COMPUTATIONAL FLUID AND SOLID MECHANICS
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COMPUTATIONAL FLUID AND SOLID MECHANICS
Proceedings First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics June 1215,2001
Editor: K.J. Bathe Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
VOLUME 1
2001 ELSEVIER
Amsterdam  London  New York  Oxford  Paris  Shannon  Tokyo
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Preface
Mathematical modeling and numerical solution is today firmly established in science and engineering. Research conducted in almost all branches of scientific investigations and the design of systems in practically all disciplines of engineering can not be pursued effectively without, frequently, intensive analysis based on numerical computations. The world we live in has been classified by the human mind, for descriptive and analysis purposes, to consist of fluids and solids, continua and molecules; and the analyses of fluids and solids at the continuum and molecular scales have traditionally been pursued separately. Fundamentally, however, there are only molecules and particles for any material that interact on the microscopic and macroscopic scales. Therefore, to unify the analysis of physical systems and to reach a deeper understanding of the behavior of nature in scientific investigations, and of the behavior of designs in engineering endeavors, a new level of analysis is necessary. This new level of mathematical modeling and numerical solution does not merely involve the analysis of a single medium but must encompass the solution of multiphysics problems involving fluids, solids, and their interactions, involving multiscale phenomena from the molecular to the macroscopic scales, and must include uncertainties in the given data and the solution results. Nature does not distinguish between fluids and solids and does not ever exactly repeat itself. This new level of analysis must also include, in engineering, the effective optimization of systems, and the modeling and analysis of complete life spans of engineering products, from design to fabrication, to possibly multiple repairs, to end of service. The objective of the M.I.T. Conferences ^ on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics is to bring together researchers and practitioners of mathematical modeling and numerical solution in order to focus on the current state of analysis of fluids, soUds, and multiphysics phenomena and
to lead towards the new level of mathematical modeling and numerical solution that we envisage. However, there is also a most valuable related objective indeed a "mission"  for the M.I.T. Conferences. When contemplating the future and carving a vision thereof, two needs stand clearly out. The first is the need to foster young researchers in computational mechanics, because they will revitaUze the field with new ideas and increased energy. The second need is to bring Industry and Academia together for a greater synthesis of efforts in research and developments. This mission expressed in 'To bring together Industry and Academia and To nurture the next generation in computational mechanics'' is of great importance in order to reach, already in the near future, the new level of mathematical modeling and numerical solution, and in order to provide an exciting research environment for the next generation in computational mechanics. We are very grateful for the support of the sponsors of the Conference, for providing the financial and intellectual support to attract speakers and bring together Industry and Academia. In the spirit of helping young researchers, fellowships have been awarded to about one hundred young researchers for travel, lodging and Conference expenses, and in addition. Conference fees have been waived for all students. The papers presented at the Conference and published in this book represent, in various areas, the stateoftheart in the field. The papers have been largely attracted by the session organizers. We are very grateful for their efforts. Finally, we would like to thank JeanFrangois Hiller, a student at M.I.T, for his help with the Conference, and also Elsevier Science, in particular James Milne, for the efforts and help provided to publish this book in excellent format and in due time for the Conference.
K.J. BATHE, M.I.T.
^ A series of Conferences is planned.
Session Organizers
We would like to thank the Session Organizers for their help with the Conference. G. Astfalk, HewlettPackard Company, U.S.A. N. Bellomo, Politecnico di Torino, Italy Z. Bittnar, Prague Technical University, Czech Republic D. Boffi, University of Pavia, Italy S. Borgersen, SciMed, U.S.A. M. Borri, Politecnico di Milano, Italy M.A. Bradford, University of New South Wales, Australia M.L. Bucalem, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil J. Bull, The University of Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K. S.W. Chae, Korea University, South Korea D. Chapelle, INRIA, France C.N. Chen, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan G. Cheng, Dalian University of Technology, PR. China H.Y. Choi, HongIk University, South Korea K. Christensen, HewlettPackard Company, U.S.A. M.A. Christon, Sandia National Laboratories, U.S.A. R. Cosner, The Boeing Company, U.S.A. S. De, Massachusetts Institute of Technology., U.S.A. Y.C. Deng, General Motors, U.S.A. R.A. Dietrich, GKSS Forschungszentrum, Germany J. Dolbow, Duke University, U.S.A. E.H. Dowell, Duke University, U.S.A. R. Dreisbach, The Boeing Company, U.S.A. E.N. Dvorkin, SIDERCA, Argentina N. ElAbbasi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. C. Felippa, University of Colorado, Boulder, U.S.A. D. Ferguson, The Boeing Company, U.S.A. D. M. Frangopol, University of Colorado, Boulder, U.S.A. L. Gastaldi, University of Pavia, Italy P. Gaudenzi, University of Rome, Italy A. Ghoniem, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. R. Glowinski, University of Houston, U.S.A. P. Gresho, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, U.S.A. N. Hadjiconstantinou, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M. Hafez, University of California, Davis, U.S.A. K. Hall, Duke University, U.S.A. 0. Hassan, University of Wales, U.K. A. Ibrahimbegovic, ENSCachan, France S. Idelsohn, INTEC, Argentina A. Jameson, Stanford University, U.S.A. 1. Janajreh, Michelin, U.S.A. R.D. Kamm, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. S. Key, Sandia National Laboratories, U.S.A. W. Kirchhoff, Department of Energy, U.S.A. W.B. Kratzig, RuhrUniversitat Bochum, Germany A. Krimotat, SC Solutions, Inc., U.S.A. C.S. Krishnamoorthy, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India (deceased) Y. Kuznetsov, University of Houston, U.S.A. L. Martinelli, Princeton University, U.S.A. H. Matthies, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany S.A. Meguid, University of Toronto, Canada K. Meintjes, General Motors, U.S.A. C. Meyer, Columbia University, U.S.A. R. Ohayon, CNAM, France M. Papadrakakis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece K.C. Park, University of Colorado, Boulder, U.S.A. J. Periaux, Dassault Aviation, France O. Pironneau, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, France E. Rank, Technical University of Munich, Germany A. Rezgui, Michelin, France C.Y Sa, General Motors, U.S.A. G. Schueller, University of Innsbruck, Austria T. Siegmund, Purdue University, U.S.A. J. Sladek, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovak Republic S. Sloan, University of Newcastle, Australia G. Steven, University of Sydney, Australia R. Sun, DaimlerChrysler, U.S.A. S. Sutton, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, U.S.A. B. Szabo, Washington University, St. Louis, U.S.A. J. Tedesco, University of Florida, U.S.A. T. Tezduyar, Rice University, U.S.A. B.H.V. Topping, HeriotWatt University, U.K. F.J. Ulm, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. J.M. Vacherand, Michelin, France L. Wang, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong X. Wang, Polytechnic University of New York, U.S.A. N. Weatherill, University of Wales, U.K. J. White, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. P. Wriggers, University of Hannover, Germany S. Xu, General Motors, U.S.A. T. Zohdi, University of Hannover, Germany
Fellowship Awardees
M. AlDojayli, University of Toronto, Canada B.N. Alemdar, Georgia Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M.A. Alves, Universidade do Porto, Portugal R. Angst, Technical University of Berlin, Germany D. Antoniak, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland S. J. Antony, University of Surrey, U.K. A. Badeau, West Virginia University, U.S.A. W. Bao, The National University of Singapore, Singapore M. Bathe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. A.C. Bauer, University of New York, Buffalo, U.S.A. C. Bisagni, Politecnico di Milano, Italy S. Butkewitsch, Federal University of Uberlandia, Brazil S. Cen, Tsinghua University, China G. Chaidron, CNAM, France M. Council, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden A. Czekanski, University of Toronto, Canada C. E. Dalhuysen, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa D. Dall'Acqua, Noetic Engineering Inc., Canada S. De, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. D. Demarco, SIDERCA, Argentina J. Dolbow, Duke University, U.S.A. J.E. Drews, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Germany J.L. Drury, University of Michigan, U.S.A. C.A. Duarte, Altair Engineering, U.S.A. F. Dufour, CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Australia A. Ferent, INRIA, France M.A. Fernandez, INRIA, France Y. Fragakis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece A. Frangi, PoUtecnico di Milano, Italy T. Fujisawa, University of Tokyo, Japan J.R. Fernandez Garcia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain J.F. Gerbeau, INRIA, France M. Gliick, FriedrichAlexander University, Erlangen, Germany C. Gonzalez, Politecnica de Madrid, Spain K. Goto, University of Tokyo, Japan S. Govender, University of Natal, South Africa T. Gratsch, University of Kassel, Germany B. Gu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. Y. T. Gu, National University of Singapore, Singapore S. Gupta, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India M. Handrik, University of Zilina, Slovakia
L. Haubelt, Rice University, U.S.A. V. Havu, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland N. Impollonia, University of Messina, Italy R. lozzi. University of Rome, "La Sapienza", Italy H. Karaouni, Ecole Polytechnique, France R. Keck, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany C.W. Keierleber, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, U.S.A. K. Kolanek, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland L. Ktibler, University of ErlangenNiimberg, Erlangen, Germany D. Kuzmin, University of Dortmund, Germany N.D. Lagaros, National Technical University of Athens, Greece R. Garcia Lage, Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Portugal P.D. Ledger, University of Swansea, Wales, U.K. J. Li, Courant Institute, New York, U.S.A. J. Li, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. G. Limbert, University of Southampton, U.K. K. Liu, Polytechnic University of New York, U.S.A. M.B. Liu, National University of Singapore, Singapore J. Long, University of New York, Buffalo, U.S.A. I. Lubowiecka, Technical University of Gdansk, Poland A.A. Mailybaev, Moscow State Lomonosov University, Russia M. Malinen, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland E.A. Malsch, Columbia University, U.S.A. Y. Marzouk, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M. Meyer, Technische Universitat Braunschweig, Germany B. Miller, Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland D.P. Mok, University of Stuttgart, Germany G. Morgenthal, University of Cambridge, U.K. M. Moubachir, Laboratoire Central des Fonts et Chaussees, France S.K. Nadarajah, Stanford University, U.S.A. J. Nemecek, Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic T.S. Ng, Imperial College, U.K. N. Nuno, Universita di Parma, Italy M. Palacz, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland H. Pan, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore G. Pedro, University of Victoria, Canada X. Peng, Northwestern University, U.S.A. R.C. Penmetsa, Wright State University, U.S.A. R. Premkumar, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India
Fellowship Awardees C. Prud'homme, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. K. Roe, Purdue University, U.S.A. S. Rugonyi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M.L. Munoz Ruiz, Universidad de Malaga, Spain N. Ruse, University of Stuttgart, Germany S. Sarkar, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India C.A. Schenk, University of Innsbruck, Austria S. Shankaran, Stanford University, U.S.A. D. Slinchenko, University of Natal, South Africa D.O. Snyder, Utah State University, U.S.A. K.A. S0rensen, University of Swansea, Wales, U.K. A. Takahashi, University of Tokyo, Japan S. Ubal, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina U.V. Unnithan, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, India F. Valentin, National Laboratory of Brazil for Scientific Computing, Brazil R. Vodicka, Technical University of Kosice, Slovakia V.M. Wasekar, University of Cincinnati, U.S.A. S. Wijesinghe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, U.S.A. M.W. Wilson, Georgia Institute of Technology, U.S.A. W. Witkowski, Technical University of Gdansk, Poland A.M. Yommi, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina Y. Zhang, Dalian University of Technology, China K. Zhao, General Motors Corp., U.S.A.
Sponsors
The following organizations are gratefully acknowledged for their generous sponsorship of the Conference:
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Contents Volume 1
Preface Session Organizers Fellowship Awardees Sponsors
•
v vi vii ix
Plenary Papers
Alum, N., Ye, W., Ramaswamy, D., Wang, X., White, J., Efficient simulation techniques for complicated micromachined devices Brezzi, R, Subgrid scales, augmented problems, and stabilizations Dreisbach, R.L., Cosner, R.R., Trends in the design analysis of aerospace vehicles Ingham, T.J., Issues in the seismic analysis of bridges Lions, J.L., Virtual control algorithms Makinouchi, A., Teodosiu, C, Numerical methods for prediction and evaluation of geometrical defects in sheet metal forming McQueen, DM., Peskin, C.S., Zhu, L., The Immersed Boundary Method for incompressible fluidstructure interaction Ottolini, R.M., Rohde, S.M., GMs journey to math: the virtual vehicle 2 8 11 16 20 21 26 31
Solids & Structures
Antony, SJ., Ghadiri, M., Shear resistance of granular media containing large inclusions: DEM simulations Araya, R., Le Tallec, R, Hierarchical a posteriori error estimates for heterogeneous incompressible elasticity Augusti, G., Mariano, P.M., Stazi, F.L., Localization phenomena in randomly microcracked bodies Austrell, P.E., Olsson, A.K., Jonsson, M., A method to analyse the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of rubber components using standard FE codes Ba§ar, Y., Hanskotter, U., Kintzel, O., Schwab, C, Simulation of large deformations in shell structures by the pversion of the finite element method Bardenhagen, S.G., Byutner, O., Bedrov, D., Smith, G.D., Simulation of frictional contact in threedimensions using the Material Point Method 36 39 43 47 50 54
xii Bauchau, O.A., Bottasso, C.L., On the modeling of shells in multibody dynamics
Contents Volume 1
58 61 65 68 72 74 78 82 85 88 91 95 99 104 107 HI 114
Bay lot, J.T., Papados, P.P., Fragment impact pattern effect on momentum transferred to concrete targets Becache, E., Joly, P., Scarella, G., A fictitious domain method for unilateral contact problems in nondestructive testing Belforte, G., Franco, W., Sorli, M., Timefrequency pneumatic transmission line analysis Bohm, R, Duda, A., Wille, R., On some relevant technical aspects of tire modelling in general Borri, M., Bottasso, C.L., Trainelli, L, An index reduction method in nonholonomic system dynamics Boucard, PA., Application of the LATIN method to the calculation of response surfaces Brunet, M., Morestin, R, Walter, H., A unified failure approach for sheetmetals formability analysis Bull, J. W., Underground explosions: their effect on runway fatigue life and how to mitigate their effects Cacciola, P., Impollonia, N., Muscolino, G., Stochastic seismic analysis of RFBI isolation system Carter, J.P, Wang, C.X., Geometric softening in geotechnical problems Cen, S., Long, Y., Yao, Z., A new hybridenhanced displacementbased element for the analysis of laminated composite plates Chakraborty, S., Brown, D.A., Simulating static and dynamic lateral load testing of bridge foundations using nonlinear finite element models . . Chapelle, D., Rerent, A., Asymptotic analysis of the coupled model shells3D solids Chapelle, D., Oliveira, D.L., Bucalem, M.L., Some experiments with the MITC9 element for Naghdis shell model Chen, X., Hisada, T, Frictional contact analysis of articular surfaces Choi, H.Y., Lee, S.H., Lee, LH., Haug, E., Finite element modeling of human headneck complex for crashworthiness simulation Chun, B.K., Jinn, J.T., Lee, J.K., A constitutive model associated with permanent softening under multiple bendunbending cycles in sheet metal forming and springback analysis Crouch, R.S., RemandezVega, J., Nonlinear wave propagation in softening media through use of the scaled boundary finite element method . . . . Czekanski, A., Meguid, S.A., Time integration for dynamic contact problems: generalizedof scheme Dai, L., Semianalytical solution to a mechanical system with friction Davi, G., Milazzo, A., A novel displacement variational boundary formulation David, S.A., Rosdrio, J.M., Investigation about nonlinearities in a robot with elastic members
120 125 128 132 134 137
Contents Volume 1 De, S., Kim, /., Srinivasan, M.A., Virtual surgery simulation using a collocationbased method of finite spheres Deeks,AJ.,WollJ.R, Efficient analysis of stress singularities using the scaled boundary finiteelement method Djoudi, M.S., Bahai, K, Relocation of natural frequencies using physical parameter modifications Duddeck, F.M.E., Fourier transformed boundary integral equations for transient problems of elasticity and thermoelasticity Dufour, E, Moresi, L., Muhlhaus, H., A fluidlike formulation for viscoelastic geological modeling stabilized for the elastic limit Dvorkin, E.N., Demarco, D., An Eulerian formulation for modehng stationary finite strain elastoplastic metal forming processes Dvorkin, E.N., Toscano, R.G., Effects of internal/external pressure on the global buckling of pipelines ElAbbasU N., Bathe, K.J., On a new segmenttosegment contact algorithm ElAbbasi, N., Meguid, S.A., Modehng 2D contact surfaces using cubic splines Eelippa, C.A., Optimal triangular membrane elements with drilling freedoms FemdndeZ'Garcia, J.R., Sofonea, M., Viaho, J.M., Numerical analysis of a sliding viscoelastic contact problem with wear Frangi, A., Novati, G., Springhetti, R., Rovizzi, M., Numerical fracture mechanics in 3D by the symmetric boundary element method Galbraith, P.C., Thomas, D.N., Finn, M.J., Spring back of automotive assembhes Gambarotta, L., Massabd, R., Morbiducci, R., Constitutive and finite element modehng of human scalp skin for the simulation of cutaneous surgical procedures Gebbeken, N., Greulich, S., Pietzsch, A., Landmann, F, Material modelling in the dynamic regime: a discussion Gendron, G., Fortin, M., Goulet, R, Error estimation and edgebased mesh adaptation for solid mechanics problems Gharaibeh, E.S., McCartney, J.S., Erangopol, D.M., Reliabilitybased importance assessment of structural members Ghiocel, D.M., Mao, H., ProbabiUstic life prediction for mechanical components including HCF/LCF/creep interactions Giner, E., Fuenmayor, J., Besa, A., Tur, M., A discretization error estimator associated with the energy domain integral method in linear elastic fracture mechanics Gonzalez, C, Llorca, J., Micromechanical analysis of twophase materials including plasticity and damage Goto, K., Yagawa, G, Miyamura, T, Accurate analysis of shell structures by a virtually meshless method Guilkey, J.E., Weiss, J.A., An implicit time integration strategy for use with the material point method Gupta, S., Manohar, C.S., Computation of reliabihty of stochastic structural dynamic systems using stochastic FEM and adaptive importance sampling with nonGaussian sampling functions
xiii
140 142 146 150 153 156 159 165 168 171 173 177 180 184 186 192 198 201
206 211 214 216
220
xiv
Contents Volume 1
Guz, LA., Soutis, C., Accuracy of analytical approaches to compressive fracture of layered solids under large deformations Hadjesfandiari, A.R., Dargush, G.F., Computational elasticity based on boundary eigensolutions Haldar, A., Lee, 5.K, Huh, / , Stochastic response of nonlinear structures Han, S., Xiao, M., A continuum mechanics based model for simulation of radiation wave from a crack Handrik, M., Kompis, V., Novak, P., Large strain, large rotation boundary integral multidomain formulation using the Trefftz polynomial functions . . Hamau, M., Schweizerhof, K., About linear and quadratic 'SolidShell elements at large deformations Hartmann, U., Kruggel, R, Hierl, T., Lonsdale, G., Kloppel, R., Skull mechanic simulations with the prototype SimBio environment Havu,V,Hakula,H, An analysis of a bilinear reduced strain element in the case of an elliptic shell in a membrane dominated state of deformation Ibrahimbegovic, A., Recent developments in nonlinear analysis of shell problem and its finite element solution Ingham, T.J., Modeling of friction pendulum bearings for the seismic analysis of bridges lozzi, R., Gaudenzi, P., MITC finite elements for adaptive laminated composite shells Janajreh, L, Rezgui, A., Estenne, V., Tire tread pattern analysis for ultimate performance of hydroplaning Kanapady, R., Tamma, K.K., Design and framework of reduced instruction set codes for scalable computations for nonlinear structural dynamics Kang,M.S.,Youn,S,K., Dof splitting padaptive meshless method Kapinski, S., Modelling of friction in metalforming processes Kashtalyan, M., Soutis, C., Modelling of intra and interlaminar fracture in composite laminates loaded in tension Kawka, M., Bathe, K.J., Implicit integration for the solution of metal forming processes Kim, H.S., Tim, HJ., Kim, C.B., Computation of stress time history using FEM and flexible multibody dynamics Kong, J.S., Akgul, K, Frangopol, DM., Xi, Y., Probabilistic models for predicting the failure time of deteriorating structural systems Koteras, J.R., Gullemd, A.S., Porter, V.L., Scherzinger, W.M., Brown, K.H., PRESTO: impact dynamics with scalable contact using the SIERRA framework Kratzig,W.B.,Jun,D., Layered higher order concepts for Dadaptivity in shell theory Krishnamoorthy, C.S.,Annamalai, V, Vmu Unnithan, U., Superelement based adaptive finite element analysis for linear and nonlinear continua under distributed computing environment KUbler, L, Eberhard, P., Multibody system/finite element contact simulation with an energybased switching criterion
224 227 232 235 238 240 243
247 251 255 259 264
268 272 276 279 283 287 290 294 297
302 306
Adagio: nonhnear quasistatic structural response using the SIERRA framework Toukourou. J.. T... W.E... Okstad.. Porter. Yazdani.M.. .. J.R.H.V. R.. LeBeau. Liu.B.. Estimation of tool/chip interface temperatures for online tool monitoring: an inverse problem approach . Throne. WadiaFascetti. Adaptive ultimate load analysis of shell structures Matsumoto. .. Taylor.. buckled beam .. Al Mikdad. C. G.Y. A numerical investigation of chaotic motions in the stochastic layer of a parametrically excited. Bittnar.W.L.. A.. V. Application of ALEEFGM to analysis of membrane with sliding cable Nuno. Lyamin... Mdkinen.S.Contents Volume 1 Laukkanen. Avanzolini. Okayama. Simulation of the explosive detonation process using SPH methodology Liu. On the finite element analysis of flexible shell structures undergoing large overall motion Luo. A.. M.. R. Chroscielewski. K. M. A model of deteriorating bridge structures Leitdo. S.. G. Nonlocal numerical modelling of the deformation and failure behavior of hydrostaticstressdependent ductile metals Olson. Thick shell elements with large displacements and rotations Mathisen. A fictitious domain method for linear elasticity problems Massin. H.M. Ricci. Limit analysis using finite elements and nonlinear programming Malinen. J.A. A.. N. J.. M. MFree2D®: an adaptive stress analysis package based on meshfree technology Lovadina. M. S. On degenerated shell finite elements and classical shell models Martikainen. Patzdk. Z. Lam. Toivanen. Parallel simulation of reinforced concrete column on a PC cluster Noguchi. J. Scherzinger. G.. Gullerud. Z.. M..A... G. S.. S. A. Sloan. A. Berger.. VM. K. Tu. T. Analysis of 2D elastostatic problems using radial basis functions Limbert. L. A..C. Gakwaya.M... Kawashima. T. Modeling residual stresses at the stemcement interface of an idealized cemented hip stem Obrecht. Zong. Z. R.J. •• xv 310 314 317 319 323 327 330 332 336 338 342 346 351 355 359 361 365 369 372 374 378 381 .... Energy estimates for linear elastic shells Lubowiecka... B. K..A. An explicit threedimensional finite element model of an incompressible transversely isotropic hyperelastic material: application to the study of the human anterior cruciate ligament Liu.M. SJ. Tanaka. J. H.R.. K. Pitkdranta. An objectoriented finite element implementation of large deformation frictional contact problems and applications Nemecek.. Consistency of damage mechanics modeling of ductile material failure in reference to attribute transferability .. Koteras. M. M .H. L.. Rossi... Boundary stress calculation for twodimensional thermoelastic problems using displacement gradient boundary integral identity Mitchell. Briinig. L. . Tiller. R.
. Grandhi. E. A geometricalgebraic method for semidefinite problems in structural mechanics PatzdK B.. Skalski.V. Schueller.. J. Vibration suppression of laminated composite plates using magnetostrictive inserts Pradlwarter.. Ng. Aliabadi.. Instability problems in shell structures: some computational aspects Palacz..H. K.versus pversion finite element analysis for J2 flow theory Roe. Dominguez.L.. PDFs of the stochastic nonlinear response of MDOFsystems by local statistical linearization Proppe. E. Reliability analysis of structures against buckling according to fuzzy number theory Scheider.. Simulation of cupcone fracture in round bars using the cohesive zone model Schenk. Keierleber. Finiteelement simulation of complex dynamic fracture processes in concrete Sdez.TY. M.T. Lam. S. Z . The /7version PEA: high performance with and without parallelization Ruiz. A.X. M . M. Simulation of interface fatigue crack growth via a fracture process zone model Rosson.. H. E. Schueller........ Cao.J. M. M . K.. B. M. I. Boundary and internal layers in thin elastic shells Sanchez Palencia.J. K.. Response of a continuous system with stochastically varying surface roughness to a moving load 385 389 393 396 399 403 406 410 413 416 420 425 429 431 435 438 441 445 449 452 454 456 460 463 . Eriksson. A note on symmetric Galerkin BEM for multiconnected bodies Pradhan. R. Piszczatowski. M.N. M. S.. Fragakis. A..J. C. General traction BE formulation and implementation for 2D anisotropic media SanchezHubert... Computational and physical modelling of penetration resistance Rank. Sensitivity study on material characterization of textile composites Penmetsa. M.. propagation of singularities and their numerical incidence Savoia.Y. General properties of thin shell solutions. RypU D. T. Pandolfi. A. Computational synthesis on vehicle rollover protection Peng. Rank.C. Bittnar. Bossak. G. Parallel algorithm for explicit dynamics with support for nonlocal constitutive models Pawlikowski. Krawczuk. Improved direct time integration method for impact analysis Rucker. J. Effects of uncertainties on lifetime prediction of aircraft components Randolph... Uncertainty analysis of largescale structures using high fidelity models PerezGavildn... R. M.A. Rheological effects and bone remodelling phenomenon in the hip joint implantation PeiLu.F.. h.. A.C... K. CM.A. L. Siegmund... C. Bergman. Duster. Ortiz. J. G. J. Genetic algorithm for crack detection in beams Papadrakakis. Reddy..X. C.. G.xvi Contents Volume 1 Pacoste.I..
. X. N.... E. Hierarchic modeling strategies for the control of the errors of idealization in FEA Tahar.Contents Volume 1 Schroder. Tonkovic. D. H. Computer techniques for simulation of nonisothermal elastoplastic shell responses Stander..E.. L... Ayache.. The firstkind and the secondkind boundary integral equation systems for some kinds of contact problems with friction Wagner. Impact simulation of structural adhesive joints Vermeer.. /.G.. ¥. Bloomquist. Kapp. N.R. van der Giessen.L. Impact stresses in AJacks concrete armor units Thompson. J.Actis.. N. J. I. Radial point interpolation method for noyielding surface models Wang.. M. On the stability of the tunnel excavation front Verruijt.R... Techniques to ensure convergence of the closest point projection method in pressure dependent elastoplasticity models Takahashi. P. A stress integration algorithm for /sdependent elastoplasticity models Whittle.. Walczak. Mota Soares.G.. J...L. Structural analysis of composite lattice structures on the basis of smearing stiffness Soric... Chatzigiannelis. Elastic stability problems in micromacro transitions Semedo Gargdo.. J.. Delingette. J. Van Keer. BA.E. Pinto.. M.. Ruse.. Finite element modeling for surgery simulation Vlachoutsis. Z. Latta. S. R. Y. J. A. N.. E.. K.. Verijenko..N.. Modeling quasistatic fracture of heterogeneous materials with the cohesive surface methodology Tsukrov. Thangavelu. AJ.A.A. L. Reddy.. D.. Application of numerical conformal mapping to micromechanical modeling of elastic solids with holes of irregular shapes TylerStreet. Sluys.. J. B.. VE. J.. Clinckemaillie.W. R.. G.... Bathe. Numerical aspects of analytical solutions of elastodynamic problems Vidrascu. Francis. M. J. Modeling of adaptive composite structures using a layerwise theory Sladek. Liu. S.S. R. Novak.. Numerical and analytical modeling of ground deformations due to shallow tunneling in soft soils xvii 468 471 473 475 478 481 486 490 496 499 502 509 513 517 521 524 527 530 533 536 538 542 546 . The successive response surface method applied to sheetmetal forming Szabo.. E. A. S. CM. Yagawa... Hsieh. Klinkel. C. The local boundary integral equation and its meshless implementation for elastodynamic problems Slinchenko.J. Gruttmann. Molecular dynamics calculation of 2 billion atoms on massively parallel processors Tedesco. Mota Soares. R. Crouch. T. Distributed memory parallel computing for crash and stamp simulations Vodicka.. G.M. V.. R. C.. Miehe.. J.J..A. A stabilized MITC finite element for accurate wave response in ReissnerMindlin plates Tijssens.. On the computation of finite strain plasticity problems with a 3Dshell element Wang. Sladek. W. Davis.
Lipsett. Linear multistep and optimal dissipative singlestep algorithms for structural dynamics Zhu.L. Using Pro/MECHANICA for nonlinear problems in engineering design Dreisbach.. Wriggers... A. Nonlinear stability analysis of stiffened shells using solid elements and the pversion FEmethod Zhang. Computational testing of microheterogeneous materials 550 554 559 562 566 568 571 575 579 Optimization & Design AlDojayli. F. Wiberg.xviii Contents Volume 1 Witkowski.J.M. C... Interactive design and investigation of physical bridges using virtual models Consolazio.. X. Identification of chaotic responses in a stable Duffing system by artificial neural network Yang. L. On simulation of a forming process to minimize springback Zhou. An efficient thermomechanical modeling strategy for progressing cavity pumps and positive displacement motors Doxsee Jr. M. Fatigue analysis during oneparametered loadings Zdunek. Faulkner.. 7. Kaiser.Y. Tamma. DM. P.L. /. A. Paiar.G. K. Kamouni. G. A.. Tullberg.E. Some results from the SelfDesigning Structures research programme Butkewitsch. N. Abe.E. Special membrane elements with internal defects Zarka.. Gurley.. Meguid.R. C. R.. K.H. J. Peak.R. K. Ghiocel. Random vibration of structures under multisupport seismic excitations Zhao..W.. W. Soh. Borri. Lin. S. Fujino.. //. G. G. P. Lubowiecka. Design of an inertial safety barrier using explicit finite element simulation DalVAcqua. P.. A 3D contactfriction model for pounding at bridges during earthquakes Zohdi. R. L. T. Simulation of nongaussian wind pressures and estimation of design loads Bisagni... K. Facchini.. Enhancing engineering design and analysis interoperability.. Shape optimization of frictional contact problems using genetic algorithm Bartoli. Kettil. Stochastic process/field models for turbomachinery applications 584 588 591 595 599 603 606 608 612 616 620 624 628 . M. Part 3: Steps toward multifunctional optimization . D. Optimization of helicopter subfloor components under crashworthiness requirements Bull. C. On the use of 'metamodels to account for multidisciplinarity and uncertainty in design analysis and optimization Cardona. J. O.S.W. D... K. M... Sha..A. M.K.... X. Design of cams using a general purpose mechanism analysis program Cheng. A.. Chung... Guo.. On singular topologies and related optimization algorithm Connell. K. S. T.. .
. Frangopol.M.... E. Wang...S. Effects of diaphragms on seismic response of skewed bridges Matsuho.. Campana. Schaaf. Parallel computational strategies for structural optimization Peak. A.Contents Volume 1 Gu.. D.S..S. E.. Y. Nikbay.A. Structural optimization in consideration of stochastic phenomena .a new wave in engineering Hollowell. B. H.. Kawahara.S.D.. Shahawy. Muylle.. M. Ziemiahski. Part 2: A high diversity example Peri. R. Design optimization of materials with microstructure Liu. The functional virtual prototype: an innovation framework for a zero prototype design process Prasad Varma Thampan. Y. DM. Zhang... Computer simulations and crackdamage evaluation for the durability design of the worldlargest cooling tower shell at Niederaussem power station Hartmann. N.K. Zhao. Optimum design and sensitivity analysis of piezoelectric trusses Hagiwara. K. DM. Development of CFDbased design optimization architecture Peterson. L. The effect of hydrodynamic loading on the structural reliability of culvert valves in lock systems Kolanek. Montag. Z. Shape optimization problem based on optimal control theory by using speed method Papadrakakis.. C. Keskinen. Wilson. G.... X...H.. Wemcke.K. P.Z...F. Z . T. S.. Weber.V. MM. C. B. Krishnamoorthy... Enhancing engineering design and analysis interoperability. L. C. Lagaros. S. Applications of artificiallife techniques to reliability engineering Maute.. M.M. M.S. Kleiber. Lian. Dynamics of wearing contact in groundwood manufacturing system Liu. R.... Topping. Chen.. Shi. Q..T. M. J.J.... Di Mascio. S. HPC for the optimization of aeroelastic systems Miller. Ochiai. C. R. Towards a CAD design of cablemembrane structures on parallel platforms James. N. C. D. S. M.. Baitsch. Summers. G. Reliability based optimization using neural networks Papadrakakis.. Load lateral distribution for multigirder bridges Maleki.. K. U. Fragakis. Stocki. R. Z. M. T.L. Lagaros.. Updating of a plane frame using neural networks Ogawa. Jendo. Vehicle crashworthiness design using a most probable optimal design method Harte. Farhat. L. S. An HPC model for GA methodologies applied to reliabilitybased structural optimization xix 633 637 641 645 649 652 655 660 663 668 672 676 681 685 688 692 696 698 701 704 708 711 714 .D. M. NHTSAs supporting role in the partnership for a new generation of vehicles Ivdnyi. Zheng. Genetic algorithms and high performance computing for engineering design optimization Launis. Cotsaftis. W..... M. A. D. An efficiency of numerical algorithms for discrete reliabilitybased structural optimization Krishnamoorthy...
A.Heninger. Fulton. Proos. Reducedbasis output bound methods for heat transfer problems Schramm. K.. G. Shape optimization for crashworthiness featuring adaptive mesh topology Steven. Multicriteria evolutionary structural optimization involving inertia Wilson. Sun. M.M.E. Difficulties and characteristics of structural topology optimization Shankaran. T. R. R. U. Jameson. S. A. C. B...V. MM.. Enhancing engineering design and analysis interoperability.. CFD modeling applied to internal combustion engine optimization and design Shan.P.. R.S. Radons.. S. Part 1: Constrained objects Wolfe. D. Hamdani. N. H....XX Contents Volume 1 Rovas. Zhang. Suleman. R... Peak..D.T. M.. PK. Prud'homme.R.. Leurent... MultidiscipUnary optimization for NVH and crashworthiness Sedaghati. Reitz. Tabarrok. 5. Y.R.W... C . Analysis and design of twodimensional sails Sheikh. Burger.. Retrofit design and strategy of the San FranciscoOakland Bay Bridge continuous truss spans support towers based on ADINA Wu. J.. R. Existence of a lift plateau for airfoils pitching at rapid pitching rates Stander. Patera. R.R. Optimum design of frame structures undergoing large deflections against system instability Senecal. A.. Vibration transmissibility of printed circuit boards by calibrated PEA modeling 718 721 725 729 733 737 739 743 747 750 755 758 . Xie.
Plenary Papers .
Keywords: M E M S . White'='* ^ Department of General Engineering. All rights reserved. USA ^Department of Mechanical Engineering. the geometrically complicated nature of micromachined devices makes generating such an exterior volume grid difficult. Atlanta. Ramaswamy^ X. Precorrected FFT. In addition. (1) 9n . Such methods are becoming less popular. IL 618012996. only on the surface. We first survey the recently developed fast 3D solvers that make possible the fluid and field analysis of entire micromachined devices. Bathe (Editor) devices: (1) exterior forces need only be evaluated on poly silicon surfaces. Cambridge. Fast Stokes. be computed using finitedifference or finiteelement methods. USA ^ Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. in principle. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Email: white@rlevlsi. Fast 3D solvers The exterior fluid and electrostatic force on a surfacemicromachined device can. We describe the matriximplicit multilevelNewton method for coupling solvers which use different techniques. Ye^ D. primarily due to the development of fast 3D solvers which are much more efficient in this setting. Research Laboratory of Electronics.x)—^ \ ^ 9n M(x)dfl. Several micromachined device examples are used to demonstrate these recently developed methods. and so the Laplace's equation that describes the exterior electrostatics can be replaced with an integral equation which relates the surface potentials to the surface normal electric fields. MA 02139. both satisfy an integral equation over the poly silicon surface given by Green's theorem: u(x) / G{x. In particular. Georgia Institute of Technology. In each section. Wang^ J. GA.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. we briefly describe techniques currently used for simulating micromachined devices. the exterior volumefilling grid for finiteelement and finite difference methods seems inefficient. Urbana.J. 2. The electrostatic problem is linear and space invariant. The electrostatic potential and the fluid velocity.Efficient simulation techniques for complicated micromachined devices N. for surfacemicromachined * Corresponding author. we discuss the recently developed techniques for efficient coupled domain and mixed regime analysis. (3) the exterior fields usually satisfy linear spaceinvariant partial differential equations. as they have made it possible to efficiently simulate devices whose operation involves several physical domains. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. assuming Stoke's flow. we briefly describe techniques currently used for simulating micromachined devices. Since forces are not needed in the volume of the exterior. and so an integral formulation involving only surface quantities can be used to determine fluid traction forces. the fluid forces are reasonably well described by the linear Stoke's equation. (2) the geometries are innately 3D and extremely complicated. and we describe a mixedregime approach to improve the individual solver's efficiencies. We first survey the fast 3D solvers that make possible fluid and field analysis of entire micromachined devices and then describe efficient techniques for coupleddomain simulation. Simulation. University of Illinois. In many cases. we present computational results on real micromachined devices both to make clear the problem scale and to demonstrate the efficiency of these new techniques. Then. Alu^u^ W. CAD. Mixed regime 1.mit. Introduction In this short paper. USA Abstract In this short paper.
Example fluid simulation As an example of using a fast solver. The shortrange interaction between closeby panels must be computed directly. 2. The result of these two simpUfications is that fluid damping forces on laterally actuated microdevices can be accurately analyzed by solving the incompressible Stokes equation.N.5]. every entry in P is nonzero. In particular. .!. Several researchers simultaneously observed the powerful combination of integral equation approaches. and then the multipole expansion can be used to evaluate distant potentials.1. 1. 2. note that for P in (2). To see this. the discretization of a comb is shown. If instead. and that the quantity of interest is the surface traction force. An accelerated Stoke's flow solver completed the simulation in under 20 min. X^ ' ^' (3> where xt is the iih collocation point. it is essential not to form the matrix explicitly. points. consider Fig. such as the precorrectFFT schemes [3. consider the electrostatics problem of determining the surface charge given the potential on conductors. rather than by solving the compressible NavierStokes equation. Alum et al. computing Pq is equivalent to computing n potentials due to n charged panels and this can be accomplished approximately in nearly order n operations [2. A simple discretization for the electrostatics problem is to divide the polysilicon surfaces into n flat panels over which the charge density is assumed constant. the methods described above can be used to rapidly solve a discretization of the integral equation [12.3]. To see how to perform such a reduction in cost. it is necessary to determine the drag force on the comb. the distant interaction can be computed by summing the clustered panel charges into a single multipole expansion (denoted by M in the figure). For example. then the memory required to store the dense matrix will grow like n^ and the matrix solve time will increase like n^. then it is possible to reduce the solve time to order n^. where q is the nlength vector of panel charges. as Fig. and fast matrixvector . In addition. makes it possible to use a surface integral formulation to compute comb drag [11]. Krylovsubspace matrix solution algorithms. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics where u is either the electrostatic potential or the fluid velocity.c is a point on the surface. Discretization of the above integral equation leads to a dense system of equations which becomes prohibitively expensive to form and solve for complicated problems. a preconditioned Krylovsubspace method like GMRES [1] is used to solve (2).9]. 1. ^ is the wlength vector of known collocation point potentials. 3. It should be noted that the quality factor computed from the numerical drag force analysis matched measure quahty factor for this structure to better than 10% [14]. In order to develop algorithms that use memory and time that grows more slowly with problem size. Since the Green's function for electrostatics is the reciprocal of the separation distance between x and x\ '••' = f panel. fluid compression can be ignored for devices which use lateral actuation. That the fluid can be treated as Stokes flow. 1 shows. A cluster of collocation points separated from a cluster of panels. The discretized system is then Pq = ^ (2) Shortrange stiiiimed direct!J Fig. but the memory requirement will not decrease. The small spatial scale of micromachined combs implies that flow in these devices typically have very low Reynolds numbers. A system of equations for the panel charges is then derived by insisting that the correct potential be generated at a set of n test. Higherorder elements and improved efficiency for higher accuracy have been the recent developments [8. or collocation. Note the surprisingly high contribution to the force from the structure sides.13]. In Fig. consider determining the quality factor of a combdrive resonator packaged in air. Since the integral in (3) is nonzero for every panelcollocationpoint pair. 4n.10]. like many of the combdrive based structures fabricated using micromachining. and therefore convection can often be ignored. Instead. direct methods would have taken weeks and required over 16 gigabytes of memory. If direct factorization is used to solve (2). The simulated traction force in the motion direction is shown in Fig. Notice that only the surface is discretized. and d/dn is the derivative in the direction normal to the polysilicon surface. products [4. Perhaps the first practical use of such methods combined the fast multipole algorithms for charged particle computations with the above simple discretization scheme to compute 3D capacitance and electrostatic forces [6]. The many different physical domains involved in micromachined devices has focussed attention on fast techniques which are Green's function independent. one can exploit the fact that Krylovsubspace methods for solving systems of equations only require matrixvector products and not an explicit representation of the matrix. yet still the number of unknowns in the system exceeds 50. Then. but the interaction between the cluster of panels and distant panels can be approximated.000. To compute the quality factor.
0001 5E05 Fig. Alum et al. 2.3 28204.6 ' ~ ^ E05 0.8 23034.5 2. A discretized comb drive resonator over a substrate.6 30789.4 38545.22 7522.5 20448. R Fx 1 2351. Drag force distribution on the resonator.1 35960.N.1 I—I 25619. so P is also a function of u.7 12693 ^ 15278.8 33375. 3. 3. and P is the force produced by the vector representing the discretized surface charge q.49 •10107. Coupleddomain mixedregime simulation Selfconsistent electromechanical analysis of micromachined polysilicon devices typically involves determining mechanical displacements which balance elastic forces in the polysilicon with electrostatic pressure forces on polysilicon surface. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2.3 17863. bottom (substrateside) view. F relates node displacements to stresses.q)=0 (4) where w is a vector of finiteelement node displacements.96 4937.5 Fig. the pressure changes direction. One can .00015 0. Note that as the structure deforms. The technique of choice for determining elastic forces in the polysilicon is to use finiteelement methods to generate a nonlinear system equations of the form Fiu)P{u.
^R^ jR. typically using Newton's method [15]. 4.28) where is a very small number. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics view this mechanical analysis as a 'black box' which takes an input. w. one can apply Newton's method to the system of equations 100 50 0 50 Fig. 4. The rigid/elastic mechanical solver greatly reduces the size of the stiffness matrix with the bulk shrinking to a dense 6 x 6 block (see Fig. though improvements can be made [19]. tion. As is clear from examining (8). Tilting mirror example A coupled domain mixed regime solver was tested against the experimental data of a scanning mirror (see Figs. this matrixfree multilevelNewton method [18] can treat the individual solvers as black boxes. one can use a fast solver. only the ability to perform matrixvector products. much of the structure acts as a rigid body.2 MPa. 5). as in q= HE{U) 100 (6) Selfconsistent analysis is then to find a u and q which satisfies both (5) and (6). Therefore.2. Applying (5) implies solving the nonlinear equation. Therefore. Mixed regime simulation q u HE(U) HM{q)_ = 0 0 (7) in which case the updates to charge and displacement are given by solving / L dHE\ _ du I Aq Au \HE U — HAA (8) ^q The above method is referred to as a multilevel Newton method [16. such as the mechanical structure in Fig. The important aspect of GMRES is that an explicit representation of the matrix is not required. and produces an output u as in HMiq) (5) 150 200 h In order to determine the charge density on the polysilicon surface due to a set of appHed voltages. Instead. it often does not converge. Although the relaxation method is simple. The u in (4) is then ^elastic U Mrigid. V^. as input. because forming the righthand side in (8) involves using an inner Newton's method to apply HM. Comb drive accelerometer. An important advantage of matrixfree multilevelNewton methods is that it is not necessary to modify either the mechanical or electrostatic analysis programs. 0. These products can be approximated by finite differences as in ^HM ^ dq ^ Huiq+aAq) a Huiq) (9) In many micromachined devices. 3. The rigid/elastic interface should be intruded into the rigid block for a small area around the tetherblock mass interface in order to avoid sharp singularities in stress across the tetherblock interface. One can view the electrostatic analysis as a 'black box' which takes.1 xm SiN hinges (Young's Modulus = 243. zR). many finiteelement degrees of freedom can be eliminated and replaced with a rigid body with only 6 degrees of freedom i/rigid = {^. The black box solvers are called once in the outer Newton loop to compute the right hand side in (8) and then called once per each GMRES itera .N. ^. 3. geometric displacements. (4). Computing Huiq + oid\) means using an inner loop Newton method to solve (4). 6 and 7) [20] with 12 x 50 x 1.3.17]. as output.1. 3. which is expensive. a vector of discretized surface charges. and produces. The surface of the rigid body still has to be discretized finely to properly resolve the electrostatic forces. as described above. Poisson's Ratio = 0. q. one can apply a Krylovsubspace iterative method such as GMRES. MultilevelNewton 50 h A simple relaxation approach to determining a selfconsistent solution to (5) and (6) is to successively use (5) to update displacements and then using (6) to update charge. Aluru et al. In order to solve (8). to compute these products one need only compute (dHM/dq)Aq and (dHE/du)Au.
5.22 37. Crosssection of scanning mirror. The next step is to use these tools to automatically generate macromodels of micromachined devices. The CPU time for 10 load steps for the fully elastic case was 16. and make possible accurate simulation of systems which use micromachined devices. 8. 7. .N. 2 4 6 8 10 12 Differential voltage in v for scanning mirror Fig.5 +v 37. Conclusions Simulation of entire microdevices is becoming more routine in engineering design thanks to a combination of fast integral equation solvers.4 v of the experimental data. 6. o experiment .13 v as opposed to 13. 4. 8) shows a close match of the simulation in the linear regime and convergence failure corresponding to pullin is obtained at 12.8 h as opposed to 58 min for the rigid/elastic case. for coupleddomain analysis. Scanning mirror (coarse mesh). 5) to show a very close match. It is now possible to simulate the coupleddomain behavior of an entire micromachined design in under an hour on a workstation rather than days or weeks on a supercomputer. and 500 x 600 x 25 [xm SiN on Si central plate kept at 0 v. For a coarse mesh the elastic/rigid simulation is compared with the fully elastic simulation (Fig.simulation (30x30x3 block 3x4x3 hinges) 5 10 15 differential voltage in volts 20 Fig.5 V All dim in microns Fig. fully elastic (8x10x2 block 2x2x3 hinges) Ov 12 500 251 . Mirror tilt with differential voltage v. The plot (Fig. and mixedregime techniques. Elastic/rigid matrix reduction. Alum et al. .5 ± v volts. On an average each load step took 80 min (Digital Alpha 433 MHz). /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Rigid/elastic . The ground electrodes are kept at 37. multilevelNewton methods 0 "^ 200 Fig.
1979. IEEE Trans. Finite Element Procedures. A MultilevelNewton algorithm with macromodeling and latency for the analysis of large scale nonlinear circuits in the time domain. Aluru N. November 1991. April 1999. White J. April 1998. RokhUn V. Proc.7(3): 105126. Schultz MH. SIAM J Sci Statist Comput 1994. [11] pole method for the Laplace equation in three dimensions. adaptive. Numer Math 1989.60:187207. White J. Aluru NR. pp. [6] Nabors K. International Conference on SolidState Sensors and Actuators (Transducers '99). Nature 1986. [7] Nabors K. 1996. pp. [8] Bachtold M. On the fast matrix multiplication in the boundary element method by panel clustering. Dickensheets DL. A precorrectedFFT method for electrostatic analysis of complicated 3D structures. March 1998. Freeman DM. June. No. A new version of the fast multi [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] . White J. SIAM J Sci Statist Comput 1990.Micromachined Scanning Confocal Optical Microscope. White J. New York 1996. microfluidics and muri programs. Leighton FT.59: 275280. White J. Viscous drag on a lateral microresonator: fast 3D fluid simulation and measured data. Cambridge. IEEE Transactions on ComputerAided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems. The Adaptive. 1. mixedregime electromechanical simulation. 1999. Bakes H. 1992.54:463491. A hierarchical 0{N\ogN) forcecalculation algorithm. GMRES: A generalized minimal residual algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems. multipoleaccelerated iterative methods for threedimensional firstkind integral equations of potential theory. 1988. Sensors and Actuators. Silicon . Wang X. CAS26(9):733741. IEEE SolidState Sensor and Actuator Workshop. pp.10:14471459. This work was supported by the DARPA composite CAD. Acta Numer 1997. NJ.11: 450481. Semiconductors. Hemmert W. on ComputerAided Design. [3] Hockney RW.324:446449. A fast integral equation technique for analysis of micro flow sensors based on drag force calculations. [12] [13] References [1] Youcef Saad. and Joe Kanapka. Wang X. Saad Y Hybrid Krylov Methods for Nonlinear Systems of Equations. International Conference on ModeHng and Simulation of Microsystems. Fast coupleddomain. HiltonHead Island. a precorrectedFFT accelerated 3D Stokes Solver. as well as grants from the Semiconductor Research Corporation and the National Science Foundation. Efficiency and accuracy improvements for FastStokes. International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems. SangiovanniVincenteUi A. Hut P. White JK. [2] Barnes J. October 1997. 1997. New York: Adam Hilger. IEEE Trans. Pozrikidis C. White J. Korvink JO. [9] Phillips JR. 283286. [5] Hackbusch W. June 1999. Computer simulation using particles. Rabbat NB. Aluru et al. on Circuits and Systems. 314317. ASME Dynamic Systems and Control (DSC) Series. San Juan. Joel Phillips. 229269. Cambridge University Press. Ramaswamy D. SIAM J Sci Statist Comput 1986. Bathe KJ. Preconditioned. SC. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the many students who have developed codes described above including Keith Nabors. Eastwood JW. Zurich. Sendai Japan. Aluru NR. Ye W. Hsieh HY. Proc. Korsmeyer FT. 7. 16(10): 10591072. Semiconductors. Sensors and Actuators. [4] Rokhlin V. Rapid solution of integral equation of classical potential theory J Comput Phys 1985. 14. Brown PN. Nowak ZP. microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).A^. Kino GS. White J. PrenticeHall. A coupled numerical technique for selfconsistent analysis of microelectromechanical systems. [10] Greengard L. Boundary integral and singularity methods for linearized viscous flow. Englewood Chffs. Fastcap: a multipole accelerated 3D capacitance extraction program. MultipoleAccelerated BEM for the Computation of Electrostatic Forces. Kanapka J. pp.15(3):713735. J Microelectromech Syst Vol. Santa Clara. CAD for MEMS. Sept. Ye W.
pv. a convex polygon. we are going to discuss its application.A. The numerical approximation of the problem becomes nontrivial when the product of s times a characteristic length of the problem (for instance.1) Here Q is. V) := / a(jc)Vw • Vvdx I fvdx VUG V (1. 2: Linear elliptic problems with composite materials: find M in V := H^(^) such that: Lu := . exhibiting sharp changes on a scale that is much smaller than the diameter of ^ . subgrid scales cannot be neglected./ i" /• CVUV&K (1.ian. Keywords: Residual free bubble. one for each category: the case of advection diffusion problems and the case of composite materials.4) The first example corresponds to problems where an unsuited numerical scheme can generate spurious oscillations in the numerical solution. M = 0 on dQ. The variational formulation of (1. (1. (a{x)Vu) = / in ^ . we shall choose very simple toy problems that will. will just exhibit a boundary layer .N.C. by considering two typical examples.X2).. they are related to physical phenomena that actually take place on a very small scale. but still have an important effect on the solution. which are not present in the exact solution (that in general. All rights reserved. augmented problems. and stabilizations Franco Brezzi * Dipartimento di Matematica and I. x = (xi. Stabilization 1. c a given vectorvalued smooth function (convective term). then to do an elementbyelement preprocessing. The variational formulation of (1. In what follows. / a given smooth forcing term. the * Email: brezzi@dragon.2) doc Vi. € V. v) := I eVu Vvdx \.V . a convex polygon. In recent times. Italy Abstract We present an overview of some recent approaches to deal with instabiUties of numerical schemes and/or subgrid phenomena.3) is find M e V such that £(M.N. In other cases. and finally solve a problem with the same number of unknowns as the one we started with.J.Subgrid scales. Q is.cnr. however. but having better numerical properties. somehow.3) becomes nontrivial when a has a fine structure. it was discovered that some mathematical tricks to deal with these problems can help in both situations. say. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.R. Via Ferrata 1 27100 Pavia. The numerical approximation of (1. we consider: 1: Advectiondominated scalar equations: find umV:= H^(Q) such that Lu:= sAu{cS/u = f in ^ . and represents. w = 0 on dQ. and s a positive scalar (diffusion coefficient). still retain some of the basic difficulties of their bigger industrial counterparts.1) is find u e V such that C(u. Clearly. and / a given smooth forcing term. Sometimes. Introduction In a number of applications. In particular. say. For dealing with these problems. One of these tricks is based on the socalled Residual Free Bubbles (RFB).it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. in a typical mathematical fashion.3) As before. the characteristics of a composite material. they are just a spurious byproduct of a discretized scheme that lacks the necessary stability properties. Bathe (Editor) diameter of Q) is much smaller than c in a nonnegligible part of the domain. The basic idea is that of enlarging (as much as one can) the finite element space. The (given) scalar function a{x) is assumed to be greater than a given positive constant ao in the whole domain Q. (1.
v) to be used for each problem. Bh(K):=H^(K) V^ € 7^.3) This is the linear system that.4). (2. would allow to express each wf in terms of Uh. will have a very definite structure. from now on. [8. for the first example. that associates to every function g (for instance in L^(K)) the solution SK(g) e H^{K) of C{SK{g). Vh) = (/. v) = (/. the implementation could also follow a path that is apparently quite different.3).F. where L* is the adjoint operator of L. for both types of problems.5) could still be acceptable.7 WKeTh. VA) (2. Indeed. We also play the game that the dimension of Vh is the biggest one we are ready to afford. ( . at an affordable cost. However.7).L''vi) Fr. and the corresponding augmented problem Ifindu e VA such that C(UA. and substitute in UA = Uh + UB its expression as given by (2. this corresponds to classical stabilized methods like SUPG (see e.v) = {g.10]. looking at (2.5) and (2. Vh) . Brezzi/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics near the part of the boundary where c • n > 0. in practice. that we might think of to exploit. V) Wv e Bh(K).6) and write the solution i/f of (2. in each K e % ^Q can take where the v^ are the usual nodal basis for Vh. we have to evaluate only terms of the type C(SK(g). all over the domain.^A) ^Vh^Vh. can be written as (SKig).4) is infinite dimensional. (2.g. we have L*v = —sAu — c . if solvable. In the sequel.9]). For the second example. from (2. we are going to solve. according to (2. It can be seen (see e.2) We consider now the augmented space VA:=VheBh. for the moment. The residual free bubbles approach We notice. and L* = L for the second one (where L is selfadjoint). where n is the outward unit vector normal to 9 ^ . only the mean value of SK(g) is needed. that the two problems presented in the Section 1 have variational formulations sharing the same structure: I find u ^V such that I C{u. However. in turn. we are going to give the basic idea of a general strategy that can prove useful. It is also possible to check that. This term. Clearly the terms appearing in (2. This will not be the case for our second example. We are now ready to go back to (2.Y^C{SK{Luh). in the end. possibly in different ways.v) yveH^(K) (2. in order to compute the terms depending on SK appearing in (2. we assume now that we are given a decomposition 7^ of ^ into triangles. for instance.Luh). e V. it is sufficient to compute the quantities Sl:j:=(SK(vi). in [13. the major difficulty is in the actual solution of the local problems (2.7.8) have to be computed in some approximate way. (2. Clearly. take v = Vh. We start by considering the space of bubbles BnTlKBhiK). when we solve the final system of linear equations. and therefore unsolvable.5) as wf = SK^/ . UB will be a sum of local bubble functions wf.^/. On the contrary. the second example corresponds to problems where a fine structure is already present. we can introduce the solution operator SK.1) where. VA) ^VA e VA (2.5) that. this would correspond to a twolevel method of the type of the ones studied.8) = (/. However. At the formal level. Under these assumptions (that is given these rules) we can proceed as follows.4) Notice that (2.6) to obtain C{uh. provided that such work could be done in parallel. and in particular elementbyelement. Vh) that. to every basis . Still we can consider it. see for instance [5. i. we notice that.5). [24.5) Equation (2.g.14].) Vi. and needs to be captured by the numerical scheme.4) that the restriction wf of UB to K is the unique solution of the following local bubble equation: find UB ^ Bh(K) such that C(u^s. considering for instance the first example. where SKig) will be integrated against a term depending on a(x).7]) that. in the end. however. we are ready to afford some extra work. The difference is just in the type of biUnear form C(u. In its turn.vi) and V/.= L%SK(f). This implies that a rough approximate solution of (2.1). For the sake of simplicity we assume that we start with finite element spaces Vh made of piecewise linear continuous functions vanishing on 9^. V := HQ(Q) and.)X!>^(<5i^(/). with the usual nondegeneracy requirements. (2. ) denotes the inner product in L^(^). to start with. Hence. that is: UB = J2K "f • Therefore. L*Vh will be constant in each element. Fixing our ideas on either one of the abstract formulations (2. V) + (/.7). in both cases. V e Bh(K) and obtain. as a preprocessor before building the stiffness matrix. at the level of an abstract speculation. in principle. L*Vh).Vu for the first one. (2.6. V) = C(UH. In our two examples. An important observation is now that. present difficulties that look similar to solving the original problems. we can split UA as UA = UU + UB.7) 2. We then notice that.
Griffiths DF.96:117129.32:199259. (2. Hughes TJR. [9] [10] [11] References [ 1 ] Arbogast T. to appear. Dundee.4:265278. In: Proc.* = 0 in ^ mK Wi = v[ on dK. dim(V. Bristeau MO. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1998. Conf. (2.4) coincide with the nodal values of the solution of the problem: find Wh.4:571587. linear combination of the wj/s. (2. SUli E. Franca LP. Franca LP. Russo A. Generalised Galerkin methods for second order equations with significant first derivative terms. for the first example. Hughes TJR.). Convergence of a multiscale finite element method for elliptic problems with rapidly oscillating coefficients. A multiscale finite element method for elliptic problems in composite materials and porous media.9) [5] ondK. Hou TY. Wu XH. .11) [7] [8] On the other hand. Franca LP. (2. In: Chen Z. as discussed. Numer Math.9:8388. [4] Brezzi F. in each K.1012]. . Mulfiphase Flows and Transport in Porous Media: State of the Art. A relationship between stabilized finite element methods and the Galerkin method with bubble functions. Stabilized finite element methods: I.7). for instance. Deriving upwinding. Mallet M.36:19331948. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1998. Russo A. b = f g.10 F. For applications of these concepts to different problems see for instance [1. Russo A. A twolevel finite element method and its application to the Helmholtz equation. Mitchell AR. For the second example. such that C(wh. Math Comp 1999. the computation of the solution in the form (2. Numerical subgrid upscaling of twophase flow in porous media. Marini D. Lecture Notes in Physics. J Comput Phys 1997. in [15].630:90104. [3] Brezzi F. 166:5163. Brooks AN. Bienn. Berlin: Springer. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng. Franca LP. Brezzi / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics priori error analysis of a finite element method with residualfree bubbles for advecfiondominated equations. this corresponds to the use of suitable basis functions (adapted to the operator) in the PetrovGalerkin formulation. Macedo AP. Russo A. Brezzi F. Applications of pseudo residualfree bubbles to the stabilization of convectiondiffusion problems.95:253276. Ewing RE. . Franca LP. Cai Z. Lect Notes Math 1978. Residualfree bubbles for advectiondiffusion problems: the general error analysis. 1982. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1997. Marini D. Hughes TJR.134:169189. Wu XH. SIAM JNumer Anal 1999. .145:329339. A [12] [13] [14] [15] . 2000. It can be checked that the nodal values of the solution M^ of (2. Brezzi F. Russo A. Frey SL. Brezzi F. Shi ZC (Eds).43:2332. Roge G. Marini LD. Franca LP. are solutions of the problems Lwi =Q and L*K. Hou TY.68:913943. Suli E. Approximation of the Stokes problem by residualfree macro bubbles. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1992. Appl Math Lett 1996. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1992. Applications to advectivediffusive model. Math Mod Methods Appl Sci 1994. Hughes TJR. Streamline Upwind/PetrovGalerkin formulations for convection dominated flows with particular emphasis on the incompressible NavierStokes equations. EastWest J Numer Math 1996. O V/ = 1 . w*) = (/.10) [6] Clearly wt = w* whenever L is selfadjoint. mass lumping and selective reduced integration by residualfree bubbles. Choosing bubbles for advectiondiffusion problems.. [2] Brezzi F.11) is actually the original formulation of [13]. It is also interesting to notice that. 1977.11) requires essentially the same amount of work as the computation in the form (2. function v'^ G VH we can associate two other functions wi and If* that. Russo A.
535 Garden Avenue North. and computing technologies are enumerated. Beginning with a 'real' single design office that relied on drawing boards. Cosner^ ^ Senior Technical Fellow. P. manufacturing and support of conmiercial airplanes.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. especially that of the finite element method and the computing architecture that supports these tools. The Boeing Company. As the 21st century is entered. USA Senior Technical Fellow. Ongoing trends are presented. development and certification of flight vehicles. the primary objective is to perform product lifecycle simulation with a design office that is virtually collocated using geographically distributed. faster and larger computers were best. WA 98055. through certification activities and customer support. Background A highlevel overview is presented of how the designanalysis process for airframe vehicles has evolved from 1930 to the present time. Keywords: Computational structures technology (CST). analysis. opportunities for advancing certain engineering. Louis. RaymondR. All rights reserved. Computational Structures Technology. however. using examples of typical structural and aerodynamic applications. Fax: +1 (425) 2348539. is iterative because of the complex * Corresponding author. as shown in Fig. and because of the complex structural arrangements required within the vehicles. 3. As we moved into the 1970s. this process changed dramatically during the 1960s when computers were introduced into the technical workplace. Computational Fluid Dynamics. These methods rely heavily on the wellestablished FEA (finite element analysis) and finite volume techniques initially developed for industrial applications during the late 1950s. Specific engineering technologies. Renton. Bathe (Editor) operating environments in which the vehicles must perform. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) 1. St. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. This constraint provided the impetus . The finite element method for structural analysis Whereas the FEA method was used only for structural verification purposes during the 1960s. information. Tel. Box 516. The aeroelastic design process The aeroelastic design process for aerospace vehicles. Finally.: +1 (425) 2343407. extensive use of analytical and computational methods are currently used during the design.dreisbach@boeing. To obviate exhaustive static and dynamic physical laboratory and flights tests for optimally designing the aerodynamic vehicle and sizing the various structural components for all flight regimes. were advanced by independent organizations. Dreisbach^*. 2. but specialized engineering applications and data had to be interfaced from one computer code to another. Email: rodney. 1.l. computing and process viewpoints. it is currently used in the design development of all primary aerospace structure beginning with the configuration development phase. USA Abstract Evolution of the airframe design analysis process during the past seven (7) decades is summarized from engineering technology.11 Trends in the design analysis of aerospace vehicles Rodney L. The Boeing Company. Current thrusts and overall integration strategies for product simulation integration (PSI) in Boeing are highlighted relative to the objectives of reducing costs and cycle time in the design. the tightly coupled system integration of different disciplines.J. The mainframe computing capabilities during the 1960s limited the maximum size of the mathematical system of equations to less than 6000. collaborative computing. Mail Code 67MW.O. Aeroelastic analysis. by identifying selected problem areas being addressed by today's industries. MO 61366. Mail Code SI067126.
The iterative aeroelastic design process for aerospace vehicles. FEA models of total transport airplanes typically represent fairly detailed structural arrangements when the analysis objectives are to predict internal loads and stresses in the airframes. This is quite a contrast to being limited to 6000 equations during the 1960s. including tool design and manufacturing process improvements. and for increasing the sophistication and detailed resolution of the fluid physics models (e. typical airplane FEA model sizes have exceeded 300.000 degrees of freedom! However.R. Today. .000 degrees of freedom (equations).12 R. Frontloading the design process by having designers perform rudimentary analyses is a step toward true con current engineering. That is. turbulence models). Aerodynamic analysis characteristics The general trends in aerodynamic analysis are the same as previously discussed for structural analysis. the FEA tools have become very easy to use by designers interested in earlylooks at how their structural design will perform in its operating environment. As a result. R. for 3D multiblock analyses on structured grids. This change from the previously used. These techniques have allowed flow times for selected design/analysis processes to be reduced by orders of magnitude! 4. more solution variables per grid point. flutter. Cosner /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Sttffness Balaiioed toads Presses Fig. with the ongoing revolutionary advancements in computing power. Dreisbach. sequential 'designthenanalyze' process allows early computerbased analyses performed by designers to be shared with the analysts. 1. computational grids of 5. there is a clear desire for steadily improving the geometric fidelity of the CFD models. where its use for structural analysis spans static. Today's use of the FEA method is extremely diverse. solution of this type of large problem for a single load case can be performed in less than 30 minutes! Furthermore.g. This approach has resulted in early FEA models of complex single parts that exceed 300. shape optimization of structural parts using designgeometry parameters having automated associativity can be performed just as easily.. crossfunctional interactions between aeroelastics. to develop the substructured FEA analysis method that is published widely and is provided as an optional solution technique in many vendorsupplied codes. Another recent trend is use of the FEA method much earlier in the product definition process.000 points are very common.L. linear and nonlinear geometry and material characteristics. and more stringent convergence criteria to attain high accuracy.000. These factors lead to larger computational grids. propulsion and acoustics. dynamic and weight computations. With everincreasing computing power and more capable tools.
to that of using a single computing workstation userinterface to perform all of the necessary computing functions. For the larger problems. 2. The primary objectives of PSI are: (1) establish and enhance preferred engineering and business processes. analysis. 'Integration' is the close binding of our design.Analysis ^ r ^ s Ar^lyas Ftepc^itwy liliiliBiiiii ^ructurari T ^ Data Ftediwtbn FJI J h Flight Test IMM F M I ^ I I C M I "'^ Automated Airplano SIsdng ^ f%oduet Inforrtmtlon R0trl#val CuMomw Airline Ef^ii^re ManyfoetUiing Fig. and (3) integrate structural analysis and test with product definition information and manufacturing to reduce cycle time and costs.Si Jug . and adopting industry standards for sharing of these data to facilitate longterm data access. Computing architecture The trend in computing hardware architecture for aerospace vehicle design and analysis processes have been moving away from mainframe computing campuses to that of clientserver distributed networked configurations. Current trends are away from using multiple computers in support of different technological functions. The 'Product' is the airplanes we design and build.R. computing times of a few hundred CPUhours are fairly common. there are five to seven solution variables per point. where data translators are passe and commonality in the manmachine interfaces is unified. known as the PSI for Structures project. Product simulation integration (PSI) technology and data relationships for aerospace vehicle design. Fundamental to the success of the PSI project in meeting its goals are establishing standard processes. Parallel computing has been widely adopted for these types of analyses. analysis.000 points are fairly common. and consistent retrieval. and support of commercial airplanes.000. associating lifecycle information to the product definition data for easy. This allows data to be reused and shared by multiple technologies. The PSI (product simulation integration) project A strategic initiative at BCAG. 'Simulation' is the analytical and test processes performed to predict inservice behavior of the airplane structure in support of design requirements and objectives.L Dreisbach. is underway to reduce costs and cycle time in the design. reliable. manufacturing and support processes with the associated product information.R. and grids of up to 20. and migrate legacy applications and data. Cosner /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 13 A#m@lastle Finite Elmmtt Analysis DstaiM Analysis . 2. 6. and the services we provide to customers for their airplane operations. Typical solution files can range from a few hundred megabytes up to nearly a gigabyte today. 5. with the problem sizes steadily increasing. For more complex problems involving chemical reactions. there can be several dozens of solution variables per point. (2) improve the suite of engineering methods and tools. R. as it supports reduced costs and cycle time. The overall technologies and data relationships associated with the PSI project are shown in Fig. In perfect gas analyses. . Another significant trend in computing is tighter vertical integration of functionalities within single computing systems.
Tie to digital product definition By linking analyses to the product definition data. 6.g. To be successful. • An integrated. strength. need smart techniques for product definition information representation. but at a minimum will be logically linked. need concurrent engineering solutions of multiphysicsbased problems based on knowledge sharing. as well as sustaining. topology vs. many different data models are created by translations to specific technology application codes. in satisfying the multifunctional operational specifications of an aerospace vehicle. Opportunities that currendy exist for advancing numerous areas of computational mechanics to virtually simulate. need stronger university/industry internships and innovative facilitated educational (advisory) techniques for 'justintime' learning. shape vs. thus lowering training. proprietary data representations are used. Focus has been on optimizing the mathematical models and not the product itself (e. analyze. and service history of the airplane parts and assemblies are made available for derivative airplane design and analysis. However. need standards for data modeling and information sharing. • Free exchange of accurate product definition informa 8. 6. singlesource. in a realistic manner. in principal. Increased demands on the operational requirements of products have provoked interactions between multiple technology domains. Transfer of new technologies into practice takes many years. more advanced computational engineering techniques for performing designanalysisoptimizationsynthesis activities concurrently. product information management system is essentially nonexistent. records that substantiate the design decisions. we can unplug the old analysis or information management tool and plug in a new one without extensive conversion and disruption to the engineers and customers. topography). These needs are being driven by increased demands for efficiency. process support. R. Standard processes and computing systems Standard processes reduce variability in the way we design. strength optimization of structural gages vs. Out best opportunity to preserve the data we generate today and minimize regeneration tomorrow is through the adoption of standards for information exchange.3. Solutions to multiphysics problems are overly compromised by expansive assumptions (decoupling of analysis fields such as combustion simulation from structural response simulation). safety and multifunctional operational requirements placed on future aerospace systems [1.g. Dreisbach. Data exchange standards • Evolving computing software and hardware systems have made the task of information retrieval increasingly difficult with time. Opportunities for advancement In developing future aerospace vehicles during the 21st century. but an integrated data environment is preferred. these data must be available for the life of the airplane products. as well as provide easy access to multiple computing operating systems and environments. with little integration. in a realistic manner.. Summary Incredible advances have been made in multiple areas of computational mechanics technologies and in process implementations within industry for developing new aerospace vehicles during the past seven (7) decades.L. challenges abound for more innovative technologies and products than ever before. Design constraints with different fidelities across multidisciplines are different. Major advances are required in numerous areas of computational mechanics to virtually simulate. Standard computing systems reduce training due to a common look and feel of the system. . where required. • • • • • • • • 7. and sustaining costs. • Current design/analysis tools are mostly standalone.R. Product data redundancy is prevalent. need fully coupled solution techniques (e.. comprehensive computing architecture for a global design/analysis system does not exist. The current throughput of computational mechanics solutions is marginally acceptable for singledisciplined engineering problems. damage tolerance analyses. the lifecycle of an aerospace vehicle before physical prototyping. mapping and integration in support of the continuous design evolution process. combustion simulation on structural response).2]. most tools operate in a local environment. Then. focus has been on a federated data environment. Current efforts are underway to extend the definition of SSPD (single source product definition) to include analysis and test data that may not necessarily be physically linked. durability. computing. and support our airplane products. the lifecycle of an aerospace vehicle before physical prototyping. Cosner /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tion is difficult.14 R.2. Costing tools and methods in support of product design are inadequate. are noted below. 6.1. Simulation of lifecycle systems using a common. are needed to attain higher levels of product functional prototyping in a virtual environment.
Peak RS. . June 1215. MA.R. R. Part 3: Steps toward multifunctional optimization. Comput Struct 2000.L. Cambridge. [2] Noor AK. 2001. Cosner /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics References [1] Dreisbach RL. Structures technology for future aerospace systems. Enhancing engineering design and analysis interoperability. In: First MIT Conference on Compu 15 tational Fluid and Solid Mechanics. Venneri SL. Paul DB. Dreisbach.R.74(5):507519. Hopkins MA.
A commonly used strategy to deal with this issue is to conduct detailed 'local' analyses to supplement the 'global' analysis. near one of the towers.B. and superstructure. Fax: + \ (415) 4330807. The local buckling predicted by the analysis will be prevented by installation of stiffeners inside the cells. This model uses a 6 x 6 stiffness matrix to represent each pile below the mudline. which is modeled by gap elements supporting the finite element mesh. The relationship between the two models is that the simple model is a linearization of the direct one. the tradeoffs between simple and detailed models. Local and global modeling It is often impractical to include every detail of a large bridge in a comprehensive 'global' seismic analysis. shown on the left in Fig. with a minimum number of parameters. 3. 1. San Francisco. and rocking of the base. Lin International. An example of a simple model is the model of the pile foundation supporting a typical pier of the new East Bay Bridge. Database 1. 2. CA 94111. Keywords: Seismic analysis. 2. . was used to analyze the stability of the plates making up the individual cells of the tower. The global model is used to compute the total response of the bridge. from abutment to abutment. USA Abstract The use of local and global models and the tradeoffs between simple and detailed models are discussed in the context of the seismic analysis of bridges.Y. The global model of the bridge is shown on the left in Fig.D. Ingham*'^ T. including the foundations. A simple model is one that is easily constructed and understood. The local model of the tower base. This issue is illustrated by the analysis of the towers of the Golden Gate Bridge. which may include 20003000 time steps. with nonlinear geometry and an elastoplastic material. is shown on the right in Fig. which is modeled by *Tel.: +1 (415) 2913781. Simple versus direct modeling Another issue related to the level of detail used in a global model is the use of 'simple' models versus 'direct' models. The size of this model is limited by the demanding requirements of a time history analysis. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. only the piles are shown. 2. Associate. Introduction Three issues related to the complexity of modeling bridges for seismic analysis are discussed in this paper: the use of local and global models. including the overall demands on the tower. A global model is a complete model of a bridge. The modeling of the base of the tower is the minimum able to capture the important nonlinear response of the tower. 1. Bathe (Editor) finite elements with an elastoplastic material. the pile behavior is simple and readily understood. All rights reserved.16 Issues in the seismic analysis of bridges Tim J. the figure only shows a portion of the model. This includes yielding of the extreme fibers of the base.7].J. used for detailed evaluation and the design of retrofit measures. made for the seismic retrofit of that bridge [5. S. examples are presented from various projects. A more 'direct' model of the same foundation is shown on the right in Fig. and the management of analysis using a database. 825 Battery Street. Bridge. Email: tingham@tylin. The management of time history analysis using a database is also presented. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. piers.. This shell element model.com 1 Ph. Each pile is modeled with a beam element and the surrounding soil is modeled with nonlinear py springs (perpendicular to each pile) and nonlinear tz springs (parallel to each pile).
J. Other examples of this tradeoff may be found in references [24]. hence the term 'direct'. using ADINA [1]. This depends on the level of deformation of the pile. and the volume of results to be handled is less. In any case. but underlying its simplicity is the linearization of the behavior. and the initial work of linearization and the tedious job of constantly checking it are eliminated. This file must be searched for the critical . 2.T. 1. If automated methods are used to generate the more detailed model and to process the results (see below) the direct model only has the disadvantage of needing more CPU time for its solution. The simple model has the virtue of running more quickly. Local and global models for analysis of the Golden Gate Bridge. With the direct model the computer solves the equations of motion of the pile and soil at each time step. the analysis of the model shown in Fig. like the replacement spans of the East Bay Bridge [6]. 4. Simple and direct models for analysis of the East Bay Bridge. Ingham /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 17 Fig. The virtue of the direct model is that the assumptions (about soil behavior. produces a large volume of data. the level of detail to include in a model is the analyst's choice.02 s) produces a result filethe porthole filethat is over three gigabytes in size. Superstructure Pile above mudline Foundation Fig. in the case of the pile) are at a more fundamental level and more easily appreciated. For instance. Data management The time history analysis of a large bridge. balancing the effort required to generate the model and to process the results against the clarity of the assumptions involved. so the analyst must constantly verify that the linearization is compatible with the results obtained. The management of this data is an important issue in the design process. 3 for 60 s of an earthquake (3000 time steps at 0.
the process is managed by a compiled Microsoft Access database that contains the forms used to define the structure. and to specify the pile type. 4. The ground motions and the data defining the structure are kept in separate Access data files. which shows the process of analysis and interpretation of results. and moment for each member and the results summarized for easy interpretation and design. On the East Bay Bridge project. and the reports used to present results. East Bay Bridge analysis. Access Database. and to summarize analysis results for design. A typical form in the database system is shown in Fig.J. combining the model and result data.. and in Fig. the database is ideally suited to summarizing the results for a large number of members and for several ground motions. 6. The ADINA program stores results in a 'porthole' file. . which is a binary file with a complex structure.g. As shown in Fig. both of these issues were addressed by using a database to store structure and model data. The advantages of the database are several. the code needed to generate models — and input files — for analysis. East Bay Bridge analysis. which shows the different files involved. The structure data file provides a central location for the storage of design data. Analysts working on different parts of the structure can generate models from this single file and they have ready access to common data — e. Po'^trcle ~^^ File 1 Fig. 5. East Bay Bridge. using the database system an analyst may choose to analyze the complete structure or just a part of it — e. to generate input files for analysis.rnde File  '• Fig. the main span. 3. And.nde File Forns Code Reports / Model and / / Result Data / f Reports Eesigr Process ^. Finally. Ingham/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics t^^ h^ K k Fig. This particular form is used to describe the layout of the piles at each pier. A 'porthole reader' program is used to scan this file and transfer the maximum and minimum forces for each member to the result data file. model of main span. This approach is shown schematically in Fig. . Access Database. process.T. Also. and passes the data onto specialty design programs. 4. Automating and standardizing the production of input files eliminates tedious work and minimizes errors. or a single pier. the maintenance of the model to reflect design changes is a significant problem. This program may be contained in a dynamic link library integrated with the compiled database or it may be a standalone program [8].rf — J A D I M A >— . 4. shear. The structure file contains the data describing the complete structure. combinations of axial force. the compiled database produces the reports needed for design. For the chosen portion of the structure the elements and nodal connectivity describing the resulting model are written to the model data file at the same time that the ADINA input files are produced. standard pile types. file structure.g. 5. Forms Code Reports .
model generation. ADINA R&D. [4] [5] [6] References [1] ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide. Chan J. ModeUng of friction pendulum bearings for [7] [8] the seismic analysis of bridges. Rodriguez S. Ingham TJ.TJ. Proceedings of the 16th International Bridge Conference. Nader M. Pittsburgh. [3] Ingham TJ. Seismic retrofit of Vincent Thomas suspension bridge. 5. 6. Baker G. pile modeling and layout form. Seismic Protective Systems for the Stiffening Trusses of the Golden Gate Bridge. 1999. Ingham TJ. Cambridge. Seismic analysis of bridges with pile foundations. Ingham TJ. In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics. PA. MA. Transportation Research Record No. Rodriguez S. Seismic modeling and analysis of the Golden Gate Bridge. San Diego. CA. The use of automated methods for data storage. Access database for model generation. SC Solutions. Santa Clara. Comput Struct 1999. Conclusions The seismic analysis of large bridges presents many choices regarding the level of detail to include in a global model and the analysis of critical components. SCPorthole7 Program. CA. June 1215. Ingham /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 19 _ W» W^ Im Vi^^ ffietmn. Ingham T.i v The ctef)K:t«ai and dampBig facfty ^e onKf used "]> fix piie ir»¥«d^ce matriK aid hytrid models aid 0. . [2] Baker G. 1998. 1999. Proceedings of the Structural Engineers World Congress. Heathcote D. 2001.015915 X for pfe cap Irrf)edarc8 matrix mocteis u u Fig. 1998. Transportation Research Board. CA.72:4962. i^eot^ kin ^ B Deflection Damping Factor Re Lajfout Sdtrfamr ^rMod^io yge Cap" to tem aph cap mpedegxem^k^ o. 1995. Nader M. MA. Seismic Design Strategy for the New San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge Suspension Span. and the manipulation of results is an important factor in the complexity of the models that can be practicably handled. Manzanarez R. Rodriguez S. Donikian R. Ingham T. San Francisco. Proceedings of the National Seismic Conference on Bridges and Highways. Cambridge. 1624.
The idea was introduced in a note by JL Lions and O Pironneau [1] and since then it has been applied to a number of situations.327(I):947952.S. [6] Lions JL. to appear.A. C. [2] Lions JL.R. of course made precise. Maday. The lecture will try to present the main ideas of the following ones.A. .328(I):7380. and where u is subject to boundary conditions. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Remarks on the control of everything. Lions JL. Heterogeneous decomposition Let us consider an equation A(u) = f (1) in a domain ^ c R'^. Domain decomposition methods for CAD. Numer Math. Cf. J Anal Math. Domain decomposition. also a paper in preparation with Y. (6) Time decomposition: [7]. Lions * Institut de France. to appear in Numerische Mathematik. to appear. Quarteroni A.80:257297. Paris 2000. [8] Lions JL. [8]. Virtual control. All rights reserved. or not).S. Decomposition of energy spaces and applications. Lions JL. allows a lot of flexibility in the construction of algorithms for the approximation of the solution of (1). Barcelona. 75006 Paris. Heterogeneous coupling by virtual control methods. in a domain Q (which can coincide with Q. (5) High precision with low order finite elements: [6]. Paris 1999. Bathe (Editor) References [1] Lions JL. C.329(I):445452. In (2) the RHS contains two terms.A. Pironneau O.330(I):4754. not specified here. Controllability.20 Virtual control algorithms J. France Abstract Some recent advances in the development of virtual control algorithms for the approximate solution of boundary value problems are presented. [5] Gervasio P. Fax: +33 (1) 44271704. Eccomass. Email: jacqueslouis. September 2000. C. This type of idea.R.fr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.R. In control theory terminology.S. [3] Lions JL.S. It is to be chosen in such a way that y allows to recover the solution u of (1). Keywords: Virtual control algorithms. where y is subject to adequate boundary conditions on 9 ^ . exacdy (resp.L. Pironneau O. approximately). [5]. [4] Glowinski R. (1) Domain decomposition methods: see [1] above and [2]. *Tel. approximate) controllability. Pironneau O. Virtual and effective control for distributed systems and the decomposition of everything.A. Hebrew Univ. We embed the problem in a family of relaxed problems By = g + k (2) (4) Heterogeneous decompositions: follows a paper by Gervasio et al. 23 quai de Conti.J. replicas and decomposition of operators. the socalled virtual control algorithms.R. The function g is constructed depending on / and the function X (scalar or vectorial) is a virtual control. Pironneau O. (7) Towards meshless methods: paper in preparation. to appear. Algorithmes paralleles pour la solution de problemes aux limites. C. (3) Decomposition of energy spaces: [4]. [7] Lions JL. Pironneau O. where A is an elliptic operator (linear or not. Paris 1999.: +33 (1) 44271708. of Jerusalem 2000. (2) Decomposition of operators: [3]. scalar or vectorial). Paris 1998.lions@collegedefrance. related to A but 'simpler' than A. it corresponds to exact (resp. where B is an elliptic operator.
C. most engineers working in automakers and sheet suppliers are software users. Fax: +81 (48) 4624657. wrinkling. University Paris Nord. A quite interesting bulk of information has been obtained in this way. on the benchmark tests organized to obtain reference experimental data for appraising ability of simulation codes. this difficulty tends to increase with the recent use of aluminum alloys and highstrength steels by the car manufacturers. Chrysler Corporation. and springback (see Fig. However. Bathe (Editor) to discuss with engineers and researchers working at die shops and in sheet stamping sections. and Ford Motor. Nissan Motor. 2 illustrates the main types of geometrical defects produced by springback (edited by Yoshida [1]). * Corresponding author. Teodosiu^ ^ The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research — RIKEN. Toyota Motor and Nippon Steel in Japan. and on the attempt to define numerical measures for quantitatively evaluating various geometrical defects. Wako 3510199. Fig. Mazda.21 Numerical methods for prediction and evaluation of geometrical defects in sheet metal forming A. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Geometrical defects. Moreover.riken. 2. A large number of international conferences have been devoted to the sheet metal forming simulation.go. these codes may be divided into five categories based on the formulation and solution . 1). and an extensive literature has been published on this topic throughout the last two decades. The main types of defects occurring in sheet metal forming are tearing. Benchmark test 1. as the cumulative geometrical inaccuracy of the stamped parts may lead to serious trouble during assembling of various parts. because the very trend of sheet forming simulation had undergone significant changes during the last ten years. Introduction Sheet forming simulation is becoming a key technology for automotive manufacturers. The visited companies were Daimler Benz. Japa ^ LPMTM — CNRS. Although a wide variety of FE codes are employed in the industries. Among the three geometrical defects springback is a very sensitive forming defect. aiming at predicting forming defects by using finite element software. Indeed. in order to replace the actual tryout of stamping dies by a computer tryout. Therefore. Volvo Car Corporation and SOLLAC in Europe. Email: akitake@postman. surface deflection. Villetaneuse .: +81 (48) 4679314. Keywords: Sheet metal forming. Requirement from industries In 1998. Springback. Renault Automobiles.J. the authors visited automotive industries and sheet steel suppliers in Europe. France Abstract This paper presents a short overview of the stateoftheart prediction and evaluation of geometrical defects in sheet metal forming. focusing on recent advances in the finite element (FE) simulation. Materials Fabrication Laboratory. All rights reserved. 21 Hirosawa. Makinouchi^'*. The last three types are also called geometrical defects. sheet metal parts producers and stamping tool makers. US Steel and National Steel in the United States.jp © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. the information obtained from these sources was not considered sufficient to address the above issues. The reason of this visit was to prepare our keynote paper on the advance in FEM simulation and its related technologies in sheet metal forming for the CIRP Annual Meeting [2]. Japan and the United States. and their opinion does rarely appear in publications. the authors considered that a direct contact with the technical staff involved in sheet metal forming simulations was a highly necessary prerequisite for learning the actual evaluation of the software used for industrial applications. Tel.
X A. strategy used. Teodosiu /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Tearing Surface deflection Wrinkling Springback Fig. Inspection of this table reveals that the tearing and wrinkling are rather satisfactorily predicted. X X X : satisfactorily predicted. . X o. Main types of defects encountered in sheet metal forming. A = possible to simulate but poor results.22 A. while prediction of the springback is very poor. A X A. C. Most of the engineers strongly emphasized the importance of an accurate springback prediction. Makinouchi. The assessment of the codes by industrial researchers and engineers is summarized for each category in Table 1. x = impossible to simulate. Table 1 Assessment of FE codes by industrial researchers and engineers for each category classified by formulation and solution strategy Solution strategy Formulation FE codes Dynamic explicit Incremental method LSDYNA3D PAMSTAMP OPTRIS All the companies Static explicit ITAS3D Static implicit Large step method MTLFRM AUTO FORM One step method SIMEX ISOPUNCH A F ONE STEP FAST FORM3D Renault Benz Volvo Sollac National Steel Company employing codes Nissan Nippon Steel Ford Benz Volvo Ford Chrysler Nissan Sollac Defects predicted: wrinkling thickness/tearing surface defects geometrical defects after springback A. 1. while the surface deflection is not simulated.
Thus. complex nonlinear problems involving many contacts.A. and hence no system of equations has to be solved. Geometrical defects produced by springback. namely the dynamic explicit. The central difference expUcit scheme is used to integrate the equations of motion. since the equilibrium equations are solved iteratively. in practice.g. [4]). The dynamicexplicit codes are very robust and efficient for largescale problems. 2. In spite of its success for industrial applications. Makinouchi. the simulation of forming defects requires a considerable experience on the user side for adequately designing the finite element mesh and choosing the scaling parameters for mass. the increase of the mass density and of the punch velocity by at least one order of magnitude and the introduction of artificial damping in order to limit the inertial effects. or even lack of convergence. In the staticexplicit approach. several numerical artifacts have to be employed. e. Teodosiu /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Rail Panel 23 Springback angle Side wall curl Twisting Warping Shape fixing defect at punch bottom Fig. the rate forms of the . whereas the nonequilibrated forces are transformed into inertial forces at each step. C. dynamic explicit codes have also some intrinsic drawbacks. and the static explicit codes. The staticimplicit approach may seem ideally suited for metal forming problems. Lumped mass matrices are used.g. may result in slow. FE approach to simulate geometrical defects We shall recall here briefly some of the merits and drawbacks of three main types of FE approaches employed in the simulation of sheet metal forming. Thus. in order to reduce the number of steps necessary to simulate the almost quasistatic deformation processes. 3. However. velocity and damping (see. the static implicit. thus ensuring that the equilibrium conditions are fulfilled at every step. e. Moreover. the results obtained when simulating the springback depend on the type and dimensions of the finite elements and even of the number of integration points [3].
Nakagawa T. 1998. Japan in 1993 [8]. further intensive research effort is necessary to approach to the final goal: designing the optimum tool geometry directly by simulation. C.) [2] Makinouchi A. [6]). Olejnik L. NUMISHEET'96 at Dearborn. 1993. Benchmark tests to evaluate ability of FE codes for prediction of geometrical defects At several international conferences. Makinouchi. FE Simula . The main advantage of this approach is its robustness. Although FE codes were introduced into many industries. under the framework of the international collaborative program. (English translation. Tokyo. References [1] Yoshida K (Ed). because the benchmark results are evaluated by the conference organizing committee. [6] Kawka M. Makinouchi A. 115124. There are many ways of defining such measures. This problem is also a major concern in the 3DS Project. which dissolves after the event. 2. To meet such requirements. [5] Kawka M. Conclusions A short overview of recent activity in numerical methods to predict and evaluate geometrical defects in sheet metal forming is presented. Teodosiu /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. Sunaga H. Simulation of springback in sheet metal forming. An assessment of numerical parameters influencing springback in explicit finite element analysis of sheet metal forming processes. Ann Arbor. a threeyear international research project named Digital Die Design System (3DS) started its activity in 2(XX). USA in 1996 [9]. Mater Process Technol 1998:8081:6067. Intelligent Manufacturing System (IMS). European Union and Japan. In: Shen S. Handbook of Ease or Difficulty in Press Forming. For the purpose of solving this problem. However. in order to obtain reference data. One of the most promising way is to describe the local intrinsic character of the surface by the Gaussian curvature.. NUMIFORM'95. to find the optimized die shapes that are able to produce parts of the exactly designed shape. Yang DY. and thus the obtained solution can gradually drift away from the true one. Shellelement formulation in the static explicit FEM code for the simulation of sheet stamping.24 A. However. it has been practically impossible to further analyze the discrepancies noticed during the conference. Samuelsson A. benchmark tests were organized in order to appraise the capability of FE codes to predict forming defects. the final goal of simulations is to quantitatively evaluate the geometry of stamped parts and. In order to reduce the errors involved by linearizing the incremental analysis. Indeed. [5]). [3] Mattiasson K. Proceedings of AEPA'98. like wrinkling (see. [4] Lee SW. kinematic. 1987. Rosochowski A.g. This implies that equilibrium equations are satisfied only in rate form. Dawson PR (Eds). It is eventually possible to find out a posteriori the reasons for this scattering of experimental data. since it requires no iterative processes. involving no iterations (see. and local features. Advances in FEM simulation and its related technologies in sheet metal forming. NUMISHEET'93 at Isehara.50: 105115. and to represent the global features by the aggregate normal vectors to the surface [11]. Strange A. Modeling wrinkling phenomena in sheet metal forming. Such carefully performed and comprehensively documented experimental tests are expected to become a worldwide recognized database for the validation of numerical methods and codes dealing with the simulation of sheet metal forming processes. France in 1999 [10]. on this basis.47(2):641649. Teodosiu C. most of the benchmark experimental results obtained by different participants disagreed greatly with each other and thus provided rather poor reference data for evaluating the codes. 4. The experimental benchmark tests have been concurrently performed by several teams over the world. like the VDI International Conference held at Zurich. which describe local distortions and their locations. The surface of each defect model possesses some global features. Inc. and NUMISHEET'99 at Besangon. such as the surface being 'bent' or 'twisted'. 6. MI: National Center for Manufacturing Science.g. The obtaining of reliable experimental data. e. by the very existence of intrinsic deviations from perfect equilibrium. is one of main targets of the project. constitutive and equilibrium equations are integrated by a simple forward Euler scheme. the present authors being deeply involved with the technical management of this project. Proc. a relatively large number of small incremental steps have to be used. which describe the overall distortions. while the static implicit codes are hardly able to treat such situations. [7] Proceedings of VDI International Conference. the staticexplicit algorithm is able to simulate defects arising from local instabilities. J. Makinouchi A. Switzerland in 1991 [7]. this will be still not enough for the present requirements of the stamping industry. Thilderkvist P. Ann CIRP 1998. with a controlled and minimized scatter. Fourteen industrial partners and seven academic and research institutes participate to the project from Canada. J Mater Process Technol 1995. pp. Furthermore. it is essential to have clear definitions of forming defects and of the intrinsic values used to evaluate each geometrical defect. e. 1995. Rotterdam: Balkema. unless such instabilities are allowed for by special numerical techniques. Numerical representation of geometrical defects Assuming that a powerful FE code could accurately predict all geometrical defects illustrated in Fig. which require a considerable computational effort.
ComputAided Design 1999. Switzerland. 1993. Kimura F. USA. Japan. Teodosiu/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tion of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Processes in Automotive Industry. France. . [11] Kase K. 25 [10] Proceedings of NUMISHEET'99. Zurich. [9] Proceedings of NUMISHEET'96. Suzuki H. 1991. C. Nakagawa T. 1996. Isehara. Makinouchi A. 1999. Shape error evaluation method of freeform surfaces. Makinouchi.31(8):495505. Dearborn. Besan9on.A. [8] Proceedings of NUMISHEET'93.
and parachutes. the Dirac delta function is particularly well suited to this situation. but also immersed elastic boundaries like heart valve leaflets (for which the method was originally designed). Equations of motion As described in Section 1. This apparatus is conveniently provided by the Dirac delta function. Charles S. its Lagrangian . The independent variables of the Eulerian description are the Cartesian coordinates x and the time t.J. we need to supplement the NavierStokes equations by a Lagrangian description of the elastic material. Flag in wind. Introduction In the study of fluidstructure interaction. Email: peskin@cims. Bathe (Editor) and the corresponding Eulerian quantities.nyu. we use the incompressible NavierStokes equations. The mass density of the ambient fluid is also assumed to be uniform. we use an Eulerian description of the system as a whole (fluid h structure) supplemented by a Lagrangian description of the structure. and where additional mass may be localized. To keep things as simple as possible. This restriction can certainly be removed. Fax: Hi (212) 9954121. The equations of motion that result from this point of view directly motivate a numerical method known as the "Immersed Boundary Method" [15]. all of which may be idealized as surfaces which.26 The Immersed Boundary Method for incompressible fluidstructure interaction David M. New York. The method is used to analyze fluidstructure interaction problems. All rights reserved. but we shall not address that complication here.r. 2. USA Abstract In this paper the Immersed Boundary Method is presented. McQueen. th^ mass density p{x. Moreover.t). NY 10012. r). we assume that the viscosity is Newtonian and uniform throughout the system. Incompressible elasticity. but the structure is allowed to have a nonuniform mass density which may be greater or lower than that of the fluid. 251 Mercer Street. as is conventionally done. 0The Lagrangian description of the immersed elastic material involves its configuration X{q. In order to do this. t) and the Eulerian elastic force density/(jc. to describe the coupled motion of the hydroelastic system in a unified way. the hydrostatic pressure field p(x. and the independent variables of the Lagrangian description are curvilinear material coordinates q. In this paper. Computational fluid dynamics. from which the elastic force density and the nonuniform mass density that appear in the NavierStokes equations may be calculated. with some recent developments. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. we need a mathematical apparatus to translate in either direction between Lagrangian quantities * Corresponding author. Fluidstructure interaction.s and again the time t. with a nonuniform mass density and an applied elastic force density. insect wings. Different aspects of the method are illustrated by applying it to blood flow in the heart and a flapping filament (flaginwind) problem. New York University. sails.t).s. Flapping filament. Instead of separating the system into its two components coupled by boundary conditions. Cardiac fluid dynamics. This name emphasizes an important feature of the method: that it can handle not only immersed elastic structures that displace a finite volume. Keywords: Immersed Boundary Method.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. it is useful to think of the structure as a part of the fluid where additional forces are applied.r. Luoding Zhu Coumnt Institute of Mathematical Sciences. The Eulerian description of the system as a whole involves the velocity field w(jc. however. nevertheless apply finite forces to the fluid in which they are immersed. we consider the case of a viscous incompressible fluid that interacts with an immersed structure that is made of an incompressible viscoelastic material. despite having zero volume.: +1 (212) 9983126. Tel. Clearly. Peskin *. Heart valves 1.
X(q. (1) also involves the nonuniform mass density p{x. (3) and (4) provide conversions from the Lagrangian force and mass densities F{q. t)= F{q. Since the fluid and the structure are both incompressible. t) (1) (2) 27 (3) p{x. The relationship between corresponding densities is not that their values are the same at corresponding points. provided that appropriate allowance is made for the particular stresstensor of the material. It follows that the incompressible NavierStokes equations are applicable to any incompressible material./(x. the integral of which over any chunk of the material gives the mass of that chunk minus the mass of the fluid displaced.t) at the current location of that material point. d^" = ./ M(q. t)) dq dr ds = ixV^u +f{x. of course.t)) F = dE "dx (6) These equations (without the viscous term) can be formally derived from the principle of least action. which may. r. shows that the conversion from Eulerian to Lagrangian velocity can be expressed in a manner that resembles the conversions from Lagrangian to Eulerian force and mass densities. Eqs. s. one should recall that in the derivation of the incompressible NavierStokes equations the only ingredients are Newton's laws of motion. plays that role. (1) and (2) are the famihar NavierStokes equations of a viscous incompressible fluid. incompressibility.t) =u {X(q. which is used in the calculation of the elastic forces from the configuration X(. (3) and (4) still make sense in the special case that the immersed elastic structure takes the form of a surface instead of displacing any volume. t). (3) and (4) the integrals are over the moving curvilinear material coordinates q.r. and that M will be negative at any material point for which the mass density of the immersed elastic material is less than that of the ambient fluid. respectively. and noting that the integral of the Dirac delta function yields 1 or 0 depending on whether or not the domain of integration includes the point x = X(q. and a particular form of the stress tensor. t) = po\. r. McQueen et al.. i. In Eq. (6) is shorthand for the statement that F is minus the Frechet derivative of E. changing the order of the integrals on the righthand side. t) I F(r. Since both the mass and volume of any such chunk of the immersed elastic material are conserved.t).a • V. in which the Dirac delta function appears. t) at any given material point is independent of time. t)8(x X(r.t) (^JrU'Vu\+Vp W u=0 fix. That is. the applied force density/(jc. r. E[X]. r.t) and an applied force density/(jc. the integral is over the fixed Cartesian coordinates x. where D/Dr is the material derivative: 9/9f I.r.s. M is independent of time.s so that Eqs. One can confirm that this is satisfied in our case by integrating Eq. r. t) over any finite threedimensional region gives a finite result. see [6] for details. With this notation. t) or p(x. (5). s. r. s) to the corresponding Eulerian force and mass densities. This is essentially the definition of the Eulerian velocity field.s. we need only drop one of the three Lagrangian coordinates q.X(q.s. but rather that their integrals over corresponding regions are equal. (3) and (4). the integral off(x. since we require that u be continuous. r./ F • dZd^ dr d^.t) at any given time. Eq. t)8(xX(q.t) and M(q. s. s. t). t) p(x.s.t). it does not have to be imposed separately. . All of these conversions involve integral operators in which the Dirac delta function appears as a kernel. be different from that of a fluid. (5). It is important to note that Eqs.M. Eqs.s).s. s. I M(r. Although it may be unconventional to use these equations in the case of an elastic material. r. r). s. t). Eq. . (5) states that the velocity of any material point of the structure may be found by evaluating the Eulerian velocity field u{x. t)) dq dr ds (4) Note that Eq.t) = Po + dx (5) = I u(x. r.e.s)S{xX(r. t)) dr ds (7) Tt (q. Note that M = 0 in the case of a neutrally buoyant structure. Eqs. The second form of Eq. it must be the case that p{x. but there are only two integrations to perform so the result is singular like a onedimensional delta function. The mass density po of the ambient fluid and the viscosity /x of the system as a whole are constant parameters. To complete the Lagrangian description of the elastic material. s) 8 (x .t))drds (8) . (4) and (5). t) and p(x. that Dp/Dr = 0. s. and its Lagrangian additional mass density M(q. (3) and (4) become fix.D. s. the Dirac delta function is still threedimensional. whereas in Eqs.r. Again. In each of these equations. t) 8 (x . t). our equations of motion read as follows: p{x. Here we just give an informal discussion of their meaning. but it also enforces the noslip condition at the interface between the fluid and the structure. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics elastic force density F{q. (3) or Eq. we need to specify the elastic potential energy functional. This constraint is implicit in Eqs. with a variable mass density p(x. however. r. In the case of such a structure (like a sail or parachute canopy).r. the divergence of the elastic stress tensor. Here. (4) over some arbitrary region of space.
which is what makes it possible for the model heart to beat. elastic material that is neutrally buoyant in blood. and we report on another such example here. Thus. Fluidflowis shown in terms of streaklines: dots mark the current positions of blood particles. In particular. up to terms of higher order in 6X. In Fig. These great vessels of the model have blind ends but are equipped with sources and sinks that provide appropriate loads for the model heart. supported by papillary muscles and chordae tendineae. and the open aortic valve that allows the left ventricle to eject blood into the aorta. we have found. The case of nonuniform mass density is similar. Fig. 1 and 2 show cutaway views of the heart in diastole from different perspectives. except that the NavierStokes solver involves the solution of difference equations with nonconstant coefficients at each time step. are those of the human heart. A large swirling vortex with an interesting 3D structure fills the relaxing right ventricular chamber. 3 shows the flow pattern of blood on the left side of the heart during ejection. 2 the model heart has been turned so that the right ventricle faces the viewer. It is made entirely of elastic and contractile fibers immersed in viscous incompressible fluid. In Fig. that prevents backflow into the left atrium. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics for any perturbation dX. Note the closed mitral valve. Structures that appear above the ventricles are (from left to right in the figure) the main pulmonary artery (with closed pulmonic valve). Numerical method The Immersed Boundary Method is obtained by discretization of the above equations of motion. and tails attached to these dots show the trajectories of these particles over the recent past. 3. the aortic valve. Note the prominent vortex that was shed from the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve and has migrated down towards the apex of the left ventricle. the whole problem is inherently twodimensional. Fourier transform methods are no longer applicable. The elastic parameters of the heart muscle are timedependent. this computation illustrates those aspects of the Immersed Boundary Method that are concerned with nonuniform density. Parameters. The model includes the four cardiac chambers and all four valves. An external source/sink allows for changes in cardiac volume and also provides a convenient reference pressure. including the Reynolds number. Therefore. Results In this section. it also includes the great vessels to which the heart is connected. Two pulmonary veins are visible behind and connecting to the left atrium. 1 the clipping plane cuts through the mitral valve. The heart is viewed from the front. we present results of two different immersed boundary computations. It involves all aspects of the mathematical formulation mentioned above except that the density of the system is considered uniform. The second computation presented here is a simulation of a laboratory experiment involving a flexible filament suspended in a flowing soap film with the upstream end of the filament held fixed. . and the immersed boundary (the flexible filament) is onedimensional. Figs. and the apex of the heart. An example of such a computation can be found in [7]. so the left ventricle is on the right side of the figure and the right ventricle is on the left. The specific form of the Immersed Boundary Method used for these computations is described in [5]. Cutaway view of the threedimensional heart model during ventricular filling. For details in the uniform density case. Because the fluid is in the form of a soap film. illustrating different aspects of the method. Fig. and the left atrium (with open mitral valve). is an essential feature of the problem. and some iterative method such as multigrid must be used. The heart model [2. Note the prominent vortex that was shed primarily from the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve and has then been convected towards the apex of the heart by the jet of left ventricular filling. heart muscle is modeled as an anisotropic.8] is shown in Figs. the ascending aorta (with closed aortic valve).28 D. Filament mass. 1. The first is a computer simulation of the heart. 13. see also [4]. see [25]. This is essentially the principle of virtual work. McQueen et al.M. incompressible. and the heart valve leaflets are modeled as massless fiberreinforced elastic membranes. 4.
