty in the variables present in the problem. It is capable of capturing any special features that can be handled by the finite element method, making it a robust reliability evaluation technique. Keywords: Reliability analysis; Finite element analysis; Nonlinear analysis; Stochastic finite element analysis; Seismic loading; Response surface method
1. Introduction The analytical procedures to calculate the nonlinear deterministic response of structures to both static and dynamic loading have matured significantly in recent years. It is not difficult now to track the load path to failure considering complicated geometric arrangements, realistic connection and support conditions, and various sources of nonlinearity. Since it is not possible to avoid the uncertainty in the load and resistance related variables, the focus has shifted to incorporating uncertainty into deterministic computational algorithms. Finite element analysis is a very powerful tool commonly used by many engineering disciplines to analyze simple or complicated structures. The word 'structure' is used in a broad sense to include all systems that can be discretized using finite elements. With this approach, it is easy and straightforward to consider complicated geometric arrangements and constitutive relationships of the material, realistic connection or support conditions, various sources of nonlinearity, and the load path to failure. It gives good results for a set of assumed values of the variables while ignoring the uncertainty in them. On the other hand, many of the available reliability methods are able to account for
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (520) 6212192; Fax: +\ (520) 6212550; Email: haldar@u.arizona.edu 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
the uncertainties, but fail to represent the structural behavior as realistically as possible, and can be computationally challenging when the performance function is not available in an explicit form [1]. If the basic variables are uncertain, every quantity computed during the deterministic analysis is also uncertain, being a function of the basic variables. The currently available reliability methods can still be used if the uncertainty in the response can be tracked in terms of the variation of the basic variables at every step of the deterministic analysis. The finite element method (FEM) provides such an opportunity, and this concept forms the basis of the stochastic finite element method [2]. With the advances in computer technology, it is quite appropriate to develop a finite elementbased reliability analysis technique, parallel to the deterministic analysis procedure. Most engineers will have a tool to estimate the risk or reliability of simple or complicated systems considering all major sources of uncertainty and nonlinearity as realistically as possible. The authors have developed a finite elementbased algorithm to estimate the reliability or probability of failure of structures, capturing the nonlinear behavior just before failure. The authors call it the stochastic finite element method (SFEM) or probabilistic finite element method (PFEM) [2]. It will be of interest to researchers working to advance the deterministic finite element concept. It will also be of interest to the general risk and reliability research community, since it is a powerful and robust reliability method
A. Haldar et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics that can be used for both imphcit and explicit performance functions.
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2. Concept In general, nonlinear complicated structural systems are expected to have implicit performance functions when subjected to static and dynamic loadings. Several computational approaches could be pursued for the reliability analysis of structures with implicit performance functions. They can be broadly divided into three categories, based on their essential philosophy [2], as: (1) Monte Carlo Simulation; (2) response surface approach; and (3) sensitivitybased approach. The sensitivitybased approach can be implemented in the context of the first or secondorder reliability method (FORM or SORM) and the finite element method. In the application of FORM or SORM, only the value and gradient of the performance function at each iteration are required in the search for the design or checking point. The value of the performance function can be estimated from deterministic structural analysis. The gradient can be calculated using sensitivity analysis. In the case of explicit performance function, the gradient is calculated simply by analytical or numerical differentiation. For the implicit performance function, several approximate methods can be used to compute the gradient of the performance function, e.g. finite difference, classical perturbation, and iterative perturbation methods. Combining the iterative perturbation and the finite element approaches, an SFEMbased reliability evaluation procedure is discussed next. The concept is applicable to both linear and nonlinear problems.
sponding gradients at each iteration point. It converges to the most probable failure point (or checking point or design point) and calculates the corresponding reliabihty index p. The following iteration scheme is used to find the checking point: G(y,) y;+i = y;. + VG(y;) where AG(y) = 9G(y) dyx 9G(y)
(2)
(1)
Oli =
(3)
and \ 9G,D I JD,X + r~ j;.i (4) ) ^^. In Eq. (4), J^y are the Jacobians of transformation and j / ' s are statistically independent random variables in the standard normal space. The evaluation of the quantities in Eq. (4) will depend on the problem under consideration (linear or nonlinear, two or threedimensional, etc.) and the performance functions used. The essential numerical aspect of SEEM is the evaluation of three partial derivatives, namely, 9G/9s, aG/9u and dG/dx, and four Jacobians, namely, J,,;^, J^,^, JD,X, and J3;,;,. These are briefly discussed next. AG = 3.1.1. Performance functions and partial differentials The safety of a structure needs to be evaluated with respect to predetermined performance criteria. The performance criteria are usually expressed in the form of limit state functions, which are functional relationships among all the load effects and resistancerelated parameters. Two types of limit state functions are commonly used in the engineering profession: the Hmit state function of strength (axial load, bending moment, combined axial and bending moment, etc.), which defines safety against extreme loads during the intended life of the structure, and the limit state function of serviceabiHty (lateral deflection, interstory drift, etc.), which defines the functional requirements [1]. 3.1.2. Evaluation of Jacobians and the adjoint variable method To evaluate the gradient VG, the evaluation of the three partial derivatives on the righthand side of Eq. (4) is necessary. They are easy to compute since G(x, u, s) is an exphcit function of x, u and s, as discussed in the previous section. The next task is to evaluate the four Jacobians in Eq. (4). Because of the triangular nature of the transformation, J^^ and its inverse are easy to compute. Since s is not an explicit function of the basic random variables x, J^,;^ = 0. The Jacobians of the transformation Js,D and JD,X, however, are not easy to compute since s.
3. Methodology SFEMbased reliability evaluation procedures for static and dynamic loadings are discussed briefly and separately. 3.1. Static loading The reliability analysis procedure for static loading is based on FORM. The formulation requires an expression for a limit state function G(x, u, s), where vector x denotes the set of basic random variables pertaining to a structure (e.g. loads, material properties and structural geometry), vector u denotes the set of displacements involved in the limit state function, and vector s denotes the set of load effects (except the displacement) involved in the limit state function (e.g. stresses, internal forces). The displacement u can be expressed as u = QD, where D is the global displacement vector and Q is a transformation matrix. In general, x, u and s are related in an algorithmic sense, for example, a finite element code. The algorithm evaluates the performance function deterministically, with the corre
234
A. Haldar et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the performance function and FORM is used to calculate the corresponding reliability index, the coordinates of the most probable failure point, and the sensitivity indexes for the random variables involved in the problem. It cannot be presented here due to lack of space, but will be discussed in detail during the presentation with the help of examples.
D and x are implicit functions of each other. The adjoint variable method [3] is used here to compute the product of the second term in Eq. (4) directly, instead of evaluating its constituent parts. It is accurate and computationally efficient when a large number of basic random variables are involved in a problem. An adjoint vector X can be introduced such that du ds The adjoint vector X depends on the limit state function being considered. It is not possible to derive all these equations due to lack of space; however, it will be discussed in detail during the presentation. The reliability of linear and nonlinear two and threedimensional structures can be evaluated using the concept. Special features like partially restrained connections or support conditions are incorporated in the algorithm in addition to geometric and material nonlinearities. It is expected that any features that can be modeled by the finite element algorithm can also be incorporated in the algorithm. The accuracy of the algorithm is established by comparing the information on risk estimated by the algorithm with the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Several examples on trusses, frames, frames with infilled shear walls, etc., will be given during the presentation to show the application potential of the concept to various types of structures. 3.2. Dynamic loading Section 3.1 discusses the SFEMbased reliability analysis procedure for static, timeinvariant loads. Many engineering systems are subjected to both short and long duration timevariant loadings. Short duration loading, particularly seismic loading, is of considerable interest to engineers since it has enormous damage potential. Thus, the SFEMbased algorithm needs to be developed for short duration timevariant loadings. In general, the reliability analysis of nonlinear structures in the time domain is very difficult. Recently, Huh [4] suggested a method. The algorithm intelligently integrates the concept of the response surface method, the finite element method, and FORM. Since the performance function of a nonlinear dynamic structural system is implicit, the response surface method is used to approximately generate
(5)
4. Conclusions A finite elementbased reliability evaluation procedure is proposed to evaluate the risk of linear and nonlinear structures subjected to static and short duration timevarying loads. It is parallel to the deterministic finite element method except that it can incorporate information on the uncertainty in the variables present in the problem. It is capable of capturing any special features that can be handled by the finite element method. The concept appears to be robust and accurate.
Acknowledgements This paper is based on work partly supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CMS9526809. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. References [1] Haldar A, Mahadevan, S. Probability, Reliability and Statistical Methods in Engineering Design. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2000. [2] Haldar A, Mahadevan, S. Reliability Assessment Using Stochastic Finite Element Analysis. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2000. [3] Ryu YS, Haririan M, Wu CC, Arora JS. Structural design sensitivity analysis of nonlinear response. Comput Struct 1985;21(l/2):245255. [4] Huh J. Dynamic reliability analysis for nonlinear structures using stochastic finite element method, Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Arizona, 1999.
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A continuum mechanics based model for simulation of radiation wave from a crack
Sixiong Han^'*, Mingkui Xiao^
^Research Laboratory of Geomechanics, Etowaru Tokorozawa 301, Kitaakitsu 8853, Tokorozawa 3590038, Japan ^ Department of Civil Engineering, Chongqing Jianzhu University, Chongqing, China
Abstract This paper proposes a numerical model for the description of the mechanical phenomenon of radiation wave field due to dynamic crackpropagation. It is shown that the mechanical effect of crackpropagation can be reduced to a set of equilibrating forces acting at the position of cracking if we use the finite element method. In the paper, the formulations for this approximation are derived in displacementcontrolled wave field. Both ModeI and ModeII crackings are considered in this study. Keywords: Dynamic cracking; Equivalent nodal force; Cracking mode; Wave propagation
1. Introduction The properties of waves due to dynamic crackings have been widely applied with success to a variety of engineering problems. However, the fundamental mechanisms responsible for the radiating wave phenomena caused by the dynamic cracking are not yet thoroughly understood. In order to make wave information quantitative and to utilize such waves in material research, basic studies to clarify generation mechanisms of radiation waves due to dynamic crackpropagation are required and some more sophisticated analytical methods are expected to be developed to describe the dynamic crackpropagation problem. The aim of this paper is to establish a mathematical model providing a numerical approximation to describe the mechanical phenomenon of dynamic crackpropagation. This model is established based on Betti's reciprocal principle and the discretization technique of the standard finite element method. Instead of modeling the crack directly, the mechanical effects of the radiation waves due to the crackpropagation are formulated by a set of equilibrating nodal forces acting at the positions of cracking based on the rigorous mechanics theory. The methodology of this procedure is midway between the conventional theoretical analyses and numerical models. There are two significant * Corresponding author. Tel/Fax: +81 (42) 9965338; Email: sixionghan@nanet.ornl.gov 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
characteristics of the proposed model that are different from the conventional theoretical and numerical analyses on this type of problem. The first one is that, until now, the dynamic crackpropagation is usually modified as the traction releasing process ahead of the cracktip, and treated in a stresscontrolled wave field. In this study, we consider the cracking as a displacement loading process and treat the crackpropagation in a displacementcontrolled wave field. The second one is that the cracking domain is formulated through a singularity function and this operation could avoid the treatment of the mathematical discontinuity in the Euclidean space. This procedure leads to the advantage of the independence between the mesh division and crack configuration. It is shown that the cracking problem can be treated in the framework of continuum mechanics and the radiation waves due to crackpropagation may be obtained easily by the proposed method. By carrying out a numerical simulation of a dynamic cracking, the radiation waves by ModeI (opening) and ModeII (sliding) crackings are obtained and studied.
2. Modeling for dynamic crackpropagation 2.1. Numerical formulation In a homogeneous linear elastic body D with the domains U^(x, t) which is respected with the crack domain.