The open tricuspid valve is visible at the atrioventricular junction. constrained by two vertical wires at the edges of the film. the extra mass being explained by a bulge in the soap film that forms around the thread as a consequence of surface tension. The filament. 3.The heart model has been turned so that the free wall of the right ventricle is in front. At the upper left in the figure. is anchored at its upper end in a soap film which flows downwards under the influence of gravity. The computed flow pattern of left ventricular ejection. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 29 Fig. Although the Reynolds number of the computation (Re = 210) is lower than that of the laboratory experiment by two orders of magnitude. Either state is stable against small perturbations (hence the term 'bistable') but can be converted to the other state by a sufficiently large perturbation. the results of the simulation are in good agreement with those of the experiment.) Computer simulation of a flapping filament in a flowing soap film is shown in Fig. This simulation is based on an experiment performed in the Courant Institute WetLab by Jun Zhang [12]. and also immersed . Zhang's key discovery is that under a range of conditions the filament exhibits bistable behavior. 4 shows a simulation in which the filament mass per unit length is twice that of the experimental filament (saturated with water). Other structures seen above the ventricle are (from left to right in the figure) the ascending aorta and the main pulmonary artery. Its two stable states are: (1) a steady state in which the filament points straight downstream. Conclusions The Immersed Boundary Method is a practical way to simulate fluidstructure interaction in the incompressible case. (For early studies of this kind in a twodimensional left heart model. There is a hint of 3D structure in the way that the flow comes down through the tricuspid valve in the foreground but swirls around the vortex core into the background behind that inflow jet. Transparent view of the predicted flow pattern of right ventricularfilUng. thus raising the effective filament mass. 2. or (2) a sustained oscillation in which the filament flaps like a flag in the wind and alternately sheds vortices of opposite sign creating a wake that resembles the Karman vortex street behind a cylinder. Fig. a flexible thread. Note the flow pattern of the prominent vortex that seems to fill the entire right ventricle. It is our hope that this model will prove useful as a computer test chamber for the design of prosthetic cardiac valves. Air resistance flattens the velocity profile of the flowing soap film. the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava join to form the right atrium. including the observed flapping frequency of about 50 Hz.DM. see [911]. the steady state in which the filament points straight downstream is globally stable. It can handle immersed elastic structures which displace finite volumes (like muscle). Our principal finding is that the flapping state requires filament mass. 5. 4. With a massless filament. McQueen et al. Note the tension in the closed mitral valve and the jet of blood entering the ascending aorta through the open aortic valve. Fig.
141:161186. Englewood Cliffs NJ: PrenticeHaU.5 cm.30 D.edu/~fogelson. Scand J Thor Cardiovasc Surg 1985.408:835.160:705719. June 25. J Supercomput 1997. math. (available at http://www. Ph. Nature 2000. Lewis MA. Fluid dynamics of the heart and its valves. McQueen DM.19:139148. The Reynolds number of the computation (based on inflow velocity and filament length) is Re = 210. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Center under an allocation of resources MCA93S004P from the National Resource Allocation Committee. An immersed boundary method with formal second order accuracy and reduced numerical viscosity.391. [10] McQueen DM. Peskin CS. Flow Patterns Around Heart Valves: A Digital Computer Method for Solving the Equations of Motion. Shelley M. New York: Kluwer (in press). Fig. US Patent Number 5. Albert Einstein College of Medicine. [4] Lai MC. Libchaber A. 1991. The filament length is 3 cm. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1983.umi.D. 211 pp. McQueen DM. Computer simulation of a flapping filament in a flowing soap film. [8] McQueen DM. Peskin CS. Contemp Math 1993.utah. Adler FR. Computation was performed in part on the Cray T90 computer at the San Diego Supercomputer . Peskin CS. Physiology. 1996. http:/www. [11] McQueen DM. and heart valve leaflets). Flexible filaments in a flowing soap film as a model for onedimensional flags in a twodimensional wind. Computerassisted design of butterfly bileaflet valves for the mitral position. Dallon JC (Eds).34:5660. McQueen et al. order number: 7230378) [2] Peskin CS. Curved Butterfly Bileaflet Prosthetic Cardiac Valve. Peskin CS. working against air resistance) at an inflow velocity of 280 cm/s. The left panel of the figure shows the instantaneous positions of fluid markers created in bursts along the upper (inflow) boundary. The flapping filament sheds vortices of alternate sign which then form the sinuous wake seen in the figures. 309337. Computational biofluid dynamics. J Comput Phys 2000. Implementation of a variabledensity Immersed Boundary Method. \ References [1] Peskin CS. Selected time step from a simulation showing sustained oscillation at about 50 Hz. parachutes. Peskin CS. Acknowledgements The authors are indebted to the National Science Foundation (USA) for support of this work under KDI research grant DMS9980069. Computerassisted design of pivotingdisc prosthetic mitral valves. as in a hydrogen bubble flow visualization. In: Othmer HG. pp. Recent developments have extended the range of Reynolds numbers that the method can handle (up to and including that of the human heart). [7] Fogelson AL. Zhu J. 1972. and have also made possible the simulation of immersed elastic structures which are not neutrally buoyant in the ambient fluid. [3] McQueen DM. 4. Heart Simulation by an Immersed Boundary Method with Formal SecondOrder Accuracy and Reduced Numerical Viscosity. [5] McQueen DM.026. [6] Peskin CS. Comput Graph 2000. and Cell Biology. Peskin CS. and the width of the channel is 8. Unpublished. Peskin CS. Two different visualization techniques are used.ll(3):213236. [9] McQueen DM.html.86:126135.M. July. Case Studies in Mathematical Modeling: Ecology. Thesis. Sharedmemory parallel vector implementation of the immersed boundary method for the computation of blood flow in the beating mammalian heart. Childress S. ICTAM 2000 Proceedings.com/hp/ Products/DisExpress. The right panel of the figure shows the corresponding vorticity contours. [12] Zhang J. A threedimensional computer model of the human heart for studying cardiac fluid dynamics. elastic membranes (like sails. In both panels flow is from top to bottom (driven by gravity.
With this approach. differs from traditional simulationbased design in the use of mathbased synthesis. MI 480909000. modehng and simulation are emerging as key technologies to support manufacturing in the 21st century. More specifically. increasing the complexity and required degree of integration of vehicle subsystems. mathmodels . and improved quality product for the customer. Computeraided engineering. translate the customers' voice into product functional characteristics. and reducing product realization costs. More recently. mathematical models were used to 'troubleshoot' designs. environmental friendUness.. Systems engineering.. vehicle designs to meet both the physical and functional requirements. Rohde General Motors Corporation. particularly to do so in a timely fashion.com ^ Integrated Manufacturing Technology Roadmapping Project: Modeling and Simulation. Keywords: Mathbased. reducing designtomanufacturing cycle time. fewer prototype hardware builds. 6440 East 12 Mile Road. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.e.' a key component of the GM strategy and the subject of this paper. termed 'MathBased Synthesis Driven Vehicle Development Process'.ornl. and other technologies have been integrated into vehicles. and will continue to decrease. design.. Steve M. Fortunately. Synthesis/analysis.e. i. http://imtr." General Motors has understood this potential for many years and has developed a mathbased strategy to implement it. the virtual vehicle is defined. and synthesize robust physical reahzations. perfecting processes. new materials.J.31 GM's journey to math: the virtual vehicle Robert M. spans all facets of the vehicle creation process including the use of mathematical models to: optimally position products in the marketplace. modem automotive vehicles are at an integration * Corresponding author.. This involves the utilization of a multitude of different types of mathematical models and computerbased methods at different levels of detail. Ottolini *. All rights reserved. In General Motors a processdriven approach based on a systems engineering paradigm using mathematical models has been developed to define.. Bathe (Editor) level associated with 'mechatronics'. i.m. Indeed. there has been a very rapid growth in the ability to design and engineer vehicles using computerbased methods. Synthesis Driven'. i. termed 'MathBased. The logical integration of these models into the GM Vehicle Development Process (VDP). yields the 'Virtual Vehicle. Virtual vehicle. mathematical models have been used extensively to create and evaluate product designs via CAD and CAE tools. To design such vehicles requires a considerably more sophisticated approach than that which had been used in the past. Warren. as well as producibility requirements. in tandem with the increasing sophistication and complexity of automotive vehicles. and to provide superior functionality and quality to the customer at affordable prices. Vehicle development times have decreased from 60 months to less than 18. That process. a posteriori. Historically. simulation technology. To help achieve these goals computers and electronics. USA Abstract A recent study sponsored by the United States Government^ concluded that enterprisewide ". to effectively create virtual vehicles consistent with the timing requirements of a 'fast' VDP. a 'virtual environment' including a superior IT infrastructure is required. and examples of its use and associated benefits throughout the VDP are shown. and no other technology offers more potential than modeling and simulation for improving products. In addition. Email: steve. Vehicle development process 1.rohde@gm. Safety.. That strategy. The approach presented leads to shorter product development cycles at reduced cost. and energy efficiency are additional paramount customer requirements..gov © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. together with the exphcit definition of discrete virtual 'build events'. and engineer vehicles.e. Introduction A major driver in the automotive industry today is the competitive pressure to shorten the product development cycle.
On the bottom of the trapezoid we show the detailed design of the individual parts and components. These requirements 'flow' directly from. The flow is from the customer to the vehicle. The process is driven by the customers' wants and needs from the top.M. Analysis. has converged on a systems engineeringbased vehicle engineering process as depicted by the icon in Fig. and are thus traceable to the customers' wants and needs. S. Perform Analytical Validation to Minimize the Use of Hardware Based Techniques DEVELOP & ALLOCATE REQUIREMENTS ASSEMBLE & DEVELOP SYSTEM 3. lefthand comer of the trapezoid. interactions among components are treated explicitly to ensure compatibility of all functional. subsystem. 1. 2. is the use of mathematical models to assess the performance of a given system. GM's MathBased Synthesis Driven Vehicle Development Process GM's MathBased Synthesis Driven Vehicle Development Process is based upon systems engineering. which are assembled and developed to form the vehicle as shown on the right leg of the trapezoid. or to better understand its behavior. are used in all phases of the vehicle development process: from quantifying the needs of the customer to validating the product using detailed. to build the vehicle. Support the Requirements Definition Process*: • Define Specific Requirements • Allocate & Balance Functional Requirements • Optimize & Integrate Requirements i * At vehicle. e. 1. During this translation. Subsystems. on the other hand. synthesis forms the basis for requirements engineering and for design — a synthesis process by definition. and Manufacturing & Assembly ^ Processes 1. Perform Synthesis and Analysis to Achieve Optimal Balanced Vehicle. The logically configured mathematical representations of the vehicle as it evolves through the VDP are termed 'virtual vehicles'. General Motors. and then using welldefined procedures. Validation of the design is done at the component. computationally intensive simulations. Rohde/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics quirements engineering. Analysis is used for validation at the component. More simply put. The left leg represents re CUSTOMER 4. These virtual vehicles are used to ensure that the vehicle will meet its specific requirement set. synthesis is creation driven by requirements whereas analysis is evaluation to those requirements. and for the manufacturing and assembly processes. Ottolini. Analytical models typically are used extensively in the systems engineering process. Synthesis is a process for designing a system in which multiple and competing requirements are balanced and allocated to the subsystems and components through a systematic analytical process. and vehicle levels as well as hardware development. to translate those requirements into a physical realization that meets the needs in an optimal manner.32 R. Systems engineeringbased vehicle development process showing the role of synthesis and analysis. It includes developing and allocating the requirements for the vehicle. debugging/tuning. physical. & component levels MANUFACTURING 2.. subsystem. Thus. which may be simply defined as an orderly process for the design of manmade systems to satisfy operational needs. and vehicle levels in that order. and then to the components.M. In the middle of the trapezoid is the validation process which includes both validation of the requirements and of the design to meet those requirements. Use S/A & Simulation to Support the Development of Components. Synthesis and analysis are key to the effective implementation of systems engineeringbased vehicle development. subsystem. Vehicles. and program interfaces.g. It requires the explicit determination of functional requirements from the operational needs. Subsystem and Component Designs That Meet Customer Requirements iiNlMlliiiii PROCESS Fig. then to the subsystems. . beginning in the mideighties.
hardwaresupported VDP as shown in Fig. For example. Hardware Based Learning . Synthesis Based Learning . 3. GM's mathbased strategy can be simply stated as moving from a hardwaredriven. Of course.Math Basic for Analysis ('Check & Fix') 1836 Month VDP . analysissupported VDP to a synthesisdriven.M. for validation. conceptual models based upon regressions or algebraic equations are often used. The virtual vehicle Given the process described above.Concurrent. This simple statement has a profound influence on how vehicles are engineered. ultimately. and.Hardware to Confirm Synthesis and Validate Integrated Vehicle Fig. . finiteelement models containing hundreds of thousands of degrees of freedom are often used. Having introduced the concepts of a systems engineeringbased vehicle development process that is implemented through the use of synthesis and analysis. 3. Rohde/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 33 MATH BASED VISION 2436+ Month VDP .Math Basis for Synthesis (Virtual Builds) and Analysis <18 Month VDP . GM's mathstrategy. some prototype hardware will still be built to correlate and confirm the math models and to ensure that the customers' needs are indeed met. It involves moving from a 'bottoms up' VDP paradigm in which hardware is built and tested to determine what was 'done wrong' to a 'top down' VDP paradigm in which hardware is built to confirm the math modeHng. 2. The virtual vehicle concept. Viewing the VDP as a 'learning process'. the learnings transit from a sequential set of hardwarebased learnings to a more overlapping set using mathbased synthesis and analysis.Continuous. Manufacturing/ ] Assembly ] &Fit Virtual Velilcle \ Correiation/ I Feedback PhysmMGbMrmati&m: Lab/PG ]• CAT:: :^ Fig. Ottolini.R. Styling Design CAD Form Marketing Pmc&ss^^. to a continuous learning process via the mathematical representations as also shown in Fig. early in the development process. 2. 2. Compressed Hardware Based Learning . Conversely.M.Consecutive. A key point here is the use of math models with an appropriate level of detail. the virtual vehicle concept can be viewed as the extensive use of coordinated math models to guide decisions regarding the definition. S.
The growth rate is almost 100% per year. 250 I 200 I 150 • •5 100 50 1980 1985 1990 1996 2000 2005 Year Fig. Closure In this paper we have attempted to give the reader a flavor for the benefits and the potential of using modem computational methods in a systems engineering processdriven framework to define and engineer automotive vehicles. marketing. assembly.. fit. 5 shows GM's recent rapid growth in high performance computing ^ 350 i 300 i . Fig. To implement the virtual vehicle concept requires the integration of math capabilities that span the vehicle's functionality as shown schematically in Fig. function. 6. to support the virtual vehicle. . 4. That growth is mandatory and enables the development of higher fidelity math models in areas such as structures and CFD as shown in Fig.^^•^^H ^^^HV^^HD Noise & H ^ ^ L ^ S n B ^ P .M.^ ^ _ Vibration  I 1 1   1 1 1 1 1 Aerodynamics 4^ 0 (^^^HUHH^B^B^SBM • fljWK^jKi1 ^ 9 ^ ^ ^Bl^^\ QRD Bectricai/ \ Bectronlcs Vehicle Dynamics Crash/Safety ^^^^I^^^^^^^^^HH^PT 1 Manufacturing CAE & Dimensional integration ^^ ^ t \ Control Systems \ 1 1 6VSAS Process & Integration/ADV. i. but only in the recent past has the computing infrastructure and application software been at the point of making 'virtual test labs and proving grounds' a reality. GMNA high performance computing growth since 1995. 5. 3 shows this conceptually. Ottolini. and sales and service of a vehicle through the VDP. The concepts of mathbased synthesis and analysis were introduced. 6. S. 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Y T D Jan 2001 Jul 2001 Fig. Fig. Growth in the number of finite elements in a typical crash worthiness simulafion. Analysis.—~r fN ^ O OI^S ^HBBBftl^ structures . form. manufacturing..34 R. significantly outpacing Moore's law. Scope of applications used in GM. Examples drawn from actual product development were presented to illustrate the approach. CAE Infrastructure 1 PaP^ 1 •sSUassr 1 =W»^ o t I 8. Rohde/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 1 V S A S CAPABILITY Energy Management Powertrain Harmony & Optimization & Human Factors Robust Engineering j  : . 4.21430 1 I VeWde Synthesis. GM has been developing this capability since the 1960s.M. and Simulatiai j Fig. 4.
Solids & Structures .
Guildford. Recent studies on the size effects in compacted beds based on experiments and micromechanical modelling have shown interesting characteristics. no ascent of the large particle (intruder) was observed.ac. Their experimental and analytical studies have shown no influence of large inclusions on the global stiffness for the size ratio of the inclusion equal to 2 as considered by them. Shear resistance. above which. twodimensional studies have indicated that [5] there exists a threshold size ratio (diameter ratio of large particle to the surrounding monodispersed particle). This has been facilitated greatly by the rapid growth of computer power. This could be attributed to the weak fabric anisotropy of the system develops for an increase in size of large inclusion. Particle interactions 1. These findings help us to understand the fundamental flow characteristics of granular media under slow shear regime. To control the behaviour of granular materials needs understanding of the physical processes that control the behaviour and interactions of their constituent particles. Studies on the influence of inclusion on the behaviour particulate medium has been of recent interest.J. Fabric anisotropy. When a container having larger particles embedded in smaller granular particles is vibrated. for ex* Corresponding author. The interaction between contiguous particles are modelled as a . the movement of larger particle increases. the bigger particles tend to move toward the top of the container.J. M. 10. Antony*.36 Shear resistance of granular media containing large inclusions: DEM simulations S.3. In this paper. Slow shear flow. as the size of submerged particle in the periodic granular cell increases. Nevertheless. the intruder ascents continuously and hence the fluidity (movement) of the large particles becomes higher. Bathe (Editor) ample vertically. We also present the microscopic evolution of contact orientations in terms of fabric anisotropy tensor. Size effects. For smaller size ratio (less than about 3). Email: s. GU2 7XH. the overall shear resistance of the granular system decreases. We present how the structural orientations of the contacts are influenced by the size ratio of large inclusions. UK Abstract In this paper we present the effect of size ratio on the shear resistance of dense granular media containing large inclusions. Conflicting reasons have been attached to this phenomena.uk © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. which has enabled an insight to be gained of the complex and often mysterious behaviour of granular materials using numerical simulations. for size ratio 5. The properties of the constituent particles strongly influence the deformation characteristics of the particulate medium. For example. All rights reserved. Introduction Granular materials are an important part of several engineering and industrial processes. Fax: f44 (1483) 876581. Tel. also known as 'brazilnut effect' has been the subject of several investigations [4]. An estimate of the shear resistance of the particulate medium is of great importance to facilitate better process control.: +44 (1483) 789477. Bonnenfant et al. Keywords: Granular material. the vibration induced size segregation problem. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. and for size ratio greater than ca. 1) using DEA. University of Surrey. [6] have studied the effect of presence of hard inclusions (glass) in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix on compaction in a triaxial cell.antony@surrey. It has been shown that. we carry out threedimensional simulations in a periodic cell for the shear resistance of granular media containing large inclusions (Fig. the intruder undergoes an intermittent ascent. It is often necessary to specify the mechanical conditions required for such an operation.Ghadiri Department of Chemical and Process Engineering. Discrete element analysis.
26.83 ± 0.3. 4 times radius of the submerged particle. The boundaries of the periodic cell from the centre of the cell were at a distance of more than ca. and interface energy F = 0. The fabric anisotropy in the granular assembly is defined by the distribution of contact orientations. which was originally developed by Cundal and Strack [1]. The interactions between the neighbouring particles are modelled by algorithms based on theoretical contact mechanics provided by Thornton and Yin [2] and Thornton [3]. viz. the microstmcture of the samples was isotropic.J. D<4I 37 M\ Size ratio=D/d Fig. defined as the ratio of deviator stress q (= ai — as) to the mean stress p. Schematic diagram (front/top view) showing the periodic cell with inclusion. The samples were subjected to the axisymmetric compression test (ai > a2 = 03). Antony.a2 \. the granular system tends to develop maximum shear resistance at an early stage of shearing. Different values of size ratio (ratio of the diameter of submerged particle to that of surrounding particles) were considered. the mean stress p = (ai \. Ghadiri /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics I T^ . 1.10 deviator strain 0. For a granular system undergoing slow shearing. otherwise all other particles in the periodic cell are monodispersed.S. the solid fraction and mechanical coordination number (average number of load bearing contacts) of the samples considered in this study were 0. All the samples considered here were having elastic properties corresponding to 0. . The following periodic systems were considered: (i) For comparison. For an increase in size ratio. The interactions between contiguous particles are modelled as a dynamic process and the time evolution of the particles is advanced using an explicit finite difference scheme. a strain rate of 10~^ s~^ was employed in the simulations.. (ii) System with a large inclusion.650 ± 0. Variation of shear stress ratio during shearing. M.3. coefficient of interparticle friction fi = 0. the shear strength of the system depends on the ability of the system to build strongly anisotropic fabric network of contacts carrying greater than average (strong) normal force. It is shown that the mobilised shear resistance of the granular system (at steady state) reduces for an increase in the size of the submerged particle. Results and discussion Fig.017 and 5. 2 shows the variation of macroscopic shear resistance of the granular systems during shearing (deviator strain = Si —S3). the readers could refer to Cundall and Strack [1]. a servocontrol algorithm was used to isotropically compress until a mean stress p = 100 kPa was achieved. The shear resistance has been presented in terms of the shear stress ratio q/p. For shearing. respectively. Vital information on the influence of inclusion on the macroscopic shear resistance and internal contact orientations of the granular assembly are obtained during shearing. The simulations are performed in a periodic cell in which a large size particle (submerged particle) is created at the centre of the cell and surrounded by monodispersed spherical particles (generated randomly). Earlier numerical investigations on the quasistatic behaviour of granular systems have revealed [79] new insights into the physics of granular media. dynamic process. 2. During shearing. For detailed information about the numerical methodology. Simulations The simulations were carried out using Discrete Element Method (DEM). 3.20 Fig.03)73 was maintained constant at 100 kPa using the servocontrol algorithm. At the end of the isotropic compression.6 J m~^). The random assembly created were isotropically compressed to a stress level of 100 kPa. At this stage. defined 2. an entirely monodispersed system of particles. 5 and 10. This allows us to get an insight into what happens inside the granular media during shearing. After the particles were initially generated. 'hard' particles (Young's modulus E = 10 GPa Poisson's ratio V = 0.
00 0.5 (weak contacts) Size ratio 10 (weak contacts) Acknowledgements This work has been supported by EPSRC and ICI Strategic Technology Group Technology Ltd. Antony SJ. Phys Rev E 2001.y. the deviator fabric of contacts carrying strong and weak force are bifurcated.75 0. the granular system develops a less anisotropic fabric structure of strong forces as the size of .00 0. It may be observed that there is a strong anisotropic structure for contacts carrying strong forces within the overall system. Impact of elastic spheres with and without adhesion.10 deviator strain 0. 6368. pp.20 (b) Fig. the granular system developed less shear resistance for an increase in the size of inclusion and this could be attributed to the fact that the system is unable to build up strong anisotropic fabric net work as the size of inclusion increases.05 0. Fluidization. The variation of deviator fabric (0i — (ps) of the entire assembly is presented in Fig. Size segregation in a two dimensional sample: Convection and arching effects. by a 'fabric tensor' 0.356:27632782. Quasistatic deformation of particulate media.K (Grant No. 3(a) while in Fig. Antony SJ.00 0. 0. 2). Suquet P.J. It may be recalled that (Fig. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 1998. The weak contacts for all the systems are nearly isotropic at all stages of shearing. Geotechnique 1979. A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies. Powder Technol 2000. suggested by Satake [10] as 1 ^ (1) where M is the number of contacts in the representative volume element and rij define the components of the unit normal vector at a contact between two particles.15 0.65:153166 [3] Thornton C. 3(b). [9] Thornton C. Ghadiri /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics submerged particle increases. (a) Entire system. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 1998.29:93109. 3. Luger HJ (Eds).64:383386 [4] Huntley JM. (b) due to strong contacts only. [5] Duran J. Wilton. 1982. However. References [1] Cundal PA.10 deviator strain 0.109:179191. [6] Bonnenfant D. Powder Technol 1991. Deformation and Failure of Granular Materials.65 a 0. Mech Mater 1998.15 0. [7] Antony SJ.051^ 0. Rajchenbach J. Antony. U. Evolution of force distribution in three dimensional granular media. Mazerolle F.20 (a) 0. [8] Thornton C. [10] Satake M.55 o Monodispersed (strong contacts) . Phys Rev E 1994. Quasistatic deformation of a soft particulate system.38 S. 011302.5 (strong contacts) "Size ratio 10 (strong contacts) Monodispersed (weak contacts) Size ratio . Coefficient of restitution for collinear collisions of elasticperfectly plastic spheres.29:4765. GR/M33907). Mazozi T. Strack ODL. M. Yin KK. J Appl Mech 1997. However. this trend could change if the size of the periodic cell reduces (boundaries are at a distance of more than ca.50(6):51385141.356:25692590. Clement E. Rotterdam: Balkema.Size ratio . Variation of fabric anisotropy during shearing.. segregation and stress propagation in granular materials. In: Vermeer PA. 0. Compaction of powders containing hard inclusions: experiments and micromechanical modelling. [2] Thornton C. 4 times radius of the inclusion in this study) and this is yet to be investigated.
The continuous problem Let ^ be a bounded domain of R^ occupied by an elastic body. Insight on the industrial relevance. a • n = g on Fjv. Keywords: Error estimates. The body is supposed to be fixed on a part TB of its boundary F := 9^. France Abstract In this work we present a recent a posteriori parameter free error estimate of hierarchical type that we apply to the finite element solution of elasticity problems involving heterogeneous and piecewise incompressible materials. Reliability. independently of the material heterogeneities or Poisson ratio. Heterogeneity. In this framework. All rights reserved. By adding a weighted estimate of the error on the pressure term. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. For this purpose. Elasticity 1. It is completely parameter free.39 Hierarchical a posteriori error estimates for heterogeneous incompressible elasticity R.letallec@polytechnique. anisotropic and strongly heterogeneous. numerical implementation and various numerical examples will also be presented. When used on real industrial problems. Email: patrick. with meas{Tj)) ^ 0. 91 128 Palaiseau Cedex.: +33 1 69 33 40 02. . The resulting estimate uses easy to compute element and interface residuals. even at the limit of incompressible or almost incompressible materials.J. for which the theoretical tools are harder to implement and to derive. and have proposed different choices of local spaces. such as in tire industry. this estimate can be proved to be correctly adimensionalized with respect to the physical data. we have extended the general theory developed by Bank and Weiser (cf. and inverts them locally by solving local tangent elasticity problems. To overcome these difficulties. and as such is easy to implement within an industrial code. Tel. 2. On the theoretical side. [3]).LeTallec'''* ^ INRIA. where f e L^(^)^ and g e l?{Tj^)^ are the given external forces and a is the stress tensor. France. and bulk modulus. we consider the following elasticity problem I —diva = f (P) I [ in ^. we have developed a parameter free optimal a posteriori error estimator. and subjected to applied loads on its remaining part F^^. Araya%P. with A(x) the elasticity tensor of the constitutive material and Sij(u) := \(uij \Ujj) the components of the linearized strain tensor e(u) associated to u. these theoretical strategies are faced with two main difficulties: • the constitutive materials are complex. u = 0 onFz). Fax: +33 1 69 33 30 31. and Ecole Poly technique. this tensor satisfies the constitutive law <r = {Gij) = A(x)e(u). Chili ^ Universite de ParisDauphine.fr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. it can be extended to handle the case of incompress* Corresponding author. this problem can apparently be solved either by using consistent residual estimates or by solving local auxiliary equilibrium problem at the element level. and University of Conception. and to be uniformly valid with respect to material heterogeneities. Bathe (Editor) ible materials. From the theoretical point of view. For compressible materials. • most engineering codes use second order or higher order elements. This estimate is proved to be optimal. Introduction Recent accidents have clearly demonstrated that reliable a posteriori error estimates and mesh adaption techniques were imperatively needed at an industrial level when computing large scale structures.
v) / A(x)ei\) : e{\) Vv G H. G H.. satisfies the variational equation a(e. such that H/j c W/j C H and we denote by W/. the error e = u — u/j in the finite element approximation of the displacement solution of (1) by elements of H/.yi)... the stress tensor involves in addition a pressure like term. P. Associated with each subspace H/ there is a projection operator P/ : H > H. Hierarchical intrinsic error estimator 3. (6) (F. easy to solve. such that a{ei. p = div u on Qjnc. such formulations characterize the pressure in terms of the stored energy gradient by W\p) = d e t ( / + V u ) . with Ho = H. This solution is not to be computed explicitly. P/V G H/. A W. we can introduce the global projection operator Pw : H ^ W.VVGH. given by the solution of the local.. v .v>= ^ ( P r .Y) = (F.. compressible equilibrium problem fl(P/V. and can be split into a = (aij) = A(x)e{vL) + pX.\) : = { v € H n ^ ) ^ I v^OonFz)}. c H. and in particular. Nonlinear elastic laws can be handled in a similar way. with finite element solution Uh. (2) (3) where the residual} Rh is the element of H' given by the abstract form (P. (1) where H aiu.. For the compressible case. the residual Rh is given as a sum of local components (P.v> : = ^ f . G W..n] n if FeShrWo. (12) . P/e) ( M . the standard weak formulation of problem (P) is then: Find u € H such that a{u. (11) where each local displacement P/C is solution of the local equilibrium subproblem: Find e. of W/. Zh) VZ. (F. Vv G H . Abstract construction and fundamental example Let us approximate this basic elasticity problem by an initial finite element space H/. =HO + X]H„ (5) where A{x) denotes a bounded compressible like elasticity tensor. such that For incompressible or almost incompressible materials with locally very large Lame coefficients X. and where the very large value of volume change stiffness is transformed into a very large value of the coefficient X{x). VVGH. Under this notation. v) + / pdiw\= (divu p)q =0. In a compressible framework.v)«(u.y).1.1. Similarly.v>:=(F.v). w/). Le Tallec/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics that this finer space can be easily split into small local finite element subspaces.\i) = {Rh.F (8) / A "iq e P. Zh) = «(V..\) = {Rh.. (4) RF = fO gcTh [a. v + / ^ ^ g . We only assume With the above definitions our hierarchical a posteriori error estimate rjn in the compressible case is simply defined by the local additive decomposition ^/^ = r^«(/'/e. := f^A{x)e(u) : e(v). Similarly. v>. we assume that we can construct a finer finite element space W/. P^^V G W/. "iy/i G H/. partially incompressible materials are governed by the mixed formulation Find u G H and p in P such that a(u. (10) if F G^'/JOFA^.\) . defined by fl(PwV.F . and T eTh (9) We finally define the (bounded) elastic energy norm by: := a{y.40 R.1/2 . VVGH. Araya. (7) Using the Green's theorem. v ) o T + Yl (^^'^)o. meaning that there exist M subspaces H. Vv/ G H / . if F G ^ . 3.. w/) = fl(v.. In order to estimate the quality of the numerical solution obtained on this finite element mesh. where the local element and face components Rj and RE are given by RT = (div<Th+f)\T. . the corresponding unique solution of problem (1) in this finer space W/. we obviously have W/j = P^u.
and therefore.. it is easy to prove that we have simply ^H =E 1/2 a{\i. The idea is to choose these subspaces as local as possible and thus to compute the projections P/e in a cheap way. we restrict our attention to the choice of the finite dimensional subspaces H/. T nn Z ! ^^Rj I (16) PTVR) + 22. Araya. and motivates the introduction of an auxiliary pressure space to approximate the extra stress term p = A div M. P. let rinj be the error estimator given by Up to now.\i) We can then show the relationship between the weighted residual error estimate proposed by Araya and Le Tallec [2] and the above hierarchical error estimate. Pre) + Y.=i ^F^y with F e Sh. F e EH.f^j. we have = a{P^^v. i = 1.hF)a(Uh.bF)i/2 E + f+divcT/. = span{b*j. Lemma 3.bF] a(hF. This constitutive law is no longer exactly satisfied at the finite element level. Incompressible extension Whn]\\ \\Q.W/{C. We define the subspace W/^ by W/^ = Hh + E ^ i H/ where the one dimensional subspaces H/ are spanned by the functions b^ = l].. 0.ri + V ^2 ei^^p) 0J2 where b^ = A1A2A3A4 and b*p.(f+div(T. Le Tallec/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics This error estimate can be formally justified by the abstract calculation outlined below: {Res. vf e ^^= A ^Res j = sup UGH 41 where Ej is the restriction of Young's modulus to the element T. A particular case In the particular case where the local subspaces Hj are one dimensional (H/ = span{\i}. The introduction of locally very large values of Lame coefficients X changes the definition of the local (bounded) elasticity tensor A.hFy/^ f/^^. .7.) • bF . for a proper1/2 choice of subspaces Hi. e Instead of detailing the above proof. For isotropic heterogeneous materials.b^)i/2 + ^fl(A. nlb^ «(bF. As a basic example we will use local face (one per face F e Sh) and element (one per finite element T) subspaces given by HBT = span{bjRT]./?^^.. T A^I'j^Res) A'llRes) Proof outline. our hierarchical error estimate has only been introduced for compressible materials. T eTh. yielding {Rh.F' with weights automatically obtained from the local elasticity tensor at considered point.b/7 0^7.. Thus. PCVR) e (partition lemma) ^ ^a{A:^^VjRes.i/.RF}.Ti Wh ' n] o.b/. M).= A1A2A3 are the usual element and face polynomial bubble functions with support strictly included in the corresponding element or face. ^(^eVR. and FT ' sup {Res.2. T ^ The total error estimate is then given by = J2 ''(Pre.b/.)i/2 ~ _ {F.F E\ e(bF) o. our error estimate Y)H can be written as the following weighted sum of element and face residuals ( 11/2 rjH V^l + F2 3. 3. HB. (13) (14) v^ f ITI (f + diva/. V^ e(hF) o.hF) _ fl(b^.pH)y.1 .1. the full a posteriori error estimate must add an energy error term associated to this volume change. • n • b^ 1 ^ ^ [ ~ ^  a(hF.hFy/^ j"^ J /^[g.). Pwv) ^ Y^aiPrVR.F b/7 o.)i/2 L^'^Ff^(r(Uh):e{hF) fl(bF.3. and given by II^PII' = Yl f\\A\\{det(I^VuH) . C/. vY \2 (saturation lemma) (calculation of dual energy norm) Then. respectively.R. TeTh F^^h (17) .hF) ^(b/. «(^^^' P^e) + \\ep '.
[2] Araya R. Eng Comput 1991. Some aposteriori error estimators for elliptical partial differential equations. A posteriori error estimation in finite element analysis. the theory cannot handle strong anisotropic effects.8:6980.7:635655. Math Comput 1985. References \ln<Cri\ nr < C_\ \\u . T'CWT ^ 1/2 (18) EG£(T)nSM ^ Experimental results to be presented at the conference indicate the relevance of the proposed estimate. Its present limitations are twofold: On one hand. On the other hand. or Ladeveze and Pelle [4]. and to be asymptotically correct for heterogeneous isotropic materials independently of coefficients jumps. Rougeot PH. .42 The above formula can be proved to be scale invariant. Pelle JP. Weiser A. and of the local values of the Poisson coefficients.142:188. the practical calculations do not permit a locally accurate stress reconstruction. Error estimation and mesh optimization for classical finite elements. It turns out to be both practical and theoretically sound. It can be implemented in a fully automatic and local way in any industrial finite element code. In other words. we can prove that there exists constants independent of mesh parameters h and of elasticity constants A and X such that •Uh as it would be the case by using more sophisticated balanced residuals as advocated by Ainsworth and Oden [1]. Comp Methods Appl Mech Eng 1997. Oden JT. [4] Ladevze P. Rev Eur Elem Finis 1998. Acknowledgements The work of RA was partially supported by FIRTECH Calcul Scientifique.uA hi. [1] Ainsworth M. Le Tallec R Adaptive finite element analysis for strongly heterogeneous elasticity. [3] Bank RE.44:283301.
xo). d = d X q(t) (1) with c(0 representing translational velocity and XQ some fixed point. x(X) is the actual placement of the point X. In particular. Italy Abstract Stochastic finite elements are obtained within the setting of multifield theories of soHds for randomly microcracked bodies.mariano@uniromal.3] : c(0 + q(0 X (x . Strain localization effects appear even if the constitutive relations are linear and microcracks are elastic and do not grow. Bathe (Editor) degree of coupling.: +39 06 44585276. Points in B are labeled by X.ln particular. then the overall power V(B*) developed by interactions on B* is given by V{B*) = / (Tn • 11 + <Sn . with t the time. and velocity fields by x and d. T the . t). if q(0 is the characteristic vector of a time parameterized family of rotations. The discrete model is made by two lattices connected each other by elastic links: the former (macrolattice) describes the body at the molecular level and is constituted by rigid spheres connected by elastic links.MX .it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Universitd di Roma 'La Sapienza'. The order parameter d is not affected by translational velocity because it is a relative displacement. Augusti. Multifield theories. Random finite elements 1. d() accounts for the presence of microcracks. J + SVd) 35* I (2) where n is the outward unit normal to dB*. then u = x — X is the displacement field and d its perturbation induced by microcracks so that (u f d)(X) is the overall displacement. In the present paper the attention is focused on the case in which the distribution of microcracks is stochastic within the body. Interactions pertaining to the field d and its gradient Vd (called sub structural) provide extra power and satisfy appropriate balances besides Cauchy's. Finite elements already obtained in the deterministic case in [6] may show random features. Email: paolo.J. Keywords: Strain localization. If we indicate with the term part any regular connected subset of B and indicate it with B*. Tel. All rights reserved. Mariano*. Fax: +39 06 4884852. The problem of finding coupled constitutive relations for the stress measures has been tackled in [2. Continuum model Let B be the regular connected region of the threedimensional Euclidean space 8^ occupied by the body in its reference configuration. 00184 Rome.L. via Eudossiana 18. the relevant region B of the three dimensional Euclidean space can be described by two fields: the placement field x and an order parameter field d [1].3]: they were obtained from a discrete model by means of an identification procedure based on power equivalence with the continuum model. Both fields are considered as observable variables. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Substructural interactions are represented through a tensor S (microstress) and a vector z (selfforce).43 Localization phenomena in randomly microcracked bodies G.F = Vx. Introduction To analyze a microcracked body as a continuum. At each X. Microcracks. while the latter (mesolattice) represents the mesolevel of the microcrack distribution and is made by empty shells connected by elastic links. Stazi Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica. J) . F.M. t) and d(X. P. thus balanced interactions are associated to them and their gradients. We consider B as free of discontinuities due to microcracks but define on it two fields: x() and d('). F + z .5] in the discrete model or by introducing some random stiffness in the links connecting the two lattices and determining the * Corresponding author. Motions are indicated by x(X. 2. This may be accounted for by considering random the number of microcracks and their position [4. velocity fields are called 'rigid' if [1.
44 G. <S = A^Vu + GVJ (10) 3. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Stress tensor. If this number is a random variable we can expand K(M) by Taylor expansion as follows: K = K + dMK\^dM + i9^^K^dMdM .Q are fourth order tensors. J. S and vector z can be expressed in terms of Vu. we choose a point x in the RVE such that where k. The extended stiffness matrix K in (11) depends on the number M of the shells in the RVE. This implies Div T = 0. u^d^ = Vu(x)(a . This . . the choice of an expansion about the mean value of M need be matched by some rule establishing the topology of links between shells: many lattices correspond to any given number of shells. .d^. Measures of deformation in the discrete model are d^. In the following. C is second order and all of them have major symmetries (see [3] for explicit expressions). tensors T. However.x) + VJ(x)(h . In the simplest case one may write T = AVu + A'VJ. The identification procedure of the constitutive equations in the continuum model goes as follows: first one equalizes the power developed in the RVE with the density of the internal power in the continuum.. It is just the analytical structure implied by equation (3) (a partial differential equation) and the constitutive dependence on Vd that assure the possibility of obtaining localization phenomena.u^ where d^ is the displacement between the margins of the shell at h and u^ the displacement of the sphere at a. u^ .{Wd)^S be symmetric. represents the force exerted by the /th link in the macrolattice. Cauchy stress TF^ is not symmetric in this treatment unless the microcrack distribution is such that the second order tensor z ^ d ~\.)VvcD^ I ^ f CO^ + (VO^f GVd)^ / ^f. then deformation measures in the RVE are expressed in terms of the measures in the continuum [2.d^. ZQ the force due to the relative displacement d^ of the margins of the hih shell. M could be also considered as a random field: in each cell we could have random geometry of the microlattice and hypothesis of lattice periodicity would result weakened.x) (7) where the superposed line indicates mean value and dM the first variation of M about M.t (11) O^r 9 Be / d^ = dix)\Vd(x)(hx). Z/ the force in the /th interlattice link.0 (a . t. Discrete model. There are links between h and k. (12) (6) At the end of calculations one obtains the measures of interaction in the continuum in terms of the forces in the links of the RVE [3]: 1 L LN ^ t. VR •E^s ^zS(8)(hx) (8) VR + £]z. The balance of 'forces' is assured by assuming that V(B*) vanishes for any choice of the velocity fields and of B*. a and h.3].x) (5) where t and r are boundary data. d^d^ = Vd(x)(h~k) u ^ . Finite elements can be built up by selecting any regular tessellation less of B and indicating nodal displacements for each element B^ e tess with u^ and d^. The element displacements u^ and d^ are related to u^ and d^ by matrices of shape functions: u^ = O^u^ d^ = OJ J^ Different discretized problems can be obtained: the simplest one is given by K j{V<t>lYAV<^l Be (VcD^)VvcI>^.0(hk). In particular.b) + ^ z/ (g) (a . z = Cd. Body forces are here neglected for simplicity. Vd. h!. u^ . DiwSz = 0 inB (3) The balance of 'torques' is assured by requiring that the internal power /^^ (T • F + z • ^ + 5 • V j ) vanishes for any choice of 'rigid' velocity fields and of B*: it follows that SkwCTF^ + z 0 J + (VdfS) (4) where Skw() extracts the symmetric part of its argument. a and b: they carry only axial forces. Be (VO^. Zj the force in the 7 th link of the microlattice.u ^ ^ Vu(x)(ab). d^ . constitutive equations and finite element The topology of the discrete model has been described in the introduction. Augusti et al.^z/0(hx)j j=\ (9) /=i / When appropriate constitutive equations are chosen for the interactions in the lattices. we assume additionally that the discrete model is periodic and focus our attention on its characteristic cell (RVE).
. we may interpret T. d): vertical component (Displacement 2). 1.• :::::: :::rf :ti*:t:H. 4 shells). to account for the influence of randomly distributed microcracks on the gross mechanical behavior of the body. 1): interaction measures T. .b) + ^ z / (8) (a . have all the same random stiffness H. Inplane overall displacements of a membrane in tension.X) \ ^•=1 ^=1 /graph (16) Of course. b) and by the magnitude of the nodal overall displacement vector (c. "til II i*»fcJvlS!ll*lk«*»"''"». /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 45 MSPLACEMENT1 3. procedure could introduce great difficulties in developing calculation. fixed on the lefthand side and loaded by a concentrated force in the middle of the righthand side. (b. S as 1 VR c d ^ t .08E^2 CMSPLACEMENT2 S 2. Fig. The constitutive equations have been derived considering a discrete model with square symmetry (4 spheres. (13) VR Even M could be considered a random field and procedures in [7] appHed. shown in a normalized intensity color scale (a. (8) (h .k) .0 (a . lb.x )  graph (14) K = K + anKlj^de + a2jjKjdMde.J2zi (8) (h . (a.G. la. z. Under these assumptions. expansion (12) becomes: Fig. By indicating with ()graph the average on some class of admissible graphs. Augusti et al. one could fix a microlattice and assume that interlattice links.d show the vertical component (Displacement 2).. d).47E03 2. the horizontal component (Displacement 1) of the overall displacement while Fig. Fig. which govern the degree of coupling in the mechanical problem._  nil— """• Fig. by two different representations. z. K can be taken as the average value K (see E^ (15) graph s= ^zS(8)(hx) + ^ z . Alternatively. If the relevant quantities are random in the sense explained above.c show. 1 (taken from [3]) is an example of inplane displacements calculated for a square membrane of stiffness K.S2E03 2.82E03 . c) Horizontal component (Displacement 1). S associated to K need be considered as averaged quantities on some class of admissible geometries for the microlattice. in the sense of (13) ( )graph must be interpreted as the average with respect to H at a fixed graph. .
8:153173. Rota GC. Constitutive relations for elastic microcracked bodies: from a lattice model to a multifield continuum description.46 References G. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986. 1977. Augusti et al. . [7] Liu WK. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [2] Mariano PM. Belytschko T. Augusti G. [5] Kolchin VF. Finite element simulations of strain localization induced by microcracks. Stazi FL. [1] Mariano PM. Introduction to Geometric Probability.23:18311845. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng. 1999. Lezioni Lincee. Some remarks on the variational description of microcracked bodies. Mech Mater. in print. Random Graphs. [6] Mariano PM. in print. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [4] Klain DA. Random field finite elements. Trovalusci P. [3] Mariano PM.34:633642. Int J Nonlinear Mech 1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Strain localization in elastic microcracked bodies. Stazi FL. Int J Damage Mech 1999. Mani A.
Mechanical analogy illustrating a simple viscoplastic material model resulting in a frequency and amplitude dependent dynamic modulus and damping. 1. Combining the viscoelastic and the elastoplastic models in parallel yields a material model which sums the elastic.47 A method to analyse the nonhnear dynamic behaviour of rubber components using standard FE codes PerErik Austrell *.J. In Section 2 this model is Fig. The frictional damping is attributed to the filler structure and the breaking and reforming of the structure which take place during loading and unloading. Keywords: Filled rubber. URL: http://byggmek. . but also a viscous and a frictional part. The overlay method offers a method to obtain such a model using only the already implemented constitutive models in standard FE codes. The model can then be given a quantitative better fit to experimental data. Values of the modulus and phase angle. Sweden Abstract For filled elastomers damping is caused by two different mechanisms at material level. Filled rubber materials subjected to harmonic loading show combined frequency and amplitude dependence of * Corresponding author. The phase angle is a measure of the damping and thus also a measure of the hysteresis. Anders K.3].lth.In the onedimensional case this can be modelled with a rheological model consisting of a viscoelastic component coupled in parallel with an elastoplastic component according to Fig. Damping. Finite element method. Introduction Carbon black filled rubber consists of long polymer chains and a structure of microscopical carbon particles connected by weak crosslinks. The onedimensional model shown in Fig. 1 can be generalized by adding more viscous and frictional elements in parallel. The behaviour of the material model in Fig. viscous and frictional stresses. i.lth.se/ © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Elastoplastic. The model simulates the rate and amplitude dependence in a physically correct manner. a large phase angle yields a large difference between the loading and unloading curves. Constitutive models for rubber used in standard FE codes are usually either hyperelastic or viscoelastic. The result is an FE model corresponding to the onedimensional generalized rheological viscoplastic model discussed in Section 1. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Martin Jonsson Department of Mechanics and Materials. The aim of this work is to propose an FE procedure that is able to represent the dynamic behaviour of rubber materials including both rate and amplitude dependence as well as nonlinear elastic behaviour. Email: pea@byggmek. 1. needed to model the frictional damping. SE221 00 Lund. Lund University. Elastoplastic models. Amplitude dependence 1. Reorganization of the rubber network during periodic loading results in a viscous type of damping. are also normally supplied in order to model the plastic behaviour of highly stressed metal. for which the amplitude and frequency results in a power output which exceeds a certain limit have been excluded from the figure. All rights reserved. Fax: +46 (46) 2224420. 1. Box 118. 1 in harmonic loading is illustrated in Fig. P. The stresses obtained in a filled rubber material can thus be divided into a dominant elastic part.se. Bathe (Editor) the dynamic modulus and phase angle.O. Division of Structural Mechanics. Olsson.e.. 2. Viscoelastic. A simple fiveparameter model of this viscoplastic type is shown in Fig. resulting in viscous (rate dependent) and frictional (amplitude dependent) damping respectively [1. Tel: +46 (46) 2224798.
A direct generalization for a three dimensional stress state would be to add the elastic. Implementation of the overlay method An easy way to obtain a model according to Section 2 using standard FE codes.48 RE. The total stress tensor a is then given by a ^a' +G'P + G' (1) where the terms are obtained from a nonhardening plasticity model. according to von Mises. The overlay method According to the onedimensional viscoplastic model shown in Fig. Amplitude and frequency dependence of the dynamic modulus and phase angle. is to use an overlay of FE meshes. 3. 1. The basic approach using the overlay method. .f) Equivalent phase angle: Arg(A.f) 100 Shear strain amplitude 100 Shear strain amplitude Fig. The elastoplastic part of the stress tensor is given by a summation M (2) Rheological model ^r ^ FEmodel containing: Nonlinear elasticity Frequency dependence Amplitude dependence Viscoelastic FEmodel Elastoplastic FEmodel Fig.1. 2. all with identical element meshes. and the plastic stress. is to create one hyperelastic. Austrell et al. the total stress is obtained by adding the elastic stress. implemented for large strains. 2. The different basic FE models are assembled into one model containing both frequency and amplitude dependent properties as well as nonlinear elastic characteristics. yields a finite element model that corresponds to the fiveparameter model discussed earlier. The viscoelastic stress contribution is also given by a summation according to E<^ k=\ N (3) where the terms are obtained from a viscohyperelastic model. 2. 3. Basic idea of the overlay method. a elastoplastic and a viscoelastic material model. The model used in this paper uses three terms in the summation above. without having to program a new constitutive model. The hyperelastic contribution is in this paper according to a model by Yeoh [5]. one viscoelastic and one elastoplastic FE model. generalized into three dimensions for the purpose of finite element calculations. Onedimensional viscoplastic material model. suitable for large strains. the viscous. In order to create a model corresponding Hyperelastic FEmodel where the different stress tensors are obtained from a hyperelastic. Assembling the nodes of these models according to Fig. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Dynamic shear modulus: Gdyn(A. plastic and viscous stress tensors.
Division of Structural Mechanics.35(17):20572071. Only the radial load case is presented in this abstract. The graph also shows the influence of the nonlinear elastic stress contribution on the hysteretic response. Sweden. obtained from the finite element analysis. The very slow load rate makes it possible to neglect the viscous contribution. Sweden 1999.E. The load case is displacement controlled . Analysis of the cylindric component submitted to a radial cyclic load. with gradually increasing amplitude. to the generalized viscoplastic rheological model. Report TVSM1009 [2] Austrell PE. and cyclic. The sharp corners of the hysteretic response is characteristic for the behaviour of highly filled rubber materials. the material model used in this paper contains only the hyperelastic and the elastoplastic stress contributions.P. References [1] Austrell PE. 4 has been studied in [2]. one reasonable explanation for this behaviour is that the isotropic and incompressible characteristics of rubber provides a constraint that reduces the degrees of freedom in the threedimensional model. The graph shows the relation between the radial force F. 4. Division of Structural Mechanics. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1987. Rubber Chem Technol 1993. However. Jonsson M. 3. Cylindric rubber bushing A cylindric component according to Fig. Lund University. Hence. Lund Institute of Technology.60:153173. Rothert H. Int J Solids Struct 1998. [5] Yeoh OH. Preliminary investigations indicate that the material parameters needed for the finite elements models can simply be copied from the onedimensional model which has been fitted to experimental data. 1997. The component is submitted to large amplitudes at low frequencies. Lund Institute of Technology. Modeling of elasticity and damping for filled elastomers. [4] Simo JC. a suitable number of viscoelastic or elastoplastic FE models are added in parallel. Characterization of elastic properties of carbonblackfilled rubber vulcanizates. Fig. Constitutive approach to rate independent properties of filled elastomers. The reason why the onedimensional rheological model seems to be easily generalized into threedimensions has not been thoroughly investigated. If only the viscous damping was modelled the shape of the hysteretic response would be almost elliptic. Amplitude dependent dynamic stiffness. Report TVSM99/7129SE (142) [3] Kaliske M. 4 shows the cylindric component submitted to a radial loading. Lund University. On a fully threedimensionalfinitestrainviscoelastic damage model: formulation and computational aspects. and the radial displacement.66:754772. Austrell et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5r 49 0 2 4 6 Displacement [mm] Fig. Analys av nagra axialsymmetriska gummikomponenter. The component has been submitted to a variety of different load cases.
The effectivity of the formulation particularly concerning the application of the hierarchical pextension will be demonstrated by adequate numerical examples. where f' (/ = 1.' = 0. All rights reserved. while in the case of geometry intersections it can be advantageously determined according to (2) in terms of the position vectors XT and X^ of the top and bottom faces of the finite element continuum. RuhrUniversity Bochum. Let X = Xi^"". Keywords: Finite shell elements. Ch. Bochum.t') = X ( r ) + §'X(r).kintzel @ sd. Note that.de . geometry intersections. Switzerland Abstract For the analysis of shell structures with large strains finite elements are developed ensuring an optional selection of the kinematic assumption. p = 0. e. Hanskotter% O. We consider the reference state of a finite element continuum with a variable thickness H measured in the direction of the unit normal vector N of the midsurface. Large strains. * Corresponding author. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.^^) of the deformed configuration (actual state) is approximated by X = X (X.J. 2. ?^) = x ( r ) + ? ' x(r) + (?')' x(r).50 Simulation of large deformations in shell structures by the pversion of the finite element method Y. Finite rotations. The notations used are essentially adopted from [3]. the polynomial (3) may be enriched by further higherorder © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. with respect to the strains via the analytical tool of MATHEMATICA.2. KintzeP*.2 (3) with the 2D quantities x presenting the primary unknowns of the finite element procedure. The above quadratic polynomial provides the consideration of transversal strains de1 2 X = X(X. (2) where X is the position vector of the midsurface.ruhrunibochum. within the present concept. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. The reference configuration is considered exactly by means of algorithms applicable to various practically relevant cases e. Hierarchical and nonhierarchical interpolations. interpolation polynomials and particularly hyperelastic constitutive models.3) are curvilinear coordinates selected such that the values ?' = dzl determine the curved boundaries of the finite element. The possibility to compute an entire shell which may be additionally bounded by arbitrary curves turns out to be a further significant advantage. The vector X is described by the following linear expression in thickness coordinate with 0 1 X = . For single 0 shells the director X is selected as X = y N.^^) be the position vector of an arbitrary point. Schwab'' " Institute for Structural Mechanics. The actual shell configuration is described by nonhierarchical as well as hierarchical higherorder polynomials. Zurich.1. 2. Latin indices represent the numbers 1. The essential idea of the development is to construct all the partial derivatives of the finite element procedure. 1 X = i (Xr Xfl). Email: o.g. 3 and the greek ones the numbers 1. Shell equations Upper case letters denote geometrical elements of the reference state and lower case ones their counterparts in the actual configuration.(Xr + Xs).1 (1) pending on x and x. The use of higherorder interpolation polynomials substantially reduces the wellknown locking phenomena connected with lowerorder finite element formulations. Germany ^ Seminar for Applied Mathematics. The position vector x = xi^"^. Bathe (Editor) .g. Ba§a^^ U. Hyperelasticity 1.
This aspect will be enlighted here by two practically relevant cases.• 8gj + 8gi • Agj + giA8gj)G'^GJ. especially concerning problems with geometry intersections we refer to [1]. Ba§ar et al.E. whereas in other cases the partial differentiation ( ). The wellknown orthogonality property of these polynomials provides the significant advantage that. The classical shape functions are closely related to the nodal points and are constructed here by means of Lagrange and Serendipity polynomials. The linearization of the variation of the strain energy function 8W = 8W(\) and the kinematic constraint (4) with respect to the column vector v^ = [x x x] at the state x delivers: L8W = AS: 8E\S: A8EhS:8E (5) 3. X = xJ ij (p = 0.3) + €2(1 Ic — 3) given in terms of the invariants /c. Discretization. e. They are built in this contribution by means of the Legendre polynomials./ and g/ = x. if more accuracy is required. 6]. An example is the MooneyRivlin model W = Ci(/c . the classical shape functions is their direct applicability for the interpolation. For the finite element procedure the nonlinear shell equations are to be linearized. Finite element formulation For more flexibility the primary kinematic parameters p p . Reference shell geometry A crucial point in developing higherorder shell models is the consideration of the reference configuration with an adequate accuracy.Y.. a^) depending on the covariant components of E. . if higherorder approximation is required by adaptive strategies. This explains clearly the significance of the hierarchical shape functions for the application of adaptive hierarchical pextension [5]. As deformation (strain) measures the right CauchyGreen tensor C and the GreenLagrange strain tensor E are utilized subjected to the following kinematic constraints: E := Eij G' (g) G^' = i (C .g. which is again to be formed through MATHEMATICA. the interpolation of the unknown parameter x' can be presented in a unified form by X Pi J:'< Ij^m (7) where the indices mn are used to define a sum over the chosen 2D shape functions ^^N"^^. / / c of C and including two material constants Ci. Note that in the case of a hierarchical approach the x^^ are not only nodal values. For more on this. they have to be completely reconstructed. However. Starting from (1) and (3) the geometrical elements of the reference and actual states can be derived by the standard procedure [3].Gy)G^'0G^ (4) Any hyperelastic material can be modelled by a strain energy function W = W(Eij./. But.2) involved in (3) are interpolated by nonhierarchical (classical) as well as hierarchical shape functions. Once a special function is selected for W the associated stress tensor can be obtained by partial differentiation with respect to E as S = W. the covariant base vectors G/ = X. with increasing of the polynomial order.1. The first problem to be solved in this context is the definition of a finite element volume being convenient for the requirements of the given shell structure. A8E = {A 8gi • g. the combined application of (3) with the multilayer concept [4] has been proved to be decisively more efficient. The advantage of Fig. ^N"". Both operations 8 and A imply partial differentiations with respect to the kinematic unknowns v to be built systematically through MATHEMATICA.. 2. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 51 terms in ^^.+ Ag.G. which saves considerably the computational efforts. In the latter work explanations are also given concerning the numerical implementation. This model is appHcable to incompressible rubberlike materials. G'J. 1. The construction of the shape functions are described in [2. In both cited cases the 2D shape functions ^^Ar'"«(§«) = ^N'^(^^)^N''(^^) are constructed starting from the ID ones ^N"^.G) (g/g. The hierarchical shape functions do not use solely nodal values. (6) The symbol A used above defines an operation to be performed similar to the variation 8./ with respect to §' is to be carried out through MATHEMATICA. the new shape functions are obtainable from the foregoing ones simply through an additional extension.C2. Thus. the contravariant metric tensor components G'^ and a number of material parameters a^.
0« = 0« [t (?2)] replaced by V 0« = AT. A wellknown failure of this approach is that the rigid body motion criterion is not satisfied exactly. 1).0010^ V = 0.20 0. 0.52 Y.g.( l . e. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Geometry and material data Geometry: A = 1.1 . has to correspond to a given curve C given by the relations 0 " = 0 J (t).00 Z = 0. 1) is considered in the midsurface equation X = X [ 0 " (^^)] = X ( ^ ^ ) .f ^1) 0« (^2) 0 ^ (?^) the transformation (8) is then (9) 4 4 ?')(i + r)e^ (8) = E^^(?")®5^ 0 0 0 In some cases it may be suitable to determine the finite element volume through the bottom Ag and top faces AT.75. By using the corresponding result vectors X and X so that the problem is reduced to the one discussed above.05 0. To define a finite element area we first select four arbitrary nodal points A' ( ^ = 1 to 4) with the coordinates 0^^^ on AQ.25 200 400 600 800 Degrees of Freedom Fig. But it has been proved that this is only 0. In this case the first step is to replace the parameter t = r (^^) by the dimensionless coordinate ^^ e ( . Vertical displacement np^. 0. . To save computation efforts the classical formulation is used in the present development. of point P. the finite element faces on A^ and AT can be determined by the same procedure as described above. 2. more strictly. 0. then a finite element area AAQ on AQ is determined whose boundaries are described by the discrete values ^'^ = ± 1 . the boundary passing through the nodes 2 and 4.01 Material data: E= 1. Boundary conditions.50.25. we suppose that one of the boundaries of the finite element area A A Q .15 0.00. 0 1 The vectors X and X entering in (1) can be considered in an exact form (classical formulation) or alternatively 0 approximated in the same form as their counterparts x and X in the actual state (isoparametric approach). Then. If the transformation Fig. 3. the 0 1 with ^" G (—1.00 7 d = 0. 1. Now. 0« + T ^ 0« + . The consideration of the corresponding results in (1) and (2) finally defines the finite element volume. Ba§ar et al.00 B= 1.20 We first assume that the shell is determined by its thickness H and its midsurface AQ described through the equation X = X ( 0 " ) in terms of arbitrary parameters @".
3. [4] Ba§ar Y. The convergence behaviour of the vertical displacement can be seen in Fig. 2). Weichert D. Linear elastic material properties are taken into account (Table 1) and furthermore all boundaries in horizontal direction are fixed (Fig. Example The example is a thin plate under constant dead load P = 1. a minor weakness having no particular influence on the numerical response. On the exact geometry description in the pfinite element formulation for hyperelastic shells withfiniterotations. 4 the asymptotic convergence of the relative error of the total potential energy in double logarithmic scale is to be seen. It is discretized with two elements. 4. References [1] Ba§ar Y. 1). Actis R. Ba§ar et al. acting in negative Xadirection (Fig. Finite Element Analysis.Y. in prep. which has been applied on the face of the plate. Ding Y Interlaminar stress analysis of composites. Each displacement curve mirrors a different mesh distortion and each point of the curve characterises a polynomial order. Hanskotter U. 1991. In Fig. Babuska I.5(5):485499. Schwab Ch. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the insensitivity of highorder FEdiscretization to element distortion and irregular element shapes. Relative error e of the total potential energy jr. 2001. From polynomial order 4 all curves converge to the exact solution. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 100. Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics of SoHds. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999. which will be distorted with a varying factor b: 0 means no distortion and 1 means distortion to a triangle. Berlin: Springer.0 ^ 1000 Degrees of Freedom Fig. [3] Ba§ar Y. Composites Eng 1995.00. Layerwise shell finite elements including transverse strains. Hanskotter U. Omurtag MH. 2000.172:79107. [2] Ba§ar Y. Schwab Ch. A general highorder finite element formulation for shells at large strains and finite rotations. [51 Szabo BA. [6] Szabo B. New York: Wiley. 2001. in prep. . Schwab Ch. Hierarchic models for laminated plates and shells.0 r ^ f e r — = = = r : # ^ ^ ^ 53 10. 4.
Keywords: Frictional contact. Contact and impact have received substantial attention over the past several decades. Salt Lake City. and avoids the use of an interface stiffness parameter. An MPM code has been implemented in the UCF to model the mechanical response of the container and explosives. Dynamic compaction. massively parallel computations. where these interactions are tightly controlled (e. Byutne^^ D. Finite deformations. Approach Inherent in the MPM algorithm is a no slip contact condition between adjacent materials [3]. In addition. robust. which lists nearly 500 papers. * Corresponding author. However. Bedrov''. The algorithm takes advantage of the overlying Eulerian grid to define . Preliminary results on the dynamic compaction of granular material are presented. Granular material 1. This framework avoids the use of an interface stiffness parameter (as for a penalty formulation). G. USA Abstract An algorithm for applying frictional contact conditions in threedimensions using the Material Point Method is described. including frictional contact and debonding. Bathe (Editor) The numerical simulations described here are performed using the University of Utah's Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) in support of large scale. UT. and interaction forces imposed to prevent interpenetration without making the system of equations to be solved illconditioned.J.g.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. which can be difficult to select. UT. Under severe loading. Performance is assessed via a simple test problem involving large material deformations.D. Email: bard@golden. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Simulation of the compaction of granular material provides a test of the mechanics code and an opportunity to model the response of a complex system only practical using large scale numerical simulations. Here we briefly describe an alternate approach using an arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian (ALE) particleincell numerical technique for solid mechanics. the Material Point Method (MPM) [2]. The classic example is a car crash. All rights reserved.utah.mech. The problem is a very difficult one. by using bearings. the MPM algorithm provides a convenient framework for applying more general contact conditions. Component contact loading can often be idealized in simulations of systems operating under design conditions. The algorithm is computationally efficient. surface normals constructed. Introduction During the performance of engineering systems. Material and Engineering Science Department. Material point method. Tel: +1 (801) 5879819. under the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions (CSAFE). 2. the majority of the loading applied to components is by contact with other components. The majority of these papers describe numerical modeling approaches and/or applications using the finite element method. and fragmentation are needed. as contact must be sensed. Salt Lake City. Algorithms designed to handle contact between container and explosive during initial heating. large deformation or failure of one component may result in unanticipated contact with other components. Fax: +1 (801) 5859826. Mechanical Engineering Department. lubrication or joints). O. Smith'' " University' of Utah. as witnessed by a review of the subject by Zhong [1]. Bardenhagen'''*. and will ultimately couple with a fluid dynamics (fire) code. the performance of a system outside of normal operating conditions may be equally important.G. The simulation scenario ultimately of interest to the Center is the thermo/mechanical/chemical response of a container filled with plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) in a fire. USA ^ University of Utah.54 Simulation of frictional contact in threedimensions using the Material Point Method S. chemical decomposition. Arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian.
Bardenhagen et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 120 Rigid Splnere Total Energy J e l l . there is variation in interface velocity over the contact area resulting in some sliding during rolling. 1. The majority of the energy is kinetic for the rubber case. To demonstrate the algorithm's ability to easily handle large deformations and the corresponding variation in the contact area. Simulation times for the deformed configurations are indicated by dotted lines in Fig. the contact algorithm results in the sphere skipping slightly. Eight material points per cell are used. Note that the rubber case has larger total energy in part because it free falls for a fraction of a cell length before contacting the plane. Initial and deformed configurations for the 'Jell0' sphere. The algorithm reduces to the no slip condition inherent in the MPM algorithm when interfaces stick.0 Sphere Total Energy J e l l . and inspection reveals the trade off between kinetic and strain energy as the sphere slumps down the plane.0 Sphere Strain Energy Rubber Sphere Total Energy Rubber Sphere Kinetic Energy Rubber Sphere Strain Energy 55 ' /V // // // // — // // // / // ^ 80  en ^ 60 40 /y/ /// / / ' ^^•r y^!^^^y 0. The first case is shown in gray and corresponds to both sphere and plane having stiffnesses approximately that of natural rubber. There is also some error accumulated during the simulation. initially at rest. The modified algorithm retains the efficient qualities of the original. Energies developed during rolling are plotted for the rigid sphere and two deformable sphere simulations in Fig.5 1. and apply Coulomb frictional contact conditions [4]. interfaces. Fig.8s intervals (indicated with dotted vertical lines in Fig. Snapshots displaying the initial configuration and deformed configurations at approximately 0. 1.S. deformability plays a small role and a reasonable resolution of the geometry results in a total energy very similar to the rigid case. The Jell0 case is plotted in black. 2. depicted by plotting material points. the cost is linear in the number of contacting materials. However. and the ability to collect data . One of the test problems investigated was that of a sphere on an inclined plane under gravity. Application The behavior of granular material has received a fair amount of attention within the scientific community recently [5]. For the (elastic) deformable cases the computational cell size is Z)/8. Although natural rubber is fairly soft. A separate contact detection step is unnecessary. The formulation was found to violate the explicit stability condition on rare occasions when material point registration on the overlying computational grid met specific conditions. 1. the total energy is equal to the kinetic energy. 3. the total energy is the sum of the sphere's kinetic and strain energies. and a solution is achieved with one sweep through the computational mesh. For the rigid case. resulting in a material approximating 'Jell0'. Specific energies for rigid and deformable sphere on inclined plane test problems. and is plotted with a thick black line. The algorithm is computationally efficient. 2. which can be reduced by decreasing the explicit time step.0 Fig. and corresponding dissipation of kinetic energy.G. For the deformable cases. the sphere's elastic properties were reduced by a factor of 1000. For this case. plus greatly increased robustness.5 Time (sec) 2. where D is the sphere's initial diameter. Because of the rich behavior granular material has been found to exhibit.0 Sphere Kinetic Energy J e l l . These qualities make calculations involving large numbers of contacting materials tractable. The strain energy reflects the regular occurrence of mild collisions. For rigid bodies an analytic solution exists corresponding to rolling without slipping.0 1. calculate frictional forces and surface normals. 1) are shown in Fig. extensive testing revealed a shortcoming. An addition to the algorithm was made to check for violation of the stability criterion and rescale the contact impulse as necessary.
4 Fig. and a meandering path must be traversed to reach a given depth. The large grain in the middle of the slice carries large stresses. Work to incorporate fracture in these simulations is ongoing. Stress propagates most quickly through the large grains. It has been found that a prevalent load carrying mechanism in granular material is provided by a small subset of the grains forming highly loaded connected paths of contacting grains. It propagates more slowly through the smaller grains because grains must be brought into contact. Only stressed grains are shown. A closer look at an interior slice in the inset of Fig. The inhomogeneous stress state resulting from the development of force chains may play a role in energy localization by promoting frictional sliding.12 JJLS after impact. Conclusions MPM is found to provide a convenient environment for the implementation of frictional contact. Ultimately of interest is a fundamental understanding the load carrying mechanisms and connections with continuum constitutive models via state statistics at the microscale. The simulation of the dynamic compaction of dense granular material further requires accurate modeling of grain deformation. 4. These capabilities are precisely the strengths of the current state of the MPM code. There are 1000 spheres in a 1 mm cube with an 80% packing fraction. with maximum stresses in white. Much larger simulations will be performed to provide a better representation of the measured grain size distribution. The grains are shaded differently only to distinguish one from another. Preliminary results on granular compaction are encouraging. Initial configuration consisting of 1000 spheres in a 1mm cube. The size distribution is representative of that for the energetic grains in the PBX ultimately of interest within CSAFE. there is a large database available for validation.G. Dry granular material provides a relatively simple starting point and data for validation. Only stressed grains are shown. or 'force chains'. [7]. The packing has been impacted from above by a piston with velocity 100 m / s . 3. The sample size is too small to determine the effects on the stress wave structure of the interplay between large and small grains.e. as do chains of small grains on either side. statistical information representative of the continuum scale). Depiction of a stress wave propagating through the granular bed. as also seen in the diagonal slice inset. Bardenhagen et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Fig. displaying the nonuniform structure of the stress wave 0. plastic deformation and/or fracture. both on the scale of the individual grains and en masse. Stress propagates more slowly in areas rich in smaller grains. Sewell et al. A tool to generate dense packings of spheres with given size distribution using MonteCarlo techniques was developed and used to create the initial configuration depicted in Fig. Two large grains are prominent in approximately opposite comers. The grains are modeled using a compressible NeoHookean plasticity formulation [6] with elastic material properties determined by molecular dynamics simulations.56 S. 4. with simulations indicating preferential load paths developing during dynamic compaction. This resolution provides for five cells across the diameter of the smallest grains. 4. The stress wave structure from a preliminary calculation with 10^ cells and 6 x 10^ material points is shown in Fig. and to determine the sample size required for statistics representative of an essentially infinite number of grains (i. The longer term objective is to include an interstitial material and simulate initiation mechanisms in PBXs and . 3. but requires accurate modeling of many contacting grains. (with the stress rescaled to emphasize stress paths) indicates the development of force chains among the smaller grains.
2000. In: Furnish MD. A fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of initiation in energetic materials will likely yield only to multidisciplinary expertise and a closely coupled combination of numerical simulation and experimental validation. Bardenhagen et al. The particleincell method as a natural impact algorithm. Chabildas LD. Application of a particleincell method to solid mechanics. Glenn G. Woodbury: AIP Press. Bedrov D. [3] Sulsky D. [4] Bardenhagen SG. 1998. [7] Sewell TD. Appl Mechan Rev 1994.S. Zhou SJ. [8] Foster JC Jr. Menikoff R. The material point method for granular materials. submitted. Adv Comput Methods Mater Model 1993. Ayyagari C. Schreyer HL. 57 Acknowledgements This work was supported by the U. there is evidence that force chains occur in PBXs as well [8]. It is generally agreed upon that nonshock initiation of PBXs is due to energy localization at the microscale and the development of 'hot spots'. [6] Simo JC.187:529541. Composed of >90% by volume energetic grains in a weak matrix. 1998. Hughes TJR. Luding S. Experimental information. Hovi JP. Gunger M. Contactimpact problems: a review with bibhography.47(2):5576.268:219229. . Brackbill JU. New York: Springer. Shock Compression of Condensed Matter1999. Mackerie J. [2] Sulsky D.87:236252. References [1] Zhong ZH. Sulsky D. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. Physics of Granular Media. Computational inelasticity. Elastic coefficients and sound speeds for HMX polymorphs from molecular dynamics simulations. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics support the development of constitutive models. Comput Phys Commun 1995.S. Smith GD. Mesoscale origins of the low pressure equation of state and high rate mechanical properties of plastic bonded explosives. [5] Herrmann HJ. Hixson RS (Eds). is decidedly more difficult to obtain on the microscale. Schreyer HL. Comput Methods Appl Mechan Eng 2000.G. J Appl Phys. under Grant W7405ENG48. Department of Energy through the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions. already difficult and expensive to obtain for bulk energetic materials.
Italy Abstract Energy preserving/decaying schemes are presented for the simulation of the nonlinear multibody systems involving shell components. In fact. Bathe (Editor) putational performance. the differential equations that govern many problems in mathematical physics possess qualitative and structural characteristics that can be determined by studying their geometry. GA 303320150 USA ^ Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. they tend to be quite unsatisfactory when applied to the complex simulations encountered in many engineering applications [3]. a rigorous treatment of both geometric and material nonlinearities. The kinematic nonlinearities associated with arbitrarily large displacements and rotations of shells are treated in a rigorous manner. Energy preserving schemes 1. Simo and his coworkers were among the first to develop special integration procedures for nonlinear structural dynamics. In all cases. Furthermore. applied and computational mathematicians. geometrically exact shells and beams [2]. Carlo L. and the presence of high frequency numerical dissipation. while the nonlinearities of . Multibody dynamics. and accuracy. Email: olivier. exact satisfaction of the constraints. general purpose discretization methods were developed. In the past. and the material nonlinearities can be handled when the constitutive laws stem from the existence of a strain energy density function. This new paradigm has resulted in the development of a new mathematical discipline. to obtain robust integration schemes. While these schemes perform well for problem with a small number of degrees of freedom featuring a "smooth" dynamic response. This approach is now changing. Milan. per se. Classical examples of such characteristics are the invariants associated with Hamiltonian systems. Atlanta.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. differential/algebraic equations. the predicted time histories of internal forces and velocities can present a significant high frequency content. While the partial differential equations that govern shell problems are well known.J. Keywords: Shell analysis. The proposed schemes are designed to meet four specific requirements: unconditional nonlinear stability of the scheme. the presence of these high frequency oscillations hinders the convergence process for the solution of the nonlinear equations of motion.bauchau@aerospace. Indeed.gatech. They analyzed the problem of the dynamics of nonlinear elastodynamics [1]. However. greater robustness and improved accuracy. their numerical treatment is still the subject of active research. the idea was to design algorithms that ensure the discrete preservation of the total mechanical energy of the system. These oscillations are particularly violent in multibody dynamics simulations because these systems are rather stiff due to the presence of numerous algebraic constraints. Bauchau^*. There is increasing evidence that numerical methods that correctly recover the qualitative features of the underlying differential equations are often endowed with superior com* Corresponding author. School of Aerospace Engineering. therefore obtaining unconditionally stable schemes in the nonlinear regime. the symplectic structure of the governing equations. These methods aimed at solving vast classes of problems such as ordinary differential equations. performance.58 On the modeling of shells in multibody dynamics Olivier A. Politecnico di Milano. or hyperbolic conservation laws. All rights reserved. Indeed. numerical analysis tools for partial differential equations have significantly changed in recent years. Bottasso^ " Georgia Institute of Technology. called geometric integration: a bridge that links the work of pure. or symmetries and attractors. increasing evidence points toward the fact that geometric integration is not sufficient. with emphasis on robustness. Introduction and motivation This work is concerned with the numerical simulation of geometrically exact shell models within the context of multibody system dynamics.
in particular the total mechanical energy. the governing equations are characterized by linear and rotational tensorial fields describing kinematic (displacements.086 sec t=0. a discretiza t= 0.0. and the total linear and angular momenta.O. and possibly because of nonlinear constitutive laws (material nonlinearities). Schematic of tlie snapthrough problem of a cyhndrical shell activated by a crank and link mechanism. velocities) and cokinematic (forces. Consequently.A. the presence of joints imposes different types of kinematic constraints between the various bodies of the system.291 sec I Fig. Bauchau. and is equipped with high frequency numerical dissipation. giving the governing equations a differential/algebraic nature. In this work. 1.156sec t=0. the equations are nonlinear because of large displacements and finite rotations (geometric nonlinearities). . the specific features of the equations governing nonlinear flexible multibody systems with shells are reviewed. In order to achieve these goals.0) (0. L Bottasso /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 59 Shell (0. the Lagrange multipliers technique is used to enforce the constraints. This paper focuses on the development a geometric integrator for shell structures that preserves important qualitative features of the underlying equations. System configurations at various time instants during the simulation. momenta) quantities. the presence of high frequency numerical dissipation appears to be an indispensable feature of robust time integrators for multibody systems. Second. C.0) Revolute joints Crank Fig. 2. the equations of motion imply the preservation of a number of dynamic invariants. First. The proposed geometric integration procedure is designed to satisfy specific requirements.0. Third. Fourth.265sec / t= 0. the system provide a mechanism to transfer energy from the low to the high frequency modes. First.
Higherorder mite general shell elements. the reaction forces associated with the holonomic and nonholonomic constraints imposed on the system are discretized in a manner that guarantees the satisfaction of the nonlinear constraint manifold.1 rad/s for half a revolution. the constraint condition will not drift. snapthrough configuration. the discrete energy conservation laws proved for the flexible members of the system are not upset by the introduction of the constraints.6] based on the EP scheme. tion process is developed that preserves the total mechanical energy of the system at the discrete solution level.5 m. This process is independent of the spatial discretization procedure that is left arbitrary. Poisson ratio y = 0. 1.nonlinear multibody systems. The system geometry is depicted in Fig. Computational schemes forflexible.60 OA. Bathe KJ. Multibody Syst Dyn 1998. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993.nonlinear mulfibody systems. The discretization process for the forces of constraint is left unchanged: the work they perform vanishes exactly. The crank rotates at constant angular velocity ^ = 0.2 m. ZAMP 1992. The resulting Energy Preserving (EP) scheme is a geometric integrator for multibody systems with shells that provides nonlinear unconditional stability. The crank is modeled as a rigid body.5 m and its axis of rotation is located 5 m below the connection point with the shell. [3] Bauchau OA. Bauchau. Tamow N. References [1] Simo JC. In the present implementation. Bottasso CL. while the simulation is continued until t = 0. 2. Furthermore.4 s. The two straight edges of the shell are simply supported. i. it is possible to derive a new discretization that implies a discrete energy decay statement. L. [2] Simo JC. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999. [6] Bauchau OA. Next. Tamow N.2:169225. Material properties are: Young's modulus E = 210 GPa. Using a simple procedure [5. while the link is represented by a beam of rectangular cross section of side s = 0. the system no longer evolves on the constant energy level set. A new energy and momentum conserving algorithm for the nonlinear dynamics of shells. with the same material properties as the shell. the finite element method is used. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994. Damilano G. . Consequently. [4] Bucalem ML.43:757792.36:37293754. The crank length is Lc = 1. [5] Bauchau OA. 2 shows the response of the shell. Numerical integration of nonlinear elasfic mulfibody systems. The two elements are connected by a revolute joint. ED schemes satisfy all the requirements set forth earlier. and stops at time ^ = TT 10~^ s. and one of the curved edges is free.1 m. The discrete energymomentum method conserving algorithms for nonlinear dynamics. The last edge is connected at its midpoint to a link by means of a revolute joint. Theron NJ. its displacement along x and its rotations about the y and z directions are constrained to zero. At the same time.37:25272549. Fig.38:27272751. while the system evolves on the constraint manifold without drifts. In the resulting Energy Decaying (ED) scheme. and the mixed interpolation of tensorial components [4] is implemented to avoid the shear locking problem. Bottasso /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics radius r = 5 m and thickness t = 0. the discretization implies the vanishing of the work performed by the forces of constraint at the discrete solution level.e. On the design of energy preserving and decaying schemes forflexible. C.169:6179. but is allowed to drift away from it in a controlled manner.25 and density p = 10"* kg/m^. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1995. The shell consists of a 60° sector of a cylinder of height h = 2. Snapthrough of a cylindrical shell A crank and link mechanism is used to drive a cylindrical shell through an unstable.
These experiments indicate that the amount of the excess impulse is a function of the pattern of impact of the fragments on the slab. 2. USA Abstract Impulses resulting from metal fragment impacts on concrete targets are needed to predict the structural response of those targets. Tel. these same analysis techniques are used to investigate the effect of fragment impact pattern on momentum transferred to the concrete target.element (FE) analyses have been used successfully to predict damage to concrete targets from multiple fragment impacts. Baylot^'*. Dallriva [1]. In this paper. Dynamic loads. Momentum transfer. All rights reserved. excess impulse is defined as the percent difference between the impulse applied to the slab and the total momentum of all fragments striking the slab.: +1 (601) 6342137.army. The momentum transferred to reinforced concrete slabs by steel fragments impacting the slabs has been studied in two recent series of experiments. Damage to the concrete targets in some of these experiments has been successfully predicted using FE models and applying the loads as a pressuretime history on the surface of the slab.S. Thirty similar experiments were conducted for multiple fragment impacts. Email: baylotj@wes. MD 20783. indicating a loss in effectiveness as compared to a single fragment impact. 24 fragments were fired at the concrete target. Papados [2]. P. the excess impulse was approximately 70%. Maximum concrete ejecta velocity and damaged surface area were used as a measure of excess impulse applied to the target. The constitutive model is a threeinvariant. MS 39180. a single steel fragment was fired at a reinforcedconcrete target. Once the material has reached the residual surface.mil © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. The excess impulse ranged from 24 to 54%. it cannot support tension and cannot support shear in the absence of pressure. Vicksburg. Analyses were performed for one. Army Research Laboratory.J. Papados used the largedeformation. DYNA3DLLNL [4]. * Corresponding author. In the first set of experiments. The concrete on the front face of the slab near the impact point was ejected towards the direction of the fragment launcher at a reasonably high velocity. threefailure surface model as suggested by Willam and Warnke [5]. Keywords: Reinforced concrete.S.200 fps. Fax: +1 (601) 6342309. The experiments indicated that the reinforcing steel does not have a large effect on the momentum transferred to the slab. Finite. maximum.61 Fragment impact pattern effect on momentum transferred to concrete targets J. Adelphi. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. The excess impulse has been attributed to the ejection of this concrete. and residual capacity of the concrete. Papados'' ^ U.P. Recent experiments indicate that the momentum transferred to the target exceeds the momentum of the fragments impacting the slab. Bathe (Editor) . ParaDyn [3].T. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. Analyses performed Finiteelement analyses were performed to assess the effect of the fragment impact pattern on the impulse transferred from 150grain steel fragments impacting a 9in. Failure in tension is based on fracture energy. On average. Introduction In this paper. Finiteelement analyses 1. which is the scalable version of the code. The surfaces represent the yield. and three fragments. USA ^ U. Impact loads.thick concrete target at about 4. In these experiments. two. Details of the constitutive model are discussed in [2]. explicitdynamic FE code.
2.08 0. and apparently so were the hourglass forces. Attempts were made to adjust the hourglass control and to delete the failed elements on the exposed surface.T.000 6.by 30.000 psi and 0. This figure shows that the FE model initially captures the ejection of the concrete off of the front surface of the model. respectively. i 0 0 25 0.1 ms. the mass and average velocity of concrete that would be ejected.456 ips and 1. 3. The only other forces that could have been acting on this node are the hourglass control and the bulk viscosity. The pulse duration was selected to match the expected fragment penetration. all of the nodes reversed direction and moved away from the fragment source. 3. the concrete did not actually eject in the simulation.62 J. The peak pressure and pulse duration were 224. were loaded by the pressure boundary condition representing the fragment impact. Since the recovery of the ejecta material could not be prevented. P. ms Fig. slab was discretized into 518.04 0.25 in. These nodes initially moved in the direction of the fragment velocity. the firstlayer impulse was selected as a measure of excess impulse applied to the target. The nodes at 0 and 0. Neither of these efforts was successful in overcoming the problem of the reversal of direction of the failed concrete.000 (0 9. The area of failed elements on the surface of the slab is shown in Fig.457 ips. / /" u Dlst.000 9. The fragment impacts were represented using pressure boundary conditions that preserve the momentum of the fragment. At 0. cube elements.75 1 1 o 0 3. The constitutive model and rate effects curves used were identical to those used by Papados. Fig. and was used for these simulations. 1.000 3. Each of the elements connected to this node has failed and all stress histories for these elements remained at zero. Analysis results were examined to determine the source of the force that caused these 'ejected' nodes to be pulled back into the remainder of the slab. The externally applied forces were zero after 0. Later in time. cube constant stress continuum elements.16 0. Displacements near impact point.000 rz< \ ^"' j^ 1 0 0. Velocity histories of the nodes near the fragment impact are shown as Fig. The fragment size is consistent with the surface area of four of the 1/4in. The impact location (displacements scaled by 5) at the end of the fragment pulse duration is shown in Fig. A rise time of l/4th of the pulse duration gives a good estimate of the damage for the multiple fragment experiments. Reinforcing steel was not modeled.P. the node at the fragment impact location accelerated with the velocity very quickly becoming positive.000 15.000 A 30. 1. Because of this behavior.12 0. . The maximum and average magnitudes of the ejecta velocity were 11. Based on the first three layers. Positive displacements (shown as white) are displacements in the direction of the initial fragment velocity.000 6. and the momentum initially gained was lost. the ejecta velocities before the recovery were used to evaluate the excess impulse.000 12. The nodes not loaded by the fragment impact immediately moved opposite to the fragment velocity. In. Single fragment impact A simulation for a single fragment impacting the center of the target was performed (4 elements are loaded).2 Time.400 1/4in. but reversed at a high velocity at the end of the pulse duration. Velocity histories of nodes totally surrounded by failed elements were examined to determine. from impact. the excess impulse applied to the target would be about 41%.11 ms. the forces must have been due to hourglass control. Papados / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 18. Baylot.1 ms. Since 75% of the simulated excess impulse was due to the ejection of the first layer of elements.000 12. The mass of the element was maintained upon element deletion. Average velocities and damage volumes for the next two layers were also computed.5 0. respectively. 2.by 9in. Since the bulk viscosity forces are only active in compression. Velocity histories near impact point.
25 0.0 0. but less than for two fragments hitting close to each other.25 0.) 0. Exposed surface concrete damages for the four multiplefragment simulations are compared with the single fragment analysis in Fig. .0 0. Bay lot.5in. the Table 1 Multiple fragment simulations Simulation ^ Fragment no. 3 and in Table 1. This results as an excess impulse of 40%. ^ The origin of the coordinate system is at the center of the slab. Papados / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 63 a) Single b) Two.75 29.25 Damaged area (in. As seen in Fig. the increase in area does not offset the addition of the third fragment. This results in an excess impulse equivalent to the single fragment result. The limit on the growth of damaged area of twice the single fragment area would be reached in the case when the two fragments are so far apart that their areas of influence would not overlap.19 Excess impulse (%) Single 0. 3. apart e) Tliree Fig. the excess impulse grows to 55%. 4. 3. 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 x^ (in. 3. apart d) Two. Three 70 70 40 55 47 ^ Fragment spacing is listed for two fragment impacts.0in.0 y' (in.5in.0in. and the excess impulse is reduced to 47%.5m.5 26. apart c) Two. Up and to the right are positive.5 0.25 0.^) 16.25 0.7 in order to adjust the excess impulse to match the single fragment experiments.0 0. the damaged area is greater than for the single fragment. In this case. Therefore.P. Front surface damage.0 0.25 0.75 1. the damaged area increases by a factor of two when two fragments are placed very close together.. LSin.J. The damaged area further increases with the addition of a third fragment close to these two.0 0.5 1.0 0. The damaged area then grows as the fragments are moved further apart. total area of surface damage is a relative measure of excess impulse. 1.25 32. When the two fragments are moved further apart.75 0.0 0. Horizontal and vertical coordinates are represented by x and y. respectively. Excess impulses were estimated for the multiple fragment runs by dividing the damaged area for that run by the damaged area in the single fragment run and by the number of fragments.) 0.0 0. P. however. 0.25 0. Multiple fragment impact Simulations were performed for the four multiple fragment impact cases listed in Table 1.75 42. That number was multiplied by 1. At a spacing of 3 in.T. The maximum and average magnitudes of the ejecta velocity did not vary significantly in the five simulations performed. 3.
UCRL 5383894. [3] Hoover CO. threedimensional finite element code for solid and structural mechanics — users manual. Dallriva. [2] Papados PP. 5. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. New York: McGraw Hill. Pocassini RJ. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. Conclusions The analyses initially captured the frontface ejection of concrete that leads to the excess impulse applied to concrete targets by steel fragment impacts. Bay lot. 1982. DeGroot AJ. P. UCRLMA107254. [5] Chen WF. rev. on Aug 16. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The addition of an option allowing the user to effectively delete a failed element. The analyses did indicate the importance of fragment impact pattern on the impulse applied to the target. Wessex Institute of Technology: WIT Press. U. Acknowledgements This research was conducted at the U. 1993. MS. A reinforced concrete structure under impact: response to high rate loads. 1995. Papados / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics References [1] Personal Communication with Mr. Paradyn: DYNA3D for massively parallel computers.T. The excess momentum could not be maintained because the ejected elements could not be effectively removed from the simulation.P. Vicksburg. The authors gratefully acknowledge permission from the Chief of Engineers to present and publish this paper. 2000.S.S. 1. Engelmann BE. Plasticity in Reinforced Concrete. 2000. Structures under Shock and Impact Loads VI. Brebbia CA (Eds). Frank D.64 J. [4] Whirley RG. In Jones N. and the associated mass would allow the problem to be computed more accurately. . DYNA3D — a nonlinear explicit.
65
A fictitious domain method for unilateral contact problems in nondestructive testing
E. Becache*, P. Joly, G. Scarella
INRIA, Domaine de VoluceauRocquencourt, BP 105, F78153 Le Chesnay Cedex, France
Abstract In this work, we present a numerical method for solving the diffraction of transient elastic waves by cracks of arbitrary shapes in complex media, with Signorini's boundary conditions on the crack. We use a fictitious domain method based on a mixed displacementstress formulation for elastodynamics. We propose an offcentered time discretisation scheme for enforcing the stability. Keywords: Elastodynamics; Unilateral contact; Fictitious domain method; Nondestructive testing; Crack
1. Introduction In this paper, we are interested in solving the diffraction of transient elastic waves by cracks of arbitrary shapes in complex media, with Signorini's boundary conditions on the crack. This is the continuation of a previous work [1] done on the linear problem, that is when the boundary condition on the crack is a free surface boundary condition. To get an efficient method, we want to use regular meshes and at the same time respect the geometry of the crack. This is possible thanks to the fictitious domain method, which takes into account the boundary condition via a Lagrange multiplier defined on the crack, which can be interpreted as the jump of the displacement through the crack. This allows to work with a uniform mesh in the whole domain and an independent mesh on the crack. In order to consider the unilateral contact boundary condition as a constraint, we are led to use the mixed displacementstress formulation for elastodynamics. We will present a fictitious domain formulation of this problem in which the boundary conditions are taken into account by a variational inequality for the Lagrange multiplier. For the space discretisation of this problem, we propose to use the mixed finite element using spaces of symmetric tensors for the stress [1]. This choice was shown to allow the obtention of an explicit time discretization scheme (masslumping) in the linear case. In the nonlinear case, we cannot use a centered difference scheme for the time discretisation which would lead to an
* Corresponding author. Email: eliane.becache@inria.fr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
unconditionally unstable scheme. That is why we propose an offcentered scheme that we show to be stable. This scheme is explicit in the volume unknowns (displacement and stress), but impHcit in the Lagrange multiplier: one has to solve an optimisation problem with bound constraints at each time step.
2. Presentation of the dynamic unilateral contact problem We want to solve the displacementstress formulation of elastodynamics in a domain ^ = C \ F G R^ (see Fig. 1): p——diver ^ dt^ Aa =/" ^ =s(u) i n ^ x ] 0 , r[, (1) in Qx]0,Tl
Fig. 1. The geometry of the problem.
66
E. Becache et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. Discretisation 4.1. Semidiscretisation in space
where u is the displacement field, a the stress tensor, and s{u) the strain tensor defined as £,;(«) == (9/Wy + djUi)/2. We add to (1) Dirichlet boundary conditions on the exterior boundary: u = 0 on dCx]0,T[ \ Signorini boundary conditions without friction on the crack F, [3]:
[UN]T Oyv
>0
< 0
on r , on r , on r , on r , on r . (2)
a^[w/v]r = 0
[an]r
GT
=0
=0
We now introduce some finite dimensional spaces Xh C X, Mh C M, QH C Q of dimensions, respectively, Nx, NM, Ng. We define, respectively, (LM)H = GH (^ L^ and {LT)H = {{^T)H ^ (^r)// ^ GH) where t is the unit tangent vector to F. The semidiscretisation in space can then be written in a matricial form as: finding ll^ X R^G such that (f/, E, AA.,Ar) €
Mai:\D*U \B*AT
where, if n denotes the unit normal to F, we set: MA^ = M •«, a^ — on • n, oj — an — a^n and prescribed initial data that we will systematically omit.
BTI:
+ B*AA.
= 0, = F, = 0,
(i)
(ii) (iii)
V/XAT e E+^.
(4)
3. A fictitious domain formulation The fictitious domain method consists in extending the two unknowns (w, a ) in the whole domain C and introducing Lagrange multipliers to take into account Signorini's boundary conditions (2). Setting Q = H^^iV), we introduce
{BNH,
P^M
— Ayv)
< 0,
(iv)
M
X ={Te
={uelLHC)Y},
[LHC)]\divT e [L\C)f/Tij = r,,},
In practice, and this is the interesting point in the fictitious domain method, we introduce two meshes: the volumic unknowns U and E are defined on a regular grid, Th made of squares Kj of size h while the surfacic unknowns A/v and A^ are computed on a nonuniform mesh on V, TH made of segments Sj of size / / / , H = sxxpjHj (see Fig. 2). Remark 1. The inequality (4)(iv) can be reinterpreted as Ayv = n(Ayv + fiA.E) (5)
LN = ^ J o + ( r ) = {fiM ^ G/l^N > 0 a.e. on F j , LT = [/foo^^(F)]2 =. {^r e S V ^ r n = O] The fictitious domain formulation consists in finding (a, u, Ayv, XT) : ]0, T[> X x M x L/^ x Lj
a{a, r)  d(T, u) + ^/(T,
where Y\ is the orthogonal projection on R^^. Choice of the finite elements. We intend to use the same discretisation than for the linear problem (see [1]). For the lowest order element, this choice corresponds to:
XH = {cJh e X/WK e %, e %, (JHIK e {QdK)) VHIK € }
Ar)
>^N)
+ /?yv(r
)  d{G, v)
= 0
Vr € X, (3)
= iL v) Wv e M,
= 0 < 0
^f^T VjUyv
Mh = {vh e M/WK
{Qo{K)f}
Z?r(o, Mr)
[Z?yv(a,/XA^ ^N)
eLr,
GH = {M// e G/^S e TH, ^H\S e
Pi(S)}
e
LN
with
fl(a, r ) d(T, w) = 1 Aa : T dx,
Its main interest is that it leads to block diagonal mass matrices (even diagonal for My) so that My and M^ are very easy to invert.
I
w ' div r djc,
^ ... 11
14 
To
Z?Ar(T,/x/v) = {TN, lJ^N)g'.g
^
>
/f
*
^1
y
iT "
The Lagrange multipliers can be interpreted SLS X^ = [MTV] and Xj = [uj], with uj = u — u^n.
J f^ i2 yC
4^
— [1  
^T ~ '
H
Fig. 2. The two meshes.
E. Becache et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4.2. The fully discretised scheme It would be tempting to discretize (4) using centered finite difference operators, for instance:
A n+l I A n1
67
This quantity is an energy under the CFL condition (7), and one has the identity
E;^+I  E \ =
At
which shows that ^"+^ < E^ thanks to 6(iv). which would give an explicit scheme. However, one can show that this choice leads to an unconditionally unstable scheme! That is why we propose the following offcentered scheme: M,E"f Z)*f/" + 5*A"^ + 5;^A^ M„
A^2
5. Numerical aspects The implementation of the method amounts to combine an explicit scheme for the unknowns U and S with an optimisation problem (quadratic functional with bounds constraints) to be solved at each time step for the unknown A. The algorithm has been tested in ID (comparison with analytic solutions). We are currently developing a 2D code, the optimisation procedure being handled by an algorithm combining the active set method with gradient projection method [2]. Numerical results will be presented at the conference.
=0, = F\  0,
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (6)
—
DTP IT + S^+^ ^
A
r = n (A/+ Bj
Note that if the mass matrices are block diagonal, this scheme is only impHcit in A^^ and is explicit in the other unknowns. We can show a stabiUty result: Theorem 1. Scheme (6) is stable under the usual CFL stability condition   D*D < 1, with D*D =sup^^ (7) 4 ~ E (M.E,!:) For proving this result, we show the decay of an energy. The precise result is the following. We set
yn+l/2 _ Ijn+l _ jjn
References [1] Becache E, Joly P, Tsogka C. Fictitious domains, mixed finite elements and perfectiy matched layers for 2d elastic wave propagation. J Comp Acous (Tech. Report INRIA 3889, 2000), to appear. [2] Nocedal J, Wright SJ. Numerical Optimization. Springer, 1999. [3] Willis JR, Smyshlyaev VR Effective relations for nonlinear dynamics of cracked solids. J Mech Phys SoUds 1996;44(l):4975.
At £^1+' = ^((M^s^+i, E"+^) + (M,y'^+3/2^ y"+i/2))_
(8)
68
Timefrequency pneumatic transmission line analysis
G. Belforte, W. Franco*, M. Sorli
Department of Mechanics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
Abstract This paper presents a theoretical and experimental method for analyzing pneumatic transmission lines in both the time and frequency domains. The test bench developed for this purpose is described together with the experimental analysis method. The theoretical analysis models implemented in the MatlabSimulink environment are then briefly illustrated. The paper concludes with a comparison of some of the theoretical and experimental results obtained in the investigation. Keywords: Pneumatic transmission line; Pneumatic transient; Pneumatic servosystem; Impedance method; Characteristics method; Fluid borne noise
1. Introduction Transmission line dynamic behavior affects the dynamic performance and noise of pneumatic servosystems. A line having a length of 1 m, for example, introduces a delay of several ms [1]. In addition, the flow and pressure pulses generated by the compressor propagate towards the user through the lines, generating noise [2]. The dynamic performance of transmission lines must thus be considered in designing a pneumatic servosystem. Experimental studies in this field, though indispensable, are timeconsuming and must be backed up by a preliminary theoretical analysis. In particular, they call for easily used computer codes capable of predicting the dynamic behavior of a line in both the time and frequency domains on the basis of the line's geometry and mechanical properties and of the properties of the air. In addition, the models' parameters must be readily identifiable. This paper describes a theoretical and experimental method for dynamic analysis of pneumatic lines. A test bench developed for this purpose is illustrated. The use of the characteristics method and the impedance method in theoretical analyses of pneumatic lines is then discussed. Finally, a number of theoretical and experimental results are presented, compared and discussed.
2. Experimental setup Fig. 1 shows a photograph of the test bench developed for investigating the dynamic behavior of pneumatic lines in the time and frequency domains [3]. The bench can accommodate lines of different geometry and material, which may feature pressure pulsereducing devices such as accumulators, T filters, and Helmholtz resonators. Two resistive transducers (TRl) and (TR2) (ENTRAN EPNMIO, F S . 10 bar, Unearity 0 . 1 % FS.) for measuring mean pressure and two piezoelectric transducers (TPl) and ^^^WB
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 (Oil) 5646939; Fax: +39 (Oil) 5646999; Email: francow@polito.it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics KJ. Bathe (Editor)
Fig. 1. Experimental test bench.
G. Belforte et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
69
(TP2) (Kistler 701a, FS 2.5 bar, linearity 0.5% FS, risetime 6 xs) for measuring pressure pulses are installed upstream and downstream of the line under test (TL) by means of appropriate adapters. The line includes a resistive load (ZL). In the present configuration, the hne is excited by switching valve (V) which connects it in alternation to two reservoirs which are maintained at different constant pressures by means of reducers (Rl) and (R2). Valve switchover is controlled by the signal generator (SG). Pressure signals from transducers (TPl) and (TP2) are acquired over time at a frequency of 10 kHz, after which the line's frequency response function (FRF) is calculated in terms of the modulus of the ratio of upstream to downstream pressure, expressed in dB.
where Zc is the line's characteristic impedance:
Z  —
z. 
^
(3)
3. Time domain analysis Line modehng in the time domain was carried out using the characteristics method [4] implemented in the MatlabSimulink environment. The equations of motion, assuming onedimensional viscous motion with propagation of small isoentropic oscillations, have the following solutions for the internal points of the grid (Fig. 2): Pi(t + ^t) _ 1 Pi^iit) + P,+i(0 + Ze • (G/_i(0  Qi+i(t)) ~ 2 2 AD
Zc • (Qii(t)\Qidt)\ Qi+i(t)\Qi+i(t)\)
The investigation was carried out for a line with known upstream pressure. The downstream boundary conditions were calculated by combining the characteristics equations with the equation for flow through a nozzle, expressed by means of conductance C and critical ratio b as per ISO 6358 [5]. The characteristics method makes it possible to investigate line behavior in the time domain for different input pressure laws after identifying the following parameters: line geometry and characteristics (length, inside radius, friction coefficient), air characteristics (mean pressure, mean temperature, dynamic viscosity, specific heat ratio) and exhaust nozzle conductance and critical pressure ratio. The results of time simulation carried out on a line excited with a pressure step can then be postprocessed to determine the FRF of the line under test. 4. Frequency domain analysis Line modeling in the frequency domain was carried out using the impedance method [6,7] implemented in the MatlabSimulink environment. Upstream pressure and flow rate (Pi and Q\) and downstream pressure and flow rate (P2 and G2) are linked by a four pole equation:
Pi Qi
(1)
cosh r l/Z^sinhr
Zc sinh F coshr
P2 Qi
(4)
Qiit + At) _ 1 ~ 2 e/i(o + a+i(o _fAt_ IAD
+
p,_i(0P.+i(0
(G/i(Oiai(OI + G/+i(OIG/+i(OI)
(2)
where Zc is the characteristic impedance of the line, and F is the propagation operator of the line. On the basis of the assumptions made, the expressions for both Zc and F can be calculated in relation to frequency. Once load impedance Zi is known:
ZL =
time > <
02
(5)
the line's FRF can be calculated:
t+2At t+At
Pii(t)
t
i1
yu
Pi(t+At) Qi(t+At,
4
P Z — = cosh r + — sinh F
Pi
ZL
(6)
Pi^l(t) Qi.i(t)
>
pipe axial position
i
i+l
Fig. 2. xjt grid of the characteristic method.
Simulating the line's dynamic behavior in the frequency domain calls for defining the following parameters: line geometry (length, inside radius, thickness), mechanical properties of the Hne (complex Young's modulus), air characteristics (mean pressure, dynamic viscosity, mean density, specific heat ratio) and load impedance.
70
G. Belforte et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics culated by postprocessing the time simulation performed with the characteristics method. As can be seen, the resonance peaks on both the experimental curve and that produced with the impedance method become smaller as frequency increases. This phenomenon was not modeled with the simplified characteristics method adopted for the investigation.
5. Results A number of graphs of line dynamic behavior are presented by way of example. The graphs refer to a poly amide line with length of 1 m, inside diameter of 4 mm and thickness of 1 mm connected downstream to a 0.5 mm diameter nozzle. Fig. 3 shows downstream pressure as measured experimentally and as calculated using the characteristics method with the line excited by an upstream pressure step. The values for the downstream nozzle's conductance C and critical pressure ratio h measured as per ISO 6358 are 3.5 x 10~'^ m^/(sPa) ANR and 0.4, respectively. The line's friction coefficient was considered to be independent of frequency and equal to 0.06. Despite the extensive simplifications introduced in modeling, there is a good degree of agreement between the experimental and calculated curves. The experimental step response curve shown in Fig. 3 was used to evaluate the line's FRF. In Fig. 4, this curve is compared with the curve calculated using the impedance method {ZL = 1/C = 2.8 x 10^ Pas/m^^) and with that cal
6. Conclusions The theoretical and experimental method presented herein provides a simple means of analyzing line dynamic behavior in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Only the following parameters need be known in order to identify a line's dynamic behavior: the length, inside diameter, thickness, complex Young's modulus and friction coefficient of the line; the mean pressure, mean temperature, dynamic viscosity and specific heat ratio of the gas; and the conductance and critical pressure ratio or impedance of the exhaust nozzle. In particular, the load conductance and critical pressure ratio can be measured in accordance with ISO 6358, while load impedance as a function of excitation frequency can be measured on the same bench or estimated in subsequent simulations.
3.4 3.3 experimental CM model
:\
h:
\l I \
h^2.6 2.5 0 0.02 0.04
/V/V''^^
7. Notation A b c C D line cross section area critical pressure ratio of the load propagation velocity conductance of the load line inside diameter friction coefficient specific heat ratio pressure volume flow rate time characteristic impedance load impedance time step propagation operator mean density
m2
w
m/s
mV(s Pa)
m
0.06
0.08
0.1 0.12 time [s]
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Fig. 3. Time response of the line to a step pressure.
k P Q t
Zc
ZL
f
f %.
:AT
At Po \ /:
Pa m^/s s Pas/m^ Pas/m^ s kg/m^
\\. . . /
r
References
+ — Experimental CM model IM model
200
300 Frequency [Hz]
400
Fig. 4. Comparison between experimental characteristics method (CM), and impedance method (IM) FRF of the line.
[1] Romifi A, Raparelli T. A simulation program for analysis of any type of fluid mechanical systems 'FLOWSIM'. Proceeding of 12th World Congress International Federation of Automatic Control, Sydney, 1993, pp. 523530. [2] Edge K. Designing quieter hydraulic systems — some recent developments and contributions. Fluid Power, Forth JHPS International Symposium, Tokyo, 1999, pp. 327.
G. Belforte et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [3] Sorli M, Franco W. Gas line pulse analysis. Flucome 2000, Sixth International Symposium on Fluid Control, Measurement and Visualization, Sherbrooke, 2000. [4] Streeter VL, Wylie EB. Fluid Transients. New York: McGrawHill, 1978. [5] Romiti A, Raparelli T. Rigorous analysis of transients in gas and liquid circuits and comparison with experimental data. J Fluid Control 1993;21(4):727.
71
[6] Stecki JS, Davis DC. Fluid transmission linesdistributed parameter models Part 1: a review of the state of the art. Proc Inst Mech Eng 1986;100:215228. [7] Krus P, Weddfelt K, Palmberg JO. Fast pipehne models for simulation of hydraulic systems. Trans ASME J Dyn Syst Meas Cont 1994;116:132136.
72
On some relevant technical aspects of tire modelling in general
F. Bohm, A. Duda*, R. Wille
Technical University of Berlin, Institute of Mechanics, Sekretariat MS 4, Einsteinufer 5/7, D10587 Berlin, Germany
Abstract The study of pneumatic tire mechanics is divided into external tire mechanics that deals w^ith the effect of tires on the vehicle dynamics and internal tire mechanics that focus on the computation of stressstrain and heat states in tires. Internal tire mechanics employs models founded on physical understanding, but not on empirically obtained curves. The objective of this paper is to use the results of internal tire mechanics for improving the external tire models in vehicle model systems. These tire models are applied to rolling contact also on deformable ground. Keywords: Tire models; Rolling contact; Tire mechanics; Terramechanics
1. Comparison of different tire models Deriving from the paper [1] presented on the 2nd International Colloquium Tyre Models for Vehicle Dynamic Analysis different tire models (Timoshenko type ringbeam, layered shell model, space continuum, multimasspoint model) and their transitions one to another are investigated. The main focus was directed to composite shell models and to the application of the Bohm multimasspoint approach on the rolling tire [24]. In order to treat the dynamic contact problems the pneumatic tire is described geometrically nonlinear as a multilayered anisotropic torus shell with low transfer shear stiffness. The membrane and bending deformations were assumed small and the crosssection will exhibit moderate rotation angles. The possibilities of describing the tire composite by different layer models are discussed. For practical tire calculations, which take into account the significant transfer shear deformation, the Timoshenko type shell model and 3 or 5layer sandwich models with weak rubber layers are adequate. In order to reflect energy losses the viscoelastic behavior of rubbercordcomposite is taken into account. The investigations are based on results of Bohm [5], Duda and Wille [6], INTASRFBR [7], Kulikov et al. [8], and Belkin et al. [9].
2. Stationary and transient rolling of tires The stationary rolling problem, quasistatic with friction, is investigated in a coordinate axis rotating simultaneously with the tire. The real dynamic behavior of the rolling tire is nonconservative and selfexcited. Appropriate damping of cords and rubber is to be taken into account in order to stabilize the dynamic system. The static equilibrium and the equations of motion of a membrane/shell model are treated. This model is modified for the real structure of an agricultural tire with ribs. Data of 3D models are fitted from given design parameters. The parameters used for 2D masspoint models are extracted from measurements of tire section for variable inner pressure loads and from the eigenvalues of the tire. The nonlinear and hysteretic system of Newton equations of this method is solved by explicit predictorcorrector integration with respect to time. The numerical integration procedure needs short time steps. The highest eigenvalue of masspoint model and the shortest relaxation time of the rheological models for tire material and for soil needs to be in correlation with Shannon criterion in order to achieve numerical stable solutions. New theoretical and numerical results and comparison with FEMresults, e.g. [10], will be discussed.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 (30) 31472411; Fax: +49 (30) 31472433; Email: dudahdg3@linux.zrz.tuberlin.de © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
F. Bohm et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. Rolling contact on deformable ground Tire models described above can be used for vehicle dynamics analysis. It can adequately be used for computing the tireground interaction in accordance to the technical demand for tire durability, road cover resistance and soil protection in agriculture and forestry. A new mechanical multipoint measurement technique for displacements in the inner of a rolling tire was developed [11]. For high frequency tire deformation and quick driving manoeuvres an acoustic measurement system is in development. The slip between tire ribs and ground cannot be assumed as constant because of the elastodynamical tire motions. At present only the 2D masspoint model has an acceptable amount of computational time on PC and is suitable for application in vehicle dynamics. The soil under the tire is described by different rheological laws of the ground surface behavior in the normal and tangential direction [12]. The soil models are tested for simple rigid and elastic tire models in rolling contact. Frohlich/Sohne approach is used for describing the soil compaction. The apphcability of this method is tested by a finite element computation on the basis of a critical state soil model. References
73
4. Conclusion Analytical and numerical analysis of different level tire models is an important precondition for suitable choosing of practical calculation schemes for tires and for better understanding of the rolling tire behavior. Investigations are aimed at applications in vehicle dynamics and in tire design. The Bohm multimasspoint model was used for determining the rolling contact forces on a rigid and deformable ground. The later simulation is meant to avoid the negative effects of soil compaction in agriculture and road damage by truck tires.
[I] Belkin AE, Bukhin BL, Mukhin ON, Narskaya NL. Some models and methods of pneumatic tire mechanics. 2nd International Colloquium on Tyre Models for Vehicle Dynamic Analysis, 1997, pp. 250271. [2] Bohm F. Dynamic rolling process of tires as layered structures. Mech Composite Mater 1996;32(6):824834. [3] Tang T. Geometrisch nichtlineare Berechnung von rotationssymmetrischen faserverstarkten Strukturen. Dissertation, TU Berlin 1985. [4] Feng K. Statische Berechnung des Giirtelreifens unter besonderer Beriiksichtigung der kordverstarkten Lagen. Dissertation, TU Berlin 1995. [5] Bohm F Reifenmodelle und ihre experimentelle Uberpriifung. In: F. Bohm, K. Knothe (Eds.), Hochfrequenter Rollkontakt der Fahrzeugrader, Ergebnisse aus dem DFG Sonderforschungsbereich 181. WileyVCH 1998, pp. 80115. [6] Duda A, Wille R. Mechanische Grundlagen des umweltvertraglichen RadBodenKontaktes. Zwischenbericht zum Projekt DFG  Bo 648/61, June 1999, 144 p. [7] INTAS Final Report: Mathematical models and solving methods of the static and dynamic stressstrain state in composite shell structures. INTASRFBR 950525, 18.04.2000. [8] Kulikov GM, Bohm F, Duda A, Wille R. Zur inneren Mechanik des Radialreifens. Teil 1 und Teil 2. Technische Mechanik 2000;20(1): 112,8190. [9] Belkin AE, Narskaya NL, Bohm F, Duda A, Wille R. Dynamischer Kontakt des Radialreifens als viskoelastische Schale mit einer starren Stiitzflache bei stationarem Rollen. Technische Mechanik 2000;20(4):355372. [10] Gleu U. Berechnung des nichtlinearen dynamischen Verhaltens des Luftreifens beim instationaren Rollkontakt mit einer Vielteilchenmethode und der Methode der Finiten Elemente. Dissertation, TU Berlin 2001. [II] Bohm F, Duda A, Wille R, Zachow D. Investigation of the nonstationary rolling contact of a tire on natural soils. Proc. 13th International Conference of the ISTVS, Munich, Sept. 1417, 1999, pp. 353360. [12] Wille R, Bohm F, Duda A. Rheologie und Hysterese beim dynamischen ReifenBodenKontakt. Annual Scientific Conference GAMM 27 April 2000, Gottingen.
74
An index reduction method in nonholonomic system dynamics
Marco Borri *, Carlo L. Bottasso, Lorenzo Trainelli
Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, Via La Masa 34, 20158, Milan, Italy
Abstract We present a general methodology for nonholonomically constrained mechanical systems where the governing equations are reformulated employing differentiated multipliers and modified momenta. This procedure allows the algebraic and differential parts of the problem to be completely uncoupled, so that the two subproblems can be solved separately. Any suitable ordinary differential equation integration algorithm can be applied to solve the differential part, bypassing the need for a specialized differentialalgebraic equation solver. The approach may be interpreted as a consistent index reduction from 2 to 1 that simplifies the numerical solution of the problem. Keywords: Differentialalgebraic equations; Embedded projection; Index reduction; Constraint stabilization; Multibody dynamics; Nonholonomic systems; Constrained systems
1. Introduction A considerable effort within the scientific community has been devoted in the past years towards the development of efficient and reliable numerical methods for the simulation of constrained dynamical systems. These systems are usually cast in terms of sets of differentialalgebraic equations (DAEs). Solving general DAE systems still represents an open field of research, since their intrinsic numerical difficulty has prevented to date from reaching the same degree of maturity achieved in the numerical treatment of ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems. This difficulty is usually measured by the differential index of the DAE problem, a concept discussed in [7,9,10]. While index 1 DAEs may be dealt with by using a variety of available numerical methods, for DAEs of index greater than 1 obtaining a good numerical solution may still prove to be a difficult task. In the present work, we are concerned with systems governed by index2 DAEs, or systems subjected to nonholonomic constraints. It must be pointed out that these systems cannot, in general, be directly solved by applying a standard offtheshelf ODE integrator, because of its inability to exactly solve algebraic equations. Here we seek a complete uncoupling of the DAE system into separate * Corresponding author. Tel: +39 (2) 23998399; Fax: +39 (2) 23998334; Email: borri@aero.polimi.it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
algebraic and differential parts. To this end, we introduce differentiated Lagrange multipliers and define a new variable, the 'modified momentum'. While the 'standard' momentum must obey the nonholonomic constraints imposed on the system, the modified momentum must not, and in this sense it represents a completely free (unconstrained) variable. This way, we obtain an ODE for this quantity that can be integrated using any suitable ODE solver. The original momentum is then recovered by means of an 'embedded projection' onto the constraint space. In general, this procedure allows the same order of accuracy to be attained for all the fields of a DAE problem (and, in particular, for the algebraic variables) that is provided by the chosen solver when applied to a purely ODE problem. This framework was presented originally for both holonomic and nonholonomic problems in [3,4] and its successful application to the parallel computation of the dynamics of general topology rigid multibody systems was reported in [11]. Apart from minor developments, the main novel contributions of this work are to be found in the interpretation of the procedure as a consistent index reduction and in the recovery of the reaction forces by a second 'embedded projection' onto the space defined by the constraint derivative. This process, which recovers even the multiplier derivatives with the same order of accuracy of the primary variables, indeed completes the whole picture, in close analogy to the methodology recently presented in [5,6]
M. Borri et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics in the context of index3, i.e. holonomically constrained, dynamical systems.
75
2. Lagrangian framework Let a generic dynamical system with n degrees of freedom, be characterized by a Lagrangian function £(q, q, 0 , where q G R" represents the vector of Lagrangian coordinates describing the system configuration, and let the system be subjected to m < n linearly independent nonholonomic constraints through a constraint function j/r, ^(q,q,O = 0^ (1)
We note that the classical Lagrange multipliers k are related to our multipliers fi by /i = X. Furthermore, note that, with the substitution X = ft, the first equation of set (6) is exactly equivalent to Eq. (3), while the second simply expresses Eq. (1), being £* = 0^ and C^ = f. Remarkably, in the case of integrable constraints f =^, i.e. those velocity constraints which correspond to the total time derivative of position constraints 0(q, 0» we get Q* = Q, since (d^q/d/ — ^q) vanishes identically. Therefore, the additional force Qnh := Q*  Q is peculiar to proper nonholonomic constraints. The gyroscopic nature of this quantity was analyzed in [4], where it was shown that it may be cast in the following form Qn/.(q, q, /^, 0 = B(q, iij)q + b(q, ti, t), (7)
We require that this function be linear in the Lagrangian velocities q, or f (q, q, t) = A(q, t)^q + a(q, t). (2)
where B is a skewsymmetric matrix linearly depending on fi, while b := (aq — dA/dt) fi. From the preceding we infer that the power Wnh •= q • Qnh of this additional force on the Lagrangian velocities reads Wnh = qh, Vq. (8)
where the constraint matrix A := f^ e W''"' has fullrow rank. In passing, we remark that, under suitable smoothness assumptions, f vanishes together with all its time derivatives. This obvious feature is not inherited by the numerical solution obtained via conventional methods, which, due to time discretization, satisfies only the velocitylevel constraint (1). In the following, we show how a more consistent numerical solution can be obtained, exactly satisfying both Eq. (1) and its first time derivative, i.e. the accelerationlevel constraint. It is well known that the governing equations for this system are given by the following augmented Lagrange equations  £ q  £ q = Q + A)., (3)
This power clearly vanishes identically whenever b = 0^. In particular, when A is timeindependent and a does not depend on the coordinates q.
3. Hamiltonian framework As shown, the introduction of new multipliers ft (the reaction impulses) instead of the classical X (the reaction forces) leads to an important theoretical result: the extension of Hamilton's variational principle to nonholonomic mechanical systems through the definition of a modified Lagrangian £* and a modified force Q*. In the following, we show that this procedure inspires analogous extensions in the Hamiltonian framework, where a modified Hamiltonian 1L* can be defined accordingly. In this case, however, the interest of the proposed methodology is not limited to theoretical issues, but also possesses algorithmic implications on the numerical solution that shall become clear in the following. We switch to the Hamiltonian formulation by means of a standard Legendre transformation, defining the momentum p := £q, inverting this relation to find q as a function of p, or q = VH(P, q, 0 . and obtaining the Hamiltonian function H(p, q, t) as n = pyHjCH, (9)
together with Eq. (1). Clearly, X G E'" represent the vector of Lagrange multipliers, while Q G M" denotes the vector of Lagrangian external forces conjugated to q. The term AX accounts for the reaction forces associated to the constraints (1). It has been shown in [4] that equations equivalent to the set formed by Eqs. (1) and (3) may be derived from a variational statement by defining a modified Lagrangian function C*(q, q, fi,t) and a modified Lagrangian external force Q* as (4) (5) where fi e W^ is a. new multiplier vector. The EulerLagrange equations of the system are found as A/2* — /2* — O* (6)
where >Cif(p, q, 0 •= >^(v//(p, q, 0 , q. 0 ^^^ following 'mixed form' canonical equations P + ' H q ^ Q + AX, (10)
govern the system together with Eq. (1). However, a critical
76
M. Borri et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. Consistent index reduction The differential system (17), explicitly cast in terms of (q, p*), may be directly integrated by means of any suitable ODE solver from consistent initial data q\tQ and p\f^ — p*^Q. As an example, take a generic onestep integrator, such as a 5stage RungeKutta method: the procedure calls for solving the problem composed of Eqs. (13) and (11) at each of the s internal stages. This, when a general quadratic form in q is assumed for the original Lagrangian £, turns out to be a linear problem for (p, fi). When (p//, fif^) are known, one solves the equations corresponding to the discretized ODEs (16) or (17) at that internal stage and moves on to the next. This shows the profound difference existing between this methodology and a conventional projection method, where the projection is performed only at the end of the time step. Such an approach, referred to as the (imethod or the modified phase space method, has been presented in [3,4]. Experience has shown that this formulation positively impacts the accuracy and stability of the numerical solution [11]. In fact, comparison with the widely adopted Baumgarte stabilization technique [2] has shown much lower constraint violations (for holonomic constraints imposed at velocity level) and a considerable robustness. However, we presently do not favor the treatment of holonomically constrained mechanical systems by imposing velocitylevel constraints, since the 'drift' phenomenon cannot be completely eliminated. We presently recommend the approach presented in [5,6] for holonomic problems, and the present one for proper nonholonomic problems. It may be proved that the method oudined here is strictly equivalent to a process of reduction of the differential index of the problem. In fact, the original DAE problem corresponding to Eqs. (10) and (11) has index 2, while in the proposed framework the DAE problem given by Eqs. (16) or (17), (13), and (11) has index 1. It is worth noting that, in index 1 problems, the algebraic equation may always be interpreted as a definition of the algebraic variables rather than as a constraint acting on the state variables.
point in this process lies in the fact that the momentum p is intrinsically constrained by the algebraic equation ^//=0,,, where f ^(p, q, t) := ^(v//(p, q, r), q, r), or ^ ^ ( p , q, 0 = A(q, 0 V ( P , q, 0 + a(q, 0(12) (11)
At this point, we introduce the modified momentum p* := £*. Since £* = £q  fl ft, we get p* = p  A / i . (13)
Now, coupling this equation with the algebraic constraint (11) we can solve for p and fi as functions of (p*, q, r), obtaining P =P//*(p*,q,0, (14)
This enables us to get q = V//*(p*, q, t) and, performing a Legendre transformation on £*, to obtain a modified Hamiltonian 1L*(p*, q, t) as ^ * = P* • v//* CH*
(15)
where £//*(p*,q, r) := £(v//*(p*, q, r), q, r). Now, the canonical equations governing the system can be found as P*+H; = Q*, qn;.=On. (16)
Note that, in contrast to the Lagrangian framework, in the Hamiltonian case, there is no appended constraint equation to the system (16), since the modified momentum p* adopted as the independent variable together with the vector of Lagrangian coordinates q, is an unconstrained quantity under all respects: it yields, by construction, a solution for the original momentum p which exactly satisfies the constraint equation (11). Therefore, the set of canonical equations (16) may be directly integrated in terms of (qp*) It is worth looking at an alternative form assumed by the governing ODEs (16), in view of its numerical implementation. In fact, the canonical equations are formally equivalent to the following set (17)
5. Preservation of accuracy In the approach followed in [3,4,11], recovering of the reaction forces (essentially, (i) was performed by numerical differentiation, thus loosing the chance of retaining the same order of accuracy for these quantities as that obtained for the primary variables (q, p*) and, consequently, for (P, l^) The following developments are carried out for the explicit purpose of overcoming such a limitation in accuracy and are closely related to the ideas presented in [5,6] in the context of holonomically constrained systems, with the
qn^ =o„,
provided that Eqs. (14) are understood in the dependencies of the terms (Tiq, Tip, Q, A, JJL) on (q, p*). However, these equations are much simpler than Eqs. (16) to implement and evaluate in the context of numerical integration since all the quantities involved are easily retrieved, the only additional burden being the knowledge of A when compared to a conventional integration method.
77
procedure termed the Embedded Projection Method. We consider the original equiUbrium equation (10a) and the time derivative of Eq. (11), both viewed as linear algebraic equations in the variables (p, //.): p + 'Hq^Q + A ^ , (18) By using eqs. (14), we can evaluate each term in the previous equations as a function of (p*, q, t) and solve for p and /t, giving P = ^i/*(p*,q,0, (19)
vides the reaction forces. The outcome of the method is a substantially enhanced accuracy, in particular with respect to reactions, plus an intrinsical gain in robustness due to the exact preservation of both the constraint and its time derivative. The methodology is closely related to the Embedded Projection Method recently presented in the context of holonomically constrained systems. Preliminary applications, not detailed in this work, have been implemented and tested, confirming the properties predicted in the analysis.
References [1] Ascher U, Chin H, Petzold LR, Reich S. Stabihsation of constrained mechanical systems with daes and invariant manifolds. J Mech Struct Mach 1995;23:135158. [2] Baumgarte J. Stabilization of constraints and integrals of motion in dynamical systems. Comput Math Appl Mech Eng 1972;1:116. [3] Borri M, Mantegazza R Finite time element approximation of dynamics of nonholonomic systems. AMSE Congress, WiUiamsburg, VA, 1986. [4] Borri M, Bottasso CL, Mantegazza P. A modified phase space formulation for constrained mechanical systems differential approach. Eur J Mech, A/Solids 1992;11:701727. [5] Borri M, Bottasso CL, Trainelli L. An embedded projection method for constrained dynamics. NATOARW on Computational Aspects of Nonlinear Structural Systems with Large Rigid Body Motions, Pultusk, Poland, 2000. [6] Borri M, Trainelli L. A new formulation of constrained dynamical systems. 16th IMACS World Congress, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2000. [7] Brenan KE, Campbell SL, Petzold LR. Numerical solution of initialvalue problems in differentialalgebraic equations. New York: Elsevier Science, 1989. [8] Eich E. Convergence results for a coordinate projection method applied to constrained mechanical systems with algebraic constraints. SIAM J Numer Anal 1993;30:14671482. [9] Gear CW. Differentialalgebraic equation index transformations. SIAM J Sci Stat Comput 1988;9(l):4047. [10] Petzold LR. Order results for implicit RungeKutta methods applied to differential/algebraic systems. SIAM J Numer Anal 1986;23(4):837852. [11] Sika Z, Valasek M. ParalleHzation of multibody formalism for rigid bodies using natural coordinates and modified state space. Eur J Mech, A/Solids 1997;16(2):325339. [12] Yen J, Petzold LR. Convergence of the iterative methods for coordinate splitting formulation in multibody dynamics, TR 95052, Tech Report, Dept of Comput Sci, University of Minnesota, July 1995.
In summary, these quantities are recovered by using the equilibrium equation and the accelerationlevel constraint as an algebraic problem, just as (p, JLC) are obtained by using the modified momentum definition and the velocitylevel constraint. This process has been termed the 'embedded projection'. It is clear that, within the context of exact mathematics, JT//* = Pif* and XH* = /i,^*. However, when dealing with time discretization processes, the present procedure allows to compute {KH*,XH*) independently from (Pi/*»/^H*) This improves the consistency of the solution, and also allows the same accuracy for the algebraic variables (p, p, /t, (i) to be retained as for the independent variables (q, p*). In other words, the outcome of the methodology may be described as the retrieval of both the augmented state (p, q, /t) and its time derivative (p, q, /t) fully satisfying the constraints in the original and differentiated forms.
6. Concluding remarks In this work, we presented a general methodology for the consistent index reduction of the equations governing the dynamics of mechanical systems subjected to nonholonomic constraints. We showed how the governing equations may be split into uncoupled algebraic and differential parts. This process, which involves the definition of a modified, unconstrained momentum, leads to the formulation of an ODE which can be solved by any suitable standard numerical integrator, bypassing the need for specialized DAE solvers. The solution of a first algebraic subproblem allows to recover the original momentum, while a second one pro
78
Application of the LATIN method to the calculation of response surfaces
p.A. Boucard *
LMT Cachan, ENS Cachan, CNRS, University Paris 6, 94235 Cachan Cedex, France
Abstract The aim of the present work is to develop an apphcation of the LArge Time INcrement (LATIN) approach [6] to the calculation of response surfaces used for parametric analysis. The scheme followed was previously introduced to solve multiplesolution problems [2,3]. Here, applications concern elastic buckling and viscoelastic structures. Keywords: Nonincremental method; Multiple solutions; Response surface methodology; Parametric uncertainty
1. Introduction The solutions to deterministic problems are often calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). Incorporating system parametric uncertainties into the problem represents a challenge for structural engineers; yet, without this information, the structural response could not be analyzed accurately. These system parametric uncertainties include mechanical properties of the material (modulus and strength, etc.), geometric properties (crosssectional properties and dimensions), boundary conditions, magnitude and distribution of loads, etc. Assessing the stability or the calculation of the limit states of structures taking these parametric uncertainties into consideration is much more difficult than the general parametric field problem because highly nonlinear structural behavior must be considered. To obtain such responses of structures, the perturbation method [1,7] is one of the important approaches. In recent years, many researchers have focused on the stochastic finite element method, in which the system parametric uncertainties mentioned above can be included. The response surface methodology (RSM) was developed initially by Veneziano et al. [9]. The RSM is already a widely accepted procedure in structural reliability analysis [5]. Schueller et al. [8] used the RSM to model the actual limit state function of large structures subject to static *Tel.: +33 (1) 47402186; Fax: +33 (1) 47402185; Email: boucard@lmt.enscachen.fr © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
and dynamic loading. The calculation of response surfaces and, further, of the response of the structure along the whole loading path involves multiple solutions. Each set of data considered necessitates a separate, fullscale calculation. Consequently, a significant number of problems of the same type must be solved. The goal of the work presented here is to develop a strategy wellsuited to multiplesolution problems. Thus, the choice of an appropriate and efficient computational method is of vital importance. The LATIN method [6] is nonincremental in nature and, consequently, would appear to be a promising approach, considering that its inherent principles tend to be more applicable than most conventional incremental algorithms. The strategy proposed is based on the LATIN method and, more specifically, on its capacity to reuse the solution to a given problem in order to solve similar problems [2,3]. It allows total computing costs to be minimized with respect to the determination of response surfaces.
2. Review of the LATIN method The principles of this method can be found in [6]. The method uses quantities (displacement, strain, stress and internal variables) defined over the spacetime domain Q. X [0, r ] , where [0, T] is the time interval studied and Q is the domain occupied by the structure (assuming small displacements). It takes advantage of the remarkable properties of the equations. The procedure is iterative and
PA. Boucard /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
FC/FCQ ratio
79
0.95
0.85
""'m,
Cer/J^e
•'W'^'"'
Fig. 1. Response surface.
10 rrX^i^o') 10 Htttba»°^ t^e^et^^
Number of space runctioos
^^*^^le^e^^^°^ Fig. 2. Number of space functions generated.
creates at each iteration an approximation of the displacement, strain, stress and internal variables over the spacetime domain Q x [0, T]. Each iteration consists of two stages. For simplicity's sake, one can say that in the first stage the constitutive relations are integrated; therefore, this is a local stage with respect to the space variable. In the second stage, a global, linear problem on ^ x [0, T] is solved. The direct solution of the global linear problems with time as a parameter required at the global linear stage can
lead to considerable computing times. Mechanicsbased approximations of unknowns are introduced as a means of reducing these computing times. The separation of the functional dependencies both in time and in space yields satisfactory results for quasistatic loadings. Corrections are then sought by superimposing solutions of the radial loading type. Such solutions are recognized as good approximations of nonlinear, quasistatic problem solutions.
Boucard/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Number of draws 400 300 200 Amplitude of the perturbation Number of draws 700 600 500 400 0. The idea is. 3. Otherwise. given that this phase is the most costly stage of the algorithm. [4]. 4. The structural perturbation introduced consists of variations of the Young's modulus in different elements (15 in all) ranging from —50% to +50%. If the solutions to the 'initial' and 'perturbed' problems are close enough. In this sense. the LATIN method builds an optimal basis for representing the solution.5 Probability of collapse Position of the perturbation (element n°) 123456789101112131415 max/Fco ratio Fig. In the bestcase scenario where the basis is sufficient. the solution to the latter problem can still be derived at a significantly lower cost than using fullscale calculation. new space functions are generated in order to enhance the initial basis. the preliminary stage plays a vital role: it enables one both to verify that the basis of the space functions is wellsuited to the target problem and to search for new time functions leading to the solution of the 'perturbed' problem. the solution to the problem is obtained at low cost. Fig. The multiplesolution method uses the fact that the LATIN algorithm can be initialized with any solution which verifies the admissibility conditions (usually an elastic solution). Multiplesolution method The LATIN method leads to an approximation of the problem's solution in the form of a sum of products of both time and space functions. to reuse this special basis in order to find the solution to a problem similar to the one for which it was built in the first place. Example The example presented here is the buckling of a cantilever beam. thus. no new space function is generated and. Probability of collapse and distribution of perturbations.5 0 0.80 PA. 2 shows the number of space functions added at the initial basis level during the calculations (six groups of timespace functions). In this manner. therefore. Additional details on the formulation used can be found in Boucard et al. It can be observed that no more than one space function is added in the majority of . the idea here is to initialize the process associated with the similar problem (the 'perturbed' structure) using the results of the calculation carried out on the 'initial' structure. Therefore. 3. The results are presented on Fig. In this case. 1. a basis of space functions with a strong mechanical content is immediately available at the onset. The first example considers a straight beam builtin at one end and subject to a prescribed displacement at the other. This number provides an indicator of the total computing cost. The influence of a particular perturbation on the value of the critical buckling load (Fc/Fco ratio) is examined.
Method of seismic fragility for complicated systems. Using these results. In this case. Responsesurface approach for reliabiUty analysis. 1983. The response surface method. . Ladeveze R A multiple solution method for nonlinear structural mechanics. Poss M. Proceedings of the 2nd Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Specialistic Meeting on Probabilistic Methods in Seismic Risk Assessment for NPP. ASCE J Eng Mech 1989. an efficient tool to determine the failure probability of large structural systems. pp.8(8):903920. Pradlwarter HJ. Proceedings of the International Conference on Spacecraft Structures and Mechanical Testing. [4] Boucard PA. Nonlinear Computational Structural Mechanics — New Approaches and NonIncremental Methods of Calculation. Mech Eng 1999. [8] Schueller Gl. Rougee P. Ten thousand draws were carried out to obtain the probability of collapse as a function of the ratio of the maximum loading force F^ax to the buckling force obtained on the initial beam Fco. Faravelli L. the basis of initial functions enables us to conduct many 'perturbed' calculations at a much lower cost than that of a fullscale calculation: in the cases presented here.50(5):317328. Lemaire M. Boucard /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the cases processed. The Netherlands. 247251. Therefore. ESA SP321. Springer.41(5):201213.115(12). Rev Fr Gen Civil 1997. Bucher CG. [7] Macias OF. Appl Mech Rev 1998. CA. Comput Struct 1997. 81 References [1] Benaroya H. 3 shows the results. The position of the perturbation is randomized on all 15 elements. [3] Boucard R\. Livermore. A nonincremental approach for large displacement problems.64(l4):449508. [5] Faravelh L. Noordwijk. 2426 April 1991. one can carry out a MonteCarlo simulation using the response surface to determine the probability of collapse of the beam. Finite element methods in probabilistic structural analysis: a selective review. [6] Ladeveze P. [2] Boucard PA.1(2). Rev Eur Elem Finis 1999. Elements Finis stochastiques et Fiabilite Application en mecanique de la rupture. Casciati F. 1999. Fig. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the method. Ladeveze P. Rehak M.PA. [9] Veneziano D. we assume a normal distribution for the Young's modulus perturbation. the computing time necessary to obtain the solution on the 'perturbed' bar is between 10 and 20% of that of a fullscale calculation. Ladeveze R Une application de la methode LATIN au calcul multiresolution de structures non lineaires.
z is the thickness direction.J. Introduction Plastic deformation in sheet metal consists of four distinct phases.A. uniform deformation. The hardening behavior of the matrix material combines isotropic and nonlinear kinematic hardening. [1]. Bathe (Editor) M h 0 where the relative macroscopic stress tensor with respect to the center of the current yield surface is defined as: f Ox Olx \a a] = 1 ^. Plastichardening. For all possible planestress conditions. Failure. (1) is defined as [3]: q = {a aj'^lMUa g + /i h f\h 0 a] 0 0 2n (2b) (2a) 2. namely. Plastic instability of these sheetmetals has been found to suffer material degradation which confirmed the need to properly characterize their forming limit using a theory of damage mechanics. Tel. H. l + 2 r 3p 6(1+F)^ (1) where 7 is the mean normal anisotropy parameter of the matrix material.fr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. localized necking and final failure. a plastic instability criterion coupled with damage is used here to predict failure in a sheetmetal forming analysis by finite element. New sheetmetals such as aluminum alloys. Einstein. 20 Avenue A.a ^ j j . and / * the effective void volume fraction. R Morestin. The last three phases are commonly known as nonuniform deformation. the anisotropic yield function is approximate as: C = ^+2^1/*cosh ( D (l+^3/n=0 r*2. the macroscopic effective stress q in Eq. Yield criterion Most metallic materials contain different sizes and degrees of particles. An inverse identification technique is proposed based on bendingunbending experiments on anisotropic sheetmetal strips.S. Keywords: Damage. diffuse necking. Walter Laboratoire de Mecanique des Solides LN. Consider x.y to be the 'rolling' and 'cross' directions in the plane of the sheet. Fax: +33 472 43 85 28. Bmnet*. the new criterion can be used to predict not only the forming limit but also the fracture limit under proportional or nonproportional loading and then is suitable for sheetmetal forming simulation by finiteelement analysis. Based on Hill quadratic yield function. Finally.v ay 1 (3) [Oxy . Villeurbanne. present from experimental evidence neckingfailure behavior where the localized thinning is hardly visible. France Abstract A macroscopic yield criterion for anisotropic porous sheet metals is first proposed to investigate failure of sheet metals under arbitrary strain paths. The void coalescence failure mechanism by internal necking is also considered by using a modified Thomason's plastic limitload model. 69621. represent the damage of anisotropic sheetmetals. including precipitates and inclusions. Coupling the incremental theory of plasticity with damage and a plastic instability criterion. All rights reserved. Necking 1. Email: brunet@insalyon. titanium alloys and Nibased superalloys. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. As fracture in sheetmetals forming processes is mainly due to the development of ductile damage and to * Corresponding author. which may cause microdefects including microvoids and microcracks.82 A unified failure approach for sheetmetals formability analysis M. Sheetmetal forming. an extension of the Gurson's model for anisotropic sheetmetals is used where an analytical formulation for planestress has been found by Liao et al.: +33 472 43 81 46.
M.71 and Rgo = 0. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics In Eq. Damage parameters identification 3. 1. (1).6 and ^ = 13. A and M are exponents.20 Curvature (mm"^) Fig. (6) is satisfied.74. The modified Gurson's model is used to characterize the macroscopic behavior assuming that the void grows spherically and to calculate the void and matrix geometry changes using the current strain and void volume fraction.33 (1/3) which is always the case just after necking. stress triaxiality and initial void spacing. /? represents the hydrostatic stress of the relative stress tensor of Eq. y = 4. Theoretical versus experimental stressstrain tensiletest curves. the void coalescence failure micromechanism by internal necking is considered by using a modified Thomason's plastic limitload model. It can be seen. E = 69000 Mpa. Constitutive parameters identification The initial anisotropy parameters (the rvalues) are first determined independently with our Digital Image Correlation method (DIC) [2] by mean of uniaxial tests and to obtain the test data for the kinematichardening parameters identification. growth and coalescence. the critical void volume fraction is not unique due to the fact that the void nucleation parameters are difficult to monitor in experiments and are usually arbitrarily chosen. the anisotropic nature of rolled sheet is better account for in the coalescence micromechanism.CB ^. Brunei et al. the void coalescence starts to occur and the void volume fraction at this point is the critical value fc provided that the stress triaxiality is greater than 0. ^ Rx. What is interesting in the plastic limitload criterion is that void coalescence is not only related to void volume fraction but also to voidmatrix geometry. moreover this effect is more pronounced at low stress triaxiality [4].167.06 0.56 for the mixed hardening model. RQ = 0. and goo and b are material parameters that must be calibrated from cyclic test data. An optimization procedure could be also performed to match the experimental and numerical finite element results as regards the loads vs. Fig. Once the equality Eq.4. 2. where F and G are constants. = ao + Goo(le^^') (4) 83 where (TQ is the yield surface size at zero plastic strain. 2 compares the theoretical stressstrain curves to the experimental data for the case of the uniaxial monotonic tensile tests. a bendingunbending apparatus has been built [3]. Very good agreement for the stressstrain curves has been obtained due to the fact that the optimization is carried out both on the uniaxial monotonic curve and on the momentcurvature curve. Fig. Fig. By mean of a void spacing ratio parameter. 1 depicts the moment versus curvature for one loading and reverse loading. . 4. The material is an aluminum alloy of strip thickness 0. that very substantial agreement of experimental and simulated data is obtained with the converged values: C = 740. Rz are the radii of the ellipsoidal void and X denotes half the current length of the cell. The damage model can take into account the three main phases of damage evolution: nucleation. The evolution of the kinematic components of the model is defined as. Theoretical versus experimental momentcurvature curves. To overcome this shortcoming. Go = 137 Mpa. As an example. displacement curve in a tensile test. However. [3]: [da] = C^{G a} y{a}dF (5) where C and y are additional material parameters to be calibrated. [4]: Rz + XRx t)l f ^n — (6) e 0^10 ^.04 OLOE I 0. G = 111. (3) and the size of the elastic range Oy is defined as a function of the equivalent plastic strain £^ : or.8 mm.
Pan J. which requires a drift to the plane strain state and then an additional hardening. References [1] Liao KL. Analytical and experimental studies of necking in sheet metal forming processes. [2] Brunet M. Brunet et al. Nov 510. Moresdn F. IMECE 2000 Congress. this fact leads to propose a unified instability criterion for localized necking and rupture. The failure of a critical point of the aluminum alloy in an FEM forming simulation (Fig. FL. Pineau A. the material is the previous analysed aluminum alloy.84 M. Conclusion In this work. In: ASME MED12A Symp. 3) is determined by using the failure prediction methodology describe above. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. it is generally noted that the damage increment is the greatest at plane strain such that Asji = 0 when the localized necking occurs. MguilTouchal S. the unified neckingfailure criterion is formulated in terms of the principal stresses and their orientation with respect to the orthotropic axes leading to an intrinsic formulation including damage: q [dG\ dq dcFy ds Gy \_ dq day d'e ds\ dai dp' dp ds\ '. J Mater Proc Technol 1998. In sheetmetals. (y\ (7) where an analytical form of the lefthand side has been formulated and implemented in our implicit and explicit FE codes suitable for sheet metal forming simulation. Nonlinear kinematic hardening identification for anisotropic sheetmetals with bendingunbending tests.The deepdrawing of a square box has been conducted experimentally and numerically. The formulation follows our previous work [2]. 26:213226. on Advances in Metal Forming.121: 221229. J Eng Mater Technol 1999. Besson J. Neckingfailure criterion The strain ratio ^ = Aez/Asi has an evident influence on the internal damage of sheet metals. Godereaux S. Moresdn F. a unified failure approach has been presented based on the theory of damage mechanics including the nonlinear kinematic hardening of the matrix material and void coalescence by internal necking of the intervoid ligament. Tang SC. . USA. Mech Mater 1997.80/81:4046. Orlando. [4] Benzerga AA. 6. At the same level of deformation. [31 Brunet M. Approximate criteria for anisotropic porous ductile sheet metals. Coalescencecontrolled anisotropic ductile fracture. developing of damage makes the strain state gradually drift to plane strain. 2000.
388. repaired and the fatigue life of the runway determined. 1.bull@ncl. The size of the void is linked to dimensional analysis. once the void has been detected. Loss of subgrade support due to the second condition will take time to develop. statistical reasoning and scahng laws [16]. Detonations at these and greater depths present considerable repair difficulties. that extended to the underside of the runway. the detonation depth requires a minimum of L39 Q ^0. with the base of the cone being on the underside of the runway. is the mass of the explosive charge [7]. The first condition will cause immediate loss of runway support.333 j ^ ^ 2.uk © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. The factors determining crater size and shape are W. 2. Email: john. Bathe (Editor) Fig. with the disturbed subgrade above the void forming a cone. in time.: +44 (191) 2227924. Fatigue life. Camouflet location Experimental work shows that for no surface disturbance.J. The vertex of the cone is the detonation point.85 Underground explosions: their effect on runway fatigue life and how to mitigate their effects John W. Introduction This present paper assumes a detonation has formed an underground void as shown in the half section of Fig. X^ and the subgrade. in metres. Around the void is a shell of highly compacted subgrade. Fax: +44 (191) 2616059.ac. Any linear dimension L. This paper describes how such a void can be detected. Collapse is complete when one of three following conditions is satisfied: the height of the collapsed cone extends to the underside of the runway.78 W^^^^ m [7]. *Tel. Half section of the camouflet showing zones 18. For the third condition. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. When a camouflet is formed. the walls of the void will collapse. in kg. zones 25 of Fig. All rights reserved. and the material in the collapse path forms a stable dome. Laboratory tests have shown that a saturated clay subgrade subjected to superimposed cyclic loads has an initial set . UK Abstract The detonation of an explosive device underneath a runway causes an underground void (a camouflet) to be formed. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. 1. Bull* Department of Civil Engineering. 1. Runway repair. it can be filled. Finite element 1. the void is completely filled but the collapsed subgrade does not extend to the surface. Ac is the detonation depth (in metres) divided by W^^^ The resulting crater being a camouflet if Ac < 1. can be related to L/W^^^ where W. Keywords: Underground explosion. Newcastle upon Tyne NEl 7RU.
showed that for all material sets. with the void having a horizontal diameter of 6.354 m.5% California Bearing Ratio (CBR) subgrade. with the radius of the interface between zones 2 and 3 being 6.601 m. zones 1 and 8 had a Young's modulus of 36. isotropic 9.246 m and a vertical diameter of 6. The loosened subgrade on the underside of the runway having a diameter of 16. Overrunning of the camouflet will show altered settlement readings enabling the repair team to identify the location and extent of the camouflet.128 m. 5 and 6 were introduced. where A c is the aflowable number of ^ overruns. The Poisson's ratio for zones 1 and 8 was 0.149 m.000 MPa. the change in the corresponding displacements was no more than 0. The introduction of a void changes the settlement conditions. The numerical model Following detonation. The axial length of the cylinder was 16. The deflection results for the filled camouflet and for the unfilled camouflet. Deflection data and cone penetration test results allow the repair team to determine the type of camouflet to be repaired [16]. Zone 7 was 95 MPa and zone 6. The first is when the detonation is contained within the outer diameter of the compacted shell. 4. 5. but zones 2. Filled and empty camouflets Material set 10.86 J. it is possible to obtain deflection and settlement measurements along the length of the undamaged runway to determine the runway's settlement stage.112 m. In all cases. the Young's modulus of the runway. Camouflet size and material requirements Bull and Woodford [16] describe the dimensions and material properties of the camouflet and the subgrade. That is a 213kg explosive charge has created a camouflet in a previously homogenous. the CBR and the equation. material sets 29 of Table 1. The detonation depth was 8.000[MR/ac]'^. 1 shows the eight zones. material set 1 of Table 1. ouflet was modeled by setting the cyUnder radius to 14. The outer radius of the compacted zone.W. This is followed by slower secondary settlement that continues for up to 20. inclusive 0. For runways. 950 MPa with the exception of material set 10 where zone 6 was 95 MPa. A number of subgrade strengths between two extremes are considered. MR the modulus of rupture of the concrete and Gc the principal tensile stress induced by the load [16]. The radius of the interface between zones 3 and 4 was 5.01 mm. Elastic analysis was used as it gives sufficiently accurate results [16]. A s = ^ [[280 X CBR(%)]/crs]'^ [16]. The notional infinite nature of the ground surrounding the camTable 1 Young's modulus (MPa) for the 10 material sets Zone number Material set 1 95 95 95 950 2 95 95 95 95 6. Four thousand and eighty threedimensional isoparametric finite elements were used in the model of the camouflet with the polystyrene infill and 2940 for the camouflet without the infill. Where a reduction in fatigue 3 95 95 95 190 4 7 95 95 190 5 7 7 95 190 6 7 7 7 190 7 7 95 190 190 8 95 190 190 190 9 190 190 190 190 10 95 95 95 95 2 3 4 5 . until equilibrium is reached.3. the interface between zones 4 and 5 and 6 and 7 was 3. Bull/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tlement of between 60 and 80% of the total permanent settlement and is attained within the first 10 cycles of the loading [8].1 and for zones 27. 3. for the polystyrene. Fig. The finite element model The finite element model was idealized within a circular cylinder with its axis lying vertically in the ground. The effect of an aircraft was modelled by a single downward point load of 100 kN at a succession of 15 nodes. 0. equally spaced between the boundary and the centre of the upper surface of the runway. The Young's modulus of the polystyrene void filler was 10 MPa.000 load cycles. 4. The Young's modulus of subgrade zones were calculated using £ = 10 CBR(%) MPa [16]. The fatigue life of the runway is found from Ac = ^ 225. 3.128 m. provided the benchmark displacements.776 m. Table 1 gives the Young's modulus for the zones that are changed.2.183 m. stresses and fatigue life for the undisturbed subgrade and runway. The number of load repetitions A^s the subgrade can sustain is predicted using as the maximum downward vertical stress in the subgrade. zones 1 and 8 did not change. The second is where significant changes have been made in the subgrade.
235300. as shown in Table 2. Bull JW. Camouflets and their effect on runway support.73:315325.0 8 I NC 89. Comput Struct 1999. Mouchel Centenary Conference on Innovation in Civil and Structural Engineering. 369376. Eng Failure Anal 1998.5 7 38. Shin EC. 196364:256. The effect of camouflets on subgrade surface support. All nine material sets have a reduced fatigue life in the subgrade. although it does prevent the runway from collapsing completely.7 I I NC 9 87 8. Computer Techniques for Civil and Structural Engineering.2 0. The effect on the fatigue life of an airfield runway when a large void beneath a runway is left unfilled or is filled.8 I I NC 4 38. it should be excavated and refilled with the runway surface being cut back beyond the zone 18 interface.9 I NC I I 79. pp.69(6):695706. In: Fifth International Conference on Computational Structures Technology. Comput Struct 1998. 2000. Bull JW. In: Topping BHV (Ed). pp. 1997. pp. Woodford CH. The remaining fatigue life is given as a percentage of the fatigue life of material set 10. Chadwick P. Bull JW.5 I 1. Bull JW.8 1. Hopkins HO. 4th International Conference on Computational Structures Technology.5 I I NC 2 NC NC NC I 24. Woodford CH. Bull/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 2 Fatigue life of the filled and the unfilled camouflet Zone number 1 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 Material set 1 NC NC NC 87. Cyclic loadinduced settlement of foundations on clay. In: Seventh International Conference on Civil and Structural Engineering Computing. Bull JW. Phil Trans Roy Soc Lond Ser A Math Phys Sci. The effect of the tensile stress in the subgrades on the fatigue life of an airfield runway. the difference between the corresponding filled and unfilled void was no more than 1. Computational Civil and Structural Engineering.3 I I NC 3 NC NC NC 95. 241246. Advances in Civil and Structural Engineering Computing and Practice. [2] [3] 7.W. Woodford CH. 1999. A. Woodford CH.J. Thus.3 I 1. The prevention of runway collapse following an underground explosion. Woodford CH. B.1 I I I 8.5(4):279288.7 72. UK.1%. this is indicated by NC or I. Where there was no change or an increase in the fatigue life. Once a camouflet has been identified. respectively. Edinburgh: CivilComp Press. 1998.6 6 31.0 0. 265274. 165174. both the filled and the unfilled camouflet are recorded as having the same fatigue life. Das BM.9 8.2 55. Leuven. Computer simulation of explosion effects under concrete runways.2 I 54.4 1. Belgium. The filling of the camouflet has little effect on reducing the runway deflections or on increasing fatigue life. Conclusions The major cause of the large surface deflections is the weakening of zone 2.04 I I 8. Topping BHV (Eds). The extent of the surface deflection indicates inversely the fatigue life remaining in the pavement. Edinburgh: CivilComp Press. .0 5 26. pp. B.9 I I I life occurred. Oxford. In: Teeming MB.0 0. Cox AD. Mechanics of deep underground explosions. Woodford CH. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] References [1] Bull JW.
sgn() is the signum function. Mathematical formulation The rigid structure on friction devices is mathematically represented by a SDOF with viscous and Coulomb damping [2]. The simplest base isolators of this kind are pure friction base isolators. The isolation system decouples the structure from the horizontal components of the ground motion by interposing a mechanism between the structure and the foundations. /x is the friction coefficient and Xg(t) is the ground acceleration assumed to be a Gaussian. Fax: +39 (90) 395022. the stick phases do not occur so that the equation of motion is given as X h l^cox f o/x 4. Keywords: RFBI isolation system. Tel.Mg sgn(i) = —Xg(t) (1) where x is the displacement of the rigid structure relative to its foundation. Salita Sperone 31. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Moreover. an alternative method [4] evaluating the response by applying the moment differential equations approach is considered. Several base isolation systems have been proposed and developed for various type of structures. NonGaussian response. Vill. g is the gravity acceleration. the use of the Ctype GramCharlier expansion is proposed for the evaluation of the response probability density function which requires the knowledge of the statistical moments obtained solving a set of linear equations. oj is the natural frequency of the base isolator. Under the assumption of high intensity base excitation. The simple structural model considered refers to a rigid structure with a resilientfriction base isolator system under white noise excitation. The results are compared with those obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulation. Friction damping. Muscolino * University of Messina. the structure shding on a RFBI system posses non linear behavior and equivalent linearization technique or stochastic averaging [3] can be resorted to determine the response with short computational time. Agata. (1) is converted into an equivalent firstorder system and the Ito's differential rule [5] is utilized so that . Impollonia. * Corresponding author. Cacciola.unime. The resilientfriction base isolator (RFBI) system. is considered herein. In the present paper. To this aim Eq.J. the statistical moments of the response have to be evaluated. Generally it is assumed that the friction characteristics observe the Coulomb friction law. proposed by Mostaghel and Kelly [2]. Bathe (Editor) In order to evaluate the stochastic response. A nonGaussian closure technique is required due to non normality of the response process. ^ is the damping ratio. in the numerical application the stationary response obtained with the proposed formulation will be compared with Monte Carlo simulation. Messina 98166. Email: nicola@ingegneria. The isolator combines rubber bearing and friction element in parallel and belongs to friction type systems. so that Xg{t) = W(t). As no closed form solution are available. All rights reserved. Consequently.Stochastic seismic analysis of RFBI isolation system p.it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. The moment equation approach is applied and the probability density function of the nonGaussian response is evaluated adopting a Ctype GramCharlier expansion.: f39 (90) 6765618. N. G. Introduction In recent years considerable attention has been focused on the use of base isolation systems to protect structures against earthquake effects. Closure technique 1. stationary white noise process. Italy Abstract The response of a structure isolated by a ResilientFriction Base Isolator (RFBI) subjected to a ground motion modeled as a stochastic process is studied. and they are reviewed by Kelly [1]. Dipartimento di Costruzioni e Tecnologie Avanzate. 2. S.
x assumed as Gaussian ones PoM = 1 V27ro. fj is the multidimensional Hermite polynomial vector and yj[x.l^comEWk"^] + \m{m   co^mEW+'x"^^] sgn(i)] r]Q= 00 x^po(x)dx. Stationary marginal probability density function of the displacement (a) and the velocity (b) by Ctype GramCharlier expansion (CGC) and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). In what follows an evaluation of these averages is performed in approximate form._L = 4 A j + . 10 20 10 20 20 10 0 10 20 (a) (b) Fig.x] are related to the statistical moments of order equal or lower than (/ h j) [4].08 1 ! </ 0 <fo \ O 0 O MCS CGC (N=4) 0.. x] . (3) posses some inconsistency.12 p(x) 0. in particular the Atype GramCharlier expansion can lead to negative values around the tails. xj = {ly sgn(x) dJpoix) dxJ dx (6) dJpo(x) dxJ djc' (3) where r is the closure order and po(x). po(x) are the probability density functions of jc.x] (7) rl/i^'JCij[x. if the variances a^ and a  are first obtained with enough accuracy.R Cacciola et al.„. (5) into Eq. than the system become a linear one and the evaluation of statistical moments up to order r is straightforward. the averages with signum functions become E[x'x'"sgn(i)] = n'.x) = po(x)po(x) &Po(x) iJi—A 6 /+..iigmEWi"^^ l)E[x^x^^]q (2) X'S = f x"^ sgn (x)po(x)dx. the sought moment equations read where the coefficients +00 EWi"^] :: lEix^^x"^^^] .x) = A/'exp Then. (2). in Eq. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 0. However.12 I 0. The latter equations are not closed.=4.i] 'J ' (5) where A/" is a normalization constant. for example by means of Monte Carlo Simulation. Hj l^. 00 +00 where q = ITCSQ is the strength of the white noise.. +00 . (2) gives a set of nonlinear differential equation where only statistical moments up to rth order appear. The approximate response probability density function resulting from Eq. i—A. as the averages with the signum functions appear which have to be evaluated starting from the knowledge of all moments.X'S+ E .04 i \ ^W^. 1. 1 exp (S?)' /x^' Poix) = (4) can be easily evaluated in closed form and the coefficients Cij[x. 6 tj"'i^A) yj[x.6 'J ' r^\ = {iy I X +00 i&poix) dx' dx. Substitution of Eq. by adopting a closure technique of the probability density function expressed by a Atype GramCharlier expansion and observing that all odd order moments vanish p(x. For these reason a Ctype G r a m Charlier expansion is adopted p(x.
04. where the left side is set equal to zero. EarthquakeResistant Design with Rubber. NagoyaMathJ 1951. Probability density function of MDOF structural systems under nonnormal deltacorrelated inputs. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999. lb) which is strongly nonGaussian. Kelly JM. Ricciardi G. 1 along with those resulting from Monte Carlo simulation. (7) is utilized a closure of order r = 2A^ — 2 is needed.3:5565. Random response analysis of frictional base isolation system. [5] Ito K.4(l):2346. [3] Fan FG. On the other hand. Ahmadi G. Ricciardi G. (7) and reported in Fig. 168:121133. The coefficient vector are linearly related to the coefficients appearing in the Atype expansion and can be evaluated by an efficient procedure [6].116:18811901. damping coefficient ^ = 0 . [2] Mostaghel N. Note that for the evaluation of the stationary characteristics the algebraic system arising from Eq. friction coefficient /x = 0. 1 . London: Springer.90 P. Numerical application An RFBI isolator system with the following parameters has been considered: natural period 7 = 4 s. Pirrotta A. a higher order closure is needed to approximate the stationary marginal probability density function of the velocity (Fig. is the yth coefficient vector linear function of the statistical moments of the response. Note that if Eq. has to be solved. Report UCB/EERC87/18. References 3. la). On a formula concerning stochastic differential.44 cm^/s\ The stationary marginal probability density functions of the displacement and the velocity have been evaluated through Eq. (2). J Struct Control 1997. The ground acceleration is assumed to be a white noise with spectral density SQ = 55. 1996. [6] Muscolino G. J Eng Mech 1990. [4] Muscolino G. 1987. The figure reveals that a low closure order (A^ = 4) produces satisfac[1] Kelly JM. Non Gaussian closure techniques for the analysis of RFBI isolation system. Cacciola et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tory accuracy for the displacement (Fig. Design procedure for RFBI bearings. both of order 2^ [6]. .
It is demonstrated that a finite deformation formulation is required in order to capture this phenomenon in finite element computations. Keywords: Large deformations. spudcan foundations. Bathe (Editor) . are presented in Fig. Undrained conditions have been simulated. Sydney. so that shearing occurs at constant volume. In particular.1. Fax: +6\ (2) 93513343. * Corresponding author. 1. Wang University of Sydney. the curves continue to rise monotonically until an ultimate value is reached. even after the behaviour becomes dominated by plastic yielding. softening of the overall system response is identified as a possibility in some circumstances. detailed assessments of their capabilities and limitations are also rare in the literature. Boundary value problems involving footing penetration and anchor uplift are discussed.J.91 Geometric softening in geotechnical problems J. Introduction Large deformation analyses of boundary value problems are not common in geotechnical engineering despite the fact that finite deformations may be important. Detailed discussion of similarities and key differences between these methods are given by Chen and Mizuno [2] and Wang [4]. Email: j. Generally. followed by perfectly plastic behaviour. Penetration of a strip footing The problem of penetration of a smooth rigid strip footing of width B into purely cohesive soil has been analysed for both a homogeneous and a twolayered soil deposit. Australia Abstract An investigation is made of some of the circumstances under which softening of overall system response can occur in geotechnical boundary value problems. e. particularly in problems involving penetration of relatively rigid bodies. [1] and the remeshing technique proposed by Hu and Randolph [3] are described in the following sections. 2. and in situ test probes. These curves indicate that at larger penetrations of the footing the mobilised penetration force is a function of the rigidity index of the soil {G/c). Comments on the suitability of these published finite element formulations are also provided. NSW 2006.carter@civil. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a number of applications where a large deformation analysis is essential to capture some subtle but important aspect of soil behaviour. the stiffer the elastic response the greater the force required to cause a given penetration of the footing.edu. Finite strain. e x . For these homogeneous soils. obtained using the remeshing technique of Hu and Randolph [3]. All rights reserved. Tel. Yield is determined by the Tresca criterion and an associated flow rule. In all cases the material behaviour is characterised by an initial linear elastic response at small strains.g. 2. into much softer soil deposits. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.: +61 (2) 93512299. Example problems solved using an updated Lagrangian approach published by Carter et al. in order to demonstrate particular features that cannot be captured using conventional infinitesimal strain analysis.au © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. such as footings. even when no material softening is permitted. Anchor uplift 1.usyd. Comments are also made on the type of large deformation analysis likely to produce the most accurate results for footing penetration and plate uplift problems. A number of formulations for large deformation problems in geotechnical engineering have been published in the literature.Carter*. Department of Civil Engineering.P. Footing penetration. Although methods have been proposed for the numerical solution of this type of problem. Homogeneous clay The normalised loadpenetration curves for this case. [13].
Large deformation analyses were also conducted using an updated Lagrangian (UL) approach [1]. 0. Large deformation Cg/Cisl 2+2n 0.2. and ultimately unfavourable element configurations will affect the accuracy of the numerical results. Twolayered clay The bearing response of strip footings on a stronger clay layer of thickness H overlying a weaker clay deposit was also examined. and generally the loaddisplacement curve given by the large deformation analyses is quite different from that given by the small displacement analysis.D REMESH* Slnp tooting on the surlace of elasticMmple plastic soil 1200. Various cases corresponding to H/B = 1.0 n5o. 2. for cases where H/B = 1.X.P. or Gs/Bcg Fig. for a footing displacement equal to 40% of the footing width. . (b) Mesh configuration using the updated Lagrangian method. By comparing these plots.2(2+2K) 150 200 Gs/Bc..8 0. 3. so that these results are strictly relevant in practice whenever yB <C c i . for relatively narrow footings or strong soils.0 ^^X^^x^>'^^~>^t^X^ "'*">< \ \ V'^ :50. i. Typically. 1.e. Normalised loadsettlement curves for a strip footing on layered clay (H/B = 1).5(2+2rt) Q2 Meyerhof(1951) anaiyticai solution lor deep footing 0. the relative advantage of the remeshing technique can be clearly seen. the curve given by the small deformation analysis reaches an ultimate value after a relatively small footing penetration. In the UL approach elements near the edge of the footing have become highly distorted at this footing displacement. 2 / 3 and 1 (homogeneous soil) were investigated. corresponding to the solution for a footing deeply buried in a halfspace. ' ^C AFENA * Strip Footing on Layered Soil Fig.2.a i 100. and C2/C1 = 0. Wang/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics MESH "(a)" 1950.92 J. 3. Finite element meshes for penetration of homogeneous clay by a strip footing. 2. and a comparison is made between the results given by the small and large deformation analyses. 0. For these particular analyses the effect of soil selfweight has been ignored. Carter.8(2+2)t) 2/3 2^3{2+2K)\ " ^ 2/3 0. C. 2. where y $ is the unit weight of the soil. 1/3. (a) Mesh configuration using the remeshing method.1.0 20 Gs/Bc 30 (b) Fig. Normalised loadsettlement curves for a strip footing on homogeneous clay {H/B = 1). Normalised loaddisplacement curves for a weightless soil are shown in Fig. Deformed mesh plots from each analysis are shown in Fig.5.
i. yH. Uplift of a rigid strip anchor The problem of a horizontal strip anchor embedded beneath the surface of a homogeneous. 4. the overall response is characterised by some brittleness (softening). 1. i. ..J.g.5). i.2. Comparison of Fig. Carter. Softening tends to become suppressed as the depth of burial and the selfweight effects increase.. C. Indeed for the case where yHjc = 0. no limit has been placed on the tensile capacity of the soil.. Clearly this trend is to be expected. . Loaddeflection curves for fully bonded anchors..X.e. It is clear from this figure that a softening response occurs for cases where the strength of the soil. This aspect of penetration behaviour has also been demonstrated previously in the numerical solutions obtained by Hu and Randolph [5] for spudcan footing penetration into inhomogeneous soil. C2/C1 = 0. and 0. ci and C2. It is reasonable to expect that even footings exhibiting a brittle response should ultimately behave much like a deep strip footing buried in the lower clay layer. because with increasing penetration the surcharge effect of the soil to the sides of the footing becomes more significant. where C2 is the strength of the lower layer. 4 indicates predictions of the loaddisplacement behaviour of anchors at relatively shallow depths of embedment. 2.. purely cohesive halfspace and pulled vertically upward has been investigated. 5. It was assumed that separation will occur and a gap under the plate will form once the initial total overburden pressure is offset by the uplift load applied to the plate.1. In addition. Wang [4] has demonstrated that brittle behaviour of the footing tends to be suppressed as the selfweight effects become more significant. 3.p. Small and large deformation solutions for this important case are presented in Fig.. Curves obtained from the large deformation analysis appear to approach these limiting values at deep penetrations. . From a practical perspective it is also of interest to examine the case where separation of the rigid anchor from the soil immediately beneath it is allowed to occur.. . 4. . it appears that the loaddisplacement curve approaches an asymptotic value. H/B = 1. . 5 with Fig. These theoretical limits for a deeply buried smooth footing are also indicated in Fig.e.5.. •r. even though the behaviour of both component materials is perfectly plastic and thus characterised by an absence of softening. where H is the depth of embedment and B is the width of the strip anchor.^S^met^' ' '' •'••^*^*^^^^^^' ••• r. 0. cases of relatively shallow burial in relatively strong soils. elastoplastic.. . and when ci/ci is greater than about 2/3..e.JUi. as yB increases relative to the strengths of the clay layers. It is also interesting to note that for this geometry." • 16 ^ 7H/c=0 Small deformation analysis Large deformation analysis Rowe & Boolter (1979) elastic solution (c) H/B=2 2 \ n 15 Gs/8c 20 Fig. Solutions for both a weightless soil. which is a reasonable idealisation for 93 •Small deformation analysis " Large deformation analysis • Rowe & Booker (1979) elastic solution __ ^ 16 z i 1 / . ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ " 2 TH/C=O sii^aji cjeformatlon analysis Large deformation analysis Rowe & Booker (1979) elastic solution (b) H/B=l to 10 8 6 1 4 1 GSi^c . so that the ultimate value of the average bearing pressure should then be approximately (2 h 2n)c2. is relatively large compared to the overburden pressure at the plate level. the difference between the ultimate capacities in these two cases is approximately the same as the reverse bearing capacity of a strip footing on a purely cohesive half space. the loadpenetration curves given by the large deformation analysis rise to a peak.v» . For these cases. 3. c. 4b reveals that bonding of the soil has a very significant influence on the mobilised uplift capacity. Wang/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics For cases where a stronger top layer overlies a much weaker bottom layer (e. Fig. the large deformation curves appear to rise monotonically to their asymptotic ultimate values. at depths given by H/B = 0. For all cases shown in this figure perfect bonding was assumed between the underside of the rigid anchor plate and the underlying soil. For these cases the ultimate values are reached only when the footing has penetrated into the bottom layer and the top layer has separated into two distinct parts. (2 + 7t)c. With further penetration of the footing into the clay. and soils with significant selfweight are included in Fig. at which point the average bearing pressure is generally lower than the ultimate bearing capacity predicted by the small deformation analysis.
Carter. Booker JR. A practical numerical approach for large deformation problems in soil. 5. The ultimate bearing capacity of foundations. Mizuno E. Randolph MP. Theory and Implementation. Int J Num Anal Methods Geomech 1977. Wang/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the softening behaviour could only be predicted using an appropriate large deformation analysis.l(l):2543. More reliable solutions at large displacement were obtained using the remeshing technique. As for the footing problem. 4. For the footing and anchor problems it was also found that selfweight of the soil medium tends to suppress the tendency for a brittle system response. PhD Thesis..X. Conclusions Two boundary value problems have been examined using both small and large deformation analyses. Loaddeflection curves for strip anchors with separation (H/B = 1). Soils Pound 1998. Booker JR.2(4):301332. Fig. . Applications of Large Deformation Analysis in Soil Mechanics. 2000. 1/^ "~7H7C^O 10 15 Gs/Bc 20 25 30 35 References [1] Carter JP.3:187203. University of Sydney.. Finite deformation of an elastoplastic soil. [61 Meyerhof GG. Int J Num Anal Methods Geomech 1998. Davis EH. [3] Hu Y. In each case it was discovered that softening of the overall system response occurs under certain conditions. the small strain analysis could not capture this type of response. 10 / )——*—x^. Deep penetration of shallow foundations on nonhomogeneous soil. A method of analysis for horizontally embedded anchors in an elastic soil. 1990.^^ ^^•''>^f^r=m ' ^S^x""' ' •/H/c=6 1 YH/C=4 1 yH/c=2 Smalt deformation Large deformation Rowe & Booker(1979) elastic solution O X Breakaway (large deformation) Breakaway (smal! deformation) Acknowledgements The work described in this paper has been supported by grants from the Australian Research Council. Randolph MP.P.38(l):241246.22:327350. [7] Rowe RK. ultimately unfavourable element configurations in the UL formulation will affect the accuracy of the numerical predictions. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Nonlinear Analysis in Soil Mechanics. [4] Wang e x . Furthermore.. [5] Hu Y. Int J Num Anal Methods Geomech 1979.94 12 J. Geotechnique 1951. [2] Chen WF. C.
are as follow: w = Wi(l . 100084. and (ii) the rotation. {UY = [Ui Vi Wi \ll^i ifyi : U2 V2 W2 fx2 fy2 2. a new similar method is proposed to construct bending element for analysis of laminated composite plates. Thus. especially for the transverse shear stresses. One of the best approaches is the mixed interpolation method. possesses advantages of both displacement element and hybrid element.cn © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Lockingfree Timoshenko's beam element The formulas of deflection ic.edu.F d .r) + Wjr + {f. Beijing 100084. Beijing.jr + 3(1 . Laminated composite plates. Department of Civil Engineering.r ) ( l . = f.28)rF2 Y =8T 2. Thus. a simple hybrid method is also presented to improve the stress solutions. Hybridenhanced procedure 1. The stress solutions are improved by a simple hybrid procedure. in which the displacement fields and the shear strain field are interpolated independently [1]. The proposed element.28)F3 (2a) (2b) (2c) F = l^^i + ^ y ) ~ ^^i ~ ^^J ^Ir. denoted as CTMQ. Department of Engineering Mechanics. quadrilateral 20 DOF (5 DOF per node) bending element based on the firstorder shear deformation theory (FSDT) for analysis of arbitrary laminated composite plate is presented in this paper. Introduction In the past 40 years. can be obtained. good results can be obtained for both displacements and stresses. shear strain and inplane displacement fields in the domain of the element are then determined using the technique of improved interpolation.. Timoshenko's beam theory.2 r ) . Furthermore. rotation f and shear strain y for the Timoshenko's laminated composite beam element. the formulation of robust plate bending elements based on FSDT (ReissnerMindlin plate theory) has attracted the attention of many researchers.j)F2 . Bathe (Editor) r(lr) F3 = r ( l . 2. All rights reserved. 1): 8= where k = F2 = 6X 1 + 12A A (3) * Corresponding author. as shown in Fig.xlf. very excellent solutions for both displacements and stresses.J.1.r) + ir.i ^ . and no shear locking will happen even the thickness of plate approaches zero. Firstorder shear deformation theory (FSDT). Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Keywords: Finite element. Email: demyzh@tsinghua. Tel.i{l . Fax: +86 (10) 62781824. Yuqiu Long ^. Zhenhan Yao ^* ' ^ Tsinghua University.95 A new hybridenhanced displacementbased element for the analysis of laminated composite plates Song Cen ^. This element is constructed by the following procedure: (i) the variation functions of the rotation and shear strain along each side of the element are determined using Timoshenko's beam theory. In this paper. Formulation of the new quadrilateral element The nodal displacement vector for the quadrilateral 4node element is (as shown in Fig.: h86 (10) 62772913. China ^ Tsinghua University. China Abstract A simple displacementbased.
0.][uY (4) ^0 ^0] (5) i=\ bi Since the rotations of the midside nodes can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacement vector by using Eq. 8): ^x = T^^ii^x.4) (8) 11 i ITT /=1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ^3^3 ^4^4 0 0 25i 0 0 0 ci(5i 0 bi8i 0 0 ^454 1 ^6 t "^1 [r*] = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 253 254 0 0 0 0 0 254 C353 C454 0 C454 0 0 28i 2^2 0 ciSi C252 0 bi8x ^2^2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2^2 253 0 C282 C3(53 0 b2h b^h Fig. the stiffness matrix can be obtained by the standard procedure. (Ic) and some simple geometrical relations.96 S. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Wx3 4< ^.C4 — ^4C3 2. 4) are the bilinear shape functions. 5/ are given by Eq. [Ys} = Z?4Ci biC4 b4Ci bxC4 blC2 — b2C\ b\C2 — b2C\ ^3 0 0 blC^ — b2. 2. The Timoshenko laminated beam element. 1. Interpolation formulas for inplane displacement fields of the midplane (7) The inplane displacement fields are expressed by the bilinear shape functions.C2 ^ 2 ^ 3 — Z73C2 . 2. .0. the shear strain fields can be obtained as follows: 0 0 0 0 (9) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 where A^^ (/ = 1.3. 2 . .j.3.k=\. Di and C/ in Eq.4. 2.• ' • • • — r=— / bi = yjyk Ci=XkXj (i. Cen et al. the rotation fields can be rewritten as follows: b\C4 [^. It can be proved that when the thickness r ^. (10) [A^?][xj[r*] [A^?][Fj[r] [A^?] = [ < A^o 0 {uY = [B. H' ^x\ ¥x2 Fig. 7. Interpolation formulas for the rotation fields The rotation fields can be obtained using 8node isoparametric nodal shape functions A^. Finally. (2). (3). 5 ^. Quadrilateral plate element. (3) are the bending and shear stiffness of the beam.2.] b^ci — biC4 bi biC2 — bjci b\C2 — bjci b3 bjcj. respectively. r={) V2 til ^ . Interpolation formulas for the shear strain fields From Eq.C4 — b^CT. No shear locking will happen. 2. 3. — bi. b2. .C2 b^cx (6) {V'} = [N]{u} (11) 0 b2 b2CT. (/ = 1. — byC2 0 0 0 C4 bT.2. .
. I ^ [PM] = 97 ai . ^=250. CTMQ. 2. the shear field {T] can be obtained: 4. 12) are 12 unknown parameters. . Square plates with 9 layers. on DA: v=H?=^y^ LQADINe (doubly sinusoidal) . oa EC: 1^^^^ on CD: v=%=0 .1 MATERIAL (orthotropic) Skins: Er^25. pi2=^. Note this procedure doesn't influence the element stiffness matrix. ^ dM^y dx dy dM^y dx dMy dy (15) = [PrUaM] 5.. {(XM) — [Ofi 0^2 0^3 0^4 Qf5 a^ OCl Qfg Otg Otn a^^ (14) at (/ = 1.1. Cen et al. 3 and Table 1.r 9 M .^4) (18) as = \(xi . The hybridenhanced procedure for element stresses The bending moment field {M} and the shear force field {J} are only required to satisfy C~^continuity between two elements based on FSDT [2]. The membrane force field {A^} can be assumed as follows [3]: {A^} = [N. . . Then the stresses of the element can be obtained by using HellingerReissner variational principle and hybrid element method. .0. .\(xi + X2 + ^3 .. Conclusions The presented element. . .S.yf = [PM]{aM} 0 0 0 0 0 0 (12) {M = [Pi ft ft ft ft] ri ^T] 0 0 0 0 0 I ^ 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y] ^7] 0 0 0 0 I ^ (13) 0 0 0 T) ^T] Q^IQ ft (/ = 1. 5) are 5 unknown parameters.20. nv Fig.10. Er'U Git^S. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. Gif^^S. From the equilibrium equation of a plate.100. {T] = [r.X2 + ^3 + X4) h = \(yi yi + ys + yd (19) My M. 3. One of them is showed in Fig. . can pass all the patch tests. nx . Ny N^yf = [PNMPN (16) 1 [PN] = 0 1 0 0 0 1 air] a\^ 0 0 t^ (17) aibiY] a^b^^ STl GKOMHrRY 1=1000. r. 3 . is free of shear locking and insensitive to mesh distortion. it is only for improving stress solutions. Thus. 2. Gw^l. It possesses advantages of both displacement element and hybrid element: Relatively simple formulation. high accuracy for both displacements and stresses.25 STl: 0/90/0/90/0/90/0/90/0 symmeMc BOUNDARY CQNDmONS (simplygupported: SS2) on AB: tt=w=\r/=0. Numerical examples Several numerical examples are presented to evaluate the performance of the new element. [M] can be assumed as follows: [M] = [M.
000 1.431 IFO.245 0.419 ±0.0212 TO.190 0.220 0.487 ±0.258 0.005 1.219 ±0.0209 TO.551 ±0.218 0. [2] Ayad R.21:367383.524 1.432 ±0.238 0.539 ±0. Composite plate analysis using a new discrete shear triangular finite element.259 '^yz (f^Q^Q) 0.249 0.242 4.254 0. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Maximum deflection and stresses in 9ply laminate L/h 4 Mesh and model 4x4 8x8 16 X 16 DST 10 X 10^ FSDT 4x4 8x8 16 x 16 DST 10 X 10^ 3D elasticity FSDT 4x4 8x8 16 X 16 DST 10 X 10^ 3D elasticity FSDT 4x4 8x8 16 X 16 3D elasticity FSDT 4x4 8x8 16 X 16 FSDT CPT w (iJQ) 4.461 ±0.234 0.256 0.225 0.491 ±0.539 ±0.0214 10 IFO.0217 ixz (Q^JQ) 0.210 0.283 4.431 ±0.539 ±0.436 ±0.242 1.538 ±0. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1998.0213 TO.0217 TO.259 0.250 0. Cen et al.021 1.263 0.0214 =F0.538 ±0. Batoz JL.437 ±0.219 0.219 0.0213 =F0. Batoz JL.545 ±0.000 ^x (L L ±lL) V2 ' 2 ' ^ 2 / Oy (L L __2/i\ l 2 ' 2' ^ 5 > > "^xy (Q^Q^I) =F0.000 1.539 ±0.020 1.432 ±0.230 0.529 1.456 ±0.0214 :T0.0212 IFO.021 1.434 ±0.540 ±0. Sumihara K.433 ±0.438 ±0.545 ±0. Dvorkin EN.432 ±0. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1984.246 0.0213 100 100000 References [1] Bathe KJ.021 1.431 ±0.455 ±0.0210 TO.487 ±0.219 0.454 ±0.0213 50 TO.522 1.247 0.246 0.0217 =F0.98 S.259 0.492 ±0. [4] Lardeur P. Short communication: A fournode plate bending element based on Mindlin/Reissner plate theory and a mixed interpolation. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1985.20:16851695.228 0.213 0.521 ±0.522 ±0.526 1. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1989.0212 TO.0212 =F0.523 1.431 ±0.512 1.0233 TO. A new hybridmixed variational approach for ReissnerMindlin plates: The Misp Model.215 0.477 ±0.0213 =F0.210 0.000 1. Rational approach for assumed stress finite element.231 0.27:343359.005 1.231 0.245 0.219 0.42:11491179.230 0.247 0.494 ±0.0213 =F0.021 1.540 ±0.545 ±0.489 ±0.005 1.259 0.0213 TO.252 4.431 ±0.538 ±0.249 0.244 4.0213 =F0.0210 TO.237 0.0215 =F0.447 ±0.541 ±0.210 0.498 ±0.219 0. Dhatt G.547 ±0.257 0.237 0.251 0.433 ±0. .000 1.249 0.493 ±0.219 0.218 0.519 ±0.243 0.257 0.226 0.250 0.258 0.433 ±0.021 1.519 ±0.539 ±0.425 ±0.005 1.257 0.250 0.526 ±0.539 ±0.539 ±0.207 0.0214 TO.005 1. [3] Pian THH.
Simulating static and dynamic lateral load testing of bridge foundations using nonlinear finite element models S.O. A series of five dynamic lateral load pulses at increasing amplitude were then applied to each foundation using a . Civil Engineering Department. The response of the foundationsoil system under such conditions is usually highly nonlinear. Bathe (Editor) The program SeaStar/CAP (PMB Engineering.com © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. Brown^ ^ Wilbur Smith Associates. The tests were designed to induce significant nonlinearities in the structural elements (piles and shafts) and the soil in which they were embedded. The second group consisted of a pair of 2.A. Displacements. Finite element analysis. The measured response was used to develop and calibrate nonlinear finite element models for a detailed analysis of the parameters that govern the lateral behavior of such systems. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. and difficult to define mathematically. four of which were driven on a 1:4 batter. Lateral load testing. Load test program The foundations along with the applied loads are shown in Fig. * Corresponding author. Tel +1 (803) 7584643. Email: sanjoy_chak@hotmail. lateral static and dynamic load tests were carried out on two test foundations. AL 36849 USA Abstract The response of bridge foundations to large amplitude lateral loads was the subject of a study conducted at Auburn University. were monitored and recorded for further analysis. and the parameters governing dynamic response were studied using the measured dynamic response (displacements. Auburn. and strain gauge pairs placed at selected elevations down the length of the piles and shafts. D.0 m. Columbia. Both foundations were instrumented with displacement transducers. USA ^ Auburn University. 2. Soilstructure interaction. not much data are available to assess the reliability of existing modeUng techniques. and bending and axial forces). The fundamental soil properties used in the model were established using the static load data. PY Nonlinear dynamic analysis curves. which would replace an existing bridge. The results of this study have been summarized in this paper. static and dynamic load tests were carried out on two fullscale instrumented test foundations on the Pascagoula River at Pascagoula. 1. P. SC 292020092. Chakraborty ^'*. As part of the study. accelerometers.13 m diameter reinforced concrete drilled shafts. Since dynamic load testing on instrumented foundation groups can be extremely expensive. The models were designed to account for the nonlinear behavior of the system under static and dynamic loads. Keywords: Bridge foundations. strains and accelerations. along with appUed load. Box 92. 1.76 m square prestressed concrete piles. A static lateral load test was conducted by pushing the foundations apart with a hydraulic jack (*S in Fig. The testing was conducted to provide guidelines for the design of a new bridge over the river at Pascagoula. [2]) was used to develop finite element models of both groups. The foundation on the east side consisted of six driven 0.J. Mississippi. Introduction and background Bridge foundations are subject to dynamic lateral loads in the form of earthquakes and ship impact. Each shaft had a permanent steel casing extending from the bottom of the shaft for a length of 11. which usually involve the transfer of large amounts of energy to the foundation in short periods of time. All rights reserved. 1). In addition to extensive insitu and laboratory testing to determine soil properties. This paper provides a brief description of a load test program carried out on the Pascagoula River in Mississippi [1].
7]. 2.3 MN to 7. P represents soil resistance per unit length of pile. Mississippi. The loads were applied at the center of the pilecap in the plane depicted by the front view. with section and material properties simulating the rigidity and mass of the concrete block. and vessel impact. and Reese et al. expressed as a nonlinear function of its lateral deflection.13 s. PY curves can be used to model short term static.applied static load PLAN 10. along with appropriate soilsprings and dashpots. thereby imparting an impulsive load to it. EI) at the prestress load using the program STIFF 1 [9]. The topmost element (where significant cracking was observed at the larger loads) was modeled as nonlinear. transient wind loading.57 N 1.67 All dimensions in meters Not to scale 4. and outofplane displacements and rotations were eliminated in order to reduce problem 3. cyclic (including degradation effects). The pilecap was modeled using seven linear beam elements.100 S. Details on the formulation of PY curves in different soil types may be found in Matlock [4].76m square prestressed concrete piles k 2. The effects of soil (internal) damping are accounted for during hysteretic cycling through the curve. F.4 MN. amongst others. Most of the energy delivered to the foundation lies between 1 and 10 Hz. and based on the results of load test programs conducted in the 1970's and the 1980's.219 m each in length. and the test simulates extreme event loads such as seismic. [6. 4. . The formulation of these curves are empirical. Each pile was represented by twenty six beam elements. along with dashpots attached at the node points. [5]. along with axial springs at the pile toes to simulate resistance in end bearing. and tip springs (QZ curves). DA. Load test setup at Pascagoula. and its flexural rigidity was computed as a function of the applied moment (M vs. which have been described in Dobry et al. while the effects of radiation damping are modeled through use of mechanical dashpots.52 Two 2. Lateral and axial soilsprings were attached at the pile nodes as shown in Fig. The Statnamic device is a loading mechanism that uses rapid bum fuel to generate gas pressure and accelerate a large mass away from the test foundation. The peak dynamic loads recorded at Pascagoula ranged from 1. 2.13m diameter drilled shafts Six 0. and dynamic loading conditions. The model for the pile group is shown in Fig. 1. axial springs {TZ curves). with the ramp time (zero to peak load) decreasing from 0.45 ^ I 1.44 1:4 Batter Fig. Matlock et al. The structural components (piles/shafts/cap) are usually modeled using linear or nonlinear beam elements. A detailed analysis of the measured data is available in Chakraborty [3].applied statnamic load *S . Pilesoil interaction: the PY approach The lateral load displacement relationship between the foundation and soil is usually defined using the so called PY curves. and the complex soil reactions are modeled using nonlinear lateral springs (PY curves). Brown / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics *P . Statnamic device (*P). [8]. The PY model for the soil reactions combined with a finite element formulation of the foundation structure provides an effective solution to the problem of laterally loaded deep foundations. 1. The data were recorded using a Megadac data acquisition system at a sampling frequency of 2000 Hz. Structural models The finite element model for each group was setup using a combination of linear and nonlinear beam elements. Chakraborty.25 to 0.
decreasing from 0. 0). The results of the static load test were used quite effectively to establish the fundamental soil strength parameters and verify the model. 4. The recommended value of the Maximum Displacement Factor.F .44 m thick . [2]): . A detailed discussion of the results has been presented in Chakraborty [3]. a much smaller time step was required to get the solver to converge.001 s from the first Statnamic load case to the last.S.Rate Effect Parameter (P) A scaling factor for the Pordinates (^ < I for creep effects. 0 = 30°. 4b shows the measured and computed lateral displacement time history of the pilecap for the largest dynamic loading event (Statnamic load case 5). 2. The shaft group exhibited a significantly higher degree of nonlinearity than the pile group. Brown/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 101 Lateral and Axial Soil Springs Front View Side View Total number of groups = 8 1 linear group representing the cap 1 nonlinear group . Fig.1). It is believed however.each pile from second to bottom element Top View Used to define the radiation damping coefficient under dynamic loading. The absence of damping and inertial forces reduced the complexity of the problem and the number of parameters that needed to be established initially. TZ and QZ curves. Summary and conclusions The program SeaStar incorporates a dynamic soilstructure interaction model. the following parameters (amongst others) were used to control soil response (PMB Engineering. .Clay: undrained shear strength. The models were verified and calibrated by comparing the computed response to the measured static and dynamic response (load test data). 3.015 s appeared to produce acceptable results.Clay: c = 41.Sand: 0 = 38°. ^ > 1 for dynamic loading). DA. 3 and 4 are representative of the nature of the results obtained for the other load cases. to the effective pile diameter (default/recommended = 0. 6. and was able to simulate the nonlinear response of the test foundations to lateral loading through the use of P . a time step ranging from 0. Fig. The response of the pile in end bearing appeared to have a significant influence on the lateral stiffness of the foundations. Finite element model of pile group. For both groups. Fig.02 to 0. 28. as well as for the shaft group. Inc. For the pile group.18 m thick .006 to 0. 4a plots the measured and computed static lateral load displacement response of the pilecap. a large proportion of the compressive axial load in the piles and shafts was carried by the toe. . size.58 kPa.topmost element of each pile 6 linear groups . For the shaft group. Chakraborty.Sand: angle of friction. 2. The following response parameters were used in the comparison: • lateral displacement/rotation of the cap • lateral/axial deformation profiles along selected piles/shafts • lateral/axial force profiles along selected piles/shafts The measured and computed static axial force profiles for the batter piles in tension and compression are shown in Fig. 5. Verification and analysis Based on the soiltest data.57 m thick . the soil profile was described using four layers (top to bottom): .0 m thick In addition to the fundamental properties (c.37 kPa (top) to 82. Ai appeared to be too conservative 5. The profiles have been plotted at two levels of lateral load.Shear Modulus of Soil (Gmod) . The measured axial forces were derived from the strain readings at each load level.Maximum Displacement Factor (A i) Ratio of the displacement at which the maximum spring resistance is mobilized. Figs. and agree with the predicted axial load distribution for the piles in uplift and in compression. The forcing function used as input for each dynamic load case was derived by resampling the corresponding measured load vector at 400 Hz. that the performance of the program can be improved through the incorporation of a nonlinear material model for reinforced concrete.74 kPa (bottom). varying hnearly. c = 27.
04 0. The inclusion of cyclic degradation and gap formation in the soil model caused the free vibration time period to elongate significantly. 3.01 0. but did not affect the amplitude of the response. * Computed 30 h o Measured * Computed 0 200 400 600 800 1000 35 1000 800 600 400 200 Compressive Load (KN) Tensile Load (KN) Fig. Chakraborty. of Transportation.005 0.035 0. (a) Static lateral load displacement response — pile group. 4. Inc. References [1] Crapps DK.102 5. and resulted in an underprediction of the lateral stiffness.03 0.015 0. D. Axial force distribution in batter piles.I lOOOh Measured Computedl 0. 1998.06r Fig. SeaStar P3. Project report prepared for Mississippi Dept. Brown/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Batter Pile in Compression Batter Pile in Tension 10 E '' ^ 15 E 20 20 25 o Measured .20: Offshore analysis and .A.025 Displacement (m) 0. I and II. Vol. (b) Dynamic lateral displacement history — pile group.02 0. 4000r 3000H S 2000 . Brown DA. East Pascagoula river bridge test program. [2] PMB Engineering.
Texas. Welch RC.S. Paper No. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 1975. STIFFl: Computation of nonhnear stiffnesses and ultimate bending moment of reinforcedconcrete and pipe sections. DA. May. Vicente MJ. Lateral loading of deep foundations in stiff clay. Roesset JM. Kelley AE. [3] Chakraborty S. Bogard D. [7] Reese LC. [9] Wang ST. For Ensoft. Analysis of laterally loaded piles in sand. Reese LC. Horizontal stiffness and damping of single piles. Auburn University. In: Offshore Technology Conference. Field tests of the lateral load behavior of pile groups in soft clay. Brown/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics design software. Dynamic lateral load testing of deep foundation groups. Doctoral Dissertation. 2000. User's manual. California. 103 [6] Reese LC. Koop FD. San Francisco. Correlations for design of laterally loaded piles in soft clay. Ingram WB. 1204. In: Offshore Technology Conference. . 1. Texas. [4] Matlock H. II.108(GT3). Inc. [8] Dobry RE.101(GT7). Cox WR. Paper No. 1994. Vol. OTC 3871. Houston. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 1992. Paper No. Texas. Austin. 1970. 1974. [5] Matlock H. Vol. 1987. 1980. Chakraborty. Houston. In: Offshore Technology Conference. 2080.
We also introduce ^5 and Qi as the domains occupied by one of the elastic bodies together with the superior and the inferior part of the shell.56.63. Ferent INRIA Rocquencourt. ^\ v]) e V{Qs) xV. A. when the thickness goes to zero. Projet MACS. A shell coupled with a soft elastic material. V(Qs) = v\r^ = rj\r^ = 6 } . 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex.39.)\v^^i^ {veH\Qs)\v\ri.Chapelle@inria. All rights reserved. (C. Variational formulation of the coupled problem We denote by Q^^ and Q^j the elastic body domains. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. u\e\u\) e V such that tEsDiU^ e\ u^ ^0 + t^EsA{u\ 0\ v\ ^0 = F&s^ v\ ^^ v]). Penalized problem. .= (^s \ ^ s ) U ( Q / \ ^ ) V. V{Qi) = [v e H\Q. BP 105.=0]. We also present some numerical results. Asymptotic analysis. respectively. V(Q. Chapelle *. the model with free rotations being the limit problem of the model with coupled rotations.) on Q5 \ ^\ on Qf \ Q'j * Corresponding author. We justify the use of one or the other strategy by an asymptotic analysis. Email: Dominique. ^) G H\OJ)^ X and where z represents the distance to the midsurface o) counted positively in ^ 5 and negatively in Q/.1. by Q' the shell domain and by co the middle surface of the shell (Fig.J.82. v'. Bathe (Editor) Fig.1.x with which satisfies (C. Fax: +33. W&s. = {(u.) V = {(u^. Linear elasticity.39.57.58. 1. v\ ^^ v'j) e V^ (1) and H\a))\ co = Qs(^^i Let us introduce the following spaces: ^•a3=0.104 Asymptotic analysis of the coupled model shells3D solids D. Keywords: Shell.fr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. One of the main issues involved pertains to the treatment of interfaces. Hence: ^ ' .) and rj' • ^3 = 0 ) . 1). France Abstract The purpose of this paper is to find a mathematical model for coupling a thin shell with a softer 3D elastic material. Singularly perturbed problem 1. Tel: +33. 63. We have the choice of using or neglecting the rotations in the coupling conditions. =0]. The variational formulation of the coupled problem is given by: {Vt) : Find (w^.
X V(Qi) : Find (ul. The global space V that takes into account the 3D parts is the following space: V = {(vl v\ ri\ 5?) G V(Qs) X V. u'. The contributions of the elastic bodies are given by the bilinear forms 5 ^ and B\ corresponding to a tridimensional linear elastic model defined on the volumes Q^^ and ^ . In this case. the tridimensional elastic body must have an energy with the same order of magnitude as the shell membrane energy to obtain a coupled 3Dmembrane problem. ^) = 0}. however. Under this additional assumption the solution of (Vt) remains uniformly bounded. we need to assume that the dominant energies are of the same order of magnitude in the shell and in the elastic body. ')^^^. ^(vl v\ ri\ S?) G V ^ (2) Note that. ^^. These conditions.d\ u\) G V solution of Problem (Vt). It is defined by: Vpb = {{V.1 VF G L^(Qs)^ X L^(co)^ X L^(Qi)^ there exists a unique (u's.iPj). the solution (u^^. Theorem 2. where yo = [(vl v\ ri\ v1) G V(Qs) X V. we have V. Chapelle.1 Under Assumption 1. defined so that the shear strains are in L^(co).D. can also be . V. As an example. ^. (1). ^^ a3= 0. the linear form F represents the virtual work of external forces.v\ with (Co) ri^) = 0}. 3. y^^ provides a norm on Vs and we can introduce aer ^ ^ HH^S) ' + D ( . the space of pure bending displacements plays an important role. this is also crucial.) + . (Vt) becomes a singularly perturbed problem. in the specific case of the clamped elliptic shell. . With this definition. This leads to the following assumption: Assumption 1 EQ Under this assumption. X V(^i) 105 which satisfies (Co). ^ 0 represents the contribution of the shell to the internal virtual work. as in: Assumption 2 EQ = Est ^ E^oLsD The asymptotic behaviour of the shell is enced by whether or not this pure bending nonzero displacements. we consider a situation where we can characterize the space V^. . for the lem.0)}. This nature depends on the boundary conditions and the shell geometry. =0}. as t goes to 0. Finally.HH^I) ' 1/2 = Est where L^D represents a characteristic dimension of the 3D body. We denote by t the shell thickness and by Es Young's modulus for the shell material. Since Vp. D('. = {(0. v^j) which satisfies (Co) and rp a^. Then. (3) = F(vl v\ ri\ 5^). where IZs is the regularity space of the rotations. = H^(o)) X H^(co) X LHCO) X 7^. the coupling conditions (Co) can be understood as holding in L^(a)). Like in the asymptotic analysis of a shell alone. Then (Vt) becomes a penalized problem and the constraint that we tend to impose is that membrane and shear energies vanish. respectively. Noninhibited pure bending A shell with noninhibited pure bending has a bendingdominated behaviour. tEsD{u\ 0\ v\ ^ 0 + t^EsA{u\ 0\ v'. Ferent/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics In Eq. u\0\ u\) of (Vt) converges strongly with respect to the norm of H^(Qs)^ x H\cof X H\Qj)\ as t goes to zero.. A. Inhibited pure bending Unlike in the previous case.. We then have the following result [4]: Proposition 1. provided by the Naghdi linear shell model. to (u^^lP J^. Of course. ri)eVs\ D(v. the solution of the following problem: (V^^"") EQA(U\ the corresponding norm on V^ As Vs is not a complete space for D('. We then distinguish 2. u\ e\ u^j) G V ^ such that e \ v\ 7P) + Bs(u% C^) + fi/(w?. namely the case of an elUptic shell clamped along the whole boundary. we define V^ as its completion with respect to this norm. strongly influspace contains coupled probthe two cases. where the perturbation corresponds to the shell bending energy. In order to obtain a model with a real coupling. a shell with inhibited pure bending has a membranedominated behaviour and the bending energy can be neglected if the shell thickness is small. namely the membrane and shear energies tend to 0 with t [3]. D(v^. V^ is less regular than Vs and the difficulty consists in establishing its exact nature.