236
' nC
04 (a)
investigation point
<3=>
Fig. 1. Mechanical effect of cracking in element, (a) Cracking state in element, (b) Equivalent nodal forces for ModeII.
we consider the crack as a displacement gap in a continuous medium and describe it through a singular function [2]. By some mathematical operations, and the techniques of the finite element method, it shows that the mechanical effect of the cracking in the material can be evaluated by a set of equivalent nodal forces acting at the position with respect to the cracking domain. One can obtain the wave equation as: MU + KU = P*, in which, U is the nodal displacement vector, M is the mass matrix and K is the stiffness matrix. The vector P* represents the equivalent nodal force vector induced by the crackpropagation, and Vj, dS
^ Te
AZe
^=^1^
element with a unit magnitude of the maximal displacement gap. The components of the equivalent nodal forces are calculated as shown in Table 1 in which the parameters A = Cs/Cp, Cp and C^ represent the velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves, respectively. One can understand from the results that in ModeI, the mechanical effect of cracking is equivalent to four couples of tensile force acting at the nodes of the element. In ModeII, the mechanical effect of cracking is equivalent to four couples of shear force. The result for ModeII is illustrated in Fig. lb. The properties of those results can be proved to have a generality. 2.2. Numerical example
(1)
where, p is the mass density, N is the shape function and ^1 is a unit vector lying on the crack in the ^th element. Ze and AE^ are the regions with respect to the initial and propagating cracks in the ^th element, respectively. J2e(^e) = Z, E . ( ^ ^ ^ ) = ^ ^ ' and Z U AZ = E\ V in the above equation is a known parameter contains the information of the material properties and crack configuration [2]. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed model, let us consider a simple case of a 4node square isoparametric element with the side length h in a. linearly cracking state as shown in Fig. la, in which the shadow area represents the magnitude of the cracking displacement along ^iaxis for both cracking modes. Without loss of the generality, we only consider the case when cracking crossed the Table 1 Equivalent nodal forces Node 1
(^1,^2)
We simply consider the case that crack propagates along the jciaxis with the velocity of the value of half of the transverse waves. The numerical calculation model for the problem shown in Fig. 2 is a rectangular body with the size 65.0 x 65.0 cm. The origin of the coordinate system is on its gravity center. The elements discretized for calculation are all square with a size of 1.0 x 1.0 cm, and the crack lying on xiaxis is centered at the origin of coordinate system. The material constants are fellows: Young's modulus E = 5.67 x 10^ MPa, mass density p = 2.1 t/m^ and Poisson's ratio v =
Node 2
(^1,^2)
Node 3
(^1,^2)
Node 4
(^1,^2)
(1  2 7 1 ^ 2 / 3 )
{\+2A\4/3) (4/3,1)
(1+2^12,4/3) (4/3,1)
ModeII
(2/3, 1)
237
E
Z3 O.OOCQ
"Q. C TO 0)
fin 1/1
i :
j ; :
direction. The radial displacement changes abruptly at the arrival of transverse wave. Furthermore, the response in the circumferential direction changes its phase at ^ = 45.
jl
5 ,'
MVJ pi^
V
Wf J V
AAn
ft A in
3. Conclusions A mathematical model to describe the mechanical phenomenon of dynamic crackpropagation is proposed. The conclusions are as follows: the effect of dynamic cracking in material can be evaluated as equivalent nodal forces in a numerical procedure; the formulation to evaluate the equivalent nodal force is presented, and it is shown that the mesh divisions are independent of crack and cracking configurations if the finite element method is used; the mechanical effects of ModeI and ModeII crackings are equivalent to several couples of tensile (or compressive) and shear forces acting on the elements, respectively.
E o i5
I V'
g0.0006
1 '''
References 0.25. The initial crack length RQ = 7.0 cm, and the final accumulative length of the crackpropagation ARQ = 2.0 cm. The calculated results are plotted in Fig. 3, in which the black line represents the responses in the radial direction and the broken line represents the responses in the circumferential direction. Due to the limited space of the paper, we only give the responses measured at the point (r = 27.5 cm, 0 = 45), in which r is the distance and 0 is the angle as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the displacement responses measured for ModeII cracking. It can be seen that the displacement response rapidly increases just after the arrival of the longitudinal waves. The same phenomenon is also observed in the displacement in the circumferential [1] Freund LB. Crack propagation in an elastic solid subjected to general loadingI. Constant rate of extension. J Mech Phys Solids 1972;20:129140. [2] Han S. Evaluation of reservoir crack based on equivalent effect of scattering waves due to crackpropagation. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 1997;34(3/4):Paper No. 118. [3] Lo CY, Nakamura T, Kushner A. Computational Analysis of Dynamic Crack Propagation along a Bimaterial Interface. Int J Solids Struct 1994;31(2): 145168. [4] Nishioka T, Atluri SN. Numerical analysis of dynamic crack propagation: generation and prediction studies. Eng Fract Mech 1982;16:303332. [5] Rose LRF. Recent theoretical and experimental results on fast brittle fracture. Int J Fract 1976;12(6):799813.
238
Large strain, large rotation boundary integral multidomain formulation using the Trefftz polynomial functions
M. Handrik*, V. Kompis, P. Novak
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University ofZilina, Velky diel, 010 26 Zilina, Slovakia
Abstract In this paper, a multidomain formulation based on reciprocity relations, which is a combination of the finite element method and the boundary element method is presented [24]. The total Lagrangian formulation for large displacement and large rotation and Hook material law is used. The formulation is the weighting residual form, which leads to a nonlinear equation system. The nonlinear equations system is solved by incremental NewtonRaphson procedure. Keywords: Total Lagrangian formulation; Trefftz function; Large displacements and rotations; Boundary integral multidomain method
1. Introduction In this paper, Trefftz polynomials (Tpolynomials) [1] are used for the development of multidomain (MD) based on the reciprocity relations. Such reciprocity principles are known from the boundary element formulations, however, using the Trefftz polynomials in the reciprocity relations instead of the fundamental solutions yields the nonsingular integral equations for the evaluation of corresponding subdomain (element) relations. A weak form satisfaction of the equilibrium is used for the interdomain connectivity relations. For linear problems, the element stiffness matrices are defined in the boundary integral equation form. In nonlinear problems, the total Lagrangian formulation leads to the evaluation of the boundary integrals over the original (related) domain evaluated only once during the solution and to the volume integrals containing the nonlinear terms. Also, Trefftz polynomials can be used in the postprocessing phase of the MD computations for small strain problems. By using the Trefftz polynomials as local interpolators, smooth yields of the secondary variables (strains, stresses, etc.) can be found in the whole domain (if it is homogeneous). This approach considerably increases the accuracy of the evaluated yields while maintaining the same rate of convergence as that of the primary yields. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +421 (89) 5132974; Fax: +421 (89) 5652940; Email: handrik@mppserv.utc.sk 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
Now a stress smoothing procedure for large displacements will be presented as well. Considering the examples of simple tension, pure bending and tension of fully clamped rectangular plate (2D stress/strain problems) for large strainlarge rotation problems, the use of the initial stiffness, the NewtonRaphson procedure, and the incremental Newton Raphson procedure will be discussed.
2. The total Lagrangian formulation for finite deformation problems Equilibrium equation for this problem in undeformed (initial) configuration in the integral week form
fl{Sufu),k^b'l\UidQ
=0
(1)
Applying integration by parts, the Gauss' theorem, substituting displacement gradient for deformation gradient to Eq. (1) we obtain f tfUi df + /" b^Ui dQf Sij Uij dQ (2)
 f{SijUu)UidQ
=0
The strain tensor can be split into the elastic and plastic
M. Handrik et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics parts and because of the linear dependence between the elastic part of Green strain tensor and the 2nd PiolaKirchhoff stress tensor, the reciprocity relation can be found in the form. [ t^Ui d r + / b^^Ui dQr

239
are evaluated only once (in the zeroth equilibrium iteration step). On the other side, the nonlinear volume integrals are evaluated in the first and further iteration steps only. In the NewtonRaphson procedures, the increments are computed
^(Nl)
( uj Ti d r r
(6)
(7)
^
/ \uk,iUk,jT^ij
dQ  f^ SijUi^kUi dQ
+ Au'
(N)
;.E,,d^ = 0
(3)
The iteration is stopped if the quadratic norm of the last displacement increment related to the quadratic norm of the displacements is less than the specified value e > Au (N)
i(N)
Eq. (3) is applied for the computation of the relation between the boundary displacements u and the tractions t^ for each subdomain (element). The interdomain tractions continuity j dui {ti  u) dr, + / dui (tf"  t^) dVi
(8)
4. Examples The examples of simple tension, pure bending and tension of fully clamped rectangular plate (2D stress/strain problems) for large strainlarge rotation problems, the use of the initial stiffness, the NewtonRaphson procedure, and the incremental NewtonRaphson procedure and the accuracy will be discussed.
(4)
3. Linearization of resulting equations for large strain problems The resulting discretized and linearized equations are in the form
(K + K^L)u(N)^p(Ni) ^3^
References [1] Trefftz E. Ein Gegenstuck zum Ritzschen Verfahren. Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Applied Mechanics, Zurich, 1926. [2] Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. The Finite Element Method, vols. III, 4th ed. New York: Wiley, 1989/1991. [3] Bathe KJ. The Finite Element Procedures, Englewood CHffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. [4] Balas J, Sladek J, Sladek V. Stress Analysis by Boundary Element Method. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1989. [5] Kompis V, Jakubovieova L. Errors in modelling high order gradient fields using isoparametric and reciprocity based FEM, submitted for publication.
where K corresponds to the linear part of Eq. (3) and K^^ to its nonlinear part, which is linearized for each iteration step and p^^~^^ denotes the configuration dependent load corresponding to the configuration of the previous iteration step. The linear matrix K and thus, the boundary integrals
240
Abstract Efficient computation in sheet metal forming or car crash analysis is obtained only by using shell elements instead of fully threedimensional solid elements. However, many requirements in the investigations, in particular when looking at edges and special situations like large stretching and bending with small radii as strains and stresses in thickness direction and general threedimensional material laws, cannot be provided by shell elements even if they are based on the wellknown degeneration concept. Therefore, in [10] a socalled 'SolidShell' formulation, following similar suggestions in [4,12,14], was proposed. For the biquadraticlinear as well as for the trilinear elements different locking effects appear, see also [3]. Different schemes to overcome the locking problems are used and an almost lockingfree element formulation can finally be presented. However, as a consequence problems occur in the large deformation regime, such that under some types of loading the trilinear elements [7,17] as well as the biquadraticlinear elements show artificial instabilities, indicated by negative eigenvalues of the tangential stiffness matrix. This topic is discussed in detail. Keywords: SolidShell elements; Large deformations; Volumetric locking; Mixed interpolations; Trapezoidal locking; Numerical instabilities
1. Introduction With the 'SolidSheir concept [4,10,12,14] a shell element formulation was proposed, to overcome some limits of the wellknown degeneration concept. Using nodes at upper and lower surface and using only displacement degrees of freedom allows general threedimensional material laws to be implemented, thus strains and stresses in thickness direction can be properly computed. As a consequence also applications for large deformation problems become possible without artificial restrictions, see also [3,11]. In addition, the treatment of rotations can be avoided completely and the transition to full 3Dcontinuum parts is directly possible. The originally developed 'fournode type' elements with bilinear inplane shape functions have been extended to 'ninenode type' elements with biquadratic inplane shape functions [9] expecting a geometrically better approximation for curved and heavily deformed structures. An as* Corresponding author. Tel: +49 (721) 6082070; Fax: +49 (721) 6087990; Email: karl.schweizerhof@bauverm.unikarlsruhe.de 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
sumed natural strain (ANS) method as proposed in Refs. [5,6] is used for the 'fournode type' (8 node) elements to avoid transverse shear locking, and it is also used for the 'ninenode type' (18 node) elements to avoid, firstly, transverse shear locking and, secondly, the additionally appearing membrane locking for elements with higherorder shape functions. The problem of thickness locking is resolved by enhancing the normal strain in thickness direction with a linear extension using the EASmethod [4,14], or alternatively by increasing the order of interpolation for the displacements in thickness direction over the thickness using an additional degree of freedom [8]. Considering nearly incompressible material behavior, like rubber elasticity or metal plasticity, the problem of volumetric locking appears. A rather efficient possibility to overcome this problem is to use a lower order of integration for the volumetric parts of the stress tensor and the tangent moduli tensor, the socalled selective reduced integration (SRI) [11]. The selective reduced integration of volumetric parts indeed presumes that an isochoricvolumetric material behavior is considered. Another locking effect known for elements with linear and quadratic shape functions is the problem of socalled
M. Harnau, K. Schweizerhof / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics trapezoidal [15] or curvature thickness [3] locking. This effect is only found in structures where the vectors from the lower to the upper nodes at the element edges are not vertical to the midlayer. A method to resolve this problem is using an assumed strain inplane interpolation of the normal strain in thickness direction as proposed in [2].