Numerical results Finite element simulations were performed in the case of a beam coupled with 2D plane stress linear elasticity. Finite Element Procedures. JL. 2. 1996. In this general framework. A. we can show the following result [4]. Fundamental considerations for the finite element analysis of shell structures. w^. GauthierVillars and NorthHolland. ^^^ ^ goes to 0.66(l):1936. we point out that we used a lockingfree finite element procedure for beam analysis [1]. M. D. Finite Element Methods for Thin Shell Problems. In this respect. [3] Chapelle. [6] Lions. Englewood Cliffs. Comput Struct 1998. 1998. (4) 4. used in the more general case where V. PG. U\ e\ w?) e V such that inated asymptotic behaviour. [4] Chapelle. 2. We thus observe how neglecting the thickness in the kinematical constraints on interfaces can introduce significant errors with respect to the limit model unless the thickness is very small. Theorem 3. is a distribution space. Springer. L3DE3 Note. as shown in Fig. D. KJ. the solution (w^.1). u«) [1] Bathe. to (M^. Ferent. NJ: Prentice Hall. indeed.(i?5. if F e V. 1973.1 Under Assumption 2. u\6\ u)) of (Vt) converges strongly with respect to the norm • v. Perturbations Singulieres dans les Problemes aux Limites et en Controle Optimal. 1996. Introduction to Linear Shell Theory. New York. We obtained the solutions for several values of t. Bathe. 5^. References e\ v\ f) h Bsiu'^s^ u?) + 5. We compared these solutions with the solution of the asymptotic problem (characterized in Theorem 2. Ferent/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 20 40 60 number of elements 100 Fig. KJ. that a beam necessarily has a bendingdom . Series in Applied Mathematics. i/^) the solution of the following problem: (p^^D^ EoD{u\ : Find (M^.. John Wiley. Chapelle. [5] Ciarlet.106 D. The convergence of the transverse displacements as / ^^ 0. using the asymptotic assumption t^E. A. [2] Bemadou. in preparation.
All rights reserved. Also. which is referred to as MITC9N element. However. v is the displacement vector of the shell midsurface. Mixed interpolation. Brazil Abstract A ninenode mixedinterpolated shell element based on Naghdi's theory is presented and analyzed in the Hght of some fundamental considerations for the finite element analysis of shells. r) lists rota . } n BC (2) is the space of admissible displacements. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Departamento de Engennharia de Estruturas e Fundagdes. since it is formulated based on the same strain interpolation assumptions used for the MITC9 of the degenerated solid approach. but the assumed covariant strain fields are applied only for the membrane and shear components. Mixed interpolation of tensorial components elements. 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex. Fax: +55 (11) 38185181.br © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. as discussed in [2. the bending energy is combined with the membrane energy. One could mention that the interpolation of the geometry is inherent to the degenerated solid approach. SP. Shell element.107 Some experiments with the MITC9 element for Naghdi's shell model D. the structural problem may be formulated in the form: Find Ut eU such that: (1) PA(Ut. however. BP 105. Bucalem'' ^ INRIARocquencourt.3].and bendingdominated shell problems [5].L. Much progress. V) = F(V) where U=[V = {v. The linear model of Naghdi The basic assumptions of the Naghdi model are that the material line normal to the midsurface in the original configuration remains straight and also unstretched during deformation and that the stresses in the direction normal to the midsurface are zero. has been made and there is a family of quadrilateral elements (MITC) [13] that has shown a good behavior both in membrane. r]_ e [H\Q)f .L. We follow the numerical evaluation strategy suggested in [6].)f yy eU. f55 (11) 38185246.r]). homogeneous and isotropic. Using the Naghdi shell theory. 2. 05508900 Sao Paulo. Naghdi's model 1. ve [H\Q. Tel. the way these elements are constructed — the shell behavior is introduced together with the degeneration process (see [4]) — does not provide the best setting for a mathematical analysis with respect to locking. France ^ Laboratorio de Mecdnica Computacional. Oliveira*''*. We also assume that the material of the shell is elastic. M. Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo. The objective of this paper is to summarize the formulation of a ninenode mixed element constructed for Naghdi's shell theory and report upon some numerical ex* Corresponding author. Introduction A topic that continues to challenge researchers is the development of lockingfree shell finite element. Email: dlpik@usp. Keywords: Locking.J. This approach is widely accepted as being the most attractive for engineering appUcations. The MITC elements have been constructed from their displacementbased counterparts which are formulated using the degenerated solid approach. The proposed element is used in the analysis of judiciously selected test problems to evaluate to what extent its behavior satisfies the ideal requirements for general shell analysis. V) + tD(Ut. The element is based on the Mixed Interpolation of Tensorial Components (MITC) approach. Chapelle^ D. Bathe (Editor) periments performed with this element.
We consider a cylindrical shell of uniform thickness t. The actual form of the membrane and shear strain fields and the details of D* can be found in [8]. where Er = r^ def fl(t/Q^f. these requirements mean that locking must not occur (in bendingdominated cases) and consistency must not be lost in all terms (in particular. where some wellposed test problems are also given. These problems were also analyzed in detail in [9]. the formulation presented lead to the selection of the axial displacement Ml. the solution using the above approach is effective only when considering shell problems in which pure bending is inhibited.e. we consider a boundary layer width of 2^/t in which A layers of elements are also placed. •) and D(.. With due regard to these considerations. where A^ is the ^ number of subdivisions per side in the angular direction of the discretized domain. with element sides aligned with the principal directions of curvature. The sequence of proposed meshes is solved and we use E^ as the error measure. The aim of such a selection of problems is to determine whether a finite element discretization is equally well applicable to both categories of shell behaviors (membrane. length 2L and radius R loaded by an axiallyconstant pressure distribution p{(p) acting on the outer surface of the shell. 3.108 D. we must resort to judiciously selected numerical tests in order to assess the convergence behavior of shell elements. a suitable numerical evaluation strategy is presented in [6]. This mixed formulation can be written as the following discrete variational problem: Find U^l e W' such that: (4) where (p denotes the circumferential angle. We use here two of such problems for the convergence studies: for the inhibited case. Numerical experiments Since a mathematical analysis is at present out of reach. the sequence of meshes is repeated for each problem considered for values of dimensionless thickness parameter t/R ranging from 1/10 to 1/1000. ^ Since locking corresponds to a deterioration of convergence behavior as the shell thickness decreases. a finite element solution obtained with a very refined mesh. as the reference solution. since the solution of the mathematical model is not available. the material is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic with Young's modulus E = 200x 10^ and Poisson's ratio v = 1/3. (1) is: Find r/J' G U^' such that: t^AiU^l V^) + rD(^f. when a membranecase is analyzed). radial displacement Ml and the rotations of the normal ^i about the tangent vector and ^2 about the longitudinal axis as the displacement variables. For the noninhibited case. 8. We ^ use in ours tests A = 4. We consider here uniform NxN meshes. Furthermore. where po = 2 x 10^ is a constant independent of t. = P\ = PI = 0 on the clamped ends. Finally. the bending and membrane/shear strain energies. 4. the scalings applied to the loading were chosen accordingly.) + /)'(•. The finite element formulation A conforming displacementbased approximation is obtained if we consider a space of admissible discrete displacements U^' c U. In other words.). (6) for the noninhibited case and Po = t Po (7) where D* is obtained by considering mixedinterpolated membrane and shear strain fields. We take. respectively. •). with h denoting a representative mesh size. it is crucial to compare the results of the same discretization for different values of t. Hence. Chapelle et al. 16 and 32. • Full cylinder with clamped ends (a membranedominated case). We take L = R = I. circumferential displacement W2.and bendingdominated) and whether its convergence properties are independent of the shell thickness. we also impose the essential boundary conditions MI = U2 = UT. A mesh grading scheme must be considered to appropriately capture the effect of stress gradients in the boundary layer region. We refer to the work of Bemadou [7] for the detailed expressions of A(. An effective approach to formulate reliable and quite efficient loworder shell elements is the use of mixed interpolation on strains and displacements.t/°t/f) a{Ul f/?) (8) . The bilinear forms A(. •) = /)'"(•. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics • Full cylinder with free ends (a bendingdominated case). Let us denote by f/J' the finite element solution. The displacementbased finite element problem corresponding to Eq.•) are. V'') = F{V^) V y'' € UK (3) As proved in [6]. Based on the results presented in [9]. Z)(. i. p((p) = Pocos(2(p) (5) tions of the sections (originally normal to the midsurface) and EC symbolically represents the essential boundary conditions imposed. At any point on the cylinder's midsurface. •) and F(.
1. (3) All curves must approach the direction parallel to the dashed line. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics INHIBITED CASE : CLAMPED CYLINDRICAL SHELL . considering that the loading is sufficiently smooth and the meshes were designed to reflect the exact solution [9]. 3. using the Q2 displacement^ based element for membranedominated cases or using the MITC9N element for bendingdominated cases. Q2 element. Therefore we use ""•••. Convergence for the clamped cylinder problem. Hence.Q .^^^'""".. 1 shows the results obtained for both the Q2 and the MITC9N elements when t/R = 1/100. Chapelle et al.J t/R =1/1000 .t = 1/100 NONINHIBITED CASE: FREE CYLINDRICAL SHELL . In Figs. We translate these requirements to the convergence methodology assessment considered here. corresponding to ^ = 2. Let us consider first the inhibited case. Convergence for the free cyhnder problem. MITC9N element. an element should have both constants c and k independent of the shell thickness t regardless of the nature of the problem (i. As expected. to render the error indicator Er independent of the thickness t.. Convergence for the free cyhnder problem. NONINHIBITED CASE: FREE CYLINDRICAL SHELL . .1 \.: . (2) The curves obtained for the MITC9N element must be close to those of the Q2 element when inhibited cases are analyzed. Fig.Q2 Element 109 t / R = 1 / 1 0 9— t / R = 1/100 +• t / R = 1/1000 E3ITHK) Fig..D. In the bendingdominated case. and Fig. k should approach its optimal value 2.„ Fig.• h'Hk) • " • • • • • • .Ml TC9N Element t/R =1/10 «— t/R =1/100 .001 where J is a characteristic geometric dimension of the problem other than the shell thickness t. membrane. •) is a norm [6]. if (1) is violated. "••Q 0.V). (10) The reference solutions U^ were calculated using the finest mesh (with A = 32). 13 we plot the Er values vs.01 ^^^ ^^:^ "^f^^^©^ \ 'V.) + Z)(. i. The aim is to estimate the magnitude of the constant c and the order of convergence k defined in \Er\=ch' (11) and how these constants behave as we change the dimensionless thickness parameter t/R.) (9) 0.+ .. •) is a casedependent symmetric bilinear form defined below.e. 0. In addition. 2. if (3) is not verified.e. (1) Considering noninhibited cases. For membranedominated problems. Ideally. \ : U^ is the reference solution and «(•. • a lack of consistency of the mixed element solution. we define a(. if (2) is not observed or • that a reasonable convergence behavior is not attained. ).or bendingdominated). the little shift of MITC9N error curve (when compared to the corresponding Q2 curve) provides an evidence of the better performance of the displacementbased element in this ^(•. The error is then measured on an energy norm V \ = a(V. the number of elements per side N in the logarithmic scale. •) = /)(•. we recall that D(. any deviations from what is prescribed above will imply: • locking. we must have no shift of the error curves as the thickness t changes.•)'^d' A(..
Even though these results are very encouraging. The mathemafical shell model underlying general shell elements. since the proposed element represents a connection between the easytouse general shell elements and a consistent 2D shell theory. Finite Element Procedures. Englewood Cliffs. respectively. Finite Element Methods for Thin Shell Problems. Chapelle et al. A confinuum mechanics based fournode shell element for general nonlinear analysis.1:7788. On the reliability of MITC elements based on Naghdi's model. Again. Pitkaranta J. [8] Chapelle D. A similar behavior is obtained for the other values of t/R and of course the superiority of the displacementbased element (i. Bathe KJ. To appear. Comput Struct 1998. [2] Bucalem ML. case. that both elements present an excellent convergence behavior: the convergence is very close to the asymptotic rate ~ /z^. because this represents a rather realistic value in practical applications and neither the influence of other energy terms than membrane (as for r//? = 1/10) nor of roundoff errors (as a result of a very fine mesh refinement for the boundary layer region when t/R = 1/1000) may significantly affect the results obtained. Finally. [5] Bathe KJ.. Eng Comput 1984. NJ: Prenfice Hall. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics The evaluation of this element has shown that we may expect an efficient and sufficiendy reliable performance in shell analysis. 1996. [7] Bemadou M. we consider that a valuable step was taken towards providing a mathematically oriented guidance to obtain reliable and improved finite shell elements for general use. we must not expect the same performance for the MITC9N element when either distorted or not graded meshes are used [8]. 2nd edn. To appear. in particular. the MITC9N element shows an excellent performance: the error indicator E^ is essentially of the same order regardless of the case being solved (although we may observe a slight deviation in the convergence behavior for t/R = 1/10). New York: John Wiley and Sons.). Higherorder MITC general shell elements. [3] Bathe KJ. On the other hand. Concluding remarks A ninenode mixedinterpolated finite shell element based on Naghdi's theory was formulated using the MITC approach. In addition. its performance is strongly affected by locking effects.66:1936. Bathe KJ. 2 and 3 show the results obtained for the Q2 and the MITC9N elements. as expected. Let us consider now the noninhibited case. We note. however. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993. Fundamental considerations for the finite element analysis of shell structures.75:130. We chose t/R = 100. A Benchmark Study of ReducedStrain Shell Finite Elements: Quadratic Schemes. Comput Struct 2000. Bathe KJ. the distance between the error curves) becomes more and more clear as the ratio t/R decreases.48(2):289313. due to the consistency errors deriving from the use of the modified biUnear form /)*(. An evaluation of the MITC shell elements. We recall that a better convergence behavior of the MITC9N element than that for the Q2 element should not be expected in this case. for each one of the three values considered for the relation t/R. 5. [9] Malinen M. as it becomes clear from the shift of the curves as t decreases. 1996. [4] Chapelle D. . References [1] Dvorkin EN. Figs. there is no surprise in the displacementbased element behavior. Chapelle D. Oliveira DL. Bathe KJ.36:37293754. Int J Num Methods Eng 2000. The numerical tests suggest that a relatively lockingfree behavior in the analysis of bendingdominated problems is achieved when the remarks concerning mesh properties are observed. [6] Chapelle D. In this case. We may also observe the deterioration of the order of convergence h accordingly. losilevich A. Bucalem ML.e.no D. consistency errors are kept in a reasonable magnitude for realistic small values of the ratio t/R.
(2). (1) becomes Ptk{i+\)t (^i^i^ = Ptk(i)t(i+i) Pt_k{im+i) •''«'^sn. Introduction Force transmission by contact between articular surfaces plays an important role in mechanically initiated osteoarthritis. a difficulty arises in dealing with finite sliding that occurs over the element boundary where local coordinates are discontinuous. we attempt to apply the procedure of Chen et al. Japan Abstract Finite sliding between articular surfaces occurs during the motion of loaded diarthrodial joint. f (1) + s (tk r^Oo'+DC^o'+i) . Additionally.T. respectively. In this method. the second term on the righthand side includes a scalar and a product of the friction force vector with its norm. The relative velocity of contact points is given by (tt • tj)^H\ It is noted that the lefthand side of Eq. the increment of a convected coordinate cannot be com . the incremental form of Eq. based on the convected coordinates.ac. Taking into account the friction effect is considered to be necessary for revealing the factors causing and advancing osteoarthritis.k. (1) and the first term on the righthand side are in the form of the Oldroyd rate of a vector. an attempt is made for frictional contact analysis of articular surfaces by introducing convected coordinates and redefining the sliding term as a spatial vector in the reference configuration to deal with finite sliding. Considering Eq. the friction force is derived as Par = £ (ti where ptt denotes the covariant component of the friction force vector p ^ and tt and t' indicate covariant and contravariant base vectors at the contact point with convected coordinate §'. Using the backward Euler integration for incremental analysis. Email: xchen@sml. Bathe (Editor) where subscripts (/) and (/ + 1) indicate the incremental steps.Ill Frictional contact analysis of articular surfaces X. Articular surface 1. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.utokyo. the increment of the convected coordinate appears as the result of incremental decomposition. Tokyo 1138656. In this work. s is the penalty parameter for the stick state. Diarthrodial joints generally undergo considerable motion and finite sliding between contact surfaces during cyclical loading. In the finite element method. Chen et al. Ateshian and Wang [1] indicated that the interstitial fluid pressurized articular cartilage supports most of the load and thus significantly reduces the friction coefficient of the articular surface. Formulation for frictional contact problems with finite sliding In the formulation of Laursen and Simo [2].t ( o ) • AX 1 ^k t{i+\)\\ (2) * Corresponding author.jp © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. [3] to the frictional contact in articular surfaces. 2. To preserve the objectivity of the friction law. In this work. Thus. Laursen and Simo [2] developed a finite element method based on the convected coordinate system for analyzing frictional contact problems. Hisada The University of Tokyo. it is clear that the friction equation satisfies the objectivity requirement. the protection due to interstitial fluid pressurization may become less effective in degenerative cartilage. School of Frontier Sciences.J. Frictional contact problem. However. Thus. All rights reserved. Keywords: Finite element method. Tel/Fax: F81 (3) 58416321. Finite sliding. [3] proposed a procedure to overcome this difficulty by redefining the sliding term as a spatial vector in the reference configuration. Chen*. the contact surface is divided into elements and the local coordinate of every element is used practically as a convected coordinate.
^.. .(^. Numerical example Although the mechanical property of articular cartilage exhibits viscoelasticity and the friction coefficient between articular surfaces depends generally on load.). T. and °f JC+D and °ff. Hisada /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Current configuration Reference configuration Fig. 30mm is the relative displacement increment mapped to the reference configuration and can be calculated as AV ^ X' .j the covariant and contravariant base vectors.r. However.)rf. (3) and (5) with Eq. respectively.+o(?^. The distribution of contact stress is computed for a twodimensional simplified finite element model shown in Fig.3 50mm A°r^(t. the use of Eqs. A hexahedral type of element with eight nodes is 66mm where x[^^^^ is the position vector of the contact point at increment / + 1.x\^ (7) Finally. 3.§^. Finite element model. where (5) E = 5GPa. 1. whereas x\^ is the position vector.^.o+i))(^4+i^ • ^'r)t{^^y. + l) . To overcome this difficulty.. of the material point where the contact point has been located at increment /.^^^ gives Ar . it is not convenient to use Eq.)%.^ (3) and referring to the discretized contact surfaces shown in Fig. Chen.. Let ^y(/+i) be the covariant base vector at the contact point x\^^^ in the current configuration (increment / + 1).^„ (6) t./?rA:(/)^(/+i) + e (^^•^. Because this movement affects the tangent stiffness due to friction. 2. Ar can be approximated using ^^<i+l)~<iy (4) The mapped contact point can be obtained from its element local coordinate in the current configuration and the node coordinate before deformation. 1.112 X. at increment / + 1 . Motion of contact surface. v = 0.^^. 1. time and relative velocity.(.+1) . (4) directly. is considered. 2.)(/+i)('4+i)A'r)AX (8) Fig. Use of the dyadic expression of the deformation gradient based on ^yo+i) and ^t\.^. Defining incremental relative displacement as Ar^(^... puted if the contact point slides over the boundary of the element. as shown in Fig. Now a mapping of the contact point to the reference configuration. at the mapped point X[. a numerical example is carried out focusing on the treatment of frictional contact problems with finite sliding. r. because of movement due to deformation. x\^ is unknown at increment / + 1.^j^?^^.j in the reference configuration. (2) results Pr/:(/+l)^(. the following approach is proposed.
In further threedimensional analysis. of articular surfaces. used and the degree of freedom in the direction leading out of the plane is constrained to simulate plane strain condition. 4. to reveal the relevance between the friction phenomenon and the cause of mechanically initiated osteoarthritis. Wang H. Hisada/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 30 113 OH '^ Vi 25 20 S ju= 0. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993. The distributions of contact stress with different values of friction coefficient fi are shown in Fig. Distributions of contact stress.X.36:34513485. 3. Finite element analysis for large deformation frictional contact problems with finite shding. Chen. High contact stress occurs near the center of the contact area and is clearly affected by the friction coefficient. time and relative velocity. large deformation frictional contact problems.42(2):201208. Finite shding of the contact node over the boundary of the element is treated by redefining the relative movement in the reference configuration. [2] Laursen TA. 4. Fig. \ F = 400N Fig. 4. References [1] Ateshian GA. [3] Chen X.05 I 10 u 5 0 Coordinate X (mm) • U = 20 mm Fig. A theoretical solution for the frictionless rolling contact of cylindrical biphasic articular cartilage layers. the large amount of sliding of the contact node over the element boundary is successfully simulated. Simo JC. The applicability of the proposed procedure was investigated by using a simplified twodimensional model. T. it is necessary to consider viscoelastic behavior of the articular cartilage and the dependence of the friction coefficient on the load. JSME Int J Ser. Mori M. J Biomech 1995. By defining the relative movement of the contact points as a spatial vector in the reference configuration. Nakamura K. Threedimensional analyses for real diarthrodial joints are currently under way. Deformation of two contact bodies. Hisada T. Conclusions A finite element approach that enables the analysis of frictional contact problems with finite sliding was introduced in an attempt to perform frictional contact analysis .28(11): 13411355. 3 shows the deformation of two bodies. A continuumbased finite element formulation for the implicit solution of multibody. A 1999.
Haug^ ^ HongIk University. Choi^'*.J. are known to be closely related to the damages of soft tissues located between the adjacent vertebrae that experience extraordinary movements in relation to each other. numerical simulations. The causes of whiplash injury. Lee^ I. head. ankle.: +82 (2) 3201699. and detailed local models for important internal body components (e. Recently. Quite many numbers of finite element human head and neck models have been developed for this purpose and the evolution of computational models has been remarkable thanks to the advance of computational powers and the FE codes. neck. structural and physiologic explanations of the human headneck complex will be introduced as well as the modeling methodology. In practice. The understanding of the basic injury mechanisms of the human headneck complex. In this paper. is quite limited and many studies have been carried out. Tel. Keywords: Human headneck. pelvis. Fax: +82 (2) 3260368.g. Finite element model 1. S.114 Finite element modeling of human headneck complex for crashworthiness simulation H. The Mumaghan equation of state for a solid element has been employed to model the CSF layers in the head and dura sec of the cervical spinal foramen. mainly caused by its inertia. These local modules can be selectively added to the HARB model when needed. could cause vascular injury on the connecting vessels and also may induce a negative pressure in subarachnoidal space. These kinds of movements often cause serious injuries of the headneck complex even without direct contact with foreign objects. the HModel is an assembly of the HARB model and the local modules that are selected depending upon the purpose of the investigation of the moment.Y. however. South Korea ^ Hankook ESI. have been utilized to investigate the hypothetical theories based on experiments and clinical findings. The incompressible behavior of CSF in the head.). which result in axonal injuries.H.kr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.H. etc. Seoul. Relative movement of brain inside the skull. The model is constructed based on the precise anatomical geometry and currently under validation process. Rungis Cedex. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.ac. for example. Introduction A finite element model of the human headneck complex has been developed in order to study the basic injury mechanisms due to the dynamics loading such as a car crash. The one with the distinguishing feature of the headneck model in this study would be the precise modeling of the fluidsolid interactions. France Abstract A finite element human headneck model is under development for the car occupant safety simulation. South Korea ^ ESI Software. The structural role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occupying the subarachnoidal space in the brain is a cushioning and buffering role between the skull and the brain as well as for transmitting forces. Lee^ E.hongik. thorax. Seoul. The HModel consists of articulated rigid skins with flexible joints (HARB). which has a closed volume. Bathe (Editor) tally [16] and analytically [712]. Email: hychoi@wow. The human headneck complex is well exposed to the abrupt translational and rotational movement compared to the rest of the body parts during a crash accident. especially using the finite element method. Some of the simulation results are also chosen to present major features of the model. Mechanical Engineering Department. both experimen* Corresponding author. The finite element model of the human headneck complex to be introduced in this paper is one of the submodules for the HModel family [12]. All rights reserved. . Soft tissues such as ligaments and muscles in the human cervical spine are easily injured when their connected bony parts undergo excessive motions in relation to each other.
restrict neck motions and therefore have an important function in the injuries. Sublux 4. Material properties assigned to bony components (Table 1).Y. 4 shows the FE model of the headneck complex. [9] and Ruan et al. (d) acute subdural haematoma shift. This constraint is justified by the findings of Willinger et al. 2. thus. Case studies: selected simulation results 4. Onedimensional Hill type bar elements recently became available in PamCrash^^ [13] and were used to simulate neck muscle forces. Frontal pendulum impact on the head The experimental study using the cadavers performed by Nahum et al. 2. brain damage. Multiply segmented twentythree neck muscles are included in the model. Most of the skull fractures result from direct impact of a foreign object on the head.1. Fig. Cervical vertebrae subluxation and burst fracture. on the other hand. is caused by secondary impact within the cranial space and/or relative motions between skull and brain. Active muscle forces according to the various activation times and level. [1] was used to vaUdate the head model for the case of Hnear acceleration loading. 2). 1. apphed in order to simulate this cavitational phenomenon. . Since the neck was excluded in this simulation. (e) parietal contusion with midline shift. (c) frontal extradural haematoma. 3). 3. Injury of the human headneck complex due to dynamic loading Major head injuries are skull fractures and brain damages. brain matter and soft tissues in the model are acquired from the Uterature [512]. [10] Fig. Brain injury is often classified into diffuse and focal injuries according to their causes and symptoms. 1 shows typical MR and CT images of brain injuries. FE modeling of the human headneck complex Data from Visible human projects and View point datalab^^ are used to construct the geometry of the finite element model (Fig. Fig. 115 ation with interconnecting ligamental rupture and vertebral burst fractures are typical injury patterns in the neck due to dynamic loading on the human neck (Fig.H. MR and CT images of (a) hypointense lesion inside corpus callosum (hemorrhagic type of DAI) and (b) hypointense left frontal lesion (non hemorrhagic type of DAI). These new attempts in the head model produce more realistic results than the previous head models do. a freeboundary condition was applied to the headneck joint. The ideal gas equation is. Choi et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics also induces a 'cavitation' when the brain has sufficient relative motions inside the skull.^" ! 1^ Fig. .
15 X 10* 3. right: quarter sectional view of head).27 X 10^ 0.27 X 10^ 1. due to the inclination of the skull. 3. High positive peak pressures appeared beneath the impact site in the frontal region and the greatest negative pressures were generated at the posterior fossa which. which representing Fig. head acceleration (CG).96 X 10^ 1. was the area opposite the impact site. v . The overall trends of pressure histories from the calculation and test correlate quite well considering the possible geometric discrepancies between model and specific cadaver specimen.499 0. The mass and initial velocity of the pendulum were 6 kg and 5.27 1X 1. Process of building thefiniteelement model of the human head. Model responses were compared with the measured cadaver test data in terms of impact force. = .3 X 10^ B G V P 3000 3000 1410 2700 2700 1133 1000 1000 1133 1133 1133 1040 1040 1000 1040 2.3 X 10^ 7. about 45° to the Frankfort plane in the midsagittal plane (Fig. respectively. B = Bulk modulus (kPa).45 0. 4. 5b shows the movement of head components and the pressure contour of the brain surface. Y.3 X 10^ 7.22 0.22 0.27 X 10^ X 10^ 10^ X 10^ 7.45 Gray matter White matter Ventricle Cerebellum and brain stem 7.22 0.45 0.96 1.22 0.116 H. The coupcontrecoup pressures were considerably asymmetric.499 E = Young's modulus (kPa). posterior cavity.02 X 10^ 7.Poisson's ratio.39 X 10^ Facial bone Mandible Dura mater Venous sinus CSF Falx Pia Tentorium Brain 0. p = mass density (kg/m^).15 X 10* 1. The impact was delivered by a pendulum along the axis inclined at Table 1 Material properties of the Hmodel Component Skull Outer table Inner table Diploe E 7. Fig. 5a).499 0. and epidural pressures. who showed that the neck does not influence the kinematic head response during the pulse duration.9 m/s. Choi et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics ^ I \ * /t ^ni Fig.15 X 10* 1 X 10^ 1 X 10^ 3. and flow of the CSF layer.3 X 10^ 3.22 0.45 0. Finite element headneck model (left: skeleton with neck muscles. The head model predicted a maximum pressure of 250 kPa in the frontal region and a minimum pressure of —40 kPa in the contrecoup region. The pressure gradients changed smoothly from the frontal to the posterior regions and a higher negative pressure. We could observe the relative motion between the brain and the dura.15 X IC* 3.
2fe00S 3. Responses of head and each cervical vertebra were verified with cadaver and live human volunteer test results and showed a good correlation.2. 5. Conclusion The objective of the finite element human model including the headneck model presented in this paper for car occupant safety simulation is to understand the basic injury mechanism and quantitatively assess the injury levels due to the dynamic loading.75e00S •IF ^'"^^ STftTE 3. In order to utilize these FE models and simulation results to predict .5 ms mn 0. Horizontal linear acceleration with maximum 5 g for 100 ms was applied at the thoracic level.0203417 in SOLID 21200067 (b) Fig. constructed finite element model(s) could simulate the deformational behavior of the human body similar to the real event. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 111 Impact pendulum t = 0. which is a typical condition for the real accident.H.000189 a. occurred at the occipital and posterior areas.0 ms Stress_press(«*e <GPa> B. 5. and (b) coup and contrecoup pressure distribution on the brain due to the frontal pendulum impact. a probability of cavitation. Lowvelocity rear impact on the headneck complex Fig.^^ • 1 _ _ 6.0 ms t = 2. Choi et al. By applying the precise anatomic structures and material properties of each body component. 4.000258 t = 7.Y.34703 in SOLID ^201837 «asc 0. 6 shows the extension of the headneck model due to the rear impact.50004 STftTE 3.WfZi^ 0.5 ms Frankfort plane (a) t = 5. (a) Impact condition.50004 « Z _ ^ ^ „ M 0:000125 0.
001 Fig. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics . 6.VV : n«M!^:lMw»^ 11K«N$yi18ll J i^<M^ii^^. Choi et al. ^ l i f p ^ fW^%timmi^ IHJim^y^ll^ JIM)4<mC^MRg 1 1 1 i STATE 18:180. . Y. j ~^^^^H 1 STATE1:G STATE1:0 .^MM«ii^ J ^ ^  i STATEe:60i)(M)7 1 STATE6:e0j0007 •'^ 1 dw^mm^m mmm^^^^^tmet wmmmm wmm^^e^^^t ^^^mumm ^ « I I M I N .001 STATE 18:180.118 H.^ . Extension of headneck due to the lowspeed rear impact.
Theory Notes Manuals. 6981. [12] HyungYun Choi.Y. J Biomech Eng 1997. Intracranial pressure dynamics during head impact. [5] Van der Horst MJ et al. The Influence of Muscle Activity on HeadNeck Response During Impact. 375381. Ann Biomed Eng 1999. PamSafe. Shear properties of human brain tissue. Kang HS. 149164. 1999. Threedimensional human finiteelement model validation against two experimental impacts. Eppinger RH. Pintar FA.H. Biomechanics of impact traumatic brain injury. a further validation procedure is needed. pp. Walcher JB. . King AL Finite element modeUng of direct head impact. version 2000. 1997. Human Subject Kinematics and Electromyographic Activity During Low Speed Rear Impacts. Relationship between Localized Spine Deformation and Cervical Vertebral Motions for Low Speed Rear Impacts Using Human Volunteers. Spain. 1993. 1996. [9] Willinger R. In: Proceedings of the 37th Stapp Car Crash Conference. In: Proceedings of the NATOASI on Crashworthiness of Transportation Systems. Proceedings of 5th HanPam. Kumaresan S. [8] Claessens M. In: Proceedings of the 41st Stapp Car Conference. 213253. 1977. [7] Bandak FA. [11] Voo L. Choi et al. ESI Software. Diaw B. A threedimensional finite element analysis of the human brain under combined rotational and translational accelerations.119:423432. Med Biol Eng Comput 1996. Advanced Finite Element Modeling of the Human Body for Occupant Safety. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the detailed injury levels. Finiteelement models of the human head. Ward CC. In: Proceedings of the 21st Stapp Car Crash Conference. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Medige J. Wismans J. Khahl TB. IRCOBI Conference. [13] PamCrash. pp. HModel for the next Millennium. Yoganandan N. [3] Donnelly R. [4] Koshiro Ono et al. pp. [10] Ruan JS. 339366. pp. InHyeok Lee. 1994. [6] Szabo TJ. 1999. 315328. Eberhard Haug. [2] Bandak FA. SAE 962432. Sauren F.27:403410. pp. Modeling of the human head under impact conditions: a parametric study. Sances A Jr. pp. Smith R. SAE 973346. 119 References [1] Nahum M.
Nonlinear kinematic hardening. Email: chun. which will influence springback. In this way. USA Abstract It is essential to model the Bauschinger effect correctly under cyclic bending for simulation of the sheet metal forming process and springback prediction. Springback 1. OH 43220. tensioncompression test and drawbead test. A reduction of yield stress due to reversal staining is known as the Bauschinger effect.17]).T. the nonlinear evolution rule for the total back stress can be represented consistently during the whole deformation as in . All rights reserved. USA. 5038 Reed Rd. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Keywords: Bauschinger effect. However.31@osu. offset of reversal flow * Corresponding author.8]. A material point in a blank may experience 13 cycles (tensioncompressiontension) during the forming processes. Cyclic bending. Columbus. It is generally believed that three basic requirements for the material model to incorporate the Bauschinger effects in sheet metal forming are: • correct nonlinearity of stressstrain loop.10]. Comparisons with the affordable tests.J. • reduced elastic limit at reversal staining. Sheet metal forming. Jinn \ J. The same issue has been investigated by Geng and Wagoner [12] and Wagoner et al. For some high strength steels and aluminum alloys. Anisotropic nonlinear kinematic hardening rule is proposed to represent the Bauschinger effect including permanent softening under multiple bendingunbending cycles. Introduction Cyclic behavior of metal sheet plays a very important role in the sheet metal forming processes. For example. Therefore the material model in the simulation of sheet metal forming should represent the proper behavior under multiple bendingunbending cycles. such as high strength steel and aluminum alloys. It has been also observed that the Bauschinger curves (or reversal stressstrain curve) asymptotically approach or run parallel to the initial loading curve. Most material models for cyclic plasticity. [17] with different approaches. [1. Permanent softening. The Ohio State University. An anisotropic nonlinear kinematic hardening model (ANK model) has been proposed to represent the Bauschinger effect including permanent softening [9. permanent softening can be expressed consistently over multiple bending cycles. most cyclic plasticity models are designed so that the reverse flow stress always converges to the initial loading curve. which allows the bounding yield surface to grow at different rates for loading and reverse loading. Chun *. J. show that this model can predict cyclic bending behavior of sheet metal more accurately. These models cannot represent permanent softening which occurs in certain materials. By allowing the bounding surface evolve differently during the reversal straining in the nonlinear kinematic hardening rule. including the Chaboche model [35. Columbus.K. OH 43210.edu ^ Present address: Scientific Forming Technology Company. Bathe (Editor) curves have been reported in various references (see. for example. Tel/Fax: +1 (614) 2923566. • permanent softening for some materials.K.120 A constitutive model associated with permanent softening under multiple bendunbending cycles in sheet metal forming and springback analysis B.2.. bendingunbending on the die shoulder and rebendingunbending at the punch can be expected during a typical deep drawing process. Therefore these models cannot represent permanent softening. are designed so that the reverse flow stress always converges to the monotonic tensile stress curve. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Lee Department of Mechanical Engineering.
(1) Each component of back stress is assumed to evolve independently as. it is assumed that the amount of permanent softening can be expressed as the following. one element is tested. The combined case.Yiats (2) where s^ is a current equivalent plastic strain and s^* is a prestrain at initial loading. Numerical examples 3. Nk 121 (5c) R= KNc'^''s' ai = CiS • YiOiiS 2. Eq. (2) and (5). Hence the parameters to be determined are Ct and yt after the tensile data fit. The back stress vector is assumed to be a sum of Nk vector components. Aa = f{sPrs^ ) (6) a = J2^. The expansion of yield surface size is governed as below: ••Go + R (7) where oii and a 2 evolve differently during initial loading and subsequent reversal loading.15].K.18].2. (1).10. di = —(a . Simulation of tensioncompression test To evaluate the effects of material models on the stress calculation of a tensioncompression test with AL6022T4 and EGDQ. Therefore. then Eq. This feature always produces correct nonlinearity of the stressstrain loop at reversal straining. The lack of compression information is a common problem with flat metal sheets because compressive loads are difficult to apply in the sheet plane [19]. PamStamp and LSDYNA 3D.2.1. n are material parameters.1. a = Oil + oi2 where Ct and yt represent material parameters that can be obtained from a cyclic test. G^ •ays' — (a . where K and N represent material parameters obtained by curve fitting the tensile data and overhead bar is used to signify scalar quantities for the uniaxial tension data. term determines the rate at which the saturation value of kinematic hardening decreases with increasing plastic deformation. such as ABAQUS. From the observation of experimental results [1. the model reduces to an isotropic hardening model. This evolution rule can be modified to utilize the uniaxial tensile data directly through a simple curve fit with the following equation: G=Go^K{lQ'''') (4) If tension data is introduced. (3c) can be modified. (2).a)s yx{ax)s^ (8) (3a) (3b) Ri)^' (3c) for initial loading (9) for reversal loading Oil = \ G^ 0 R=J:R^ Ri = bi(Qi ~ where Ci. Material models for sheet metal forming with multiple bending 2. When Q and Yi are zero. Eqs. and (3). 2. Nonlinear kinematic hardening model A material model for cyclic plasticity in simulation of sheet metal forming has been developed by Chaboche and colleagues [38.a)s . Eqs. the identification of the proper material model is another issue on the application in FEA of sheet metal forming processes.1922].B. Details can be seen in references [9. The y. The material parameters associated with the material models are shown in Table 1. This model has been recently implemented into most commercial finite element packages. (6) can be extracted from the evolution equation by introducing the anisotropic kinematic hardening term. Strain history is input and the corresponding stress and backstress are output. where Go represents the initial yield stress. Thus this modification is referred to as Modified Chaboche model. Chun et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the Chaboche model. 3. including the evolution of kinematic hardening as follows: G"" =Go^R (5a) R= K(lQ ^)E^^ (5b) . bt. has different evolution of yield surface size compared with Chaboche model. Qi. (1). Anisotropic nonlinear kinematic hardening model By superposing several backstress vectors which evolve individually. y\ and C2 are material parameters. k.
04 0. Friction coefficient between the specimen and dies are assigned as 0. Comparison of Bauschinger curves for AL6022T4.2 200 N/A 300 310 N/A 0. 4. 1 and 2.73 0.29 R90 0.12 0. For more accurate calculation of internal stress. One element is used for half of width with plane strain assumption. Comparison of Bauschinger curves for EGDQ.8 mm.16 Fig. The final deformed shapes after springback are highly dependent on the material models as shown in Fig.29 1. [14] used this test for the predictability of springback. pseudo step for remove dies. 3.K. Recently Jiang et al. Chun et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Associated material parameters Material AL6022T4 Material models Modified Chaboche ANK Tensile data by OSU Modified Chaboche ANK Tensile data by OSU C (Mpa) Ci C2 R values RO 74.08 Equivalent plastic strain 0. which makes a larger curvature. The specimen thickness is 0. Normal anisotropic yield criterion is used for all materials models of EGDQ.2. While ANK model showed the permanent softening as well as the reduced reversal yield stress. 4.08 Equivalent plastic strain 0. Two reference lines separated by a distance of 102 mm are used for the calculation of radius as described in [14].12 0. 1 Measured compression data [1 ] ANK i tension curve . move die for bead formation with displacement control. Total analysis is composed of four steps. Modified Chaboche and ANK models are implemented into ABAQUS/Standard through UMAT and compared with conventional isotropic hardening model. The generated stresses of Modified Chaboche and ANK models are obtained and compared with the measured tensioncompress data by Balakrishnan [1] in Figs. Die shapes and dimension are shown in Fig. Even the Modified Chaboche model cannot predict 0 0.04 —1 1 1 0.122 B. 1.63 0. but the reversal flow curves always converged to initial loading.44 1. 100 elements are used for smooth change of contact history.138. 2. Drawbead test A drawbead simulator has been popularly used for evaluating the drawing forces during sheet metal forming process. The same test is employed to observe the effects of the material models on springback prediction in this study. Modified Chaboche model showed the . drawing the blank with fixed gap.73 R45 0.16 Fig. 1 ^ 0.44 0. Considering the three features of Bauschinger effects as described before. 25 integration points through thickness are used for a fournode shell element (S4R). Both Modified Chaboche and ANK models always produce a smooth transient stressstrain relation at the beginning of reverse loading. Along the length direction. These two lines are marked as points in Fig.6mm gap. 400 O 1 ! 1 . 3. The corresponding clamping force and drawing force are compared with measured ones by Jiang [14] in Table 2.6 mm fixed gap condition. ^ 2 S (D 200 2 1 ^ H i K \ 1 1 l 0 . and springback. Two material models. Isotropic hardening model requires higher forces both clamping and drawing with fixed 1.63 C^o (MPa) 171 171 175 175 E (GPa) 68 68 180 180 3500 3000 N/A 10600 8000 N/A 200 150 EGDQ reduced yield stress at reversal loading. The blank was drawn to a maximum of 165 mm in the rolling direction with 1.
Jiang for drawbead test results. SMIRT5. C l a m p i n g Force t A 99 D r a w i n g Force 1 ^^ Die T Gap 1 Jf4 1 R=65 \ 162 . Acknowledgements Isotropic hardening d Chaboche The authors would like to express sincere gratitude to the following: SPP committee for financial support. 4. Chun et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 2 Comparison of modified Chaboche model and ANK model for drawbead test: EGDQ Isotropic hardening Radius ^ (mm) Clamping force (kN) Drawing force (kN) 70 5. References Fig. From comparison. Bull Acad Polonaaise Sci Sevie Sc Techn 1977. 3. Division L. Wilson DV. Time independent constitutive theories for cycUc plasticity. Viscoplastic Constitutive Equations for the Description of Cyclic and Anisotropic Behavior of Metals. 4. Concluding remarks The effect of material models on springback prediction is discussed in this paper. Wagoner and Mr. Modified Chaboche model and ANK model. On the plastic and viscoplastic constitutive equations. Master thesis. 811. 1999. [4] Chaboche JL.1 ^R=6. the accurate considering of the Bauschinger effects through the material model is essential for better springback prediction in the sheet metal forming processes.736 Modified Chaboche model 150 3. 4.K. Ms. Assumptions for plane strain condition through width direction and normal anisotropic yield function may be possible sources of error. Comparison of deformed shapes after springback: EGDQ. J. The generated forces of these models can be overestimated due to no permanent softening during multiple bending actions. [6] Chaboche JL. RousseUer G. Paris. springback prediction of the proposed model is evaluated by using a drawbead test. Analysis of the Bauschinger effect. Cordier G. RousseUer G.114 2. Allen for providing tensile data and proofreading the manuscript. Mr. the ANK model is very effective in calculating cyclic bending behavior..34(6): 10971105. [2] Bate PS.604 123 Measured [14] 300 2. Modelization of the strain memory effect on the cyclic hardening of 316 stainless steel.B. Die shape and dimension for drawbead forming and springback.5 Specimen Unitimm Fig. Based on comparisons with tensioncompression tests. Finally. SMIRT6 Post Conf. On the Plastic and Viscoplastic Constitutive Equations Based on the internal variables concept. Int J Plast 1986.H.048 5. models.294 2.2(2):149. two material . the fundamental multiple bending behaviors are compared.105:153164. are proposed. Measurement of inplane Bauschinger Effect in metal sheets. [5] Chaboche JL. However. Balakrishnan for providing the experimental data of the tensioncompression test. Pressure Vessel Technol 1983.25(1):33. [3] Chaboche JL. Therefore. DangVan K. 1981. The Ohio State University. 1979.480 ^ Approximate radius between two reference points in Fig. [1] Balakrishnan V. Professor R.602 4. It is shown that the ANK model can present permanent softening correctly. error between ANK model predictions and measured ones still exist. the measured curvature properly. Ohio supercomputer Center for providing generous computing services. To incorporate the Bauschinger effects of metal sheet under multiple bending. [7] Chaboche JL. Berlin. ActaMetall 1986. TP ONERA no. Only the ANK model can give us closer values compared to measured values. while the Modified Chaboche model does not.256 ANK model 250 2.
Lee JK. Inverse estimation of material properties for sheet metals. [22] Zhao K. Lee JK. MEDVol. [17] Wagoner RH. to appear.34(6): 10971105. Mechanics of Solid Materials. to appear. 2000. Chaboche JL. Balakrishnan V. NonLinear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures. Backlash model for large deformation behavior of aluminum under torsional cyclic loading. Material properties for accurate simulation of springback. pp. Wagoner RH. Springback analysis with a modified nonlinear hardening model. Modeling the Bauschinger Effect for sheet metals. [19] Zhao K. [13] Geng L. 10. ASME Trans J Eng Mat Technol. 2000. [9] Chun BK. 2000. Springback of sheet metal subjected to multiple bendingunbending cycles. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [16] Takahashi H. [21] Zhao K. On simulation of bending/reverse bending of sheet metals. in press. 1999.2000. pp. [18] Wilson DV. Chun et al. Jinn JT.D dissertation. Proceedings of Plasticity. 1999. Int J Plast. The Ohio State University. Lee JK. Cyclic stressstrain curve and springback simulation. Ph. Lee JK.124 B. Int J Plast 1989. .K. [20] Zhao K. Commun Num Methods Eng. 161241. SAE2000010410. Role of hardening law in springback. [11] Crisfield MA.7:199217. Bate PS. Cambridge University Press. Manufacturing Science and Engineering. submitted. 1997. The Ohio State University. 2. Vol. Garnett M. Analysis of the Bauschinger effect.D dissertation. Constitutive equations for cyclic plasticty and cyclic viscoplasticity. Shiono I. Int J Plastic 1991. John Wiley and Sons. Liu SD. Lee JK. [10] Chun BK. [14] Jiang S. Kim HY. [15] Lemaitre J. 929933. Application of plastic anisotropy and nonisotropic hardening to springback prediction. SAE 2000011112. part H: Applications. part I: Theory. Modeling the Bauschinger Effect for sheet metals. Ph. [8] Chaboche JL.5:247302. [12] Geng L. Acta Metall 1983. Int J Plast. ASME. Geng L. 1990.
This paper briefly describes the method in Section 2. * Corresponding author. Email: r. After presenting these FE results. there is a strong need to undertake further analyses using more advanced constitutive models which are able to account for the brittleductile transition under increasing confinement. University of Sheffield. nonsymmetric. UK Abstract This paper reports on the use of a novel Finite Elementbased substructure method to model the dynamic farfield in Mode I localisation analyses.uk © 2001 PubHshed by Elsevier Science Ltd. Fax: ^44 (114) 2225700. One difficulty in modelling dynamic fracture propagation (for example.crouch@sheffield. All rights reserved. Sheffield SI 3JD. Generalised elastoplasticity model for concrete 1. 2. Section 3 identifies the form of the hardeningsoftening elastoplasticity model adopted and subsequently reports on a Mode I localisation study. Such a measure expresses the state of the material during softening and may be used to drive automatic remeshing strategies.J. Todate most localisation investigations (which are designed to explore the sensitivity of the solutions to the FE mesh density and mesh orientation) have been based on the use of simplified constitutive models. Wave propagation. Use of local transmitting boundary methods can introduce errors when the wave strikes the boundary nonorthogonally. presenting the FE dynamic equilibrium equation. The work presented here forms part of a larger study into ratedependent regularisation techniques which are designed to recover objectivity in fracture simulations using an equivalent continuum (smeared crack) approach. efficient equivalent continuum methods of simulating fracture in concrete structures. iterative solver is discussed and an example given of strain localisation using an advanced. Introduction Considerable interest currently exists in identifying robust. The use of an elementbyelement. Keywords: Strainsoftening. A scaling centre is identified and the unit response impulse matrices obtained by forming a relationship between two nested regions. The additional degrees of freedom lead to high CPUtimes. After briefly describing the Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. generalised elastoplasticity constitutive model for concrete. Elementbyelement iterative solver. some comments are given on the value of monitoring the evolution in the determinant of the acoustic tensor. The scaled boundary finite element method The Scaled Boundary Finite Element (SBFE) Method is constructed from an assumption of geometric similarity in the unbounded medium [2].125 Nonlinear wave propagation in softening media through use of the scaled boundary finite element method Roger S. the paper shows how this attractive scheme may be incorporated into a nonlinear implicit dynamic FE code. Dynamic farfield.ac. Crouch*.: F44 (114) 2225716. the need to cope with arbitrarily oriented stress waves arriving at an interaction horizon is recognised. In particular. spatially and temporally coupled) technique has emerged which mimics the response of unbounded domains in a rigorous manner. when simulating the splitHopkinson bar experiments) is that of extending the mesh sufficiently far away from the region of interest to prevent stress wave reflections corrupting the results. The method converges to the solution in the Finite Element sense in the . Tel. Jens FernandezVega Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. The requirement for accurate yet efficient representations of an elastic domain extending to infinity in wave propagation studies is discussed. Bathe (Editor) Recently. While findings from these preliminary studies are valuable. a highly innovative global (that is.
but errors would be introduced as the stress waves do not strike the interface normally. This solver routine can treat nonsymmetric systems (which arise through a lack of normality in the plastic flow rule). Extensions to include a form of DuvautLions viscosity are reported elsewhere [5]. This formulation includes nonlinear.S. 3. (b) Equivalent extended mesh.05 x 0.^ ) [ ^ M . ] ^Ar(y2^) 0 V'd] 2yS (3) '^11 convolution El ?+i. Incremental nonlinear equilibrium is expressed as [K*]l'+'''8d''^'} = {8f*] [K'] = ^K' (2) where the superscript k refers to the (NewtonRaphson) iteration number. Two scaling centres are used in this novel analysis (each placed 10^ m away from the SBFEFE interfaces. The second equation in (2) and equation (3) may be assembled in an elementbyelement approach allowing the first equation in (2) to be solved efficiently using an iterative scheme. diagonally preconditioned. biconjugate gradient algorithm is used [8]. The velocity and acceleration approximations are taken as identical to those used in the Newmark algorithm (for example. An advanced. [K] and [M] are the familiar system matrices [7] and {/im} and {/ext} are the internal and external forces. (a) 16element mesh with 8 SBFE interface elements.Moc]{!k. FernandezVega/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics tangential direction and is exact in the radial direction (satisfying the radiation condition at infinity). Crouch. A ramped tensile load (in the form of a uniformly distributed pressure) is applied at the upper SBFEFE interface (Fig. Considerable care has been taken to provide a robust. la).05 x 0.005 m concrete specimen under dynamic tensile loading. Fig. a GMRES stabilised.126 R. see [6]). In the work reported here. Dynamic localisation analysis A prism comprising sixteen 20noded isoparametric elements is used to represent a 0. Here an inviscid simulation is given.2p) [M] 2p Af ( l . J. one below and one above). pressuredependent hardening and fractureenergycontrolled softening [3]. Four SBFE elements are attached to the top face of the structure and four to the bottom.^} f tAt ^11 (1) where [M^] represents a piecewise constant acceleration unit impulse matrix with units the same as those of a damping matrix. respectively. The multiaxial hardening and softening surface is de s^' . Full details of how these are constructed is given by [2]. lb shows a portion of an equivalent extended mesh analysis. accurate stress return algorithm in this model [4]. P and y represent the Newmark parameters and [d] identifies the nodal displacements (overdots refer to time derivatives thereof). Note that the use of simple transmitting boundaries (local in space and time [1]) rather than the SBFE approach would have resulted in runtime savings.c^^^ (a) scaled boundary f i n i t e elements Fig. once localisation initiates.] + (1 . generalised elastoplasticity constitutive model is used to represent the concrete. . The technique (similar to the Boundary Integral Method) reduces the number of dimensions by one on the structureunbounded domain interface but operates with fullypopulated symmetric substructure matrices [ModThe dynamic forces at the structureunbounded medium interface (representing the presence of the farfield) are discretised as {V*} =  1 i^(AO :[M] PAt I'd) 'M^ 'Ad' + ^[M]+^[>M. 1.
[8] Smith IM. just postpeak. [6] Bathe KJ. Computational Plasticity in Concrete Failure Mechanics. A tensile strength of approximately 3. Dark red regions indicate that the nonlinear acoustic tensor has changed little from the corresponding elastic tensor. Fig. creating inobjective results as mesh densities change (not shown here). Taylor RL. UK. 1996. 5th Edn. 2. The plot References [1] Lysmer J. identified by the white circle) is given in Fig. prepeak. 2 gives the corresponding strain profile at the end of the run. FiniteElement Modelling of Unbounded Media. New York: McGrawHill. Acoustic tensor determinant maps (top). thereby creating nonnormal stress waves striking the SBFE interfaces. A representative axial stressstrain plot from the analysis (at the point A. whereas the red region at the base suggests almost no degradation). In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics. 2001. UK. The introduction of an effective material length into the constitutive formulation can recover objectivity. University of Sheffield. UK. scribed by i" + + ——^cky mky  2 V3 =0 (4) where n is the search direction. Durham. Note that the spheres have been plotted in a skewed orientation. J. [7] Zienkiewicz OC. PhD Thesis. 1996. respectively. 2. Note that the onset of localisation has been used by Pearce [9] as a monitoring device to trigger realignment of the element boundaries and refinement of the local mesh density. using Qjk=niD\. at the end of the run). The latter leads to a loss of wellpossedness in the problem. [3] Tahar B. Finite Element Procedures. Englewood Cliffs. at the end of each timestep. rear) strain profile (left.95:859877. whereafter softening occurs. pp. MA. New York: John Wiley and Sons. University of Wales. Cambridge. The acoustic tensor is calculated (using a hierarchical search algorithm) at each sampling point. PhD Thesis. General Purpose Parallel Finite Element Programming. PhD Thesis. FernandezVega /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics stagel stagell stagelll 4'" determinantof acoustictensor 111 H>j of the minimum determinant of the acoustic tensor versus the timestep number (for point A) shows a steady drop followed by a slight recovery in the final stages of the analysis despite continued softening. Note that a softer element at the lower lefthand comer of the specimen was introduced to provide nonsymmetry in the problem. June 1215. Department of Civil Engineering. 2000. The rear mesh illustrates the degree of softening achieved at the end of the analysis (the blue zone at the top indicates almost a complete loss of cohesion. NJ: Prentice Hall. avoiding spurious wave reflections. 2000. Swansea. front). UK.S. The mesh to the front of Fig. The determinants resulting from the nonlinear constitutive tangent tensors (Z)y^/) have been normalised with respect to the linear elastic constitutive tensor (£>fy^/). front) minimum determinant of acoustic tensor at point A (right. On the Use of DuvautLions Viscosity as a Regularisation Technique in Softening Media. Preliminary use of the SBFE has illustrated its potential to produce useful dynamic strain softening simulations. and III. and r provides a Lode angle dependent function. Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. 7th Annual Conference of the Association for Computational Mechanics in Engineering. 2000. . 1996. stressstrain response at point A (right. Kuhlemeyer RL.j^ini (5) 0 50 100 150 200 2S0 300 axialstress(MPa)strain Fig. Finite dynamic model for infinite media. The black lines show the true axial directions. Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. rear) cohesion contour (left. p and ^ are the HaigWestergaard deviatoric and hydrostatic stress invariants. where c represents a measure of cohesion (which degrades under increasing fracture strain) and k represents a measure of material hardening. the lower portion unloads elastically. Crouch RS. Once localisation occurs (in a single row of Gauss points at the top of the structure) and axial stretching continues. Crouch. whereas blue zones show where the determinant has become negative. The Finite Element Method.R. J Eng Mech ASCE 1969. The contoured spheres at the top of Fig. II. Song C.5 MPa is realised. 2124. [9] Pearce CJ. 2 shows two contour plots of the structure. as indicated by the blue zone. Techniques to ensure convergence of the closest point projection method in pressure dependent elastoplasticity models. The three circles on this stressstrain diagram refer to three stages in the analysis. University of Sheffield. [5] Mesmar S. 1999. 2 illustrate the directional variation of the determinant of the acoustic tensor at the three different stages in the analysis (I. C2 Continuous Hardening/Softening ElastoPlasticity Model for Concrete. [2] Wolf JP. [4] Tahar B.
which are present in the traditional Newmark method. the . University of Toronto. Toronto. Introduction Dynamic finite element analyses usually employ time integration methods. second order accurate.Ar as follows: '+^'U = 'U + [(1 .utoronto.J. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. Canada Abstract In this paper. Czekanski. The implicit schemes are unconditionally stable and involve larger time steps. The resulting values avoid numerical oscillations often present in impact and dynamic frictional problems. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. New closedform expressions for the time integration parameters are determined in terms of a userspecified high frequency spectral radius. two numerical examples are examined. Meguid* Engineering Mechanics and Design Laboratory. All rights reserved. the variational inequalities expressions representing the contact problems are solved through a sequence of mathematical programming problems. However. they also result in spurious high frequency modes for small time steps. These parameters result in second order accuracy and satisfy energy and momentum conservation during rigid impact.128 Time integration for dynamic contact problems: generalizedof scheme A. the use of }/ = ^ = 0. we employ the generalizeda time integration scheme for treating elastodynamic contact problems. Tel. For such problems.ca © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.: hi (416) 9785741. but leads to a loss of second order accuracy. In order to demonstrate the versatility and accuracy of the proposed time integration scheme. second order accuracy. Although the Newmark method is the most popular implicit scheme. The selected parameters help in avoiding the spurious high frequency modes. In this paper. Time integration. Bathe (Editor) time integration parameters are selected to satisfy unconditional stability. The results show a significant improvement compared to existing solution techniques.A. Email: meguid@mie.yyt f y^+^^tJ]A^ ^+^^U] (la) (lb) '+^'U = ^U + ^UAr + [(0. The criteria invoked for the selection of the time integration parameters are motivated by our desire to ensure that the solution is unconditionally stable. S. Keywords: Contact. its commonly used values {y = ip = 0.5 P)'t^p The use of the trapezoidal rule (y = ip = 0. Fax: Hi (416) 9787753. provide optimal high frequency dissipation and preserve energy and momentum transfer in dynamic rigid impact problems. Modified Newmark 1. Generalizeda scheme. Time integration scheme 2. Recently. which can be significant as the time steps and spatial discretizations are refined. velocity and displacement fields at time t and r 4. Impact. ON.5) result in excessive numerical oscillations and is therefore unsuitable for contact problems.25) with a fully implicit treatment of the contact constraints produces oscillations. The generalizedQf scheme is used for time marching. Introduction of numerical dissipation in the Newmark scheme reduces these oscillations. provides optimal high frequency dissipation and preserves energy and momentum transfer in dynamic rigid impact problems. 2.5 is recommended [1]. Introduction The time integration scheme establishes a relationship between the acceleration.7. The four * Corresponding author. M5S 3G8. The dynamic contact problem is formulated in terms of the variational inequalities approach and solved using quadratic programming. 5 King's College Road.
the reduced variational inequalities formulation is equivalent to solving the following minimization problem [4]: minfi^+^^AU^'+^'^K^+^^AU'+i .1) K = 0. This condition is satisfied when [2]: y = 0.^P+I ?+ A?ATT + ^+^^AU''+^ TS'+^'Fy.25 {2al f 0^5(3 + 2aH) . and (ii) solve the current timeinstant iteratively to obtain the displacement.+A. the solution algorithm can be summarized as follows: (i) evaluate the equivalent stiffness matrix and load vector using the generalizedof time integration scheme.5 + Of// . In this expression.Eq. the equation of motion is modified by introducing two new parameters ag and an'.1) subject to: P<0. the following inequalities must be satisfied: . a small amount of energy is lost during impact. Note that Eq. optimal high frequency damping (Eq. Optimal time integration parameters for contact problems The values of the time integration parameters can now be selected based on the following criteria: second order accuracy (Eq. The time integration scheme should ensure that the rebound velocities of the two point masses satisfy energy and momentum conservation. The .^U) where K = {\ ' aH)K + {\ . Criteria for selecting time integration parameters A second order accurate solution is obtained for the generalizeda method when [2]: / = 0 .0.25(1^5+Of/. 2. (5b) is not used.} V'+^^AUi + l (4) In order to maintain unconditional stability. the contact should last for only one time step. (10b) represents the assembly of the nondifferentiable frictional constraint for the nodes on the candidate contact surface.3 ^ 5 + 2^ / ( I . This criterion is formulated based on the generic problem of two dissimilar stiffnessfree masses in contact.aB) —^M (11a) (10b) ^'Ar+^ = (1 . the matrix T extracts the discretized tangential displacement components from the global displacement vector. The analytical solution is satisfied when ^ is given by [3]: P = 0.1 < c^5 < «// < 0. (10a)) represents the assembly of the kinematic contact conditions of the nodes on the candidate contact surface Fc. Finite element implementation For each time increment.ae) '+^'U + aB 'U (r+AO«//p ^ (1 _ ^ ^ ) . 2. Meguid/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics generalizedQf method was developed for solving structural dynamics problems with second order accuracy even if numerical dissipation is presented [2].1 + ^ 2 ^ 1 .6Af2 fiM \2fi )i (lib) The first constraint (Eq.2)/{aB .25 + 0.i n t For elastic problems.5 <aB< 0.2.a„) '+""¥ +ttH' F . SA. and energymomentum conservation criterion (Eq.A.5 (8b) (8c) (8d) a+Aoa^U = (1 . (7)): otH = Poo/(poo . jYI (f+Aoas^ + C (^+^^)«wu + K (^+^oa//u _ a+Aoan jr (2) where (r+AOa//u = (1 _ an) '+^'U + au 'U a+AOanu ={\an) ^+^'U + an 't (3) P = 0.3.p ^ ^ ^ fp where poo is a userspecified high frequency spectral radius. Czekanski. (4)). 5 +Of// as 3. . Furthermore. velocity and acceleration fields as well as the current contact surface and contact forces.^+A^AU''+IT^+A.5 and ^ > 0. In conjunction with the generaUzedof method. This amount depends on the selected time integration parameters as well as the mesh size.asM'U .aB 129 (6)).auK'U + (lQf5)M *.5(aB\)(l + 2y)/{aB2) (7) (9) subject to: (10a) and §jr+Ar^U/+i < ST('+^'U^' .2) /{aB .a^) for .5(0?^ .25 {2al + a^O + 2^^) .)' S (6) For frictionless contact problems another criterion can be derived based on conservation of momentum and energy during rigid impact. In this method.1) (8a) an = (2al + of^ .as) (5) It is also desirable to filter the high frequency components of the response.
p =0.= 0.1. = 0. Springmass system 'Y Y 77TTyT?!T7T7TT77T!? Y ^IB^IIIII 1^. = 2. FE model of springmass system investigated. Total contact force for colliding bars for two selected time increments using: (a) Newmark scheme {y = ^ = 0.5). 'rMiiiiiiiiiiiiinnii I h 1 1 10 10.i: H^O. 0.130 A. we consider the impact of two identical These bars were modeled using fournoded elements 1).04 ^ 0.s 2 ^ Fig. and (b) generalizedo? (y = 2^ = an = as = 0. 3. = 0. SA.02 4< • [nn 10 E=1000. velocity. The results show that the time increment strongly affects the contact force when using the classical Newmark approach. 2. ities.04 0.5). p.01 Fig.0o. Impact of two identical bars.4* t sign matrix S.5 2.5 (a) (b) E2 0. In order to model a nearly rigid mass and a flexible weightless spring.5). acceleration and contact forces) are obtained using the generalizeda scheme with the newly selected parameters. The spring and mass are modeled using 4noded elements (Fig.01 Rigid block: E. Both bars were given initial opposing unit velocFig. A E2 ^ 0. This scheme also fails to represent contact for the smaller time step. the material properties satisfied the 10 — 1 At=5xlO' At=8xlO' (b) c o o o 4 V 2 . 3). v = 0 .03 0. 2 shows the time history of the contact force Beam:E.5 1 Time. for two time integration schemes and two time increments. Czekanski. this example. Impact of two identical bars In bars. 3. which allows to switch between two complementary frictional subproblems. Total friction force for springmass system using: (a) Newmark scheme (y = ^ = 0.001 Fig.= 10\ v. . Numerical examples 4.02 Time ^ 0.5 Fig.s 2 llllli imiiyii E2 0. p.5 'J 1 Time. and is part of solution.. (Fig. In this example. we examine the springmass system.5).5x10' 4. 4. v. Superior results (displacement. and (b) generalizeda {y =2^ = an = OCB = 0.1.5 0. Meguid/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2. 0. is unknown a priori.= 10'. 1.
Hulbert GM. Bathe KJ. Solution of dynamic frictional contact problems using nondifferentiable optimization. Meguid SA. Optimal time integration parameters for elastodynamic contact problems. Comput Struct 1986. Czekanski. Commun Numer Methods Eng 2000. J Appl Mech 1993. was employed for the time integration of the dynamic frictional contact problem. Int J Mech Sci 2000. SA. The mass was subjected to a constant prescribed vertical displacement 8. Meguid SA. Conclusions In this work. A solution method for static and dynamic analysis of threedimensional contact problems with friction. 131 lations in impact and dynamic frictional contact problems and is less sensitive to variations in the time increment. [2] Chung J. The proposed technique leads to a significant reduction in numerical oscil .60:371375. [4] Czekanski A. The newly proposed method experienced smaller numerical oscillations in contact forces compared to the classical Newmark scheme. a generalized^ scheme. 5. when the system experiences transition from slip to stick. A horizontal step load F was then applied. 4(b) were obtained using Newmark and generalizedQf schemes.24:855873. 4(a) and Fig. A time integration algorithm for structural dynamics with improved numerical dissipation: the generalizeda method. submitted. with optimal contact parameters. submitted.A. References [1] Chaudhary AB. [3] Czekanski A. Meguid/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics following conditions: pi < p2 and Ei ^ E2. ElAbbasi N. The time histories of the total friction force shown in Fig.
[Nz]/N < r < ([A^r] ± 1)/A^. — yxjr' cos xjr (2) The corresponding motion is governed by the following equation if ^ < 0.(1 . Fax: +1 (306) 5854855.J. x//" f IQ^xJ/' + ^ V = ^ [ ( K + M) sin lA ." cos^\xjr' sinxjr — yxl/" sin xjr — yx//' sini/r (4) + Q^xl. A semianalytical solution of a nonlinear system is produced by a piecewiseconstant technique reported by Dai and Singh [1. A piecewiseconstant procedure is employed in developing the solutions which are continuous everywhere in terms of displacement and velocity. By the piecewiseconstant technique.132 Semianalytical solution to a mechanical system with friction L. Keywords: Friction interaction. Nonlinear dynamics. The friction and nonlinear damping forces produce nonlinearity in mechanical systems. S4S 0A2. The solution developed is in a closed form and continuous everywhere. In this paper. expressible in the following form.dai@uregina.\xjf''cos xfr — xl^' sini//yxlf" sin xj. and the interactions of friction and the overall system lead to the possibility of unstable and complex dynamic behavior. For positive x//.y cos x// —l^x//' cos xj/ — It.2] can be employed. the motion of a highly nonlinear dynamical system with frictional interactions is investigated. ^. IJL and ^ are parameters related to physical and geometrical measurements of the system.fiy) cos xj/] (3) 2. Regina.ca © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Oscillation. ^IQ^xj/' where F = F — sinxlf — y \. F. Canada Abstract This investigation is devoted to the development of a novel semianalytical solution for a nonlinear dynamical system involving frictional interaction. The oscillatory motion of the brush of the system is governed by the following equations of motion for the two conditions of positive and negative values of the angular displacement of the brush x//. The numerical results based on the semianalytical solution provide convergence with sufficient accuracy.fjiy) cos ir] (1) where F = F\sin xj/ — y\y cos x// \2^xl/' cos x// — 2^ yxj/'sin xl. Approximate analysis. the piecewiseconstant technique presented by Dai and Singh [1. to obtain a continuous . yxjf'sin xj/— xf. Bathe (Editor) In the above equations. the governing equation is *Tel. Sask. Brushspring system 1. a nonlinear dynamical system is converted into a linear oscillatory system on an arbitrary time interval. Dai * Industrial Systems Engineering. Introduction Friction is the primary source of oscillations in many mechanical systems. A steady friction force excites the system. University of Regina. Piecewiseconstant argument. Uncertainties are always presented in modeling the motions involving contacts and interfaces. the prime ( )' represents the derivative with respect to a nondimensional time r./i) sin x// + (I \. Governing equation and the corresponding semianalytical solution Swayze and Akay recently investigated the behavior of a brushspring system from a window lift electric motor [3]. All rights reserved. y.2].: +1 (306) 5854498. To approximately or numerically solve the governing equations (1) and (3). = F[{y \. xj. Email: liming. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.
sin ? ^i Q^(r[Nr]/N) C S ( §r — ^O NT]\ (9) cos — A ^ ^ N Eq. J Sound Vibrat 1994.173:599609. Akay A. The matrix G in equation (7) is expressible as [Nr] Q ^ ^^^([Nr]/N)^Nr] 7=1 [1] Dai L. Singh MC. [2] Dai L. (7) is an approximate solution to Eq. the terms on the righthandside of the equal sign in equations (1) and (3) are considered as constants in a tiny time interval. As can be seen from the discussion above.sm — ? A^ cos \^x — i References N (7) where ^ = y/Q^ . N J . A is a parameter controlling accuracy of the ^ solution. With the help of the piecewiseconstant technique. / [iVr]\ s m ( ^ ? r . At in Eq. such that the nonlinear differential equations are converted to linear ordinary differential equations in the following form.173(2):217232. and a numerical simulation for the motion of the system can be conveniently carried out on the basis of the solutions. On oscillatory motion of springmass systems subjected to piecewise constant forces. The recurrence relations can be directly derived from Eq. A^ Kf)' 1 'OK" cos A^ • + ^ sm — A^ 1 . for r > 0. [A^r]/A^ < T < ([A^r] ± \)/N. the corresponding solution can be sufficiently accurate. the solutions developed through the recurrence relations provide results with sufficient accuracy in comparing with the fourthorder RangeKutta method. Singh MC. An analytical and numerical method for solving linear and nonlinear vibration problems. the motions of the nonlinear dynamical system involving frictional interaction are complex. When N is large enough. (7). It can be seen from Eq. (1) in a closed form.L. J Sound Vibrat 1994. general solution of the problem can thus be obtained in the following form on the entire time range considered. For solving the nonlinear differential equations (1) and (3) by the piecewiseconstant technique. [3] Swayze JL. Int J Solids Struct 1997. (6) is considered as a constant Ai = Fi[(y + /x) sindi — (1 — /xy) cos J/] (6) and the iih interval is random. Dai/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics solution.? — j . f'. In numerically calculating for the motion governed by equations (1) and (3). As A approaches infinity. continuous closedform approximate solution for the nonlinear dynamical system is derived allowing further theoretical analysis.( ^ O ^ and ^ < 1. (7) for numerically solving for governing equation (1). the approximate solution produced by piecewiseconstant technique becomes the accurate solution. the approximate solution is continuous everywhere in the time range r > 0. M/N cos sm — ^2 (8) . ^ theoretically. Effects of system dynamics on frictioninduced oscillations.34:27092713.? — j J s m(^^r r . except that the solution produced by RangeKutta method is discrete. + 2Qi^lf[ + Q^^lft=Ai (5) 133 and the square matrix R = For the case xjr > 0. ? . A JA^r]\ 1 .
ii is the acceleration. the conventional BEM destroys the continuum properties. play a crucial role from both theoretical and numerical point of view. Milazzo Department of Mechanics and Aeronautics. u and t are assumed as independent variables. Italy Abstract This paper deals with a novel displacement variational formulation for elasticity. Additionally. Keywords: Variational approaches. as the symmetry and definiteness of discrete operators. other than those introduced by the boundary discretization [5]. The FEM possesses the abovementioned requisites of the energy based domain discretization methods. A. f are the domain forces and t are the prescribed tractions on the free boundary r2.f {uuYidr. Assuming that the compatibility and constitutive equations and the kinematical boundary conditions are satisfied. u and t which make U stationary [35]. Quadrature methods. All rights reserved. whereas the boundary variables are expressed by using their nodal values. Email: davi@unipa. On the other hand. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. The mathematical model is obtained from the stationarity condition of a modified hybrid functional expressed in terms of displacements and tractions. The domain displacement field is approximated by suitable trial functions.J. Introduction Fundamental properties of selfadjoint problems. Moreover. a novel displacement variational formulation is derived basing on a hybrid variational formulation of BEM [14]. Viale delle Scienze. 3.fu^lc r r2 (1) where e is the strain vector. Numerical methods. Fax: +39 (91) 485439. 90128 Palermo. According to references [46].it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Davi*. In this paper. let us introduce the following modified functional d^ . The functions u. but leads to accurate results with some computational advantages compared to field methods. With such a formulation. University of Palermo. The final system is expressed in terms of nodal displacements only and it is symmetric and positive definite.134 A novel displacement variational boundary formulation G. Bathe (Editor) Let us consider the boundary of the body F discretized by boundary elements and some additional nodes within the domain Q.: +39 (91) 6657110. Modified variational principle The formulation proposed in this paper is based on a modified variational principle previously presented by the authors [25]. the solution of the elasticity problem is given in terms of the functions u. Let u be the vector of displacements in the domain Q and let again u and t be the boundary displace* Corresponding author. Discrete model 2. Tel. ment and traction vectors. the domain integrals can be directly transformed into boundary ones to recover the boundary nature of the method. these operators are computed running boundary integrations of regular kernels only with the consequent computational advantages. The domain displacement field is approximated by means of a superposition of trial functions u* u = J2^*s :U*S (2) . the mathematical model involves nodal displacements only and its matrix operators preserve the symmetry and definiteness properties of the continuum. p is the mass density. Boundary methods 1.
(2) and (9). Therefore. and t in Eq. in the proposed approach. which satisfy the following equation (5) / ^ N j ^ d r p .Po) (13) where c*(5 (P — PQ) denote the Dirac function of amplitude c*. If the number of trial functions is equal to the number of nodal displacements and these functions are regular and linearly independent. i. (5) by ^ 2 ' t>y using Eqs. by virtue of the properties of the shape functions.. are well suited for computer implementation. yield j j V^^VnWdT + j W^VV"" d^ j s + p /" U*TU*d ^ s Notice that the model involves nodal displacements only and the matrices K and M are frequency independent.e./ N ^ t d r [N. u.2. The stationarity conditions of n with regard to s. (2) at the internal nodes. so that it results V (Pu*) = c*5 (P . as required by the formulation. For this .f ^^^Ndr^ = 0 (7) (14) where WQ — U*. Davi. Numerical application To check the soundness of the proposed method the membrane vibration problem [7] has been solved. after some manipulations. subjected to given body forces./ N ^t d r = : 0 (6) r>w* = w* f ^ ^ u M r s . ^2 and p. Eq. Additionally.w f p„/:u*] dr (©W*+i) P£U*dn (15) The relations between the unknown parameters s and the nodal displacements 8 can be established according to [5]. By so doing. because at least we obtain a domain integral involving the Dirac function. the trial functions are regular. the domain integrals of the stiffness and mass matrices are transformed into boundary integrals. symmetry and definiteness of the structural operators. applied at PQ. Milazzo /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics The trial functions are elasticity solutions in an infinite domain. (1). By substituting the expressions of u. Now. Premultiplying Eq. The reciprocity theorem for the auxiliary functions and the trial functions provides CV*dQ where V is the static equilibrium differential operator and Vn is the boundary tractions operator. respectively. the discretized form of the functional n is obtained. the class of trial functions presented. let us consider a set of auxiliary functions W* (/ = 1. Further relationships between s and the domain nodal displacements can be established collocating Eq.. In conclusion. one obtains the dynamic model which can be written as M8' + K 5 2 . and they enable us to transform the domain integrals that appear in the definition of the stiffness and mass matrix into boundary integrals. The boundary displacement and traction variables are expressed as u = m = [Ni N2] (3) M = p^l f u*Tu^ d ^ ^ 2 (4) 135 where the stiffness matrix K and the mass matrix M are given by K D„U*dr + // « U*^2^U*d^ ^2 (11) (12) t = ^p where 5 and p are the nodal displacements and tractions. Evaluating Eq. (15).l^dQ (10) 4. N and ^ are matrices of shape functions and the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to constrained and free nodal displacements. we directly obtain some relationships between s and the boundary nodal displacements. the idea is to associate the trial functions with the point load solutions.G. these two fundamental properties of the continuum. since they can be generated using the same nodes as those defined for the model. which are associated with particular points. the computation of the stiffness and mass matrix requires only boundary integrations of regular kernels and the pure boundary nature of the formulation is recovered.). symmetric and positive definite [25]. one obtains s = U* ^8 = ^8 = [^1 ^2] (9) / where C is any operator. where ^ is the inverse of the collocation matrix U*. Applying recursively Eq. (8) at the boundary nodal points. Indeed. A. (7) is satisfied for every choice of ^ if it results U*s = N8 on r (8) = f Upnyv*Y cv* . are preserved.
A symmetric and positive definite BEM for 2D forced vibrations.0443 0. A new symmetric and positive definite boundary element formulation for lateral vibration of plates. A hybrid displacement variational formulation of BEM for elastostatics. Brebbia CA.0040 8.2993 3. J Sound Vibr 1997. Milazzo A.136 G.8661 0.0083 0.1547 0.0284 0. [6] Washizu K.0056 0. <^iA where w^.206(4):611617.6006 4.1260 0.0335 13. A symmetric and positive definite variational BEM for 2D free vibration analysis. PQ) is the distance between the generic point and the /th source point. Eng Anal Bound Elem 1992. the present method has significant computational advantages due to the reduction in dimensionality typical of boundary element formulation. Milazzo A.14(4):343348. By virtue of the operator properties.0072 0. J Sound Vibr 1997.9346 11. Advances in Boundary Elements. (16) Inn .7734 0. Davi. Eng Anal Bound Elem 1994.7489 0.4429 7.206(4):507521. the static equilibrium operator T> coincides with the Laplacian operator and one has the following trial and auxiliary functions ' In r.0067 6.0168 0.8248 1. The results obtained show that the method is efficient and accurate. New York: Dover PubHcations. [4] Davi G. 4758. Results are presented for a simply supported square membrane in terms of the dimensionless frequency parameter Xi = cOiy/p/Ta^ wA'D (18) (19) where coi is the /th mode angular frequency.7752 4.3272 12.0023 0.3398 0. Moreover.1691 5. Exact A/ 4. A new hybrid displacement variational formulafion of BEM for elastostatics. [2] Davi G. Theory of Sound. (P. Milazzo /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics show the accuracy and the good convergence properties of the method. [7] Rayleigh JSW. [3] Davi G. The results obtained . pp. 10(3): 219224. the resolving model becomes a linear algebraic eigenvalue problem.0042 5. 1968.0025 0.2249 0.1729 0. Table 1 Errors of the dimensionless frequency parameter for a simply supported square membrane Nodes 21 32 45 60 77 96 Error (%) Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4 Mode 5 Mode 6 0. A. Table 1 lists the error of the dimensionless frequency parameter with respect to the exact value [7]. = r. The model obtained involves nodal displacements only and it preserves the fundamental properties of symmetry and definiteness of the continuum.0378 1.0247 0. T is the surface tension and a is the membrane dimension. In: Brebbia CA (Ed).(17) References [1] De Figueiredo TGB. Oxford: Pergamon Press. The model exhibits the same nature of the more popular finite element models and the standard numerical procedures available for FEM resolving systems can be used in the present approach. 1989.2684 0.4393 0.0022 1. Conclusion A novel variational formulation for elasticity problems has been presented.is the kih column of W^ and r.8858 9.1651 0.0677 1. Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity. Milazzo A.0953 0. Berlin: Springer. [5] Davi G.0248 8.0112 0.3160 0. which can be solved by standard routines.9531 problem.1949 0. 1976.
show less power consumption. 1.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. are lighter. the degree of freedom related to the movement of the base of the robot can be treated as rigid. . the usage of manipulators with flexible links is directly related to the optimization of the elements that comprise a robotics system. The main goal of this work is to model the dynamic behavior of flexible manipulators. When flexible link manipulators are compared to rigid link ones. Campinas. It is normally constituted of three rotational degrees of freedom and has the function of orienting the terminal referential. they need less material for their fabrication. This terminal element has the function of handling tools suitable to the work to be performed. Because of those reasons. Rosario Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Fig. Keywords: Robotics. Introduction Most of the industrial applications that involve a manipulator robot use rigid links. can handle larger loads. Joao M. as shown in Fig. which leads to remarkable structural changes. The increase in the rigidity of the links has the main objective of avoiding structural vibration. Thus. faster.J. Cidade Universitdria Zeferino Vaz.1. aeronautic applications demand the usage of long and thin arms. capable of attending the productivity and quality demands and that allow a high volume of work.4. Brazil Abstract The need for fast and precise robots in the industrial environment. Industrial robots 1. 1.137 Investigation about nonlinearities in a robot with elastic members Sergio A. Dynamic modeUng. It is also presented a comparative study with rigid robots. The second part is the wrist. needs the usage of manipulators with flexible links. David *. Besides this. the development of manipulators with structural flexibility and its automatic control has become an important research area [1. Links 2 and 3 (possible flexibility).: M9 4661172. Not considering the deformation of the joints. Email: sergiodavid@scientist. State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Therefore. as well as the three degrees of freedom related to the orientation. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Bathe (Editor) of the concentration point and also for the orientation of the referential. All rights reserved. For this reason the manipulators are designed with overdimensioned crosssections in order not to degrade the control accuracy. 1. It is possible to use the model for computer simulations to aid the development of efficient control. Problem description A robotics manipulator is a mechanical device that has the function of positioning and orienting its terminal element. The first part is the arm that comprises at least three degrees of freedom and is used for the positioning *Tel. Nonlinear dynamics.6. one notes that the flexibility of the system is related to the two degrees of freedom related to the movement of the two links of the manipulator. need smaller drivers and usually are easier to be transported. Two main parts are to be considered in the design of a manipulator structure.9].
which characterizes the possibility of finding a frontier between both systems. as found in most of the works present in the literature. and to assess the system behavior through controlled simulations. For a flexible manipulator the structure presents a considerable flexibility and therefore an efficient control system must be developed.O Q •OBI 02 04 Tfme(s) 06 08 to 00 02 04 06 Fig. J. With this fact in mind. . which makes it easier to compare the simulation results for the rigid and for the flexible system is also developed. David. For this reason. This linearization procedure may not to consider small contributions of physical effects that are sunmied or superimposed and that may significandy influence the system behavior.R i g d System ReMble System reduced lo a rigid one 1j6 SIstemaR^pdo SstemaRBduzidoaoR^do^F^rdoReBJvel V t8 ^ ^1 1 CM 06 I 04 h «^ 001 02 041 t9 ^. without the usage of any simplifying linearization procedure. without simplifying linearizations. A convenient parameterization of the terms of the motion equations. We outline the fact that the motion equations are treated with all nonlinearities taken into account. one of the tasks of this work is to treat the motion equations according to a general approach. 2. Simulation and results This flexible system may be mathematically reduced to the rigid one by vanishing the terms related to system flexibility.138 SA. 2.Rigid S ^ t e m Re^ibie System (subtractedfleMbilltyIn t B term J^ t6 ^ 47 s 13 t9i %O Q 02 04 T!me(s) 06 O B to . a rigid structure with two links and two rotational joints is also analyzed.M. mathematical simulations are performed according to the following methodology: (1) initially the rigid system is simulated in a separate manner. In this case two degrees of freedom are defined. Rosdrio /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics . This model is further used to establish the control laws that provide the desired performance. the flexible system is simulated with all its contributions taken into account. Simulations. (2) following. It is well known that in general a control problem consists of the manipulator dynamic model formulation [1]. For the sake of comparison. In this work the dynamic modeling is performed for a system that contains two flexible links and two rotational joints.
[4] David SA. Institut Superieur des Materiaux et de la Constmction Mecanique.p. Modelagem.l. MSc Thesis.9(7):861891. [7] Nathan PJ. Simula9ao e Controle de Robos Flexiveis. s. the effects are individually and cumulatively subtracted and the system behavior is analyzed. Rosdrio /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (3) after that. References 139 [1] Book WJ.3(3):87101. State University of Campinas (in Portuguese).p.. Proceedings of Sixth Pan American Congress of Applied Mechanics. Technische Dynamik. 106 pp. 1999. which makes it possible to find a frontier between both systems.3:255264. Some results are presented in this article correspond to simulations realized for the angular position Oi and 02 (Fig. Comput Methods Exp Meas 1997. [9] Rosario JM. David. Dynamic modeling and simulation of robot manipulator with twoflexiblelinks. Nonlinear ultimate boundedness control and stabilization of aflexiblerobotic arm. [8] Nayfeh AH. J Robot Syst 1992.c. . 1996. Sankar TS. 2). The other simulations may be found in [4]. J. France.9(3):301326. 1986. s. [6] Li CJ. It is also possible to consider the development of controllers that compensate the physical effects — which in accordance to dynamic simulations results is relevant for the system flexibility — in order to correct the response of the terminal element of the manipulator with respect to the signals from the control system. [2] Craig JJ.. Lukasiewicz SA. Dynamic modeling of spatial flexible manipulators. Ministere de I'Education Nationale. [10] Schielen IW.A. The same procedure may be extended to the simulations. [3] David SA. 1987. Conclusion The way in which the motion equations are treated in this paper may allow the monitoring of each contributing factor for the system flexibility. Modelisation Dynamique Dun Robot Industriel. New York: John Wiley.p.M. J Robot Syst 1992. Int J Robot Res 1984. A systematic method of dynamics for flexible robot manipulators. Nonlinear Oscillations. Mook DJ. [5] Farid M. Rosario JM. The flexible manipulator may be mathematically reduced to a rigid one by means of vanishing the flexibility related terms. Singh SN. (4) the effects are subtracted until the limit condition in which the flexible system is reduced to a rigid one and the system response converges — as expected — for the case of the rigid system modeled separately. Addison Wesley. 3. 1979. Recursive Lagrangian dynamics of flexible manipulator arms.S. s. Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control.d.
140 Virtual surgery simulation using a collocationbased method of finite spheres S. (1) A(x) = J]f=i W/(X)P(X/)P(X/)T. J. Meshless technique. A point collocation technique is used to generate the discrete equations KU (2) where K is the stiffness matrix and f is the vector con . © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. In this paper we develop a specialized version of the method of finite spheres based on moving least squares interpolants and point collocation for the purpose of real time surgical simulations. MA 02139. Introduction The objective of this paper is to illustrate how the method of finite spheres [1] may be applied to develop a laparoscopic surgical simulator which will enable the user to interact with threedimensional computer models of biological tissues and organs in real time. For stable real time simulation. For real time visual display an update rate of about 30 Hz is sufficient. Inc. USA Abstract The method of finite spheres using moving least squares interpolants and point collocation as the weighted residual scheme is applied to the development of a virtual reality based training system for laparoscopic surgical procedures. it is computationally very slow since the entire domain needs to be meshed and numerical integration has to be performed.. ^he vector P(x) contains polynomials ensuring consistency up to a desired order (in our implementation we have ensured consistency up to degree one). To enable the user to interact with the computer models using the sense of touch we use a three degreeoffreedom haptic interface device called Phantom ^. Although the finite element technique [3] is a * Corresponding author. Wj is a compactly supported radial weighting function at node J (which we have chosen as a quartic spline function).. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.. is becoming increasingly important. A variety of simulation techniques. We assume linear elastic tissue behavior. using both visual and haptic sensory modalities. are found in the literature (see reference [2] for a summary of the existing techniques). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. the haptic loop requires to be updated at a rate of about 1 kHz. 2. ranging from purely geometrical procedures without any physical basis to springmassdashpotbased models. De*. The localization of approximation and the lack of numerical integration results in very high computational speeds required for real time simulation with graphical and haptic feedback.N (1) are used to generate the local finite dimensional approximation spaces.J. All rights reserved. As minimally invasive surgery is gaining popularity. Kim. without having to use cadavers or animals. Srinivasan Laboratory for Human and Machine Haptics. the need to train medical students and also to provide surgeons with appropriate computer tools to experiment with new surgical techniques. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Haptics. M. A nodal points are sprinkled around ^ the surgical tool tip (see Fig. Moving least squares interpolants hj(x) = Wj{x)F(xfA\x)F(xj) J = l. Medical simulation 1.. Tel. In Eq. The numerical scheme In our technique.: +1 (617) 2538503.edu ^ Developed by SensAble Technologies. Bathe (Editor) physically based procedure. Email: suvranu@mit. Keywords: Method of finite spheres.A. The main challenge in real time virtual surgery is computational speed. 1). Cambridge.
The method of finite spheres in real time multimodal medical simulations. Simulation demonstration Fig. 2 when 34 spheres are used for discretization. the tool tip may be modeled as having point interaction with the tissue (see Fig. Real time rendering rates of about 1 kHz is obtained using a force extrapolation technique (refer to [2] for details).S. The node at the tool tip bears the applied displacement. The deformation field obtained when MFS is used for the simulation of a surgical tool tip interacting with a hemispherical object is shown.] where U^ is the vector of nodal unknowns which maybe obtained as Vt = —^hh K/. Englewood Cfiffs. Fig. A schematic showing the distribution of nodal points around a surgical tool tip. Srinivasan MA. Utooi tip at the tool tip. Kim J. This technique is however very fast. To appear. 1. NJ: Prentice Hall. 1). [2] De S. Comput Mech 2000. The point collocation based method of finite spheres provides reasonable deformation fields near the tool tip but the errors are quite high further away. The stiffness matrix in Eq. Undeformed Surface corresponding to a partitioning of the vector of nodal pa MFS solution with 34 spheres Fig. (1) may be partitioned as K (3) References [1] De S.25:329345.«U i'a^toooltip The reaction force to be delivered to the haptic interface device is obtained as ftooitip = K^aUtooitip + ^ab^b 3. 2. Finite Element Procedures. Computational rate of about 100 Hz is obtainable for the example shown in Fig. We note here the stiffness matrix K is nonsymmetric. Linear elastic tissue behavior was assumed. The undeformed surface as also the deformation obtained using ADINA with a finite element discretization of the object are presented for reference. Bathe KJ. . For the purpose of surgical simulation. 2 shows the deformation field computed using the technique described in the previous section when a tool interacts with a hemispherical object. taining nodal loads. De et al. 1996. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 141 rameters as U = [Utooitip U/. The undeformed surface and the deformation field obtained using afiniteelement discretization are also shown. The method offinitespheres. A node is placed at the tool tip and all other nodes are placed such that their spheres do not intersect the node at the tool tip (or do so only minimally to ensure the invertibility of A(jt:)). [3] Bathe KJ. but banded.
John P. Tel: +61 (8) 93803093. y)} {a(x.edu. Wolf"' " Department of Civil Engineering. Omitting body loads. y)} by the elasticity matrix [/)].^)}{0} (1) where [L] is the linear operator. of twodimensional plane stress elastostatics. Australia ^Department of Civil Engineering. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne. y)] = [D][e{x. The University of Western Australia. WA 6907. Bathe (Editor) ^^ = 0. the method is particularly useful in situations involving stress singularities. as illustrated in Fig. a brief summary of the method will be given here. and compares the efficiency of an adaptive scaled boundary finiteelement procedure with the efficiency of a similar adaptive finiteelement procedure. All rights reserved. y)} are related to the strains {s{x. The circumferential coordinate s measures the distance around 2. and unit value at the boundary. and the stresses {o{x. The method is shown to outperform a similar adaptive finiteelement implementation. The scaled boundary finiteelement method Since the scaled boundary finiteelement method [13] is not widely known. It also has appealing features of its own. The method defines a new coordinate system based on a scaling centre O within the domain. Keywords: Scaled boundary finiteelement method. and in turn to the displacements {u{x. . Switzerland Abstract The scaled boundary finiteelement method is reviewed. Institute of Hydraulics and Energy. This paper applies these techniques to a classical problem containing a stress singularity. This is the first time a direct comparison of computational efficiency between the two methods is presented. Nedlands. Singularities. such as the ability to model certain free and fixed boundaries without spatial discretisation. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. The method will be discussed in the context * Corresponding author.au © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.142 Efficient analysis of stress singularities using the scaled boundary finiteelement method Andrew J. Scaled boundary domain with sidefaces. Stress recovery and error estimation techniques have recently been developed for the method. 1. y)} (2) The differential equation is subject to certain boundary conditions on displacements and surface tractions. The normalised radial coordinate ^ has zero value at the scaling centre. 1.J. Decks ^'*. in terms of both computational time and memory requirements. and these have allowed adaptive techniques to be implemented. CH1015 Lausanne. and an adaptive implementation is applied to the classical elastostatic problem of an Lshaped domain. the governing differential equation can be represented as [L]V(x. Adaptivity 1. Introduction The scaled boundary finiteelement method is a semianalytical method that combines the advantages of the numerical and analytical approaches to solve linear partial differential equations.5 Scaling centre (XQ. Email: deeks@civiLuwa. yo) Fig. Fax: +61 (8) 93801018. y)] = [D][L]{u{x. As an analytical solution is obtained in the 'radial' direction.
and the solution proceeds in the same manner as in standard finiteelement analysis.s)] = [N{s)]r^{cl>} (10) in (11) where [b^{s)] and [/?^(5)] are dependent only on the boundary definition.(?)}. The linear operator can be mapped to the scaled boundary coordinate system using standard methods. B y inspection. (10) yields the quadratic eigenproblem [X\E'] . The stiffness of the domain is obtained by applying the virtual work equation.X[[E']^ .P. After transformation to surface tractions and integration with the shape functions along the boundary. (7c) [K]{uh} .A.jj + [[£0] + [£l]T . Any particular solution of the differential equation will b e a weighted s u m of these modes.[E^]] {0} = {0} (12) are used. (14).(^)}.[£']{«*(?)) = {0) This is the scaled boundary finiteelement equation displacement. of 5 OS (3) 143 and  7  is the Jacobian at the boundary. 1. and so [E°]t2{„. unlike that method. The method proceeds by first seeking the stiffness matrix of the scaled boundary domain with respect to the degrees of freedom on the boundary (without applying boundary conditions around the i'boundary).s)} = [N{s)]{8u{^)] (5) Substituting this solution into Eq.5)} = Y. the equivalent nodal forces for the modes follow as {q} = [[E']^k[E'i\{(t>} (13) The subset of these modal force vectors corresponding to the n modes in [OJ is denoted as [Q\\. the modal participation factors required are {c} = {^xT'iuh} (14) 1 [uHm. The modal participation coefficients are then obtained using Eq. and integrating terms in the internal virtual work integral by parts with respect to ^. where n is the number of nodal degrees of freedom on the boundary. Virtual displacement fields of the Galerkin form {8u{^. 0 . Substituting into the virtual work equation. as indicated in Fig. The governing equation will be satisfied exactly in the I direction when this equation is satisfied for any set of functions {8u(^)}.{P} = {0} (17) (8) (9) Boundary conditions place constraints on subsets of {uh} and { P } .^ . The unknown vector {uh{^)} is a set of n functions of §. and the displacement field is recovered as . where {5w(§)} contains n functions describing the variation of the virtual displacements in the radial direction.[E'i\ . For any set of boundary node displacements {uh}. the surface integrals cancel out and the work statement becomes 1 This equation can b e solved using standard techniques.[£l]] X §{«. only boundary degrees of freedom are present.J. J. This subset of n modes will be designated by [<I>i]. yielding 2n modes. The scaled boundary finiteelement method seeks a solution to the differential equation in the form [Uh (§. where the vectors in the set form the columns of the matrix.^[E\{uh(^)]]d^=Q where [E''] = j[B\s)f[D][B\s)]\J\As (6) The equivalent nodal forces required to cause these displacements are [P] = [QiMc] = [QI][^I]'{UH} (15) (7a) The stiffness matrix of the domain is therefore [£> = j{B\s)V [D][B'(5)]7di (7b) [K] = [Qi]mr' and the equilibrium requirement is reduced to (16) [B\s)Y[D][B\sW\ds [^^] = / [ in which [B'(^)] = [Z)'W][iV(i)] [B\s)] = [b\s)][N{s)l.Ni{s)uhi{^) = [N{s)][uh{^)} (4) This represents a discretisation of the boundary with the n shape functions contained in [^(5)]. However. solutions are of the form {u{^. and then solving for the nodal displacements on the boundary in the usual finiteelement manner. For a bounded domain only the modes with nonpositive real components of X lead to finite displacements at the scaling centre. Deeks. The [E] matrices can be assembled element by element on the boundary. The boundary may include two 'sidefaces'. Wolf/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the boundary from some origin.P i and OP2. For each mode the approximate stresses on the boundary are determined.
Scaled boundary finiteelement — Finite element ^ x x ^ 3. as indicated by the displacements. where the variation of all the stress components along the line designated BB in Fig.6 0. Advantage is taken of the biaxial symmetry. where the scaled boundary finiteelement method results are clearly superior. 2 calculated by the two methods for the 5% analysis is plotted. 2 were recorded for each target error. There is excellent agreement between the methods (which is expected since the error level is the same. and the displacement at point A in Fig.J. In the scaled boundary finiteelement analysis the scaling centre is selected at O. At the present time a generalpurpose eigenvalue extraction procedure has been used in the scaled boundary finiteelement implementation.113 X 105 2. Stresses along the line BB at the 5% target error level.113 X 105 2. The time taken for the scaled boundary finiteelement solution at the 5% error level is about 20% of the time taken for the Table 1 Superior performance of the scaled boundaryfiniteelementmethod Error target Finite element DOF 5% 2% 0. 3. Considerable improvement in efficiency may be expected when the solution routines are optimised. allowing implementation of an /zhierarchical adaptive procedure [5].} (18) w^^^^^ i ^ \^ A stress recovery technique has been developed by Deeks and Wolf [4]. The number of degrees of freedom (and hence the memory requirement) of the scaled boundary finiteelement solution is significantly less than the equivalent finiteelement solution at each error level. but the scaled boundary finiteelement method still takes only about 50% of the time of the finiteelement method to achieve a 0. Example The example represents a quarter of a square plate with a square hole under uniaxial tension. Scaled boundaryf finiteelement DOF 20 38 74 Time 398 2565 18524 Displacement 2.5 h ^ 1 5 ^ 2.5 p 5 ^ 1. This is illustrated in Fig.144 {Uh (§.0 HZTTT" 1 . 10 7. finiteelement solution. 2% and 0. The true stress field contains a singularity at the interior comer O. The problem was analysed using both the adaptive scaled boundary finiteelement procedure and the adaptive finiteelement procedure with target error levels of 5%. J. 2. This example has been used extensively in the adaptive finiteelement literature (e. representing a considerable saving. — — ^ ^ v/ 0. Wolf/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics = [yv(5)]^c.114 X 105 2. The scaled boundary finiteelement method yields a solution with a singular point at the interior comer.113e X 105 . and the power of the singularity follows directly. Deeks. the finiteelement method returns finite stresses at the interior comer.5% 670 1774 4986 Time 1805 6775 37136 Displacement 2.r''{<^. the solution time in milliseconds. This procedure can be compared directly with an /zhierarchical adaptive finiteelement implementation [7].5% error.g.3. A fast active column solver with profile optimisation is used in the finiteelement implementation.5%. Poisson's ratio is taken as 0. The results are presented in Table 1. and is only 5%).109 X 105 2. A recoverybased estimator compatible with the widely used ZienkiewiczZhu [6] estimator has also been developed by the same authors [4].2 0.0 Fig. This advantage reduces as the target error is decreased. The scaled boundary finiteelement solutions and the finiteelement solutions are in close agreement.P. [5]). and Young's modulus as 1000.j)} A. 2. Model of square plate with square hole under uniaxial tension. except in the vicinity of the singular point.4 0. 3. No spatial discretisation is required on the sidefaces 0Pi and OP2. In contrast. as illustrated in Fig.113 X 105 2.5 V 0 1 .8 0. p'M—' ^ 1^ L_! ^< ^ > Fig. The number of degrees of freedom.
Song Ch. Zienkiewicz OC. Comp Meth Appl Mech Eng. Chichester: Wiley. . An adaptive /?hierarchical finite element system. Wolf/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. Wolf JP. Submitted for publication. Deeks AJ. Zhu JZ. An /zhierarchical adaptive procedure for the scaled boundary finiteelement method. the stresses near the singularity are more accurately modelled.24:337357. A simple error estimator and adaptive procedure for practical engineering analysis. These results were achieved using generalpurpose eigenvalue extraction routines. Wolf JP. Deeks. Wolf JP. Submitted for publication. 115124.A J. Song Ch. J. Wolf JP. FiniteElement Modelling of Unbounded Media. Edinburgh 1998. pp. in press. Comp Meth Appl Mech Eng 1997. In: Advances in Finite Element Techniques and Procedures. Stress recovery and error estimation for the scaled boundary finiteelement method. Conf. The scaled boundary finiteelement method — alias consistent infinitesimal finiteelement cell method — for elastodynamics. In addition. 1996. The scaled boundary finiteelement method — a semianalytical fundamentalsolutionless boundaryelement method.147:329355. Conclusions This paper shows that problems containing stress singularities can be solved accurately and efficiently using the scaled boundary finiteelement method. [2] 145 [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] References [1] Song Ch. The example shows that the cost in both computing time and memory usage is lower for the scaled boundary finiteelement method than for the finiteelement method at all target error levels. and considerable improvement in the scaled boundary finiteelement results can be expected when the solution routines are optimised. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1987. Computational Structures Technology. P. Deeks AJ. Wolf JP. 4th Int. Deeks AJ.
Bahai Department of Systems Engineering. Djoudi*. To eliminate the need to reanalyse the whole structure. Tel. Structural modifications. Desired frequencies. Brunei University. dynamic analysis is necessary to determine the vibration response of these structures. The formulation allows the shifting of the natural frequencies and solves for the required modification on chosen geometric and material properties. This complete reanalysis of the structure is often very expensive and a time consuming task. More recently Kim [8] investigated the use of mass matrix modification to achieve desired natural frequencies.S.uk © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. Introduction Many engineering constructions such as highway bridges. Eigenvalues. However. Crosssectional area 1. Early work in this direction done by Wilkinson [1]. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. which yield the required natural frequencies.: +44 (1895) 274000. Fax: +44 (1895) 812556. The work is applied to both discrete and continuous systems. aerospace structures and ship structures are frequently subjected to dynamic loads and thus. The common industrial practise for optimising the design is to subject the proposed structure to a series of structural modifications based on the engineer's experience. H. Although in the present paper only simple structures are considered the formulation can be applied to large and more complex structures.J.ac. Van Belle [2] and Vanhonacker [3] utilised the 1st order terms of Taylor's series expansion and * Corresponding author. Uxbridge. Middlesex UBS 3PH. which is usually slightly different from a structure previously analysed.146 Relocation of natural frequencies using physical parameter modifications M. All rights reserved. In addition to the modification of the existing structural elements the formulation can also be used to add new structural elements to achieve the desired natural frequencies. Each series requires the analysis of modified structure. In the last few years the work on the inverse problem done by Gladwell [13] started to be taken seriously by engineers and researchers interested in this field of engineering. Chen and Garba [4] used the iterative method to modify structural systems. . Bathe (Editor) is based on Rayleigh's work. In this paper an efficient formulation between the geometric and material properties of structures and their eigenvalues is established. The modification can either be global or local. Structural vibration. Further research on structural modification was carried out by Tsuei and Yee [57] who presented a method of shifting the desired eigenfrequencies using the forced response of the system. Sivan and Ram [911] extended further the research on structural modification by studying the construction of mass spring system with prescribed natural frequencies. The formulation allows the determination of the necessary modifications on the structural members to achieve the specified frequency. It is a common design requirement to ensure that all the natural frequencies are far away from the frequency caused by the exciting forces. UK Abstract An efficient relationship between physical properties of pinjointed structures and their eigenvalues is established. In reference [9] Sivan and Ram developed a new algorithm based on Joseph's work [12] which involves the solution of the inverse eigenvalue problem. Email: emsrmsd@brunel. Pinjointed structures. the resulting stiffness or mass matrix may not be physically implemented. The calculations involved do not include any iteration or convergence and therefore it is computationally efficient. they obtained stiffness and mass matrices using the orthogonality principles. Keywords: Inverse problem. more research effort was conducted towards developing new concept with sufficient information to find the exact modified parameters.
This formulation can then be used to obtain the elastic modulus variation as function of the desired eigenfrequency.n Rl. In the following section a formulation giving the crosssectional area modification as function of the required eigenfrequency is first developed. The characteristic equation of the modified system for the eigenvalue Xd is given by: ^1.2 • Rl.XdAM)8 = 0 141 (3) where Xd is the new eigenvalue of the modified structure.XdAM)^u (8) By substituting for AK. Bahai/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2.XdM^ =0 (4) (5) . a modification in the area parameter would result in both stiffness as well as mass modification.1 + Rn. 8 is the displacement vector and ko is the eigenvalue of the original system.Xdiy^^^(K' This can be written as {8} = AA[F][G]8 = AA[R]{8} (10) . we obtain ^u = .n AA1 + R2 = 0 (12) • • .0 ( ^ .2 where K is the stiffness matrix of the system. The equation of motion for the free vibration of a dynamic system is given by: (K . AM and Ow by AA [K'].Xd^^AM^)u (7) By premultiplying both sides by O and rearranging the equation. this would result in modifications in both stiffness and mass matrices of the structure and hence the Rl.Xdl)'^^^. However.M.XoM)8 = 0 (2) Rn. A A .Xd^M)^u . Theoretical consideration To construct a system with desired eigenfrequencies it is necessary to find a relationship between the structural parameters of the system and its eigenfrequencies. however the resulting stiffness of the modified system cannot be physically implemented.1 ^1.i /?2.Xd^'^AM^)u =0 (6) where Q is the diagonal eigenvalue matrix and / is the unity matrix.2 A A . (10) can be written in matrix form as: AA^ + /?i. They presented the stiffness of the system as a function of the desired eigenvalues and showed that the stiffness varies linearly with the eigenvalues. For a pinjointed truss structure both the stiffness and mass modifications can be given as functions of the area modification of any member in the structure. Hence. Whereas. the modification carried out on the structural properties of the system must have a physical meaning (realisable).Xdl . Djoudi.2 • • • AA1 + Rn.l + R2.Xdiy^<^^{AK . AA is the change in the area of the modified member and [K'] and [ M ' ] are the stiffness and mass matrices of the modified member where the area is taken as unity. For example in the case of truss structures both the elastic modulus and the crosssectional area of the bars can be modified to shift the eigenfrequencies. H. ^K = AA[K'] AM = AA[M'] (1) equation of motion becomes: (K\AKXdM .n R2. (6) can be written as: u = (QXdir\^^AK^ . For the new system to be constructed.n (11) where the terms Rij are function of the eigenvalue Xd. and when only one or two degrees of freedom are involved. For a discrete system such as mass spring systems. The formulation.S.XdM'] and [R] = [F][Gl Eq.1 Ri.n . A A [M'] and 8 respectively we obtain: 8 = AAcD(^ . Eq. [G] = [K' . Any modification on the elastic modulus would cause only stiffness modification of the structures. (3) can be transformed to modal coordinates by putting 8 = ^u where 0 is the mass normalised modal matrix.n where AK and AM are the variations or modifications on the system stiffness and mass matrices respectively. (K]AK(/TO + AK^ XdM .XdM')8 (9) where [F] = <^(Q . which accounts for such relationship is easily obtained and hence the change of stiffness or mass required for shifting the eigenvalues can easily be evaluated. Eq. The formulation is very simple. If a modification A A is carried out on any member of the structure. for systems with a large number of degrees of freedom and continuous systems special algorithms have to be developed.Af A M O ) M = 0 r If we premultiply the above equation by O^ and use the orthogonality characteristic of O with respect to K and M we obtain the following equation: iSl + ^^ AK^ . M is the mass matrix. A contribution in this direction was made by Esat and Akbar [14].
The cross sectional areas for each bar is given by: • A = 3 X 10""^ m^ for Ci and C2 bars (comer columns in bottom and top levels respectively) • A = 1. It is also noticed that the fixed frequency may not be achieved by varying the area of some bars. The material properties and the cross sectional area of the bars are shown on Fig.2. the designer can compare the set of results and choose the structural member to be modified. (12) are for global modification where all the bars are to be modified at the same time and in this case n is equal to the total number of unconstrained degrees of freedom.5 X 10""^ m^ for Bi bars (horizontal members in bottom level) • A = 0. 1.2. This is due to the fact that the cross sectional area affects both the mass and stiffness matrices of the structure.5% and for each step the required change in the cross sectional area of each bar is obtained. 1.1xlO"N/m2 p=7860kg/m3 Fig. for example 1. However. is necessary to achieve the desired frequency. 100 o S •5 50 0 > ^ 50 100 % Variation of first frequency Fig. 3.148 M. It can be seen that while an increase in the cross sectional area of some bars. These are shown in Fig. in the same figure. for example in this case. Variafion of first frequency with required modification on bars area. 2. other bars require their areas to be decreased.8 X 10""^ m^ for Ti bars (diagonal members in bottom level) • A = 0. a shift in the frequency by 2% cannot be obtained by modifying the cross sectional area of bars 1. 4 shows the percentage variation of the first natural frequency with the required percentage variation on the crosssectional area of the bars.3 and 7.1. Space truss structure The second example consists of the tower shown in Fig. H.4 X 10"'* m^ for T2 bars (diagonal members in top level) The sensitivity of the lowest natural frequency to any modification on the crosssectional area of the different bars is first investigated. The lowest natural frequency of the structure has been increased by A / = 5% through steps of 0. The dimensions and material properties are shown E=2xlO"N/m2 p=7860kg/m^ A=5xl0^m^for all bars 200 g 150 4 V.8 X 10"'^ m^ for B2 bars (horizontal members in top level) • A = 0. Therefore. if no restriction is made on which bar is to be modified to shift the frequency. Plane truss The first example is a twelve bar truss cantilever as shown in Fig. . E=2. 3. Bahai/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics bar1 bar9 • bar2 bar3 • bar 11 • bar? bar 12 bar 10  Eqs. 3. Djoudi. This example is used to illustrate the modification required on the cross sectional area of the bars to shift the lowest frequency. 1. 2. A solution for the above problem can be obtained by solving the characteristic equation (12) and obtaining A A.S. Plane truss structure. 3. 3 and 9 only. Fig. It is seen that the first frequency is most sensitive to bars Ci and C2. Fig. The addition of new bars is also considered in this example. if this is not the case then only the terms corresponding to the nodes associated with the modified bars are retained. Space truss structure. Numerical examples: 3.
Mass and stiffness modification to achieve desired natural frequencies. Conclusion In this paper a method for determining the required structural modification to achieve desired frequencies for pinjointed structure is established. J Comput Struct 1993.A . J Sound Vib 1997. Djoudi. AIAA J 1980. 4. [9] Sivan D. Synthesis of multibody systems for desired eigenfrequencies. [8] Kim KiooK. Oxford University Press. Optimal construction of massspring system with prescribed model and spectral data.> ^ • i '—m 100 % Variation of first frequency Fig. pp.12:531542. pp. Inverse vibration problems for finite element models. 62109. H. Yee E.29( 11): 19731977. The Algebraic Eigenvalue Problem. Tsuei YG. 101106. [12] Joseph KT.18:15111514.• — C 2 bars . J Sound Vib 1994. [11] Sivan D. AIAA J 1991 .20:286288.B 1 bars . The approach can be used to increase as well as decrease the natural frequencies. Commun Numer Methods Eng 1996. . ASME. Congress and exhibition. Analytical model improvement using modal test results. This approach provides the structural designers with efficient algorithm. Diagnostics and Control Analytical and Experimental ASME 1991. Modification of stiffness for shifting natural frequencies of damped mechanical systems. [4] Chen JA. AIAA J 1992. Inverse Probl 1997. Modal Analysis. [10] Ram YM.18:684690. ASIA976. [6] Yee E. AIAA J 1982. A review of mass matrices for eigenproblems. Method for shifting natural frequencies of damped mechanical systems. [3] Vanhonacker P.S. [14] Esat II. 100 60 20 •I 20 r^\ ^ 4 60 .30(12):28902896. Higher order sensitivities in structural design. Akbar S. 1963. Singapore. which is formulated in such a way that no iterations or convergence are involved in the process and only few calculations are required to obtain the necessary modifications. Ram YM. 4. A method for modifying dynamic properties of undamped mechanical systems. Variation of first frequency with the required modification in the crosssectional area of bars.M. Bahai/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics !•—C1 bars . DEVol. [7] Yee E. 38.201(3):323334. [13] Gladwell GML. Tsuei YG. Differential and difference sensitivities of natural frequencies and mode shapes of natural structures. J Dyn Syst Meas Control 1989.29(4):421434. Modelling. Inverse eigenvalue problem in structural design.46:10411048. [5] Tsuei YG. Ram YM. and the structural modifications can also include the addition of new structural members.» ^ B 2 bars Ud—T1 bars —H—T2 bars 149 References [1] Wilkinson JH. Garba JA.176(2):225234. The formulation allows the determination of the necessary modifications on the material and geometric structural properties to shift any of the frequencies to desired positions. AIAA J 1980.111:403408. Enlarging a spectral gap by structural modification. [2] Van Belle H.
T)d^vdr •y. (3) .. JC are the circular frequency and the wave number. Fourier transform. and the fundamental traction Q = EAd^U. Arcisstrasse 21.r) R+ r V R+ ^ X U(x .t .q are approximated by spatial (Pi{x) and temporal trial functions (j)j{t) u(x.t) = fix. (pi leads to the GalerkinBIE.M.. K is the free term. we only need the transform of the fundamental solution and not the fundamental solution itself.t .y.T)Q(xy. Prototypic example: FourierBIE for the bar To illustrate the general principle of the new approach we start with the simple example of an elastic bar.. The differential equation and its Fourier transform are {—EAd^. (1) xU(x y. Email: fabian. t) dF^ dt = = JlMt)(Piix)fjf(y. Germany Abstract To overcome the restriction of actual boundary element methods (BEM) to cases where fundamental solutions are known.T)Uix 7/ R+Tv R+Tv u(y. K(x)u{x.v R+ Tv + 11 qiy. Here. The displacement boundary integral equations (BIE) are for vanishing initial conditions. e.t .p as the stiffness and the mass density respectively. Keywords: Boundary element method. dt ~ X ! / / ^kiO(piM / / iiij(Pi(y)(pj(r) ^'j R+ r . Bonnet [2].J.150 Fourier transformed boundary integral equations for transient problems of elasticity and thermoelasticity F.r) dVy dr dF. All rights reserved. respectively. dt are differentiations according space and time. In these equations. This approach is based on new boundary integral equations (BIE) for the computation of the entries of the standard BEM matrices which are obtained by a spatial and temporal Fourier transform of the traditional BIE.t) f> (EAP — pa)^)ii{x. t) ^ ^Uij(pi{x)(t)j{t). Galerkinboundary integral equations. a. the fundamental solution U.t T)drvdT with the traction ^ = £A9yM on the boundary F^ with outer normal y.tum.r) dF^ dr dF.t r) dQy dr dF^ dt + X ! / / ^k{t)(pi{x) I i qij(Pi{y)(pj(T) '•J R+ r. '•J q(x. Lehrstuhl fiir Baumechanik. Barbier [1]. R+ Fy *Tel. The boundary quantities u.g. an alternative BEMapproach was presented in Duddeck and Pomp [6] and Duddeck and Geisenhofer [5].tT)dr. dr.: +49 (89) 26025472. D80333 Munich.E.dT.de © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. The insights gained from this prototype are transferred later to isotropic and anisotropic elasticity and thermoelasticity. Thermoelasticity 1. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.duddeck@bv. u is the displacement and / the volume force. R+Tv Jf (t)(piix)K(x)uix. cf.co) with EA. t) ^^qij(Pi{x)(l)j{t).t) = / f(y. Transient problems can be tackled by a Galerkin timestep scheme. Elasticity.T)U(x . '^J (2) Temporal and spatial weighting with 0^:. Transient problem.co) = f{x. The former is always available as long as the underlying differential operator is linear and has constant coefficients. Fundamental solution. this method is extended to dynamic problems. (?) denotes a Fourier transformed quantity and 9^.y.\pd^) u{x.Duddeck* Technical University of Munich. Fax: +49 (89) 26025474. Bathe (Editor) X Q(x y.
1.e.j0.t) I • • • . the 0 0 •• 2dtco^ ' processus after construction of the boundary element methWith homogeneous initial conditions and with boundary ods (BEM) matrices can directly be taken from standard conditions u(0. Fig.T)d}.E. The Fourier transform of (6) leads to the Fourier traction BIE: (6) In the full paper. t).h) = {2n)^[a^. The double integrations in the original domain are replaced by single intet ]dt t dt Po = —7—[Ha + dO .jV'ihs). Kq) = {(Pkcpi.li. t) = 8(x . t) dx df. Due to the limited space here.Y.JYfA [m/s]. f^Q) . Kq) = (0j^f. test functions we have for w(L): forg(O): (pi{x) = 8(x — L) (P2(x) = 8{x) ^f> ^ <^i(^) = e"'^^ (^2(^) = 1. Geometry and loading of the bar. h) = f^^^ a(x. q. fQ) . %UjU) ~T. cf. and the length of of the bar is L = 2 [m]. i. we present the dynamic FourierBIE for arbitrary anisotropic elastic and thermoelastic media.[^lcpJ.H(^ . ^(0. . I • • . (\im(pj^Q) + Yl{^k(Ph yxij(pi(t)j^S). Extension to elasticity and thermoelasticity tablished by derivation dy of the BIE. 0 .t . lution U as the response to / = 8(x)8(t) ^ / = 1 is obtained by simple inversion.^.J.4>jQ) u(L. do O {(l>k(ph qij(Pi(l)j^U) = ^[$T^T^ qij(pi$jU).dO grations in the Fourier domain. 2. The transformed BIE lead d^ dt to the same matrices as the conventional BIE. {4>lvJ.L/4)[H(0 .{^I$!^^ij^i4>jQ)^ (5) where the factor {2ny^ was cancelled. for example 1 — C S (o. We abbreviate by defining the convolution a ^ b = /RXE^(>'' '^)^(^ ~ y. cf. fu) + jy>lvj. 1.0 for the bar.co) = e ^ixL/4_ i(oL/A 100 4 t '^ ' 8 ^0 (8) \\ q(0.H(0] + — ^ [ H ( 0 . Ku) = {4. 0)) we get the equivalent FourierBIE. 2. Fig. p L=2 • ^ ~ Yl^^^^^ ^ij^i(t>i * 2> (4) ^ Fig. KU) = {(pkCPl.dr and the scalar product {a. As spatial trial and Fig.b) with a^ = a{x. Duddeck and Pomp [6].q(L. Boundary displacement u(L. Therefore.(7) We regard as an example a transient volume force.t) EA.t) The wave velocity is Cp = s/EA/p = . we get with The linear temporal trial and test functions (pj for the yth time step were constructed by translations t ^ t — j dt in the original domain and by modulation with e''^^^"^ in the transformed domain of the reference element S = dyQ^S = ivxQ: {(l>k(pi. we give only the crucial point of constructing the Fourier transformed fundamental solution (0[^f. cf. {(pk(pi. Duddeck/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics All quantities are extended formally to M x M to apply spatial and temporal Fourier transform. U(x. .• • 1 + J2{^Iv!.FM. Due to the convolution theorem a * Z ^ a^ and ? Parseval's theorem {a.^. co) = [EAppa)^]K The traction BIE needed for symmetric BEM is es2. t)b(x.t) = 0.1/2)] _ f(x.Y^[(t)m..H(/ . f^U)\Y^{(pk(Ph C\ij(Pi(l)j * U) 151 L/4 f(x. The Fourier transformed fundamental soments and tractions at w(L.t) = 0 we get the displaceBEM algorithms.t) and boundary traction ^(0. fix.
PhD thesis.(A h /ji)ujji + yOj + pt^ijt = fi and —Ojj + ^^./3.e. ECCOMAS 2000.r] are constants of heat conduction. ^.152 for linearized thermoelasticity.9]. Dynamic Problems of Thermoelasticity. [5] Duddeck F. submitted for publication. U = [P]"'. Pomp A. y. 1997.f = [/i. New York: Wiley. Methode des potentiels retardes pour la simulation de la diffraction d'onde elastodynamique par une fissure tridimensionnelle.u^. A general boundary element method for anisotropic plates. p/x]. The transformed fundamental solution is obtained by simple matrix inversion. [3] Duddeck F Funktional Analysis in Solid Mechanics — Spatial and Temporal Fourier Transform of Energy Methods (in German). PhD thesis. 1999. A general boundary element method for homogeneous differential operators — linear or nonlinear. Leyden: Noordhoff. . TU Munich. co) with the symbol —/xx" ex1^2 — CX\XT.r + Wjjt = PI^. This approach can be transferred to all linear and homogeneous differential operators. 1975. 1999. . The four differential equations are (cf.a)) = —f(x. [2] Bonnet M. i. Boundary Integral Equation Methods for Solids and Fluids. References [1] Barbier D. Barcelona. Comput Mech. p sue the increment of the temperature and the heat sources. The fourdimensional Fourier transform of these equations is P{x. [6] Duddeck F. CX2X3. Calculation of BEM matrices by Fourier transform. lyxi +pap— CX2X\ CX3X2 IJLX"\poJ'' r]X\co . Anisotropic elasticity and thermoelasticity problems can be treated in two or three dimensions. submitted for publication. Math Comput. [4] Duddeck F./2. [7] Nowinski W. ^T r]X2C0 ^ ^ r]X3(o ^ ^ ^ ^ iyx3 (9) ^ and the vectors u = [uuU2. Ecole Polytechnique. Geisenhofer M. iyx\ +pa)^ CX2X\ /xx — c.co)u(x. Nowinski [7]): fiUijj .0.
Hans Miihlhaus CSIRO Exploration and Mining. elastic and brittle effects influence the observed structures (for example. However. Fax: +61 (8) 93891906. the representation of the material as a viscous fluid with additional stored stresses becomes less appropriate. (1) can be written in a finite difference form: ^t+At^ _ = '/eff 2Z) /x \At' orW (2) where At^ is the elastic timestep. W is the material spin tensor. Large deformation. and a more explicit character to the solution strategy. Stabihzation. We study the relative values of the relaxation time a.p = 0 A. tr(D) \. Viscoelastic equations are solved for an increment of observation time At^ different from the advection timestep A^ An averaging procedure for the stresses is needed over a number of advection timesteps. Australia Abstract We present and discuss a new stabilization procedure for viscoelastic flow models of large deformation.J. there is evidence of numerous occasions where creeping flow of sohd crustal rocks dominates deformation. Eq. All rights reserved. respectively. a = r]//! is the relaxation time and y/eff is an effective viscosity defined by ^^£7^2. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. the method is optimized for the viscous rather than the elastic limit [2. Keywords: Viscoelasticity. 1 (top) shows folds in Archean migmatitic gneiss). such as geological folding. and accurately represents the physics of the problem. Problems in the elastic range correspond to very soft effective viscosity. we refer to cases where the timescale of interest is small relative to the time over which stresses relax. /x and r] are the elastic shear modulus and the shear viscosity. and so may depend subjectively upon what we consider worth resolving in the time evolution of a problem. 1. Elastic displacements are calculated by integrating comparitively large velocities over short times. By "elastic" problems. a its Jaumann derivative. where cr is the Cauchy stress tensor. There are two related 2. p = .153 A fluidlike formulation for viscoelastic geological modeling stabilized for the elastic limit Frederic Dufour*. Bathe (Editor) . Perth 6009. Folding. Strains are typically very high. As with other strainrate based formulations for viscoelasticity.3]. As elasticity becomes more important. Deborah number 1. Stability in the elastic limit We need to choose a timestep which is both stable. strainrates are low (10"^"* s~0. Tel.1. the elastic timestep At^ and the advection timestep required to prevent any numerical instabilities and to obtain accurate results.au Crown Copyright © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. Introduction Within the geological record. and a Lagrangian set of particles which carry material history including stresses. X is a penalty parameter. (1) * Corresponding author.: f61 (8) 92848463. center).3]). Louis Moresi. Fig. viscous. Email: frederic@ned.csiro. through a simple stabilization procedure. The particleincell finite element scheme [1] was designed to deal with very large deformation geological problems including folding (Fig. D is the stretching. The extent to which a Maxwell viscoelastic system behaves elastically depends greatly on the timescale of observation (see [2. Mathematical model We use a Maxwell viscoelastic constitutive relationship ao\a = 2r]D. It uses an Eulerian mesh to solve modified viscoplastic equations of motion. we are able to study problems where the relaxation time is longer than any characteristic timescale of the deformation. t r ( a ) .dem.
Simo. we repeated this study for a range of materials with different relaxation times. 2) against the analytical solution for a given material {a — 1. a given advection timestep (Ar = 0. this system is not well conditioned. (2). 2.0 . Quartzofeldspathic layers (light colors) defining asymmetric folds in Archean migmatitic gneiss. the smaller the elastic timestep the more accurate the result. and (2) if other physical processes.1 — At*^ = 0. At^. northern Finland (top). The pressure is benchmarked (Fig. An instablity occurs if the advection timestep is larger than a certain fraction of the observation time.154 F. We compress a viscoelastic compressible unit square block on one edge with a constant velocity (V = 0. Stability and accuracy of the solution for different observation timesteps (Ar^) and for fixed relaxation time and advection timestep. First we consider that the timescale over which we differentiate the stress rate.Af^ = 10. Application The choice of At' and 0 is illustrated by the following example. 0 = ^ (4) This amounts to a running average of the stress over a time Af. impose a very short timestep then we may be forced to consider an unstable.0095 t= 0. Dufour et al. The stresses are then relaxed without further shortening. 1. 3) T o Theoretical solution . 0 . A numerical simulation of a viscoelastic layer with a yield stress (centre).05 Dimensionless time Fig. mesh dependencies etc. requiring a maximum value of 0). difficulties which may arise: (1) in the limit of elastic behaviour. the averaging is strongly stabilizing for elasticity dominated problems.0098 ' 1 A* = 0. Secondly.. such as thermal diffusion.0). independent of that required by other physical processes. if we require that Ar is always less than Ar^ (in other words. In order to determine the value of this fraction.. This procedure allows the choice of a physically relevant time to model elastic effects. As expected from Eq..(T^W (3) f(l0V^^ where A^ . quasielastic solution when there is little physical reason to do so. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics times between the calculation of new velocity solutions. porous flow or chemical reaction. and may be numerically unstable.0 '•M" = 0. may be larger than the 4 6 Dimensionless time Fig. We address both these problems by the following stabilization. 3.1) to 90% shortening. Stress measured at a point with the folding layer as a function of time (bottom).M"" = 1. A^ In the update of internal stresses we now write: • 0»?eff I •(i(ip + Wa' .0037) and different observation times {At'). We plot (Fig.
Numerical simulation of highly viscoelastic flows through an abrupt contraction. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 0. the more competent layer embedded into [1] Moresi L.55 155 20 10 15 Relaxation time Fig. J NonNewtonian Fluid Mech 1991. then the buckling occurs and leads to a drop in the stress (Fig.29:119146. 3. 1) with two incompressible viscoelastic layers. A study of some numerical viscoelastic schemes. In the limit of short observation times we find that the value of 0 required to stabilize the method is greater than 0. [2] Tanner RI. Linear regression on numerical values of the stability factor for different materials. Dufour F. Miihlhaus HB. Dufour et al. Marchal JM. Although the code was initially designed for viscous fluids. Crochet MJ.41:171196. Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Localization. 1 (bottom)). Jin H.35 to a folding problem (Fig. 2000. . Empirically established stability criteria for the two timesteps are t^f < a/100 and A^ < Ar''. 5 the less competent. Initially the competent layer is straight and axial stress increases with a constant shortening velocity. We apply the stabilization procedure with (p — 0. Perth. this scheme is able to solve any problems even in the elastic limit for large a. J NonNewtonian Fluid Mech 1988. Balkema. Particleincell solution for creeping viscous flows with internal interfaces. References the stability factor 0 as a function of the relaxation time. The layer is broken by yielding concomitant with folding and the different parts of the beam straighten due to the elastic effect. The doublescale integration scheme presented solves accurately and effectively the model equations for Maxwell materials undergoing very large deformation. [3] Debbaut B.35. for all computations we keep the ratio Ar^ = or/100 (constant Deborah number).F. WA. This result also holds for other values of the ratio between Ar^ and a.
The resulting numerical model is equivalent to the one that describes the flow of an incompressible nonlinear fluid (at every point the viscosity is a function of the strain rate). Tel: h54 3489435302. The Eulerian solid mechanics formulation Let us consider the solid in Fig. for example. Keywords: Metal forming. Av. Eulerian formulation. In the present paper we outline a new solid mechanics Eulerian formulation that properly describes a finite strain elastoplastic deformation process and therefore seems to be specially suited for modeling stationary elastoplastic metal forming processes. Those models were based on the flow formulation [8] and were implemented using an Eulerian description of motion via the pseudoconcentrations technique [9. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. 2. Dolores Demarco Center for Industrial Research. on the other hand. in some cases the model objective is to investigate phenomena that are governed by the elastic deformations such as spring back effects or the build up of residual stresses. also. * Corresponding author.J. in all of the above mentioned cases it is necessary to use an elasticviscoplastic model rather than a rigidviscoplastic one. 'F(1) For the strain rates we define in the spatial configuration the velocity gradient (^/) and the elastic velocity gradient (7 ). Argentina Abstract Lagrangian formulations are suitable for modeling a material behavior that incorporates elasticity but are not specially appropriate for modeling stationary processes. Introduction In previous publications [17] we presented the development of finite element models for simulating stationary metal forming processes under the assumption of rigidviscoplastic material behavior. the available Eulerian formulations are very appropriate for modeling stationary processes but fail to properly incorporate the elastic material behavior. 1054. Bathe (Editor) Lagrangian formulations are suitable for modeling a material behavior that incorporates elasticity but are not specially appropriate for modeling stationary processes. on the other hand.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.156 An Eulerian formulation for modeling stationary finite strain elastoplastic metal forming processes Eduardo N.10]. Buenos Aires. Stationary problems. Dvorkin *. Finite elements. Email: dvk@siderca. Fax: h54 3489435312. Finite strain. FUDETEC. when modeling the cold rolling of thin steel plates. When modeling certain metal forming processes it is not realistic to neglect the elastic deformations. the available Eulerian formulations are very appropriate for modeling stationary processes but fail to properly incorporate the elastic material behavior. Cordoba 320. All rights reserved. Elastoplasticity 1. In the present paper we outline a new solid mechanics Eulerian formulation that properly describes a finite strain elastoplastic deformation process and therefore seems to be specially suited for modeling stationary elastoplastic metal forming processes. Using the standard multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient we can write [1115]. hence we can write the following material derivatives ^' F Dt dt vV'F='l (2a) . 1 that evolves from its reference configuration (/ = 0) to its spatial one {t). in our formulation the free surfaces are described using the pseudoconcentrations procedure which does not incorporate the complications of the standard free surface algorithms that require shifting nodes and the use of remeshing procedures.
at time t. Defining ^c as "pseudoconcentration per unit mass" we can postulate the conservation of ^c in a control volume V Intermediate Configuration Fig. 1.N. Multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. Dvorkin.=t^L CM'. The pseudoconcentrations technique In 9^^. In the intermediate configuration we define the viscoplastic velocity gradient CL ). For a stationary process. Dt dt + 'v'YLL ='L 'iK (2b) where ^y_ is the material velocity field. In a forthcoming paper we will discuss the finite element implementation of the proposed Eulerian formulation. and considering also mass conservation. ^dtj are the Cartesian components of the spatial strain rate tensor. Demarco /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Reference Configuration Spatial Configuration 157 where ^a/y are the Cartesian components of the Cauchy stress tensor. = l n ( / l f ^ ) ) [ 1 8 ] .). The new formulation is based on: • An Eulerian description of motion implemented via the pseudoconcentrations technique. t r ^ + v_(. (3) d'p'c dt (^r. Calling ^r_ the tensor we get by pullingback the components Tij from the spatial configuration to the intermediate one we can write the following hyperelastic constitutive relation. A new ^cdistribution is determined using Eq.f = 2/x(?„. At each point of the spatial configuration the stress tensor has to fulfil the relations (5). (6a) and (6b). / ^aij 8dij ^ dv 'RiSvi (7) . (for the points with ^c < 0 we consider "small" elasticity constants and a "small" viscosity. vp — hp'cdv DtJ "^ =0 (8) and using Reynolds transport theorem [16] we get. Hence [18].)(5„.and ^i. its pushforward to the spatial configuration is [17]. (5) where ^T^ are the Cartesian components of the deviatoric Kirchhoff stress tensor. ^Rt are the Cartesian components of the external loads and ^ V is the volume of the body in the spatial configuration. Conclusions A new soUd mechanics formulation was developed for the modeling of stationary elastoplastic metal forming processes.^c*('^a(>)]^g T =a : 'H (6a) (6b) Please notice that being the material elastoplastic. If we assume a trial distribution of ^c we can use Eqs. for isotropic elasticity we assume cOyp = 0 [18]. we get. incompressibility was not invoked for deriving the above equation. (9) We can decompose lyp into a symmetric component (dyp) and an antisymmetric one (coyp). within prescribed tolerances. 'v'V'c = 0. we define a variable ^c such that the spatial configuration of the body is the locus of the set of points that have ^c > 0. based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient and on a hyperelastic constitutive equation for the elastic part.E. 'r. The iteration loop is followed until at two successive iterations the ^c. TAB = [!.distributions are coincident. 3. the flow is not incompressible and therefore. (10) u =n • d =vp (4) Using Perzyna's viscoplastic constitutive relation we can write in the spatial configuration [19]. 4.p'c'v) = o. using the elastic Hencky strain tensor ('^. (17) to determine the velocity field ^i. • A sound description of finite strain elastoplastic deformation processes. (10) and afterwards the velocity field is updated. also the velocity field has to fulfil the Principle of Virtual Work [20].. as compared with the points where actual material is present). D.
Cavaliere MA. J Mater Process Technol 1997. 2D finite element parametric studies of the flat rolling process. Goldschmit MB. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1985. 1966. Smelser RE.114:3554. 1997. 3D modeling of bulk metal forming processes via the flow formulation and the pseudoconcentrations technique. [3] Dvorkin EN. Elastic plastic deformation at finite strain. NJ: PrenticeHall. Goldschmit MB. Dvorkin EN. NJ: PrenticeHall. Cavaliere MA. 1996. J Appl Mech 1969. Cavaliere MA. Amenta PM. Englewood Cliffs. Cavaliere MA. [2] Dvorkin EN. An effective technique for modelling 2D metal forming processes using an Eulerian formulation. Pantuso D.25:177189. 1:211242. J Appl Phys 1967.68:131. Goldschmit MB. Jain PC. Goldschmit MB. Advances in Applied Mechanics. Use of the pseudoconcentrations to follow [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] . 1969. Academic Press. Int J Numer Methods Fluids 1986.6:749761. Int J Forming Process (ESAFORM) 1998. [7] Dvorkin EN. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1988.29. Petocz EG. Thompson E. vol 9.10:323336. Repetto EA. Cavaliere MA. Englewood Cliffs. A framework for finite strain elasto plasticity based on maximum plastic dissipation and the multiplicative decomposition.158 References E. Part I: Continuum formulation. 1983. [9] Thompson E. Wiley 1996. New developments for the modeling of metal rolling processes. Part II: Computational aspects. Ortiz M. NJ: Prentice Hall. Comput Mech 1995. Proceedings Fifth Int. Perzyna P. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1994. Proceedings European Conference on Computational Mechanics. On the modeling of steel product rolling processes. A framework for finite strain elastoplasticity based on maximum plastic dissipation and the multiplicative decomposition. Hughes JR. Simo JC. Flow of solids during forming and extrusion: some aspects of numerical solutions. [1] Dvorkin EN. Eng Comput 1993. Conf.17. Second ECCOMAS (European Community on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences) Conference on Numerical Methods in Engineering. Marini O. [8] Zienkiewicz OC. on Computational Plasticity. Stroppiana W. Goldschmit MB. Goldschmit MB. Englewood Cliffs. Zielonka MG. Finite strain elasticplastic theory with application to planewave analysis. Amenta PM. In: Owen DRJ et al (Eds). Int J Solid Struct 1977. Onate E. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1988. A three field element via augmented Lagrangian for modelling bulk metal forming processes. Marsden JE. On the modelling of bulk metal forming processes. A unified approach to finite deformation elastoplastic analysis based on the use of hyperelastic constitutive equations. Simo JC. Mathematical Foundations of Elasticity. Introduction to the Mechanics of a Continuous Medium. Amenta MP. [6] Dvorkin EN.N. 1999. Dvorkin.66:199219.49:221245. In: Wunderlich W et al.68:99107.14:1528. D. Finite Element Procedures. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1988. Demarco /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics creeping viscous flows during transient analysis. Simo JC.38:1727. A Finite element formulation for finite strain elastoplastic analysis based on mixed interpolation of tensorial components. Liu DT. Lee EH. (Eds). [5] Cavaliere MA. Transient analysis of forging operations by the pseudoconcentrations method.36:16. Malvern LE. CIMNE. Munich. Lee EH. Bathe KJ. Dvorkin EN. In: Proc. [4] Dvorkin EN. Fundamental problems in viscoplasticity.
: +54 (3489) 435302. Bathe (Editor) . Elastic buckling of perfect cylindrical pipes 2. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Keywords: Internal pressure. Argentina Abstract The global buckling (Euler buckling) of slender cylindrical pipes under internal/external pressure and axial compression is analyzed.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. this limit loads depend on the pipe imperfections. In Fig. Buenos Aires. Cordoba 320. on the other hand when the external pressure is higher than the internal one the resultant pressure load has a stabilizing effect and therefore the pipe Euler buckling load is higher than the Euler buckling load for the same pipe but under equilibrated internal/external pressures. Internal pressure In Fig. 2. Dvorkin. if the internal pressure is higher than the external one. we show via numerical examples that. External pressure. Tel. for a straight pipe under axial compression. For constructing the nonlinear paths of imperfect (non straight) elastoplastic pipes a finite element model is developed. for the cases in which the bifurcation limit loads are inside the elastic range. 1054. The analysis of the buckling load of slender cylindrical pipes under the above described loading is important in many technological applications. coming from the net internal (external) pressure.159 Effects of internal/external pressure on the global buckling of pipelines Eduardo N. All rights reserved. Fax: F54 (3489) 435310. Pipeline 1. in equihbrium under an axial compressive load and internal pressure. Av. Introduction When a straight pipe under axial compression and internal (external) pressure is slightly perturbed from its straight configuration there is a resultant force. From the analysis of the nonlinear equilibrium paths it is possible to determine the limit loads of pipes under axial compression and internal/external pressure. Hence. It is demonstrated that the limit loads evaluated via the nonlinear paths tend to the approximate analytical bifurcation loads when these limit loads are inside the elastic range and the imperfections size tends to zero. Rita G. the pipe Euler buckling load is lower than the Euler buckling load for the same pipe but under equilibrated internal/external pressures. FUDETEC.J. for which the axial compressive load (T) has a constant part (C) and a part proportional to the internal pressure (p/). T = C + kpi (1) where ^ is a constant depending on the particular application. 1 we represent a perfectly straight slender cylindrical pipe. Euler buckling. That is to say. 1 we present a simple case. Of course.1. Axial compression. Toscano * Center for Industrial Research. the design of pipelines. In the second section of this paper we develop an approximate analytical expression for calculating the Euler buckhng load for elastic perfectly straight cylindrical pipes (bifurcation limit load) and in the third section we develop a finite element model to determine the equilibrium paths of imperfect (non straight) elastoplastic cylindrical pipes. For perfectly straight elastic pipes an approximate analytical expression for the bifurcation load is developed. for example. the pipe limit loads tend to the bifurcation limit loads when the imperfections size tends to zero. let us assume that we perturb the straight equilibrium configuration getting an infinitely close * Corresponding author. there is a destabilizing effect due to the resultant pressure load and therefore. Email: sidrto@siderca. that tends to enlarge (diminish) the curvature of the pipe axis. however.
0) (see Fig. (1). in the loadsdisplacements space. (7) n = u V (8) U: elastic energy stored in the pipe material. V: potential of the external conservative loads. sn = 0 where 77 is the potential energy.. qh{x) = q{x) cos [v'{x)]./ qh^v (jc) djc = 0 (9) and [1].G.. therefore we try as an approximate solution. Dvorkin. configuration defined by the transversal displacement. 1) we have. the resultant pressure force due to the pipe bending is normal to the bent axis direction (follower load) and its value is. Toscano /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics I T=c + k Pj 1^^^ p^^ ^j^^ length has horizontal and vertical components that in our case {v'{x) <^\) are. (5) Using a series expansion of the trigonometric functions and neglecting higher order terms. Cylindrical pipe under internal pressure and axial compression. we use the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy [1. When only conservative loads are acting on the pipe. 1. of the points on the pipe axis. EI f [v'\x)f dx.2..r. is the pipe inner radius. introducing the above in Eq. equilibrium is fulfilled if. Hence. therefore [3]: L 8{U Fig. v{x). . q{x) = piTtrfv'Xx) (4) which is the resulting force per unit length produced by the internal pressure acting on the deformed configuration.Using Eqs. 0 L (10a) (10b) 0 L I qh8v{x)dx= 0 j 0 —pi7Trfv"(x)8v{x)dx (10c) where e^^ is the axial strain and v"{x) = ^^^.2]. (12) . For a longitudinal fiber defined by the polar coordinates ix. defined by /?. (2) and (3) we get. R. and by Eq. (6). being this an elastic problem. we get: qh(x) = pi7Trfv\x). In our case we have to consider the displacement dependent loads (nonconservative) given by Eq. Due to the polar symmetry of the problem we consider that all the displacements v{x) are parallel to a plane. this perturbed configuration is in equilibrium we say that the load level is critical (buckling load) because a bifurcation of the equilibrium path. L L &]^^j[v"(x)f<^x'^j[v'(x)]'Ax + PiTzrf j v"(x)8v djc = 0. nnx ^_^ E n=l. This We search for an approximate solution of the above equation using the Ritz Method [1]. qy{x) = q(x) sin [v\x)] . in the perturbed configuration.. is possible. On a differential pipe length. q(x)dx = 2 C S 0(1 +£. /: inertia of the pipe section with respect to a diametral axis.)^/d0djc O (3) E: Young's modulus of the pipe material.. a«sm^. (x) (11) where r.N. (9) we get for the fulfillment of equilibrium. £xx = v'\x)rcosO (2) V) . (6) To analyze the equilibrium of the perturbed configuration. for the case of small strains. If for some loading level.160 E. qv(x)=0.
o = n^EIic^ L2 (18a) n^ElTt^ (18b) C c r H~ K^Pecr Pecr^^i — n^ElTT^ L2 (14a) (14b) Ccr ^kpicr \ PicrT^rf It is interesting to realize that the above equations predict that there is a critical (buckling) pressure also if there is no axial compression {T = 0) and even if there is axial tension on the pipe (T < 0). qy(x) = 0. n^EIn L^r] 2. (18b) we get.Pi^f^] = 0. Dvorkin. qhM = Pe7rrfv'\x). k = TT (r^ — rf). (13) using as an approximation for the equilibrium configuration the one written in Eq. Toscano/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 161 "P T" rr An example of this case is the hydraulic testing of a pipe. L Fig. using Eq. Let us consider the following cases: • Simply supported pipe. 0 0 L dx Introducing the proposed approximate solution in Eq. (14b) it is obvious that the only possible solution is the straight configuration and no bifurcation is possible. (15) Hence. C = 0 and k = —Jtrf. which corresponds to the unperturbed straight configuration. if there are {n — I) intermediate supports we have.Pin an=0 n = l. Tcr + PicrTCrf = ^2^3 + Perf 0 n = l. closed on both ends. From the above equations it is obvious that the external pressure has a stabilizing effect on the pipe.2.rf) n^EIn and if the pipe has (n ~ I) intermediate supports.. for the nontrivial solution. closed on both ends. hence. External pressure H tl i For the cases in which the pipe is submitted to external pressure we rewrite Eq. Let us consider the following case: • Simply supported pipe. (11) and taking into account that the an are arbitrary constants we get for equilibrium. after some algebra we get for the equilibrium of the perturbed configuration.2 2' F cL" Obviously. For this case C = 0 and k = nr^ therefore from Eq. PecrTtr. which corresponds to an equilibrium configuration different from the straight one. • Simply supported pipe.. under internal pressure (Fig. under external pressure. • [^T^ . open on both ends. the axial compressive load that makes the pipe buckle is higher than the Euler load of the pipe under equilibrated internal/external pressures. that is to say. we finally get. (17) therefore. 2. £ / n 4^4 V 2^ Tn^Tt 2 — PeTtrf j v'\x) 8v(x)dx = 0 (16) . Peer — TT7~7 2\"* .E.N. (6) as. (14b) we get. In this case. (12).^ .2. The second solution gives the location of the bifurcation point (critical loading). Simply supported pipe open on both ends under internal pressure.G.. Eln'^Tt'^ 2^ Tn^Tt 2 The above equations have two possible solution sets: • Un = 0 .. Peer — EiTt LHrj . R.. _ Pier — Eljt J. 2). Hence.2. from Eq. In this case: C = 0. under internal pressure.
0 under the loading defined by an internal pressure and. and its random imperfections will have a projection on the buckling mode of the perfect pipe.N. R. 3. .the second derivatives using a finite differences scheme. Toscano /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the pipe axis. ^{x) = a 0 .9 mm 12. The load level of this limit point shall depend on the pipe imperfections. when analyzing the equilibrium path of a nonperfect pipe we shall encounter a limit point rather than a bifurcation point [4]. (12)). We simply calculate. Loaddisplacement curves. (6)). Grips with no clearance. No clearance between the pipe and the grip We consider the following initial imperfection for the pipe axis.162 E. that for the case of internal pressure is (see Eq. In Fig. in our finite element implementation. Dvorkin. will be lower than the bifurcation load of the perfect pipe and will tend to this value when the imperfections size tends to zero.3 mm 3. hence.200 mm 4 38.G. hence. L . 11 /57Tx\ I (19) which is obviously zero at the grips and is coincident with the first buckling mode predicted using the Ritz method (Eq. To provide a numerical example. it is obvious the stabilizing effect of the external pressure. qh = piiTr^[v"{x)+^\x)] Comparing this result with the one corresponding to the pipe under internal pressure it is obvious that the pipe under external pressure can withstand a higher pressure without reaching the bifurcation load. • The pipe model is developed using an Updated Lagrangian formulation with an elastoplastic (associated von Mises) material model (finite displacements and rotations but infinitesimal strains) [6]. • Acting on the beam elements we consider a conservative load ( r ) and a deformation dependent load normal to where f (x) is the initial imperfection of the pipe axis. In order to analyze the nonlinear equilibrium paths of imperfect pipes we developed a finite element model using the general purpose finite element code ADINA [5]. Some basic features of the developed finite element model are: • The pipe behavior is modelled using Hermitian (Bernoulli) beam elements [6].k = n{rlr}). C = 0. (14b).70 kg/mm^ 0. 3 we plot the loaddisplacement equilibrium path for various values of a and in the same graph we plot the bifurcation limit load obtained using Eq. 3. 3. we use the finite element model to analyze the following case: Pipe outside diameter Pipe wall thickness Pipe length Intermediate grips Pipe yield strength Hardening modulus 60. Lateral displacement at the tube center [mm] Fig. 2 looo^'U . Nonlinear equilibrium paths for nonstraight elastoplastic cylindrical pipes An actual pipe is not perfectly straight.1.
N.0). This expression incorporates the destabilizing/stabilizing effect of the internal/external pressure. Toscano/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 163 ] Bifurcation limit load : 3. in the loadsdisplacements space. Clearance between pipe and grips This is a more realistic case because. there is usually some clearance between the pipe and the grips. We can verify from this figure that the limit load increases when the size of the imperfection (a) diminishes. John Wiley and Sons.Case with clearance at the grips . Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from SIDERCA (Campana. ^W = 0. • No clearance between grips and pipe body (initial imperfection as per Eq. Of course. New York. NY: Pergamon Press. Clearance between grips and pipe body.2 4. The Analysis of Structures. We analyze the same case that was considered in the previous subsection but allowing for a clearance between the grip and the pipe body of 5 mm. New York. References [1] Hoff NJ. 4. (19) with a = 1. and that it tends to the bifurcation limit load when a ^ 0. Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity. for the cases in which the bifurcation limit loads are inside the elastic range. [2] Washizu K. . We constructed a finite element model to determine the nonlinear equilibrium paths. NY: 1956. Dvorkin. 4 we plot the nonlinear equilibrium paths corresponding to the cases: • Clearance between grips and pipe body (initial imperfection as per Eq.E. In Fig. 3. Conclusions We derived an approximate analytical expression for calculating the Euler buckling load of a pipe under axial compression and internal/external pressure. 1982. R.G. 2 — 100 1000 )"(T) (20) and between the rigid grip and the pipe we introduce a contact condition.2. From the results plotted in Fig.2^ . we showed via numerical examples that. ( 5nx\ 1000 + I 0. (20)). We consider the following initial imperfection for the pipe axis.^ Case with no clearance at the grips V Lateral displacement at the tube center [mm] Fig. 4 it is obvious that the only imperfection that has an influence on the pipe critical load is the imperfection that is coincident with the first pipe buckling mode. unless the grips are welded to the pipe body. these limit loads depend on the pipe imperfections. Loaddisplacement curves. the pipe limit loads tend to the bifurcation limit loads when the imperfections size tends to zero.37 kg/mm2 I f7 E •.0 . of imperfect (nonstraight) elastoplastic pipes. From the analysis of the nonlinear equilibrium paths it is possible to determine the limit loads of pipes under axial compression and internal/external pressure. however. Argentina).
New York. [4] Brush DO. Kamopp DC. NY: 1968. MA. McGrawHill. [6] Bathe KJ. 1975.N. R. [3] Crandall SH. Almroth BO. Finite Element Procedures. 1996. Toscano/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [5] ADINA R&D. NY. NJ: Prentice Hall. USA. The ADINA System. Dynamics of Mechanical and Electromechanical Systems. Dvorkin. Kurtz EF. . PridmoreBrown DC. Watertown.164 E. Buckhng of Bars. Plates and Shells. Englewood CUffs. McGrawHill. New York.G.
Stability. g(\) > 0 on F d (2) where g is the gap. All rights reserved. USA Abstract A new contact algorithm is presented which satisfies both stability and the contact patch test. Fax: +1 (617) 2532275. Keywords: Contact algorithm. should satisfy an ellipticity and an infsup condition [1. like other mixed formulations. We describe the solution approach using 2D conditions but the theory is directly applicable to 3D conditions as well. Numerical integration is carried out over subsegments based on the element topologies of both contacting surfaces. Furthermore. However. 1. the stabiHty and contact patch conditions [3]. which satisfies both requirements. a review of the literature indicates that current contact algorithms do not satisfy both. Hi denotes the total potential of body I not accounting for contact effects. a linear elastic material and frictionless conditions. Contact formulation Consider a system consisting of two bodies in contact (Fig. the contact problem can be expressed as a constrained miniBodyB * Corresponding author. Cambridge. not just using values at the nodes. contact formulations. The algorithm is applicable to both linear and quadratic element surface interpolations. In this paper. Patch test 1. and assuming contact. MA 02139. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. KlausJiirgen Bathe * Department of Mechanical Engineering.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. which describes its ability to represent a state of constant normal traction between two flexible contacting bodies.165 On a new segmenttosegment contact algorithm Nagi ElAbbasi. Two bodies in contact. we present a new contact algorithm. Using a Lagrange multiplier to enforce the contact constraint. 1). . V = {\\\eH\ v^OonFz)} (3) and H^ is the usual Sobolev space. and K represents the set of functions satisfying the nopenetration contact constraint K = {\\\eV. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. the contact algorithm should satisfy a contact patch condition. We classify the algorithm as a segmenttosegment procedure since it involves an accurate integration of the contact constraints over the surfaces of the contacting bodies. 77 Massachusetts Avenue. Tel: +1 (617) 2536645.2]. Email: kjb@mit. mization problem min[nA(v) + n5(v)] (1) where v represents any admissible displacement.J. Assuming infinitesimally small displacements. the minimization problem is Body A 2. Bathe (Editor) Fig. Introduction To guarantee stability and optimal convergence. The segmenttosegment algorithm involves a contact pressure interpolation and an accurate integration of the contact constraints over the surfaces of the contacting bodies. Finite element solution.
the integration intervals are based on 'subsegments' corresponding to any two neighboring nodes regardless of their surface of origin. (5) is then converted to a summation over the integration points (see Fig. and the other. . Thus.166 N. The variational form of the contact problem can be obtained by extremizing Eq.) • N' + g'o'] (10) =j:h'^< (6) where h'^ is the interpolation function (evaluated at point /) relating the displacement of the contactor point to the displacements of the contactor nodes. and ^ is a reference contact segment. Schematic of new contact algorithm. ElAbbasi. (5) regardless of the number of integration points used.J. Bathe/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics r ('+!)* Target / surface T T I sCV Contactor surface F^ f • \ X> 1 • Target node o Contactornode X Integration point D Target point Contact pressure distribution Fig. The contact constraint is evaluated at the integration points (not necessarily the nodes) along Fc. 2. and g^^ is the initial gap width. If. N' is the unit normal vector to measure the gap. x) where nc(v. (4) with respect to the field variables v and X.A) = y ^ g W d F c (4) Qh = [x. converted to an unconstrained saddle point problem involving the following functional We then assume that the discretized Lagrange multiplier space Q/j is nz. is the target as shown in Fig. and the segments K are defined on Fc . \ h e H'^\ X. The contact integral of Eq. This accurate integration feature enables the algorithm to pass the patch test for both linear and quadratic elements. It is important that we select a numerical quadrature rule that accurately evaluates the contact integral. One of the surfaces. F j . an exact evaluation is possible. Note that the constraint function method can be used to solve the contact problem without the need for distinguishing between active and inactive contact constraints [1]. however. Fc.(v. Let the superscript / denote an integration point. is assumed to be the contactor. the Lagrange multiplier value at integration point / is obtained as follows: A^^ = ^ / f ^ X (9) 3. with Ocontinuity between elements. For a point with coordinates x'^^^.\i^eP/{k)] (8) (5) and X is the contact pressure which can only be zero or positive. the displacement v'^ can be interpolated from the nodal displacements on Fc as follows: where the A^ are the independent (usually nodal) multipliers on Fc and the interpolation function values /f^^ depend on the polynomial degree and interelement continuity of the contact pressure field. 2. For each integration point on the contactor surface Fc the displacement of the target point on Fr is interpolated as follows: y^ = J2hH (7) where w' is the integration weight factor. Accordingly. any integration scheme involving integration points that are dictated by only one of the two surfaces cannot exactly evaluate Eq. K. X) = n^Cv) + OfiCv) + nc(v.V. This expression is piecewise continuous with possible discontinuities occurring at the nodes of either contact surfaces. The polynomial degree j must be less than or equal to that of the element interpolation. New contact algorithm The algorithm involves a masterslave approach. all given at integration point /. 2) n c = J2^c^'^(^c . where P/ denotes a polynomial of degree j .
elements the quadratic continuous pressure interpolation is optimal [3]. In the first. Bathe KJ. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1990. Conclusions A new segmenttosegment contact algorithm was developed which accurately evaluates the contact constraints between the contacting bodies. the patch test is also passed by the algorithm [3]. whereas with quadratic . Bathe KJ.r V/j References [1] Bathe KJ. and it was found that with linear elements it is best to use a Hnear continuous pressure interpolation. The algorithm provides optimal performance by satisfying both the stability and the contact patch conditions. ElAbhasi. 3. >P>0 (11) The infsup condition is satisfied if the constant P is independent of the element size. [2] Brezzi F. Comput Struct. Stability and patch conditions for contact algorithms Contact algorithms should satisfy the stability and patch conditions. KJ.J' 4 ® ^—^ (a) (b) Fig. 4. NJ: Prentice Hall. using linear or quadratic element displacement interpolations. Englewood Cliffs.j< 4 A. the algorithm involves two main steps.'p 4 A. 5. 3. In the second step. Stability is represented by an ellipticity and an infsup condition. not on the contact formulation. 1996. Bathe/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics ^ O Contactor node • Target node x Integration point 167 4 4 ^eO^< 4—^ i ><—r^—KO 4 \.82:2757.A . [3] ElAbbasi N. A discourse on the stability conditions for mixed finite element formulations. While the theory given here is directly applicable to 3D contact problems. The stability of the new contact algorithm has been assessed numerically. The infsup condition for contact problems can be represented as follows [3] inf sup frc^hg(yh)drc i/2. Stability and patch test performance of contact discretizations. Finite Element Procedures. Hence. Satisfying the ellipticity condition depends on the use of appropriate finite elements and boundary conditions. the contact expression on each subsegment is integrated using Gaussian or NewtonCotes integration rules as shown in Fig. the subsegment boundaries are determined by projecting the nodes of the target surface onto the contactor surface (only the edge nodes need to be projected for quadratic and higher order elements). submitted. the actual detailed solution algorithm needs still to be developed. and (b) trapezoidal rule. As mentioned above. Location of integration points based on: (a) Gaussian quadrature.
The end Ns Normal to spline surface N. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. especially in metal forming applications [2]. Splines. based on C^continous cubic splines.and 9noded elements. it can be easily implemented in standard FE codes.168 Modeling 2D contact surfaces using cubic splines N. This interpolation is applicable to both rigid and flexible bodies and it can be easily implemented in finite element codes.J. Canada Abstract A new algorithm for representing 2D contact surfaces is developed and implemented. Spline interpolation Fig. 5 King's College Road. Keywords: Contact. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. Bathe (Editor) are described using cubic splines passing through the FE nodes and possessing C^continuity. Even when higher order elements. M5S 3G8. Spline based surface interpolation and normal vectors . Ring compression. Introduction Most finite element based contact formulations rely on the element interpolation functions to describe the contact surface and to impose the kinematic contact conditions. Lagrange multipliers. 1. Smooth surfaces 1. Surface approximation. Consequently. the contact surface is defined as a sequence of lines (or curves) connecting the FE nodes with only C°continuity.Normal to element a Spline surface Element surface Fig. Toronto.ElAbbasi. The interpolation function passes through the end points po and p3. and possesses a local support characteristic. Email: meguid@mie. In cases involving contact with a rigid target. The contact surfaces * Corresponding author. 2. In this case.utoronto. which simplifies the representation of the contact constraints. The predicted contact stresses are also less sensitive to the mismatch in the meshes of the different contacting bodies. The normal vector associated with the resulting surface profile is uniquely defined at all points. This approach has resulted in significant improvement in the solution accuracy. while the intermediate points pi and p2 dictate the shape of the curve. we develop an algorithm for smooth contact surface interpolation (Fig.A. The new surface interpolation does not influence the element calculations. ON. A numerical example is used to illustrate the advantages of smooth representation of contact surfaces.ca © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. 1).Meguid* Engineering Mechanics and Design Laboratory. it has not been used to describe the surfaces involved in contact between flexible bodies since the analytical surface profiles that describe the initial geometry cannot be used to describe the deformed one. 1 shows a parametric cubic spline segment connecting two FE nodes. However. All rights reserved. are used the contact surface is still nonsmooth at the exterior nodes. Consequently. Tel/Fax: +1 (416) 9785741. analytical surface profiles and spline interpolation functions have been used to describe the rigid surface and its normal vector [1]. The results show a significant improvement in accuracy compared to traditional piecewise elementbased surface interpolation. Cubic splines. the normal vector is not uniquely defined at the nodes. University of Toronto.S. In this paper. such as the 8.
However. Their location is selected based on the specific spline form adopted. For A = 20. the matrix must be solved again for the new location of the intermediate points. 2 was applied to the symmetry surface of the ring. the active contact constraints are imposed using Lagrange multipliers. 3. 2(b)). the contact search is divided into two stages. however. ElAbbasi.fw^ + l \u' \u^ (2) 0< w < 1 Two modified interpolation function are applied for spline segment at sharp comers and for those that intersect a lines of symmetry. only one quarter of the model was discretized (Fig. simple and fast interpolation functions can be constructed where the intermediate control points can be obtained without resorting to matrix solution. The element interpolation results in unrealistic numerical stress oscillations. A higher number of elements results in more uniform contact stress profiles. If the master node is inside the search region. The purpose of the first stage is to obtain a quick estimate of the proximity of a master node to a specific spline segment. The active constraint set is modified after each iteration step and a full contact search is performed. The results reveal that using splines (A^ = 20 and 'N = 40) leads to a uniform contact stress distribution. In view of the symmetry condition. Interpolation functions can be constructed to satisfy a prescribed tangential vector. According to the convex hull property. For each segment a. S. 0 < M < 1 (1) 169 cedure. It involves a ring compressed between two beams. When the location of the FE nodes changes. 3 shows the contact stress distribution when the applied displacement is da = 2. a prescribed tangential direction or a prescribed normal direction [3]. 4. An incremental vertical displacement da = 0 . interference is checked between the master node and the control polygon of the spline segment. an accurate iterative contact check is performed in the second stage of the search. while the intermediate points dictate the smoothness of the curve. The solution to the saddlepoint problem can be expressed in matrix form as: K C^ C 0 (3) where the C matrix is the assembled constraint matrix. In this stage. 2(a)): L = Vd. these vectors are generally not available in standard FE meshes. these oscillations lead to ^ intermediate regions of noncontact between the beam and the ring. Solution strategy The contact can generally be expressed in the form of a variational inequaUty [5]. the spline curve can be considered as a linear blend of two parabolas q"~^ and q"'. Accordingly.A. [6]. More details on the solution algorithm are provided in Ref.u^ — \u x«(„) = [p« pf lu^ . The contact stresses were normahzed by the bending stiffness of the beam. This property is known as local support. the spline curve cannot exceed the geometric bounds of the control polygon [3]. To overcome this. 5. Fig. the location of the intermediate control points for all the spline segments are coupled. The spUne curve can be expressed directly in terms of the coordinates of the two nodal points defining the segment and their two adjacent surface nodes: — ^w' \. Meguid/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics control points po and ps are located at the finite element nodes. The overhead associated with this process does not offset the advantages of second order continuity. C^ is the highest degree of continuity that is achievable using cubic splines. They can be obtained by solving a predominantly tridiagonal matrix expressing the continuity equations [3]. Lagrange multipliers satisfy the contact constraints exactly without any interpenetration between the contacting bodies. the location of the intermediate control points is governed by a few nodes adjacent to the segment. The beam was modeled using 40 x 5 fournoded elements as shown in Fig. However. Contact search The use of high order polynomial functions to represent the contact surface can slow down the contact search pro .8. while a variable mesh of A^ x 5 elements was / used for the ring. UnUke penaltybased methods. 2(b). By employing C^continuity. h = t — \ and /? = 8. and G is the gap vector. even when N — 60. In this case. The following dimensions were selected (Fig. the exact target point and gap/penetration are determined. In this stage. In this case. Numerical example One numerical example was selected to assess the accuracy of the newly developed smooth surface interpolation technique. Overhauser splines offer an alternative approach that ensures C^continuity without requiring prescribed tangential or normal vectors [4]. In this work. they are the most suitable interpolation form for finite element contact problem involving flexible bodies.N. where each parabola passes through the two surface nodes pg and p" as well as a neighboring surface node (one from each side) x'^ (w) = {\u) q"^ {u + \) + uct{u).
0 0. Contact length (x/L) Fig. On the treatment of frictional contact in shell structures using variational inequalities. [2] Santos A.1 0. Spline (N=20) Element (N=20) « 0. [3] Farin G. Meguid SA. Toronto: Academic Press. [4] Brewer JA.05 0. Contact strategies to deal with different tool descriptions in static explicit FEM for 3D sheetmetal forming simulation.A. which simplifies the representation of the contact constraints. and (b) FE mesh through the finite element nodes to provide an accurate description of the contact surfaces.46:275295. Rigid contact modelled by CAD surface. Other numerical examples provided in Ref. Curves and Surfaces for Computeraided Geometric Design — A Practical Guide. Eng Comput 1990. The results reveal a significant improvement in the prediction of contact stresses and contact area.11:132137. Contact stress distribution along ring for different ring mesh densities.50:277291. Compression of a ring between two beams: (a) schematic. Conclusions A new technique for interpolating the contact surface in 2D finite element problems was developed and implemented.7:344348. 5. Cubic splines with C^continuity were interpolated . Klarbring A. [5] ElAbbasi N. The selected splines were shown to possess a local support characteristic. these stresses are still less accurate than those obtained using splines. Meguid / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics PI B PI (a) (b) Fig.170 N. Czekanski A. Comput Graphics 1977. Meguid SA. On the modelling of smooth contact surfaces using cubic splines.2 o 0.15 0. 1997. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1999. Makinouchi A. 6. ElAbbasi. Visual interaction with Overhauser curves and surfaces. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2000.2 References [1] Hansson E. The selected numerical example illustrates the advantages of the newly developed representation of contact surfaces.3 Element (N=60) Spline (N=40) Element (N=40) "S 0. 3. Anderson DC. J Mater Proc Technol 1995. [6] ElAbbasi N. [6] show that the predicted contact stresses are less sensitive to the mismatch in the meshes of the different contacting bodies. accepted. 2.
In those papers. The selection of optimal parameters that optimize inplane bending behavior for arbitrary aspect ratios is shown to coincide with a triangle element published in 1991. They are useful. The optimal elements provided by both formulations coalesced. The present paper studies the results from the point of view of finite element templates [12] and confirms that the 1992 optimal element is indeed unique for an individual triangle. Email: carlos@titan. and which present several solutions to this challenge. The main motivations behind this idea are: (1) To improve the element performance while avoiding the use of midpoint degrees of freedom. In fact. These freedoms are troublesome for individual triangles since they conflict with data structures of most generalpurpose FEM codes. Normal rotational freedom. Macroelement. Midpoint nodes have lower valency than corner nodes. Template. do not fit the data stmctures of standard commercial FEM codes. as well as the treatment of junctures in shells and folded plates. Comer drilling degrees of freedom. shells and beams. Plane stress. Keywords: Finite element method. and the Assumed Natural Deviatoric Strain formulation. (3) To simplify the modeling of connections between plates. Felippa * Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and Center for Aerospace Structures.38] that appeared in the mid and late 1980s.J. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. A summary of this early work is given in the Introduction of an article by Bergan and Felippa [1]. Fax: +1 (303) 4924990. Free parameter. The present study goes beyond that point in leaving tangential hierarchical midpoint freedoms in the triangle template. It is shown that all elements of this geometry and freedom configuration that pass the patch test can be generated through a template with six free parameters: one basic and five of higher order. Summary The idea of including normalrotation degrees of freedom at comer points of planestress finite elements — the socalled drilling freedoms — is an old one. The macroelement assembly may possess internal degrees of freedom represented as the tangential displacement deviation at midpoints to further improve performance. CO 803090429. All rights reserved. demand extra effort in mesh definition and generation. University of Colorado.colorado. . Boulder. the subject laid largely dormant throughout the 1970s. It was revived in various publications [1. Quadrilateral element.171 Optimal triangular membrane elements with drilling freedoms C. Membrane. Both formulations involved free parameters. * Corresponding author. 9degrees of freedom triangular membrane elements with comer drilling freedoms is studied in some generahty. (2) To solve the 'normal rotation problem' of smooth shells analyzed with finite element programs that carry six degrees of freedom per node. A threepart paper pubhshed in 1992 [911] presented a triangle that performs optimally as regards inplane bending for rectangular mesh units of arbitrary aspect ratio. This is done by using the triangular element with drilling degrees of freedom as the membrane component of a facet triangular shell element with 18 degrees if freedom. Tel: +1 (303) 4926547. Bathe (Editor) Many efforts to develop membrane elements with drilling freedoms were made during the period 19641975 with inconclusive results.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. however. USA Abstract The construction of optimal 3node. and can cause modeling difficulties in nonlinear analysis and dynamics. Shell element. Triangular element. elements was derived with two different techniques: the Extended Free Formulation.A. where it is observed that Irons and Ahmadin in their 1980 book [2] had dismissed the task as hopeless. A similar study isconducted for an optimal quadrilateral macroelement formed with four triangles. Optimal element 1.
Membrane triangles with comer drilling freedoms: I. Felippa CA. Comput Struct 1986. On the Allman triangle and a related quadrilateral element. de la Fuente HM. Recent advances in finite element templates. Saxe Cobum Publications: 2000. Hinton E (Eds). Finite Element Handbook series. Implementation and performance evaluation. A refined fournoded membrane element with rotational degrees of freedom. Techniques of Finite Elements.12:189201.22:10651067. [4] Cook RD. and adjustable stiffness. Membrane triangles with corner drilling freedoms: III.50:2569. where tangential freedoms on internal edges can be eliminated by static condensation. Felippa CA. Militello C. The ANDES element. Felippa /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics triangular membrane element with drilling freedoms. [5] Cook RD. [6] Bergan PG. Felippa CA.26:26452655. [3] Allman DJ. Felippa CA.O. Computational Mechanics for the TwentyFirst Century.12:203239. [2] Irons BM.A. Allman DJ. 7198. Ahmad S. In: Hughes TJR. A plane hybrid element with rotational D.12:163187. 1980. Haugen B. MacNeal RF.19:18. Efficient implementation of a [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] . Harder RL. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1987. Comput Struct 1988. Felippa CA. Finite Elem Anal Des 1992. 1986. Alvin K. Alexander S. Membrane triangles with comer drilling freedoms: II. A triangular membrane element with rotational degrees of freedom.172 C. Felippa CA. Finite Elem Anal Des 1992.F. A compatible triangular element including vertex rotations for plane elasticity analysis. The EFF element. Chichester: Ellis Horwood.28:7588.24:14991508. Finite Elem Anal Des 1992. 139152. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1985. Swansea: Pineridge Press. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1988. [7] References [1] Bergan PG. pp. In: Topping BHV (Ed). A compatible triangular element including vertex rotations for plane elasticity analysis. pp. Comput Struct 1984. in the construction of quadrilateral macroelements.
We suppose that the body is clamped on Fi x (0. we provide numerical results in the study of a onedimensional test problem. the mechanical problem has a unique weak solution. On F3 x (0. 3) with outer Lip" schitz boundary F. Tel. Wear arises when a hard rough surface slides against a softer surface. SUding contact. Wear. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Bathe (Editor) numerical simulation in the study of a onedimensional test problem. Campus Sur. 52 Avenue de Villeneuve. It represents the unwanted removal of materials from surfaces of contacting bodies occurring in relative motion. digs into it.: ^34 (981) 563100. Finally. Email: jramon@usc. The variational analysis of the model was provided in Ciulcu et al. [1]. Sofonea^. M.R. using finite elements with implicit discretization in time. In Section 2. [6] by introducing the wear function which measures the wear of the contact surface and which satisfies Archard's law. In Section 3. F2 and F3. [3]. A general model of quasistatic frictional contact with wear between deformable bodies was derived in Stromberg et al. divided into three disjoint measurable parts Fi.M. Facultade de Matemdticas. while the numerical analysis was performed in FernandezGarcia et al. The process is quasistatic and the wear is modeled with a version of Archard's law. in Section 4 we present numerical results. which results in the wear of the contacting surface. The wear is modeled with a simplified version of . we obtain optimal order error estimates. T). which shows that under a smallness assumption on the given data. we summarize our main results and provide * Corresponding author. Finite elements. This model was used in various papers (see. Viano^ ^ Departamento de Matemdtica Aplicada. France Abstract We consider a mathematical model which describes the sliding frictional contact with wear between a viscoelastic body and a rigid moving foundation. We present a summary of our recent results on the variational and numerical analysis of the model. We model the process as in Stromberg et al. 15706 Santiago de Compostela. for example. such that measTi > 0. Error estimates. we analyze a fully discrete scheme.173 Numerical analysis of a sliding viscoelastic contact problem with wear J. A viscoelastic body occupies the domain ^ C M^ (^ = 1. where existence and uniqueness results of weak solutions have been proved. and its asperities plough a series of grooves.5]).J. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.es © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Rochdi et al. [4. J ) . Archard's law. 2. Fax: +34 (981) 597054. J. Let [0. Spain ^ Lahoratoire de Theorie des Systemes. The problem of sliding frictional contact with wear The physical setting is as follows. We assume that there is only sliding contact. which is always maintained. under appropriate regularity assumptions on the exact solution. Universite de Perpignan. The paper is organized as follows. [6] from thermodynamic considerations. Introduction Wear is one of the plagues which reduce the lifetime of modem machine elements. Generally. we present the variational formulation of the mechanical problem and state an existence and uniqueness result. T] be the time interval of interest. Here. All rights reserved. T) the body is in contact with a moving rigid foundation. a mathematical theory of friction and wear should be a generalization of experimental facts and it must be in agreement with the laws of thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The present paper is devoted to the study of a quasistatic problem of sliding contact with wear. surface tractions act on r2 x (0. T). 2. Numerical simulations 1. We also derive error estimates and. 66860 Perpignan. Keywords: Viscoelasticity. Finally. and a volume force acts in ^ x (0. FernandezGarcia^'*.
Y \ v = 0 on Ti. 2 . q')Q = (q. FernandezGarcia et al. related to the constitutive law. Assume that p e L^CFs) and there exists P^ such that P(x) > y * > 0 a.)Q represents the inner product on Q and (•. V). v) = P\Hv\Vv dfl VM. T]. and a stress field a \[0.?„i for n = 1. 7). Eq. [1]). .e(v))Q + j{u{t). V). . To solve the semilinear equality obtained. 7). 0 e ( M f ) (erf. {•. 7 ] .174 J.T]^ Q such that cf{t) = ^e{u(t)) + (5e{u(t)) = Wt e [0. v^ denote the normal traces of the elements u and v. the solution satisfies u e C\[0. Q) be the solution of problem P. Theorem 1. eiw'))^ a. we denote ^ the step size kn = tn .ln this section no summation is considered over the repeated index n and. [2]). a} if I^IL^CFJ) < Po + j ( 5 " f . A and let k = max„ kn be the maximal step size. w') = ( / „ w'h Here «Q G V^ is an appropiate approximation of MQWe have the following existence and uniqueness result. = 0 on r3}. t e (0. It has the following form: Problem P*^ Find u^'' = {wf }lo ^ ^^ and a^^ = {af }„% C Q' such that: a f = q3^. (1) a e Moreover. The fully discrete approximation method is based on the backward Euler scheme. we assume that the tangential displacements on the contact surface vanish. Moreover. q')Q V^ e Q. 7]. we have the following result.2le(5Mf) + ^ g / . q'e Q\ {a(t).7]. Assume the conditions stated in Theorem 2 and ii e L~(0. when the displacement field u is known. The operators 21 and 0 . we recall that in our model. 7]: 0 = ro < fi < • • • < r/v = 7. c will denote positive constants which are independent on the parameters of discretization h and k. In practice. To this end. F3 and 21 such that problem P has a unique solution {«. Theorem 3. ')Y denotes the inner product on V given by (u. let V^ c V and Q^ C Q be finite element spaces to approximate the spaces V and Q. Since the body is in bilateral contact with the foundation it follows that w f wov on F^ X (0. the fixed point algorithm used in the proof of Theorem 2 is directly applied. equivalently. and the dot above represents the derivative with respect to the time variable. Moreover. T] ^ V.v) To discretize in time. r e [0. With these assumptions. as . Under reasonable assumptions on the constitutive functions it follows that 21 is a Lipschitz continuous strongly monotone operator on Q and 0 is a Lipschitz continuous operator on Q. V) x C([0. 7] ^ V represents the body forces and tractions and UQ e V is the initial displacement. a) e C^([0.R. Fi. it follows that / G C([0. (xf l^^Lo C V^ x g^ denote the solution of fully discrete problem P^^. (2) Archard's law. 3. w(0) = MoHere V and Q denote the spaces V = {v e H\Q. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the normal depth of the material that is lost. j = l. Under the assumptions of Theorem 1.V). Q).T].. we now consider a fully discrete approximation of problem P. The wellposedness of this problem is given by the following result. Let {u. Problem P. (2) allows us to obtain the wear of the contact surface. the variational formulation of the mechanical problem of sliding frictional contact with wear is the following one (see Ciulcu et al. everywhere in the sequel. there exists S Po > 0 which depends only on Q. if (1) holds. Q = [a = (Oij) \ aij = ajj e = L^(Q) i. are defined on Q with the range in 2 . we consider a partition of the time interval [0.e. respectively. Here /? > 0 is a discretization parameter. r. The element / : [0. under appropriate regularity assumptions on the body forces and tractions. and let {wf. 7]. [3]. then problem P^^ has a unique solution. Finally. a penaltyduality algorithm is suggested (see FemandezCara et al. . Now.d].v)^ Vr € V. 7]. the process is quasistatic and we use a KelvinVoigt viscoelastic constitutive law. In the study of the discrete problems. {f(t).e(v))Q where e : V ^ Q is the deformation operator. 7. the wear function is identified as an increase in gap in the normal direction between the body and the foundation or.^ e V\ where ^ is a given function related to the velocity of the foundation and u^. Vu.v)v = {e{u). For a sequence {^n]n=o^ we denote 8wn = (Wn — Wni)/kn. Theorem 2.e. Let ^QH : G ^ G^ be the orthogonal projection operator defined through the relation ("^Q^q. x e Vj. Then. Fully discrete approximation Following FemandezGarcia et al. Find a displacement field u : [0. j denotes the functional j( u. C([0. V £ V.
2. 0. 1 + ^l«lL~(o.^ 0. t) o{xj) (4+^)^"' 99 = . and there exists c > 0 such that inf \vw^\v<ch (/^eO(r)lG<c/z Wv eVnH^(QY. 8 s). Corollary 4. are drawn. UQ{X) Then the fully discrete method converges. s/m. M„ . <c\v\H2r^. 6 e = e. Assume moreover that the initial value UQ is chosen in such a way that \UQ T = lOs. In this section.a f Ig + \Un . i.01.<rf le + l<n<N VT G e.8 0. 99Ae'vdx.r.J.005 The exact solution of the above problem.5. 1 provided by the algorithm and the corresponding error with the exact solution.^eO(T)le > 0 as /^ ^ 0. A 0.01 .4 0. r 2 = 0. 1).9900 1(7 . Problem TID: displacement field and exact error for different time values. . some numerical experiments have been done in the study of onedimensional test problems. The following error estimate is obtained as in Corollary 4.M^IV w^\v)]. In Fig. Let the assumption in the above corollary hold. the difference with exact solution (4) at these time values is shown.— {Ax + l)e\ < ch. Numerical results In order to verify the accuracy of the numerical method described in the above section. called problem n Z ) . 1). 2. Exact error Displacement field 0.6 0. is given by = A — \x Wx e (0. Assume. ^e = lOOe. 1. max {\(jn . ] J Then the following error estimate is obtained: m^ax^(a„ .v) + max ( inf \Un l<n<N^w>'eVh From Theorem 3. calculated with parameters h = 0. Assume the conditions stated in Theorem 3.0. The test problem P has been considered for the following data: Q = (0. r 3 = {i}. (3) By using the discrete method described in the above section. that the initial value UQ is chosen in such a way that wo UQ\V 9900 . 1. in Fig. Ti = {0}. 4. we resume the numerical results obtained.01 and k = 0.a > 0 such that inf \vw^\v P = 104 N . we show the evolution in time of the displacement of the points x = 0.dh'' "iv e H^{QY r\V. which exhibit the performance of the algorithm.5. u(x.7 0.UQ\V > 0 as /? . we have implemented the numerical method in a standard workstation. Also.e. the displacement fields for several time values {t = 0. A ^ : 0. Moreover. VTGg. Corollary 5. y 175 4. we derive the convergence of the fully discrete method.5 0. moreover.a f Ig + M„ .R.9 Fig. FemdndezGarcia et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Then we have the following error estimate: m^a^x^((r„ .25.w f v) ^ 0 as /z. and there exist c. 1.uf\y) < c(h + k). .uf\v) < c( \uo .
Klarbring A.7 0. 0.3.003392 0.025 0.0025 0.005 0.002883 0.001 0.002872 0.176 J.000349 0.007181 0.007199 0.~ x=0.013749 0.001442 0. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Displacement field x 10* Exact error 25 1 x0 5 XKO 0.6 Fig.005 0.002862 0. Moreno C.8 0. Finally. (2).25 . 3.025 0.51:105126.25 . 3.003198 0. the wear function can be obtained. Submitted. 0.1 0. A quasistatic viscoelastic contact problem with normal compliance and friction. [4] Rochdi M.3 0.. [3] FemandezGarcia JR. 2.25.000287 0.028167 0.027474 0.9 1 0.001 h ^ 01 . References [1] Ciulcu C.028738 0. ^ " "• ^ ^\.2 0.002879 0.014363 0.007236 0.002822 0. 0.013411 0. 1 and corresponding scaled exact error. Table 1 Exact error values for several discretization parameters Fig.^ ^ ^ 0. Sofonea M. L i ^ ^ x=1 1 0.001439 0.05 0.007209 0. Appl Anal 1998. Evolution of the wear function through the time In Table 1.003142 0. Sofonea M.001422 0.4 ^^^ ^ ~^^^.028809 0.6 0.13874157.000855 0.8 0. Shillor M. ^ . ^ " ~ " _ ^ n ~ ^ . 0..000287 0.000718 0. Math Comput 1988. [2] FemandezCara E.4 0.4 ^ ^ 0. ^ ^ ' ~ ^ ^^ "^ ".028853 0.000287 0.007145 0.000719 0. J Elast 1998.^ ^ ~  " • " .014291 0. the exact error values for several discretization parameters k and h are shown. asymptotic behaviour (3) is obtained with c = 0.5 0.33:18171836. .^ ^~^—^_ 0. Sofonea M._ ^^. ki 01 .01 0.001436 0.._ 0. HoarauMantel TH. From here.3 0.5 0.2 0.2  ^ ^ .002858 0.028594 0. [6] Stromberg N.001061 0.1 0.001593 0..014079 0.45 " " s ~ ^ — x=0. Problem 7 I D : evolution of displacements of points x = 0.05 0. ^ .5. Johansson L.68:409422. Numerical analysis of a quasistatic viscoelastic sliding frictional contact problem with wear. from Eq.014421 0.5 k 0.9 i _ 0. Sofonea M. 3 0.000703 0.014399 0.15 " • ^ ^ .01421 0.026276 0. _ .35f 0.7 0.R..01 0. Viano JM.004078 0.1on?i_— ^ 0. Shillor M. Evolution of the wear function through the time. Submitted.000288 . [5] Rochdi M. FerndndezGarcia et al. Derivation and analysis of a generalized standard model for contact friction and wear.5 „ x=1 .0025 0. independent of h and k. Viscoelastic sliding frictional contact problems with wear.000721 0. A Quasistatic contact problem with directional friction and damped response. Critical Point Approximation through exact regularization. ~^^^.000715 0.50:139153.007041 0. Its evolution through the time is shown in Fig.006910 0. Int J Solid Struct 1996.
The approach is here extended to deal with a simple example of fracture propagation. Springhetti^. Trento. Frangi'^'*. 1 gives a planar representation of the actual meshes adopted for the sphericalcap crack. especially when cracks are directly represented as displacement discontinuity loci and the traction integral equation is employed to enforce static conditions on the crack itself. Italy ^Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering. Fig. Fracture propagation. R. Sphericalcap crack Let us consider a sphericalcap crack bounded by a circular front and subjected to a remote stress 033 (see ^ Fig. and.it © 2001 PubHshed by Elsevier Science Ltd. the SGBEM appears to be a very attractive tool to carry out incremental crack extension analysis for two reasons: (1) the required remeshing work is greatly reduced. Keywords: 3D linear fracture mechanics. Rovizzi'' ^Department of Structural Engineering.frangi@ponmi. Novati''. and (2) SIFs can be accurately evaluated through extrapolation from the displacement discontinuity field even for rather coarse meshes. Politecnico of Milan. The displacement discontinuity method. Numerical examples 2.3. the SGBEM (see the review paper by Bonnet et al. * Corresponding author.J. However. Email: attilio. [1]) is based on a variational (weak) version of the integral equations. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.177 Numerical fracture mechanics in 3D by the symmetric boundary element method A. Bathe (Editor) . The analysis has been carried out for three values of a (a = 15°. using three meshes with 40. Italy Abstract Threedimensional linear elastic fracture mechanics problems are addressed by means of the symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method (SGBEM). For this problem. in order to explore the potentialities of the SGBEM in this domain. 112 and 240 elements on the spherical surface. subsequently it is utiUzed to simulate a propagation process for an elliptical crack within a finite body. [2]. All rights reserved. Boundary element method 1. University ofTrento. 30°. The technique is first shown to be efficient and accurate with reference to the stress intensity factors evaluations for a nonplanar crack. M. obtained by prescribing that the polar coordinate p equals a(j). numerical results in terms of SIFs are given in [4] for a given range of a. 2. recent results obtained by applied mathematicians have led to innovative algorithms which are now being adopted by the engineering BE community and have served as a basis for the fractureoriented implementation of the SGBEM in 3D recently presented by Frangi et al. the dual BEM and the symmetric Galerkin BEM (SGBEM) share the above features and permit single domain formulations for problems with single or multiple cracks embedded in finite bodies or in the infinite medium. a is the radius of the spherical surface and 2a is the subtended angle. 45°) and v = 0. The evaluation of the double surface integrals in the singular cases represents probably the main obstacle which has hampered the application of the method in the 3D context. thus entaiUng double integrations. Results in terms of SIFs are presented in Table 1 (quarterpoints elements are used along the crack front and the SIFs are evaluated through extrapolation from the displacement discontinuity field).1. Introduction In the numerical modelling of linear elastic fracture mechanics problems. Compared with the finite element method. boundary element methods have distinct advantages over domain approaches. At difference from the other two techniques. G. through the adoption of a Galerkin discretization scheme. leads to a symmetric linear equation system. 1). Milan.
Symmetric Galerkin boundary element method. positioned in the middle and inclined at an angle y = 45° with respect to the horizontal plane (Fig.B\Kiji\ The crack front extension a{l) (l being a curvilinear coordinate running along the front) is described by means of the generalized Paris law: Aa AN and Aa{i) is scaled so that.776 2. h/R = 6). Fig. Fatiguegrowth of an ellipticalshaped crack point along the front.267 (30°) 0. 000 MPa.. Fig.849 0. ^33 min = 0 MPa). a cyclic loading (J^^i^) is applied to the cylinder bases (03^3 ^^ax = 100 MPa.845 0.665 (45°) 0.966 (15°) 0. along the polar angle ^o^ ^0 tan — = 2 2Kij (1) Let us now consider a cylinder of length h and radius R containing an elliptical shaped crack of major semiaxis a and minor semiaxis b {b/a = 0. 2). (2) References [1] Bonnet M.520 0.51:669704. .966 0. B = 1.263 0. Material parameters are chosen as follows: E = 100.525 0. Elliptical crack: initial geometry and crack front propagation. For each Kieff = Kj {. R/a = 10.88. C = 1. propagation occurs in the plane perpendicular to the crack front itself. The fatigue crack growth of the crack is analyzed by adopting the same criteria for incremental propagation as in [3].5463 X 10^^ m = 3.3. 1.. 2 illustrates the configuration of the crack after the first propagation steps which compares well with the results presented by Mi [3]. 2.5.964 0.769 0.266 0. Table 1 Sphericalcap crack: computed SIFs {K ^ = {llTi)\l7ta sin a ) for different values of the subtended angle 20?} Mesh 1 2 3 Ki/K^ (15°) 0.178 A. Appl Mech Rev 1998. Frangi et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics mesh A A A A A A mesh 2 meshZ Fig. at each step.655 0.527 (45°) 0.851 (30°) 0. = CK:.662 0.774 0.2. Maier G. v = 0. the maximum value Aa^ax is equal to a prescribed value. Polizzotto C. Sphericalcap crack: loading conditions and meshes adopted.
Southampton 1996. Cazzani A. 1. 2000. . ThreeDimensional Analysis of Crack Growth. Springhetti R. Vol. Brust FW (Eds). Novati G. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993. On the numerical implementation of the symmetric Galerkin BEM in 3D fracture analysis. Ortiz M.36:36753701. 179 [4] Xu G. Tech Science Press. Frangi et al. 8186. In: Atluri SN. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [2] Frangi A. pp. [3] Mi Y. Computational Mechanics Pubhcations. Advances in Computational Engineering Sciences. A variational boundary integral method for the analysis of 3D cracks of arbitrary geometry modelled as continuous distributions of dislocation loops.A.
93 mm AA6111T4 aluminum sheet) are stamped from tooling to produce a square pan.7]. The outer panel (Fig. emphasis should be placed on tuning the shape of the assembly and not on the shapes of the unassembled components.180 Spring back of automotive assemblies P. Thomas ^ M. ON K7L 4V1. Kingston.O. hood panels are often the subject of spring back analyses because hoods are highly visible products and prone to low spots.O. Assembly.C.05 mm deep and did not have a dome. Kingston. When the panels are removed from the tooling. assembly. trimming. Introduction Many authors have examined spring back of automotive panels with the finite element method [17].J. lb). Box 8400.93 mm thick AA6111T4 aluminum sheet. trimming. This panel was then trimmed to create a channel 200 mm wide with a dome in the bottom (Fig.J. but these may be corrected after assembly with the inner panel. Keywords: Spring back. Box 8400. Experimental An inner and outer panel were each stamped on an experimental press using tooling shown in Fig. For the inner panel (Fig. ON K7L 5L9. P.6 mm AA5754 aluminum sheet) and an outer panel (0. All rights reserved. and flanging [6.1. * Corresponding author. ON K7L 5L9. la. as the technology for conducting finite element simulations increased. An inner panel (1. Approach 2. Bathe (Editor) . After trimming. The manufacturing process (including forming. Finite element analysis. The analysis may reveal the tendency for low spots to appear. Finn^ ^ Metal Forming Analysis Corporation. Ic). as the inner panel (Fig. After forming. and spring back) is simulated using LSDYNA software. spring back analyses were conducted on panels that underwent subsequent forming operations such as restriking. the component is allowed to spring back. the outer panel was trimmed to the same width. For example. Email: mfac@post. le). 2. The shape of the new assembly was determined after it was removed from the spot welding fixture. the inner and outer panels were attached with spot welds. Id) was 19. Spring back of the assembly is shown to be a function of the spring back of its components and the method by which they are connected. D. Fax: Hi (613) 5475397. The outer was formed from 0. The channel height and dome heights were each 38. 200 mm. Galbraith^'*. Earlier papers focused on the spring back of the first draw panel [ 1 5]. In accordance with the concept of the functional build [8]. Tel: +1 (613) 5475395. Hemming 1.N. Canada ^ Alcan International Ltd. Canada Abstract This paper presents results from a forming simulation of an experimental component that is representative of an automotive assembly. The methods outlined in this paper allow computer simulations to assume a role in constructing a functional build.kosone. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Canada ^ Centre for Automotive Materials and Manufacturing P. Sheet metal forming. Results show that including contact between the inner and outer panel during spring back is important for obtaining realistic spring back predictions. their shape will change due to spring back. 2579 Highway #2 E. After trimming and assembly by spotwelding. In later years. Spring back analysis is undertaken largely to determine the final shape of a component.1 mm. a 470 mm square blank made of AA5754 aluminum sheet was first stamped into a square pan with a dome in the bottom. The 'sprung' shape of the panels was determined after forming and after trimming. Kingston.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.
The blank. After simulating the first draw process. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics a) b) 181 d) Fig. (e) The outer panel after trimming. and a new dynain file was created for each of the inner and outer panel. The blank material was modelled as an isotropic material with a Von Mises yield criterion. (a) Initially the blank was made up of 400 elements. Nodal rigid bodies were created a) b) Fig. the nodes in the region of the spot welds were identified.EC. Only one quarter of the geometry was modelled due to symmetry conditions. and the backup is not used. A forming model was run for each of the inner and outer panels. (b) After forming the inner. the dynain file was read into DYNAFORM [9]. The spring back analysis was conducted for each part individually as it came out of the forming tooling. Coulomb friction was implemented between the blank and the tooling. Tool elements were considered to be rigid. (c) The inner panel after trimming. 1. this file contained the effective plastic strain and the stress tensor for each integration point of each element. The tools were constructed from 4. As well.2. (c) the formed outer had 11. the tools are inverted. and adaptive constraints. Within DYNAFORM. 2.333 elements. (b) The inner panel. 2). Also within DYNAFORM. Galbraith et al. 2. Modelling The experimental approach outlined above was simulated using LSDYNA version 950d running on a COMPAQ XPIOOO workstation. In order to trim the excess material from the inner and outer panels. (d) The outer panel.401 elements. the excess material was removed.333 for the inner panel (Fig. Seven integration points were selected for the blank elements in order to accurately map the through thickness stress distribution for the spring back calculation. but due to adaptive meshing this increased to 11. For forming the outer. containing only those nodes and elements inside the trim line. element connectivity. (a) Tooling for forming the inner panel. . the blank had 13. Initially.377 elements. the blank in each model contained only 400 'type 16' fully integrated shell elements. LSDYNA wrote out a file named 'dynain' that contained the final nodal locations.401 elements for the outer panel and 13. Spring back predictions were obtained for the inner and outer panels after trimming.
Discussion and conclusions The 'as formed' inner and outer panels are shown in Fig. Spring back predictions for the full assembly were obtained at either two or three intermediate time steps based on convergence rates and the automatic time step controls. With a functional build. Zdisplacements are relative to the displacement of the nodes pointed to by the arrows. The low spot at the centre of the outer panel is 0. Galbraith et al. was used with automatic time step control and artificial stabilization. 4. In order to remove rigid body translations in the zdirection.C.00 3 1 ' zconstraints Fig. the zdisplacement at the location of one of the spot welds was set to zero. 3. 4. Note the low spot in the centre of the outer panel. in a functional build. the assembled component is shown prior to spring back. Obviously.34 2. In Fig. 5b) the flange of the outer panel has passed through the inner panel. 4 represent the amount of displacement in the zdirection that occurs during spring back. thinner gauge and lower strains. parts are evaluated by assembling them with their mating parts. Results 4. the panels are shown after trimming and spring back. so all zdisplacements shown are relative to this point.21 . tool engineers attempt to make dimensionally accurate parts that can then be assembled with mating parts. LSDYNA model predictions of effective plastic strain after forming. The techniques outlined here allow the benefits of sheet forming simulations (particularly the evaluation of tooling designs prior to manufacturing a forming tool) to be applied to the functional build process. The inner panel (a) has higher strains because it is drawn deeper than the outer panel (b) and has a dome stretched in the bottom.68 1. the effect of the assembly operation on the outer panel is shown.00 i Hi Fig. The spring back predictions were obtained by using the implicit solver built into LSDYNA.35 T  0.64 0. the spring back prediction would differ for the two cases. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics In Fig. 5. which is a modified Newton's method.14 ^"^ 0. Spring back of the unassembled inner and outer panels. The outer panel (b) springs more than the inner panel (a) because it has higher yield strength. These nodes were selected because they are the sites of the spot welds to be used during assembly. automakers can save time and cost on die tryout. and determining if the assembly meets its function. After spring back (Fig.02 0. 6.28 ^ 0. . In Fig.182 P. Currently. The dynain file output by DYNAFORM was used for the spring back calculation of the assembly. thus simulating the assembly process.07 ^ a) 0.a 0. For example. if the analysis shows Effective Plastic Strain 0. indicating that contact between inner and outer panels should be enforced if a proper shape prediction is to be obtained. The addition of contact between inner and outer panels prevented the flanges from passing through each other. 3 with contours of effective plastic strain calculated by LSDYNA plotted on the deformed geometry.25 mm higher after assembly. at 4 locations to simulate the effect of the spot welds. Conversely.30 0. The contours in Fig. The zdirection corresponds to the direction of the normal to the blank prior to forming. A BFGS solver. 3. Zdisp acen (mm) 1.
further work need not be done to correct the shape of the outer. Presumably ray tracing techniques could be implemented in postprocessors to achieve on the computer screen what is obtained from these inspection rooms. Benchmark A. [7] Various Authors. Using flexible criteria to improve manufacturing validation during product development.RC. . Assembly before and after spring back. Zdisplacement (mm) Fig. [3] Various Authors.1. Galbraith PC. 1996. Use of a coupled exphcitimplicit solver for calculating springback in automotive body panels. L. 1999. Traversa D. Dawson PR (Eds).7(4):309318. Picart P (Eds). The 4th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3d Sheet Forming Processes. Forming of a front door panel. 637641. it will be necessary to have a computerbased analogue to the inspection rooms commonly used for evaluating surface appearance of automotive assemblies. showing the spring back of the outer prior to assembly. 5. Picart P (Eds). In: Gelin JC. High Performance Computing in Automotive Design. Galbraith et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 183 a) b) !!• Fig. 6. that the low spots in a hood outer are corrected by the assembly with the inner panel. In these rooms. [8] Hammett PC. Lum L. Iterative FEM die surface design to compensate for springback. Lin TL. Proceedings of Numisheet '96. [6] Valente F. 2nd International Conference: Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Process. Hallquist JO. 2000. 1999. In: Lee JK. [2] Various Authors. Engineering Technology Associates.50:395409. The effect of assembly on the outer. Zhang. [5] Wu LW. the flanges have passed through each other because contact between the inner and outer panel was not modelled. Springback calculation of sheet metal parts after trimming and flanging. [4] Suh YS. Srail benchmark problem. (b) The outer panel after assembly shows a reduced low spot in the centre of the panel. Wahl SM. Methods and Applications. Proceedings of Numisheet '99. pp. Proceedings of Numisheet '99. Wu L. indicating that the spring back is less problematic in the assembly than in the outer panel alone for this example. pp. bright lights are used to search for any surface defects such as low spots or teddy bear ears. Onate E. Kinzel L. pp. After spring back (b). Virtual manufacturing applications to stamping and structural analyses. 2D draw bending. 1995. and Manufacturing. In: Shen SF. Engineering. Benchmark B3. For these techniques to be widely applicable. In: Gelin JC. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on High Performance Computing in the Automotive Industry. [9] Eta/DYNAFORM User's Manual. (a) The spring back shown in Fig. 499522. 4b is repeated here. Benchmark B2. Concurr Eng Res Appl 1999. Rotterdam: Balkema. 1993. The 4th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3d Sheet Forming Processes. Inc. Baron JS. Du C. In: Sheh M (Ed). 3rd International Conference: Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Process. In: Makinouchi A. Wagoner RH (Eds). Simulation of Materials Processing: Theory. Wagoner RH editors. 5964. 1996. Proceedings of Numisheet '93. Version 3. Nakamachi E. References [1] Finn MJ. J Mater Pro Tech 1995.
* Corresponding author. Introduction The paper deals with the formulation of a numerical model for the simulation of the mechanical behavior of human skin. University ofGenova. Keywords: Biomechanics. Large deformation analysis. a moderate hysteretic behavior and a more or less marked anisotropy [3].J. that of a mechanicsbased model (e. The constitutive model is then implemented into a finite element code. such as those which are typically applied to the skin during reconstructive surgery. on increasing the strain. where the requirement of maximum skin extension needs to be satisfied. bums or tumor resection.it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Bathe (Editor) . The other possible choice. The model proposed here refers to both the low stiffness and the high stiffness ranges. Gambarotta*.: h39 (010) 3532517. Tel. Other important features of the mechanical behavior of the skin are the time dependency. in reconstructive surgery procedures. The present analysis is based on a phenomenological constitutive model. The model proposed here is restricted to shortterm and monotonic loading processes. R.. in this phase of the work.2]. Morbiducci Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering. Massabo.g. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. The typical stress state of the skin under normal working conditions falls into the first region. Geneva. by a dramatic increase in stiffness. Email: gambarotta@diseg. Constitutive and finite element modeling of human skin It is generally accepted that the stress versus strain curve of the skin in uniaxial or biaxial tension is characterized by an initial lowstiffness region followed. Finally. All rights reserved. The experimental measurements are load versus displacement curves on in vivo skin flaps obtained through the nondestructive technique designed by Raposio and Nordstrom [1. The software allows preoperative planning of surgery procedures concerning the reconstruction of skin defects resulting from trauma. Via Montallegro 1. [3]. This choice requires only the identification of the empirical parameters of a response function chosen in order to satisfy the main features of the observed macromechanical behavior of the skin. the skin can approach stressstrain configurations which are close to the 'locking' condition. 'locking'. the constitutive equations of the human skin are firstly defined.184 Constitutive and finite element modeling of human scalp skin for the simulation of cutaneous surgical procedures L. would put undesired restrictions on the range of solutions. The theoretical work is part of a broad research program. Different large deformation hyperelastic models are considered which are able to reproduce the stiffening phenomenon characterizing the behavior of the skin at large deformations.unige. would imply a micromechanical interpretation of the in vivo skin response based on assumptions that. Italy Abstract A constitutive and finite element model of human scalp skin is formulated for the simulation of reconstructive surgical procedures. On the other hand. [4]). Parameter estimation 1. 2. Fax: +39 (010) 3532534. R. Human skin. which includes also a campaign of experimental tests on human skin. To formulate the theoretical model. the parameters of the model are identified from indirect experimental measurements using an inverse procedure. Constitutive modeling. 16145. The model will be used inside a virtual reality environment for computerassisted reconstructive and aesthetic surgery simulation. The model is calibrated using experimental results of tests on in vivo scalp flaps.