241
2. Numerical instabilities To investigate the effects of numerical instabilities under certain loading conditions a study with a single 'fournode type' element under a homogeneous compressions/tension state is performed in analogy to [1]. Because large deformations are treated in this example, a material of the Neo Hookean type is used. The geometrical and material data
Fig. 1. Geometry, material data and loading of the investigated element. Geometry: I = 2, t = 2; Neo Hooke material: K = 1.0 10^, yit = 20. Uniform displacement v in ydirection.
are shown in Fig. 1. All nodes are fixed in the zdirection, thus a plane strain case is generated. The upper four nodes are linked together in the jdirection and as loading a uniform displacement v is prescribed for these nodes. As a consequence of the loading and the boundary conditions shown in Fig. 1 the number of degrees of freedom for the whole system is reduced to four. Therefore, only four eigenmodes (Fig. 2) are possible for the system, with the fourth eigenmode being the volumetric deformation mode. In this simple example the eigenvalues belonging to the eigenmodes shown in Fig. 2 can be derived analytically as a function depending on the displacement u. The results for these investigations are shown in some diagrams in Fig. 3. There it can be seen that the pure displacement formulation DISP3D remains always stable. The ANS3DL element is the displacement formulation combined with the ANSmethod. It is clearly visible that for this element formulation the eigenmodes 1 and 2 become unstable in the case of very large compressive strains. But it must also be noted that this state of about 90% compression is hardly found in a realistic problem. If the inplane strains are enhanced using the E ASmethod, as it is done for the EAS3DEAS element, the well known hourglass mode [17] appears at a compression of about 45%. Similar observations have been made for the biquadratic elements. As a conclusion it must be noted that all mixedtype enhancements of the loworder interpolated solidshell elements lead to artificial element kinematics under homogeneous loading in the large deformation regime. For plane elements proposals to improve the element behavior are given by Wall et al. [16] for rectangular elements, by Reese [13] and by Armero [1] in a very detailed
1000
8001
I 600
14 0 0 1
I 600
1 1400
200
200
IZ^
Fig. 3. Eigenvalues of eigenmodes 1, 2 and 3 as a function of the deformation v in };direction; (a) D1SP3D element, (b) ANS3DL element, and (c) EAS3DEAS element; \ = tension;  = compression.
242
M. Harnau, K. Schweizerhof / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [7] Glaser S, Armero F. On the formulation of enhanced strain finite elements in finite deformations. Eng Comput 1997;14(7):759791. [8] Gruttmann F. Theorie und Numerik diinnwandiger Faserverbundstrukturen. Bericht Nr. F96/1, Institut fiir Baumechanik und Numerische Mechanik, Universitat Hannover, 1996. [9] Hauptmann R, Doll S, Harnau M, Schweizerhof K. 'SolidShell' elements with linear and quadratic shape functions at large deformations with nearly incompressible materials. Submitted for publication, 2000. [10] Hauptmann R, Schweizerhof K. A systematic development of solidshell element formulations for linear and nonlinear analyses employing only displacement degrees of freedom. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1998;42:4970. [11] Hauptmann R, Schweizerhof K, Doll S. Extension of the solidshell concept for large elastic and large elastoplastic deformations. Accepted by Int J Numer Methods Eng 2000;49:11211141. [12] Parisch H. A continuumbased shell theory for nonlinear applications. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1995;38:18551883. [13] Reese S, Wriggers P. A stabilization technique to avoid hourglassing in finite elasticity. Report No. 4/98, Institute of Mechanics, TU Darmstadt, 1998. [14] Seifert B. Zur Theorie und Numerik finiter elastoplastischer Deformationen von Schalenstrukturen. Bericht Nr. F96/2, Institut fiir Baumechanik und Numerische Mechanik, Universitat Hannover, 1996. [15] Sze KY, Yao LQ. A hybrid stress ANS solidshell element and its generalization for smart structure modelling. Part I. Solidshell element formulation. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2000;48(4):545564. [16] Wall WA, Bischoff M, Ramm E. A deformation dependent stabilization technique, exemplified by EAS elements at large strains. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1998;188:859871. [17] Wriggers P, Reese S. A note on enhanced strain methods for large deformations. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1996;135:201209.
Study for arbitrarily shaped elements. A further, rather simple possibility to achieve a stable element formulation is to regain the stiffness matrix of the displacement formulation A^^^p multiplied with a factor (p on the given element stiffness matrix Ke'. ke = (l~<p)K, + cpKl^^^. (1)
The factor (p must be adjusted to a value between one and zero depending on the type and the grade of deformation. The value of (p can even be equal to one for structures under a pure homogeneous stress state, where the displacement formulation delivers proper results without any locking effects. The current investigations are directed towards the proper automatic adjustment for nonrectangular element shapes and not fully homogeneous loading avoiding any overstiff behavior.
References [1] Armero F. On the locking and stability of finite elements in finite deformation plane strain problems. Comput Struct 2000;75. [2] Betsch P, Stein E. An assumed strain approach avoiding artificial thickness straining for a nonlinear 4node shell element. Common Numer Methods Eng 1995; 11:899909. [3] Bischoff M, Ramm E. Shear deformable shell elements for large strains and rotations. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1997;40:44274449. [4] Braun M. Nichtlineare Analysen von geschichteten elastischen Flachentragwerken. Bericht Nr. 19, Institut fur Baustatik, Universitat Stuttgart, 1995. [5] Bucalem EN, Bathe KJ. Higherorder MITC general shell elements. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993;36:37293754. [6] Dvorkin EN, Bathe KJ. A continuum mechanics based fournode shell element for general nonHnear analysis. Eng Comput 1989;1:7778.
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Abstract The SimBio project will produce a generic simulation environment for advanced clinical practice designed for execution on parallel and distributed computing systems. This paper deals with the specific appHcation of current SimBio software components for the study of a skull mechanics problem relating to maxillofacial surgery. In addition to a demonstration of physical results, performance characteristics of the biomechanical finite element code on parallel platforms is given. Keywords: Finite element model; Computer tomograph; SimBio; Computational biomechanics; Maxillofacial surgery; Head model
1. Introduction The objective of the SimBio project [1,2] financed by the European Commission's Information Societies Technology (1ST) programme is the improvement of clinical and medical practices by the use of numerical simulation. This goal is achieved by developing a generic simulation environment that enables users to develop application specific tools for many medical areas. The potential impact is demonstrated for specific areas through the SimBio evaluation and validation applications. A key feature in the SimBio project is the possibility to use individual patient data as input to the modelling and simulation process in contrast to simulation based on 'generic' computational models. In order to meet the computational demands of the SimBio applications, the computeintensive environment components are implemented on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. This paper presents an initial study for bionumerical support of maxillofacial surgery planning. The medical background to this study is discussed in Section 2. Selected software components under development within the SimBio
project are discussed in Section 3. Section 4 of the paper illustrates preliminary results of numerical simulations and covers performance issues. Finally, steps towards a more accurate modelling are discussed.
2. Biomechanical simulation supporting facialsurgery planning One of the target applications of the SimBio framework deals with presurgical studies in the field of head biomechanics. In particular, this refers to the modelling of the deformations emerging during and/or induced by surgical interventions. Thus, simulation supports the optimisation of operation procedures and the planning of therapeutical strategies. Currently, a study is underway to investigate the mechanical consequences of the forces that occur during the sequence of interventions to remedy inborn deformations of the human face (mainly cleft lip and palate). In order to adjust deformed parts of the midface a metal frame (a socalled halo, see Fig. 1) is tightly fixed to the head using screws. After cutting the midfacial bone along exactly defined lines, this device exerts forces on the bone structure to be relocated. The distraction path length governed by the externally applied forces amounts to a length of 1030
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 (2241) 925242; Fax: +49 (2241) 925299; Email: hartmann@ccrlnece.de 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
244
U. Hartmann et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics In this paper, we first present the results of phase 1. Software tools used to model the skull response are described in the next section.
3. Overview of the software solutions 3.1. Preprocessing: segmentation and meshing The geometric description of our model is based on 3D medical images of individual patients acquired with a computer tomograph (CT). Spiral CT scans achieve a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm. Raw data are preprocessed by registering timeseries scans to the first time point and are segmented into background, soft tissue, bone and halo. This segmentation forms the basis for mesh generation. A fast and high quality mesh generator creates hexahedral or tetrahedral meshes of userdefined spatial resolution [3] (see Fig. 3). 3.2. HEADFEM The finite element (FE) code for biomechanical problems (called HEADFEM) is based on linear solvers provided in the AZTEC library [4] and is parallelised using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library. HEADFEM enables linear static and dynamic FE analyses [5]. Simulations presented here were carried out using the static version of HEADFEM. Input to the FE module is a distributed mesh partitioned by a modified recursive co
Fig. 1. Halo frame for maxillofacial surgery mounted to a skull model. mm (1 mm/day), depending on the application site and duration, which is typically in the order of a few weeks. We divided the finite element (FE) modelling of this surgical intervention into two phases: (1) In a first step, skull deformations induced by the halo screws (see Fig. 2) are calculated. Exact knowledge about the mechanical consequences of the surgical device is important for the surgeon mounting the halo. (2) The goal of the second phase of the modelling process is to gain presurgical knowledge about the relation between the magnitude and the direction of the applied distraction forces and the resulting rearrangement of the bone structures and the surrounding soft tissues.
Fig. 2. A CT slice of the human head showing the halo fixed with screws.
245
Table 1 HEADFEM execution times and speedup factors on the NEC Cenju4 for different numbers of processors Processor no. 8 Time (s) Speedup 291 1.00 16 165 1.76 32 84 3.46 64 44 6.61
Fig. 4. Skull deformation as predicted by the simulation. Inward deformations correspond to yellowred colours, outward deformations to greenblue colours.
assembly, equation solving). These figures demonstrate that the code scales well and that a full FE problem is solved in less than a minute. Fig. 4 depicts the skull deformation produced by the screws of the surgical frame. Besides the expected focal inward deformation at screw positions, an outward protrusion of the skull at peripheral concentric areas is observed (see arrows). This result is in full agreement with clinical findings.
5. Concluding remarks We presented a surgical application of the FE method using initial components of the generic SimBio environment. Results obtained in phase 1 of our modelling process (see Section 2) are already considered to be clinically relevant. HEADFEM needs to be extended for phase 2 surgical planning. That requires the implementation of: geometrically nonlinear FE techniques, such as the NewtonRaphson method; additional material models (e.g. viscoelastic material behaviour); and a contact algorithm. Another important aspect of the SimBio project, inevitable for performing clinically valid simulations, addresses the measurement of realistic material parameters. Combining highly resolved FE models based on individual scan data, efficient HPCbased solver technology, simulations using reliable material parameters, the SimBio project is expected to deliver a software environment that offers the chance to provide safe predictions in clinical routine.
ordinate bisection (RGB) algorithm implemented in the DRAMA library [6] (see Fig. 3). To overcome some of the restrictions imposed by sequential FE codes, this FE tool enables simulations based on meshes with a spatial resolution about five times higher than that of previous models. The high spatial resolution guarantees: a precise FE representation of head anatomy; and a high numerical accuracy of the results obtained in reasonable calculation time. 33. Postprocessing
The nodal displacements for the whole head are calculated and mapped onto a triangular surface mesh of the skull and visualised using the BRIAN software package [7] (see Fig. 4). A specific version of BRIAN will become the visualisation module of the final SimBio environment.
4. Results HEADFEM has been installed on the 64 processor NEC Cenju4 supercomputer (MIPS RIOOOO in a multistage interconnection network). An example input is a distributed hexahedral head mesh whose elements have an edge length of 3 mm (see Fig. 3). The equation system based on this mesh has about half a million unknowns and is solved by a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver provided by the AZTEC library. Table 1 lists execution times for a full HEADFEM analysis (data input, matrix
Acknowledgements The support of the European Commission (Project 1ST V10378) is gratefully acknowledged.
References [1] Lonsdale G, Grebe R, Hartmann U, Hose DR, Kruggel F, Penrose JMT, Wolters C. Bionumerical simulations with SimBio: project aims and objectives. Proceedings of
246
U. Hartmaim et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [5] Hartmann U, Kruggel F. Transient analysis of the biomechanics of the human head with a high resolution 3D finite element model. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Eng 1998;2(l):4964. [6] DRAMA Project Website, http://www.ccrlnece.techno park.gmd.de/~drama/drama.html [7] Kruggel F, Lohmann G. BRIAN (Brain Image Analysis) a Toolkit for the multimodal analysis of brain datasets. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Computer and Communication Systems for Image Guided Diagnosis and Therapy, 1996. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 323328.
the Symposium on Computational Biomechanics 2000 at RIKEN, Saitama, Japan, pp. 187196. [2] SimBio Project Website, http://www.simbio.de [3] Hartmann U, Kruggel F. A fast algorithm for generating large tetrahedral 3D finite element meshes from magnetic resonance tomograms. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Biomedical Image Analysis 1998. ISBN 0818684607, pp. 184192. [4] Hutchinson SA, Shadid JN, Tuminaro, RS. Aztec User's Guide: Version 1.1 (1995). Sandia National Laboratories Technical Report SAND951559.