Rice JR.g. Finite element modeling of human skin using an isotropic. ) . [6]). London: Pergamon Press. The solution is obtained at each loading step using an 'eulerian — updated lagrangian' formulation [8. [7] Ogden RW. In the surgical procedures to be simulated the scalp skin is cut. NonLinear Elastic Deformations. pp. The testing methodology consists of: incision of the scalp skin. References [1] Raposio E. are still active. . the in vivo initial stresses. 3. J Biomech 1976. Sewell (Eds). Several isotropic constitutive models have been formulated and calibrated for different soft biological tissues (e. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Sohds and Structures.L.g. A simplified approach is proposed here which requires the evaluation of the parameters of the model and the in vivo isotropic initial stress (before the incision). The first is that the initial isotropic stress uniformly applied along the incision in the reference configuration must restore the virgin configuration. 1984. [3] Fung YC. Experimental observations by Raposio and Nordstrom [1. LevenbergMarquadt method).g. [4] Bischoff JE. The second condition is that the numerical model must reproduce the experimental load versus displacement curves. In the calibration of the model the reference configuration is geometrically known and it corresponds to the 185 configuration of the undermined skin after the incision.undermining coincide with the results of the fictitious process undermining \incision. Fung YC. Grosh K. Elastic deformations of rubberlike solids.33:645465. The finite element procedure examines incremental loading processes in terms of prescribed displacements or applied forces. extension of the undermined region of the skin and repetition of the previous steps. Chichester: Wiley. Calibration of the model The numerical model is calibrated using the experimental results of a testing methodology designed by Raposio and Nordstrom [1. Mineola. J Biomech 2000. cat skin. Nordstrom REA. measurements of the relaxed configuration of the undermined skin.. Finite element formulations for problems of large elasticplastic deformation.39:2023. Nordstrom REA.5]. NY: Dover Publications. due to its simplicity. Tension and flap advancement in the human scalp.. Biomechanics. Different hyperelastic models have been proposed in the past for materials exhibiting stiffening under large deformations. The identification procedure is based on the minimization of the norm of the residuals between the experimental measurements and the theoretical predictions. The finite element model is assumed to be totally constrained at the boundaries between the undermined region and the surrounding skin. undermining of a predefined portion of the skin. [8] McMeeking RM. which supports the skin during the test. [9] Crisfield MA. 1982. The proposed numerical model focuses in this initial phase on the simulation of surgery procedures concerning the reconstruction of scalp skin defects.9498. a large deformation hyperelastic model is considered. [2] Raposio E. . application of two concentrated forces along the incision at a distance of a few centimeters by means of a suture fixed by a full thickness bite. . Consequently the compressible forms of the isotropic model formulated by Ogden [7] and the isotropic version of the model formulated by Tong and Fung [6] are considered.9] coupled with the NewtonRaphson iterative technique. This can be done using load versus displacement curves corresponding to undermined regions of different sizes. rabbit mesentery. [5] Ogden RW. The simplified approach assumes that the results of the process incision j. Biomechanical properties of scalp flaps and their correlations to reconstructive and aesthetic surgery procedures.2] seem to indicate that the scalp skin has no preferred material directions. In: Hopkins. 4. lung tissue. arterial walls. Gambarotta et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Following the above observations. This can be done by simultaneously satisfying two conditions. are able to capture the different aspects of the stress versus strain response observed in the experiments. 1984.9:649657. the domain of the model is approximated as twodimensional and discretized in finite elements. On the other hand. . nonUnear elastic constitutive model. This stress field must be evaluated together with the model parameters. New York: Springer. . Skin Res Technol 1998. Taking into account the weak curvature of the hull.. [6] Tong P. The models. This configuration is only partially relaxed and some of the stresses that are present in the skin in normal conditions. The search of the unknown quantities will be facilitated by the utilization of more than one load versus displacement curve in the minimization problem. only a few models have been formulated which account for the anisotropy of some soft tissues (e. The minimization problem is solved using classical algorithms (e. Int J Solids Struct 1975. measurements of the displacements at different points along the incision for different values of the applied loads. such as skin and rubber [3. 499537. undermined within a predefined region and loaded tangentially to the hull surface. 2. Mechanics of Solids. 1997. Ann Plast Surg 1997. The stressstrain relationships for the skin. on the basis of the experimental measurements previously described. which assume strain energy functions having different mathematical expressions.2] which can be applied. also during surgery. Armda EM.11:611616.
Gebbeken^'*. 85577 Neubiberg. The physical properties. material modelling and numerical algorithms In order to model the microscopic mixture of materials like concrete. Hydrocode 1. it is too complicated and computing time too consuming to approach on the micromechanical level. compressible. loading.1. Bathe (Editor) . They are based on Finite Difference Methods [1]. the material behavior can only be postulated in the high dynamic regime. nonelastic and damage behavior. Landmann'' ^ Institute of Engineering Mechanics and Structural Mechanics. Oberjettenberg. Characterizing the physical material behavior properly. 2 and 3. the less known and validated from experiments are the material properties. Email: norbert.J. strainrate effects have to be taken into account. the incremental form of Hooke's law has been adopted. Experiment. Germany ^ Federal Testing Center {WrD52). unloading. Furthermore. P3P4). Greulich% A. The material modeling of concrete is based on the macromechanical constitutive law of Ruppert and Gebbeken [2. whereas the hydrostatic tensor can be separated from the stress tensor resulting in the deviatoric stress tensor. brittle material concrete. Germany Abstract Wherever the mechanical behavior of materials is of interest. Physics. the mathematical description and the numerical application are discussed critically in the example of the inhomogeneous. hydrocodes have been successfully applied. momentum and energy in addition to an equation of state (EoS) are solved simultaneously in time.186 Material modelling in the dynamic regime: a discussion N. POPl. Damage property. S. Introduction High dynamic loadings like explosions have the capability to release large amounts of energy within microseconds. Rate effect. Equation of state. 83466 Schneizlreuth. Munich. 2. This causes high pressures in the kilobar range (1 kbar = 100 MPa) and high strain rates up to 10^ s~' in the affected bodies. the conservation equations of mass. The higher and/or shorter the dynamic loading.: H49 (89) 60043414. The bulk modulus and the * Corresponding author.de © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Illustrating the material behavior of concrete. Elastic material behavior In the elastic response (Figs. 2. Its mathematical correlation gives an additional constitutive law and its data has to be determined from expensive experiments. Tel. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.gebbeken@unibwmuenchen. whereas the EoS is a functional correlation of two unknown variables in the conservation equations.3]. mathematical material models are needed to describe the physical phenomena. 2 and 3. see Figs. For the numerical simulation of high frequent stress wave propagations. Keywords: Macroscopic material modelling. a homogenization hypothesis is adopted which enables the formulation of the constitutive equations on the level of macromechanics (see Fig. Pietzsch% F. University of the Federal Armed Forces. All rights reserved. And. whereas the stress state is divided into a hydrostatic and deviatoric part. Therefore. the current material state will be explained by means of a loading. 1). material models are required characterizing the elastic. Even though the numerical modeling of structures subjected to shock waves leads to element sizes in the millimeter regime. As a result of the high dynamic loadings. unloading and reloading path. High dynamic loading. Fax: 449 (89) 60044549. the current stress state is depicted in the threedimensional stress space.
called the Hugoniot curve. 3. Loading and unloading path in a 3D stress space and in a porous Hugoniot EoS. Loading and unloading path in a 3D stress space and in a porous Hugoniot EoS. which is responsible for the volume change. shear modulus are the only parameters. 2. the MieGrueneisen surface. The three dimensional curve of the EoS. 4 in a yCPl "^oct P 7P P Fig.A . Gebbeken et ah /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics ^ 187 real microscopic material homogeneous microstructure simplify the microstructure classical continuum mechanics ^ ^ ^ ^ •i material formulation on the level of micromechanics microplane formulation macroscopic models theory of elasticity theory of plasticity X damage and fracture application to structural behaviour Fig.P4 P2 crush •eloadin2=unloading lock P4 ref Fig. 2. P =.^oct t U P 'S \ 1 PO. For concrete. The nonlinearity occurring in compressible materials is taken into account with the bulk modulus. called . Equation of state The full EoS giving a complete material characterization is a threedimensional function of a surface in space. Homogenization of a microscopic material to a macroscopic scale. Considering the energy explicitly would be problematic because it is not possible to distinguish between different energy contributions in the tests. is projected in the two dimensional plane of the remaining variables. Since the data are coming from largescale experiments. the energy is considered implicitly. 1.2. experimental results of different authors are depicted in Fig. The basis are any of the two unknown variables of the equation of state and the energy.
5. which is interpolated between the slopes c^ and c]^^^ (Figs.3. 5). Enhancement for extreme strainrates (based on Bischoff and Ferry [4]). / • • ^ # ^ • A ^ 2. carried out at the WTD 52. P3P4).8 2. where (To = (Toct/fc'' and To = Tocr///^". Experimental strain data to obtain an equation of state. it can be shown that there is a linear correlation between strength and strainrate in a logarithmic scale. Fig.I (tanhlilogi* . 6 shows the essential features of the yield surface.0 3.4. P1P3). 7) [5]. Densities greater than Pcrush cause compaction and gradually. 2 and 3. a multilinear approximation of the test results has been adopted. and ductile under high pressure. 2. e. This is more complex for porous materials like concrete. It contains an elastic path from tensile limit T to the Hugoniot elastic limit at Pcrush (Figs. Here. experimental data are only available up to e < 10^ s~^ High dynamic loadings lead to strainrates over £ > 10^ s~^ Therefore. It should be mentioned that own Commonly. Furthermore. The more complex the material the more difficult is the derivation of the yield surface in the threedimensional stress state. experimental data from explosive field tests. it is brittle in tension as well as in shear.Ockert[1997] • exp.1 3.^ Raverage 1 [\ Yieldsuiface 1 ill EoS . which can be easily adapted to experimental results. Bischoff and Perry [4] have assembled experimental results from different authors using different concrete mixtures and no consistent testing devices (see Fig. which is an advantageous form for porous media. roct are octahedral stresses and fc is the characteristic strength (see Fig.data (Adiment) j^^W^ . a sufficient set of measurement data is needed for a wide range. Unloading and reloading are following the same path. a reasonable enhancement function has to be postulated. Strainrate effects: enhancement of strength Experimental data for various materials have shown that their strength enhance by increasing strainrates. But in order to develop a complete Hugoniot curve.4 2. concrete is an anisotropic composite. . 2 and 3. aoct. 4. POPl). Here.2) • 0. Experimental as well as numerical simulations of high explosive loadings revealed that relative hydrostatic . yielding of materials can be determined from experimental data.N. 2 and 3. For metals. concrete converts into a granular kind of material (Figs. Herein. Invariant yield surface H— . It is obvious that measurements in the high pressure regime are widespread. provide assured data up to 40 kbar. Gebbeken et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics P.7 2. 2.3 p[g/cm]3 Fig.9 3.4]) W^ + iyw^ Fig.g. It was fitted to test results in the range of a^ < 10. uniaxial tension tests for metals. w^ # Grady [1996] • HJC [1993] A Eibl.6 2.2 3.5 2. pressuredensity plot.
Yield surface for concrete and its experimental results [5]. Yield surface for concrete and its experimental results [5]. Consequently. Gebbeken et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 189 To = a c(Jo \2. Hanchak & Forrestal1992 V : q=60Xfc=48MPa) *•••. The first part.0 + Cc{sinl.60°(fc:variiert) •*s^ : Ausgleichskurven Vers.he) deviatoric plane octahedral plane c = CticoslMy^ a . : Ausgleichskurve 7 0 ~B 4 a 2 1 O 1 Fig. ex . the von Mises (J2) flow theory is adopted. 6. Versuche Mould & Levine1987 • : q=0°. pressures up to GO = 100 have to be expected. 2.5.A^. 7. 9=60°CQinpressive meridian ^0 Fig. In high pressure region. Yield curve shifting Strainrate effects as well as damage cause an isotropic shifting of the strength and stiffness. this yield surface description has to be refined with data of further experiments..
The subscripts 0 and 1 represent the initial (undamaged. gathering data is complicated and reliable results are rare. that in a limited region (target #0) convergence problems concerning pressure near the high pressure zone have occurred. depends on a damage parameter D [3]. Physical problem and target points. 9. especially if an EoS is not necessarily needed. As it was shown. This is of importance. the yield surface is 'open' (Fig. whereas the characteristic strength /. and if they are adequately described by mathematical formulations. mm] _30 . which is part of the classical theory of plasticity and physically correct. radial return vector is overestimated in accordance with a nonassociated flow rule. Within the scope of a convergence study [6]. an explosive charge is initiated on a concrete structure (Fig. D = 0) and the damaged (D = 1) parameters. The second part. Hydrocode inherent problems of discretization in space (e. 8. unloading and reloading in the uniaxial case (aeplane) and the yield surface in the triaxial case (cap. 10 show. explosive charge > o o 1 ^Target#0 ^Target#l L^Tai^et#2 concrete Fig. 5). 2. 6).Mises ^!:^assoc ^aQ ^ ^ assoc. based on the convergence theorem [7]. 3. bo and ends at au b\. the physical behavior of a large number of materials is well known from experiments concerning static or dynamic loading up to a strain rate s < 10^ s~K If strain rates exceed this value. increases with respect to the strainrate (Formula in Fig. Numerical problems as well as questions regarding the physical interpretation occur by using a cap. Isotropic shifting is assumed. Monotonia convergence in hydrocode simulations high dynamic loadings with It should be mentioned that other convergence studies have shown the same material independent problems in a critical range nearby an explosion. Up to now. Essentially problems are: the transition between the standard yield function and the cap is not continuous. mesh size sensitivity) and in time (timestep) have to be detected in sensitivity investigations and their errors have to be reduced to an acceptable minimum. Loading. plastic flow and shift)..6.g. is implemented in the normalization of Go and To. Conclusion A physical problem can only be simulated satisfyingly within constitutive models if the appearing phenomena are known from experiments. Gebbeken et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics i^^ decrease in  ^ stiffness and ^^strength ^^v. The evaluation of targets #0 to #2 in Fig. For certain reasons.3. it is only possible to state air Finite methods are approximate methods.190 N. whereas a perpendicular (associated) return onto the cap surface would cause a negative dilatation which is nonphysical. Fig. 8) starts at QQ. 9). Therefore. because cyclic loading is not taken into account in this case. an additional yield surface part (called cap) can be used. plained in Section 2. The yield limit and static tensile limit parameters (see Fig. The pressure is measured in different targets by scaling down the element size.
9.5 2 4 191 [kbar] 132.3 1 6_Euler pressure H 3 I (30/50) [mm] 0. . Furthermore.0 1 50 30 • 70 V ^ *">rA. NJ: Prentice Hall. [3] Gebbeken N.9 6. [6] Gebbeken N.5 6.0 80 70 60 50 40 30 X ^\ \ ^< 1 1 \.6 6. r r J A *'^T'*' Fig. 397405.0 79. pp.1 0. 10.. one should avoid the prediction of physical contradictions. 6 Euler pressure 1 [mm] 0.121(6):685693. are not capable for certain regions of explosive loading. 1995. [4] Bischoff PH.2 88. J Eng Mech 1995. mesh fineness for different targets.1 5. postulates extrapolating experimental data.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 [kbar] 7.99:235394. Evaluation of the multiaxial strength of concrete tested at Technische Universitat Munchen. [2] Ruppert M. Ruppert M. Englewood Cliffs. Strausberg. On the safety and reliability of high dynamic hydrocode simulations. elasticityplasticitydamage. Impact behavior of plane concrete loaded in uniaxial compression.^t > 49. Pealc pressure vs. International Symposium on Interaction of the Effects of Munitions with Structures. the hydrocodes.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ^••(0/30) ^""^^v References [kbar] 80. It was shown that for the region adjacent to the explosives. This paper points out the enormous demand for research in the high dynamics field.5 a—. Gebbelcen N. Gebbeken et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 6_Euler pressure 1 [mm] 0. Nechvatal D.8 76.0 57. Zhou Y. Material formulations for concrete. 591600.7 7.0 51. Especially the measurement engineering is in charge to provide reliable data. [5] Guo Z._ ^ 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 decreasing element size.46:839851..r—V^. Arch Appl Mech 2000. Computational methods in Lagrangian and Eulerian hydrocodes. But.0  [!H(30/5) 150 n 130110 90  \ 43. Just then it will be possible to validate postulates and to extend the constitutive models. as is demanded for the numerical algorithms used in finite element formulations.8 44. Berlin: Beuth. Perry SH.3 46.3 5. 1 () \ . Int J Numer Methods Eng 1999. [7] Bathe KJ.9 6. DAfStb447.5 1 1. pp.70:463478. Ruppert M.. Finite Element Procedures. A new concrete material model for high dynamic hydrocode simulations. 1996.A^. 1999. the Lagrangian formulation does not converge asymptotically for [1] Benson DJ. the numerical tools.0 90. high strainrates and high pressures.6 68.3 40. Comput IVlethods Appl Ivlech Eng 1992.5 74.
a weak formulation is used to calculate H. and applied to the design of finite element meshes for 2D elasticity and plate bending problems. Fax: +1 (418) 6562928. (2) This quadratic function can be interpolated linearly on a triangular mesh using piecewise linear triangular elements. In this study. Bathe (Editor) where h is the length of the edge. Complex stress concentration areas that develop in reallife structural components can only be predicted accurately if appropriate mesh densities and element formulations are selected. we write: where Qi represents the domain formed by the elements connected to node /. These are an error estimator and a mesh adaptation strategy. It is shown that the procedure automatically generates welladapted meshes for which the error is uniformly distributed and is thus very attractive in the context of complex structural analysis problems. for example.ulaval. All rights reserved. Error estimator By a now classical procedure [1]. one component of the nodal displacement is * Corresponding author. P. However. First.ca © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Finite elements 1. For the procedure to be successful. Keywords: Error estimator. M. This difficulty can be circumvented by replacing g by gh. Universite Laval. (3) Taking the absolute value of the Hessian (through its eigenvalue decomposition) the error on the edges can be seen as a length in a Riemannian metric. its finite element approximation. The procedure is presented here for d^g/dxdy. Goulet GIREF Research Center.: +1 (418) 6567892.192 Error estimation and edgebased mesh adaptation for solid mechanics problems G. Fortin. and 0/ is any test function that is 0 . the Mach number has been used [1]. our error estimator is based on the use of a metric associated with the second derivatives of some scalar function g computed from the solution. The principles of the method are simple: (1) A local quadratic representation of the function can be built using. two main ingredients are required. In fact. one has: 2. Quebec. Gendron*. To obtain an appropriate mesh. Mesh adaptation.J. The problem with the evaluation of the estimate 1 is that the function g is not known and thus its Hessian H cannot be evaluated. The overall procedure is illustrated and validated on a 2D elasticity and a platebending problem. the methodology proposed in [1] is reviewed in details. then depends on the Hessian matrix. Canada GIK 7P4 Abstract A simple error estimator based on a loworder finite element interpolation is described in details. on an element edge. For CFD problems. Email: guy. and d^g/d^^ is the secondorder derivative of g along the edge. Elasticity.gendron@gci. Tel. Plate bending. E. to keep the procedure general and make the use of linear interpolation functions possible. a Taylor series expansion. For the structural mechanics problems presented in Section 5. The choice of g is delicate and problemdependent. g must be sensitive to the features of the solution that must be predicted accurately. The estimator is used to guide a meshadaptation procedure for solid mechanics problems. The interpolation error. chosen. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Introduction It is wellestablished that the accuracy of finite element results strongly depends on the appropriateness of the mesh. it is identical for the other components of H.
the piecewise linear . Eq.00525 body force 100 XM 20 (a) Problem Definition 10 10 (b) Initial Grid . is approximated by: basis function (pi does not vanish on the boundary of the domain. Unfortunately. An approximation to the Hessian matrix is thus defined at the nodes and it is easy to take its absolute value or interpolate it where needed. on 9Qj. With this assumption.i — dg d(pi dx dy / •dA 0/dA (3) 3. for a boundary node. this integral is difficult to evaluate. Mesh adaptation strategies We define an optimal mesh as a mesh for which the error is approximately uniform on all edges. To obtain such a mesh. we choose to extrapolate the values of the secondorder derivatives from neighboring internal nodes. the boundary of ^/. For a boundary node. we replace d'^g/dxdy by a constant on ^/. (2) can be applied to a piecewise linear approximation of g since the righthand side involves only firstorder derivatives.3 0. (3). Prismatic bar subjected to a uniform body force. 1. D^yt. Based on the fact that an edge be Each node is successively processed to finally obtain a linear approximation of the secondorder derivatives. Consequently.100 elements (c) Error (d) Estimator Fig. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 193 ^ Material Properties E = 200000 z/ = 0. Problem 1.00613 0. the secondorder derivative d^g/dxdy at node Xj. f ^xy. internal to ^/. Gendron et al. a line integral should be added to Eq. we start with an initial mesh and then tend to improve it by iteratively performing the following operations: OPl Refinement and coarsening (Amethod). Also. Instead. OP2 Reconnection.G.
(2) Define an initial mesh and calculate a solution and the error estimator on this mesh. The first one corresponds to twodimensional elasticity which is discretized using the wellknown Constant Strain Triangular (CST) element.007 0.00438 ^m 0.00613 0. (5) If necessary.000875 0.00175 10. This element is convenient for the modeling of moderately thick to thin plates. and in the {y. Shear locking is avoided through the use of appropriate approximation fields. Model problems Two model problems are considered.00175 0.00438 0. calculate the error estimator based on the new solution and return to step 3. z) plane.00263 0. z) plane.007 0. The element has nine degrees of freedom only: the displacements w and rotation of the normal in the (x. (4) Calculate a new solution on the adapted mesh.00263 0. The second problem corresponds to a plate bending problem which is studied using the DST element [2]. the orientation of the diagonal is such that the minimum internal angle of a triangle is maximized. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics )0i ^/^J % 0. The complete algorithm is as follows: (1) Select a scalar function g and an optimal edge length {Lopt) in the space of the Riemannian metric. OP3 Node relocation (rmethod).0035 m 0. .194 G.00613 0. Each edge is replaced by a spring. The value of Lopt allows the calculation of more or less refined meshes. tween two triangles is actually the diagonal of a quadrilateral. Fixed values of L„pt will be used in Section 5.00525 0. Results. (3) Iteratively use OPl through OPS to define an adapted mesh. Gendron et al.0035 10. )6^. the stiffness of which is proportional to the value of the estimator on that edge. 4. 2.000875 10 10 (a) Adapted Grid 19 elements (b) Error (c) Estimator Fig. Problem 1.00525 0. Py.
Gendron et al. In all cases. Problem 2. These problems have been selected because closedform solutions are known.200 elements j%. w = /3Y =0 100 TTim X w = /3x = 0 (a) Problem Definition (b) Initial Grid . /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics w = Px =0 \EX = EY = 13800 MPa GxY =Gxz — GYZ = 1870 MPa WxY = 0. 5.02 ' \W \ kww KWW 1 W\ .12 ^ = 10 MPa \t— 12 mm 195 w= PY =Q 100 mm. Numerical studies In this section. This will allow the direct comparison of the exact error with the predicted estimator.07 0. Simplysupported square plate.09 0. 3.^ 1 ^ ^^ S' wwx *v .: W\\'''J i (c) Error (d) Estimator Fig. J '''^^^^^^^^H ^m^'^i 1 ^ '^^^^H ' J ' ^^"^^^^Hl^^^^K. . ' . the results of two numerical tests are reported in order to validate the error estimator and demonstrate that it is suited to the design of meshes for which the error is reduced and uniform over every element edge. these quantities are calculated at the center of every edge. C ^ ^ 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.G.03 0.04 0.
The initial mesh is shown in Fig. It is seen that the estimator and the exact error both calculated at the center of each element edge present the same distribution. 4. the average error is 0. for which both the average error and its standard deviation have been reduced. For the adapted mesh. 2 shows the adapted mesh along with the distributions of the exact error and the estimator.0016. Elements of identical size are obtained throughout the domain. Symmetry boundary conditions are applied along the jc = 0 line. . Vh. 5. Fig. and consequently only half of the bar is modeled using 2D elasticity elements. lc. Results. Gendron et al. lb. la shows a prismatic bar made of isotropic material subjected to a downward constant body force. This result could be expected since the Hessian of the exact solution is constant. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics )0i (a) Adapted Grid . The function gh used to estimate the error corresponds to the finite element approximation of the vertical displacement.0041 and its standard deviation is 0.196 G.0010.d.0029 and its standard deviation is 0. Problem 1: prismatic bar subjected to a uniform body force Fig. Problem 2. The average error is 0.7.263 elements (b) Error Fig. The exact error calculated on this mesh along with the error estimator are (c) Estimator compared in Fig. The procedure has thus allowed the design of a mesh with significantly less elements. The exact solution for the vertical displacement is a quadratic function of x and y [3].
The main differences are at the center of the domain where the estimator slightly underestimates the error. Conclusion 197 An error estimator based on a metric derived from the Hessian of a scalar function has been presented. 1961. Boivin S. 199606. VKI Lecture Series. 6. The average error is 0. As it was the case for the initial mesh. 1997. the error and the estimator are in good agreement. The exact error calculated on this mesh along with the error estimator are compared in Fig.G. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. The results presented herein confirm that the error estimator correctly predicts the value of the error.007. The pressure value q is 10. present the same distribution.021. CRC Press. [3] Timoshenko S. an infiniteseries solution based on a firstorder shear deformation theory has been derived by Reddy [4]. References [1] Habashi WG. Fig. The estimator and the exact error. The plate is made of an orthotropic material with the property values indicated. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1989. 2nd edition.018 and its standard deviation is 0. For this mesh. the average error is 0. Theory of Elasticity. [2] Batoz JL. New York: McGrawHill.040 and its standard deviation is 0. 4 gives the adapted grid along with the distributions of the exact error and the estimator.28:533560. The plate thickness t is 12 mm which corresponds to a sidetothickness ratio of 8. a nodal displacement component is proposed. 3a. More work needs to be done to verify the applicability of the strategy to other structural problems. The procedure has thus allowed the design of a mesh for which the error is reduced and quite uniformly distributed over every edge. . Theory and Analysis. 3c. Robichaud MP. Anisotropic Mesh Optimization: Towards a SolverTndependent and MeshIndependent CFD.2. The plate is simply supported (hard conditions) on all four sides. Mechanics of Laminated Composite Plates. Dompierre J. Problem 2: simplysupported square plate A simplysupported square plate 100 mm x 100 mm under a uniform lateral pressure is shown in Fig. The estimator drives the adaptation process in such a way that the final adapted mesh presents a uniform distribution of the error. Vallet MG. Goodier JN. It could be reduced further by decreasing the value of Lopt. AitAliYahia D. In this work. [4] Reddy JN.0 MPa. Lardeur R A discrete shear triangular 9dof element for the analysis of thick to very thin plates. 3b. both calculated at the center of each element edge. For this problem. Fortin M. Bourgault Y. The initial mesh is shown in Fig. Any scalar function that relates to the solution can be used. The choice of a displacement component to estimate the error also needs to be assessed. The function gh used to estimate the error corresponds to the finite element approximation of the transverse displacement Wh.d. Gendron et al. Tarn A.
198 Reliabilitybased importance assessment of structural members Emhaidy S. Email: frangopo@spot. 1 and 2 in parallel connected in series with member 3) is used to exemplify the proposed approach [35].O. The use of structural reliability methods for design can lead to structures that have a more consistent level of risk [2]. and the material behavior and stiffness sharing of each member. However.e. Each of the above factors has its area of application and may be of great significance in analysis. the safety level of each member. Sensitivity analysis. USA Abstract When analyzing a structural system. Reliability assessment. In this process. Boulder. Fax: \\ (303) 4927317. John S.: +1 (303) 4927165. most of the current assessment and design codes require safety checks at the member level only.5 and a coefficient of variation of 0. Department of Civil Engineering. The reliabiUty of the actual system can be assumed to be the same as the reliability of the single equivalent component. several aspects have to be examined. All rights reserved. systems exist in any combinations of series and parallel subsystems. r]i = 0) to perfectly ductile (i. P. Keywords: Critical members. System reliability 1. McCartney^. Two types of importance factors are formulated in this paper. Environmental.e. AlKarak. 3. including but not limited to the location of each member in the system. These factors measure the impact of each individual member on the performance of the overall system. System reliability analysis In reality. Department of Civil. and the RELSYS software [7. and Architectural Engineering. Tel. Mutah. Bathe (Editor) . Member ranking. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. members * Corresponding author. Gharaibeh^. These subsystems are broken down into simpler equivalent subsystems until the system is reduced to a single equivalent component [7.15. Member importance. System performance. The system can be represented by a series of equivalent subsystems. The failure path approach [6] is used to formulate the Umit state of the multimember system.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Box 7. rit = 1). design codes have been continuously revised to include limit states based on probabilistic methods. or underconservatism in the design of structural systems which are not able to redistribute loads [3]. design and maintenance of structural systems. To account for the system effect in structural assessment and design. The system is subjected to a random load P with a mean of 0. CO 803090428. 2.e. safety importance of structural members must be quantified. Jordan ^ University of Colorado. Dan M. In fact. each of which represents a combination of either series or parallel components. the limit states design approach has been used in nearly all of the recent advances in codified design [1]. The process of finding the reliability of a complex structure made out of a combination of series and parallel subsystems can be simplified by introducing the concept of an equivalent system.8]. it is often useful to identify critical members by quantifying the safety importance of individual members. The data used to describe the seriesparallel system can be found in Gharaibeh [4]. This leads to either overconservatism in the assessment of structural systems which are able to continue to carry loads after one member becomes damaged. the member reliability importance factor and the member postfailure importance factor.J.8] is used to compute system failure probabilities for postfailure member behaviors ranging from perfectly britde (i. Frangopol^* ^ University of Mutah.colorado. Model A simple idealized threemember seriesparallel system model comprised of two subsystems in series (i. Introduction In recent years.
(2). Prn. where P and r] are vectors of member reliabilities and postfailure behavior factors.0 A . = 3. 4 shows the postfailure importance factors of the Ti = O.00 The associated normaUzed member importance factor is: /». Each member has its own impact on the system reliability level. Reliability importance factor Member reliability importance factors can be derived from the sensitivity of the system reliability to changes in the reliability levels of its members.I : Pi=4. is defined as follows [4]: /. of its members.5 0. In order to quantify this sensitivity. and 3 are assumed and the system reliabilities associated with each of these combinations are investigated.0.00 .Emhaidy S. p3=3. P2= 3. Fig. The most important member with respect to its postfailure behavior is the member that has the maximum effect on the system reliability index. Fig. Cj Fig. OPm. 1 against the stiffness sharing factor of member 1. rji = 1).SO .e.0. ^^= 3. ySsystem. The differences in the associated system reliability of these cases compared to the default case show the impact of each member on the overall system performance.7 0. 2 shows the normalized reliability importance factors obtained for the default case according to Eq. and ^^system. to changes in rehability of member /.0 while the other members retained their default reliability indices. p^nA [35]. respectively. = N (2) ^ where A = number of members in the system. Gharaibeh et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4.l 0.''system 5 ' 1 ^system? ^0 (3) where 7^. p3=4.e. In calculating the importance factors a small change in member reliability level is imposed and the corresponding system reliability is evaluated. r = 0.0 A .0 A .0.0 . io = rehability index of the system given that member / has a perfectlybrittle postfailure behavior (i. Example Based on the threemember seriesparallel model described in Section 2. p2= 3. 3 shows the variation of the default reliability index of the seriesparallel system described above with the stiffness sharing factor of member 1. Normalized reliability importance factors for each member of a seriesparallel system.. Fig. the member postfailure behavior.. with respect to the member reliability. while the postfailure behaviors of members 1 and 2 affect the system reliability. Postfailure importance factor System reliabihty is usually very sensitive to the postfailure behavior factor 77.=3.25 199 P. Fig.50 3 3. This impact depends on many factors such as the correlation between resistances of individual members.0. y^system. p3=3.50. il). The reliability of one member was changed to 4. 1 shows the reliability importance factor implementation for the default case of P]^ = ^2 = h = ^0 and postfailure behavior factor r]i = r]2 = r]3 = 0.=3. ^system. This figure shows that ySsystem is maximum and minimum for r]i = ri2 = r]3 = 100 and r]i = r]2 = r]3 = 0. In general.=3. /^system = / ( P .0.00 S Q 3. The reliability importance factor of member / is derived from the sensitivity of system rehability index. 5.e. Fig.50 A : p. and the position of each member in the system (i. another importance factor. system reliability is a function of its individual members.0. r]i = 0).0. ii = reliability index of the system given that member / has a perfectlyductile postfailure behavior (i.i^ as follows: 9^s.25 S 2.75 O. system topology). p2= 4. the system failure criterion model adopted. respectively.I I : p. called the postfailure importance factor. P3 = 3. 2. 1. the member reliability level./ = importance factor with respect to the postfailure behavior of member /. P.0.3 0. 6.9 STIFFNESS SHARING FACTOR OF MEMBER 1. P3=3. This measure can be defined as the gradient of the system reliability.=3. P2= 3 0 ' P3=3. Finally. p2 = 300 .0.i 4. Effect of member reliability level on system reliability.0. It can be seen that y^system is not sensitive to rj^ due to its series system effect.H I : p.0 I 4.• = . . 2. The system reliability index ^system associated with each case considered is plotted in Fig. the stiffness sharing factor of each member. Different combinations of extreme values of the postfailure behavior factors of members 1.
The proposed approach takes into account the system reliability as a whole and identifies the contribution of individual members to the overall system performance. No. P. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center. T . CA. University of Colorado. [4] Gharaibeh ES. Rep. CO. < 1 Acknowledgements s r. Ph. 1998.9 STIFFNESS S H A R I N G F A C T O R O F M E M B E R 1 . In: Dunaszegi L (Ed).D.l 0. Thesis. Ti2=0 O.50 3. 5 . seriesparallel system for the default case. Structural Engineering World Wide 1998. Ph. CMS9522166.= l . RELSYS: A computer program for structural system reliability analysis.75 Emhaidy S. Structural importance assessment of bridge members: A reliabilitybased approach. System reliability and redundancy in codified bridge evaluation and design. [3] Frangopol DM. Gharaibeh et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics O < T. C. 7. Heam G. Along these lines. AlKarak. 9 pp. A System Reliability Approach to the Lifetime Optimization of Inspection and Repair of Highway Bridges. The John A. Struct Safety 1996. Fig.=o. Reliabilitybased condition assessment and LRFD for exisfing structures. Stanford University. Corotis RB. and Architectural Engineering. Frangopol DM.00 . Eng Struct 1992. C . 3 = l n. Struct Eng Mech 1998.= l .00 2. Effect of member postfailure behavior on system reliability.3 0.25 3. This support is gratefully acknowledged. CO. 1998. 4. Gharaibeh ES. Department of Civil Engineering. University of Colorado. [6] Karamchandani A. Shing PB. 1997. the importance of a member is defined as the impact of that member on the overall system reliability. Stanford. Structural system reliability analysis methods. 12211233 (also on CD Rom). Opinions expressed in this paper are those of the writers and do not necessarily reflect those of the sponsoring organizations. Environmental. Shing PB. Conclusions This paper presents an approach to assess the reliability importance of members in any structural system modeled as a seriesparallel combination of failure modes.5 0. 2. Department of Civil. Elsevier: Amsterdam.5 0.7 0. 18(23):6780. Jordan. Thesis.25 4. Postfailure importance factors for each member of a seriesparallel system.l 0. Environmental.200 4. S ^ O. Ellis JH. Structural system reliability considerations with frame instability. [21 Zimmerman JJ. = 0 . 83. In: Srivastava NK (Ed). Reliability and Redundancy of Structural Systems with Application to Highway Bridges. pp. P^ = 3 OO ' Ps = 3 OO References [11 Ellingwood BR. [7] Estes AC. 1999.3 0. Department of Civil. on CDROM. Developments in Short and Medium Span Bridge Engineering'98. Frangopol DM. Boulder. The results are useful for assessment.14(6):371378.75 3. [5] Gharaibeh ES. The postfailure importance factor is derived from the contribution of member postfailure factor to the overall system performance.  This material is based upon work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants CMS9506435. Paper Reference T1212.00 w 3. r/ = 0 .6(8):901919. CMS9912525 and the University of Mutah. 3. [8] Estes AC.7 0. . T i 2 = 0 ^ ^ r. design and maintenance of structures in an overall system reliability perspective. Canadian Society of Civil Engineering. 1987. Montreal. = 3. Fig. Boulder. and Architectural Engineering.9 S T I F F N E S S S H A R I N G F A C T O R O F M E M B E R 1.D. Ti^=i  r  .
1. LCF. Ghiocel *.J. Advanced Engineering Applications. while the randomly occurring vibration stress cycle with lower amplitude produce the highcycle fatigue (HCF) damage. 1. the stochastic HCF/LCF and creep damaging interactive effects are studied using simulated stress histories in >• Time scale Damage Accumulation J)amage Larger Initial Defect : Impact damage ^^ Time scale Fig. Crack initiation.: +1 (716) 4242010. Rochester. 2. NY 14623.) Impact Occurence 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 TIME (Minutes) Blade Vibration Mode 2 Blade Vibration Mode 1 Fig. stress component (pulse process with holding times) due to pilot's maneuvers with a fastvarying stress component (intermittent continuous narrowband process) due to vibration under unsteady aeroforcing.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. The random slowvarying stress cycles produce the lowcycle fatigue (LCF) damage and creep damage in the component. Hongyin Mao STI Technologies. All rights reserved. etc. the operational stress profiles and local damage accumulation are modeled as nonstationary stochastic processes [1. The paper also discusses critical modeling issues that drastically impact on the component fife prediction. USA Abstract Stochastic life prediction of mechanical system components represents a difficult engineering problem involving modeling of multiple complex random phenomena. As shown in Fig. Flight stress profile. etc.2]. The paper addresses key aspects of stochastic modeling of component life prediction. 1 for each critical location. results computed for a generic aircraft jet engine blade are shown. Operational (HCF. The paper presents a simulationbased stochastic approach for mechanical component life prediction under normal operating and accidental conditions. Bathe (Editor) . Specifically. The vibratory stresses occur when the excitation frequency is sufficiently close to blade natural frequencies a shown in Fig. Creep 1.201 Probabilistic life prediction for mechanical components including HCF/LCF/creep interactions Dan M. * Corresponding author. 1800 BrightonHenrietta. Stochastic environment and damage. Herein. Damage accumulation. Email: dghiocel@stitech. Stochastic stress variation in a blade location is obtained by the superposition of a slowvarying Loading History t Stress Amplitude Resonances . Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Keywords: Life prediction. Introduction A typical illustration of a jet engine life prediction problem is shown in Fig. Fatigue. Tel.) Extreme Events (Accidental impact. 2. Creep. Fax: +1 (716) 2727201. Stochastic modehng.
D(t.5). the E(t. creep. (3) as shown below: (a) Morrow correction include mean stress effects for both the elastic and plastic strain terms: l(5) E G r c/b {2Nff + E'^ 1 _ ^ (2Nf) (4) (b) Modified Morrow correction removes the mean stress effect in plastic strain term: (5) (c) SmithsWatsonTopper approach strainlife curve expression as follows: \^a — changes the {a'f? {INff+a'e'AlNf) (6) An approximately inverse function of strainlife equations (36) can be used to get the cycle life for a given pair of alternating strain and mean stress. The damage accumulation models describe the damage evolution as a function of loading stressstrain history. 2.s). The mean stress correction procedures adjust Eq.N. stochastic stress/strain tensor in a blade location can be expressed by the equation of motion: X(r. There is a significant modeling uncertainty associated with the idealization of the multiaxial stress/strain case by a simple uniaxial stress/strain case. a local strainlife approach with a randomized strainlife curve parameters is used. modified Morrow and SmithWatsonTopper (SWT) correction procedures. The damage growth depends on stress amplitude and reciprocally the stress amplitude depends on damage level. Stochastic strainlife curve SaNf is described by s. etc. The local notch plasticity is introduced using Neuber's rule [3]. Strainlife approach engine blades. D(r. However. After stress/strain state reduction to a simple uniaxial lab test case. the paper focuses on crack initiation modeling aspects.M. This modeling uncertainty should be reduced in the future through the development of more accurate physicsbased straindamage models based on stochastic micromechanics.2. H.£(r. the input environmental/material vector process. Ghiocel. residual stresses from previous damages or processing. s)) (1) where t is time and s is space coordinate. Most often.s).202 D.p) (7) NT {V. Both the crack initiation and crack propagation evolution stages are considered. Mao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics The total damage being defined by the sum of damages of all closed hysteresis loops. with an alternating stress component and a mean stress component. ^max) with cycle counting distribution where the quantities a^. An important aspect of using the strainlife curve is that it is possible to handle the random effects coming from surface finish. = ^i2Nf)' + 8'fi2Nfy (3) Z)(r. The stochastic stressstrain vector process. DiX^m. The total cumulated damage due to cyclic loading can be directly computed by the convolution of damage function. temperature effects.Nf{Sa. typically the rainflow counting procedure is used to determine the closed stressstrain cycle sequence. e'^ and c are considered to be random material parameters. or more specifically as a function of stressstrain closed cycle sequence. currently in engineering practice the influence of damage on stresses and strains is not considered. 2. s). the equivalent (Von Mises) stress is used to define the alternating stress component and the hydrostatic stress (in fact the first stress invariant) to define the mean stress component [3]. Stochastic life prediction models 2. and the scalar damage parameter. A key modeling aspect is to reduce the spatial stress/strain state problem to a uniaxial tensile stress/strain state problem similar to the lab test conditions.s). E(t.5)) For evaluating the stochastic crack initiation life. static. This issue is not further addressed in this paper.cr^).) is included using a randomized Morrow. Crack initiation models Generally. The modeling uncertainty associated with mean stress correction is extremely large even for simple uniaxial lab tests. any cumulative damage process is defined by its firstorder differential kinetic equation dD = dN f{D. s) = h{X{t. The mean stress effect (including temperature. However. Cumulative damage mechanics models DT = I d(t)dt= J2 ^i^i^^i) dv dw dvdu (2) If Theoretically.D(/. are fully coupled. 2. There is a high need in industry to set these mean correction procedures on a more adequate physical basis including key stochastic micromechanics aspects. Such an approach includes both changes in strength and constitutive model using damage parameter as an internal variable in the material constitutive model.1. 5).5).3. X(t. etc. b. U) . fretting effects.5)=:g(X(r.
5 indicates the effect of creep damage (at 700°C) on Ufe prediction. Double Damage Curve Approach [4] and LemaitreChaboche and modified RabotnovKatchanov [5] models were comparatively used. UJ 9 0. are not directly additive. 3.60 (5 Ii 0 J 1 . Both crack initiation and propagation stages are included.4. (7) can be applied. Experimentally. Mao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 1. Ghiocel. 3. Stochastic LCF/creep interaction Fig. Sa"25ksi LOF+HCF . Crack propagation models For crack propagation.70 0.3.2. appropriate stochastic adjustments of damage curves have to be used in addition to the randomization of the model parameters.D.50 0. HCF.60 0. i. creep. These stressdependent damage models or nonlinear damage rulebased models capture adequately the complex HCF/LCF/creep damage interactions. 1. Damage evolution per flight. 31 and 38 of the flight. About 90% of the damage produced is due vibratory stresses. such as Damage Curve Approach. 4.40 0. Stochastic damage models were obtained by randomizing the deterministic ones shown in Fig. H. A key stochastic modeling aspect is that the damages produced by cumulative damage mechanisms of different nature such as LCF. the more severe damage interaction is and the more deviation from linear damage rule is noted [4]. Eq.20 0. it has been shown that a damage curve. Herein. maximum and minimum life levels. three stochastic fracture mechanics models derived using (i) Forman.80 — 10**8 10**9 LOF CYCLES y\ //J HCF CYCLES // — — 203 Nc. holding time. Results were computed for pure LCF damage and LCF/creep damage. stress ratio.30 0.60 0. Fig. Nf{Sa. \ HCF 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 TIME (Minutes) Fig. Computed results 3.f 10**4 10**5 10**6 10**7 3. and temperature are incorporated in these crack propagation models. It is interesting to note two modeling aspects: (i) the probability density of predicted life has a skewed shape for pure LCF damage and relatively symmetric shape for LCF/creep damage and (ii) the coefficient of variation is smaller for the LCF/creep damage. Damage curves for different life levels. 3. 4 shows the HCF/LCF interactive damage for the simulated stress profile given in Fig. 3.M. The letter p denotes the parameters of damage model. 5 there is a significant Hfe reduction due to creep. As shown in Fig. . Nf Fig. The random effects of cyclic loading frequency.90 0.1. as illustrated by the big three steps in the damage evolution.10 0. stress/strain amplitudedependent cumulative damage mechanics models. Om). 2. The damage curve parameters are determined so that for any arbitrary life.80 0. where constant amplitude cycle life is a function are alternating strain and mean stress. (ii) SINH and (iii) MSE models. It should be noted that for this severe flight profile the vibratory stresses are highly damaging. impact loading.20 0. can be accurately constructed based only on two experiments for extreme amplitude levels. etc.e. The greater the ratio between the (two) extreme life levels is. Stochastic HCF/LCF interaction Fig. 6 shows a simulated histogram of the fatigue damage cumulated after 1000 flights (crack initiation stage). 2. This last remark is due to the fact that the creep damage effects are drastic during the crack initiation stage reducing severely the statistical spread between the short and long LCF simulated lives. Critical modeling issues Only two critical modeling issues are investigated in this paper: (i) the modeling uncertainty induced the selection of probability density function of cumulative damage and (ii) the modehng uncertainty introduced by mean stress correction procedures in crack initiation life prediction. Large vibratory stresses occur randomly at the minutes 9.00 LIFE CYCLES. Thus.40 0.00 0.
04 0. 7 indicates the effect of using different mean correction procedures. 70 60 50 Mean Stress Effect I 40 u. Thus.204 DM. I 30 20 10 0 o o o I/) O 05 O t Morrow Modified Morrow • • CO T en CM r^ CN en 5000 10000 15000 20000 o d Damage Index Number of FlighAs Fig. Concluding remarks The paper presents a simulationbased stochastic approach for component life prediction. Mao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (a) 0. it needs further research attention. 5.06 m S o o 0. 6. This result indicates that there is more uncertainty in the predicted life due to modeling assumptions than due to randomness in the loading and material behavior. An early damaging flight condition in the component life may have a great impact on the life length. This modeling aspect has a great influence on component failure risks. Simulated histogram of damage. (a) LCF damage.12 r '' 1 1 1' 1 1 1"" I > i (b) s 0. Specifically. It can be observed that the largest damaging flight sequence is a clear outlier for lognormal and Weibull probability density function. the stochastic life prediction a typical aircraft jet engine blade is studied. The predicted life is 5000 flights for Morrow and SWT and 15. Mean stress correction effects. Computed results show that the stateoftheart of engineering tools for evaluating fatigue and creep effects did not reach yet the level of highly accurate fife estimates. A typical analytical distribution type does not fit accurately the histogram on the entire damage value range.08 1 /tu^fs^^^^^suuilft III f // ^111 100QO i 1 an / 1 1 ^ I aoel 0. Fig. Fig. Simulated stochastic life. The probability density function appears to have a skewed shape with an extreme long tail.02 n I • 0.000 flights for modified Morrow. (b) LCF/creep damage. H. 4. The research need for going in depth in the microscale physics of fatigue phenomena is obvious. This result is a consequence of the highly nonlinear relationship between alternating strain and the incremental and cumulated damage. Ghiocel.1 1 1 ' 1 0. The results are computed for deterministic flight conditions and material. Thus. it appears that the most rational approach to component life prediction is to compute stochastic lowerbounds and bestestimates of lives which include the mostconservative and the experimentallybestfitted engineering .04 ^J^^^^^m^y Jy SQOO Number of Flights ^ 1SQ00 aQ2 1 ^ 1 1^ 1 1 1 1Q0O2QQD3QOO4OQOSQOOeQOO?O0OaQ0O9ODO Number of Rights Fig. 7.
Hyannis. 1114. The 1st International Conference on Fatigue Damage in Structural Materials. Mechanical Behavior of Materials — Engineering Methods for Deformation. Baltimore. [4] Halford GA. 1993. 2000. Caboche F. Ghiocel. 205 References [1] Ghiocel DM. 2227. Mao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics models.DM. Factorable stochastic field models for jet engine vibration response. Cumulative fatigue damage modeling — crack nucleation and early growth. A key role of reducing the modeling uncertainty and increasing the accuracy of life estimates is played by the ongoing micromechanics research developments. 1996. [3] Dowhng NE. Barcelona. June. September. 1316. ProbabiHstic fatigue life prediction for jet engine components: stochastic modehng issues. MA. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. [2] Ghiocel DM. Mechanics of Sohds. NJ: PrenticeHall. and Fatigue. [5] Lemaitre C. . 1998. respectively. ECOMASS 2000. pp. 1999. pp. Englewood Cliffs. Fracture. The 13th ASCE Speciahty Conference. September. H.
[1]).3]. The reliability of the estimator is then analyzed solving a numerical problem using an /zadaptive process. The indirect (or energetic) methods can be applied to the whole domain of the problem and therefore they lend themselves to an estimation of the global discretization error. Obviously. Introduction In the context of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) there are two distinct approaches to the analysis of crack problems: one is the local approach. the postprocessing technique chosen may be another source of errors. Keywords: Finite element method. their equivalent domain integrals. /integral. The effectivity . an alternative approach to the EDI method is needed. numerical methods have become customary. This kind of error is inherent in the nature of the FEM and basically depends on the mesh and type of element used. In those real cases where complex geometries are involved.upv. such as K. All rights reserved. Both are directly related and have been shown to be equivalent as can be found in any text on fracture mechanics (e. which is based on the wellknown concept of stress intensity factor K (SIF) as a single characterizing parameter of the state of stress in the vicinity of a crack tip.g. Fax: H34 (96) 3877629. Adaptive refinement 1. Some computationally efficient estimators for the FE discretization error are currently available. Bathe (Editor) of virtual crack extension and stiffness derivative methods [2. Giner*. Besides. specially the Finite Element Method (FEM). M. Besa. Closedform solutions for K have been derived for a small number of simple geometries and load configurations. 46022Valencia. To obtain an efficient error estimator for G. which is based on shape design sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis. G or the more general 7integral can be done through a great variety of postprocessing techniques. Fracture mechanics.206 A discretization error estimator associated with the energy domain integral method in Hnear elastic fracture mechanics E. As explained below. contour integrals like the /integral [4]. when the FEM is applied to the calculation of K or G. EDI method. The other is the socalled global or energetic approach and takes the strain energy release rate G (SERR) as the characterizing parameter of the problem. Tel: h34 (96) 3877626. Error estimation. In this work we will make use of an extension of the ZienkiewiczZhu discretization error estimator [11] in order to study the influence of the global discretization error on the calculation of G when the wellknown Energy Domain Integral Method is employed. A.es © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. an error estimator for the evaluation of G or / in linear elastic problems in fracture mechanics is proposed. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Email: eginerm@mcm. e. One major consideration in applying the finite element method to fracture mechanics is the order of magnitude of the error made in the calculation. EDI [58] or the modified crack closure integral [9. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia.g. In this work.J. this approach is given by the shape design sensitivity analysis as applied to a crack problem. The application of the FEM in order to obtain fracture mechanics parameters. which is greatly due to the socalled discretization error. Tur Departamento de Ingenieria Mecdnica y de Materiales.10]. Fuenmayor. J. the discretization error introduces an error in the results for K or G. Spain Abstract The implementation of the EDI method through the FEM introduces a discretization error that is inherent in the mesh and type of element employed. Those techniques related to the global approach are called indirect methods and they yield a value for G or / (both refer to the same concept in LEFM) by means * Corresponding author.
which can be defined for a FE discretization with ne isoparametric elements as ne ^es(G) p {a. for a 2D elastic problem.13] that where ^0 is the domain of the problem. 1. I is the identity matrix and v is the socalled velocity field. 1) q\{xx. (3) equals exactly 2G and therefore Eq. the change in sign must be taken into account since G = fl = tl . 3. the first integral in Eq.c2) e Ti if (xi.. i. To do so. (4) where Q^e is the local domain of the reference element. (1) can be obtained under the more general approach of shape design sensitivity analysis as applied to LEFM. It is essentially a domain integral which results of applying the divergence theorem under certain assumptions to the J contour integral [58]. Vii is the gradient of the sensitivity of the displacement field. . Thus. (3) and the Eq. Moreover. deLorenzi [5] established a relationship between this method and the concept of material derivative of Continuum Mechanics. (4) are denoted by ( )* . Physically. . . In this work. in absence of body forces and tractions on crack faces and assuming that the crack propagates in a selfsimilar manner.(Tfe) Fig. the qi function may be interpreted as a weight function which scales the virtual extension 8x1 of any point in Q* between 0 and 8a through the expression 8x1 = qi8a. Error estimation The error estimator proposed here is based on the underlying principle behind the ZienkiewiczZhu estimator [11].X2) = 0 1 if (jci. (3) is also a way of calculating G and it will be employed in this work. derived from the same FE solution. Several procedures are available to carry out a SDSA [14]. 207 2. In Saliba et al. (3) for any kinematically admissible field li. (1). which exactly corresponds to the qi function described above. the unknown exact fields for discontinuous magnitudes of the FE solution are replaced with improved fields.fffe) : [(Vii). : VvlJI dfi.2 and where ^* is a portion of the domain of the problem which completely surrounds the crack tip. V^ is the strain energy density. The improved fields in Eq.E. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics of the proposed error estimator is then checked by means of a numerical verification. which induces a virtual extension 8x1 of points in Q*. [12] and Taroco [13] a continuum approach is used to show that the sensitivity of the total strain energy t/ of a cracked component in LEFM is given by U = — = fa:VudQo+ da J / [WI . . then the sensitivity of the external work done by T (denoted here by V) equals the first integral in Eq. subject to the conditions (see Fig. 7 = 1. Recently.( V u ) V l : Vvd^o J •n\ '^/(^^^•£S£'^ (1) with /. The key assumption in the appUcation of SDSA to a crack problem is to interpret the crack length a as a design variable. This permits to establish an equivalence between the second integral in Eq.(Vu)fe]T (<r. J is the Jacobian matrix and e is the infinitesimal strain tensor. The EDI method as a shape design sensitivity analysis The Energy Domain Integral method is one of the most efficient methods for obtaining / in an elastic (not necessarily linear) problem. If V satisfies the above conditions. whose change of length impUes a modification of the boundaries (shape). Giner et al.(Vu)fe] UI dQ. Eq.V in LEFM (where 77 denotes the sensitivity of the total potential energy). Virtual extension 8a of the points enclosed by F3. Gij and Ui are the stress and displacement fields. X2) e Fs (2) The outer contour Fi and inner contour F3 are arbitrary: Fi can be the external boundary of the body (excluding the crack faces) and F3 is often reduced to a point (the crack tip). Assume that the prescribed tractions T on the problem are held constant and that crack faces are traction free.fffe) (e«  Sfe) I [(Vu). a is the stress tensor. (ff. it has been shown [12. </ is the Kronecker's delta and qi 5 y is a sufficiently smooth function which must take values between 0 and 1. . / can be calculated as: Eq. (3) forms the basis of the proposed estimator in G.e.
/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Mesh 1 Mesh 2 Mesh 4 Mesh 6 Mesh 10 Fig.. (1) or Eq. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  F O L^ E ^ ^ V c v: ^^^^^^^"^"^"^•'•^^^ E < ^ m ^^^^\^ ^^'^^^^^.1 1 1 1 . Sequence of deformed meshes (quadratic elements)... Note that a sensitivity problem must be solved to getu. The relative error can be estimated as ^es(G) = ^es(G) Gfe + ^es(G) (6) An effectivity index to validate the error estimator when the exact solution is known is defined as follows ^(G) '7es(G) ^ex(G) (7) E v \ Kiex = O^jTta [ 2b /7za\ 1/2 (9) .O.208 E. (3). being C/gx — G f e — <^ex '?ex(G) = (8) 4.F. whose exact solution for plane strain is [1] where Gfe is obtained either through Eq. Model for periodic array of collinear cracks (Mode I). Giner et al. the improved fields were obtained through nodal averaging whereas a SPR technique [15] was employed for quadratic elements. 3. Using this error estimator an improved solution for G is given by G^es = G f e + ees(G) (5) which should be close to unity. in contrast to the FE solution ( )fe.^^^ E > P p F 100 " ^ '^r rex( G ) (linear elements) " ^ ' %^es{G) " ' 9c X] 1 (linear elements) (quadratic elements) 1 1 1 1 1 ^c T]^^^ ^ ^ (quadratic elements) ^^^'^<<. an /iadaptive procedure was used. ^^^^^^<.. 2. Fig.= : J 310 LU 0._ 1 D. Exact and estimated relative errors in G (%) for the sequences of /zadapted meshes: linear and quadratic elements.. The specific problem discussed here is an infinite array of collinear cracks of the same length 2a in Mode I. Numerical verification In order to check the validity of the error estimator and its convergence with refined meshes. For linear elements.
both for linear and quadratic triangular elements. Reliability of the error estimator: effectivity index for the sequences of /zadapted meshes: linear and quadratic elements.Q(^. A comparison of methods for calculating energy release rates. Shih CF. Fig. [2] Parks DM. Note that the number of dof. [10] Shivakumar KN.17] are included for comparison. Tan PW. A finite element calculation of stress intensity factors by a modified crack closure integral. A virtual crack closure technique for calculating stress intensity fac 5.35:379386. Jr. New York: Oxford University Press. 4.17]. Eng Fract Mech 1977. It has also been shown that this error estimator improves notably other estimators available in the literature. Advanced Fracture Mechanics. J Appl Mech 1968.17] is included for comparison. On the method of virtual crack extensions. where the effectivity index given by another error estimator in G [16. The height of the FE model was taken large enough {h = 6) to assume this exact solution as valid for comparison purposes. Newman JC. Other numerical examples yielded similar results and therefore this estimator can be regarded as acceptable. E = 10'^. as it is emphasized by the Fig. Effectivity indexes calculated according to [16. Popelar CH. 3 compared to the exact relative error r^ex(G).9:931938. Energy release rate along a threedimensional crack front in a thermally stressed body.) . .19:183193. Through a numerical example.21(1): 129143. The results for the estimated relative error r/es(G) are given in Fig. having used a = \. The reliability of the proposed estimator seems to be fairly high. Giner et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics n—\—I I I 209 . 4. Further refinement would not be appropriate in this example. since actually the FE model converges to a slightly different exact solution (which is unknown) due to its finite height. Moran B.21(2):405421.E. [8] Shih CF. 2 shows the discretized model after deformation and some of the adapted meshes. its high reliability has been checked. v = 0. [9] Rybicki EF.a . Eng Fract Mech 1985. This estimator implies solving a sensitivity problem as well as computing improved fields for the FE solution. On the energy release rate and the /integral for 3D crack configurations. [5] deLorenzi HG. [4] Rice JR. J \ \ l_i D.\ (linear elements) G. [6] deLorenzi HG. Nakamura T. Oxford Engineering Science Series. linear elem. [16. Needleman A. Eng Fract Mech 1985. A stiffness derivative finite element technique for determination of crack tip stress intensity factors. Fig. Conclusions In this work. Acknowledgements This work was financially supported by CICyT in the framework of research project PB970696C0202.F. an error estimator for G based on a SDSA for linear elastic crack problems when solved through a FE analysis has been proposed. [7] Li FZ. References [1] Kanninen MF. [3] Hellen TK. b = 1 (half distance between similar points of two consecutive cracks). Int J Numer Methods Eng 1975. A path independent integral and the approximate analysis of strain concentration by notches and cracks.30:79102. 1985. Int J Fracture 1982. Int J Fracture 1974. of the first mesh is larger than for the second mesh due to the adaptive procedure. Energy release rate calculations by the finite element method.333 and a = 100. Int J Fracture 1986. Kanninen MF.O.10:487502.9 c / . (quadratic elements) •^^9 (ref.9:187207.
tors for cracked three dimensional bodies. Volume 177 of Mathematics in Science and Engineering. [11] Zienkiewicz OC. Int J Fracture 1988. Feijoo RA. First and second order shape sensitivity analysis in fracture mechanics. Choi KK.20(5):813828. Zhu JZ. Extension of the ZienkiewiczZhu error estimator to shape sensitivity analysis.33:13311364. Part I: The recovery technique.40:14131433. Giner et al. Barcelona: CIMNE. [17] Fuenmayor FJ. Orlando. In: Idelsohn S. [12] Saliba R. [15] Zienkiewicz OC.24:337357. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1987. [16] Fuenmayor FJ. Oliver JL. [13] Taroco E. Zhu JZ. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [14] Haug EJ. Florida: Academic Press Inc. Proceedings Congreso Buenos Aires. 1986. .210 E. Barcelona: CIMNE. Dvorkin E (Eds).36:R43R50. Padra C. Rodenas JJ. Dvorkin E (Eds). 1998. Calculation of the stress intensity factor and estimation of its error by a shape sensitivity analysis. The superconvergent patch recovery and a posteriori error estimates. Computational Mechanics: New Trends and Applications. Proceedings Congreso Buenos Aires. Oliver JL. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1997.. Design Sensitivity Analysis of Structural Systems. Dominguez J. Taroco E. Giner E. Ofiate E. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 1997. Ofiate E. Venere MJ. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1992. Komkov V. Shape sensitivity analysis and energy release rate of planar cracks embedded in threedimensional bodies. A simple error estimator and adaptive procedure for practical engineering analysis. 1998. In: Idelsohn S. Computational Mechanics: New Trends and Applications.
while the second phase (identified by the subindex d) represents the damaged phase. Introduction Structural materials are usually made up of two or more phases which exhibit a nonlinear mechanical behaviour. Model description and application The material is made up of two spherical phases forming an interpenetrating network of randomly distributed spheres [2]. Gonzalez *. The following two sections are devoted to calculate these terms. E. J. Spain Abstract A model is developed to compute the mechanical behaviour of twophase materials including the effects of damage. Llorca Polytechnic University of Madrid. L. While this is often true. The material is represented by an interpenetrating network of randomly distributed spheres. Department of Materials Science. All rights reserved. The effective response of the twophase material can then be computed by integrating along the loading path the effective strain hardening rate. the model predictions are compared with experimental results — previously reported — for a particlereinforced metalmatrix composite. which can be computed as L = (lp)L. Particlereinforced composite 1. which is given by da dF dW a? + where the first term in (1) stands for the hardening contribution without any phase transformation.T. Damage. Classical models assume that the volume fraction of each phase is constant. Email: cgonzalez@mater. 2. where a phase change (due to damage. and Ad stand.S. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. This paper presents an extension of the classical selfconsistent model to analyze the mechanical behaviour of a twophase material. Tel. Fax: +34 (91) 3366680. or any other physical process) may occur during deformation. Plasticity. As an example. for the fourth or . the evolution of volume fraction of each phase is one critical factor to simulate with accuracy the mechanical behaviour. of progressive damage in metalmatrix composites by either reinforcement fracture or interface decohesion. The volume fraction of the damaged phase is given by p. Keywords: Selfconsistent method. It is assumed that one of the phases (identified by the * Corresponding author. This is the case.211 Micromechanical analysis of twophase materials including plasticity and damage C. Bathe (Editor) where Au. Deformation without damage The strain hardening rate for the twophase material without damage is given by the effective tangent stiffness tensor. elastoplastic soHd following the incremental (J2) theory of plasticity. de Ingenieros de Caminos.upm. The second term introduces the stress redistribution due to the damage of dp material when the prescribed boundary conditions are held constant. The model assumes that the behaviour of each phase in the material is adequately represented by an isotropic. In all these situations.: +34 (91) 3366419.es © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. which is known to play a critical role in their ductihty and strength [1]. which are assumed to behave as isotropic elastoplastic solids. respectively. Madrid.1. The incremental selfconsistent method is used to compute the effective response of the material as well as the elastic stress redistribution due to damage. Effective property. subindex u) stands for the behaviour of the undamaged phase. which presented damage by reinforcement fracture during deformation.Au+pLdAd (2) mi (1) 2. 28040.J. for instance. there are materials which exhibit phase changes triggered by the inhomogeneous stress and strain fields generated during deformation.
The constitutive equation for each region (intact or damaged) in the composite was determined through the finite element analysis. ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 2 3 Strain (%) 600 (b) Naturally aged condition x 500 . This problem was solved by Hill [3] within the framework of elastoplastic deformation for an isolated ellipsoidal inclusion of phase / [4]. It was found that the dominant damage mechanism during deformation was reinforcement fracture. Firsdy. Two hypotheses are necessary to compute the associated stress redistribution. According to the model.2. The derivative of the overall elastic stiffness tensor is also computed using the same self consistent method.3. Model application The model developed in the previous section was used to compute the tensile stressstrain curve for a 2618 Al alloy (a) Peakaged condition 500 a. S L/i 300  on dJ UN r/i 7. as a result. Secondly. SiC particles [5]. 2(a) and (b). 1. . 2. . (a) Model (dashed) and composite (solid) curves for the tensile stressstrain behaviour of the peakaged metalmatrix composite. J a . . J. the damage leads to an elastic stress relaxation in the effective material. 2.. (3) dp dp dp where a and ?^/ stand for the effective stress and elastic strain prior to damage. 2. The simulations of the tensile stressstrain curves were in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. (b) Idem for the naturally aged composite.212 C Gonzalez. which depend on the material properties as well as on the volume fraction.%. To compute L is just necessary to determine the strain rate concentration tensors. Stress redistribution due to damage The stresses and strains in the undamaged phase change after each strain increment and. Llorca/ First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 600 der strain rate concentration tensors corresponding to the untransformed and transformed phases. shape and spatial distribution of each phase. The fraction of broken particles was assumed to be governed by a Weibull statistic. I reinforced with 15 vol. as shown in Fig.400 300 Selfconsistent simulation Experimental 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Strain (%) Fig. which can be calculated derivating its elastic constitutive equation given by a = L"€ei and thus — = U'—^\€. both formed by the metallic matrix surrounding either an intact or broken SiC particle (Fig. 1). The right expression in (3) is a set of equations in which the terms of da/dp and d?^//dp corresponding to prescribed boundary conditions are zero. The broken SiC particles contained a pennyshaped crack perpendicular to the loading axis. the SiC particles being broken by cracks perpendicular to the loading axis. a dp volume fraction of material is transformed.00 100 Selfconsistent simulation Experimental f .. r COMPOSITE INTACT DAMAGED Fig. the composite was represented as an interpenetrating network of two spherical phases. it is assumed that the damage occurs very rapidly (as compared to the strain rate) and thus that the prescribed boundary conditions remain constant. Geometric representation of a particlereinforced metalmatrix composite as an interpenetrating network of intact and damaged regions.
Llorca/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3.46:128. References 213 [1] Llorca J. Martin A. [2] Gonzalez C. Particulate fracture during deformation of a spray formed metal matrix composite. [3] Hill R. It was assumed that damage occurs instantaneously and leads to an elastic stress relaxation. [5] LLorca J.A24:15751588.13:89101. The determination of the elastic field of an ellipsoidal inclusion and related problems. J.A241:376396. Ruiz J. [4] Eshelby JD. Metall Trans 1993. Gonzalez C. Llorca J. Continuum micromechanics of elastoplastic polycrystals. J Mech Phys Solids 1965. Microstructural factors controlling the strength and ductility of particlereinforced metalmatrix composites. J Mech Phys Solids 1998. J Mech Phys Solids 2000. A selfconsistent approach to the elastoplastic behaviour of twophase materials including damage.48:675692. The stress redistribution was computed by solving the nonlinear set of equations obtained by derivating the equations of the selfconsistent method. Proc Roy Soc London 1957. Gonzalez. Elices A. where the elastic values of the stiffness and strain concentration tensors are used. Conclusions A model to compute the effective response of a twophase material including the effect of damage was developed. .C.
Japan Abstract A threenode triangular shell element is developed for the Free Mesh Method (FMM). elements are automatically created around each node in a local manner. . Free mesh method In the FMM. • Central node ® Satellite nodes © Candidate nodes o Othernodes * Corresponding author. Meshless method. Introduction The Free Mesh Method (FMM. Then satellite nodes are selected from the candidate nodes. Miyamura'' " University of Tokyo. Finally. For this purpose. the FMM can be easily implemented on parallel environments [2]. and its membrane behavior is improved by using mixed method [4]. 1. Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science. Keywords: Finite element method. which form the local elements around the central node. Saitama 3510198. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. a node is selected as a central node and nodes within a certain distance from the central node are selected as candidate nodes. Hence it is important to develop the threenode triangular element that is accurate enough in membrane deformations to apply the FMM to the analyses of general shell structures. desirable as a local element used in the FMM. Mixed method 1. but only the nodes distributed in the analysis domain and the boundary conditions are used as input data. In the FMM. Shell structures. global mesh is not necessary as input data. A threenode triangular element is. and then a conventional nodebynode finite element analysis is conducted with those elements. which is a virtually meshless method modified from the nodebynode finite element method. For each local element. Bunkyoku. it is important to employ an accurate threenode triangular shell element. 21 Hirosawa. 731 Hongo. Fax: hSl (3) 58416994. Concept of FMM. 1 shows the conceptual figure of the FMM. In this research. [1]) is a virtually meshless method.214 Accurate analysis of shell structures by a virtually meshless method K. the discrete Kirchhoff triangular element is improved by introducing the mixed method to the membrane stiffness.J.jp © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Fig. It is known that the accuracy of membrane behavior of threenode triangular elements is poor in comparison with that of fournode quadrilateral elements. Tokyo 1138656. which is a kind of the nodebynode finite element method. This distance is usually decided from the prescribed density of the distribution of nodes. 2. Because the processes from the local mesh generation to the construction of equations are seamless and independent in every node. Yagawa% T. the threenode discrete Kirchhoff triangular element [3] is used with the FMM. Threenode triangular element. First. Bathe (Editor) Lx)cal area Temporary local elements Fig. G. To apply the FMM to the analysis of general shell structures. an illustrative example is presented.: h81 (3) 58417005.utokyo. Wako.t. Japan ^ The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. Materials Fabrication Laboratory. Free mesh method. however. Goto^'*. All rights reserved.ac. Email: goto@qs. Tel.
Comput Mech 1996.186 0. Goto et al. Comput Struct 1980.23:13431353. the stress and the strain that are the function of the differential of the displacement are constant within an element. [4] Zienkiewicz OC. It is observed that almost the same accuracy is achieved by introducing the mixed method to the membrane stiffness with the same node distribution. Because of the symmetry of the geometry and the load. rigid diaphragm Fig.838 mm [5]. Yamada T. it is possible to approximate independently not only the displacement but also the stress and the strain. Nakazawa S. the stress and the strain are approximated continuously in the analysis domain.985 215 4Node quadrilateral (MARC) 1.030 0. 2 is analyzed to demonstrate the present element. 4. For this purpose. and are approximated discontinuously in the analysis domain.925 0. Kui LX. Finite Elements Anal Des 1985. When the displacement formulation is used for threenode element. As a result.971 3.941 0. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2000.231 1. the DKT element was improved by introducing the mixed method to the membrane stiffness. 2.35 mm. Recent developments of free mesh method. iterative method. In this case. A proposed standard set of problems to test finite element accuracy.K.993 0. The DKT element is suitable for thin shell analysis and has six degrees of freedom per each node. Harder RL. the threenode discrete Kirchhoff triangular (DKT) element is adopted in this study. The models are labeled as / X j where the integers / and j indicate numbers of nodal spacing along arcs AB and DC. [2] Yagawa G.1:320. almost the same accuracy as the fournode quadrilateral element was attained with the present 'meshless' scheme. When the mixed formulation is used. a bending stiffness and an inplane rotational stiffness. the rows of the matrix concerned with the central node are stored in memory. It is compared with the result obtained with a fournode quadrilateral element using MARC. It is loaded vertically by its uniformly distributed dead weight of intensity of References [1] Yagawa G. it is important to develop an accurate threenode triangular shell element. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the element stiffness matrix is constructed in the same way as the FEM. and sides BC and AD. ScordelisLo roof . Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986. Young's modulus E = 2. thickness h = 6. The geometrical and material data of the problem are: radius R = 0.27 m. In this point of view. 5. arc AB = 40°. which is a commercial FEA code.18:383386. The membrane stiffness is the constant strain plane stress stiffness of a threenode element. Illustrative example The ScordelisLo roof shown in Fig. In this problem most part of the strain energy is due to membrane deformation. the membrane behavior of the threenode DKT element is improved by using the mixed formulation. The total element stiffness matrix is formulated by superimposing a plane stress membrane stiffness. [5] MacNeal RH. Threenode triangular shell element To make the procedures in FMM independent.979 x lO^^Pa and Poisson's ratio V = 0. A simple and effective element for analysis of general shell structures. The above procedures are carried out for all nodes.13:673682. length L = 1. [3] Bathe KJ. Dynamic transient analysis by a mixed. Table 1 shows the vertical displacement at point C normalized by the exact value. respectively. only one quarter of the roof is analyzed.2055 X lO^Pa.953 0. the stiffness concerned with the central node is evaluated. it is preferable that the element is triangular without midnodes. only the displacement is treated as the problem variable that will be independently approximated. Free mesh method: a new Meshless finite element method. Fumkawa T. In this study. Table 1 Normalized displacement of ScordelisLo roof Model 2x2 4x4 6x6 8x8 16 X 16 3Node DKT with mixed formulation (FMM) 1. Thus. The exact value of vertical displacement at point C in a steady state is 7. 6.983 0. Concluding remarks To apply the FMM to the analysis of shell structures. Then. Ho LW.47:14191443. In the conventional displacement formulation.635 m.
Weiss'' ^ Department of Mechanical Engineering. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Guilkey^'M.Fint^"^ (t + dr) * Corresponding author. The grid also functions as an updated Lagrangian reference frame.1. Bathe (Editor) . In addition to avoiding Eulerian diffusion. . Tel. By sharing the grid with a multimaterial CFD code. (1) Here KK„ is the stiffness matrix. All rights reserved. Keywords: Implicit integration. Introduction The Material Point Method (MPM) as described by Sulsky et al.J. The use of the regular grid has also been exploited for doing fluidstructure interaction problems [4]. UT 84112. contact algorithms do not require searches for contact surfaces [3]. then being reset to its original position at the end of a timestep. Fax: +1 (801) 5859826. Incrementaliterative solution of the linearized equations of motion A derivation of the linearized equations of motion in matrix form can be found in any standard finite element textbook (e. An example problem was used to compare the implicit integration scheme to the traditional explicit integration scheme used with MPM. UT 84112.g. Salt Lake City. moving with the particles during advection.H r + dr). du„ is new estimate of the . Email: guilkey@humpback. The many similarities between these two methods will allow improvements to the algorithm described herein based on the large amount of work which has been done with implicit FEM codes.utah..edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. This strategy uses an incrementaliterative solution strategy based on a Newton method to solve the equations of motion and Newmark integration to update the kinematic variables. Implicit time integration algorithm 2. [5]). University of Utah.M . while each phase still enjoys the benefits of its traditionally preferred frame of reference. University of Utah. Material point method 1. the method avoids the mesh entanglement problems frequently encountered with large deformation finite element calculations.a ^ . One limitation of this approach has been that the stable timestep sizes for explicit time integration for the solid and fluid are often disparate by several orders of magnitude.2] is a particle method for structural mechanics simulations. tight coupling between the two phases can be achieved.: +1 (801) 5855145. Linearization of the matrix form of the equations of motion about the current time t yields KK^^ (r + dr) • du^ = Fext^(t h dO . An implicit integration strategy was implemented to alleviate the small timestep required by the explicit integration strategy for the solid phase. Salt Lake City.E. USA ^ Department of Bioengineering. as well as with integration methods used with the Finite Element Method. The method uses a regular structured grid as a scratchpad for computing spatial gradients. with the solid phase requiring the smaller timestep to maintain the conditional stabiUty of the explicit integration scheme.216 An implicit time integration strategy for use with the material point method J. 2.A. Additionally. The approach borrowed heavily from the strategies traditionally used in implicit Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations. USA Abstract An implicit integration strategy for use with the Material Point Method (MPM) is described. [1.mech.
(0 . t the current time. (1) to get the current estimate for the displacement increment. but is the displacement from t to r + dr.(t + dt) = . (1) Initialization: For the first iteration ( k = l ) . \i = Mt (7) ¥exti=j:^SipFexip. volume Vp. KK^ (t + dO = Kmat^ (t + dO + KgeoJ (t + dt) 4 d^2 ^ Here.^ dt. (1). (1) for the current estimate of incremental displacements du^. solve for u^(f + dt) and v^(r h dt). 2. Note that since Ug refers to the displacement of the grid between t and t^dt. (4) can be solved for \g{t + dt). G^ is the gradient of the interpolation functions evaluated at x^. a new estimate for the displacement was obtained via 217 Interpolate to the grid: Particle data is interpolated to the grid to obtain M^. and. Known quantities: At the beginning of each implicit timestep. the acceleration for the current iteration k at time t + dt can be approximated in terms of known quantities at time t and estimates at time t hdt from the previous iteration k — 1: <^' + ^^) = . Fint^ is the vector of internal forces to to the stress divergence. as determined the following criteria: du^„ < €d and ¥intl\t]dt)=Finig(t). note that u^ {t + dO is not the total displacement.ag(odt^ (6) This value for a^C? h dO is used in Eq.i a + dO = 0. n\{t + dt) = n\\t + dt) + du\ (2) With the new total displacements. (3) Update kinematics on the grid: Using Eqs. where / refers to individual nodes of the grid.3. P^^'^' = F. invert Eq.( v . The effects of the total displacement of the material were contained in the positions and total deformation gradient of the particles. when (4) and (5) are combined with Eq. (1). Eq. the other kinematic variables. The known quantities on the grid are: Fintg(r).^ K~'(^ + ^^) + K) .xv. (2) Solve for du^: For iteration k. and D^(r \dt) is the spatial elasticity tensor. Vvi'p(t + dt) = Gpul{t + dt) F'pit + dt) = (Vu^(r + dt) + I) F ^ ( 0 du^ duOQ^ (3) where Q^ is the right hand side of Eq. velocity yp{t). Kinematic update via trapezoidal rule Once the nodal displacements u^(f + dt) were determined.2. J. and B ^ ^ is the nonlinear strain displacement matrix at . Mg is the mass matrix and 2Lg is the acceleration vector. Computational algorithm Fint^(r + dO =J2f Kmsitl(t{dt) = Kgeo*(/ + dt) =J2f ^^p^^ + ^^^ "^^ ^l(t J2j^lK+ dt)Bldv B L < ( ^ + dOBj. (4) dt y^it + dO = v g ( 0 + . the first of these corresponds to resetting the grid back to its original undeformed configuration. By solving Eq. the trapezoidal rule was used to find the nodal velocities. \g{t + dt). position Xp(0. Guilkey. and dt the increment in time. Fextg is the vector of external forces at the new time t \dt.+^'F[). The material points remain in their deformed locations. including the initial one. the following particle quantities are known at time t\ mass m^. Weiss / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics incremental displacements. Integrate to get the internal force vector and the material and geometric stiffness on the grid. 2.(ag(0 + ag(r + dO) (5) ( / ( r + dO is determined from F^ and any relevant history variablesD^(r h dt) follows from o^ Here. Iterative solution of equations of motion on grid: The linearized equations of motion on the grid are solved iteratively using Newton's method. ( 0 + VgCr h d o ) . A. \g{t) and Fextg(r + dr): Mi = ^Sipmp. deformation gradient ¥p{t) and Cauchy stress cfpit). Iteration continued until convergence is achieved. KK'\t^dt) = KKg(t). a„(r + dt): dt u. B [ is the linear strain displacement matrix at x^. stiffness matrix. and accelerations. On the background grid. assume: u ^ .E.J. and internal forces were updated. Sip is the trilinear shape function of the ith node evaluated at x^. (2).KKg(Oandag(0. (4) Update stress divergence and tangent stiffness on the grid: The total deformation gradient PQ^^^ is computed via a recursion relation. (2) and (4). k is the current iteration number.
J .66 x 10^ N/cm^ and G = 7.86 x 10"^ kg/cm^ ^ = 1. Continue to the next timestep. Once a converged solution has been reached: Save ¥p{t + dr). J2^ represents the standard finite element assembly operation. (6). Left column . Update the particle position and velocity: Xp(t + dr) = Xp(t) + Up{t + dr).dt) and ag(r + dr) to the particles: Up(t + dt) = J2^ipUi{t^dt).0 X 105 N/cni2 Fig. Center column .results for implicit time integration. Interpolate Ug{t \. performed in this case on the regular grid mesh. Numerical example: pressurization of a cylinder One scenario of interest to our research group is the response of a steel container filled with an energetic material (explosive) to a pool fire. Contours of von Mises stress at time 0. Guilkey. bottom left). For the explicit analyses. 1. A simplified problem is used here for demonstration. plane strain model of a long cylindrical container with properties p = 7. Cylindrical container subject to pressurization at fime r = 0. top left).!1 ji h11!j ih1i Ihi Mf J M 1 1 1 i i WMii^ 555*W^ T T' ^ M MM M i •''(^A^}t^'/Z'(^S4''^U4i! M M i '] 1 j MM MT^^^fgi^m j 'h MlwM^i^ i Ml ^^$S$%F : M m ^ Pmi ^i : n IwS ij 1 1 lill ll^g^P 1 1 ' i j l j M ' . return to step 2 and continue the iterations.006 s. and FEM (using NIKE3D and DYNA3D). Soludons via Material Point Method (top) and Finite Element Method (bottom). Otherwise. Contours indicate von Mises stress distribution.computational grids. 1.006 s demonstrated that differences between the explicit and implicit time integration schemes were small within a com Xp. This provided approximately equivalent resolution since the material points function as integration points and the finite elements had eight integration points per element.218 J. j 1 i i i ijr: i i i i i MM! j I I M I [1 '•^fji/7%^ !j:W4UT^ j j M M M h j i i 1 M M (8) (9) (10) (11) /jfj^^y^jj 1 j IJlffffi^ i^M^^fflfe.A. was modeled with implicit and explicit MPM. . 2720 particles were used for the MPM calculation (Fig. Phase change of the contents results in pressurization of the container. KK^(r + dt).1 x 10^ N/cm^ x time. while for the implicit analyses a timestep size of 4 X 10""^ s was used. Weiss/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. (3). timestep size was 1 X 10"^ s..E. Compute Sig{t + dt) using Eq.J4iU4444>^ 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 20 25 30 35 6. while 340 trilinear finite elements were used for the FEM calculations (Fig. A onequarter symmetry.70 x 10^ N/cm^. subject to pressurization via the load curve F = 71. \p{t + dr) = \p{t) + 5 (a^(r) + a^(r + dr)) dr. J. ap(t ^dt) = J2 S'P^ii^ + dr). (5) Convergence criteria: Convergence is checked using Eq. Fint^Cr + dr). 1.
Application of a particleincell method to solid mechanics. Finite Element Procedures. Schreyer HL.J.34 X 10^ 1.1:283295. [3] Bardenhagen SG. LA13255PR 1997. New Jersey: PrenticeHall. Comput Methods Appl Mech Engrg 2000. Quantitative comparisons of von Mises stress and radial displacement between the two implicit methods demonstrated generally good agreement (Table 1).E. the results for the MPM analyses had larger circumferential and radial variations in von Mises stress than the FEM analyses. Timesteps several thousand times larger than the CFL condition have been used successfully. entanglement and the ability of the method to be coupled with CFD calculations. Brackbill JU. [4] Kashiwa BA. JA. The BEGS method introduced by Matthies and Strang [6] is an obvious choice as it has proven to be robust for a wide range of nonlinear problems in solid mechanics. Guilkey. A particle method for history dependent materials. the limitation is counteracted by the ability to treat extremely large deformations without mesh [1] Sulsky D. The materialpoint method for granular materials. Explicit MPM is known to have difficulty in situations involving quasistatic loading. (cm) Inner Middle Outer 2. Comp Phys Commun 1995.85 MPM von Mises Stress (N/cm^) 1.118:179196. being better suited to highly dynamic problems. 14:16131626. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the U. The algorithm accommodates much larger timesteps than the explicit version of MPM without any apparent loss in accuracy for the problem presented here as well as other test problems. Sulsky D. our current implementation requires a rectilinear grid.08 X 10^ 219 FEM von Mises Stress (N/cm^) 1. The solution of nonlinear finite element equations. Fluidstructure interaction modeling. . (cm) 2. Conclusions An implicit integration strategy was developed and implemented for MPM. The rightmost frames show results from the explicit codes. [5] Bathe KJ.72 X 10^ 1.30 2. [6] Matthies H.87:236252.13 1.187:529541. Zhou S.40 X 10^ 8. The implicit version clearly performed better for this particular situation. Additionally.08 X 10^ putational technique (Fig. However. Because of the similarities between MPM and FEM. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1979.03 FEM Disp. Strang G. 1). Solution differences between the MPM and FEM can be attributed to the use of a nonconforming computational grid for the MPM calculations. Schreyer HL.61 X 10^ 1. 1996. Comput Methods Appl Mech Engrg 1994. Lewis MW. the implicit solution strategy approach can be easily modified to accommodate quasiNewtonian solution methods. Department of Energy through the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions.S.17 2. the implicit method performs far better for quasistatic loading scenarios. Although the algorithm can readily handle nonrectilinear grids.96 1. [2] Sulsky D. References 4. The asymmetry of the stress distribution is more pronounced for the explicit MPM results. Weiss /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Quantitative comparisons of displacement and stress at inner. Chen Z. middle and outer radial locations on the cylinder MPM Disp. under grant W7405ENG48. The variations decreased with increasing grid resolution. Although this may appear to be a disadvantage of the method. This can be attributed to the use of a rectilinear computational grid for the calculations.
Email: manohar@civil. damping coefficients and crosssectional dimensions has been studied recently by the present authors [5]. the unknowns Ai. Fax: +91 (80) 3600 404.ernet. by first invoking the principle of maximum entropy to construct the first order probability density functions (pdf). The displacement fields are discretized using frequency dependent shape functions and the random fields using covariance dependent shape functions. Introduction A simulation based method for the computation of reliability of stochastically parametered curved Timoshenko beams under random loadings is developed.S.2X . The proposed method is based on evaluation of stochastic dynamic stiffness of the beam elements. are constructed by invoking principle of maximum entropy. mean and covariance functions. Numerical results illustrative of successful application of methods developed are presented. which are then combined with the information on the covariance functions to arrive at Nataf's models.in © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Maximum entropy method. Failure probability. the system properties have been modeled as jointly homogeneous random fields. An adaptive importance sampling scheme that uses nonGaussian sampling functions is developed to evaluate failure probabilities.X^ix fif] (1) where. Monte Carlo simulations are performed for computing the failure probabilities. The following are the salient features of this study: (a) discretization of the displacement fields using frequency and damping dependent shape functions [3]. This automatically implies that these fields are nonGaussian. +91 (80) 309 2667. Bathe (Editor) 2. Reliability. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. * Corresponding author. Specific nonGaussian sampling distribution functions.2].220 Computation of reliability of stochastic structural dynamic systems using stochastic FEM and adaptive importance sampling with nonGaussian sampling functions Sayan Gupta. All rights reserved. Dynamic stiffness of stochastic curved beams The problem of evaluation of the dynamic stiffness matrix of curved Timoshenko beams with randomly varying Young's and shear moduli. mass density.J. C. The range of these random fields are constrained to ensure the strict positivity of the physical parameters. India Abstract The problem of computation of reliability of randomly excited linear structural dynamical systems with stochastic parameter uncertainties is considered. Indian Institute of Science. that account for the bounded range of system property random fields. Manohar* Department of Civil Engineering. Tel. In this study. The statistical fluctuations in the system properties are modeled as nonGaussian random fields with bounded ranges.3 are determined by solving the following set of equations . Adaptive importance sampling 1. Subsequently. This leads to marginal density functions of the form f{x) = Aiexp[A. (c) use of random field discretization scheme that retains the nonGaussian nature of the random fields [4] and (d) estimation of failure probabilities using a newly developed adaptive importance sampling scheme which employs nonGaussian sampling functions. (b) modeling the system properties as nonGaussian random fields with bounded ranges thereby allowing for strict positivity of the physical parameters. Bangalore 560012.iisc. Keywords: Stochastic finite element. This study is in keeping with the current research interest in the vibration analysis of structures with parameter uncertainties [1. The information available on these random fields is taken to be limited to their range. The partial information available on these random fields has been complemented. A2 and A.
(13) . hzih • (^ 11 G g(M) < 0) /x(^) (9) Here. which are employed to evaluate the conditional moments (Z). we encountered difficulties in evaluating failure probabilities below a certain level when this sampling density function was used.. (9) and (10)...2(^)d§ hz(^) (8) a a where.. Z„ given by ^i = <PviHz. Xo)YM = F. D((X>. Manohar / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 111 f a D fix) Ax = 1. we propose to evaluate this probability of failure by using adaptive importance sampling simulation procedures..y^(^i. The system property random fields have been discretized using covariance dependent shape functions. I is an indicator function taking values of unity if ^(1) S 0 and 0 otherwise and IZ spans the range of the random variables.I dimensional normal density with mean and covariances computed from Eqs. hz^. (•) denotes the mathematical expectation..S. This leads to first order pdfs of the form as given in Eq. Adaptive importance sampling using nonGaussian sampling function For a importance sampling function /iz(f). (5) I b (x . n. These correlation coefficients pij are expressed in terms of the correlation coefficients ^tj of Z through the integral relation = y"%(f)<o]M2/.. The parameters of this pdf are now estimated by using the conditional mean and variances as given in Eqs.. This normal pdf is chosen to be the importance sampling density function. unit standard deviation and unknown correlation coefficient matrix [p] [7].. The focus of this paper is on evaluating probability of failure with the performance function given by g(X): amax (D(a. (1). (12) In this study. as proposed by Bucher [6]. a. involves the generation of samples according to the original density function /x(f).Zn = d/d§/{Hz^. Vi. Xo)~^/C) (6) Here. [/)]) is the multivariate normal probability distribution function with zero mean.S. To realize this.. . b denote the range and /x and a^ are.. . the mean and variance.(fj)} is the marginal probability distribution function and ^y^ . C.. F} is the extended vector oi N \\ random variables with joint pdf /x(f). The system equilibrium equation in frequency domain has been shown to be of the form \y{(D. Subsequently. The efficiency of the importance samphng i. respectively.^nAp]) where X = {Xo. This is followed by the formulation of N \.. we propose to use Nataf's model for the sampling density function.. (7) where.zAl)=(t>V. the probability of failure is well known to be given by Here.j = l.. which could be random.(^i)^ i= h . Gupta.n. K are standard normal variates obtained by the transformations on Zi.Vn(^U. The probability of failure Pf can be computed by evaluating the A^ + 1 dimensional integral (l>Vi(^l)'(t>Vn(in) (11) ^/ g(^)<o S '^ (l)df.0 (2) b xfix) dx = fi / a (3) scheme depends on the choice of the sampling function ^z(l). .ii)^f{x)dx = a^ (4) (zz')/. (9) and (10). The study further employs frequency and damping dependent shape functions to discretize the displacement fields..z(i) = (^^' I ^ ^ sib </x(^)0) (10) Here.The procedure for selecting the sampling density function. .. These equations are solved iteratively to obtain py. 3. Xo) is the stochastic dynamic stiffness matrix with Xo being the A/^dimensional vector of nonGaussian random variables resulting from discretizing the random fields and F is the vector of amplitudes of harmonic excitations.. fn. .. we first estimate the first order pdfs of samples in failure region by invoking maximum entropy principle.. In our studies. . To circumvent this difficulty. This difficulty has been attributed to the small variance associated with the sampling density function.. the sampling density function according to Nataf's model is obtained as hz.
2 n i. Example 2 A harmonically driven curved Timoshenko beam with randomly inhomogeneous mass density is considered next (Fig.O / K =100 N / m / /\ A A f(t) = F„e' / _y V M 0 = 2 0 k g / / / / / / / / / / /^/ / / / _u o o ' and 0. Gupta.e .01 0. The excitation amplitude is assumed to be Gaussian with unit mean and standard deviation of 0. 0 0. Example 2.1. Failure probability using adaptive importance sampling. Example 2. 3. I.006 0.35 m * ^0. The initial Monte Carlo simulation run was done for threshold value a = 0. radius of the beam = 82. The mutual agreement between the two results is found to be good.06 m (3) a = 0. The mass field is modeled as m(0) = m^Ll + 6^/(0)] where t/(0) is a zero mean Nataf random field with samples bounded in the region ± ^ 3 and covariance function of the form R{T) = exp[—yr^] with y = 13. Example 1. Example 1.05.05 0. (11). Example 1. rad 0.^ ^ 1 " 2^0.0017 rad with 1000 samples. 1 . Here. [1. m = 2850 kg/m^ 0 11 1. Estimates of probability of failure using importance sampling and Monte Carlo simulations.012 rad. The moment F is modeled as a Gaussian random variable with mean 10 kNm and standard deviation 10 x 0. Example 1 Fig.Direct Simulation  ^. Fig. 2.1 X 10 N / m 160 Ns/m Q10" • — 0. Manohar / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Fig. Fig. Curved Timoshenko beam with random mass variafion.S. (2) a = 0.H0" 0 10^ Eo=2.'' ^"' Fig.002 0. 42. 4). 1 shows a harmonically driven single degree of freedom system. This figure also shows results from extensive Monte Carlo simulations (with sample size of 10"^). The performance function is as per Eq. Single degree of freedom system with random mass.004 0.09 Threshold a. C. The procedure described in the previous section is employed to compute probability of failure as a function of the threshold value a..4 0.08 0. 0.00170.05.07 0. 5 shows the resulting estimates of probability of failure.012 Fig. .^ . 3 as a function of threshold values a.11 L = 100 m Fig. The fact that this distribution is bounded between dzVs x0.03 m.06 Fig.05 must be noted. •. Numerical examples and discussion 4. 4. \ . Marginal probability density function of the random perturbation on mass: (1) parent density. 2 1 ^^r' ^V.222 S. This random field is discretized using optimal linear expansion that leads to six random variables. damping and excitation. 3 . the nominal values of stiffness and damping are perturbed by random variables which have a range in ±y/3 x 0. 4.07 m.008 Threshold a. m 0. The estimation of probability of failure subsequently employed 500 samples as per density given in Eq. stiffness. 5.Importance Sampling i . The estimates of probability of failure are shown in Fig.07 respectively.06 0. 1.05 kNm respectively.05.4 . (6) with a taken to range from 0. 2 shows the marginal pdf of the perturbation on the mass variable associated with the importance sampling density function for a = 0.
Probab Eng Mech 1997. . [2] Schueller GI (Guest Editor). [4] Li C. Conclusions A frequency domain stochastic finite element analysis is combined with an adaptive importance sampling simulation procedure to compute the probability of failure of randomly parametered curved beam structures that are excited by harmonic loads with random amplitudes. Adaptive sampling — an iterative fast Monte Carlo procedure. Struct Safety 1988. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1999.12(4):198321.119(6):11361153.S. Limited numerical results that are presented show successful application of the proposed method.44:11571178. Dynamic stiffness method for circular stochastic Timoshenko beams: Response variability and reUability analysis. Manohar CS. Manohar /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. [7] Der Kiureghian A. [5] Sayan Gupta. Dynamical analysis of framed structures with statistical uncertainties. Progress in structural dynamics with stochastic parameter variations: 19871998.5:119126. [6] Bucher CG. Appl Mech Rev ASME 1999. Gupta. Ibrahim RA. Der Kiureghian A. Manohar CS. Structural reliability under incomplete probability information.112(1):85104. A stateofart report on computational stochastic mechanics. J Sound Vib. C. Liu PL. The procedure outlined handles successfully the nonGaussian nature of beam property random fields both in stochastic finite element analysis as well as in importance sampling computations.S. 223 References [1] Manohar CS. ASCE J Eng Mech 1993. Optimal discretization of random fields. [3] Adhikari S.52(5): 177197. submitted. J Eng Mech ASCE 1986.
The results obtained by the continuum theory must follow from those derived using the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium when hl~^ > 0. Compression. * Corresponding author. Investigation of accuracy of the continuum theory This paper is devoted to substantiation of the continuum theory applied to predict compressive fracture of layered solids (composites or rocks) with periodical structure. This makes the continuum theory more attractive since it involves significant simplifications (Fig. Fracture. Costas Soutis Department of Aeronautics. Prince Consort Road.J. the layer thickness h). the wavelength of the mode of stability loss /) is considerably larger than that of a material structure (say. The influence of the type of loading. Bathe (Editor) .e. elastic and elastoplastic. the accuracy of the continuum theory of compressive fracture is examined for layered solids undergoing large deformations. For all these cases. there are not yet Fig _^. Within the scope of this theory. layer thickness and their stiffness on the continuum theory accuracy is illustrated by several numerical examples for the particular linear and nonlinear models of materials.224 Accuracy of analytical approaches to compressive fracture of layered solids under large deformations Igor A. All rights reserved.: +44 (20) 75945117. Homogenization 1. If this is the case. Guz *. Keywords: Composite.guz@ic. for the problems of wave propagation) or for other layer models [25]. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Large deformation. However. the piecewisehomogeneous medium model). the most accurate approach). Email: i. Introduction The wide usage of the continuum theory in solid mechanics. 2. due to its complexity.ac. The investigation is carried out for the cases of uniaxial and biaxial compression as applied to compressible and incompressible. lb). But. due to its simplicity. Nonlinear. la). the continuum theory can be considered as an asymptotically accurate one. this method is restricted matrix fibre (layer) to a very small group of problems.e. enables the investigation of the mechanical response in the most rigorous way at the microstructural level (exact solution).uk © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. investigations of the continuum theory accuracy in relation to the model of piecewise homogeneous medium were performed only for other physical phenomena (for example. UK Abstract Based on the results obtained within the scope of the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium and 3D stability theory (i. Imperial College of Science.e. the moment of stability loss in the structure of material (internal instability according to Biot [1]) is treated as the beginning of the fracture process [2]. Tel. (b) Continuum approximation. Technology and Medicine. isotropic and orthotropic layers. The continuum theory may be applied when the scale of the investigated phenomenon (for example. Fax: +44 (20) 75848120. (a) Model of piecewisehomogeneous medium. In the past. the approach based on the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium (Fig. i. 1. Indeed. puts into consideration the question of its accuracy and of its domain of applicability. the asymptotic accuracy of the continuum theory is rigorously proved. London SW7 2BY. I ^ h. Instability. The answer may be given only by comparison of the results delivered by both the continuum theory and the most accurate approach (i.
.9. 2). 2. It was rigorously proved that the results of the continuum theory follow as a longwave approximation from those for the 1st mode of stability loss obtained using the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium.5. Values of parameter A plotted against the ratio of the material constants of layers CIQ/C'I'Q for the case of Treloar's potential (uniaxial compression). characteristic determinants were derived for the plane and for nonaxisymmetrical 3D problems [2.e. isotropic and orthotropic. C. and l\{s) is the first algebraic invariant of CauchyGreen strain tensor. by Soutis [8]. hrjhyn. These dependencies have a strongly nonlinear character proving the importance of 001 was applied to all formulae and the limits are calculated analytically under this condition.e. Asymptotic analysis and numerical results The investigation was carried out for the cases of uniaxial and biaxial compression as applied to compressible and incompressible. This paper attempts to fill the gap. The influence of the biaxiality of loading.n hAm = 0A2 95  94 93  1 1 1 1 1—— 1 1 1 1 1 1 1— /> ^ . As a result of such manipulation. 35 for different models of layers (including the abovementioned hyperelastic) and different values of layer thickness ratio. Guz. layer thickness and their stiffness on the continuum theory accuracy was studied for several particular linear and nonlinear (including elastoplastic) models of materials. after the author who obtained it from an analysis of model of rubber regarded as a system of long molecular interlinking chains [11]. other than the [ / 99 98  97 —^96 h Am = 0. The coordinate system and applied loads for the cases of biaxial compression. namely neoHookean potential. may be chosen for their description in the following form c>2Cio/i(4) (2) 3. the condition of applicability of the continuum theory hl0 (1) where Cio is a material constant. Fig.LA. that they give a significant discrepancy in comparison with the exact approach and with experimental data. the longwave approximation was obtained and the characteristic equations were reduced to a much simpler form. the ratio of the results obtained in the context of the most accurate approach and continuum theory expressed in percentage) is given in Figs. calculated using the model of the piecewisehomogeneous medium [4.e.10] using the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium and 3D stability theory (i. It was also shown that modes of stability loss. Special attention was given to calculation of the continuum theory accuracy for composites when the layers were assumed to be hyperelastic and the simplified version of Mooney's potential. A detailed review of the approximate models was given. Along with the exact approach (i. 225 1st (shear) mode.^ 20 25 Fig. linear and nonlinear models of layers under finite (large) deformations (Fig. cannot be described by the continuum theory. 3. For all these cases. To perform the asymptotic analysis. the most accurate approach) for four modes of stability loss. for example.10].2\ hAm = o. the continuum theory or the model of piecewisehomogeneous medium which are based on the 3D stability theory [6]). Soutis /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics investigations of the influence of biaxiality of loading for problems of stability loss in solids under finite (large) deformations. there are also approximate approaches to the considered problems proposed by Rosen [7] and by many other authors. The accuracy of the continuum theory A (i. This potential is also called Treloar's potential. elastic and elastoplastic. the approximate approaches do not describe the phenomenon under consideration even on the qualitative level. Estimation of accuracy of the continuum theory can be obtained by comparison with the critical values. However. It is proved [25].
1990. Guz. Mech Comp Mater 1990. isotropic and orthotropic layers. Soutis /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4.226 100 LA. 100 References [1] Biot MA.26(6):762767. biaxial compression uniaxial compression 84 20 40 60 80 100 120 Fig. Soutis C. Eur J Mech A/Solids. vspacel. J Mech Behav Mat 1996. One can also see that the larger the ratio hr/h„j.n for the case of linear elastic layers. 1965. Madrid. Values of parameter A plotted against the ratio of the material constants of layers C\Q/C^Q for the case of Treloar's potential (biaxial compression). New York: Wiley. to appear.6(4):309330. 5158. 4. elastic and elastoplastic. Fundamentals of the ThreeDimensional Theory of Stability of Deformable Bodies. the higher is the accuracy of the continuum theory. 0 20 40 60 Fig. 1999. the accuracy of the continuum theory as applied to laminated solids with other properties of layers or other kinds of loads can also be investigated. Guz lA. C. Soutis C. In: Soutis C. 208217. 3775. Mechanics of Incremental Deformations. Berlin: Springer. 1965. pp. [6] Guz AN. 5. Following the general 3D approach developed in this paper. Conclusions The asymptotic accuracy of the continuum theory of compressive fracture is established for composites consisting of compressible and incompressible. On analytical approaches to fracture of composites caused by internal instability under finite deformations.79(S2):S503S504. In: Fiber Composite Materials. 1955.25(12):10801085. Large elastic deformations in rubberlike materials. of Euromech Colloquium 400. Sov ApplMech 1989. [51 Soutis C. 1999. Kiev: Naukova Dumka. . [8] Soutis C. pp. Values of parameter A plotted against the ratio of Young's moduli of layers Er/E. [11] Treloar LRG. Impact and damage tolerance modelling of composite materials and structures.5pt taking into account the materials' nonlinearity. Spatial nonaxisymmetric problems of the theory of stability of laminar highly elastic composite materials. [10] Guz I A. [3] Guz lA. Failure of notched CFRP laminates due to fibre microbuckling: a topical review. [4] Guz lA. Z Angew Math Mech 1999. [2] Guz AN. Guz lA (Eds). Proc. Metals Park: American Society of Metals. A 3D stability theory applied to layered rocks undergoing finite deformations in biaxial compression. Continuum fracture theory for layered materials: investigation of accuracy. Mechanics of fracture of composite materials in compression (in Russian). London: Imperial College. Internal instability of laminated composites with a metal matrix. [7] Rosen BW. [9] Guz lA. It means that the increasing volume fraction of the stiffer layers has a strong impact on the application of the continuum theory making it more accurate. Mechanics of composite strengthening. pp. In: Proceedings of lUTAM Colloquium.
Hadjesfandiari.R Dargush * Department of Civil Engineering. Bathe (Editor) / (fijU.227 Computational elasticity based on boundary eigensolutions A. This theory shows that every elastic solution can be written as a linear combination of some boundary orthogonal deformations. One finds that the traditional boundary element method and finite element methods are largely consistent with this theory. Fax: +1 (716) 6453733. Eigenvalue problem 1. On the other hand. 2. while X is the eigenparameter. G. integrable tensorial weight function defined on the boundary S. For an elastic boundary value problem. USA Abstract The theory of fundamental boundary eigensolutions for elastostatic problems is applied to formulate methods for computational mechanics. Use of the new theory permits. Nonsmooth problem. (2) All nonzero eigenvalues are positive. a. Email: gdargush@eng. and more specifically to the development of boundary element and finite element methods for elastic bodies. respectively. Amherst. the standard boundary element method uses tractions as primary variables. The major traditional methods of computational mechanics do not have a common means to enforce boundary conditions.Uj ^ dS •• (2) . the systematic solution of nonsmooth problems. Introduction The general theory of fundamental boundary eigensolutions is presented in Hadjesfandiari [1]. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. The theory of fundamental boundary eigensolutions not only gives a new common view to both methods. Hadjesfandiari and Dargush [24]. Boundary element method. All rights reserved.buffalo. Notice that this definition permits cpij to be discontinuous and even singular at some points. but do not harness its power. State University of New York at Buffalo. This theory shows that the resulting computational methods are indirectly a general discrete Fourier analysis. (1). Furthermore ^ is a positive definite. including all of those problems that are classified as nonsmooth. for example. Keywords: Finite element method. The computational methods based on this theory are completely consistent with the theory of elastostatic boundary value problems. The most important properties include the following: (1) All of the eigenvalues are real. traction vector and elastic constitutive tensor. The introduction of a weight function alters the underlying orthogonal basis functions. Theory of fundamental boundary eigensolutions The fundamental boundary eigenproblem for elastostatic problem can be defined as follows: Find the nontrivial displacement u such that in the domain V ^ijJ = CijkiUk. the traditional finite element method uses lumped nodal forces to model the tractions in a very approximated manner.ij — 0 and on the boundary S ti = X(pij Uj (lb) (la) In Eqs. NY 14260. (3) The sequence of eigenmodes are orthogonal on the boundary with respect to 0 .J. (1) have a number of interesting and useful properties. (m) (n) 1 c * Corresponding author. thus enabling us to solve nonsmooth problems systematically.R. Here we present application of this theory to computational mechanics. but also directs us in modifying these methods and in understanding the source of some ill behavior. Tel: +1 (716) 6452114/2405. but generates nonsymmetric matrices. but as a result generates a symmetric stiffness matrix. t and C represent the stress tensor.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. The eigensolutions of Eqs. Thus.
where G(^.(x) dS(x) (8) 4.x) and F{^. (10) is in general a rectangular matrix to allow for discontinuity in weighted traction T^. while F and G^ are system matrices formed through an assembly process. the boundary integral representation Eq.x)tj(x)dS(x) (7) with shape function matrix N(x). utilizing loworder polynomial shape functions within the elements and collocating at the nodes. we obtain the fundamental eigenproblem in integral form as Cij{^)uj{^) + j Fij{^. Thus f^. Dargush /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics This problem has an infinite number of eigensolutions (A„. we attempt to choose 0 such that the weighted traction ^^ is piecewise regular. the boundary element version of the fundamental eigenproblem is FU XG U (11) still may have discontinuities. By using the fundamental boundary conditions. but that t can be piecewise continuous. (7).228 A. In discretized form this becomes U(m)^S'^UM : 0 where 'NdS (13) m^ n (12) = / I Giji^. Then. respectively. We expect boundary orthogonality of the eigenmodes with respect to 0 in closedform from Eq. x)Uj(x) dS(x) s = xj Giji^. With the present approach.M^"> on 5 (6) 3. (4) The system of eigenfunctions is complete. Since S depends on the boundary discretization and weight function 0 we call it the weighted boundary matrix.^{x)dS(x) (9) t = ^J2^nKu^"^ with A„= f u 0 i/<"^ dS= f cpijUiU^"^ dS (5) Following [5]. G. the expansion for f^ is DC /^ = ^A„A.x)cpjk(x)t.F. and even singularities.M^"^) which are boundary orthogonal with respect to In terms of u and ^^. (11) is a square version of G^ due to the continuity requirement inherent in the fundamental boundary condition T"^ = XU. By substituting the fundamental boundary condition tj(x) — X(pjk{x)uk{x) into Eq.x) are the elasticity kernels and c(^) is a tensor that characterizes the local geometry at 5 [5]. (2). As a result. by discretizing the boundary into a finite number NE of elements. (7) reduces to Cij(^)uj(^) + j Fij(^. x)uj(x) dS(x) (3) by assuming normalized eigenmodes. x)(pjk{x)u.R. This allows t to exhibit discontinuities. Hadjesfandiari. Finite element methods The formulation can be derived from the principle of virtual work or weak formulation in the form / ajj hSij dV = j (pijt'J huj dS (14) . x)uj{x) dS(x) While G^ in Eq. Boundary element methods The boundary integral representation for the elastostatic problem without body force can be written Cij(^)uj(^) + j Fiji^. defined by the relation where U and T"^ represent nodal values of displacement and weighted traction. these fundamental eigensolutions provide a basis for solutions to elastostatic boundary value problems in the form of generalized Fourier series or fundamental eigenexpansion and on the boundary OQ = / on 5 (4) f Gij{^. but it now remains bounded everywhere on S. the matrix G for the eigenproblem Eq. we obtain a system of algebraic equations that can be written FU = G^r^ (10) We assume that in physical problems u is continuous everywhere.
A.R. Hadjesfandiari, G.F. Dargush /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Discretizing the domain and boundary, and interpolating weighted traction on the boundary, we obtain Table 1 Boundary eigenvalues for unit disc
Mode Exact 0.76923
229
s where C represents the elastic constitutive tensor in matrix form and B is the usual matrix of shape function derivatives [6]. Introducing the usual stiffness matrix K and the new matrix 5*^ from Eq. (13), this can be written (16) Finally, since W"^ is arbitrary, we establish KU = 0 (17)
/
W^B^CBUdV
(15)
BE
0.76923 1.2821 2.1376 3.0769 3.4263 5.3853 8.4469 11.532 16.637 27.914 34.581
FE
0.76933 1.2821 2.1370 3.0770 3.4237 5.3867 8.4859 12.084 19.845 47.074 126.47
4 8 15 23 25 40 60 80 100 150 190
3.0769
5.3846 8.4615

Partitioning the lefthand side of Eq. (17) to correspond with the righthand side, we obtain
KB KBI
Kl
Ku
(18)
where V B and U i are the vectors of nodal displacement for boundary and interior nodes, respectively. In terms of boundary nodes, we can write
'KBBUB = S^T^ (19)
where KBB is the boundary stiffness matrix defined by
KBB
= Kt
KBIKJJK^J
(20)
The corresponding generalized fundamental eigenproblem can also be formulated strictly in terms of boundary nodes and written as
KBBUB — ^S UB
on the boundary. Both tractionoriented finite element and boundary element methods are investigated. A FEM mesh with 1345 nodes and 432 quadrilateral elements has been used. The number of nodes on the boundary is 96, thus forming 48 quadratic boundary elements. The eigenvalues for some eigenmodes are listed in Table 1. The modes with exact eigenvalues are completely shear deformations. Closedform expressions were obtained in [4]. It is seen that for lower modes, FEM has reasonably good eigenvalues similar to those of BEM. For higher modes, the eigenvalues in FEM become less accurate. However, increasing the number of internal nodes in FEM improves the eigenvalues and eigenmodes toward those obtained via BEM. This clearly shows why BEM can often solve problems more accurately for a given boundary discretization. In practice for FEM we usually increase internal and external nodes together. In this way with an
(21)
undeformed • deformed60
Because KBB and S are symmetric, the eigenproblem associated with this tractionoriented finite element method has real eigenvalues and eigenvectors, which are orthogonal with respect to KBB and S
U^'^^^KBBU^''^ = 0
for m y^ n formT^n
(22) (23)
f/(m)T5V^"^ = 0
Solutions U of Eq. (19) implicitly utilize the eigenvectors of Eq. (21) as a basis.
5. Numerical examples 5.1. Eigenmodes of unit circular disc Consider an elastic circular disc with radius a = I. Here we generate the fundamental eigenmodes for the plane strain case with E = 1 and v = 0.3, assuming cp = I
Fig. 1. Generalized Eigenproblem for FE.
230
A.R. Hadjesfandiari, G.F. Dargush /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
I
I
to
I
f
5.2. Plate with edge notch We now apply the new boundary element and finite element methods for plane strain loading of a plate with an edge Vnotch. Here we consider the geometry and boundary conditions shown in Fig. 2. Let h = 5, w = 5, a = 1 and to = I, while 2a = 270° where a is the included halfangle at the notch. Material properties are E = 1 and v = 0.3. For stress analysis at the notch tip we can use a multiregion method, but here we use halfsymmetry and model only the upper portion of the plate. From the asymptotic expansion of Williams [7] we know the singularity of stresses for freefree edges is r^~^ where y = 0.544484. Then the weight function cp = r^~^ is used on the cut line. On the rest of the boundary, we take (p = 1. In all cases, (pij = (p8ij. In the numerical analysis, a mesh with 200 boundary nodes and 100 quadratic boundary elements is used. Meanwhile, the finite element domain model consists of 600 eightnoded quadratic elements. Fig. 3 provides the numerical solutions for the weighted traction t'^ versus horizontal distance from the tip of the notch. Solutions away from the tip are converged. However, Gibbs' phenomenon is clearly visible in the vicinity of the notch. The boundary element solutions show much lower amplitude oscillation. This can be attributed to the improved resolution of the higher fundamental eigenmodes obtained with the BE formulation. Discontinuity induces
E=1, v=0.3
W
^
^
^
^
t t
Fig. 2. Notched plate.
FEM approach we increase the number of eigenmodes and improve the lowest ones. The FEM eigenmode 60 is shown in Fig. 1. This deformation is in good agreement with the closed form solution.
2.00
1.50
^J^
1.00
0.50
0.00 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80
r
Fig. 3. Notched plate. Weighted normal traction.
A.R. Hadjesfandiari, G.K Dargush /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics participation from higher modes, and thus requires better accuracy of those modes to resolve the boundary variable. We should emphasize that in the FE formulation utilized here, the traction, or in this case weighted traction ff, is a primary variable that is interpolated to the same level as the displacement u. The traction component ^J is related to the general stress intensity factor Ki defined for the notch. Recent research has shown that the value of Ki is a controlling parameter for failure analysis of some materials [8,9]. Acknowledgements
231
Support for the work described in this paper was provided in part by the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research under a cooperative agreement from the National Science Foundation (Grant EEC970147 1). The authors gratefully acknowledge this support.
References [1] Hadjesfandiari AR. Theoretical and computational concepts in engineering mechanics. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1998. [2] Hadjesfandiari AR, Dargush OF. Theory of boundary eigensolutions in engineering mechanics. J Appl Mech ASME, in press. [3] Hadjesfandiari AR, Dargush OF. Computational mechanics based on the theory of boundary eigensolutions. Int J Numer Meth Eng 2001;50:325346. [4] Hadjesfandiari AR, Dargush OF. Boundary eigensolutions in elasticity. I. Theoretical development. Int J Solids Struct, in press. [5] Banerjee PK. The Boundary Element Methods in Engineering. London: McGrawHill, 1994. [6] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. [7] WilHams ML. Stress singularities resulting from various boundary conditions in angular corners of plates in extension. J Appl Mech ASME 1952;19:526528. [8] Carpinteri A. Stress singularity and generalized fracture toughness at the vertex of reentrant corners. Eng Fract Mech 1987;26:143155. [9] Dunn ML, Suwito W, Cunningham S. Stress intensities at notch singularities. Eng Fract Mech 1997;57:417430.
6. Conclusion The theory of fundamental eigensolutions gives a new view to the theory of elastostatic boundary value problems and their numerical solution. The numerical formulations based upon boundary element and finite element methodologies that have been developed here remain valid even for nonsmooth problems associated with notches, cracks and mixed boundary conditions. Most mathematical models of practical engineering problems are nonsmooth. For example, mixed boundary conditions may be specified, reentrant comers may be present or bimaterial interfaces may exist. In nonsmooth problems, using the proper weight function (p to make ^ ^ piecewise regular has several advantages. * Most importantly, calculations are then based on bounded functions. However, t"^ may be discontinuous. This results in oscillations associated with Gibbs' phenomenon. Additionally, the Fourier coefficients decrease faster for higher modes. This means that the participation of higher modes are less important than for the case with cp = I. Consequently we may expect higher quality solutions for a given mesh when cp is chosen properly.
232
Stochastic response of nonlinear structures
A. Haldar'''*, S.Y. Lee^ J. Huh''
" University of Arizona, Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA ^ Yonsei University, Department of Civil Engineering, Seoul 120749, Korea
Abstract A finite elementbased reliability evaluation procedure is proposed to evaluate the risk of linear and nonUnear structures subjected to static and shortduration timevarying loading including seismic loading. It is parallel to the deterministic finite element method, except that it can incorporate information on the uncertainty in the variables present in the problem. It is capable of capturing any special features that can be handled by the finite element method, making it a robust reliability evaluation technique. Keywords: Reliability analysis; Finite element analysis; Nonlinear analysis; Stochastic finite element analysis; Seismic loading; Response surface method
1. Introduction The analytical procedures to calculate the nonlinear deterministic response of structures to both static and dynamic loading have matured significantly in recent years. It is not difficult now to track the load path to failure considering complicated geometric arrangements, realistic connection and support conditions, and various sources of nonlinearity. Since it is not possible to avoid the uncertainty in the load and resistance related variables, the focus has shifted to incorporating uncertainty into deterministic computational algorithms. Finite element analysis is a very powerful tool commonly used by many engineering disciplines to analyze simple or complicated structures. The word 'structure' is used in a broad sense to include all systems that can be discretized using finite elements. With this approach, it is easy and straightforward to consider complicated geometric arrangements and constitutive relationships of the material, realistic connection or support conditions, various sources of nonlinearity, and the load path to failure. It gives good results for a set of assumed values of the variables while ignoring the uncertainty in them. On the other hand, many of the available reliability methods are able to account for
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 (520) 6212192; Fax: +\ (520) 6212550; Email: haldar@u.arizona.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
the uncertainties, but fail to represent the structural behavior as realistically as possible, and can be computationally challenging when the performance function is not available in an explicit form [1]. If the basic variables are uncertain, every quantity computed during the deterministic analysis is also uncertain, being a function of the basic variables. The currently available reliability methods can still be used if the uncertainty in the response can be tracked in terms of the variation of the basic variables at every step of the deterministic analysis. The finite element method (FEM) provides such an opportunity, and this concept forms the basis of the stochastic finite element method [2]. With the advances in computer technology, it is quite appropriate to develop a finite elementbased reliability analysis technique, parallel to the deterministic analysis procedure. Most engineers will have a tool to estimate the risk or reliability of simple or complicated systems considering all major sources of uncertainty and nonlinearity as realistically as possible. The authors have developed a finite elementbased algorithm to estimate the reliability or probability of failure of structures, capturing the nonlinear behavior just before failure. The authors call it the stochastic finite element method (SFEM) or probabilistic finite element method (PFEM) [2]. It will be of interest to researchers working to advance the deterministic finite element concept. It will also be of interest to the general risk and reliability research community, since it is a powerful and robust reliability method
A. Haldar et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics that can be used for both imphcit and explicit performance functions.
233
2. Concept In general, nonlinear complicated structural systems are expected to have implicit performance functions when subjected to static and dynamic loadings. Several computational approaches could be pursued for the reliability analysis of structures with implicit performance functions. They can be broadly divided into three categories, based on their essential philosophy [2], as: (1) Monte Carlo Simulation; (2) response surface approach; and (3) sensitivitybased approach. The sensitivitybased approach can be implemented in the context of the first or secondorder reliability method (FORM or SORM) and the finite element method. In the application of FORM or SORM, only the value and gradient of the performance function at each iteration are required in the search for the design or checking point. The value of the performance function can be estimated from deterministic structural analysis. The gradient can be calculated using sensitivity analysis. In the case of explicit performance function, the gradient is calculated simply by analytical or numerical differentiation. For the implicit performance function, several approximate methods can be used to compute the gradient of the performance function, e.g. finite difference, classical perturbation, and iterative perturbation methods. Combining the iterative perturbation and the finite element approaches, an SFEMbased reliability evaluation procedure is discussed next. The concept is applicable to both linear and nonlinear problems.
sponding gradients at each iteration point. It converges to the most probable failure point (or checking point or design point) and calculates the corresponding reliabihty index p. The following iteration scheme is used to find the checking point: G(y,) y;+i = y;«. + VG(y;) where AG(y) = 9G(y) dyx 9G(y)
(2)
(1)
Oli =

AG(y,) AG(y,) 9G, {^dG •hx + 1 Q
(3)
and \ 9G,D I JD,X + r~ j;.i (4) ) ^^. In Eq. (4), J^y are the Jacobians of transformation and j / ' s are statistically independent random variables in the standard normal space. The evaluation of the quantities in Eq. (4) will depend on the problem under consideration (linear or nonlinear, two or threedimensional, etc.) and the performance functions used. The essential numerical aspect of SEEM is the evaluation of three partial derivatives, namely, 9G/9s, aG/9u and dG/dx, and four Jacobians, namely, J,,;^, J^,^, JD,X, and J3;,;,. These are briefly discussed next. AG = 3.1.1. Performance functions and partial differentials The safety of a structure needs to be evaluated with respect to predetermined performance criteria. The performance criteria are usually expressed in the form of limit state functions, which are functional relationships among all the load effects and resistancerelated parameters. Two types of limit state functions are commonly used in the engineering profession: the Hmit state function of strength (axial load, bending moment, combined axial and bending moment, etc.), which defines safety against extreme loads during the intended life of the structure, and the limit state function of serviceabiHty (lateral deflection, interstory drift, etc.), which defines the functional requirements [1]. 3.1.2. Evaluation of Jacobians and the adjoint variable method To evaluate the gradient VG, the evaluation of the three partial derivatives on the righthand side of Eq. (4) is necessary. They are easy to compute since G(x, u, s) is an exphcit function of x, u and s, as discussed in the previous section. The next task is to evaluate the four Jacobians in Eq. (4). Because of the triangular nature of the transformation, J^^ and its inverse are easy to compute. Since s is not an explicit function of the basic random variables x, J^,;^ = 0. The Jacobians of the transformation Js,D and JD,X, however, are not easy to compute since s.
3. Methodology SFEMbased reliability evaluation procedures for static and dynamic loadings are discussed briefly and separately. 3.1. Static loading The reliability analysis procedure for static loading is based on FORM. The formulation requires an expression for a limit state function G(x, u, s), where vector x denotes the set of basic random variables pertaining to a structure (e.g. loads, material properties and structural geometry), vector u denotes the set of displacements involved in the limit state function, and vector s denotes the set of load effects (except the displacement) involved in the limit state function (e.g. stresses, internal forces). The displacement u can be expressed as u = QD, where D is the global displacement vector and Q is a transformation matrix. In general, x, u and s are related in an algorithmic sense, for example, a finite element code. The algorithm evaluates the performance function deterministically, with the corre
234
A. Haldar et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics the performance function and FORM is used to calculate the corresponding reliability index, the coordinates of the most probable failure point, and the sensitivity indexes for the random variables involved in the problem. It cannot be presented here due to lack of space, but will be discussed in detail during the presentation with the help of examples.
D and x are implicit functions of each other. The adjoint variable method [3] is used here to compute the product of the second term in Eq. (4) directly, instead of evaluating its constituent parts. It is accurate and computationally efficient when a large number of basic random variables are involved in a problem. An adjoint vector X can be introduced such that du ds The adjoint vector X depends on the limit state function being considered. It is not possible to derive all these equations due to lack of space; however, it will be discussed in detail during the presentation. The reliability of linear and nonlinear two and threedimensional structures can be evaluated using the concept. Special features like partially restrained connections or support conditions are incorporated in the algorithm in addition to geometric and material nonlinearities. It is expected that any features that can be modeled by the finite element algorithm can also be incorporated in the algorithm. The accuracy of the algorithm is established by comparing the information on risk estimated by the algorithm with the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Several examples on trusses, frames, frames with infilled shear walls, etc., will be given during the presentation to show the application potential of the concept to various types of structures. 3.2. Dynamic loading Section 3.1 discusses the SFEMbased reliability analysis procedure for static, timeinvariant loads. Many engineering systems are subjected to both short and long duration timevariant loadings. Short duration loading, particularly seismic loading, is of considerable interest to engineers since it has enormous damage potential. Thus, the SFEMbased algorithm needs to be developed for short duration timevariant loadings. In general, the reliability analysis of nonlinear structures in the time domain is very difficult. Recently, Huh [4] suggested a method. The algorithm intelligently integrates the concept of the response surface method, the finite element method, and FORM. Since the performance function of a nonlinear dynamic structural system is implicit, the response surface method is used to approximately generate
(5)
4. Conclusions A finite elementbased reliability evaluation procedure is proposed to evaluate the risk of linear and nonlinear structures subjected to static and short duration timevarying loads. It is parallel to the deterministic finite element method except that it can incorporate information on the uncertainty in the variables present in the problem. It is capable of capturing any special features that can be handled by the finite element method. The concept appears to be robust and accurate.
Acknowledgements This paper is based on work partly supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CMS9526809. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. References [1] Haldar A, Mahadevan, S. Probability, Reliability and Statistical Methods in Engineering Design. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2000. [2] Haldar A, Mahadevan, S. Reliability Assessment Using Stochastic Finite Element Analysis. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2000. [3] Ryu YS, Haririan M, Wu CC, Arora JS. Structural design sensitivity analysis of nonlinear response. Comput Struct 1985;21(l/2):245255. [4] Huh J. Dynamic reliability analysis for nonlinear structures using stochastic finite element method, Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Arizona, 1999.
235
A continuum mechanics based model for simulation of radiation wave from a crack
Sixiong Han^'*, Mingkui Xiao^
^Research Laboratory of Geomechanics, Etowaru Tokorozawa 301, Kitaakitsu 8853, Tokorozawa 3590038, Japan ^ Department of Civil Engineering, Chongqing Jianzhu University, Chongqing, China
Abstract This paper proposes a numerical model for the description of the mechanical phenomenon of radiation wave field due to dynamic crackpropagation. It is shown that the mechanical effect of crackpropagation can be reduced to a set of equilibrating forces acting at the position of cracking if we use the finite element method. In the paper, the formulations for this approximation are derived in displacementcontrolled wave field. Both ModeI and ModeII crackings are considered in this study. Keywords: Dynamic cracking; Equivalent nodal force; Cracking mode; Wave propagation
1. Introduction The properties of waves due to dynamic crackings have been widely applied with success to a variety of engineering problems. However, the fundamental mechanisms responsible for the radiating wave phenomena caused by the dynamic cracking are not yet thoroughly understood. In order to make wave information quantitative and to utilize such waves in material research, basic studies to clarify generation mechanisms of radiation waves due to dynamic crackpropagation are required and some more sophisticated analytical methods are expected to be developed to describe the dynamic crackpropagation problem. The aim of this paper is to establish a mathematical model providing a numerical approximation to describe the mechanical phenomenon of dynamic crackpropagation. This model is established based on Betti's reciprocal principle and the discretization technique of the standard finite element method. Instead of modeling the crack directly, the mechanical effects of the radiation waves due to the crackpropagation are formulated by a set of equilibrating nodal forces acting at the positions of cracking based on the rigorous mechanics theory. The methodology of this procedure is midway between the conventional theoretical analyses and numerical models. There are two significant * Corresponding author. Tel/Fax: +81 (42) 9965338; Email: sixionghan@nanet.ornl.gov © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
characteristics of the proposed model that are different from the conventional theoretical and numerical analyses on this type of problem. The first one is that, until now, the dynamic crackpropagation is usually modified as the traction releasing process ahead of the cracktip, and treated in a stresscontrolled wave field. In this study, we consider the cracking as a displacement loading process and treat the crackpropagation in a displacementcontrolled wave field. The second one is that the cracking domain is formulated through a singularity function and this operation could avoid the treatment of the mathematical discontinuity in the Euclidean space. This procedure leads to the advantage of the independence between the mesh division and crack configuration. It is shown that the cracking problem can be treated in the framework of continuum mechanics and the radiation waves due to crackpropagation may be obtained easily by the proposed method. By carrying out a numerical simulation of a dynamic cracking, the radiation waves by ModeI (opening) and ModeII (sliding) crackings are obtained and studied.
2. Modeling for dynamic crackpropagation 2.1. Numerical formulation In a homogeneous linear elastic body D with the domains U^(x, t) which is respected with the crack domain.
236
S. Han, M. Xiao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics X2
'• nC
04 (a)
investigation point
\
<3=>
Fig. 1. Mechanical effect of cracking in element, (a) Cracking state in element, (b) Equivalent nodal forces for ModeII.
o
Xi  cracking domain original crack
we consider the crack as a displacement gap in a continuous medium and describe it through a singular function [2]. By some mathematical operations, and the techniques of the finite element method, it shows that the mechanical effect of the cracking in the material can be evaluated by a set of equivalent nodal forces acting at the position with respect to the cracking domain. One can obtain the wave equation as: MU + KU = P*, in which, U is the nodal displacement vector, M is the mass matrix and K is the stiffness matrix. The vector P* represents the equivalent nodal force vector induced by the crackpropagation, and Vj, dS
^ Te
AZe
^=^1^
Fig. 2. Mesh for numerical calculation.
element with a unit magnitude of the maximal displacement gap. The components of the equivalent nodal forces are calculated as shown in Table 1 in which the parameters A = Cs/Cp, Cp and C^ represent the velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves, respectively. One can understand from the results that in ModeI, the mechanical effect of cracking is equivalent to four couples of tensile force acting at the nodes of the element. In ModeII, the mechanical effect of cracking is equivalent to four couples of shear force. The result for ModeII is illustrated in Fig. lb. The properties of those results can be proved to have a generality. 2.2. Numerical example
(1)
where, p is the mass density, N is the shape function and ^1 is a unit vector lying on the crack in the ^th element. Ze and AE^ are the regions with respect to the initial and propagating cracks in the ^th element, respectively. J2e(^e) = Z, E . ( ^ ^ ^ ) = ^ ^ ' and Z U AZ = E\ V in the above equation is a known parameter contains the information of the material properties and crack configuration [2]. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed model, let us consider a simple case of a 4node square isoparametric element with the side length h in a. linearly cracking state as shown in Fig. la, in which the shadow area represents the magnitude of the cracking displacement along ^iaxis for both cracking modes. Without loss of the generality, we only consider the case when cracking crossed the Table 1 Equivalent nodal forces Node 1
(^1,^2)
We simply consider the case that crack propagates along the jciaxis with the velocity of the value of half of the transverse waves. The numerical calculation model for the problem shown in Fig. 2 is a rectangular body with the size 65.0 x 65.0 cm. The origin of the coordinate system is on its gravity center. The elements discretized for calculation are all square with a size of 1.0 x 1.0 cm, and the crack lying on xiaxis is centered at the origin of coordinate system. The material constants are fellows: Young's modulus E = 5.67 x 10^ MPa, mass density p = 2.1 t/m^ and Poisson's ratio v =
Node 2
(^1,^2)
Node 3
(^1,^2)
Node 4
(^1,^2)
^h^C^ Mode1 I ^ h^Cl
(1  2 7 1 ^ 2 / 3 )
{\+2A\4/3) (4/3,1)
(1+2^12,4/3) (4/3,1)
(1  2A^ 2/3) (2/3, 1)
ModeII
(2/3, 1)
S. Han, M. Xiao/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
0.000B0.0006 —
237
E
Z3 O.OOCQ
"Q. C TO 0)
0
fin 1/1
i :
k
j « ; :
direction. The radial displacement changes abruptly at the arrival of transverse wave. Furthermore, the response in the circumferential direction changes its phase at ^ = 45°.
jl
5 ,•'
«
MVJ pi^
V
Wf J V
AAn
I
M
ft A in
3. Conclusions A mathematical model to describe the mechanical phenomenon of dynamic crackpropagation is proposed. The conclusions are as follows: the effect of dynamic cracking in material can be evaluated as equivalent nodal forces in a numerical procedure; the formulation to evaluate the equivalent nodal force is presented, and it is shown that the mesh divisions are independent of crack and cracking configurations if the finite element method is used; the mechanical effects of ModeI and ModeII crackings are equivalent to several couples of tensile (or compressive) and shear forces acting on the elements, respectively.
E o i5
I V'
g0.0006
K
0
1 ' ''' ''' '
1
1
I
1
0.00005 0.0001 0.00015 0.0002 0.00025 0.0003 0.00035
1 '''
' ' '' 1
time (s) Fig. 3, Displacement responses for ModeII.
References 0.25. The initial crack length RQ = 7.0 cm, and the final accumulative length of the crackpropagation ARQ = 2.0 cm. The calculated results are plotted in Fig. 3, in which the black line represents the responses in the radial direction and the broken line represents the responses in the circumferential direction. Due to the limited space of the paper, we only give the responses measured at the point (r = 27.5 cm, 0 = 45°), in which r is the distance and 0 is the angle as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the displacement responses measured for ModeII cracking. It can be seen that the displacement response rapidly increases just after the arrival of the longitudinal waves. The same phenomenon is also observed in the displacement in the circumferential [1] Freund LB. Crack propagation in an elastic solid subjected to general loadingI. Constant rate of extension. J Mech Phys Solids 1972;20:129140. [2] Han S. Evaluation of reservoir crack based on equivalent effect of scattering waves due to crackpropagation. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 1997;34(3/4):Paper No. 118. [3] Lo CY, Nakamura T, Kushner A. Computational Analysis of Dynamic Crack Propagation along a Bimaterial Interface. Int J Solids Struct 1994;31(2): 145168. [4] Nishioka T, Atluri SN. Numerical analysis of dynamic crack propagation: generation and prediction studies. Eng Fract Mech 1982;16:303332. [5] Rose LRF. Recent theoretical and experimental results on fast brittle fracture. Int J Fract 1976;12(6):799813.
238
Large strain, large rotation boundary integral multidomain formulation using the Trefftz polynomial functions
M. Handrik*, V. Kompis, P. Novak
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University ofZilina, Velky diel, 010 26 Zilina, Slovakia
Abstract In this paper, a multidomain formulation based on reciprocity relations, which is a combination of the finite element method and the boundary element method is presented [24]. The total Lagrangian formulation for large displacement and large rotation and Hook material law is used. The formulation is the weighting residual form, which leads to a nonlinear equation system. The nonlinear equations system is solved by incremental NewtonRaphson procedure. Keywords: Total Lagrangian formulation; Trefftz function; Large displacements and rotations; Boundary integral multidomain method
1. Introduction In this paper, Trefftz polynomials (Tpolynomials) [1] are used for the development of multidomain (MD) based on the reciprocity relations. Such reciprocity principles are known from the boundary element formulations, however, using the Trefftz polynomials in the reciprocity relations instead of the fundamental solutions yields the nonsingular integral equations for the evaluation of corresponding subdomain (element) relations. A weak form satisfaction of the equilibrium is used for the interdomain connectivity relations. For linear problems, the element stiffness matrices are defined in the boundary integral equation form. In nonlinear problems, the total Lagrangian formulation leads to the evaluation of the boundary integrals over the original (related) domain evaluated only once during the solution and to the volume integrals containing the nonlinear terms. Also, Trefftz polynomials can be used in the postprocessing phase of the MD computations for small strain problems. By using the Trefftz polynomials as local interpolators, smooth yields of the secondary variables (strains, stresses, etc.) can be found in the whole domain (if it is homogeneous). This approach considerably increases the accuracy of the evaluated yields while maintaining the same rate of convergence as that of the primary yields. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +421 (89) 5132974; Fax: +421 (89) 5652940; Email: handrik@mppserv.utc.sk © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
Now a stress smoothing procedure for large displacements will be presented as well. Considering the examples of simple tension, pure bending and tension of fully clamped rectangular plate (2D stress/strain problems) for large strainlarge rotation problems, the use of the initial stiffness, the NewtonRaphson procedure, and the incremental Newton Raphson procedure will be discussed.
2. The total Lagrangian formulation for finite deformation problems Equilibrium equation for this problem in undeformed (initial) configuration in the integral week form
fl{Sufu),k^b'l\UidQ
=0
(1)
Applying integration by parts, the Gauss' theorem, substituting displacement gradient for deformation gradient to Eq. (1) we obtain f tfUi df + /" b^Ui dQf Sij Uij dQ (2)
 f{SijUu)UidQ
=0
The strain tensor can be split into the elastic and plastic
M. Handrik et al. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics parts and because of the linear dependence between the elastic part of Green strain tensor and the 2nd PiolaKirchhoff stress tensor, the reciprocity relation can be found in the form. [ t^Ui d r + / b^^Ui dQr

239
are evaluated only once (in the zeroth equilibrium iteration step). On the other side, the nonlinear volume integrals are evaluated in the first and further iteration steps only. In the NewtonRaphson procedures, the increments are computed
^(Nl)
( uj Ti d r r
(6)
(7)
^
/ \uk,iUk,jT^ij
and the displacements in the Nth iteration steps are
,(N) ,i(Nl)
dQ  f^ SijUi^kUi dQ
+ Au'
(N)
;.E,,d^ = 0
(3)
The iteration is stopped if the quadratic norm of the last displacement increment related to the quadratic norm of the displacements is less than the specified value e > Au (N)
i(N)
Eq. (3) is applied for the computation of the relation between the boundary displacements u and the tractions t^ for each subdomain (element). The interdomain tractions continuity j dui {ti  u) dr, + / dui (tf"  t^) dVi
(8)
4. Examples The examples of simple tension, pure bending and tension of fully clamped rectangular plate (2D stress/strain problems) for large strainlarge rotation problems, the use of the initial stiffness, the NewtonRaphson procedure, and the incremental NewtonRaphson procedure and the accuracy will be discussed.
= / dui ti dVe  / dui Ti dre=0
Te Fe
(4)
is used to the weak satisfaction of interdomain equilibrium.
3. Linearization of resulting equations for large strain problems The resulting discretized and linearized equations are in the form
(K + K^L)u(N)^p(Ni) ^3^
References [1] Trefftz E. Ein Gegenstuck zum Ritzschen Verfahren. Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Applied Mechanics, Zurich, 1926. [2] Zienkiewicz OC, Taylor RL. The Finite Element Method, vols. III, 4th ed. New York: Wiley, 1989/1991. [3] Bathe KJ. The Finite Element Procedures, Englewood CHffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. [4] Balas J, Sladek J, Sladek V. Stress Analysis by Boundary Element Method. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1989. [5] Kompis V, Jakubovieova L. Errors in modelling high order gradient fields using isoparametric and reciprocity based FEM, submitted for publication.
where K corresponds to the linear part of Eq. (3) and K^^ to its nonlinear part, which is linearized for each iteration step and p^^~^^ denotes the configuration dependent load corresponding to the configuration of the previous iteration step. The linear matrix K and thus, the boundary integrals
240
About linear and quadratic 'SolidSheir elements at large deformations
M. Hamau, K. Schweizerhof *
University of Karlsruhe, Institute for Mechanics, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
Abstract Efficient computation in sheet metal forming or car crash analysis is obtained only by using shell elements instead of fully threedimensional solid elements. However, many requirements in the investigations, in particular when looking at edges and special situations like large stretching and bending with small radii as strains and stresses in thickness direction and general threedimensional material laws, cannot be provided by shell elements even if they are based on the wellknown degeneration concept. Therefore, in [10] a socalled 'SolidShell' formulation, following similar suggestions in [4,12,14], was proposed. For the biquadraticlinear as well as for the trilinear elements different locking effects appear, see also [3]. Different schemes to overcome the locking problems are used and an almost lockingfree element formulation can finally be presented. However, as a consequence problems occur in the large deformation regime, such that under some types of loading the trilinear elements [7,17] as well as the biquadraticlinear elements show artificial instabilities, indicated by negative eigenvalues of the tangential stiffness matrix. This topic is discussed in detail. Keywords: SolidShell elements; Large deformations; Volumetric locking; Mixed interpolations; Trapezoidal locking; Numerical instabilities
1. Introduction With the 'SolidSheir concept [4,10,12,14] a shell element formulation was proposed, to overcome some limits of the wellknown degeneration concept. Using nodes at upper and lower surface and using only displacement degrees of freedom allows general threedimensional material laws to be implemented, thus strains and stresses in thickness direction can be properly computed. As a consequence also applications for large deformation problems become possible without artificial restrictions, see also [3,11]. In addition, the treatment of rotations can be avoided completely and the transition to full 3Dcontinuum parts is directly possible. The originally developed 'fournode type' elements with bilinear inplane shape functions have been extended to 'ninenode type' elements with biquadratic inplane shape functions [9] expecting a geometrically better approximation for curved and heavily deformed structures. An as* Corresponding author. Tel: +49 (721) 6082070; Fax: +49 (721) 6087990; Email: karl.schweizerhof@bauverm.unikarlsruhe.de © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
sumed natural strain (ANS) method as proposed in Refs. [5,6] is used for the 'fournode type' (8 node) elements to avoid transverse shear locking, and it is also used for the 'ninenode type' (18 node) elements to avoid, firstly, transverse shear locking and, secondly, the additionally appearing membrane locking for elements with higherorder shape functions. The problem of thickness locking is resolved by enhancing the normal strain in thickness direction with a linear extension using the EASmethod [4,14], or alternatively by increasing the order of interpolation for the displacements in thickness direction over the thickness using an additional degree of freedom [8]. Considering nearly incompressible material behavior, like rubber elasticity or metal plasticity, the problem of volumetric locking appears. A rather efficient possibility to overcome this problem is to use a lower order of integration for the volumetric parts of the stress tensor and the tangent moduli tensor, the socalled selective reduced integration (SRI) [11]. The selective reduced integration of volumetric parts indeed presumes that an isochoricvolumetric material behavior is considered. Another locking effect known for elements with linear and quadratic shape functions is the problem of socalled
M. Harnau, K. Schweizerhof / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics trapezoidal [15] or curvature thickness [3] locking. This effect is only found in structures where the vectors from the lower to the upper nodes at the element edges are not vertical to the midlayer. A method to resolve this problem is using an assumed strain inplane interpolation of the normal strain in thickness direction as proposed in [2].
241
2. Numerical instabilities To investigate the effects of numerical instabilities under certain loading conditions a study with a single 'fournode type' element under a homogeneous compressions/tension state is performed in analogy to [1]. Because large deformations are treated in this example, a material of the Neo Hookean type is used. The geometrical and material data
Fig. 1. Geometry, material data and loading of the investigated element. Geometry: I = 2, t = 2; Neo Hooke material: K = 1.0 • 10^, yit = 20. Uniform displacement v in ydirection.
are shown in Fig. 1. All nodes are fixed in the zdirection, thus a plane strain case is generated. The upper four nodes are linked together in the jdirection and as loading a uniform displacement v is prescribed for these nodes. As a consequence of the loading and the boundary conditions shown in Fig. 1 the number of degrees of freedom for the whole system is reduced to four. Therefore, only four eigenmodes (Fig. 2) are possible for the system, with the fourth eigenmode being the volumetric deformation mode. In this simple example the eigenvalues belonging to the eigenmodes shown in Fig. 2 can be derived analytically as a function depending on the displacement u. The results for these investigations are shown in some diagrams in Fig. 3. There it can be seen that the pure displacement formulation DISP3D remains always stable. The ANS3DL element is the displacement formulation combined with the ANSmethod. It is clearly visible that for this element formulation the eigenmodes 1 and 2 become unstable in the case of very large compressive strains. But it must also be noted that this state of about 90% compression is hardly found in a realistic problem. If the inplane strains are enhanced using the E ASmethod, as it is done for the EAS3DEAS element, the well known hourglass mode [17] appears at a compression of about 45%. Similar observations have been made for the biquadratic elements. As a conclusion it must be noted that all mixedtype enhancements of the loworder interpolated solidshell elements lead to artificial element kinematics under homogeneous loading in the large deformation regime. For plane elements proposals to improve the element behavior are given by Wall et al. [16] for rectangular elements, by Reese [13] and by Armero [1] in a very detailed
Fig. 2. Eigenmodes of 8nodeelement, e.g. mode 1, mode 2, mode 3.
1000
8001
1000 mode 1 • mode 2 mode 3 • mode 1 mode 2 mode 3 800
I 600
14 0 0 1
I 600
1 1400
mode 1 mode 2 mode 3 
200
200
0
21.510.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Displacement U a)
21.510.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Displacement u b)
21.510.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Displeicement u c)
IZ^
Fig. 3. Eigenvalues of eigenmodes 1, 2 and 3 as a function of the deformation v in };direction; (a) D1SP3D element, (b) ANS3DL element, and (c) EAS3DEAS element; \ = tension;  = compression.
242
M. Harnau, K. Schweizerhof / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [7] Glaser S, Armero F. On the formulation of enhanced strain finite elements in finite deformations. Eng Comput 1997;14(7):759791. [8] Gruttmann F. Theorie und Numerik diinnwandiger Faserverbundstrukturen. Bericht Nr. F96/1, Institut fiir Baumechanik und Numerische Mechanik, Universitat Hannover, 1996. [9] Hauptmann R, Doll S, Harnau M, Schweizerhof K. 'SolidShell' elements with linear and quadratic shape functions at large deformations with nearly incompressible materials. Submitted for publication, 2000. [10] Hauptmann R, Schweizerhof K. A systematic development of solidshell element formulations for linear and nonlinear analyses employing only displacement degrees of freedom. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1998;42:4970. [11] Hauptmann R, Schweizerhof K, Doll S. Extension of the solidshell concept for large elastic and large elastoplastic deformations. Accepted by Int J Numer Methods Eng 2000;49:11211141. [12] Parisch H. A continuumbased shell theory for nonlinear applications. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1995;38:18551883. [13] Reese S, Wriggers P. A stabilization technique to avoid hourglassing in finite elasticity. Report No. 4/98, Institute of Mechanics, TU Darmstadt, 1998. [14] Seifert B. Zur Theorie und Numerik finiter elastoplastischer Deformationen von Schalenstrukturen. Bericht Nr. F96/2, Institut fiir Baumechanik und Numerische Mechanik, Universitat Hannover, 1996. [15] Sze KY, Yao LQ. A hybrid stress ANS solidshell element and its generalization for smart structure modelling. Part I. Solidshell element formulation. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2000;48(4):545564. [16] Wall WA, Bischoff M, Ramm E. A deformation dependent stabilization technique, exemplified by EAS elements at large strains. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1998;188:859871. [17] Wriggers P, Reese S. A note on enhanced strain methods for large deformations. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1996;135:201209.
Study for arbitrarily shaped elements. A further, rather simple possibility to achieve a stable element formulation is to regain the stiffness matrix of the displacement formulation A^^^p multiplied with a factor (p on the given element stiffness matrix Ke'. ke = (l~<p)K, + cpKl^^^. (1)
The factor (p must be adjusted to a value between one and zero depending on the type and the grade of deformation. The value of (p can even be equal to one for structures under a pure homogeneous stress state, where the displacement formulation delivers proper results without any locking effects. The current investigations are directed towards the proper automatic adjustment for nonrectangular element shapes and not fully homogeneous loading avoiding any overstiff behavior.
References [1] Armero F. On the locking and stability of finite elements in finite deformation plane strain problems. Comput Struct 2000;75. [2] Betsch P, Stein E. An assumed strain approach avoiding artificial thickness straining for a nonlinear 4node shell element. Common Numer Methods Eng 1995; 11:899909. [3] Bischoff M, Ramm E. Shear deformable shell elements for large strains and rotations. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1997;40:44274449. [4] Braun M. Nichtlineare Analysen von geschichteten elastischen Flachentragwerken. Bericht Nr. 19, Institut fur Baustatik, Universitat Stuttgart, 1995. [5] Bucalem EN, Bathe KJ. Higherorder MITC general shell elements. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993;36:37293754. [6] Dvorkin EN, Bathe KJ. A continuum mechanics based fournode shell element for general nonHnear analysis. Eng Comput 1989;1:7778.
243
Skull mechanic simulations with the prototype SimBio environment
U. Hartmann^'*, F. Kniggel^, T. Hierl^ G. Lonsdale % R. Kloppel'*
^ C&C Research Laboratories, NEC Europe Ltd., Rathausallee 10, 53757 St. Augustin, Germany ^ MaxPlanckInstitute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Stephanstrafie 1, 04103 Leipzig, Germany Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery, University of Leipzig, NUmberger Strafie 57, 04103 Leipzig, Germany '^Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr 22, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Abstract The SimBio project will produce a generic simulation environment for advanced clinical practice designed for execution on parallel and distributed computing systems. This paper deals with the specific appHcation of current SimBio software components for the study of a skull mechanics problem relating to maxillofacial surgery. In addition to a demonstration of physical results, performance characteristics of the biomechanical finite element code on parallel platforms is given. Keywords: Finite element model; Computer tomograph; SimBio; Computational biomechanics; Maxillofacial surgery; Head model
1. Introduction The objective of the SimBio project [1,2] financed by the European Commission's Information Societies Technology (1ST) programme is the improvement of clinical and medical practices by the use of numerical simulation. This goal is achieved by developing a generic simulation environment that enables users to develop application specific tools for many medical areas. The potential impact is demonstrated for specific areas through the SimBio evaluation and validation applications. A key feature in the SimBio project is the possibility to use individual patient data as input to the modelling and simulation process — in contrast to simulation based on 'generic' computational models. In order to meet the computational demands of the SimBio applications, the computeintensive environment components are implemented on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. This paper presents an initial study for bionumerical support of maxillofacial surgery planning. The medical background to this study is discussed in Section 2. Selected software components under development within the SimBio
project are discussed in Section 3. Section 4 of the paper illustrates preliminary results of numerical simulations and covers performance issues. Finally, steps towards a more accurate modelling are discussed.
2. Biomechanical simulation supporting facialsurgery planning One of the target applications of the SimBio framework deals with presurgical studies in the field of head biomechanics. In particular, this refers to the modelling of the deformations emerging during and/or induced by surgical interventions. Thus, simulation supports the optimisation of operation procedures and the planning of therapeutical strategies. Currently, a study is underway to investigate the mechanical consequences of the forces that occur during the sequence of interventions to remedy inborn deformations of the human face (mainly cleft lip and palate). In order to adjust deformed parts of the midface a metal frame (a socalled halo, see Fig. 1) is tightly fixed to the head using screws. After cutting the midfacial bone along exactly defined lines, this device exerts forces on the bone structure to be relocated. The distraction path length governed by the externally applied forces amounts to a length of 1030
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 (2241) 925242; Fax: +49 (2241) 925299; Email: hartmann@ccrlnece.de © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
This segmentation forms the basis for mesh generation. Halo frame for maxillofacial surgery mounted to a skull model. depending on the application site and duration. Raw data are preprocessed by registering timeseries scans to the first time point and are segmented into background. A hexahedral FE mesh of the human head divided into 16 partitions. we first present the results of phase 1.1. Simulations presented here were carried out using the static version of HEADFEM. Preprocessing: segmentation and meshing The geometric description of our model is based on 3D medical images of individual patients acquired with a computer tomograph (CT). A fast and high quality mesh generator creates hexahedral or tetrahedral meshes of userdefined spatial resolution [3] (see Fig. A CT slice of the human head showing the halo fixed with screws. . 1. which is typically in the order of a few weeks. We divided the finite element (FE) modelling of this surgical intervention into two phases: (1) In a first step. 2) are calculated. 3). Fig. Software tools used to model the skull response are described in the next section. mm (1 mm/day). 2. Hartmann et al. HEADFEM The finite element (FE) code for biomechanical problems (called HEADFEM) is based on linear solvers provided in the AZTEC library [4] and is parallelised using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library. bone and halo. skull deformations induced by the halo screws (see Fig.244 U.2. HEADFEM enables linear static and dynamic FE analyses [5]. Spiral CT scans achieve a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm. 3. Overview of the software solutions 3. soft tissue. Fig. (2) The goal of the second phase of the modelling process is to gain presurgical knowledge about the relation between the magnitude and the direction of the applied distraction forces and the resulting rearrangement of the bone structures and the surrounding soft tissues. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics In this paper. 3. Exact knowledge about the mechanical consequences of the surgical device is important for the surgeon mounting the halo. Input to the FE module is a distributed mesh partitioned by a modified recursive co Fig. 3.
g. Combining highly resolved FE models based on individual scan data.61 Fig. Fig.46 64 44 6. Hartmann U. 4). To overcome some of the restrictions imposed by sequential FE codes. This result is in full agreement with clinical findings. 5. • additional material models (e. the SimBio project is expected to deliver a software environment that offers the chance to provide safe predictions in clinical routine. viscoelastic material behaviour). inevitable for performing clinically valid simulations. 4 depicts the skull deformation produced by the screws of the surgical frame. Bionumerical simulations with SimBio: project aims and objectives. simulations using reliable material parameters. These figures demonstrate that the code scales well and that a full FE problem is solved in less than a minute. Hose DR. 3). efficient HPCbased solver technology. Grebe R. and • a contact algorithm. The high spatial resolution guarantees: • a precise FE representation of head anatomy. 33. Inward deformations correspond to yellowred colours. 3). An example input is a distributed hexahedral head mesh whose elements have an edge length of 3 mm (see Fig. That requires the implementation of: • geometrically nonlinear FE techniques. outward deformations to greenblue colours. matrix Acknowledgements The support of the European Commission (Project 1ST V10378) is gratefully acknowledged. Hartmann et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 245 Table 1 HEADFEM execution times and speedup factors on the NEC Cenju4 for different numbers of processors Processor no. addresses the measurement of realistic material parameters. Concluding remarks We presented a surgical application of the FE method using initial components of the generic SimBio environment. ordinate bisection (RGB) algorithm implemented in the DRAMA library [6] (see Fig.U. The equation system based on this mesh has about half a million unknowns and is solved by a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver provided by the AZTEC library. Proceedings of . Results obtained in phase 1 of our modelling process (see Section 2) are already considered to be clinically relevant. References [1] Lonsdale G. 8 Time (s) Speedup 291 1. Another important aspect of the SimBio project. Kruggel F.76 32 84 3. HEADFEM needs to be extended for phase 2 — surgical planning. 4. such as the NewtonRaphson method. Table 1 lists execution times for a full HEADFEM analysis (data input. A specific version of BRIAN will become the visualisation module of the final SimBio environment. 4. this FE tool enables simulations based on meshes with a spatial resolution about five times higher than that of previous models. an outward protrusion of the skull at peripheral concentric areas is observed (see arrows).00 16 165 1. equation solving). Penrose JMT. Results HEADFEM has been installed on the 64 processor NEC Cenju4 supercomputer (MIPS RIOOOO in a multistage interconnection network). and • a high numerical accuracy of the results obtained in reasonable calculation time. Besides the expected focal inward deformation at screw positions. Postprocessing The nodal displacements for the whole head are calculated and mapped onto a triangular surface mesh of the skull and visualised using the BRIAN software package [7] (see Fig. assembly. Skull deformation as predicted by the simulation. Wolters C.
RS. A fast algorithm for generating large tetrahedral 3D finite element meshes from magnetic resonance tomograms. Japan. Shadid JN. 187196. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Computer and Communication Systems for Image Guided Diagnosis and Therapy.gmd.246 U. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Biomedical Image Analysis 1998.html [7] Kruggel F. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Eng 1998. Kruggel F. Kruggel F. Tuminaro. Sandia National Laboratories Technical Report SAND951559. Amsterdam: Elsevier.techno park.ccrlnece. Hartmaim et al.de [3] Hartmann U. Aztec User's Guide: Version 1. [6] DRAMA Project Website. BRIAN (Brain Image Analysis) — a Toolkit for the multimodal analysis of brain datasets. 323328. http://www. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics [5] Hartmann U. 184192. http://www. the Symposium on Computational Biomechanics 2000 at RIKEN.1 (1995). pp. [2] SimBio Project Website. 1996. pp. [4] Hutchinson SA.de/~drama/drama.2(l):4964. Saitama. pp. .simbio. Transient analysis of the biomechanics of the human head with a high resolution 3D finite element model. Lohmann G. ISBN 0818684607.
Kij. Hakula Helsinki University of Technology. Pij and pi represent the bending. The bilinear forms Ab(u.havu@hut. . Here. Keywords: Finite element. v) and Am(u. v. . We are considering the shell to be shallow so that the parameters a.fi © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. V^) is the vector of three translations and two rotations and UM is the energy space which we take to be [H\Q)]^ with periodic boundary conditions ai y = 0. . H. L) X (0. . b and c defining the geometry can be taken constants.J. membrane and transverse shear stresses. Assume that Q is divided into rectangular elements with node points (x^. Tel: +358 (9) 4513018. Shallow shell 1. Fax: +358 (9) 4513016. (1) where u — (u. + 12 J{v(fti + ft2)fe)(Al + k2Xv) + (1 . . We show that under favorable circumstances the reduced formulation produces convergent solution also in the membrane dominated states of deformation. 02015 Hut. v) + Am(u. k = 0. depending on w as follows _ du %i = — dx = 9y ^aw h bw du dO ATii = dx dy (4) /<:22 = dy and P\ dw dx \ dx) dv\ \ + cw 1 /96> K\2 df\ •• dw dy (5) 2 + (1 . Finland Abstract We consider a bilinear reducedstrain element formulation for a shallow shell of ReissnerNaghdi type. Institute of Mathematics. H and with the constraints u = v = w = 0 = \l/ =0 2iix = 0. respectively. Ny and a constant mesh spacing * Corresponding author. .y"). . H) = t^Abiu. V)= V(KU\K22)(U)(KU + f<22)(v) where v is the Poisson ratio of the material and y is a shear correction factor. All rights reserved. Reducedstrain. v) arising from the bending and membrane energies are given by Ab(u. v) = Q(v) yveUM.c^ > 0 makes the shell elliptic. We further note that the condition ab . w. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. 0. . The shell problem Our study is concentrated on the ReissnerNaghdi shell model where the (scaled) variational formulation of the problem is given by: Find ueUM such that AMin. L. The reducedstrain FE scheme We consider the following numerical approximation to the variational problem (1).247 An analysis of a bilinear reduced strain element in the case of an elliptic shell in a membrane dominated state of deformation V.v)J2Pij(!i)^ij(y)}^^y (3) 2.WQ assume that Q(u) defines a bounded linear functional on [H^{^)f. Nx.V) ^ K i j (u)Kij (v) dx dy and Am(u^V) = 6}/(l ''^' v) / {Pi(M)Pi(lL) + (2) P2(u)P2(v)}dxdy The integration is taken over the midsurface ^ of the shell which we assume to occupy the rectangular region (0. Bathe (Editor) . H) in the xy coordinate space satisfying d~^ < L/H < d for some constant d > 0. n = 0. Email: ville. Havu*.
but similar or even little better results can be proved using forthcoming techniques. On this mesh each field is represented by a piecewise continuous bilinear approximation.V) (9) where  • M. ..h • hy in the _ydirection and that the aspect ratios of the elements satisfy d~^ < h'^Jhy < d for some d > 0 where /zj = x^+^ — x^. v. Our main concern is the consistency error component given by ec. and n. The main tool of our analysis will be the Fourier transform where we write XeA XeA The transverse shear strains pt (5) together with (10) imply in turn that dw a7 L2 + dw II T<C{ \v \M.{y) = e''^\ A=\x=—.h + and by [4] we have I du II dy dv I dx 1^2 Vi.h L2\ x/r Li) (12) . w. (7) do — dx L2 + df ay IL2 +I —+ — dy dx 1 ^ 12 <Ct^ \v M. respectively. By (8) we have that for y_ = (u.h' We consider the case where the membrane and transverse shear stresses are given by reduced expressions leading to the bilinear form ^milL^y) = 6 / ( 1 V) Q 3. ^) e UM.iv f 27rv (p. Havu. € UM. our finite element scheme solves the problem: Find Uf^ e UMJX such that 19^11^2 aylL2 W il) < C( \V \M. H..Then IP\(U)P\{V) \ P2iu)P2iv)W^y Q 2 y 1 < ct~^ \v \M.M(^u)= sup "'' veUM.. The modification introduced in [3] differs slightly from our choice.^IL2 II du II \dv\\ \ l^yWiJ W il) resulting in dx W1 + + \dv — ay L2 + — du dy j dv \ L2 dx 1 — < C( \V \M. f du dv\\ L2 where Ul and Ul are orthogonal L^projections onto spaces VV^. Then the FE space is Uh = [Vh]^ where Vh is the standard biUnear space with appropriate constraints.ve so that (10)(12) together with the Poincare's inequality imply V I <Ct ^ \V \M.h {AM ( l9«i II . (11) ^ ' ^ — 1^ \M.h(10) Also.y) ^ A.h A%){U. T Here (px{y) is the interpolant of (px{y)..V / du dv L2 + b" + 9.h + (1 . •) is the modified energy norm. the definitions of the membrane strains fitj (4) imply du II II dv II I . 0. or — T < Xhy < 71 when A^^ is even}. P\ = nipi ^22 — ^hP22 P2 = nlp2 Pn = n^^i2.248 V.h (13) making use of the periodic boundary conditions at y = 0. Consistency error in the membrane dominated case We start by giving a stability result for UMM • Lemma 3.h where ^jj = R'' Ptj. Thus.1. Let ]i e hlM.h+ 0 dy IIL2 < Ct' \V \M. and W^' consisting of functions that are constant in X an piecewise linear in y or constant in y and piecewise linear in x. Hakula / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics where Ayv = [X e A\ — Tt < Xhy < 71 when A^^ is odd.^ is the orthogonal L^projection onto elementwise constant functions. For functions in the FE space we write analogously ^(x.h./J = ^ / ^ ^ C . (K)A7(v)](^dy (6) Proof.h + where from again by the Kom inequality V X <C{\V_ \B. This space will be denoted by UM. y) = ^ AeA^r n(y)±^M = ^ XeA]\/ hi^^y) Next it is necessary to consider the lower modes separately. H..H (8) Remark 1. so that we are in fact considering a discrete Fourier transform of i^ e UM.h + W il). Pi = R^ pi with suitable reduction operators R'^ and R\ We choose these operators for ^ij and pi to be 3ii=n^)Sn.h and thus by the Kom inequality ^ 1 + lA 1 < Ct^ \V \M.
L) M =i and ^x^ = + • u ^ L2(0.hA Here a > fi > 0 and since iix (0) = vx (0) = 0 we obtain when X ^ 0 2 (14) (x'+') and consequently i^mx\.Then. [1]) (x^+i) Vx «A> "I ^k+l Fxity'dt (x') ^^ i2(o.~ f^^ix') /l^2(^'+^/') = = ^'•^"+^/^^''^(fe(i.))(.3. u)h^.^(I'^I^ ^^ i2(o.2.L) + "1 L2(0.L) < ^ i ^ r ' ^> ^ Also. s.L) < C \d_^ \M./. ifx) € UM.L) cosi^khy)  ^ (20) Combining (19) and (20) gives ^xux 1 + (pxvx 1 < C \^^ \M.f = 0.L)+ ^A i2(o.f27 PlXlix'^+^t) Fx(t) e a\X\t dt With the help of the stability estimates given in Lemmas 3.«) (21) since Fx L^ < C \d_^ M. u)h^^' + C2(t..«+l/2) ^''^"+^/'^''^(A2(i..= / ? f\ 2c . ifb^Owe have for X such that \X\h < c < TT that ^xUx 1+ (pxVx 1+ (fxWx L^ <C \^. The consistency error ec. (15) gives the relation L2(0.h (17) Here ^^^(^^+1/2) ^ ^'•"^^^(y^n(i.L) ^ l ^ l ^ ( ^ ^ L2(0. L we may without loss ^ of generality consider only the exponentially decreasing solution of (15) starting from .tan {\Xhy)dx(x^) + f22(^') bcos {^Xhy) bh and thus .+i/2.2.L) . s >0 provided that u_ e [H^{Q>)]^ and Ci(t.22 V /n .u) < Ct~^(^Yli IP/(i£)li) are finite.\X\x'^' (0) The claim for A 7^ 0 follows from (21) together with (22).M defined in (9) satisfies ec.l/2). (18) is the Euclidean norm of vectors in K^ and Theorem 3. H. s. The translation components iix and Vx of ^^ satisfy the difference equation (cf..h.^. Let d_^ = ^x^^ = (px(ux. When A = 0 we have from (18) and from wo(x^) = If22(x')ih2it (Polio I + (PoVo 1+ (poWo L^ < C \±Q\M.^+l/2. we can now bound the consistency error. To consider Wx we note that (cf..\M. [1]) 2/ wx(x'') = j£.1 and 3.Ox.))l(.M <Cu2hh Ci(t.L) + 2 /22 L2(O. ^ ^ L(0.. ^fn'if. u) < Ct~^ u_ 2+5 and C2(t.c = 0.h (22) ix'^') < e a.L) L2(O. Hakula/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 249 Lemma 3. < C\X\'e Proof.V Havu.))l(.L) + ^ ^ ^^ L2(0.Wx. Assume that b ^ 0.h' I i where F. Then the standard theory for Astable difference schemes gives us the bound when \X\hy < c < TT leading to <^A^A L2(0.L)) Due to the constraints at .«.yx.L) (19) = ^TkM + hlF^ (15) where r^ = 2 ^ tan(^A/z^) + Ff (16) from where it follows that ^X L2(0. .
J2^) 6825 ^Al>Ao M>Xo ' 4. Since X^h < c < TT v/c have that References [1] Havu V. y = 1/3 to define the geometry and material.^>) (A„. P/(i.)) As a numerical example on the performance of our reducedstrain formulation (8) we take the Morley hemispherical shell as in [2] with clamped boundaries and uniformly distributed pressure load. ^ A i ? .. Numerical example 1+ w^A 1 2 ) ij l><Ao X ( i3x 1 4 WA ij A>AO + cEE(^'(^.!.. • Then by the orthogonahty of the discrete and continuous modes (cf. [3] Malinen M.T. The results shown in Table 1 indicate rapid convergence of total deformation energy confirming our theoretical predictions.Y. H. [4] Pitkaranta J. IA7(i?A)li IIA IM. The problem is essentially one dimensional. Hakula/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Numerical results for the Morley shell with the reducedstrain formulation showing the square of the total deformation energy as a function of the degrees of freedom Degrees of freedom 80 225 1425 3625 Proof.A7(i. Helsinki University of Technology Institute of Mathematics Research Reports A411. . but since we are looking for twodimensional effects. The first lockingfree planeelastic finite element: historia mathemafica.0062 3.1 and 3. + CIX0IE E l^l'(A7(i?.x.8956 2. /• A G A by Lemmas 3. New York: Marcel Dekker..A'.){u. IM7. h e UM. Pitkaranta J. t = 0.AiKu. Deformation energy squared 2.'"'(^A).9800 3./.Al. the computations were done exploiting less symmetry using one eighth of the shell.)) /• AeA '^^Y.1 so that summing up (AM .) .H (23) + Ch't'(y2\pi(ii)u] for any s >0. V) V) = {A^ . Finite Elements: Their Design and Performance.^^ .250 V Havu.veUh. Helsinki University of Technology Institute of Mathematics Research Reports A430. On geometrically incompatible bilinear shell elements and classical shell models.I.04. [1]) (AM ./.0122 X X X X X 102 102 102 102 102 = = iA^At)(Tl.)4(i?x). v)<Ch u 2\v U.2. + Ch'^'t' U 2+s \V\MM \y\M. 1999.„)(Y^&. Analysis of a bilinear finite element for shallow shells I: ApproximaUon of inextensional deformations. '7 A>AO by Lemma 3. <CXo^/!r'E E l^nA7(^. We parameterize the problem by the angles i> and 0 and use a uniform rectangular mesh with respect to these parameters and lei R = \0. 2000. to appear. [2] MacNeal RH. 1994. e WM and ^ = Y. Write u = E .A(i.)li li.0107 3.A\j){u.
which is used to construct a nonclassical shell theory with socalled drilling rotations. there is a twoway relationship between the shell theoretical formulation and its numerical implementation. the consistent linearization simplifies with respect to the former case.). (iv) The consistent linearization procedure in the geometrically exact shell theory is intimately related to the choice of parameters adopted for threedimensional finite rotations. however. Another possibility to parameterize finite rotations.: +33 (0) 147 40 22 34.. we believe. Several points which. avenue du president Wilson. This feature is in sharp contrast with the classical developments on the subject (e. (iii) In recent works several enhanced finite element interpolations for shell elements have been proposed. leads to twoparameter representation constructed by exploiting equivalence between the unit sphere and a constrained group of proper orthogonal tensors [42. the particular issue of the optimal interpolation scheme for shells has not been definitely setded yet. have met with considerable success. such as hybrid and mixed interpolations. and improved result accuracy. Email: ai@lmt.251 Recent developments in nonlinear analysis of shell problem and its finite element solution Adnan Ibrahimbegovic * Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan. One possibility. (ii) Optimal parameterization of finite rotations is addressed in detail. the case in point is the use of local Cartesian frames. Laboratoire de Mecanique et Technologie 61. What has been shown. Al* Tel. for it can be performed by the directional derivative [5]. see [24]). . In passing we note that certain aspects of the subsequent numerical approximation can be introduced up front in order to simplify the shell theoretical formulation.enscachan. Fax: +33 (0) 147 40 22 40. Nonlinear analysis. The orthogonal tensor parameterization of finite rotations can in some cases be replaced by socalled rotation vector parameterization.g. which corresponds to the extension of the classical shell theory.6]. Keywords: Shell problem. Bathe (Editor) though some of them. In the opposite case for the rotation parameterization based on the rotation vector. which should be exploited to obtain an optimal result [9.J. second order.10]. where rotations are always of restricted size (linear. Overview of recent advancements In this review we have chosen to focus on only the very recent achievements in the formulation and numerical implementation of shell theories capable of handling finite rotations. 94235 Cachan. leads to the intrinsic rotation parameterization in terms of the proper orthogonal tensor. is that a wellperforming finite element interpolation [7]) can be rendered even more powerful if placed in a proper theoretical framework and when care is taken to preserve the salient features of the theoretical formulation [8]. In the case of intrinsic parameterization with orthogonal tensor the issues in the consistent linearization become rather subtle for we have to deal with the differential manifold in the shell configuration space [11]. underintegration with stabilization. Finite elements 1. etc. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.fr © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.35]. (v) The geometrically exact shell theory provides the enhanced performance in the buckling and postbuckling analysis of shells. merit especially to be reemphasized are: (i) Classical shell theory is reformulated [1] so that it becomes capable of handling finite (unrestrictedinsize) threedimensional rotations. assumed strain method. All rights reserved. France Abstract In this article we review some recent and current research works attributing to a very significant progress on shell problem theoretical foundation and numerical implementation attained over a period of the last several years. Thus. with several competing possibilities being examined [5.
[43] propose multiplicative decomposition of the director field combined with the exponential update for the throughthethickness stretch. On the other hand.. several directions appeared worthy of further explorations.. however.g. Several works have already dealt with this problem. [20] simply add the enhanced strains in throughthethickness direction. which is obtained by the consistent linearization of the governing nonlinear theory at the reference configuration. Some attempts in that directions are the works of Bergan and Nygard [24] which relies on the corotational formulation. Summary of current research What has been extensively researched over last several years and presented in this review is. One area which is certainly yet unsettled is the research into high performance threenode shell element with finite rotations. (iii) More work is needed on providing robust finite element interpolations. see [1517]). see [18. Some followup works treating the dynamics for shell theories with finite rotations are given in Simo and Tanrow [35]. Partial results which are very useful in treating the special cases are given in Brezzi et al. the dynamics of finite rotation group. Even for a fournode shell element. the works of Felippa and coworkers (e. Another important goal of the mathematical analysis is to provide the error estimates for the nonlinear shell problem. Case in point is the oscillation of the computed shear force values clearly identified for 4node assumed shear strain interpolations in somewhat more simplified setting of plates [27]. which appears to be sufficient to alleviate the pertinent locking phenomena in the standard update procedure.252 A. (iv) The complete mathematical analysis of convergence for different finite element spaces for nonlinear shell problem is not provided yet. multibody dynamics and snapthrough of shells. and it is by no means trivial to furnish an extension that accounts for the effects of bending. so that the adaptive mesh refinement can be used in a more meaningful manner. When combined with the proper choice of finite element interpolations such a linear shell theory leads to the excellent results in all demanding benchmark problems [12].) This area of research appears to be strongly related and could certainly benefit from the search for a proper definition of the nonlinear shell problem by means of the asymptotic analysis of threedimensional continuum (e. This. which manifests itself as an additional locking phenomenon. and references therein). orBranketal. [2123]). [31] and Stenberg [32] for plates and Leino and Pitkaranta [33] for membrane locking of shells. in essence. but with crucial limitation being that of small elastic strains.g. within the framework of nonlinear (geometrically exact) kinematics. which is already rather finetuned and performs quite well as shown in this review. . The major obstacle to tackling that problem. has been accomplished only for membrane shell theory. Belytschko et al. and references therein) on providing enhanced finite element interpolations for a triangle and recent work of CarriveBedouaniet al.. Only the simplest linear elastic constitutive model for stress resultants was considered. see [34]. (v) Shell dynamic analysis is a natural setting for many nonlinear problems. (The benefit of the latter is briefly illustrated in this review for the linear shell problem.. in current effort of trying to take these considerations a step further. the strategy which is well suited for the limit case of thin shells although it increases the computational effort with respect to the standard update procedure. which simplifies the implementation but increases the number of iterations. 2. and should rather take into account the change in the shell thickness. most notably..g. Brank et al. [37]. see [19]). although it appears that one should be able to benefit from the successful developments on the pertinent subjects such as in Park and Stanley [28]. the finite rotation version of the classical shell theory (or onedirector Cosserat surface) and its modification which can account for the third rotation component [38]. (i) Generalizing the set of stress resultant constitutive equations to other than linear elastic case. Buechter et al. see [25]. Hence. there are still some weak points. One immediate consequence of introducing the throughthethickness stretch is the occurrence of numerical sensitivity in the limit case of thin shells.g. (ii) Other stress resultant model which assumes the large elastic strains has been provided for rubberlike shells (e. where both elastic and plastic deformations can be finite. Ibrahimbegovic /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (vi) A very useful byproduct is obtained in terms of a consistently derived linear shell theory. has already been addressed (e. One strategy. We note in passing that the enhanced shell kinematics which accounts for the throughthethickness stretching is especially well suited for analysis of shells made of composite materials (e.19]). The higherorder finite element interpolations for finite rotation shell elements have not been much researched. This limitation is removed in a recent work of Ibrahimbegovic [9] which considers the stress resultant constitutive model for finite deformation elastoplasticity based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient.g. Other recent approaches consider the possibility to include threedimensional constitutive equations and perform numerical integration through the shell thickness to provide the corresponding replacement for the stress resultants (e.g. advocated by Hughes and Camoy [18]. Simo et al. Some work in that direction is already initiated by Simo and Kenedy [13] and Crisfield and Peng [14] on elastoplastic stress resultant shell model. [26]. [36].. [29] and Bucalem and Bathe [30]. is to postpone the thickness update to the subsequent iteration. In this case one can no longer justify the assumption of director inextensibility.
Tanrow N. 1991. Stress resultant plasticity criterion. In: Finite element method for nonhnear problems. Frey F. Mixedinterpolated elements for ReissnerMindhn plates. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. Developments in variational methods for high performance plate and shell elements. Plates and junctions in elastic multistructures: An asymptotic analysis. [4] Reissner E. [10] Ibrahimbegovic A.42:409442. [22] Braun M.199:340377. Militello C. Pineridge Press.39:6982. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. Khnkel S. Wagner W.110:343357. [31] Brezzi F. Dvorkin EN. Comp Mech 1994. (Eds PG Bergan et al. Fox DD. [37] Brank B. Computational aspects of vectorlike parameterization of threedimensional finite rotations.37:36593683. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1989. [30] Bucalem ML. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1992.12:425438. pp. Berlin. submitted. Finite rotations in dynamics of shells and Newmark implicit timestepping schemes. [33] Leino Y. 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Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1999. In: Fung YC.4:633662. On the membrane locking of h . Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1983. [27] Lyly M. Nonlinear finite element shell formulation accounting for large membrane strains. [5] Ibrahimbegovic A. Monro J. [15] Brank B.34:117164. [38] Ibrahimbegovic A.A. [29] Belytschko T. Ramm E. Eur J Finite Elem 1995. Nonhnear shell analysis using free formulation finite elements. Nonhnear shell formulations for complete threedimensional constitutive laws including composites and laminates. Nygard MK. [9] Ibrahimbegovic A. Higher order MITC general shell elements. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1989. 1972. On nonlinear implementation of energymomentum conserving algorithm for a finite rotation shell model. [12] Ibrahimbegovic A. [21] Ba§ar Y. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. A finite rotation shell theory with application to composite structures. In: Analytical and computational models of shells. Finite element concepts for finite elastoplastic strains and isotropic stress response in shells: Theoretical and computational aspects. pp. Peng X.40:689726.22:697722. 20352046. On assumed shear strain in finite rotation shell analysis. 2944. A curved C° shell element based on assumed naturalcoordinate strain. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994.149:4971. Roehl D. 1989. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994. [28] Park KC. Kenedy JG. Part IT. A stable bilinear element for the ReissnerMindhn plate model. [23] Gruttmann F. Eng Comput 1995. (Eds AK Noor et al). [7] Bathe KJ. Carnoy E. Tonello M. Encyclopedia of Physics. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994. [11] Simo JC. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1997. Mason. pp. formulation and integration algorithms. A new finite element formulation for the plate bending problem. 1985. On the choice of finite rotation parameters. 1974. Kozar I. A new energy and momentum conserving algorithm for the nonlinear dynamics of shells. Fortin M. SpringerVerlag.96:133171. Berlin: Springer. Assumed strain stabilization procedure for the 9node Lagrangian shell element. Wong BL. [8] Ibrahimbegovic A. [20] Buechter N. Stress resultant geometrically nonlinear shell theory with drilling rotations — Part III: Linearized kinematics.37:10531070.38:36533673. Ramm E. Int J Solids Struct 1993. The theory oh shells and plates. [36] Brank B. Schultz R. pp. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1993.108:278290.36:37293754. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994. Englewood Cliffs. [32] Stenberg R. [34] Ciarlet PhG. Ibrahimbegovic A. Refined shear deformation models for composite laminates with finite rotations. Computational aspects. Thin Shell Structures: Theory. CEDvol 3. 253 [19] Simo JC. [16] Miehe C.35:393401. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986. Sechler EE (Eds). The (symmetric) Hessian for Geometrically Nonlinear Models in Solid Mechanics: Intrinsic Definition and Geometric Interpretation. Mamouri S. [2] Budiansky B. Eur J Finite Elem 1995. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1993.28:17871801. 317338. Bathe KJ.119:371394. Damjanic FB. Experiment and Design. [35] Simo JC.4:597632. [26] CarriveBedouani M.30:26112638.p finite elements in a cylindrical shell problem. Rifai MS. Le Tallec P.37:25272549.118:265308. Geometrically exact shell theory for . Int J Numer Methods Eng 1992. [25] Felippa CA. J Appl Mech 1968. Ding Y. Frey F. Stress resultant geometrically nonlinear shell theory with drilling rotations — Part I: A consistent formulation. Paris. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1995.). Stenberg R. Part I: Formulation and optimal parameterization. Linear and nonlinear theory of shells. Stolarski H.213:12331267. 1993. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1998. Bathe KJ..37:25512568. Part VI: Conserving algorithms for nonlinear dynamics. In: Owen DRJ et al. ASME Publ. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1994. [6] Ibrahimbegovic A. Finite element approximation of a geometrically exact shell model. Ibrahimbegovic /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics References [1] Simo JC. Briseghella L. Wriggers P. Bischoff M. Stanley G.72:267304. Vihinen T. [18] Hughes TJR. 15:118.
[40] Peng X. Courtois P. in press. [39] Ibrahimbegovic A.79:2170. Rifai MS. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1990. Part IV: Variable thickness shells with throughthethickness stretching. finite rotations and its finite element implementation. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1990. Fox DD.35:18291847. [43] Simo JC. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1992. Ibrahimbegovic /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics stitutive modelling and finite element analysis.6:263335. [42] Simo JC. [41] Sansour C. Part III: The computational aspects of the nonlinear theory. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1998. Rifai MS. Large strain deformations of elastic shells: Con . 2001. Fox DD. Int J Numer Methods Eng.81:91126.254 A. Stress Resultant Geometrically Exact Form of Classical Shell Model and VectorLike Parameterization of Constrained Finite Rotations. Brank B. On a stress resultants geometrically exact shell model.161:118. A consistent corotational formulation for shells: Using the constant stress/constant moment triangle. Eur J Finite Elem 1997. Crisfield MA.
R is the radius of curvature of the bearing A r t i c u l a t e d Slider Deformation Concave Dish ^Conposite Liner Fig. 2.: +1 (415) 2913781. Bathe (Editor) . They have been installed for this purpose in several buildings and they have recently been installed in two bridges [3. CA 94111. Code modeling The lateral response of a friction pendulum bearing can be described by the forcedeformation relationship F = —D + R fiNisgnD) (1) where F is the lateral force. 825 Battery Street. the spherical surfaces of the slider and the dish define a motion similar to that of a pendulum.255 Modeling of friction pendulum bearings for the seismic analysis of bridges Tim J.Y. San Francisco. Email: tingham@tylin. Fax: +1 (415) 4330807. Fig. They are particularly well suited to bridge applications because they are insensitive to temperature over the range 40°F to 120°F [2]. USA Abstract The modeling of friction pendulum bearings using contact surf'aces is compared with the modeling recommended by codes and design guidelines. The model is illustrated by the analysis of the Aurora Avenue Bridge in Seattle.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. 1. The advantages of the contact surface model for the seismic analysis of bridges are discussed. Friction pendulum bearing and idealized bilinear hysteresis loop. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Seismic analysis. Introduction Friction pendulums bearings [5] are intended for the seismic isolation of structures. N is the vertical force acting on the bearing. Bridges 1. 1 is a schematic drawing of a friction pendulum bearing. Keywords: Friction pendulum bearings. The bearing consists of a stainlesssteel concave dish and a stainlesssteel articulated slider surfaced with a composite liner. Washington. using bilinear hysteresis loops. The composite liner produces a frictional force that is 57% of the vertical force acting on the bearing. *Tel. A friction pendulum bearing isolates a structure from an earthquake through pendulum motion and absorbs earthquake energy through friction.J. Lin International.8]. Ingham * Associate T. During an earthquake the slider moves back and forth on the concave dish. All rights reserved.
Furthermore the modeling properly reflects the twodimensional behavior of the bearing. Fig. (1) represents the restoring force due to the curvature of the bearing. the second term represents the frictional force opposing the relative motion of the bearing. This modeling faithfully reproduces the forcedeformation relationship given in Eq. the restoring force acts towards the center of the bearing and the frictional force acts according to Coulomb's law of friction. 4 shows an ADINA model of the Aurora Avenue Bridge across Lake Union in Seattle.J. this point exists on a contact segment (surface) that lies on one face of a solid finite element. Ingham/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics aider. The contact segments may be formed on the surface of shell elements. W. The two solutions agree reasonably well. D is the lateral deformation. vertical motions are just ignored). The total response of the building can then be adequately predicted by 'summing over' Eq. The lateral force is then W F = — D + M^(sgnD). The simplification of Eq. This relationship is equivalent to the bilinear hysteresis loop shown in Fig. This case. the period of vibration of a frictionless slider was found to depend on the radius of curvature of the bearing in the same way that the period of vibration of a pendulum depends on its length. Assuming that the vertical motions are uncorrelated with the horizontal motions. (2).Contact Surface aiderContact Fbint surfaces. In buildings supported on many bearings. Also. Exclusive of its approaches. defined as a rigid surface without any underlying finite element mesh. Application to bridge analysis Fig. (2) R the sum of a term proportional to the displacement — a stiffness term — and a force constant in magnitude but dependent on the direction of motion. The bearing shown has a radius of 3. These simplifications may not be justified for large bridge structures. who developed a model with a flat contact surface and restoring springs. and that the building is vertically rigid. The correctness of the modeling was verified by analyzing some special cases. Most codes and design guidelines [5. 4. Finite element modeling Fig. a typical bearing is shown in Fig.30C) (3) Ce . It was designed and built between 1929 and 1931. 3. (2) ignores the variation with time of the vertical force acting on the bearing. (1) is for motion in a single direction. this cantilever steel truss bridge is 1875 feet long and has a main span of 800 feet.256 T. The model builds upon the work of Mutobe and Cooper [4]. Each of these was modeled using the contact surface model described in this paper. the effects of overturning tend to cancel since the lateral force induced in each bearing is proportional to the vertical force acting on it. the analysis may be performed with upper and lower bounds [6] N = W(1±0. 3 shows the computed response of a slider on a flat surface with 5% friction subjected to horizontal and vertical earthquake motions representative of a stiff soil site.6] recommend that the vertical force acting on the bearing be taken as the structural dead load supported by the bearing. where C is a seismic coefficient (sometimes. The modeling was implemented using the ADINA [1] generalpurpose finite element program. or in ADINA. (1) to Eq. The response computed by the Newmark method (using Mathcad) is also shown in Fig. For practical reasons. near active faults. of a rigid body on a flat surface. can also be analyzed using the sliding block method of Newmark [7]. The first term in Eq. The concrete substructure of the bridge is very lightly reinforced and vulnerable to large earthquakes. /x is the coefficient of friction. Eq. The opposing contact surfaces are defined as a contact pair with a coefficient of friction equal to that specified for the bearing. 4.Contact ajrface fh Fig. Contact surface model of a friction pendulum bearing. (1). Washington. the assumption that the vertical and horizontal motions are uncorrelated may be incorrect. Both the restoring force and the frictional force are proportional to the instantaneous vertical force acting on the model. 1. and D is the velocity of the top half of the bearing relative to the bottom half. The slider is effectively modeled with a single contact point. This variation arises from overturning of the structure and from response of the structure to vertical ground motion. however. 2 shows a model of a friction pendulum bearing based on contact surfaces with friction. For bidirectional motion. The study assumed replacing each of the twelve pin bearings supporting the bridge with a friction pendulum bearing. The dish is modeled with a spherical mesh of contact segments that together constitute a contact surface. For example. they may be . because the bearings in a large bridge act independently — it is often necessary to compute the forces in the critical connections of each bearing — and because bridges respond dynamically to vertical motions. 2. and interconnected by a horizontal diaphragm. For the Washington State Department of Transportation a study was made of the effectiveness of retrofitting the bridge with friction pendulum bearings.
For comparison each bearing was also modeled using the bilinear hysteresis loop recommended by codes. Transverse direction bearing response for the Aurora Avenue Bridge. The results for the contact surface model deviate significantly from the idealized hysteresis loops produced by the bilinear model.T.5 n 1. curvature of 20 feet and a coefficient of friction of 5%.97 feet versus 0. 5 for both the contact surface model and the bilinear model. The model has 5 contact segments in the radial direction and 36 segments around its circumference. ADINA model of the Aurora Avenue Bridge. The peak radial displacement predicted by the contact surface model is 0. Ingham /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 1. ft Contact Surface Model Fig. 3. s Fig. The contact surface model predicts a peak force of 592 kips whereas the bilinear model predicts only 424 kips. 5. 400 •Bilinear Model 600 Deformation. Analysis of a rigid body sliding on a flat surface.80 feet predicted . The transverse direction forcedeformation hysteresis loops for one of the main span bearings are shown in Fig. 4. Fig.0 H ADINA 257 Time.J.
1998. Highway Innovative Technology Evaluation Center. Vancouver. Building Seismic Safety Council.14(2):139160. Conclusions A contact surface model of friction pendulum bearings has been developed for the seismic analysis of bridges. the analysis time increased from 10. Comput Struct 1999.258 T.4 h for the bilinear model to 19. Seismic isolation for extreme low temperatures. [8] Zayas VA. The improved performance of the contact surface model is at some cost. [3] Imbsen RA. This varies between 3580 and 8620 kips from an initial dead load of 5700 kips. In: Structural Engineering World Wide. Effects of earthquakes on dams and embankments. [7] Newmark NM. 5. [6] NEHRP Commentary on the Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. 1999. [4] Mutobe RM. [5] Naeim F. 8th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Design of Seismic Isolated Structures. the bilinear model usually predicted both smaller forces and smaller displacements than did the contact surface model..72:279292. Inc. This variation is fully accounted for by the contact surface model. 1998. Low SS.J. .5 h for the contact surface model. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Considering all of the bearings in the structure. Nonlinear analysis of a large bridge with isolation bearings. New York: John Wiley and Sons. [2] Evaluation Findings for Earthquake Protection Systems. Kelly JM. however. this model is significantly more accurate than the modeling recommended by codes and design guidelines. Geotechnique 1965. these differences reflect the large variation in axial force acting on the bearing throughout the earthquake. but ignored by the bilinear model. 1999. For a reasonable increase in computational effort. ADINA R&D Inc. For 2000 time steps. Ingham /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics References [1] ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide. Friction Pendulum Bearings. 1997. by the bilinear model. Seismic modeUng and analysis of the BeniciaMartinez Bridge. In part. 1999. Cooper TR.
and. the same notation as in those references will be used. capable of modeling the transverse shear deformation without the occurrence of the shear locking problem. In those cases. The MITC fournode element has been selected for the preliminary investigation. In fact. Dipartimento Aerospaziale. and by Suleman and Venkayya [6]. An active layer — made by a piezoelectric material or a similar active medium — is assumed to be included in the stacking sequence of a laminated shell. The paper aims at generalizing the finite element modeling produced by Bathe and Dvorkin [8] in their MITC plate and shell models. 1). Paolo Gaudenzi * Universita degli studi di Roma La Sapienza. Piezoelectric material.gaudenzi@uniromal. only Kirchhoff plate models or displacementbased Mindhn plate models (with shear locking problems) were proposed for active shells in the recent literature. Keywords: Composite shell. a sound theoretical and numerical basis. Fax: +39 (6) 44585670. Several comparisons have been performed to verify the accuracy of the formulation and to check the predicting capability of the element in comparison with both numerical and experimental results of the recent available literature. but also the thermoelastic effect was proposed by Tauchert [2]. In this framework. laminated shells have been selected as a possible candidate typology of structural systems for including such materials at the level of one or more layers of their stacking sequence. therefore. Firstorder shear deformable active plate theories were also proposed and implemented in a finite element model by Han and Lee [3]. In fact. Email: paolo. An analysis based on a CLT theory that included not only the piezoelectric. The procedure is based on a different interpolation of the transverse shear strains with respect to the one used for inplane components. Via Eudossiana 16. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. will be made available for a class of advanced structural elements. in which the classical laminated plate model is extended to include the actuation mechanism produced by active piezoelectric layers. In this way. 00184 Rome. Bathe (Editor) suffer from the socalled shearlocking problem that should be overcome either by means of a reduced integration or by a mixed interpolation approach as illustrated by Bathe in his textbook [7]. Italy Abstract The formulation of the MITC shell element is extended to active laminated shells. Several models have been proposed in the recent literature for the analysis of active laminated plates and shells.259 MITC finite elements for adaptive laminated composite shells Riccardo lozzi. Saravanos [4]. to the knowledge of the authors. it is well known that firstorder shear deformable shell theories * Corresponding author. to include the presence of active layers. Finite element method 1. since the studies by Crawley and Lazarus [1]. displacement based approaches were used by the different authors. Tel. Finite element formulation The formulation of the fournode active shell element presented here (Fig. as previously cited. In this way. The actuation capability of the layer is represented by a given inplane strain field that can be thought of as being produced by the converse piezoelectric effect or other induced strain actuation mechanism. but only the last one explicitly mentions the need for a proper integration of the stiffness matrix. 2.J.: +39 (6) 44585304. like piezoceramics or shape memory alloys. Introduction The use of active materials.it © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Chandrshastra and Agarwal [5]. All rights reserved. has been recently proposed for developing actuation and sensing capability of structural systems. represents an extension of the MITC4 shell element proposed by Bathe and Dvorkin [8]. the actuation mechanism is included in the formulation of shear deformable shell element that has been demonstrated not to suffer of shear locking effects. The finite element equilibrium equations are derived by first considering the expression of .
are known in the local Cartesian system of orthonormal base vector C/. dVW (4) The linear electromechanic coupling law. Definition of the fournode shell element and of the active laminated shell. 2. the piezoelectric and the thermoelastic constants of layer n: E ={0 0 0 E].n.)^y.^^ where K is the stiffness matrix. • 1 T • X 1 cu 11 throughthethickness Hybnd Laminated Shell Applied Electric Field Displacements Fig. 2. R is the mechanical force vector (due to applied forces) Rj is the 'thermoelastic equivalent force vector' (due to thermal actions) and Rp is the 'piezoelectric equivalent force vector' (due to applied voltages). The elemental expressions for those quantities are: nc'^^gim) dV.) ^ /. 0 0 "32 ^r = 0 _ "31 . The appropriate constitutive law must then be used: .>^fB"> dv + /• H'''"'''fT AS... RTT. (1) the 'piezoelectric equivalent stress'. in matrix form: KU RTRV = R (3) The induced strains have been represented introducing into Eq. Gaudenzi /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics C^^^. as well as the thermoelastic one. and n is the index spanning the number of layers A^^. where some piezoelectric layers have been included to obtain actuation capability. accounting for the presence of some active piezoelectric layers in the laminated shell.)^ n^^^_n^^. respectively. 3: Rm ^ I fj(n. the following transformation is used: Both the piezoelectric and thermoelastic equivalent stresses are obtained using the following transformation: ^^/'^^«f/(Og^.^r "^^ TT . A T = r — To is the temperature variation from the reference temperature TQ.260 R. composing the laminated shell at element m.^(./ / . to achieve the expression of the fourthorder contravariant constitutive tensor "C'^^^""* in convected coordinates Vi starting from the known constitutive law in the local Cartesian system of orthonormal base vector e.e")(Ve:) (8) Invoking the stationarity of the total potential energy U. y{m) Am) Nrr.^(. "d and "a^"*^ are the matrix fiW'fP''dV. the total potential energy: (1) where m is an index spanning the total number of elements in which the structure has been subdivided. P. lozzi.J I<m)'H=<" where E is the electric field applied in the thickness direction. 1. and the 'thermoelastic equivalent stress'. (10) . / = 1. accounting for thermoelastic effects: (9) 5E/( .^ij(m) '"" n P^ijkl^ ~(m) containing. (5) (6) . we finally obtain the finite element equilibrium equation. ^_„^(™).•/'<' +r . / = 1. of the entire system. 3.^(m)T ^ 0 0 "33 0 0 0 0 0 "t d^f 0 0 0 (2) Wr "2 "af^ 0 o (7) where.
2 0. Comparison of the present analysis to the experimental measurements and to previous FEM./ ^" 2 D .0025m fit X10* a D /' a /  .' " ^^:tr"^. 2. FEM Case 1: [0/90m/0/p] Fig. Comparison of the present FE analysis to the Saravanos' solution and deformed configuration for the first case analyzed [0/90/90/0/p].0083m0.9 Fig. 3. .' ' • 1 . . lozzi. . ^ ^_ p .R. Gaudenzi /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 261 i 4 5 4 1 ^ 1 0.05 0.' • ' .8 0.a' Q"^ 0.3 0.04 Present FEM o Experiment [Crawley.292 A— 0.5 0. ' .6 0. 1991] FEM[HaetaI.4 0. „x10'* [0/90/90/0/p] Present FEM [0/90/p/90/0] Present FEM [p/0/90/90/0] Present FEM [0/90/90/0/p] Sarav. P.04S Piezoceramics A D X o II X 0.=0. .1 0.7 0.1992] T ^ r.
[4] Saravanos DA. as shown in Fig. y = 0 and y = —C/2. Dimitris A. (3) [/7/O/9O/9O/O]. Gaudenzi / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Table 1 Results for laminated.8:249259. subjected to a linear temperature variation with 80 and 0°C temperature increases on the upper and lower surfaces respectively. Numerical results 3. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 1997.( M 3 . E3 = —400 kV/m. The geometry and the mechanical properties of the materials used are the same mentioned by Saravanos [4]. Mx.35(8):13271333. Active damping enhancement of composite plates with electrode designed piezoelectric materials. The transverse displacement at the center point of the plate is reported in Table 1 where the extended CLT solution by Tauchert is compared to the results provided by the current FE analysis. longitudinal bending. M2 and M3 are the outofplane displacements measured at y = C/2. 3. Active vibration control of laminated composite plates using piezoelectric devices: . H^3 = . [2] Tauchert TR. trying to eliminate thermally induced deformation through the addition of a PVDF layer to the original laminate. 2 shows a fairly good agreement between the present FEM results and those presented in previous works.PF34 and of the MURST cofin.3.99 cap. Agarwal AN. 3. lozzi. consists of a graphite/epoxy (ASA/3501) cantilevered plate on whose surfaces thirty G1195N piezoceramics are symmetrically bonded. W2 = (M3 . The mechanical properties used for the materials involved are those reported in the work mentioned.00258 0. graphiteepoxy. where p indicates the piezoelectric layer.h M i ) / 2 ] . Tauchert piezothermoelastic composite plate Tauchert [2] investigated the piezothermoelastic response of a laminated. rectangular plate. symmetric. Both the geometrical and the mechanical properties of each layer are supplied in [2]. 2. [5] Chandrashekhara K. The comparison between the current FE analysis and those by Saravanos. "^ " and "f^""' are the arrays containing the f *" components of the thermoelastic and piezoelectric equivaB(m) lent stresses f'^ for the layer n. Induced strain actuation of isotropic and anisotropic plates. simply supported. Mixed laminate theory and finite element for smart piezoelectric composite shell structures. (11) Fig. reported in Fig. (2) [0/90//?/90/0]. W2 and WT.1. simply supported Tauchert's square plate Configuration Electric field (V/m) Center deflection Extended CLT (Tauchert) 0.262 R. J Therm Stresses 1992. AIAA J 1991. Lazarus KB. Wi. [3] Han JH. Saravanos [0/90]^ cylindrical panel Saravanos studied the response of a hybrid graphite/ epoxy simply supported 90° cylindrical panel with a continuous piezoelectric layer (PZT4) subjected to a uniform electric field.7109 are gratefully acknowledged.2. Crawley and Lazarus cantilever plate The specimen used by Crawley and Lazarus [1] in their experiments. Acknowledgements The financial support of the CNR PFMSTAII Project 99.15:2537. f and / / are the volume and surface force vectors externally applied.00008 Present FEM (mesh: 32 x 32) 0. 3. are nondimensional quantities representing.0000860 [GE:079070790°]s [GE:079070790°]s/[PVDF:0°] [GE:079070790°]s/[PVDF:0°] 0 3 X 10^ where B^^^ is the straindisplacement matrix obtained from the MITC formulation. References [1] Crawley EF.29(6):944951. AIAA J 1997. applied in the thickness direction.01797. Lee I.00101 0.[ M 2 . respectively. Three stacking sequences have been considered corresponding to a different thickness location of the piezoelectric actuator: (1) [0/90/90/0//?]. P. H^""^ is the displacement interpolation matrix.00100 0. in the analysis of adaptive laminated composite shells. 3. shows the good prediction capability of the FEM presented here. respectively. lateral twisting and transverse bending: Wi = M2/C.00257 0.Mi)/C. crossply square panel ([079070790°]s) and to a ninelayer hybrid laminate with an additional PVDF layer located at the bottom surface ([(079070790°)s//7]). Piezothermoelastic behaviour of a laminated plate. Attention is given to an eightlayer.