247
An analysis of a bilinear reduced strain element in the case of an elliptic shell in a membrane dominated state of deformation
V. Havu*, H. Hakula
Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Mathematics, 02015 Hut, Finland
Abstract We consider a bilinear reducedstrain element formulation for a shallow shell of ReissnerNaghdi type. We show that under favorable circumstances the reduced formulation produces convergent solution also in the membrane dominated states of deformation. Keywords: Finite element; Reducedstrain; Shallow shell
1. The shell problem Our study is concentrated on the ReissnerNaghdi shell model where the (scaled) variational formulation of the problem is given by: Find ueUM such that AMin, H) = t^Abiu, v) + Am(u, v) = Q(v) yveUM. (1) where u (u, v, w, 0, V^) is the vector of three translations and two rotations and UM is the energy space which we take to be [H\Q)]^ with periodic boundary conditions ai y = 0, H and with the constraints u = v = w = 0 = \l/ =0 2iix = 0, L.WQ assume that Q(u) defines a bounded linear functional on [H^{^)f. The bilinear forms Ab(u, v) and Am(u, v) arising from the bending and membrane energies are given by
Ab(u, V)= V(KU\K22)(U)(KU + f<22)(v)
where v is the Poisson ratio of the material and y is a shear correction factor. Here, Kij, Pij and pi represent the bending, membrane and transverse shear stresses, respectively, depending on w as follows _ du %i =  dx = 9y ^aw h bw du dO
ATii =
dx dy (4)
/<:22
dy
and P\
dw dx
dx)
dv\ \ + cw
1 /96>
K\2
df\
dw dy
(5)
(2)
P2(u)P2(v)}dxdy
The integration is taken over the midsurface ^ of the shell which we assume to occupy the rectangular region (0, L) X (0, H) in the xy coordinate space satisfying d~^ < L/H < d for some constant d > 0. We are considering the shell to be shallow so that the parameters a, b and c defining the geometry can be taken constants. We further note that the condition ab  c^ > 0 makes the shell elliptic.
2. The reducedstrain FE scheme We consider the following numerical approximation to the variational problem (1). Assume that Q is divided into rectangular elements with node points (x^,y"), k = 0, . . . , Nx, n = 0, . . . , Ny and a constant mesh spacing
* Corresponding author. Tel: +358 (9) 4513018; Fax: +358 (9) 4513016; Email: ville.havu@hut.fi 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
248
V. Havu, H. Hakula / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics where Ayv = [X e A\ Tt < Xhy < 71 when A^^ is odd, or T < Xhy < 71 when A^^ is even}. T Here (px{y) is the interpolant of (px{y), so that we are in fact considering a discrete Fourier transform of i^ e UM,h
hy in the _ydirection and that the aspect ratios of the elements satisfy d~^ < h'^Jhy < d for some d > 0 where /zj = x^+^ x^. On this mesh each field is represented by a piecewise continuous bilinear approximation. Then the FE space is Uh = [Vh]^ where Vh is the standard biUnear space with appropriate constraints. This space will be denoted by UM.h' We consider the case where the membrane and transverse shear stresses are given by reduced expressions leading to the bilinear form ^milL^y) = 6 / ( 1 V)
Q
3. Consistency error in the membrane dominated case We start by giving a stability result for UMM Lemma 3.1. Let ]i e hlM,h Then
IP\(U)P\{V) \
P2iu)P2iv)W^y
+ (1  y) ^
A; (K)A7(v)](^dy
(6)
where ^jj = R'' Ptj, Pi = R^ pi with suitable reduction operators R'^ and R\ We choose these operators for ^ij and pi to be 3ii=n^)Sn, P\ = nipi ^22 ^hP22 P2 = nlp2 Pn = n^^i2, (7)
do dx
L2
df ay
IL2
+I
+
dy
dx 1 ^ 12
<Ct^ \v M,h
Also, the definitions of the membrane strains fitj (4) imply du II II dv II I ;,,. f du dv\\
L2
where Ul and Ul are orthogonal L^projections onto spaces VV^; and W^' consisting of functions that are constant in X an piecewise linear in y or constant in y and piecewise linear in x, respectively, and n,,^ is the orthogonal L^projection onto elementwise constant functions. Thus, our finite element scheme solves the problem: Find Uf^ e UMJX such that
19^11^2
aylL2
W il)
I du
II dy
dv I
dx 1^2
Vi;
UM.H
(8)
Remark 1. The modification introduced in [3] differs slightly from our choice, but similar or even little better results can be proved using forthcoming techniques. Our main concern is the consistency error component given by ec,M(^u)= sup "'' veUM,h
{AM
(
l9i
II .V / du
dv
L2
+ b" +
9.^IL2
II du II
\dv\\
l^yWiJ
W il)
resulting in
dx
W1 +
\dv ay
L2
du
dy
j
dv \
L2 dx 1
< C( \V \M,h +
where from again by the Kom inequality V X <C{\V_ \B,h + W il). (11)
^ ' ^ 1^ \M,h
A%){U,V)
(9)
where  M./J = ^ / ^ ^ C  , ) is the modified energy norm. The main tool of our analysis will be the Fourier transform where we write
XeA XeA
The transverse shear strains pt (5) together with (10) imply in turn that dw
a7
L2
L2\
,iv
27rv
(p,{y) = e''^\
A=\x=,ve
so that (10)(12) together with the Poincare's inequality imply V I <Ct ^ \V \M,h (13)
making use of the periodic boundary conditions at y = 0, H. For functions in the FE space we write analogously
^(x, y) = ^
AeA^r
n(y)^M
= ^
XeA]\/
hi^^y)
V Havu, H. Hakula/First
MIT Conference
on Computational
Mechanics
249
Lemma 3.2. Let d_^ = ^x^^ = (px(ux,yx,Wx,Ox, ifx) UM,h Then, ifb^Owe have for X such that \X\h < c < TT that
^xUx 1+ (pxVx 1+ (fxWx L^ <C \^ \M,hA
Here a > fi > 0 and since iix (0) = vx (0) = 0 we obtain when X ^ 0
2
(14)
Proof. The translation components iix and Vx of ^^ satisfy the difference equation (cf. [1])
(x^+i) Vx
A>
"I
^k+l
Fxity'dt
(x')
^^ i2(o,L)+ ^A i2(o,L) < ^ i ^ r ' ^> ^ Also, (15) gives the relation
L2(0,L)
(19)
^TkM
+ hlF^
(15)
where r^ = 2 ^ tan(^A/z^)
+ Ff
(16) from where it follows that
^X L2(0,L) + "1 L2(0,L) ^ l ^ l ^ ( ^ ^ L2(0,L) + ^ ^ ^^ L2(0,L) L2(O,L)
M =i and
^x^ =
+ u ^
L2(0,L)
cosi^khy)
(20)
Combining (19) and (20) gives ^xux 1 + (pxvx 1 < C \^^ \M,h (17) Here
^^^(^^+1/2) ^ ^'"^^^(y^n(i,))(,.+i/2,,)
(21)
To consider Wx we note that (cf. [1]) 2/ wx(x'') = j tan {\Xhy)dx(x^) + f22(^') bcos {^Xhy) bh and thus
,~
f^^ix')
/l^2(^'+^/')
=
=
^'^"+^/^^''^(fe(i,))l(.^,+l/2)
^''^"+^/'^''^(A2(i,))l(.^+l/2,,.l/2).
/22 L2(O,L))
Due to the constraints at ;f = 0, L we may without loss ^ of generality consider only the exponentially decreasing solution of (15) starting from ;c = 0. Then the standard theory for Astable difference schemes gives us the bound when \X\hy < c < TT
leading to
<^A^A L2(0,L) < C \d_^ \M,h
(22)
(0)
The claim for A 7^ 0 follows from (21) together with (22). When A = 0 we have from (18) and from wo(x^) = If22(x')ih2it
(Polio I + (PoVo 1+ (poWo L^ < C \Q\M,h'
I
i
where F.= / ? f\ 2c ,, ^fn'if,22 V /n .f27
PlXlix'^+^t)
Fx(t) e a\X\t dt
With the help of the stability estimates given in Lemmas 3.1 and 3.2, we can now bound the consistency error.
(18)
Theorem 3.3. Assume that b ^ 0. The consistency error ec,M defined in (9) satisfies ec,M <Cu2hh Ci(t, s, u)h^^' + C2(t, u)h^, s >0
provided that u_ e [H^{Q>)]^ and Ci(t, s, u) < Ct~^ u_ 2+5 and C2(t,u) < Ct~^(^Yli IP/(i)li) are finite.
250
V Havu, H. Hakula/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Numerical results for the Morley shell with the reducedstrain formulation showing the square of the total deformation energy as a function of the degrees of freedom Degrees of freedom 80 225 1425
3625
Proof. Write u = E . ^ A i ? , e WM and ^ = Y.x.!., h e UM.I, Then by the orthogonahty of the discrete and continuous modes (cf. [1]) (AM  Al,){u, V) V)
= {A^  AiKu,
Deformation energy squared 2.8956 2.9800 3.0062 3.0107 3.0122 X X X X X 102 102 102 102 102
=
=
iA^At)(Tl,T.^>)
(A,A';)(Y^&,,J2^)
6825
^Al>Ao M>Xo '
4. Numerical example
1+ w^A 1 2 )
ij
l><Ao X ( i3x 1 4 WA
ij
A>AO
'^^Y.Y.
+ CIX0IE E l^l'(A7(i?.)4(i?x).A7(i.))
As a numerical example on the performance of our reducedstrain formulation (8) we take the Morley hemispherical shell as in [2] with clamped boundaries and uniformly distributed pressure load. We parameterize the problem by the angles i> and 0 and use a uniform rectangular mesh with respect to these parameters and lei R = \0, t = 0.04, y = 1/3 to define the geometry and material. The problem is essentially one dimensional, but since we are looking for twodimensional effects, the computations were done exploiting less symmetry using one eighth of the shell. The results shown in Table 1 indicate rapid convergence of total deformation energy confirming our theoretical predictions.
A G A
by Lemmas 3.1 and 3.2. Since X^h < c < TT v/c have that
References [1] Havu V, Pitkaranta J. Analysis of a bilinear finite element for shallow shells I: ApproximaUon of inextensional deformations, Helsinki University of Technology Institute of Mathematics Research Reports A430, 2000. [2] MacNeal RH. Finite Elements: Their Design and Performance. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1994. [3] Malinen M. On geometrically incompatible bilinear shell elements and classical shell models, to appear. [4] Pitkaranta J, The first lockingfree planeelastic finite element: historia mathemafica. Helsinki University of Technology Institute of Mathematics Research Reports A411, 1999.
+ Ch'^'t'
251
Recent developments in nonlinear analysis of shell problem and its finite element solution
Adnan Ibrahimbegovic *
Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Laboratoire de Mecanique et Technologie 61, avenue du president Wilson, 94235 Cachan, France
Abstract In this article we review some recent and current research works attributing to a very significant progress on shell problem theoretical foundation and numerical implementation attained over a period of the last several years. Keywords: Shell problem; Nonlinear analysis; Finite elements
1. Overview of recent advancements In this review we have chosen to focus on only the very recent achievements in the formulation and numerical implementation of shell theories capable of handling finite rotations. Several points which, we believe, merit especially to be reemphasized are: (i) Classical shell theory is reformulated [1] so that it becomes capable of handling finite (unrestrictedinsize) threedimensional rotations. This feature is in sharp contrast with the classical developments on the subject (e.g., see [24]), where rotations are always of restricted size (linear, second order, etc.). (ii) Optimal parameterization of finite rotations is addressed in detail, with several competing possibilities being examined [5,6]. One possibility, which corresponds to the extension of the classical shell theory, leads to twoparameter representation constructed by exploiting equivalence between the unit sphere and a constrained group of proper orthogonal tensors [42,35]. Another possibility to parameterize finite rotations, which is used to construct a nonclassical shell theory with socalled drilling rotations, leads to the intrinsic rotation parameterization in terms of the proper orthogonal tensor. The orthogonal tensor parameterization of finite rotations can in some cases be replaced by socalled rotation vector parameterization. (iii) In recent works several enhanced finite element interpolations for shell elements have been proposed. Al* Tel.: +33 (0) 147 40 22 34; Fax: +33 (0) 147 40 22 40;
Email: ai@lmt.enscachan.fr 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
though some of them, such as hybrid and mixed interpolations, assumed strain method, underintegration with stabilization, have met with considerable success, the particular issue of the optimal interpolation scheme for shells has not been definitely setded yet. What has been shown, however, is that a wellperforming finite element interpolation [7]) can be rendered even more powerful if placed in a proper theoretical framework and when care is taken to preserve the salient features of the theoretical formulation [8]. In passing we note that certain aspects of the subsequent numerical approximation can be introduced up front in order to simplify the shell theoretical formulation; the case in point is the use of local Cartesian frames. Thus, there is a twoway relationship between the shell theoretical formulation and its numerical implementation, which should be exploited to obtain an optimal result [9,10]. (iv) The consistent linearization procedure in the geometrically exact shell theory is intimately related to the choice of parameters adopted for threedimensional finite rotations. In the case of intrinsic parameterization with orthogonal tensor the issues in the consistent linearization become rather subtle for we have to deal with the differential manifold in the shell configuration space [11]. In the opposite case for the rotation parameterization based on the rotation vector, the consistent linearization simplifies with respect to the former case, for it can be performed by the directional derivative [5]. (v) The geometrically exact shell theory provides the enhanced performance in the buckling and postbuckling analysis of shells, and improved result accuracy.
252
(vi) A very useful byproduct is obtained in terms of a consistently derived linear shell theory, which is obtained by the consistent linearization of the governing nonlinear theory at the reference configuration. When combined with the proper choice of finite element interpolations such a linear shell theory leads to the excellent results in all demanding benchmark problems [12].
2. Summary of current research What has been extensively researched over last several years and presented in this review is, in essence, the finite rotation version of the classical shell theory (or onedirector Cosserat surface) and its modification which can account for the third rotation component [38]. Only the simplest linear elastic constitutive model for stress resultants was considered. Hence, in current effort of trying to take these considerations a step further, several directions appeared worthy of further explorations. (i) Generalizing the set of stress resultant constitutive equations to other than linear elastic case, within the framework of nonlinear (geometrically exact) kinematics. Some work in that direction is already initiated by Simo and Kenedy [13] and Crisfield and Peng [14] on elastoplastic stress resultant shell model, but with crucial limitation being that of small elastic strains. This limitation is removed in a recent work of Ibrahimbegovic [9] which considers the stress resultant constitutive model for finite deformation elastoplasticity based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient, where both elastic and plastic deformations can be finite. This, however, has been accomplished only for membrane shell theory, and it is by no means trivial to furnish an extension that accounts for the effects of bending. Other recent approaches consider the possibility to include threedimensional constitutive equations and perform numerical integration through the shell thickness to provide the corresponding replacement for the stress resultants (e.g., see [1517]). (ii) Other stress resultant model which assumes the large elastic strains has been provided for rubberlike shells (e.g., see [18,19]). In this case one can no longer justify the assumption of director inextensibility, and should rather take into account the change in the shell thickness. One immediate consequence of introducing the throughthethickness stretch is the occurrence of numerical sensitivity in the limit case of thin shells, which manifests itself as an additional locking phenomenon. Several works have already dealt with this problem. One strategy, advocated by Hughes and Camoy [18], is to postpone the thickness update to the subsequent iteration, which simplifies the implementation but increases the number of iterations. Simo et al. [43] propose multiplicative decomposition of the director field combined with the exponential update for the throughthethickness stretch, the strategy which is well suited for the
limit case of thin shells although it increases the computational effort with respect to the standard update procedure. On the other hand, Buechter et al. [20] simply add the enhanced strains in throughthethickness direction, which appears to be sufficient to alleviate the pertinent locking phenomena in the standard update procedure. We note in passing that the enhanced shell kinematics which accounts for the throughthethickness stretching is especially well suited for analysis of shells made of composite materials (e.g., [2123]). (iii) More work is needed on providing robust finite element interpolations. One area which is certainly yet unsettled is the research into high performance threenode shell element with finite rotations. Some attempts in that directions are the works of Bergan and Nygard [24] which relies on the corotational formulation, the works of Felippa and coworkers (e.g., see [25], and references therein) on providing enhanced finite element interpolations for a triangle and recent work of CarriveBedouaniet al. [26]. Even for a fournode shell element, which is already rather finetuned and performs quite well as shown in this review, there are still some weak points. Case in point is the oscillation of the computed shear force values clearly identified for 4node assumed shear strain interpolations in somewhat more simplified setting of plates [27]. The higherorder finite element interpolations for finite rotation shell elements have not been much researched, although it appears that one should be able to benefit from the successful developments on the pertinent subjects such as in Park and Stanley [28], Belytschko et al. [29] and Bucalem and Bathe [30]. (iv) The complete mathematical analysis of convergence for different finite element spaces for nonlinear shell problem is not provided yet. Partial results which are very useful in treating the special cases are given in Brezzi et al. [31] and Stenberg [32] for plates and Leino and Pitkaranta [33] for membrane locking of shells. Another important goal of the mathematical analysis is to provide the error estimates for the nonlinear shell problem, so that the adaptive mesh refinement can be used in a more meaningful manner. (The benefit of the latter is briefly illustrated in this review for the linear shell problem.) This area of research appears to be strongly related and could certainly benefit from the search for a proper definition of the nonlinear shell problem by means of the asymptotic analysis of threedimensional continuum (e.g., see [34], and references therein). (v) Shell dynamic analysis is a natural setting for many nonlinear problems, most notably, multibody dynamics and snapthrough of shells. The major obstacle to tackling that problem, the dynamics of finite rotation group, has already been addressed (e.g., see [19]). Some followup works treating the dynamics for shell theories with finite rotations are given in Simo and Tanrow [35], Brank et al. [36], orBranketal. [37].
A. Ibrahimbegovic /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics References [1] Simo JC, Fox DD. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. Part I: Formulation and optimal parameterization. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1989;72:267304. [2] Budiansky B. Notes on nonhnear shell theory. J Appl Mech 1968;35:393401. [3] Naghdi PM. The theory oh shells and plates. In: Flugge S (Ed), Encyclopedia of Physics. Berlin: Springer, 1972. [4] Reissner E. Linear and nonlinear theory of shells. In: Fung YC, Sechler EE (Eds), Thin Shell Structures: Theory, Experiment and Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, pp. 2944, 1974. [5] Ibrahimbegovic A, Frey F, Kozar I. Computational aspects of vectorlike parameterization of threedimensional finite rotations. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1995;38:36533673. [6] Ibrahimbegovic A. On the choice of finite rotation parameters. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1997;149:4971. [7] Bathe KJ, Dvorkin EN. A formulation of general shell element The use of mixed interpolation of tensorial components. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986;22:697722. [8] Ibrahimbegovic A. On assumed shear strain in finite rotation shell analysis. Eng Comput 1995;12:425438. [9] Ibrahimbegovic A. Stress resultant geometrically nonlinear shell theory with drilling rotations Part I: A consistent formulation. Part IT. Computational aspects. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1994;118:265308. [10] Ibrahimbegovic A. Finite elastoplastic deformations of spacecurved membranes. Comp Methods Appl Mech Eng 1994;119:371394. [11] Simo JC. The (symmetric) Hessian for Geometrically Nonlinear Models in Solid Mechanics: Intrinsic Definition and Geometric Interpretation. Comp Methods Appl Mech Eng 1992;96:189200. [12] Ibrahimbegovic A, Frey F. Stress resultant geometrically nonlinear shell theory with drilling rotations Part III: Linearized kinematics. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994;37:36593683. [13] Simo JC, Kenedy JG. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. Part V: Nonlinear plasticity, formulation and integration algorithms. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1992;96:133171. [14] Crisfield MA, Peng X. Stress resultant plasticity criterion. In: Owen DRJ et al. (Eds), Proceedings COMPLAS III. Pineridge Press, 1992, pp. 20352046. [15] Brank B, Peric D, Damjanic FB. On large deformation of thin elastoplastic shells: Implementation of a finite rotation model for quadrilateral shell element. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1997;40:689726. [16] Miehe C. A theoretical and computational model for isotropic elastoplastic stress analysis in shells at large strains. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999;213:12331267. [17] Eberlein R, Wriggers P. Finite element concepts for finite elastoplastic strains and isotropic stress response in shells: Theoretical and computational aspects. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1998;199:340377. [18] Hughes TJR, Carnoy E. Nonlinear finite element shell formulation accounting for large membrane strains. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1983;39:6982.
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[19] Simo JC, Rifai MS, Fox DD. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. Part VI: Conserving algorithms for nonlinear dynamics. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1992;34:117164. [20] Buechter N, Ramm E, Roehl D. Threedimensional extension of nonlinear shell formulation based on the enhanced assumed strain concept. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994;37:25512568. [21] Baar Y, Ding Y, Schultz R. Refined shear deformation models for composite laminates with finite rotations. Int J Solids Struct 1993;30:26112638. [22] Braun M, Bischoff M, Ramm E. Nonhnear shell formulations for complete threedimensional constitutive laws including composites and laminates. Comp Mech 1994; 15:118. [23] Gruttmann F, Khnkel S, Wagner W. A finite rotation shell theory with application to composite structures. Eur J Finite Elem 1995;4:597632. [24] Bergan PG, Nygard MK. Nonhnear shell analysis using free formulation finite elements. In: Finite element method for nonhnear problems, (Eds PG Bergan et al.). SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1985, pp. 317338. [25] Felippa CA, Militello C. Developments in variational methods for high performance plate and shell elements. In: Analytical and computational models of shells, (Eds AK Noor et al). ASME Publ., CEDvol 3, 1989, pp. 191215. [26] CarriveBedouani M, Le Tallec P, Monro J. Finite element approximation of a geometrically exact shell model. Eur J Finite Elem 1995;4:633662. [27] Lyly M, Stenberg R, Vihinen T. A stable bilinear element for the ReissnerMindhn plate model. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1993;110:343357. [28] Park KC, Stanley G. A curved C shell element based on assumed naturalcoordinate strain. J Appl Mech 1988;108:278290. [29] Belytschko T, Wong BL, Stolarski H. Assumed strain stabilization procedure for the 9node Lagrangian shell element. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1989;28:385414. [30] Bucalem ML, Bathe KJ. Higher order MITC general shell elements. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993;36:37293754. [31] Brezzi F, Bathe KJ, Fortin M. Mixedinterpolated elements for ReissnerMindhn plates. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1989;28:17871801. [32] Stenberg R. A new finite element formulation for the plate bending problem. 1993, preprint. [33] Leino Y, Pitkaranta J. On the membrane locking of h  p finite elements in a cylindrical shell problem. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994;37:10531070. [34] Ciarlet PhG. Plates and junctions in elastic multistructures: An asymptotic analysis. Mason, Paris, 1991. [35] Simo JC, Tanrow N. A new energy and momentum conserving algorithm for the nonlinear dynamics of shells. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994;37:25272549. [36] Brank B, Briseghella L, Tonello M, Damjanic FB. On nonlinear implementation of energymomentum conserving algorithm for a finite rotation shell model. Int J Numer Eng 1998;42:409442. [37] Brank B, Mamouri S, Ibrahimbegovic A. Finite rotations in dynamics of shells and Newmark implicit timestepping schemes. 2000, submitted. [38] Ibrahimbegovic A. Geometrically exact shell theory for
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A. Ibrahimbegovic /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics stitutive modelling and finite element analysis. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1998;161:118. [42] Simo JC, Fox DD, Rifai MS. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. Part III: The computational aspects of the nonlinear theory. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1990;79:2170. [43] Simo JC, Rifai MS, Fox DD. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. Part IV: Variable thickness shells with throughthethickness stretching. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1990;81:91126.
finite rotations and its finite element implementation. Eur J Finite Elem 1997;6:263335. [39] Ibrahimbegovic A, Brank B, Courtois P. Stress Resultant Geometrically Exact Form of Classical Shell Model and VectorLike Parameterization of Constrained Finite Rotations. Int J Numer Methods Eng, 2001, in press. [40] Peng X, Crisfield MA. A consistent corotational formulation for shells: Using the constant stress/constant moment triangle. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1992;35:18291847. [41] Sansour C. Large strain deformations of elastic shells: Con
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Abstract The modeling of friction pendulum bearings using contact surf'aces is compared with the modeling recommended by codes and design guidelines, using bilinear hysteresis loops. The advantages of the contact surface model for the seismic analysis of bridges are discussed. The model is illustrated by the analysis of the Aurora Avenue Bridge in Seattle, Washington. Keywords: Friction pendulum bearings; Seismic analysis; Bridges
1. Introduction Friction pendulums bearings [5] are intended for the seismic isolation of structures. They have been installed for this purpose in several buildings and they have recently been installed in two bridges [3,8]. They are particularly well suited to bridge applications because they are insensitive to temperature over the range 40F to 120F [2]. Fig. 1 is a schematic drawing of a friction pendulum bearing. The bearing consists of a stainlesssteel concave dish and a stainlesssteel articulated slider surfaced with a composite liner. During an earthquake the slider moves back and forth on the concave dish; the spherical surfaces of the slider and the dish define a motion similar to that of a pendulum. The composite liner produces a frictional
force that is 57% of the vertical force acting on the bearing. A friction pendulum bearing isolates a structure from an earthquake through pendulum motion and absorbs earthquake energy through friction.
2. Code modeling The lateral response of a friction pendulum bearing can be described by the forcedeformation relationship F = D + R fiNisgnD) (1)
where F is the lateral force, N is the vertical force acting on the bearing, R is the radius of curvature of the bearing
A r t i c u l a t e d Slider
Fig. 1. Friction pendulum bearing and idealized bilinear hysteresis loop. *Tel.: +1 (415) 2913781; Fax: +1 (415) 4330807; Email: tingham@tylin.com 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
256
surfaces, D is the lateral deformation, /x is the coefficient of friction, and D is the velocity of the top half of the bearing relative to the bottom half. The first term in Eq. (1) represents the restoring force due to the curvature of the bearing; the second term represents the frictional force opposing the relative motion of the bearing. Eq. (1) is for motion in a single direction. For bidirectional motion, the restoring force acts towards the center of the bearing and the frictional force acts according to Coulomb's law of friction. Most codes and design guidelines [5,6] recommend that the vertical force acting on the bearing be taken as the structural dead load supported by the bearing, W. The lateral force is then W F = D + M^(sgnD), (2) R the sum of a term proportional to the displacement a stiffness term and a force constant in magnitude but dependent on the direction of motion. This relationship is equivalent to the bilinear hysteresis loop shown in Fig. 1. The simplification of Eq. (1) to Eq. (2) ignores the variation with time of the vertical force acting on the bearing. This variation arises from overturning of the structure and from response of the structure to vertical ground motion. In buildings supported on many bearings, and interconnected by a horizontal diaphragm, the effects of overturning tend to cancel since the lateral force induced in each bearing is proportional to the vertical force acting on it. The total response of the building can then be adequately predicted by 'summing over' Eq. (2). Assuming that the vertical motions are uncorrelated with the horizontal motions, and that the building is vertically rigid, the analysis may be performed with upper and lower bounds [6] N = W(10.30C) (3)
Ce  Contact ajrface fh Fig. 2. Contact surface model of a friction pendulum bearing. defined as a rigid surface without any underlying finite element mesh. The slider is effectively modeled with a single contact point. For practical reasons, this point exists on a contact segment (surface) that lies on one face of a solid finite element. The opposing contact surfaces are defined as a contact pair with a coefficient of friction equal to that specified for the bearing. This modeling faithfully reproduces the forcedeformation relationship given in Eq. (1). Both the restoring force and the frictional force are proportional to the instantaneous vertical force acting on the model. Furthermore the modeling properly reflects the twodimensional behavior of the bearing. The model builds upon the work of Mutobe and Cooper [4], who developed a model with a flat contact surface and restoring springs. The correctness of the modeling was verified by analyzing some special cases. For example, the period of vibration of a frictionless slider was found to depend on the radius of curvature of the bearing in the same way that the period of vibration of a pendulum depends on its length. Fig. 3 shows the computed response of a slider on a flat surface with 5% friction subjected to horizontal and vertical earthquake motions representative of a stiff soil site. This case, of a rigid body on a flat surface, can also be analyzed using the sliding block method of Newmark [7]. The response computed by the Newmark method (using Mathcad) is also shown in Fig. 3. The two solutions agree reasonably well.
where C is a seismic coefficient (sometimes, vertical motions are just ignored). These simplifications may not be justified for large bridge structures, however, because the bearings in a large bridge act independently it is often necessary to compute the forces in the critical connections of each bearing and because bridges respond dynamically to vertical motions. Also, near active faults, the assumption that the vertical and horizontal motions are uncorrelated may be incorrect.
4. Application to bridge analysis Fig. 4 shows an ADINA model of the Aurora Avenue Bridge across Lake Union in Seattle, Washington. Exclusive of its approaches, this cantilever steel truss bridge is 1875 feet long and has a main span of 800 feet. It was designed and built between 1929 and 1931. The concrete substructure of the bridge is very lightly reinforced and vulnerable to large earthquakes. For the Washington State Department of Transportation a study was made of the effectiveness of retrofitting the bridge with friction pendulum bearings. The study assumed replacing each of the twelve pin bearings supporting the bridge with a friction pendulum bearing. Each of these was modeled using the contact surface model described in this paper; a typical bearing is shown in Fig. 4. The bearing shown has a radius of
3. Finite element modeling Fig. 2 shows a model of a friction pendulum bearing based on contact surfaces with friction. The modeling was implemented using the ADINA [1] generalpurpose finite element program. The dish is modeled with a spherical mesh of contact segments that together constitute a contact surface. The contact segments may be formed on the surface of shell elements, or in ADINA, they may be
T.J. Ingham /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 1.5 n 1.0 H ADINA
257
Fig. 5. Transverse direction bearing response for the Aurora Avenue Bridge. curvature of 20 feet and a coefficient of friction of 5%. The model has 5 contact segments in the radial direction and 36 segments around its circumference. For comparison each bearing was also modeled using the bilinear hysteresis loop recommended by codes. The transverse direction forcedeformation hysteresis loops for one of the main span bearings are shown in Fig. 5 for both the contact surface model and the bilinear model. The results for the contact surface model deviate significantly from the idealized hysteresis loops produced by the bilinear model. The contact surface model predicts a peak force of 592 kips whereas the bilinear model predicts only 424 kips. The peak radial displacement predicted by the contact surface model is 0.97 feet versus 0.80 feet predicted
258
T.J. Ingham /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics References [1] ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide. ADINA R&D Inc., 1999. [2] Evaluation Findings for Earthquake Protection Systems, Inc. Friction Pendulum Bearings. Highway Innovative Technology Evaluation Center, 1998. [3] Imbsen RA. Seismic modeUng and analysis of the BeniciaMartinez Bridge. In: Structural Engineering World Wide. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1998. [4] Mutobe RM, Cooper TR. Nonlinear analysis of a large bridge with isolation bearings. Comput Struct 1999;72:279292. [5] Naeim F, Kelly JM. Design of Seismic Isolated Structures. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1999. [6] NEHRP Commentary on the Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. Building Seismic Safety Council, 1997. [7] Newmark NM. Effects of earthquakes on dams and embankments. Geotechnique 1965;14(2):139160. [8] Zayas VA, Low SS. Seismic isolation for extreme low temperatures. 8th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, 1999.
by the bilinear model. In part, these differences reflect the large variation in axial force acting on the bearing throughout the earthquake. This varies between 3580 and 8620 kips from an initial dead load of 5700 kips. This variation is fully accounted for by the contact surface model, but ignored by the bilinear model. Considering all of the bearings in the structure, the bilinear model usually predicted both smaller forces and smaller displacements than did the contact surface model. The improved performance of the contact surface model is at some cost, however. For 2000 time steps, the analysis time increased from 10.4 h for the bilinear model to 19.5 h for the contact surface model.
5. Conclusions A contact surface model of friction pendulum bearings has been developed for the seismic analysis of bridges. For a reasonable increase in computational effort, this model is significantly more accurate than the modeling recommended by codes and design guidelines.
259
Abstract The formulation of the MITC shell element is extended to active laminated shells. An active layer made by a piezoelectric material or a similar active medium is assumed to be included in the stacking sequence of a laminated shell. The actuation capability of the layer is represented by a given inplane strain field that can be thought of as being produced by the converse piezoelectric effect or other induced strain actuation mechanism. In this way, the actuation mechanism is included in the formulation of shear deformable shell element that has been demonstrated not to suffer of shear locking effects. The MITC fournode element has been selected for the preliminary investigation. Several comparisons have been performed to verify the accuracy of the formulation and to check the predicting capability of the element in comparison with both numerical and experimental results of the recent available literature. Keywords: Composite shell; Piezoelectric material; Finite element method
1. Introduction The use of active materials, like piezoceramics or shape memory alloys, has been recently proposed for developing actuation and sensing capability of structural systems. In this framework, laminated shells have been selected as a possible candidate typology of structural systems for including such materials at the level of one or more layers of their stacking sequence. Several models have been proposed in the recent literature for the analysis of active laminated plates and shells, since the studies by Crawley and Lazarus [1], in which the classical laminated plate model is extended to include the actuation mechanism produced by active piezoelectric layers. An analysis based on a CLT theory that included not only the piezoelectric, but also the thermoelastic effect was proposed by Tauchert [2]. Firstorder shear deformable active plate theories were also proposed and implemented in a finite element model by Han and Lee [3], Saravanos [4], Chandrshastra and Agarwal [5], and by Suleman and Venkayya [6]. In those cases, displacement based approaches were used by the different authors, but only the last one explicitly mentions the need for a proper integration of the stiffness matrix. In fact, it is well known that firstorder shear deformable shell theories * Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 (6) 44585304; Fax: +39 (6) 44585670; Email: paolo.gaudenzi@uniromal.it 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
suffer from the socalled shearlocking problem that should be overcome either by means of a reduced integration or by a mixed interpolation approach as illustrated by Bathe in his textbook [7]. The paper aims at generalizing the finite element modeling produced by Bathe and Dvorkin [8] in their MITC plate and shell models, to include the presence of active layers. In this way, a sound theoretical and numerical basis, capable of modeling the transverse shear deformation without the occurrence of the shear locking problem, will be made available for a class of advanced structural elements. In fact, to the knowledge of the authors, only Kirchhoff plate models or displacementbased Mindhn plate models (with shear locking problems) were proposed for active shells in the recent literature, as previously cited.
2. Finite element formulation The formulation of the fournode active shell element presented here (Fig. 1), represents an extension of the MITC4 shell element proposed by Bathe and Dvorkin [8], and, therefore, the same notation as in those references will be used. The procedure is based on a different interpolation of the transverse shear strains with respect to the one used for inplane components. The finite element equilibrium equations are derived by first considering the expression of
260
R. lozzi, P. Gaudenzi /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
C^^^.^r "^^
Fig. 1. Definition of the fournode shell element and of the active laminated shell, where some piezoelectric layers have been included to obtain actuation capability. the total potential energy: (1) where m is an index spanning the total number of elements in which the structure has been subdivided, and n is the index spanning the number of layers A^^, composing the laminated shell at element m. The appropriate constitutive law must then be used:
,^ij(m) '"" n P^ijkl^ ~(m)
={0
0 0
E], 0 0
"32
^r =
0
_ "31 .^(m)T ^
0 0
"33
0 0 0 0
"t
d^f
0
0
0
(2)
Wr
"2
"af^
o
(7)
where, to achieve the expression of the fourthorder contravariant constitutive tensor "C'^^^""* in convected coordinates Vi starting from the known constitutive law in the local Cartesian system of orthonormal base vector e,, / = 1, 2, 3, the following transformation is used:
Both the piezoelectric and thermoelastic equivalent stresses are obtained using the following transformation: ^^/'^^f/(Og^.e")(Ve:) (8)
Invoking the stationarity of the total potential energy U, we finally obtain the finite element equilibrium equation, in matrix form:
KU RTRV = R
(3)
The induced strains have been represented introducing into Eq. (1) the 'piezoelectric equivalent stress', accounting for the presence of some active piezoelectric layers in the laminated shell, and the 'thermoelastic equivalent stress', accounting for thermoelastic effects:
(9)
5E/(
 / /  ) ^ /;/'<'
+r
,n..^^
where K is the stiffness matrix, R is the mechanical force vector (due to applied forces) Rj is the 'thermoelastic equivalent force vector' (due to thermal actions) and Rp is the 'piezoelectric equivalent force vector' (due to applied voltages), of the entire system. The elemental expressions for those quantities are: nc'^^gim) dV,
dVW
(4)
The linear electromechanic coupling law, as well as the thermoelastic one, are known in the local Cartesian system of orthonormal base vector C/, / = 1, 2, 3:
^_^(),^(.)^
n^^^_n^^.^(.)^y.
(5)
(6)
RTT.J
I<m)'H=<"
where E is the electric field applied in the thickness direction, A T = r To is the temperature variation from the reference temperature TQ, "d and "a^"*^ are the matrix
fiW'fP''dV,
(10)
R. lozzi, P. Gaudenzi /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
261
i 4
5 4
^ 1
0.05 0.04S
Piezoceramics
o II
0.04
r.=0,292
A 0,0083m0,0025m
fit
X10*
a D
/'
/ 
,/
^"
2
D
,  ' '
. ^
^_ p ,  ' '
, , '  '
"
^^:tr"^.a' Q"^
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Fig. 2. Comparison of the present analysis to the experimental measurements and to previous FEM.
x10'*
[0/90/90/0/p] Present FEM [0/90/p/90/0] Present FEM [p/0/90/90/0] Present FEM [0/90/90/0/p] Sarav. FEM
Case 1: [0/90m/0/p]
Fig. 3. Comparison of the present FE analysis to the Saravanos' solution and deformed configuration for the first case analyzed [0/90/90/0/p].
262
R. lozzi, P. Gaudenzi / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
0 3 X 10^
where B^^^ is the straindisplacement matrix obtained from the MITC formulation, H^""^ is the displacement interpolation matrix, "^ " and "f^""' are the arrays containing the f *" components of the thermoelastic and piezoelectric equivaB(m) lent stresses f'^ for the layer n, f and / / are the volume and surface force vectors externally applied.
H^3 =  [ M 2  ( M 3  h M i ) / 2 ] ,
(11)
Fig. 2 shows a fairly good agreement between the present FEM results and those presented in previous works. 3.3. Dimitris A. Saravanos [0/90]^ cylindrical panel Saravanos studied the response of a hybrid graphite/ epoxy simply supported 90 cylindrical panel with a continuous piezoelectric layer (PZT4) subjected to a uniform electric field, E3 = 400 kV/m, applied in the thickness direction. Three stacking sequences have been considered corresponding to a different thickness location of the piezoelectric actuator: (1) [0/90/90/0//?]; (2) [0/90//?/90/0]; (3) [/7/O/9O/9O/O], where p indicates the piezoelectric layer. The geometry and the mechanical properties of the materials used are the same mentioned by Saravanos [4]. The comparison between the current FE analysis and those by Saravanos, reported in Fig. 3, shows the good prediction capability of the FEM presented here, in the analysis of adaptive laminated composite shells.
3. Numerical results 3.1. Tauchert piezothermoelastic composite plate Tauchert [2] investigated the piezothermoelastic response of a laminated, simply supported, rectangular plate, subjected to a linear temperature variation with 80 and 0C temperature increases on the upper and lower surfaces respectively, trying to eliminate thermally induced deformation through the addition of a PVDF layer to the original laminate. Attention is given to an eightlayer, graphiteepoxy, symmetric, crossply square panel ([079070790]s) and to a ninelayer hybrid laminate with an additional PVDF layer located at the bottom surface ([(079070790)s//7]). Both the geometrical and the mechanical properties of each layer are supplied in [2]. The transverse displacement at the center point of the plate is reported in Table 1 where the extended CLT solution by Tauchert is compared to the results provided by the current FE analysis. 3.2. Crawley and Lazarus cantilever plate The specimen used by Crawley and Lazarus [1] in their experiments, consists of a graphite/epoxy (ASA/3501) cantilevered plate on whose surfaces thirty G1195N piezoceramics are symmetrically bonded, as shown in Fig. 2. The mechanical properties used for the materials involved are those reported in the work mentioned. Mx, M2 and M3 are the outofplane displacements measured at y = C/2, y = 0 and y = C/2, respectively. Wi, W2 and WT, are nondimensional quantities representing, respectively, longitudinal bending, lateral twisting and transverse bending: Wi = M2/C, W2 = (M3  Mi)/C,
Acknowledgements The financial support of the CNR PFMSTAII Project 99.01797.PF34 and of the MURST cofin.99 cap.7109 are gratefully acknowledged.
References [1] Crawley EF, Lazarus KB. Induced strain actuation of isotropic and anisotropic plates. AIAA J 1991;29(6):944951. [2] Tauchert TR. Piezothermoelastic behaviour of a laminated plate. J Therm Stresses 1992;15:2537. [3] Han JH, Lee I. Active damping enhancement of composite plates with electrode designed piezoelectric materials. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 1997;8:249259. [4] Saravanos DA. Mixed laminate theory and finite element for smart piezoelectric composite shell structures. AIAA J 1997;35(8):13271333. [5] Chandrashekhara K, Agarwal AN. Active vibration control of laminated composite plates using piezoelectric devices:
R. lozzi, P. Gaudenzi /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics a finite element approach. J Intell Mater System Struct 1993;4:496507. [6] Suleman A, Venkayya VB. A simple finite element formulation for a laminated composite plate with piezoelectric layers. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 1995;6:776782.
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[7] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedure. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1996. [8] Bathe KJ, Dvorkin EN. A formulation of general shell dements the use of mixed interpolation of tensorial components. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986;22:697722.
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Abstract A brief introduction on the literature in hydroplaning modeling is presented. We have conducted an external flow study over two sets of tread patterns, elementary and analytical, and we have observed the magnitude of the drag force. Then, we have compared the ranking based on the computed indicator, namely the drag force and the measurements of the loss of tire contact area obtained at Michelin glass pit. The correlation was found to be in good agreement. Keywords: Hydroplaning; Local sculptural analysis; Glass pit; Drag force
1. Introduction At certain wet driving conditions over a road with a given surface texture and with a particular tire tread pattern made of a specific rubber compound, the available horizontal traction force is dramatically reduced. These conditions hinder the steering and braking capabilities of the driver. Under these conditions the vehicle is said to be experiencing hydroplaning. The loss of traction is due to an intervening fluid film characterized by high hydrostatic pressure, which separates part of the tire contact patch from the road surface asperities. Tire designers seek a tread pattern that allows maximum drainage capabilities and deep tread for efficient fluid expulsion to decrease the potential of a progressive hydrostatic pressure build up. In this paper, we present local sculptural analysis of the tire footprint by computing the tread pattern drag force and comparing the ranking with the glass pit results.
2. Review of tlie state of the art in hydroplaning Due to the lack of the essential computational resources, earlier hydroplaning simulation attempts utilized a simpli* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (864) 4224336; Fax: +1 (864) 4223508; Email: isam.janajreh@us.michelin.com 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
fled scheme of the governing physical equations. Daughaday and Tung [1] were amongst the first to conduct analytical treatment of tire hydroplaning. They have used the concept of the boundary layer solution in matching the flow in two regions, namely the inviscid and the viscous regions. They started from the NavierStokes equations and used a perturbation technique that reduced the governing equations to the Euler equation and the Reynolds equation. The former governs the thick inviscid region denoted as hydroplaning region and the latter governs the thin viscous region denoted as viscoplaning. The solutions of the two equations are then matched at the interface by satisfying the same pressure and velocity components. The complexity of tire shape precluded an analytical solution and merged hydroplaning studies into the computation fluid dynamic field as presented in the work by Brown and Whicker [2], Aksenov [3], Grogger and Weiss [4,5], Sata et al. [6], and Okano and Koishi [7]. Nowadays, ranking tires can be targeted with minimum tread design and architectural modifications. This assurance stems from the available tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finiteelement modeUng (FEM). Thus, in this paper we utilize the above two simulation tools. First we perform FEM analysis to obtain a realistic tire contact patch, and second we perform CFD on the contact patch and tread patterns. The second aspect is the focus of this article by computing the fluid drag force and comparing it to glass pit experimental measurements.
/. Janajreh et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. The utilized CFD code The code used for our simulation is Euranus of Numeca Inc. It is a structured finite volume code based on the Jameson scheme. This scheme was initially constructed to handle compressible aerodynamics problems and has been later adapted using preconditioning to handle slightly compressible flows with a very small Mach number. The Jameson scheme is explicit, but it became implicit if we add the residual smoothing of Lerat. This allows the use of a high CFL number essential for steady or slowly unsteady flows. The code uses structured mutiblocks with a bodyfitted mesh (to handle the meshing of complex geometry) and uses a multigrid to speed up the conversions.
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4. Flow and experimental setup The computation domain consists of a parallelepiped, {x in the crossstream, y along the stream and z perpendicular to the flow stream) built around the tire contact patch that is slightly nonsymmetrical and is calculated by inhouse FEM code. The domain is set up as follow: two mirror faces (one is the ground and the second is the base of tire treads), one upstream inflow; and three outflows (two at the sides and one at the downstream). The upstream flow velocity is 10, 15 and 25 m/s. The Reynolds number is about 10^ based on the groove depth (10 mm) which indicates a turbulent flow regime. A BaldwinLomax turbulence model was utilized since it produces a similar result to the classical KE within the grooves during initial testing and because it provides a shorter computation time. The constructed tread pattern meshes have 50,000 to 68,000 cells and the time step is controlled by a Courant number of 1.5.
magnitude v 40 f
The experimental measurement is conducted at the MicheHn glass pit. The glass pit is a hydroplaning performance measuring tool that evaluates the reduction of tire contact patch with respect to vehicle speed. This is due to the intrusion of the water film underneath the tire contact that separates part of the initial contact from the ground. There has been a good ranking correlation between the glass pit tire hydroplaning and wet skid tire testing that have been verified by tire industry [8]. This loss of contact is attributed to a poor fluid expulsion. This consequently results in a higher tire drag force. During the experiments a free rolling vehicle tire passes over the glass pit prism that is flooded with a fixed water film. The prism is equipped with a highspeed shutter camera underneath that snaps the image of the passing tire contact patch. The image is postprocessed and the remaining tire contact area is computed. These areas are normalized and ranked accordingly amongst each other or against a targeted reference tire.
5. Results and discussions 5.7. Elementary tread patterns Our hypothesis is classical where we utilize the drag force as the indicator of the tread pattern quality in evacuating the encountered fluid. Therefore a higher drag level leads to an earlier hydroplaning situation. The addition of grooves should delay the onset of hydroplaning and thus should reduce the drag force. We compute the velocity field and the drag forces of three elementary tread patterns including a slick tire, and tires with 3 and 5 longitudinal grooves. The results agree well with our intuition as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 where the drag force is inversely proportional to the number of grooves and it follows the expected
magnitude V
30:
n
y
T
io:
Fig. 1. Smooth contours of the velocity magnitude at 25 m/s, for the elementary slick (left) and 5grooved (right) tire.
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/. Janajreh et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
600 500 5. 400
1 300
2 200 o
a
100
0 18 Velocity (mfe)
Fig. 2. Drag force evolution with the additions of tire grooves at 10, 15 and 25 m/s with their parabolic fit. parabolic trend versus the velocity. We observe the presence of two pronounced vortices in the front of the slick tread pattern that collapse with the addition of grooves. Due to the symmetry between the ground and the tread, we have observed insignificant pressure variation in the z direction that suggests a 2D computation can be sufficient. 5.2. Analytical tread patterns (longitudinal and lateral grooves) Two set of examples are presented where the flow configurations are similar to the elementary tread patterns discussed above, except that the analysis are conducted at one speed of 25 m/s. In the first example, Fig. 3 depicts the flow field on two analytical solutions denoted as sol. 1 and sol. 2. The objective is to determine whether solution 1 or 2 will perform better in hydroplaning. The computed drag force over sol. 1 (659 N) is higher than the computed drag force of sol. 2 (553 N) which suggests that sol. 2 is a better candidate than sol. 1. The glass pit measurements confirm the drag force ranking since it produces 36% improvement
magnitude V
of sol. 2 over sol. 1. It is worth mentioning that the sol. 1 sculpture has a void ratio of 36% while the sol. 2 sculpture has a void ratio of 39%, and the increase of the void ratio is a classical trend of tire designers in attempting to improve the hydroplaning tire performance. In the second example, Fig. 4 depicts the computation of the flow field and gives the drag force of try. 1 and try. 2 sculptures where both have the same void ration of 39%. The computations of the drag force suggest that try. 2 will exhibit a better hydroplaning performance than try. 1 which are confirmed by the glass pit. A summary of the magnitude of the drag force and glass pit ranking are given in Table 1.
6. Conclusion The emergence of CFD in analysis of tire hydroplaning has become more evident. In this work we have conducted drag force sensitivity analysis over elementary sculptures and have observed that the addition of the grooves results magnitude V
Fig. 3. Smooth contours of the velocity magnitude at 25 m/s, for sol. 1 (left) and sol. 2 (right) of analytical tires.
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Fig. 4. Smooth contours of the velocity magnitude at 25 m/s, for try. 1 (left) and try. 2 (right) of analytical tires. Table 1 Analytical sculptures drag force and glass pit comparison summary, sol. 1 versus sol. 2 and try. 1 versus try. 2 Tire 195/65/R15 Void ratio Computed drag force (N) 659 553 496 464 Computed drag force Measured glass pit area loss index (%) 100 136 100 104 References [1] Daughaday H, Tung, C. A mathematical analysis of hydroplaning phenomena. Technical Report, Cal. No. AG2495Sl, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Jan. 1969. [2] Brown, Whicker D. An interactive tirefluid model for dynamic hydroplaning, friction interaction of tire and pavement. Meyer/Walter, ASTM Special Technical PubHcation 793, pp. 130150. [3] Aksenov A. Numerical Simulation of Car Tire Aquaplaning, CFD 96. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 1996 [4] Grogger, Weiss. Calculation of the 3D free surface flow around automobile tire. Tire Sci Technol 1996;24(JanMar). [5] Grogger, Weiss. Hydroplaning of automobile tire. Tire Sci Technol 1997; 27 (JanMar). [6] Sata et al. Hydroplaning analysis by FEM and FVM: effect of tire rolling and tire pattern on hydroplaning. Tire Sci Technol, in press. [7] Okano T, Koishi M. A new computation procedures to predict transient hydroplaning performance of a tire, FEM/FVM. Tire Sci Technol, in press. [8] Yeager RW. Tire hydroplaning: testing, analysis, and design. In: Heys Browne (Ed), The Physics of Tire Traction, Theory and Experiment. New York: Plenum Press, 1974, pp. 2557.
(%)
Sol.l Sol.2 Try.l Try.2 (36) (39) (39) (39)
(%)
100 116 100 106
in the reduction of the drag force and consequently an improvement in the hydroplaning performance. Two examples w^ere conducted over four analytical sculptures that suggest implementation of the drag force as a criteria to rank a set of sculptures for their hydroplaning performance. In this work we have shown that the ranking of the sculptures based on the computed drag force and the experimental measured contact area are in agreement for sculptures with a set of sculptures having different void ratio and another set with that have the same void ratio.
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Design and framework of reduced instruction set codes for scalable computations for nonlinear structural dynamics
R. Kanapady, K.K. Tamma *
Department of Mechanical Engineering, 111 Church Street S.E. 125, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Abstract vspace3ptA general framework and avenues towards the design of a unified integrated computational technology for nonlinear structural dynamics encompassing a wide variety of new and unexplored, and existing time integration operators is now possible employing the socalled Reduced Instruction Set Codes (RISC) via a unified family of generahzed integration operators [GInO] towards scalable computations on massively parallel computing platforms. Whilst the RISC paradigm has a critical impact on the scientific code design and development time and efforts, it simultaneously increases the functionality of the scientific codes by many folds by providing a variety of choices to the analyst. A unified scalable computational approach towards such a computational technology is desirable for largescale structures and large processor counts employing a messagepassing paradigm (using MPI), graph partitioning techniques, and Lagrange multiplier based domain decomposition methods. Here, the focus is on the scalability analysis conducted via an integrated unified technology for [GInO] with emphasis on the family of optimal nondissipative and dissipative algorithms for structural dynamics in conjunction with large deformation, elastic, elasticplastic dynamic response. For geometric nonlinearity a total Lagrangian formulation, and for material nonlinearity elastoplastic formulations are employed. This is the first time that such a general framework and capability is plausible via a unified technology and the developments further enhance computational structural dynamics areas. Keywords: Nonhnear structural dynamics; Time integration; Parallel computing; Lagrange multiplier based domain decomposition; Numerical scalability; RISC; MPI
1. Introduction It is being recognized that the pressing need for improved solution times and feasibility to conduct largescale practical analysis accurately for nonlinear structural dynamics on modem computing platforms as the general goal. Hence, many of today's attempts to speed up solution and computational procedures center on optimization of codes for specific computing platforms. Computing platforms could be a single processor, highperformance computers or parallel computers. In the singleprocessor situation, optimization is performed by restructuring of the code to take advantage of the memory hierarchy and compiler technology and the like. In parallel computing realm, restructuring the code is done to take advantage of inherent parallelism in the formulation and the parallel architecture under consid* Corresponding author. Tel.: Hi (612) 6268102; Fax: +1 (612) 6241398; Email: ktamma@tc.umn.edu 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
eration. While these methods do indeed produce significant results in reducing the solution time, the efforts which are both time and development intensive, will constantly follow the development of new computer hardware having extremely short life cycles both in the serial and parallel computing realms. To handle such a wide variety of situations, a general framework and design encompassing the Reduced Instruction Set Code (RISC) based paradigm is described both for serial and parallel computations. Here, reference to the research efforts are not made to the differences between programming languages, nor to differences between the multitudes of parallel extensions to specific programming languages. The concern is more about the impact of a given parallel hardware architecture on the software design, and sometimes, on the solution algorithm itself. For scientific computations encompassing transient/dynamic analysis encountered in engineering, mathematical and physical sciences, the design of computational algorithms accounting for timedependent phenomena plays a
R. Kanapady, K.K. Tamma/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
269
critical role in a variety of applications. Scientific largescale simulations accounting for timedependent phenomena of many industry and DoD relevant applications are encountered in process modeling and manufacturing studies, computational fluid dynamics, computational heat transfer applications, computational structural dynamics, multibody dynamics and the like. In this research, attention is focused towards scalable computations for nonlinear structural dynamics applications. Attention is restricted here to computational structural dynamics. Computational algorithms and solution techniques for structural dynamics systems of equations have indeed matured over the years. Of the various transient algorithms available in the literature for structural dynamics computations, the socalled direct time integration techniques continue to be popular in commercial codes. Recently emanating under the umbrella and explained via a generalized timeweighted philosophy, a formal theory of development/ evolution, characterization, design and implementation of a wide variety of computational structural dynamics algorithms is described in [1] for linear and in [2] for nonlinear situations, respectively, via a unified methodology. For the first time, such features now permit Reduced Instruction Set Codes to incorporate a unified computational technology with a wide variety of choices of new and existing algorithms to the analysts in conjunction with graph partitioning techniques and domain decomposition methods.
Wi = At'
^ 3 .
. . .
I =
1,2,3
(3)
W3,o
Wr
(4)
(5)
2. Computational algorithms Most of the traditional approaches we are familiar with, including new computational algorithms which inherit excellent algorithmic attributes in contrast to all existing approaches and which have not been explored and/or exploited todate, are indeed an integral part of the present framework. Summarizing, for simplicity the socalled generalized integration operator [GInO] for nonlinear dynamic situations can be stated as follows [1,2]. Let W{T) =Z WQ\ wiT + W2T^ + wsz^; r e [0, At] be the weighted time field approximation employed for enacting the time discretization process of the semidiscretized equations of motion. Then, the resulting family of generalized integration operators [GInO] for nonlinear situations are given by Mu+i +p(u+i,u+i) = F where u+i = u + AeWi (Un+i  iin)
Un Un =Un + A4WiUnAt + A5W2 (U+i  U) At (2)
As such, the associated Discrete Numerically Assigned [DNA] algorithmic markers which comprise of both the weighted time fields w{x) and the imposed conditions on the dependent field variable approximations, uniquely lead to the design and characterization of various time discretized operators via: (i) specially assigned marker coefficients for the weighted time fields; and (ii) the corresponding imposed conditions upon the dependent field variable approximations in the semidiscretized system. The specific DNA markers (if/, A,, Xt) for the [GInO] optimal energy preserving and the family of optimal dissipative algorithms [3] for structural dynamics which are secondorder accurate and unconditionally stable, and possess only zeroorder displacement and velocity overshooting behavior [UO, VO] (in contrast to all other existing dissipative schemes which are at a minimum [UO, VI] and only restricted to firstorder accuracy of load) and which also possess minimal dissipation and dispersion for any given Poo value, where Poo is the spectral radius of the time integration method described as CO At ^ OQ, are given as Weighted time field:
Wo = \,w\ 5 , W2 = 5,W3 =0
GInO Optimal energy preserving: Ai = 1, A2 = 1/2, A3 = 1/4, A4 = 1, A5 = 1/2, A6 = 1, Ai = \,X2 = 1/2, A3 = 1/4, A4 = l,Xs = 1/2 GInO Optimal dissipative methods: Ai = 2/(1 + Poo), A2 = 2/(1 + Poo)', A3 = 2/(1 + Poo)',
A4 = (3  P o o ) / ( l + Poo), A5 = (3  P o o ) / ( l + A3 = 1/(1 + P o o ) ' , A4 = 1, A5 = 1/(1 + Poo), Poof,
Ae = 2(2  poo)/(l + Poo), Ai = 1, X2 = 1/(1 + Poo), The remainder of the [DNA] markers contained in [GInO] for most of the practical and socalled time integration methods are described in [1,2].
(1)
3. Scalable computations The next generation parallel computers will consist of thousands (computers having processor counts greater than 10,000) of highperformance processors connected via a
=(lWi)fhWiUi
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R. Kanapady, K.K. Tamma/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics solved in conjunction with the present unified formulations which provide a wide variety of choices to the analyst. First, the results pertaining to serial computations, the calculated predictions of the isoparametric degenerated shell element formulation are compared with experimental results obtained from a cylindrical panel subjected blast load. Fig. la shows the layout and details of the geometry of the shell. Fig. lb and c show the simulated results and experimental results are in excellent agreement. Next, numerical scalability performance results for nonlinear elastic/elastoplastic implicit computations are presented in Tables 1 and 2 for a secondorder elasticity cantilever beam problem discretized using 8node brick elements and in Table 3 for a fourthorder elasticity cylindrical panel subjected blast problem discretized using 4node shell elements. Note that Tables 13 show the total number of iterations of the PCG algorithm pertaining to the subdomain 'interface' problem to converge for the 'fixedworkperprocessor', the 'fixedproblemsize' and 'fixedstorageperprocessor' scaling problems, respectively. The results show that the RISC technology is indeed numerically scalable
high bandwidth interconnection network. The critical component of effective utihzation of such systems for computational structural dynamics involves design and development of efficient and scalable parallel formulations and computational models on a seamless programming environment, which is independent of program size, problem size, number of processors and HPC platforms. The scalability of the formulation can be characterized by three distinguishing properties: (i) numerical scalability; with modest to no convergence degradation of numerical algorithms for arbitrary large problem size and processor counts; (ii) parallel scalability; ability of the parallel algorithm to deliver larger speedups for arbitrary large number of processors; and (iii) scalability of computer memory utilization with increase in the problem size and the number of processors. With the parallel computer architectures evolving continuously and the availability of various HPC platforms, the biggest challenges lie in the substitution of the key selected algorithms in an application program with redesigned algorithms, which exploit the new parallel computer architecture. The unique features of the overall framework includes: a unified family of generalized time integration operators [GInO] described previously which encompass both the traditionally advocated explicit and implicit time integration (dissipative and nondissipative) schemes, and new computational algorithms which provide optimal algorithmic properties (dissipative and nondissipative) that have not been explored and/or exploited todate in conjunction with Reduced Instruction Set Code enabled coarsegrained parallel computational models which employ the messagepassing paradigm (using MPI), graph partitioning and Lagrange multiplier based domain decomposition techniques. And, it now permits for the first time the general nonlinear and linear structural dynamics analysis for largescale realistic engineering analysis in a single analysis code via an integrated computational technology.
Table 1 Numerical scalability results 'fixedworkperprocessor' scaling employing dual domain decomposition method for typical implicit [GInO] methods Mesh size h (eqns) 1/2(540) 1/4 (3,000) 1/6 (8,820) 1/8 (19,440) Total iterations/time step
4. Initial results Initial results and the unique features of the present integrated computational technology employing generalized integration operators, [GInO] in a RISC enabled single analysis code for serial and scalable parallel computations are presented here. To handle the complex finite element meshes on the HPC platforms, domain decomposition is employed using MPIbased ParMetis [4]. To achieve both numerical and parallel scalability, subdomain interfacing via Lagrange multiplier based domain decomposition techniques are employed. One such robust unified framework for the predictor multicorrector incremental [GInO] representations for nonlinear dynamics has been developed and its corresponding subdomain interface Lagrange multiplier solutions for second and fourthorder elasto dynamics via preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm (PCG) is
Table 2 Numerical scalability results of 'fixedproblemsize' scaling employing dual domain decomposition method for typical implicit [GInO] methods No. of subdomains 16 32 Total iterations/time step
Table
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