P.22:697722.6:776782. 1996. 263 [7] Bathe KJ. NJ: PrenticeHall. Gaudenzi /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics a finite element approach. [6] Suleman A. A formulation of general shell dements — the use of mixed interpolation of tensorial components. J Intell Mater System Struct 1993. A simple finite element formulation for a laminated composite plate with piezoelectric layers. Dvorkin EN. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986. Venkayya VB.R.4:496507. . J Intell Mater Syst Struct 1995. Englewood Cliffs. Finite Element Procedure. [8] Bathe KJ. lozzi.
and Okano and Koishi [7]. Sata et al. Under these conditions the vehicle is said to be experiencing hydroplaning.janajreh@us. Introduction At certain wet driving conditions over a road with a given surface texture and with a particular tire tread pattern made of a specific rubber compound. and we have observed the magnitude of the drag force. namely the drag force and the measurements of the loss of tire contact area obtained at Michelin glass pit. Drag force 1.: +1 (864) 4224336. we have compared the ranking based on the computed indicator. We have conducted an external flow study over two sets of tread patterns.5]. Grogger and Weiss [4. Vincent Estenne ^ " Michelin North America R&D Corp. Ladoux 63040 ClermontFerrand Cedex 9. Then.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Email: isam. The correlation was found to be in good agreement. . Nowadays.264 Tire tread pattern analysis for ultimate performance of hydroplaning Isam Janajreh ^'*. These conditions hinder the steering and braking capabilities of the driver.. They started from the NavierStokes equations and used a perturbation technique that reduced the governing equations to the Euler equation and the Reynolds equation. Bathe (Editor) fled scheme of the governing physical equations. elementary and analytical. Ali Rezgui ^. Keywords: Hydroplaning. France Abstract A brief introduction on the literature in hydroplaning modeling is presented. In this paper. 2. [6]. we present local sculptural analysis of the tire footprint by computing the tread pattern drag force and comparing the ranking with the glass pit results. Review of tlie state of the art in hydroplaning Due to the lack of the essential computational resources. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. in this paper we utilize the above two simulation tools. and second we perform CFD on the contact patch and tread patterns. Thus. earlier hydroplaning simulation attempts utilized a simpli* Corresponding author. The former governs the thick inviscid region denoted as hydroplaning region and the latter governs the thin viscous region denoted as viscoplaning. Center de Technologies. Daughaday and Tung [1] were amongst the first to conduct analytical treatment of tire hydroplaning. This assurance stems from the available tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finiteelement modeUng (FEM). which separates part of the tire contact patch from the road surface asperities. Local sculptural analysis. the available horizontal traction force is dramatically reduced. They have used the concept of the boundary layer solution in matching the flow in two regions. First we perform FEM analysis to obtain a realistic tire contact patch.michelin. ranking tires can be targeted with minimum tread design and architectural modifications. USA ^ Michelin France. The loss of traction is due to an intervening fluid film characterized by high hydrostatic pressure. Tel. Aksenov [3]. The solutions of the two equations are then matched at the interface by satisfying the same pressure and velocity components. Greenville SC 29602. namely the inviscid and the viscous regions. Tire designers seek a tread pattern that allows maximum drainage capabilities and deep tread for efficient fluid expulsion to decrease the potential of a progressive hydrostatic pressure build up. The complexity of tire shape precluded an analytical solution and merged hydroplaning studies into the computation fluid dynamic field as presented in the work by Brown and Whicker [2]. The second aspect is the focus of this article by computing the fluid drag force and comparing it to glass pit experimental measurements. Fax: +1 (864) 4223508. Glass pit.
for the elementary slick (left) and 5grooved (right) tire. Results and discussions 5. The results agree well with our intuition as shown in Figs. This scheme was initially constructed to handle compressible aerodynamics problems and has been later adapted using preconditioning to handle slightly compressible flows with a very small Mach number. These areas are normalized and ranked accordingly amongst each other or against a targeted reference tire. This consequently results in a higher tire drag force. and tires with 3 and 5 longitudinal grooves. This loss of contact is attributed to a poor fluid expulsion. The upstream flow velocity is 10. The prism is equipped with a highspeed shutter camera underneath that snaps the image of the passing tire contact patch. This allows the use of a high CFL number essential for steady or slowly unsteady flows. {x in the crossstream. magnitude v 40 f The experimental measurement is conducted at the MicheHn glass pit. Janajreh et al. Smooth contours of the velocity magnitude at 25 m/s. 1. The Reynolds number is about 10^ based on the groove depth (10 mm) which indicates a turbulent flow regime. The code uses structured mutiblocks with a bodyfitted mesh (to handle the meshing of complex geometry) and uses a multigrid to speed up the conversions. . Therefore a higher drag level leads to an earlier hydroplaning situation. The addition of grooves should delay the onset of hydroplaning and thus should reduce the drag force./. 15 and 25 m/s. This is due to the intrusion of the water film underneath the tire contact that separates part of the initial contact from the ground. Elementary tread patterns Our hypothesis is classical where we utilize the drag force as the indicator of the tread pattern quality in evacuating the encountered fluid. but it became implicit if we add the residual smoothing of Lerat. Flow and experimental setup The computation domain consists of a parallelepiped.000 to 68. 265 4. y along the stream and z perpendicular to the flow stream) built around the tire contact patch that is slightly nonsymmetrical and is calculated by inhouse FEM code. one upstream inflow. The image is postprocessed and the remaining tire contact area is computed. The Jameson scheme is explicit. The glass pit is a hydroplaning performance measuring tool that evaluates the reduction of tire contact patch with respect to vehicle speed.5. During the experiments a free rolling vehicle tire passes over the glass pit prism that is flooded with a fixed water film. and three outflows (two at the sides and one at the downstream). It is a structured finite volume code based on the Jameson scheme. 1 and 2 where the drag force is inversely proportional to the number of grooves and it follows the expected magnitude V 30: n y T 25: 20: 15: W io: Fig. A BaldwinLomax turbulence model was utilized since it produces a similar result to the classical KE within the grooves during initial testing and because it provides a shorter computation time. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 3. We compute the velocity field and the drag forces of three elementary tread patterns including a slick tire.000 cells and the time step is controlled by a Courant number of 1.7. The domain is set up as follow: two mirror faces (one is the ground and the second is the base of tire treads). The constructed tread pattern meshes have 50. 5. There has been a good ranking correlation between the glass pit tire hydroplaning and wet skid tire testing that have been verified by tire industry [8]. The utilized CFD code The code used for our simulation is Euranus of Numeca Inc.
Janajreh et al. Conclusion The emergence of CFD in analysis of tire hydroplaning has become more evident. Fig. for sol. 1 and sol. and the increase of the void ratio is a classical trend of tire designers in attempting to improve the hydroplaning tire performance. 400 1 300 2 200 o a» 100 0 18 Velocity (mfe) Fig. 1 (659 N) is higher than the computed drag force of sol. 1 sculpture has a void ratio of 36% while the sol. The computations of the drag force suggest that try. 1 (left) and sol. The objective is to determine whether solution 1 or 2 will perform better in hydroplaning.2. In this work we have conducted drag force sensitivity analysis over elementary sculptures and have observed that the addition of the grooves results magnitude V Fig. 6. Drag force evolution with the additions of tire grooves at 10. 1 which are confirmed by the glass pit. 3.266 /. Fig. 2. 1 and try. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 600 500 5. we have observed insignificant pressure variation in the z direction that suggests a 2D computation can be sufficient. A summary of the magnitude of the drag force and glass pit ranking are given in Table 1. The computed drag force over sol. 2 sculptures where both have the same void ration of 39%. 5. . 2 (right) of analytical tires. In the second example. 1. 2 sculpture has a void ratio of 39%. 2. 3 depicts the flow field on two analytical solutions denoted as sol. In the first example. 2 is a better candidate than sol. We observe the presence of two pronounced vortices in the front of the slick tread pattern that collapse with the addition of grooves. Smooth contours of the velocity magnitude at 25 m/s. 4 depicts the computation of the flow field and gives the drag force of try. Due to the symmetry between the ground and the tread. Analytical tread patterns (longitudinal and lateral grooves) Two set of examples are presented where the flow configurations are similar to the elementary tread patterns discussed above. The glass pit measurements confirm the drag force ranking since it produces 36% improvement magnitude V of sol. 2 will exhibit a better hydroplaning performance than try. parabolic trend versus the velocity. 1. 2 (553 N) which suggests that sol. except that the analysis are conducted at one speed of 25 m/s. It is worth mentioning that the sol. 2 over sol. 15 and 25 m/s with their parabolic fit.
CFD 96. Calculation of the 3D free surface flow around automobile tire. Jan. (%) Sol. ASTM Special Technical PubHcation 793. Table 1 Analytical sculptures drag force and glass pit comparison summary. 4. Koishi M. Theory and Experiment. The Physics of Tire Traction. FEM/FVM. In this work we have shown that the ranking of the sculptures based on the computed drag force and the experimental measured contact area are in agreement for sculptures with a set of sculptures having different void ratio and another set with that have the same void ratio. 2 (right) of analytical tires. [2] Brown. Two examples w^ere conducted over four analytical sculptures that suggest implementation of the drag force as a criteria to rank a set of sculptures for their hydroplaning performance. Tire Sci Technol 1996. 1996 [4] Grogger. No. analysis. 2 and try./. [8] Yeager RW. in press. In: Heys Browne (Ed). A mathematical analysis of hydroplaning phenomena. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 1 (left) and try. friction interaction of tire and pavement. pp. An interactive tirefluid model for dynamic hydroplaning. 2557. AG2495Sl. 27 (JanMar). 1 versus try. Tire Sci Technol 1997. New York: Plenum Press. 2 Tire 195/65/R15 Void ratio Computed drag force (N) 659 553 496 464 Computed drag force Measured glass pit area loss index (%) 100 136 100 104 References [1] Daughaday H. 1974. Weiss. [6] Sata et al. 130150. Cal. Meyer/Walter. Janajreh et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics magnitude V 30: 267 Fig. Weiss.l Sol. [7] Okano T. Tire Sci Technol.24(JanMar). [3] Aksenov A. C. Hydroplaning analysis by FEM and FVM: effect of tire rolling and tire pattern on hydroplaning. Whicker D. Tung.l Try. sol. Smooth contours of the velocity magnitude at 25 m/s. Technical Report. [5] Grogger. Tire hydroplaning: testing. 1 versus sol. in press. and design.2 Try.2 (36) (39) (39) (39) (%) 100 116 100 106 in the reduction of the drag force and consequently an improvement in the hydroplaning performance. Tire Sci Technol. Numerical Simulation of Car Tire Aquaplaning. pp. A new computation procedures to predict transient hydroplaning performance of a tire. Hydroplaning of automobile tire. for try. . Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory. 1969.
MN 55455. a general framework and design encompassing the Reduced Instruction Set Code (RISC) based paradigm is described both for serial and parallel computations. While these methods do indeed produce significant results in reducing the solution time. reference to the research efforts are not made to the differences between programming languages. This is the first time that such a general framework and capability is plausible via a unified technology and the developments further enhance computational structural dynamics areas.: Hi (612) 6268102. Keywords: Nonhnear structural dynamics. mathematical and physical sciences. K. and existing time integration operators is now possible employing the socalled Reduced Instruction Set Codes (RISC) via a unified family of generahzed integration operators [GInO] towards scalable computations on massively parallel computing platforms. Here. Numerical scalability. The concern is more about the impact of a given parallel hardware architecture on the software design. it simultaneously increases the functionality of the scientific codes by many folds by providing a variety of choices to the analyst. In the singleprocessor situation. For scientific computations encompassing transient/dynamic analysis encountered in engineering. A unified scalable computational approach towards such a computational technology is desirable for largescale structures and large processor counts employing a messagepassing paradigm (using MPI). Tamma * Department of Mechanical Engineering. and sometimes. Computing platforms could be a single processor.J. the focus is on the scalability analysis conducted via an integrated unified technology for [GInO] with emphasis on the family of optimal nondissipative and dissipative algorithms for structural dynamics in conjunction with large deformation. graph partitioning techniques. 125. University of Minnesota. USA Abstract vspace3ptA general framework and avenues towards the design of a unified integrated computational technology for nonlinear structural dynamics encompassing a wide variety of new and unexplored. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Minneapolis. MPI 1. and Lagrange multiplier based domain decomposition methods. Kanapady. For geometric nonlinearity a total Lagrangian formulation. Introduction It is being recognized that the pressing need for improved solution times and feasibility to conduct largescale practical analysis accurately for nonlinear structural dynamics on modem computing platforms as the general goal. nor to differences between the multitudes of parallel extensions to specific programming languages. the efforts which are both time and development intensive. highperformance computers or parallel computers. elasticplastic dynamic response. Hence. 111 Church Street S. Here. Bathe (Editor) eration. All rights reserved.umn.E. Whilst the RISC paradigm has a critical impact on the scientific code design and development time and efforts. on the solution algorithm itself. restructuring the code is done to take advantage of inherent parallelism in the formulation and the parallel architecture under consid* Corresponding author. Parallel computing. many of today's attempts to speed up solution and computational procedures center on optimization of codes for specific computing platforms. Time integration. elastic. and for material nonlinearity elastoplastic formulations are employed. Lagrange multiplier based domain decomposition. In parallel computing realm. Fax: +1 (612) 6241398. will constantly follow the development of new computer hardware having extremely short life cycles both in the serial and parallel computing realms.K. To handle such a wide variety of situations.268 Design and framework of reduced instruction set codes for scalable computations for nonlinear structural dynamics R. Email: ktamma@tc. Tel. optimization is performed by restructuring of the code to take advantage of the memory hierarchy and compiler technology and the like.edu © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. RISC. the design of computational algorithms accounting for timedependent phenomena plays a .
. (1) 3.. including new computational algorithms which inherit excellent algorithmic attributes in contrast to all existing approaches and which have not been explored and/or exploited todate. such features now permit Reduced Instruction Set Codes to incorporate a unified computational technology with a wide variety of choices of new and existing algorithms to the analysts in conjunction with graph partitioning techniques and domain decomposition methods. A5 = (3 . Ae = 2(2 . A2 = 2/(1 + Poo)'. 1 Wi = At' r ^ 3 . multibody dynamics and the like. Let W{T) =Z WQ\.poo)/(l + Poo). . Scalable computations The next generation parallel computers will consist of thousands (computers having processor counts greater than 10. attention is focused towards scalable computations for nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A5 = 1/(1 + Poo). characterization. Summarizing. A2 = 1/2. design and implementation of a wide variety of computational structural dynamics algorithms is described in [1] for linear and in [2] for nonlinear situations.lUn A^ + ^2Un Af^ + X^At'^ (Un+i .wiT + W2T^ + wsz^. A3 = 2/(1 + Poo)'. For the first time.P o o ) / ( l + A3 = 1/(1 + P o o ) ' .2]. computational fluid dynamics. A6 = 1.Xs = 1/2 GInO Optimal dissipative methods: Ai = 2/(1 + Poo). Recently emanating under the umbrella and explained via a generalized timeweighted philosophy. . Attention is restricted here to computational structural dynamics.2]. .U„) At (2) As such. the resulting family of generalized integration operators [GInO] for nonlinear situations are given by Mu„+i +p(u„+i. X2 = 1/(1 + Poo).X2 = 1/2. A4 = 1.3 (3) W3. A4 = (3 . computational structural dynamics. Ai = 1. A4 = l. VI] and only restricted to firstorder accuracy of load) and which also possess minimal dissipation and dispersion for any given Poo value.K. VO] (in contrast to all other existing dissipative schemes which are at a minimum [UO. Then. Computational algorithms and solution techniques for structural dynamics systems of equations have indeed matured over the years.ii„) (5) 2. the socalled direct time integration techniques continue to be popular in commercial codes. Ai = \. A3 = 1/4.iin) Un Un =Un + A4WiUnAt + A5W2 (U„+i . and (ii) the corresponding imposed conditions upon the dependent field variable approximations in the semidiscretized system.2.R. Scientific largescale simulations accounting for timedependent phenomena of many industry and DoD relevant applications are encountered in process modeling and manufacturing studies.w\ — — 5 . are given as Weighted time field: Wo = \. I = 1. Kanapady. A5 = 1/2. a formal theory of development/ evolution. for simplicity the socalled generalized integration operator [GInO] for nonlinear dynamic situations can be stated as follows [1.o Wr (4) with the following design updates Un+l =Vin+ >. A4 = 1.P o o ) / ( l + Poo).u„+i) = F where u„+i = u„ + AeWi (Un+i . The specific DNA markers (if/. At] be the weighted time field approximation employed for enacting the time discretization process of the semidiscretized equations of motion. In this research. where Poo is the spectral radius of the time integration method described as CO At ^ OQ.W3 =0 GInO Optimal energy preserving: Ai = 1.iin) At^ F =(lWi)f„hWiUi . A3 = 1/4. via a unified methodology. respectively. Poof. Computational algorithms Most of the traditional approaches we are familiar with. are indeed an integral part of the present framework. Tamma/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 269 critical role in a variety of applications. r e [0. Of the various transient algorithms available in the literature for structural dynamics computations. . K.U„) u„+i =\Xn+ X^yinAt + XsAt (ii„+i . The remainder of the [DNA] markers contained in [GInO] for most of the practical and socalled time integration methods are described in [1.000) of highperformance processors connected via a =Un\AiWiUnAthA2W2UnAt^ {A3W3 (Un+l . A. uniquely lead to the design and characterization of various time discretized operators via: (i) specially assigned marker coefficients for the weighted time fields. Xt) for the [GInO] optimal energy preserving and the family of optimal dissipative algorithms [3] for structural dynamics which are secondorder accurate and unconditionally stable. the associated Discrete Numerically Assigned [DNA] algorithmic markers which comprise of both the weighted time fields w{x) and the imposed conditions on the dependent field variable approximations. computational heat transfer applications. W2 = 5. and possess only zeroorder displacement and velocity overshooting behavior [UO.
Next. The critical component of effective utihzation of such systems for computational structural dynamics involves design and development of efficient and scalable parallel formulations and computational models on a seamless programming environment. with modest to no convergence degradation of numerical algorithms for arbitrary large problem size and processor counts. The scalability of the formulation can be characterized by three distinguishing properties: (i) numerical scalability. Tamma/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics solved in conjunction with the present unified formulations which provide a wide variety of choices to the analyst. of subdomains 16 32 Total iterations/time step Table 3 Numerical scalability results 'fixedstorageperprocessor' scaling employing primaldual domain decomposifion method for typical implicit [GInO] methods No. [GInO] in a RISC enabled single analysis code for serial and scalable parallel computations are presented here. the results pertaining to serial computations. With the parallel computer architectures evolving continuously and the availability of various HPC platforms. which exploit the new parallel computer architecture.001) Total iterations/time step . Note that Tables 13 show the total number of iterations of the PCG algorithm pertaining to the subdomain 'interface' problem to converge for the 'fixedworkperprocessor'. To handle the complex finite element meshes on the HPC platforms. number of processors and HPC platforms. of subdomains 4 16 64 Mesh size h (eqns) 1/50(12. K. graph partitioning and Lagrange multiplier based domain decomposition techniques. Fig.440) Total iterations/time step 4. And. ability of the parallel algorithm to deliver larger speedups for arbitrary large number of processors. respectively. subdomain interfacing via Lagrange multiplier based domain decomposition techniques are employed. Table 1 Numerical scalability results 'fixedworkperprocessor' scaling employing dual domain decomposition method for typical implicit [GInO] methods Mesh size h (eqns) 1/2(540) 1/4 (3. lb and c show the simulated results and experimental results are in excellent agreement.K. Fig.820) 1/8 (19.000) 1/6 (8. (ii) parallel scalability.001) 1/100(50. domain decomposition is employed using MPIbased ParMetis [4].and fourthorder elasto dynamics via preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm (PCG) is Table 2 Numerical scalability results of 'fixedproblemsize' scaling employing dual domain decomposition method for typical implicit [GInO] methods No. Kanapady. the calculated predictions of the isoparametric degenerated shell element formulation are compared with experimental results obtained from a cylindrical panel subjected blast load. The unique features of the overall framework includes: a unified family of generalized time integration operators [GInO] described previously which encompass both the traditionally advocated explicit and implicit time integration (dissipative and nondissipative) schemes. it now permits for the first time the general nonlinear and linear structural dynamics analysis for largescale realistic engineering analysis in a single analysis code via an integrated computational technology. Initial results Initial results and the unique features of the present integrated computational technology employing generalized integration operators.270 R. One such robust unified framework for the predictor multicorrector incremental [GInO] representations for nonlinear dynamics has been developed and its corresponding subdomain interface Lagrange multiplier solutions for second. problem size.001) 1/200(200. the biggest challenges lie in the substitution of the key selected algorithms in an application program with redesigned algorithms. which is independent of program size. and (iii) scalability of computer memory utilization with increase in the problem size and the number of processors. numerical scalability performance results for nonlinear elastic/elastoplastic implicit computations are presented in Tables 1 and 2 for a secondorder elasticity cantilever beam problem discretized using 8node brick elements and in Table 3 for a fourthorder elasticity cylindrical panel subjected blast problem discretized using 4node shell elements. The results show that the RISC technology is indeed numerically scalable high bandwidth interconnection network. the 'fixedproblemsize' and 'fixedstorageperprocessor' scaling problems. To achieve both numerical and parallel scalability. and new computational algorithms which provide optimal algorithmic properties (dissipative and nondissipative) that have not been explored and/or exploited todate in conjunction with Reduced Instruction Set Code enabled coarsegrained parallel computational models which employ the messagepassing paradigm (using MPI). la shows the layout and details of the geometry of the shell. First.
R. Kanapady, K.K. Tamma /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. Conclusions
Blcivf Inpflecf re^ir,
271
The design and analysis of a general framework towards RISC for unified scalable parallel computations for nonlinear structural dynamics was presented. Parallel performance was illustrated on: (i) numerical scalability, (ii) linear speedups, and (iii) parallel scalability.
\ \
Acknowledgements The authors are very pleased to acknowledge in part by Battle/U.S. Army Research Office (ARO) Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, under grant number DAAH0496C0086. The support of the A R L / M S R C and the IMT activities and additional support in the form of computer grants from Minnesota Supercomputer Institute (MSI) are gratefully acknowledged. The support in part, by the Army High Performance Computing Research Center (AHPCRC) under the auspices of the Department of the Army, Army Research Laboratory (ARL) cooperative agreement number DAAH049520003/contract number DAAH0495C0008 is also acknowledged. The content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. Additional thanks are also due to X. Zhou, D. Sha, Dr. A. Mark and Dr. R. Namburu, Prof. G. Karypis and Prof. V. Kumar for relevant technical discussions.
O ^7 ...A0.5
Experimental Newmark (y= 1/2, p1/4) Newmark (7=1/2,3 = 0) Undeformed shape
(b)
1 1.5 X direction (in.)
References [1] Tamma KK, Zhou X, Sha D. A theory of development and design of generalized integration operators for computational structural dynamics. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2001 ;50: 16191664. [2] Kanapady R, Tamma KK. A unified family of generalized integration operators [GInO] for nonlinear structural dynamics: implementation aspects. Adv Eng Software 2000; 31(89): 639647. [3] Zhou X, Tamma KK, Sha, D. Linear multistep and optimal dissipative singlestep algorithms for structural dynamics. In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Cambridge, MA, June 1215, 2001. [4] Karypis G, Kumar V. ParMETIS: parallel graph partitioning and sparse matrix ordering library. University of Minnesota, Department of Computer Science, Version 2.0, 1998. [5] Kanapady R, Tamma KK. Parallel computations via a single analysis code of a unified family of generalized integration operators [GInO] fornonUnear structural dynamics. In: 41st AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conf., Atianta, GA, April 36, 2000. [6] Kanapady R, Tamma KK. A general framework and integrated methodology towards scalable heterogeneous computations for structural dynamics on massively parallel platforms. In: 42nd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conf., Seattie, WA, April 1619, 2000.
0.0004
Time (sec)
0.0006
0.0008
Fig. 1. Cylindrical panel subjected to blast loading; geometry, displacement of crosssection of panel, deformation history for various algorithms via a code employing RISC paradigm, (a) Geometry; (b) crosssection displacement; (c) displacement history. for computational structural dynamics via [GInO]. Thus, demonstrating the potential to provide highly scalable parallel computations via an integrated computational technology for both explicit and implicit structural dynamics.
272
Dof splitting padaptive meshless method
M.S. Kang,S.K.Youn*
KAIST, Mechanical Engineering Department, 3731, Gusung, Yusung, Taejon, 305701, Korea
Abstract In this paper, error estimator and padaptive refinement scheme for hpclouds method called dof splitting meshless method (DSPMM) are proposed. The error estimator detects the difference of computed stress and projected stress. The essence of the DSPMM is to construct the prefined equations with newly appended higher order nodal dof s. The prefined equations are solved to minimize the residual of the unrefined solution. In refinement procedure, higher order dof's are appended only on the selected nodes determined in the error estimation procedure. Therefore the size of the prefined equations is considerably smaller than that of unrefined equations. The DSPMM improves the solution with minor additional computational costs especially for large problems. Keywords: hpClouds method; Error estimator; pAdaptive refinement; Dof splitting meshless method; DSPMM; Meshless method
1. Introduction Meshless methods such as elementfree Galerkin (EFG) method [1] and hpclouds method [2] are attractive for hadaptive analysis because they do not need mesh structure that restricts the position of nodes in the formulation. Thus nodes can be easily added and deleted without consideration of the mesh structure. Hpclouds method also has good features to adopt padaptive scheme since the method allows the addition of nodal dof's. Several error estimators for meshless method have been developed. Liu et al. [3] developed adaptive scheme using edge detection technique for reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM). Duarte and Oden [4] presented the error estimator derived in terms of residuals. Chung and Belytschko [5] estimated the error denoted by the difference of computed stress and projected stress. This paper presents an error estimator and dof splitting meshless method (DSPMM). The error estimator is based on the work of Chung and Belytschko [5]. In hpclouds method, the projected stress cannot be directly obtained as in the Chung's method for EFG method because the number of shape functions is generally greater than that of nodes. Thus the projected stress in hpclouds method * Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 (42) 8693034; Fax: +82 (42) 8693201; Email: skyoun@sorak.kaist.ac.kr © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
is obtained by additional formulation and matrix solution procedure. DSPMM uses the shape functions of hpclouds method however the formulation is modified. In DSPMM, the adaptive procedure is formulated only with additional nodal dof's. The solution of DSPMM is used to update the solution of unrefined problem. This procedure allows the solution to be enhanced with minor additional computational costs. The error estimator and DSPMM are verified through numerical examples.
2. Error estimation Chung et al.'s error criterion is defined by the difference of projected stress and approximated stress. The projected stress is obtained by the linear combination of nodal stress and shape functions. The radius of influence used for the projection of stresses is smaller than that of shape functions in approximation. In hpclouds method, the number of shape functions is greater than that of nodes. Thus the projection of nodal stress cannot be directly achieved. The stress error e^(x) in hpclouds method can be defined as follows:
e^(x) = a'(x)  aP(x) = cj'{x)  J ^ E ^ / W o ^ ;
(1)
where a'^ix) the computed stress, a^(x) the projected
M.S. Rang, S.K. Youn/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics stress, (j)\ /th shape function at node /, and a\{x) /th the expanded stress for node /. To obtain the expanded stress cf\{x) we introduce weak formulation and the resulting equations are as follow:
KYJ= f BfDB'jdQ
273
(10)
C I ] / ^/(•^)^/(^) d^^i = I <P\Mcr\x) dQ
The pointwise estimated error is calculated by substituting the obtained expanded stress aj(x) from Eq. (2) into the Eq. (1).
(2)
(11)
(12)
F ; = f (P'jtdr^ f (p'jbdQ 3. Dof splitting padaptive hpclouds method Consider the trial function space U and the test function space V.
U = {uG H\Q),U = U on Fu}
(13)
F ; = j (j)]~tdT+ f (p'jbdQ
(14)
(3) (4)
Now, we can write the equation Eq. (8) as the two coupled equations.
^oo^o ^fO_ f.or^r
V = {veH^(Q),v
= 0 onT,}
(15) (16)
A prefinement procedure in hpclouds method adds higher order shape functions to the selected nodes determined by error estimator. We can write the prefined solution uP{x) as the sum of the solution of unrefined problem u'^ix) and the correction of the solution u''(x) obtained by the adaptive analysis. uP(x) = 8vP(x) = u%x)\u'(x) 8v'(x)\8v'(x)
(5)
K''u'
F' 
K''u'
(6)
In Eq. (5), essential boundary conditions are already satisfied by the unrefined solution u'^ix). Thus the unrefined solution u'^ix) is in the space U, but the correction of the solution u''(x) is in the space V. The function space V is easily obtained by adopting the kinematically admissible meshless shape functions [6]. The variational formulation for the prefined problem using the expressions of Eqs. (5) and (6) is 8n= fv,(v'' + v'f:((j'\a')dQ :tdrf 8(v' + v'f : b dQ
Higher order shape functions in hpclouds method are generated by the multiplication of partition of unity functions and proper basis functions. That is, the shape functions used in unrefined analysis are not affected by the generation of higher order shape functions in prefinement procedure. Thus, the matrix K'''' and the vector F"" in Eq. (15) is the same as those in unrefined analysis. Furthermore, the errors in analysis are localized in some critical region. In refinement process, error estimator detects the critical regions, and the solution on the critical regions is mainly improved. The changes of solution on the critical regions have an important role for improving the solution. DSPMM improves the solution only on the critical regions. The unrefined solution u^ is fixed in the refinement process. Therefore Eq. (15) is not needed because the solution u^ is already determined, only Eq. (16) is solved with the unrefined solution u"". In most adaptive analysis added dof's are not many, thus we can improve the solution with minor computational cost increments.
 f 8{v' f v'f
4. Numerical examples Vw^ G U, Vu' e V, Vu^ e V, Wv' G V. (7) In the numerical examples, error estimator and DSPMM have been verified for the problem of infinite plate with a hole under uniform lateral tension. The infinite plate is modeled as a finite quarter plate and analytical stress values are imposed as boundary conditions as denoted in Fig. 1. The dimensions of the plate are the length of square quarter plate L = 5, the radius of a hole d = \, uniform lateral tension G = 10, Young's modulus E = 1000, and Poisson's ratio V = 0.3. The matrix form of the discretized prefined equations is (8)
DB'^jdQ
(9)
274
M.S. Kang, S.K. Youn/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Fig. 2 compares the exact error and the estimated error for the stress component a^^ • Fig. 3 shows the computational costs and pconvergence of general hpclouds method and DSPMM. The both padaptive analysis incorporate the presented error estimator to detect the analysis error, and modified weight functions [6] are used to impose essential boundary conditions. The first points that have the same number of dofs in Fig. 3(a) denote the same result since two methods are the same since that is the results of unrefined problem. The equations of DSPMM for the second, third and fourth points are solved only for the newly appended dofs and the unrefined solution is modified with these solutions. As shown in the prefined results, the solution time is minor but the accuracy is comparable with hpclouds method. In general, the accuracy of usual hpclouds method is slightly better than that of DSPMM since DSPMM restrict the unrefined solution to be fixed. However, DSPMM requires lesser increase of computational cost.
14 4^ 4* 4* 4* 4^fT 14
Fig. 1. Modeling of infinite plate with a hole
li^^B
(b)
(a)
\
Fig. 2. Contour plot of error in Oxx stress, (a) Exact error, (b) estimated error.
n hpClouds
'""q DSPMM
1000
3.5x10^
».,
f
[=
3x10^100
o *— o •—
Solving ByisihpOouds Solving Bcins:DSPMM Fomning Eqns:hpClouds Fomning Ecjns:DSPMM
25x10*
\ • — —
(b)
"~ ' ~— •
' —1
'
1000
1500
2000 No. Of dofs
2500
3000
3600
1000
1
^
1
1
1500
2000
1
'
2500
T
3000
3500
1
No. Of dofs
Fig. 3. Numerical results of general hpclouds method and dof splitting padapdve meshless method, (a) Computation time, (b) pconvergence.
M.S. Rang, S.K. Youn/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 5. Conclusions The error estimator for hpclouds method and dof splitting meshless method (DSPMM) are presented. The numerical example shows that the error estimator is a good measure for the approximation of errors in hpclouds method. This error criterion is used for padaptive hpclouds method and DSPMM. DSPMM incorporates the results of unrefined solution in the formulation of prefined analysis. The resulting equations are solved only for newly added nodal dof's. Thus, the solution can be improved with minor increase of computational costs. References
275
[1] Belytschko T, Lu YY, Gu L. Elementfree Galerkin methods. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1994;37:229256. [2] Duarte CA, Oden JT. Hp clouds — a meshless method to solve boundaryvalue problems. Technical Report 9505, TICAM. University of Texas at Austin, 1995. [3] Liu WK, Hao W, Chen Y, Jun S, Gosz J. Multiresolution reproducing kernel particle methods. Comput Mech 1997;20:295309. [4] Duarte CA, Oden JT. An hp adaptive method using clouds. Comp Meth Appl Mech Eng 1996;139:237262. [5] Chung HJ, Belytschko T. An error estimate in the EFG method. Comput Mech 1988;21:91100. [6] Kang MS, Youn SK. Kinematically admissible meshless approximation using modified weight function. Int J Numer Methods Eng, in press.
276
Modelling of friction in metalforming processes
Stefan Kapinski *
Institute of Machine Design Fundamentals, Warsaw Technical University, Narbutta 84, 02524 Warsaw, Poland
Abstract The predetermination of friction forces in metalforming processes is essential. Investigations have been carried with this aspect in mind. This has resulted in the elaboration of a new graphics model of friction and modernization of instruments for the forming of materials. The friction model estimates the physical phenomena for contact conditions, such as: variable states of contact and friction; the difference in the quality of friction surfaces; and the velocity of friction. The results will help optimize such metalforming processes as: the deep drawing process and the extrusion process [ 1  6 ] . Keywords: Friction; Graphic model; Metal forming; Instrument; Surface; Velocity
1. Introduction The predetermination of the rising frictional forces as well as of the forces required for metal forming is of utmost importance for the prejudgement of failures. Only then is a specific optimisation of the metalforming process possible, for instance by tests of the frictional forces in the region of contact of the forming material with the surface of the tool. In this way, the final frictional forces, which are of very great significance for tool abrasion, can be determined, whereby the influence of different lubricants, forming material and tool metals on frictional behaviour can be taken into consideration. The predetermination of the frictional forces by a mathematical and graphical model is very useful for metalforming processes.
2. Investigation of friction in metalforming processes Friction depends on the quality of the surfaces, the types of materials, the direction of movement, and the velocity and pressure of materials. Fig. 1 is an exemplary scheme of real contact materials and mechanics of friction. A variety of macroscopic phenomena are associated with frictional contacts between microscopically rough surfaces. Properties such as the apparent dependence of the frictional forces on relative velocities, quality of surfaces, adhesive *Tel.: +48 (22) 6608682; Email: ska@simr.pw.edu.pl © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
forces and stickslip oscillations are consequences of the combined influence of the largescale mechanical makeup of the system and the microscopic interaction at the surface interface. The surface structure (Fig. 1) is created by technological processes and, for this reason, friction depends on direction of movement. Of fundamental importance to the properties of frictionally interacting surfaces is the tendency of microscopic localized slip to occur on macroscopic global relative sliding between the surfaces. More specifically, if a tangential shear force is applied to two bodies compressed against each other, there will be small relative displacements of elastic character, i.e. such that no residual displacement remains after unloading. However, experimental observations indicate that some plastic deformation occurs with a resulting residual displacement and consequent energy dissipation. If balance is not attained between the vertical forces, the surface separation will evolve with time. In particular, for sufficiently large separations and zero initial velocity, the pressure force will be outweighed by the remaining forces and thus the separation will tend to decrease. Similarly, when the separation is initially small, the normal force will act to separate the surfaces leading to an increase in friction. The geometrical interpretation of friction stresses is presented in Fig. 2. The parameters c, A. are connected with geometrical parameters of contact surface and value k is the material parameter.
S. Kapinski /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics a) Pressure b)
111
yy^<>v
Fig. 1. Exemplary surface structure (a) and dependence of friction forces on the direction of movement (b).
"5
T
°
Fig. 2. Graphical interpretation of the friction stresses. The tangential stress may be obtained from the formula (Fig. 2) (1) The value r^ may be expressed as r^ = tanAicr^ and
O^ — 0rC0sA2
(2)
Fig. 3. Graphical interpretation of the surface friction. • for a situation when microstructures of local friction surfaces are cutting (surface C): Tc = FlX^im, v), N]. For a situation when the movement of friction surfaces V does not exist, the tangential stress is equal to the force of reaction with reference to the contact area. For any part of the geometrical model, the shape of the model surface of friction is dependent on the quality of the material, structure of the surface friction, direction of friction (Fig. 4) and the velocity of friction. Friction creates temperature and this fact must be taken into consideration when modifying the model. The influence of temperature is presented in Fig. 5. From this model, it can be seen that temperature changes the force of friction. A high temperature decreases the force of friction and friction depends on velocity (vi < V2 < vs). This situation has been experimentally demonstrated.
(3)
Substituting in Eq. (1) the values which are expressed by formulas (2) and (3), the tangential stress may be written as follows t = c + a sin A2 (4)
The parameters c, Xi are connected with geometrical parameters of contact surface and value k is material parameter. The values of friction forces T for different situation of movement direction (p, quality of surfaces (parameters of surface and materials m) and pressures N may be described as functions (Fig. 3): • for a situation when movement of friction surfaces v does not exist (surface A): T^ = F[Ai(m, (^), A/']; • for a situation when displacement of friction surfaces is really (surface B): % = F[X2(m, cp, v), N]\
278
S. Kapinski / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics for predicting frictional behaviour in the deep drawing process. In this way, the frictional forces at the die radius and in the flange alongside the forces for bending and lossfree forming can be determined. Even at the construction stage of a deep drawing part, assessments can be made about the behaviour of different lubricants, sheet materials and tool metals. The deepdrawing process of cylindrical elements is an optimal model for the prediction of the distribution of stress and strain or frictional behaviour and frictional forces for stamping drawpieces. The frictional forces at the die radius, type of lubricate used and the forces for bending should also be exactly determined. Therefore, a new concept model of friction is presented. The model of friction may also be useful for the predetermination of friction forces for other metalforming processes.
Fig. 4. Dependence of the force friction reference on the direction of friction {(p) (crosssection of surface B in Fig. 3).
References [1] Doege E, Schulte S. Design of deep drawn components with elementary calculation methods. J Mater Process Technol 1992;34:439447. [2] Kapinski S. Influence of the punch velocity on deformation of the material in deepdrawn flange. J Mater Process Technol 1992;34:419424. [3] Kapinski S. The forming of autobody panels. WKi£, Warszawa 1996 (in Polish). [4] Kapinski S. The analysis of forming process for bimetal materials. Third International Conference on Contact Mechanics — Contact Mechanics III. Madrid 30 June3 July, 1997, pp. 217226. [5] Kapinski S. Analysis and modelling of friction in deep drawing process. 4th International Conference on Advances in Materials processing and Technologies. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2428 August, 1998, pp. 569576. [6] Kapinski, S. Model of friction for sheet metal forming processes. 4th International Conference on Contact Mechanics — Contact Mechanics IV. Stuttgart, Germany, 35 August, 1999, 1524.
Fig. 5. The space model of friction demonstrating influence of temperature.
3. Conclusions The predetermination of parameters and realisation of sheet forming is an essential aspect for the optimisation of the deep drawing process for the shaping of automobile chassis. Investigations have been carried out to demonstrate this. This has resulted in the proposition of a friction model
279
Modelling of intra and interlaminar fracture in composite laminates loaded in tension
Maria Kashtalyan*, Costas Soutis
Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BY, UK
Abstract Fracture process of multidirectional fibrereinforced composite laminates under tensile loading involves sequential accumulation of intra and interlaminar damage in the form of matrix cracks and delaminations. In this paper, local delaminations growing from matrix crack tips in angleply laminates are analysed using fracture mechanics concepts. Closed form expression representing strain energy release rate associated with crack tip delaminations as a linear function of the first partial derivatives of the effective elastic properties of the damaged layer with respect to the delamination area is derived. Parameters controlling the value of the strain energy release rate are established. Keywords: Crack tip delamination; Local delamination; Matrix crack; Strain energy release rate; Angleply laminate
1. Introduction Fracture process in multidirectional fibrereinforced composite laminates subjected to inplane static or fatigue tensile loading involves sequential accumulation of intra and interlaminar damage in the form of matrix cracks that appear parallel to the fibres in the offaxis plies and matrix cracking induced edge and/or local delaminations. Formation and growth of crack induced local delaminations in angleply [O2/O2/ — ^2]^ carbon/epoxy laminates under quasistatic and fatigue tensile loading has been reported by O'Brien and Hooper [1] and O'Brien [2]. The present paper is concerned with analysis of local delaminations in angleply symmetric [0i/02]^ laminates using the approach suggested by Zhang et al. [3], earlier applied to modelling transverse crack tip delaminations in [±^^/90„]^ laminates.
xyz and local x[^^X2^'x^^^ coordinate systems, with the jc{^^ axis directed along the fibres in the (^2) layer. Matrix cracks are assumed to span the whole width of the laminate and be spaced uniformly at a distance 2s^. Local delaminations are assumed to be stripshaped, with a strip width 21^. Since delamination growth occurs in a selfsimilar manner, it can be analysed using fracture mechanics concepts. The total strain energy release rate G^"^ associated with local delaminations is equal to the first partial derivative of the total strain energy U stored in the damaged laminate with respect to the total delamination area A^"^ provided the applied strains {s} are fixed and the matrix crack density C = (25^)~^ remains unchanged G'^ = dU
aA^^
(1)
[e},C
2. Fracture analysis Fig. 1 shows a schematic of an angleply symmetric [0i/02L laminate subjected to inplane tensile loading and damaged by matrix cracking in the (02) layer and delaminations growing from the tips of matrix cracks at the (01/02) interface. The laminate is referred to the global * Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 (20) 75945117; Fax: +44 (20) 75848120; Email: m.kashtalyan@ic.ac.uk © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
The strain energy release rate can be effectively calculated if instead of the damaged laminate one considers the 'equivalent' laminate, in which the damaged layer is replaced with an 'equivalent' homogeneous one with degraded stiffness properties, Zhang et al. [3]. The residual stiffness matrix [Q] of the 'equivalent' layer is a function of the relative delamination area Z)^ = ^^l/Sf^ and the relative crack density Dll"^ = h2/s^. The total strain energy stored in the laminate element with a finite gauge length L and width w is U = ^wL{s}^[A]{s} (2)
280
M. Kashtalyan, C. Soutis/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
(p
matrix cracks
delamir^ations
(^,)
(p
 i<t>2)
I
2/i,

^
Fig. 1. Front and edge views of a [(t)\/(t>2]s laminate subjected to inplane tensile loading and damaged by matrix cracks in the inner (02) ply and local delaminations growing from crack tips at the (0i/(/>2) interface. where [A] = X^,[2]/^/ is the residual extension stiffness matrix of the 'equivalent' laminate. Noting that the area of a single crack tip delamination is a^^ = 2i^w/\ sin021, Fig. 1, the total delamination area is equal to A ' ^ = la'^CL = 2LWD'^/\ sin021. Then the strain energy release rate, calculated from Eqs. (1) and (2), is Calculation of the residual inplane axial stiffness Q^x using Eq. (5) and transformation formulae [4] yields the strain energy release rate associated with local delamination in terms of IDEFs and Qjf ^ as
l(M)2
G"(£.
(3)
Under uniaxial strain, Eq. (3) simplifies to G^'is. I sin 021
2
5^22
+ 2e;^^ sin' 02 cos' 02 + Gl^^ sin^ 02 dA in) dD\^
\ 3 ^
7 9^;f
(6)
(4)
+ 4066'sin'02 cos'02
I sin 021
The residual inplane stiffness matrix [Q] of the 'equivalent' layer in the global coordinates is related to the residual inplane stiffness matrix [Q^^^] in the local coordinates by the wellknown transformation formulae, Jones [4]. The residual inplane stiffness matrix [Q^^^] of the 'equivalent' layer in the local coordinates is related to the inplane stiffness matrix [Q^^^] of the undamaged material via the introduced in Zhang et al. [5] Insitu Damage Effective Functions (IDEFs) Af/ = A^J'/iD';;', Djf), J = 2, 6 as ^Qi,)] = [g^^)]
3. Stiffness analysis Substituting the residual stiffness matrix [2^^^], Eq. (5), into the constitutive equations for the 'equivalent' layer in) /i(/^) {a^'^} = [Q^^^W^} gives the IDEFs A'^^, A'^^' :in terms of the lamina macrostresses {a^^^} and macrostrains {£^^^} as vl^^^  1 yi22 — 1
VM)
^ + a22 ^22
(7)
Qtl^'^
Q'^2^'^2
0 Q^JA
(5)
0
0
At' = 1 
r(2)
G^^^n?
M. Kashtalyan, C. Soutis /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics are
281
deiamination
(2)
/ v ^ A cosh A^ (4^^ '^z^) , r^ I coshXkiSf, if,)
k=l
•
10 (10)
(01)
M)
matrix crack
^ii
^M
Fig. 2. A quarter of the representative segment of the damaged laminate. To determine the IDEFs as functions of the damage parameters Z)^^ Z)Jf, micromechanical analysis of the damaged laminate has to be performed. Since cracks and delaminations are spaced uniformly, a representative segment of the laminate, containing one matrix crack and two crack tip delaminations, may be considered. The representative segment can be segregated into the laminated and delaminated portions. Due to the symmetry, the analysis can be confined to its quarter. Fig. 2. Let alj denote the inplane microstresses in the damaged layer (i.e. stresses averaged across the layer thickness). In the delaminated portion, we have 022^ = G[^ = 0. In the laminated portion, the inplane microstresses may be determined by means of a 2D shear lag analysis. The equilibrium equations in terms of microstresses take the form dx (n)
Here dx is the applied stress, X^ are the roots of the characteristic equation, and Akj and Cj are constants depending on the inplane stiffness properties of the intact material [Q^^^], shear lag parameters Ku, K22 and K12 and angles 01 and 02The lamina macrostresses {a^^^}, involved in Eq. (7), are obtained by averaging the microstresses, Eqs. (10), across the length of the representative segment as explicit functions of the relative crack density D^^ and relative deiamination area D^f
aj2

E ,,£r,^hhlzlSl^c,>^^>,,. J^m Xkh2
Uj
(11)
The macrostrains in the 'equivalent' layer [s^^^} are calculated from the constitutive equations for both layers and equations of the global equilibrium of the laminate, assuming {^(^>} = {8^'^} (12)
Thus, the lamina macrostresses, Eq. (11), and macrostrains, Eq. (12), are determined as explicit functions of the damage parameters D^^, Djf. Consequently, first partial derivatives of IDEFs, Eq. (7), involved into the expressions for the strain energy release rate, Eq. (6), can be calculated analytically.
^^
4. Results and discussion
1^=0,
J = h2
(8) As an example, predictions of strain energy release rate G^^ associated with matrix crack induced local delaminations in angleply [02/^21^ laminates are presented. Properties of the AS4/35061 graphite/epoxy material system used in calculations are as follows [1]: £"11 = 135 GPa, £22 = 11 GPa, Gn = 5.8 GPa, vn = 0.301, single ply thickness t = 0.124 mm. Fig. 3 shows the normalised strain energy release rate G^'^/sl^ for [O2/252], laminate, calculated from Eq. (7) and plotted as a function of relative deiamination area D^"^ for two matrix crack densities C = I crack/cm and C = 2 cracks/cm. These crack densities are equivalent to crack spacing of approximately 80 and 40 ply thicknesses (s = 40r, s = 20t). It may be seen that the present approach gives the strain energy release rate for local deiamination that depends both on the crack density and deiamination length. The value of G'^^/e^^ decreases with increasing deiamination length and increasing crack density. It is worth noting that closedform expression, suggested by O'Brien [2], gives strain energy release rate for
By averaging the outofplane constitutive equations, the interface shear stresses Xj in Eqs. (8) are expressed in terms of the inplane displacements u\j^ and u\f, averaged across the thickness of, respectively, (0i) and (^2) layers, so that Tj = Kjiiu (2) • u^^^) + Kj2(uf^
..f)
(9)
The shear lag parameters Ku, K22 and Ki2(= K21) are determined on the assumption that the outofplane shear stresses in the damaged layer and outer sublaminate vary linearly with x^^^. Substitution of Eqs. (9) into Eqs. (8) and subsequent differentiation with respect to ^2^^ lead to the equilibrium equations in terms of microstresses and microstrains (i.e. strains averaged across the layer thickness). To exclude the latter, constitutive equations for both layers, equations of the global equilibrium of the laminate as well as generalised plane strain conditions are employed. Finally, a system of coupled secondorder nonhomogeneous ordinary differential equations is obtained, solutions to which
282
M. Kashtalyan, C. Soutis/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics
1 crack/cm 2 cracks/cm
0.32 2 4 6 8 10 Relative delamination area, %
15
30
45
60
75
Ply orientation angle, degrees
Id I Fig. 4. Normalised strain energy release rate G'^/eJ^ associated with local delamination in a cracked [02/^2]5 AS4/35061 laminate as a function of ply orientation angle 0\ matrix crack density C = 1 crack/cm.
Fig. 3. Normalised strain energy release rate G'"^ /s^^ associated with local delamination in a cracked [02/252]5 AS4/35061 laminate as a function of relative delamination area D'^ . local delaminations in [O2/O2/  ^2]. laminates that does not account for matrix cracking and is independent from delamination length. Dependence of the normalised strain energy release rate G^"^ l^lx ^^ the ply orientation angle 0 is shown in Fig. 4 for two relative delamination areas: D^"^ = 0 (delamination onset) and D'"^ == 0.1. Matrix crack density in both cases is equal to 1 crack/cm. For the given layup [02/^2]^, normalised strain energy release rate reaches the maximum value at approximately 0 = 68°.
References [1] O'Brien TK, Hooper, SJ. Local delamination in laminates with angle ply matrix cracks: Part I Tension tests and stress analysis. NASA Technical Memorandum 104055, 1991. [2] O'Brien TK. Local delamination in laminates with angle ply matrix cracks: Part II Delamination fracture analysis and fatigue characterisation. NASA Technical Memorandum 104076, 1991. [3] Zhang J, Soutis C, Fan J. Strain energy release rate associated with local delamination in cracked composite laminates. Composites 1994;25(9):851862. [4] Jones RM. Mechanics of Composite Materials: 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis, 1999. [5] Zhang J, Fan J, Soutis C. Analysis of multiple matrix cracking in [ib^;;,/90„]5 composite laminates Part 1: Inplane stiffness properties. Composites 1992;23(5):291298.
Acknowledgements Financial support of this work by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC/GR/L51348) and Ministry of Defence, UK, is gratefully acknowledged.
283
Implicit integration for the solution of metal forming processes
Marek Kawka^'*, KlausJiirgen Bathe ^
""ADINA R&D, Inc., 71 Elton Avenue, Watertown, MA 02472, USA ^ Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Abstract The simulation of metal forming processes is performed using implicit integration analysis procedures. The approach is based on reliable and efficient solution procedures, uses the actual physical simulation parameters (that is, no adjustment of the tool velocity or work piece density is employed) and enables to achieve accurate results of the loading and springback processes in a single solution run. In the analyses performed, the solution times were not far from (and frequently less than) those required in explicit time integration analyses. Keywords: Metal forming; Implicit integration; Static and dynamic analysis; Springback
1. Introduction The finite element analysis of forming processes continues to represent significant challenges [1]. The problems are highly nonlinear, because, in general, large strains, contact and highly nonlinear material conditions are encountered. To simulate sheet metal forming processes, in addition, the metal piece to be formed is thin, which introduces also the difficulties encountered in the analysis of shells [2,3]. For the analysis of metal forming processes, effective finite element procedures are needed, and as more efficient procedures become available, increasingly more complex problems can be realistically simulated. At present, metal forming analyses are usually conducted using explicit analysis procedures. With an expHcit code, the solution is performed using an incremental dynamic analysis approach without forming a stiffness matrix and without iterating for equilibrium at the time step solutions. Hence, the solution effort per time step is relatively small. However, for the solution to be stable, the time step size has to be smaller than a critical time step, which requires many solution steps for the complete simulation. To obtain efficiency, usually finite elements are used that in a 'fast' dynamic analysis (such as a crash simulation) are tuned to obtain a good response prediction, but these ele* Corresponding author. Tel: \l (617) 9265199; Fax: +1 (617) 0238; Email: marek@adina.com © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.J. Bathe (Editor)
ments are unstable in a 'slow' dynamic or static analysis. Hence, for overall stability of the solution, the time step has to be sufficiently small and the inertia forces need to be sufficiently large. For an analysis demonstrating these requirements (see [4]). It has long been recognized that an implicit dynamic solution based on equilibrium iterations in each solution step and reliable 'nontuned' solution procedures would be preferable for many forming analyses provided the solution is computationally effective. The physical process is then more accurately modeled, in particular also the springback process in sheet metal forming problems. The objective of this paper is to present the effective implicit solution procedures available in ADINA to solve metal forming processes. We briefly summarize the solution approach and procedures used, and present some solution results.
2. Implicit integration solution The basic equations solved in an implicit integration are wellknown, see for example [2],
and
t+At^(i) ^ t+At^{il) _^ ^ u ( 0 (2)
284
M. Kawka, K.J. Bathe/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics • Effective finite elements; we use the u/p elements for fully 2D and 3D solid element models and the MITC4 shell element for shell models [2,5]. These elements have a strong physical and mathematical basis. • An efficient large strain inelastic analysis algorithm; we use the effectivestress function procedure [2,5]. • A robust and efficient contact solution technique; we use the constraintfunction method [2,5] • An efficient equation solver; we use a sparse solver developed specifically for the program ADINA; the solver includes parallelprocessing capabilities [5]. The individual advantages of the abovementioned procedures were discussed in earlier publications, see references, but of course, for an overall effective analysis, these procedures need to work efficiently together and this has been achieved in the ADINA program. 3. Sample solutions The objective in this section is to present the results of some sample analyses. We consider cases that indicate some important features of the analysis capabilities available. All results were obtained using the implicit solution approach described above. 3.1. 2D draw bending problem A very simple 2D draw bending benchmark problem from the Numisheet '93 Conference (see Fig. 1) tests the
initial blank
where M is the mass matrix, C is the damping matrix, K is the tangent stiffness matrix, R is the load vector, F is the nodal force vector corresponding to the internal element stresses, U is the displacement vector, the superscript r +Ar denotes the time at which the equations are formulated, and the superscripts (/) and (/ — 1) denote the current and previous iterations. An unconditionally stable implicit time integration scheme, for example, the trapezoidal rule, is used to discretize Eq. (1) in time. The equations given above do not explicitly show the contact conditions, but these can be imposed as described in [2]. We note that with Eqs. (1) and (2) iterations are performed until the equilibrium is satisfied at each time step (to a reasonable convergence tolerance). Of course, if a static analysis is pursued, simply the inertia and damping effects are not included in the solution. An effective implicit integration solution provides several advantages over explicit integration. Most importantly, there is no need to manipulate the metal forming technological parameters (such as the tool velocity or material density) in order to achieve the solution. Therefore, the calculated results are much more reliable than obtained in explicit integration. This situation is easily observed in the analyses of processes in which the springback must also be simulated: the implicit integration solution provides good results in a single run simulating the loading and springback conditions. An effective solution of Eq. (1), including contact conditions, must be based on reliable and efficient solution procedures. We list here briefly the techniques used in ADINA.
after stamping
after springback
110 105 ^ ® ® ^ 100 95 90 85 80 02
Fig. 1. Numisheet '93 draw bending test for high tensile steel and high blank holding force [6]. (a) Shape of metal sheet at subsequent stages of deformations, (b) Measurement of spring back angles 0i and 02. (c) Comparison of experimental data (circles) and simulation results (dashed lines).
M. Kawka, K.J. Bathe/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics ability of the software to predict accurately the springback after stamping [6]. Surprisingly, at the time of the Numisheet '93 Conference (of course, about eight years ago) most of the commercial software could not be used to produce reliable results. In our simulation, 105 ninenoded u/p elements were used (with only one layer through the thickness), and results very close to the experimental data were obtained (see Fig. 1; for brevity, the results for the high tensile steel are presented only). 5.2. Hemming problem The solution of this problem tests the stability and efficiency of contact algorithms. The simulation software has to deal with two types of contact conditions: the 'deformable body to deformable body' condition and the 'deformable body to rigid surface' condition. In the hemming problem (see Fig. 2), large strain conditions need also be modeled, and therefore the problem is an excellent test for finite element software. In our simulation, 90 ninenoded u/p elements were used for the outer panel and 54 elements were employed for the inner panel. A total of 1800 incremental solution steps were used in the simulation. Despite the large deformations in the bent section of the outer panel (up to 100% strains were measured) and the continuously changing contact conditions between the inner and outer panels, excellent convergence with an average of only four iterations per step in the incremental solution was observed. 3.3. Deep drawing of an oil pan This industrial problem of a deep drawing of an oil pan [7] requires a powerful simulation code and versatile shell elements able to deal with the complex deformation path. In our simulation 16,922 MITC4 shell elements were used to represent the metal sheet and 16,500 rigid elements were employed to define the tool surfaces. The simulation was performed on a UNIX workstation using parallelprocessing, a HPJ5000 workstation was employed. The results of the simulation compare very well with experimental measurements (see Fig. 3).
285
Panel outer inner
Material mild steel, 0.8 mm high strength steel, 0.8 mm
Elements 90 u/p 54 u/p
i j . I j,j,„i:i "ij„ I, i'''i:jj...iJi..jjj..:i'''i:..i:..iJ.:i:''r:i:::i:ri::n'"i::i'''iTTT'i,i 11 ri'i 11 \i
I I I I I I I I I I .1
Fig. 2. Plane strain deformation of outer and inner panels during successive stages of hemming process, (a) Prehemming, outer panel is bent 90°. (be) Hemming, outer and inner panels are attached.
References [1] Numisheet '99. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Workshop, Besan9on, France, September 1317, 1999. [2] Bathe KJ. Finite Element Procedures. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliff, NJ, 1996. [3] Chapelle D, Bathe KJ. Fundamental considerations for the finite element analysis of shell structures. Comput Struct 1998;66(l):1936. [4] Bathe KJ, Guillermin O, Walczak J, Chen HY. Advances in nonlinear finite element analysis of automobiles. Comput Struct 1997;64(5/6):881891. [5] ADINA R&D. Theory and Modeling Guide, Report No. ARD0007, Watertown, MA, 2000.
4. Conclusions The objective of this paper was to briefly present some solution capabilities for the simulation of metal forming processes. The implicit dynamic (including static) analysis capabilities developed in ADINA for metal forming processes and specifically sheet metal forming processes were summarized and some solution results given. The procedures are computationally effective when compared to explicit techniques now in wide use and allow the more realistic modeling of many metal forming processes.
J. . BadenBaden. 1993. Bathe/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Assessment line AB Fig. Isehara. August 31September 2. Deep drawing of an oil pan [7]. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference and Workshop. K. Proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop. Japan. (a) Tool geometry: punch.286 M. [6] Numisheet '93. and comparison of experimental data and simulation results for various commercial finite element codes. 1994. [7] Metal Forming Process Simulation in Industry. Kawka. September 2830. 3. (c) Definition of assessment line AB. (b) Shape after deformation (simulation results) and initial flat blank. Germany. blank holder and die.
287 Computation of stress time history using FEM and flexible multibody dynamics H. utilizing flexible dynamic analysis connected with the superelement method. A hybrid method that employs stress superposition as a function of constraint loads and component accelerations that are predicted by flexible body dynamic simulations is presented. Yim'''*. Dynamic stress analysis In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of conventional methods for stress recovery. Korea ^Division of Mechanical. Korea Abstract Dynamic stress time history calculation deals with spatial. Component mode. Fatigue life prediction 1. Inha University.S. Dynamic stress (7(0 with the assumption of infinitesimal elastic deformation can be written y ^ (sikPikiO + ^ckPckiO) . Kim^ HJ. Kookmin University. Korea ^ Graduate School of Automotive Engineering. The method efficiently recovers the dynamic stress time histories by applying the principle of linear superposition of the mode acceleration method or static correction method.B.kookmin. Kyounggi. the hybrid superposition method [2] is developed with the use of the superelement method. Incheon. Aerospace and Automotive Engineering.2]. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.ac. Keywords: Dynamic stress. This motivates an efficient method. it is apparent that the large model is often inefficient for flexible body dynamic analysis and stress time history calculation. Tel. Fax: ^82 (2) 9104839. 2. The hybrid method is defined as a computational dynamic stress analysis method that employs stress superposition as a function of constraint forces and component accelerations that are predicted in terms of the assumed deformation modes from flexible multibody dynamic analysis.J. constrained mechanical systems that undergo nonsteady gross motion and small elastic deformation. the hybrid superposition method obtained from the mode acceleration method is briefly described. Email: hjyim@kmu. C. computational methods for dynamic stress time history have been developed to speed design cycle [1. CraigChang modes. and the 'Flexible Multibody Dynamic Simulation and Quasistatic Method' are combined to form a hybrid method that improves the accuracy of dynamic stress prediction. Flexible multibody dynamics. A numerical example is given for stress time history evaluation of the vehicle structural component. or CraigBampton modes may be used. The reduced model may have modal and static characteristics correlated with that of the original model. the deformation modes for the reduced model of the structural component are used to implement the hybrid method. In this paper.kr © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. Bathe (Editor) technique. Deformation modes such as Ritz modes. All rights reserved. The two conventional methods — 'Modal Stress Superposition Method'. Seoul. In the case of using the finite element model of a largescaled structural component. Hyundai Motor Company. Introduction Recently.: h82 (2) 9104688. Mode superposition.Y] ( — ^ I k=l ^nqnit) E4 Nk SKmqKmit) (1) . By use of the superelement method connected with the component mode synthesis * Corresponding author. Kim'^ ^ Commercial Vehicle Test and Research Team.
3 ) .and Sck (k = 1 . . stress time history is obtained for the prototype vehicle. respectively. . 6) are static stress coefficients that are the contribution to the stress vector cr due to a unity of psi{t). PGjiO.S.Nh). where Ns and Nk are the number of components of surface loads and vibration modes. respectively. Using the displacement information. qKiiO and qKmit) are the velocity of /th modal coordinates and acceleration of mth modal coordinates. . . (/ = 1 . which is shown in Fig. 7 th component of gravity force. which are obtained from FE static stress analysis. Conceptual procedure and data flow. kih component of D'Alembert inertia and Coriolis force. . . Nk) are the modal stress coefficients due to a unit displacement of modal coordinates qKi(t) or qKmit). . psi(t). 1. FE model for the example. 2. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Finite Element Model of si flexible body Reduced Model Detail Model Finite Element Eigenvalue Analysis Finite Element Static Analys is Component Mode Synthesis Flexible Multibody Dynamic Analysis Time histories of Modal coordinates. . . PGjiO. PikiO and pckiO are /th component of surface force. . . . In this paper. On the other hand. SGJ U = 1 . . Dynamic loads and Gross body motion Vibration normal modes Static correction modes Modal stress coefficients Static stress coefficients Superposition I Dynamic Stress Time History Faligue Life Fig. such as the Belgian mode. . . . respectively. Dynamic loads and modal coordinates are timedependent terms. and ^KI and COKI (/ or m = l . Nk) are the modal damping factor and the natural frequency. S5. which are obtained from flexible multibody dynamic simulation. flexible multibody dynamic Fig. Static stress coefficients and modal stress coefficients are timeindependent terms. 2. Su. Kim et al. . . 3 shows the displacement time histories that were measured from the durability test of the Belgian road. Fig. .288 H. 1 shows the conceptual data flow for the proposed method. . PI kit) and pckiO. Numerical example and conclusions The durability of a prototype vehicle has been traditionally estimated in accelerated test environments. respectively. Fig. . respectively. 3. SKI and SKm Q and m = 1 .
1999. 4. [2] Kim HS. The University of Inha. Thesis.D. simulation for the prototype vehicle is implemented and stress time history is obtained as in Fig. An efficient and accurate dynamic stress computation by flexible multibody dynamic system simulation and reanalysis.0 60.0321 e Fig.DAe 0. 4. Kim et al. KSME Int J 1997.ll(4):386396. . 40. References [1] Ryu JH. Accuracy of the stress time history has been validated in the durability evaluation for the vehicle with the test result. Korea.DAC 0.Q320Z 289 Magnitude(m) CH1_RS_DIS_FIL DAC 0.H. 3.S.03«»© Magnitude(rn) CH3 RS DIS FIL DAC 0 .03©32 0.03S00 0. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics O. Displacement time histories.03©3« Magnltude(m) CH2_RS_DIS_FIL. Ph. Yim HJ. 0 3 0 0 0 Magnitude(m) CH4 RS_DIS_FIL. Kim HS.0 Time (sec) Fig. Dynamic stress time history at the roof measured at the axle spindle for the Belgian mode. Dynamic Stress Analysis of a Flexible Body in Multibody System for Fatigue Life Prediction.
Kong.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Environmental. 2. Structures. Email: frangopo@colorado. Probabilistic models are proposed to take into account the uncertainties involved in this prediction. Deterioration 1. CO 803090428. Probabilistic models The probabilistic models developed originated as a result of research related to bridge reliabilitybased maintenance analysis. Frangopol*. and maintenance [36]. Probabilistic models are proposed to take into account the uncertainties involved in this prediction.290 Probabilistic models for predicting the failure time of deteriorating structural systems Jung S. Reliability. The time to failure is defined as the time at which the reliability of the system downcrosses a prescribed target reliability level. and Architectural Engineering University of Colorado. these models may be appHed to failure time prediction of any deteriorating structural system or group of similar structures.and postprocessing capabilities is introduced. Bathe (Editor) oped for probabilistic modeling of structural systems with pre. The time to failure is defined as the time at which the reliability of the system downcrosses a prescribed target reliability level. Maintenance. Fig. This paper presents some of the work that has been performed on the probabilistic models used to predict the time to failure of deteriorating structural systems considering both no maintenance and maintenance options. Implementation of the proposed models in computer programs is discussed. Fax: Hi (303) 4927317. different methods may be used in analysis. In order to consider the lifetime performance of an individual structure or a group of similar structures. Dan M. Implementation of the proposed models in computer programs is discussed.e. initial rehability index).and postprocessing phases of the probabilistic model for the simulation of failure time of deteriorating systems without { Po for 0 < r < ti . Ferhat Akgul. essential and preventive maintenances are the most fundamental ones [8. A computer program being developed for probabilistic modeling of structural systems with pre. Tel. the annual rate of reliability loss.and postprocessing capabilities is introduced. All rights reserved. Introduction In modem management of deteriorating structural systems. However. The timevariant reliability index profile function P(t) of a system is modeled as follows: (1) Poitti)a for t > ti where ^o.J. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. «' and ti are random variables representing the reliability index of the structural system or group of similar structural systems as constructed (i. (A)S(Oioss/year). The use of reliability based methods in predicting the lifetime performance of deteriorating structures is generally recognized [7].e. 1 shows the program implementation and pre. and the time [i. age (years)] at which deterioration is expected to start. These interventions can be classified into several types. design. Boulder. The type of maintenance interventions can have a significant effect on the lifetime performance of deteriorating structural systems. respectively. lifetime system performance has to be considered [13]. USA Abstract This paper presents some of the work that has been performed on the probabiUstic models used to predict the time to failure of deteriorating structural systems considering both no maintenance and maintenance options.: +1 (303) 4927165. A computer program being devel* Corresponding author.9]. Yunping Xi Department of Civil.. however.. The model for no maintenance option uses a bilinear function for the timevariant reliability index profile of the deteriorating system. Keywords: Probability.
^R. fpR. Consider the event that.5 YRS A 0. h.020 •^ I M LI I U ». = 4.Similar to the earlier case.. 2. based on a given target value target.4 YRS P.Time to failure.rge. y^target. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 291 U. maintenance. The probability density functions (PDFs) of the three basic input variables are shown. Kong et al. the PDF of the failure time. ^R. and improvement in reliability index (if any) immediately after the application of preventive maintenance y.9 YRS K.J. annual reliability loss during preventive maintenance effect 0. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 TIME (YRS) f iia Function Selection Routine i Fig.i h^ 0. ^PD. ie. as follows: the time of first application of preventive maintenance fpi. MEAN = 51. after preventive maintenance is applied.010 < o C D C Q \ /' " ' ^ " " ^... at a specified time t. 50 100 TIME (YRS) ISO cc CL Function Selection Routine Fig.and postprocessing phases of the probabilistic model for the simulation of failure time of deteriorating systems with maintenance. . First T i m e to Failure) Program Program O u.4 YRS W u_ O m • W ^ Q O 0. 1. fp. J ^\^ J \ 9 0.6 Monte Carlo Simulation Routine I t^= ! C O LU z < UJ LL Q o >. = 4. The assumed PDFs of y^o.The probability of this event P{P(t) < Aarget) cau bc cvaluatcd using Monte Carlo simulation or it can be approximated using the assumption that the distribution of ^(t) is normal. time of reapplication of preventive maintenance fp. Also shown is the first time to failure (also referred as the rehabilitation time (rate)). fpi. If the normal distribution 1^1^ First Time to Failure Program MEAN = 82. Computer implementation of the probabilistic model for the simulation of failure time of deteriorating systems without maintenance.015 STD. 2.DEV = 43. is the time at which the reliability index starts falling below the target reliability index. / \ STD. This is the time at which reliability index starts falling below the target reliability index. duration of preventive maintenance effect on reliability /pD. yStargetThe second option includes preventive maintenances performed during the lifetime of the deteriorating structural system or group of similar structures. is displayed. This figure also shows the program implementation and pre.UCJU LU hhQC U. based on a given target value Aarget. P{t) < target.005 Monte Carlo Simulation Routine / J .S. The maintenance action is referred as preventive maintenance due to the fact that it is applied during the period at which ^{t) > target.. 0. DEV = 26. This option includes five additional basic random variables in addition to the three random variables described earlier. the reliability index of the system ^{t) is less than the target reliability index y3target. oi.010 0. and y are shown in Fig. Computer implementation of the probabilistic model for the simulation of failure time of deteriorating systems with maintenance.6 .
: l i ^ (uniform ' ^ j 0 . /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics approximation is used. 3.0 1 . . p{t) is equated to a multilinear equation. Kong et al. and 0 ( ) are the mean value of ^(0.^ifift Pit). main descriptors.uiu..0  120 5. to obtain the capability for performing quick and reliable computations. a program has been developed to perform the above mentioned tasks in a graphical user interface platform.and postprocessing phases. and the standard normal probability. p{t) is equated to the function shown in Eq. The program follows the same algorithm except the Fig.ifSI.J' UJi.^) «it«&4Lognormal3 \ . 1 1o"l 40. the necessary information related to the basic random variables such as probabilistic distributions.10 • ^:. The program loops over time at specified intervals and computes the probability distribution of ^(r) at each time interval. simulation and normal approximation are used in the computation of the first time to failure of deteriorating structural systems with or without maintenance.. The program guides the user through successive input screens to ease the pre. The main program interacts with a separate routine that performs the Monte Carlo simulation for function calls are made to five additional timevariant functions of random variables at different points in time within the lifetime of the deteriorating structural system. this probability is: .'. standard deviation of jS(r). . I J JLognormagj  7. 4.0 0 2 0  5ao 1 1 "M I I ""I 0. The algorithm used for the preventive maintenance case has the same structure as that used for the no maintenance case. respectively. Fig. A sample preprocessing input screen. . to establish integration and linkage between separate reliability software applications. etc. 3 shows a sample preprocessing input screen and Fig. Computer implementation As shown in Fig. 3.00 1 0. a[y6(0].'•/] .S. Both. (1). 1. Fig.50  15.'. The probability distribution of ^(r) is simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. 4 displays the output through the postprocessor.(„„<^. Postprocessing output screen..10 1 1 j 1 where E[p{t)]. •^jgixi Efe fyp^fm jjgwiKw. are entered into the program at the initial stage.^?. To accelerate the research in reliability based maintenance studies.)=*(^=^. and last but not least. For no maintenance case.292 J.
In: Das PC. Department of Civil Engineering. University of Colorado. 210236. [5] Enright MP. London: Thomas Telford. 293 Acknowledgements The partial financial support of the U. The opinions and conclusions presented in this paper are those of the writers and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring organizations. The probabilistic modeling described can be adopted for reliabilitybased management of structural systems. pp. CMS9872379. Frangopol DM. 1997. 1999. pp. [3] Wen YK. Reliability and Optimization of Structural Systems. Corotis RB. Target reliability for structural design based on minimum expected lifecycle cost. De Leon D. Much work still remains to be done in this area but the procedure provides a first step toward developing such management systems. New York: Pergamon. CMS9522166. [9] Frangopol DM. Reston. Ph. 7183. in progress.8(4):299302. CO.S. J Struct Eng 2000. Rackwitz R (Eds). pp. Struct Safety 1999. [4] Estes AC. pp. 1999. Kong et al. In: Frangopol DM. [7] Das PC. Nowak AS (Eds).J. Design based on minimum expected lifecycle cost. Frangopol DM. 1999. Cheng FY (Eds). Struct Eng Int 1998. Current and Future Trends in Bridge Design.S. [6] Kong JS. New developments in bridge management methodology. Boulder. Frangopol DM. Advances in Structural Optimization. and of the U.125(7):766775. Vassie P. and CMS9912525. [8] Wallbank EJ. 1997. Kang YJ. Management of Highway Structures. Construction. Repair optimization of highway bridges using a system reliability approach. London: Thomas Telford. References [1] Frangopol DM. Das P C Management of bridge stocks based on future reUability and maintenance costs. 2000. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 4. Bridge Safety and Reliability. Tailor P. In: Frangopol DM (Ed). Reliabilitybased condition assessment of deteriorating reinforced concrete bridges considering load redistribution. Lifecycle cost analysis for bridges. In: Das PC (Ed). 163172. Strategic planning of future maintenance needs.21(2):159195.D. Conclusions This paper proposes a reliabilityoriented simulationbased modeling for failure time prediction of deteriorating structural systems or groups of similar structures with or without maintenance.K. Thesis. National Science Foundation through grants CMS9506435. New York: ASCE. 192203. Highways Agency is gratefully acknowledged. and Maintenance. Optimum Planning for Maintaining Reliability of Deteriorating Structures. pp. . 4558. [2] Ang AHS. VA: ASCE. In: Frangopol DM.
H. The equations of motion for * Corresponding author. (3) where /f^^ and f^^ are the external and internal nodal forces. P. P. nonlinear material models. and complex interaction of components in contact. USA Abstract PRESTO is a threedimensional transient dynamics code with a versatile element library. Box 5800. has been designed to provide a computational tool to solve such problems. The solution to Eq. NM 871850847.gov ^ Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation. Fax: \\ (505) 8449297. All rights reserved. = (/f^^ . NM 871850819. u is the acceleration of the material point. Albuquerque. large deformation. The code is implemented within the SIERRA framework [1]. Problems of interest often include significant nonlinear behavior such as complicated material response. a Lockheed Martin Company.J.R. For the discretized set of equations. PRESTO. Brown' " Sandia National Laboratories ^ Computational Solid Mechanics and Structural Dynamics. Scalable contact 1. (1) must satisfy u = d(t) on the boundary Su where kinematic boundary conditions are prescribed and T • n = s(t) onthe boundary Sj where the traction boundary conditions are applied.O. Porter % W. and scalable contact. for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DEAC0494AL85000.(Wr  Wr+Arnew)/(^^new) (A^old + A^new)/2 (4) . and / g is a specific (force per unit mass) body force vector.O. respectively.L.S. Material Mechanics. Extensive capabilities have already been added to PRESTO and more are forthcoming. Computational Physics Research and Development. Introduction Resolving the effect of dynamic loading events on engineering components represents a vital part of modem design. With the central difference method as implemented in PRESTO. the jump conditions at the contact discontinuities must approximately satisfy (T+{T)n=0 (2) 2. Parallel computing.294 PRESTO: impact dynamics with scalable contact using the SIERRA framework J. a threedimensional transient dynamics code. Box 5800. and M is the nodal point lumped mass. which provides a data management framework in a parallel computing environment that allows addition of capabilities in a modular fashion. Computational procedures PRESTO discretizes the equations of motion for a body and solves the resulting system of equations using a central difference time integrator [2]. large deformation capabiUties. which provides support for massively parallel computation and a modular approach to adding new capabilities. Gullerud% V. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.: \l (505) 8448624. the quantity ii at any time t is computed with ii. Tel.M. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K./r^)/M. For surfaces 5c in contact. USA ^ Sandia National Laboratories.)/(Afold) . Albuquerque. Scherzinger\ K. Box 5800. the body are S/Tpu + pf^=0 (1) where T is the 'true' stress in the deformed configuration. Albuquerque. NM 871850847.O. the displacements u are related to the accelerations by {UtArpid • M. P. p is the mass density per unit volume. Keywords: Transient dynamics. Bathe (Editor) where the superscripts h and — denote different sides of the contact surface. Email: jrkoter@sandia. A. It is built upon the SIERRA framework. USA ^ Sandia National Laboratories. Koteras^'*.
W. Velocities are computed at times t . implementation of the boundary conditions has been an easy process even for the specialized conditions. as well as fully integrated formulations. . All of the current elements have both a midpointincremental and strongly objective formulation to compute strain rates. etc. in which known quantities at time t are stored as the 'old' state and quantities obtained by projecting ahead A^new to time t H. and periodic boundary conditions. elasticplastic model with hardening). has been used as a basis for ACME. An analysis using a TEMPO procedure can use ADAGIO to compute prestress conditions for a part. Included in the boundary condition set are some specialized boundary conditions such as silent boundary. as well as other values. which provides a uniform approach to handling both equation of state models and some of the more typical engineering models (e. The processing of elements occurs within element mechanics. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics and the velocities u are related to the displacements u by {Ut . executing the region(s). the PRESTO region is nested within a procedure mechanics. cavity expansion. This module is responsible for the solution of the discretized equations of motion for a single time increment. Koteras et al. Much of the work used to develop scalable. The procedure is also responsible for updating state variables after executing the region(s). Contact detection and enforcement are also part of the region mechanics. beam and spring elements. 1. by copying all data of state 'new' to state 'old'. a TEMPO procedure has also been created which couples PRESTO with the quasistatic structural code ADAGIO [7].A^new are stored as the 'new' state. A procedure mechanics. Smallstrain formulations for the material models can then be used within a large deformation environment. Currently. Within c I 2000 w U o '% 1000 H § 1500 2000 elements per processor w 500 • • 0 100 1000 Number of Processors Fig. This convention makes it easy to update velocities and displacements. This material library will be expanded to meet demands from various analyses. 3. Material models are mechanics which nest inside the elements.and eightnode tetrahedral elements. The SIERRA framework allows for the straightforward implementation of most elements. The PRESTO procedure provides analyses which only include transient dynamic response. Mechanics can be nested inside each other to create a rational structure for computation.g. A large number of kinematic and traction boundary conditions have already been implemented in PRESTO. The core level of PRESTO is the region mechanics. PRESTO accesses ACME through a separate SIERRA interface which maps data structures in the SIERRA framework to the ACME library and back again. the SIERRA framework.R. and current plans for PRESTO include wedge. is responsible for advancing time. The current element library includes an underintegrated eightnode hexahedral element. six material models have been implemented. Scaling for increasing mesh size.J. The region contains a number of nested mechanics which conduct computations for elements. PRESTO uses the ACME (Algorithms for Contact in a Multiphysics Environment) package [5]. Boundary conditions also exist as mechanics nested within the region. Element mechanics are responsible for computing the response of a set of elements by taking the corresponding nodal displacements and returning nodal forces. parallel contact in the explicit dynamics code PR0NT03D [6]. boundary conditions. The current implementation contains a PRESTO procedure which only holds one PRESTO region. which may contain multiple regions for a multiphysics coupling. to the new state.. which are nested inside the region as needed. The PRESTO region incorporates a two state architecture. The isolation of code pieces into mechanics permits dynamic addition or removal of features as needed in an analysis._A. and then pass the prestress data as initial conditions into PRESTO. for both contact detection and enforcement. four. To drive the solution of a problem over time. Code structure Codes which use the SIERRA framework are organized into a series of modules called 'mechanics'. and underintegrated fournode KeyHoff shell and membrane elements [4]. and transferring data between regions as needed. However. To provide objective stresses/strains under large deformation. The SIERRA framework provides extensive capabilities for transferring data between regions.^jJ/(A^old) + iUt• Ut)/(Atnc^) 295 (5) ^2500 where At in general denotes a time step increment. and are stored in states old and new. the element formulations utilize polar decompositions of the current deformation gradient to evaluate the material models in an unrotated configuration. respectively. which is equivalent to the GreenNagdhi stress rate [3].At^x^/l and t + Arnew/2. All of the material models return a sound speed for each element.
5. hadaptivity. Cambridge. MA. Flanagan DP PR0NT03D: A ThreeDimensional Transient Dynamics Program. In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics.20(8):725737. [5] Brown KH. 2001. Results for increasing mesh size and fixed mesh size scalability are shown in Figs. Koteras et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics ized functions — can be added to PRESTO in a modular manner. Heinstein MW. Adagio: nonlinear quasistatic structural response using the SIERRA framework. In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1995. Jones RE. 4. the same time step. [3] Johnson GC. Stewart JR. [4] Key SW. June 1215. Koteras JR.• ASCI Red Times . Cambridge. material models.124(l2):3347. June 1215. SIERRA: a software environment for developing complex multiphysics applications. models with different number of elements are created with the same element size. This should make code maintenance easier. and it should be able to incorporate new capabilities in a timely manner when the need arises. MA.R. An impact load (a time varying pressure load) is applied to one end of a finite length. MA. 2001. 1976. NM: Sandia National Laboratories. Summers RM. Hoff CC. 1989. 100 1000 10000 Number of Processors Fig. • . An improved constant membrane and bending stress shell element for explicit transient dynamics. Gullerud AS. [6] Taylor LM. respectively. ACME: a parallel library of algorithms for contact in a multiphysics environment. The largest model in the studies had four million elements. [2] Bathe KJ.024 million elements References [1] Edwards HC. New Jersey: PrenticeHall. Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis. Future development Experience to date indicates that new capabilities — elements.Perfect SpeedUp 10000 ^ '% 1. Int J Solids Struct 1984. 2. [7] Mitchell JA. Analytic results for this problem can be obtained from simple onedimensional wave propagation problems. thin walled tube. Example problem The scalability of PRESTO on a massively parallel machine has been studied by using a simple impact problem. and a number of new elements and material models. Scherzinger WM. Glass MW. Future developments include the addition of crack growth capabilities. Albuquerque. special . 1 and 2. Gullerud AS. The results of this study show excellent scalability in PRESTO. Porter VL.. 2048 processors were used in this analysis. Cambridge. hence. By modeling sectors of various sizes. 2001. Scaling for fixed mesh size. June 1215. In: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics. boundary conditions. On the analysis of rotation and stress rate in deforming bodies.296 100000 J. Bammann DJ. and.
and 0^ denotes the transverse coordinate. described in 3dimensional representation by a set of convected curvilinear coordinates 0 ' . In (1).de © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. Tel. / = 0 . all valid for / = 0. . 3. But engineering praxis favors — as far as possible — reduced dimensional representations. Bathe (Editor) is selected. Herein 0". Email: w. multiplied by an arbitrary but complete set of scalar functions O.00 [3]: Q{Q(p'^^=0 for / = 0.297 Layered higher order concepts for Dadaptivity in shell theory Wilfried B. Such models admit the simulation of rather arbitrary shell responses including all kinds of perturbations like thickness jumps. Daniel Jun Institute for Statics and Dynamics. describe parameter lines of the later reference surface of the shell. Ruhr University Bochum. . the socalled rateofenergy equation Du* denotes the velocity field of the shell surfaces.b. Since modem surfacelike structures often have a layered structure or are computed — in case of inelastic materials — by use of such an idealization. based on the reference surface 0^ = 0. (3) . (50 (2) V (1) valid for the complete shell continuum at time r. material cracking and crushing as well as internal damage phenomena. By such Fourierintegraltransformation of the original conservation of energy statement (1).. Spatial invariance requirements in connection again with a localization concept of the transformed weak statements finally lead to infinite sets of interior dynamic equations.. Kratzig *. Basic transformations The derivations thus will start from an arbitrary 3dimensional body in the E3. and t* the vector field of tractions on the * Corresponding author. . In detail. always related to the reference surface [1. )(:^ = 0 for / = 1.. 0 < w < oo). . these infinite sets of equations are the mass conservation (3). f* abbreviates the vector field of body forces per unit mass in dV. this transformation will be combined with a layered representation.J.oo. Universitdtsstr 150. some set of symmetry conditions (5) and finally the transformed residual energy statements (6). Keywords: Higherorder shell theory. / = 1.2. dS is its free surface element. the following abbreviations are used: dV represents a material volume element of the continuum considered. In order to transform the basic statement (1) into that one of a multidirector continuum (d„. We start with a global statement of energy conservation. Next. . Laminated shells. still representing as a whole the original continuum in its multidirector representation. sets of central moments (0 < n < oo) of all force variables are formed.kraetzig@sd. 44780 Bochum. 1. and for the sake of easier error control. and then transformed into the weak integral form again. ^ = 0. All rights reserved. Fax: +49 (234) 3214149.ruhrumbochum.2. 1 . the set of equations of motions (4). The present paper will systematically transform the set of basic mechanical conditions of a 3dimensional soHd of arbitrary material into corresponding 2dimensional sets of socalled higher order shell equations. v* shell continuum.2.. the special choice of 0 = 0^.and linelike geometries. mainly in order to describe deformation processes in its most natural way by surface. a = 1. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.2]. it is localized by assumption of integrand continuity.2.: 449 (234) 3229064. 3Dadaptivity 1. and U* the internal energy density per unit mass Q*. Germany Abstract Problems of solid mechanics are basically formulated in tensor notation in the 3dimensional Euclidean space.
(4) (5) As remarked earlier. We again remind the reader that also the kinematic relations have to be decomposed in the same manner. (6) as well as all moments of the sets of internal as well as external force variables: P^ = / a . k^ are moments of the mass distribution in thickness direction. Component decomposition with respect to the actual reference surface Up to this point the question treated is of purely physical nature.5]. in the case of independence of Ui with 5parameter theories (woi. (7) (8) m'"3 L + m'^^Kp Im'' n=l. 3). Ui generally is assumed as a field of surface vectors tangential to the reference surface. However. the corresponding component forms (9) and (10) of the symmetry conditions and again the set of energy expressions (11). since the transverse strains and the transverse shear strains are approximated only by constant terms. We do not intend to elaborate in detail on this classical context. a series of transformations skipped here for reasons of shortness. To decouple physics from all kinematic considerations. Wll. W03. If by application of the KirchhoffLove hypothesis Ui depends on UQ. the derived equations are applicable for the analysis of isotropic. m^". / = 1.0. also the kinematic equations of the original 3d continuum have to be transformed likewise into infinite 2dimensional sets of equations.) . (7' represents moments of the internal energy. and the v„ abbreviate terms in the Fourier series of the velocity field. . This starting point delivers an intrinsic rateformulation of the shell equations.B. valid for arbitrary.1 = 0. a step which not will be repeated here. Uo and Ui respectively: U* = Uo + 0Ui (14) 3^^_/^/^+^^^0. For the latter purpose. 2. +p^ = 0. oo (10) Uo always represents a 3dimensional vector field (UQI . a^^ on all layer boundaries. J^oi.. will describe the classical shell theory. m^ and p^ are moments of the inplane stresses.2 CX) (1=0. ^03). Ui possess 3 components each. In this context. 2. .a — ^nia^ > (12) QU^ Y^(n m'+" . 5). In its present form. In correspondence to the dynamic conditions (4. W13). v„ + m'+"'^ • v. as of the actual reference surface at time t. the derived equations can be reduced to low order classical shell theory and then applied to a single layer.n = 1. Classical shell theories and corresponding sandwich concepts The 0th and 1st order variables and equations Q. they form a comprehensive linear set. the energy conservation has been used in the form of the rateofwork statement. in detail the directors and their derivatives: d « — "Ai/3 5 ^n. all vector and tensor fields are decomposed with respect to the basis of the actual reference surface at time f.7].„) = 0. and rather point the interested reader to a variety of adequate literature [4. Exceptionally both vector fields Uo. the displacement field u* generally will be represented by 2 vector fields on the reference surface. wii. Thus the derived equations are completely free of all kinematic transformations. we end up with 3parameter shell theories (MQI. D. Jun/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics m^'^U/m'+p^=0. which can be gained by mapping of these complete sets on a Cosserat surface.^«^i 3. such models are principally unable to correctly map arbitrary 3dimensional responses even in a very dense package. In detail we find the following vectordecomposed sets of equations: The equations of motion (7) and (8) in the directions of the base vectors a^. W02. W12).298 W. in which all tensor components of an arbitrarily deformed state are — as a next step — decomposed with respect to the base vectors of this actual state. + m^+"'' x d„. even large deformation processes.. Uu. since such classical theories are at best capable to achieve . (13) In these equations. anisotropic and layered shells of elastic or inelastic material behavior. "03. Y^ {n m'+" X d. This consequently leads to discontinuities of the stress fields a"^. Krdtzig. Such classical shell theories are widely used in order to derive models for laminated shell structures in layered formulation [6. where the order of the moments is given by the letter /. then 6parameter theories appear (MOI » "02.2) of the above given infinite sets of variables and equations. the transverse stresses and the loading variables. or remained as higher order theories to approximate a package of layers.
0 kN/m2 E = lO^kN/m^ V = 0.3^^1a_^^U3^a which have been considered already in the above given equations of motion. for layered shell theories these selfequilibrating states play an important role in a more correct modeling of response properties. the rate of energy expression (11) reads as follows: QU' •Vo . D.^2m''^p''=0. Numerical example 5.:.0 m hi = h2 = 10. Fig. all their classical variables and equations describe loadinduced states of stresses and deformations. Obviously and as will be shown in detail in the conference lecture. In these 9 conditions (a = 1. 1st and 2nd moments: (16) (17) (18) (19) ^2(a^) All further equations and functionals of this (higher order) quadratic shell theory will be presented in the conference lecture. the transverse moment vector.. Higher order shell theories and corresponding sandwich theories For this purpose. at least quadratic terms have to be considered in the displacement field representation for u*.1.0 = m'"^ + m ^1«/ 2(aA)7^ ^2(a^)^^2a^^^2(a^)^ ^Uc. The cylindrical shell has been analysed with an automatic adaptive computation procedure using an error n'^"^^b. Jun/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics Cocontinuity for their stress fields a^^. the moment tensor.0(a. that means classical shell mechanics.W.n = 2) represent selfequilibrating states of stresses and deformations as constraints to classical shell theory.B. Tensioned cylindrical shell with geometrical discontinuity. we now use a quadratic displacement field approximation as follows: : Uo + 0 U i + 0 ^ U 2 . we now evaluate from equations (7) and (8) the pertinent set of equations of motion with 0th. Krdtzig. 4. 1 shows the dimensions and loading as well as the material parameters. On the other hand and beyond classical shell theory. (15) In order to derive the corresponding higher order shell theory from the basic general sets (7) to (11) of the multidirector continuum. 1.S AaP ^2aP m^^ the membrane stress resultant tensor. 1). The symmetry conditions (9) and (10) deliver the following results: n^(^)=m'"^^m'^'bl •A(a^) _ (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) R^ = R2 = 5.0 m ti = 0. the transverse normal force. compared to packages of classical shell models. 299 Finally. Tensioned cylindrical shell with discontinuity This example deals with a thin tensioned cylindrical shell with a geometrical thickness discontinuity. From the point of view of Cosserat surface mechanics.8) oiiaf}) + m^^'^dia + m^^dis + m^''^ki^ai '^ (27) + m'''\2d2a + i i s J + 2m^^ 4 + m'^^^^X2^. In this context we are able to draw an interesting comparison to classical shell theories {l. the bimoment tensor. in order to overcome its deficiencies and to match 3dimensional mechanical processes with Qcontinuity also in 3dimensional direction. l^2m'^' + p^^=0. the transverse shear stress resultant vector. all sets of higher order variables and equations (l.2 m q = 1. In order to cure these deficiencies. as far as loads on and deformations of a surface are concerned. the transverse normal moment. Fig. .1 m t2 = 0. 2) we find the following force variables of this theory: ^0«. (20) (21) 5.n = 0. .
Jun/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2.4101 243240 28. hRefined meshes with error distribution in L2norm in circumferential direction. hRefined meshes with error distribution in L2norm in thickness direction.7284 •462.2825 2330054 14.3430 Step 4 Fig.1144 36900 485144 35596 18. 3.0054 347. Fig. D.6360 1317.8314 16.5144 35596 U l 182825 1233. 2 shows the first four refined Finite Element meshes with the error distributions in the Linorm.8972 1806.4513 1577.6201 Steps §921.2847 Step I92I.8972 1317.9139 18.8117 272.1516 30. At the geometrical discontinuity the pure shell theory is no longer valid because of a dominating 3dimensional state.1742 1691.4603 362. 2.9].2378 32.6900 y 4S.343O Step 4 Fig.1742 •691. 3 shows the corresponding error distributions of the 3dimensional adaptive refinement steps — zoomed at the discontinuity — with the expected refinement steps in thickness direction.B.3387 138. and thus one can expect a required refinement also in thickness direction at the discontinuity. The hrefinement procedure obviously took place towards the geometrical discontinuity.4603 362. 3. . Due to symmetry of the shell only a quarter of the structure is shown. Krdtzig.9873 [227.1630 182.7547 W.4963 2C. estimator according to Zienkiewicz/Zhu in 0 " as well as in 0^direction [8.6201 93.2847 1806.2169 •577.300 0S4O9 4. Fig.
J Appl Mech 1984.51:745752.B. Spain. [5] Ba§ar Y. [8] Ba§ar Y.30:26112638. Theory of Shell Structures. References [1] Green AE. 1972. volume VI. D. Outlook Higher order shell theories have been derived by Fourier transformation of a 3dimensional solid. Barcelona. From these examples. The gained equations have been discretized and used for a sandwich concept in the finite element software FEMAS. Handbuch der Physik. Rods plates and shells.64:895913. Proc Camb Philos Soc 1968. [7] Reddy JN. Greece. . several examples will demonstrate the general concept of applying such truncated sets of equations for the analysis of 3dimensional problems. The theory of plates and shells. from which a quadratic approximation has been truncated. Hanskotter U. pp. Adaptive strategies for the nonfinear simulation of shell structures. Hanskotter U.W. Schultz R. Refined shear deformation models for composite laminates with finite rotations. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 1993. A2. 2000. Number 258 in 18. Int J SoHds Struct 1993. Mechanik der Flachentragwerke. WB Kratzig. Ding Y. 1985. Friedr. In: Proceedings of Fourth International Colloquium on Computation of Shell and Spatial Structures (lASSIACM 2000). In: Proceedings of European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering (Eccomas 2000). [6] Ba§ar Y. A simple highorder theory for laminated composite plates. Naghdi PM. Krdtzig. Crete. 2000. 301 [3] Kratzig WB. Jun D. Errorcontrolled nonUnear simulation of shell structures. Jun/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 6. Laws N. Kratzig WB. [9] Jun D. 2000. BerUn: Springer Verlag. WB Kratzig. [2] Naghdi PM. In the lecture. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Vieweg and Sohn.103:135160. [4] Ba§ar Y. "Best" transverse shearing and stretching shell theory for nonlinear finite element simulations. 425640. Dusseldorf: VDI Verlag. In: Fliigge S (Ed). simplifications of the derived sets of variables and equations can be filtered out by tensor norm estimates.
Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. 2.: +91 (44) 4458286. The paper presents superelement based domain partitioning and AFEA in distributed computing environment. The error estimators coupled with adaptive mesh refinement strategies serve to control the quality of the finite element solution and provides the engineer. • Mesh generator. the issues and needs of AFEA for industrial application are examined. the most important issue to be addressed is the efficient partitioning of a given unstructured mesh into A^^ subdomains. the domain is divided using a medial axis decomposition and it is called Meshing by Successive Decomposition (MSD). The process can be divided into: • Domain decomposition (superelement generation) and partition to form subdomains. Since then. it is possible to provide accurate and rehable solutions to complex problems of engineering industry through Adaptive FEA (AFEA). It is in this context that adaptive FEA has gained importance. Krishnamoorthy *. • Refinement or repartitioning of subdomains. Chennai. Annamalai. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. In a parallelcomputing environment to meet the computational demands of AFEA of real world problems. solutions within a prescribed tolerance.J. In MSD. The paper emphasises the need for further developmental work for industrial application of AFEA on NoWs. a very large number of papers have been published and research is in progress on many areas of application. All rights reserved.emet.iitm. Superelement based adaptive meshing Parallel mesh generation can be divided into the following stages: • Creation of Np number of subdomains. Vinu Unnithan Department of Civil Engineering. Fax: +91 (44) 2545/445 8281. Tel. The initial decomposition is done by various techniques [2]. Vr. In an adaptive FEA environment based on error estimation and refinement strategy. Email: moorthy@cfead. India Abstract With the availabiUty of cost effective high performance computing on Network of Workstations (NoWs). there is a need for complete automation of the mesh generation process for * Corresponding author. • Subdomain mesh generation. 600 036. The advances in parallel computing technology offer the opportunity to provide accurate solutions in a costeffective computing environment. In the present work.S. The publication of paper by Zienkiewicz and Zhu [1] gave the much needed practical and computer implementable approach to error estimates and refinement strategies. a posteriori error estimation. • Refinement strategy. The MSD is highly suited for parallel implementation as the decomposition is done only once for the whole adaptive analysis.302 Superelement based adaptive finite element analysis for linear and nonlinear continua under distributed computing environment C. The essential ingredients of an adaptive scheme are: • Error estimator. In addition. Automated meshing. Introduction The developments in the last 10 years in a posteriori error estimation techniques in FEA provide valuable tools for quality assurance and quality control in engineering analysis and design. U. Nonlinear analysis.in © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. Domain decomposition 1. The paper presents superelementbased domain decomposition suited for parallel implementation. Distributed and high performance computing. A computational framework is presented for nonlinear stress analysis. . the superelements are generated using Approximate Skeletal Method (ASM) and meshes are generated by transfinite interpolation [3]. Bathe (Editor) reanalysis. Keywords: Adaptive Finite Element Analysis.
connecting a cluster of workstations and PCs and it has been shown that this NoWs form a costeffective highperformance computing environment needed for AFEA. Krishnamoorthy et al. 3 for performance evaluation. A detailed investigation has been carried out for load balancing using six algorithms and spectral bisection with KemighanLin Heuristic. In order to help the developer a library PAVE (Parallel Virtual Environment) has been developed which can be used as a layer over PVM and MPI to take care of all message passing and communication tasks [4]. two plots are presented in Fig. 5. As a typical example.S. 1 reported in [5].C. was analyzed. (1) 3. metal casting and in the safety analysis such as crash worthiness of vehicles. 2. KL is the linear stiffness matrix.CB^. K. /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics • Parallel smoothing for well formed meshes.dV Q o (a) (b) Fig. Nonlinear finite element analysis Nonlinear analysis becomes important in the FE simulation of manufacturing processes like forging. = j BlCB. The domain partitioning and FE mesh are shown in Fig. (a) Butt strap: problem definition. The Zienkiewicz and Zhu and other Super KL / BlCB^^dV + f BLCB. 303 Convergent Error Estimators [1] have been used. (a) Domain partitioning. 4. which has been found to be efficient in distributing the superelements to form as subdomains in different processors and also repartition them after mesh generation to form substructures for AFEA [4]. the problem of evenly distributing the load to all the processors is complex since the number of elements in a 'superelement' is not known a priori. AFEA program has been developed under distributed computing environment. dV (2) KLD is the large displacement matrix. 2. The most computationally intensive process in a geometricallly nonlinear process is the computation of the tangent stiffness matrix KT as K T = K L + KLD + K . Linear finite element analysis Using the explicit decomposition based on MSD. Distributed high performance computing (HFC) environment Almost all organisations have highspeed local area networks. As the process of 'Mesh generation' and FEA are two separate tasks with different computational complexities. These types of analyses require consideration of both kinematic and material nonlinearities. . (b) Butt strap: superelements. (b) FE mesh. 1.dV (3) j Bl. • Parallel attribute generation and repartition. Fig. In parallel implementation. the Butt Strap problem Fig.
points to the severity of the computation involved.•" Iso n ^0 4 s 60 ^^^ . Though considerable amount of research has been carried out in the linear analysis. distributed computing on an existing Local Area . phenomenally increases the computational process.# / * • • • .•' p . However. The whole process is repeated until a globally converged solution has been obtained satisfying the specified error percentage. GNLMNL Kernel.. Krishnamoorthy et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics BUTT: SpeedupFEA Linear Speedup Prob Size: 8004 Nodes Prob Size: 4735 Nodes 80 70 BUTT ^\ ^ ^ ' ^ ' . the FE mesh is refined based on the computed elemental error indicators. To highlight the computational intensive process. 3. In the case of material nonlinearity.S. 1.•.• • ' / . a SuperConvergent Path Recovery (SPR) is found to be more efficient and gives more accurate results [6]. The L2 norm in accumulated plastic strain: 6. 4." " '" " / X'^. Mesh refinement is done on the superelement by the corresponding processor. For nonlinear analysis a number of solution techniques are available for tracing full load deflection path. (5) However if the error tolerance is violated at a certain load step. the pointwise error in accumulated plastic strain '/?' may be approximated by [6]. More recently. like FEM coupled with adaptivity. the material may yield and elastoplastic analysis has to be performed. at every load step. With the inclusion of adaptive techniques in nonlinear FEA. In addition. error estimation for nonlinear problems is still an active area of research.2. The L2norm error in stresses can be written as (6) 2. is executed by the master and the error is indicated to the different processors for every load step.. The subdomain distribution to various processors is carried out using spectral bisection algorithm. Thus the need for its implementation in a parallel environment becomes essential. K(j is the geometric stiffness matrix. • " • ^ . Adopting the ZZapproach.. the structure is checked for global error. many investigators have used ZZ type estimators in nonlinear analysis [6]. llZ.. ^4 Cn ^ / i 30 f2 / / r / / .• .7. 5. the constitutive matrix C is not constant. for large deformation problems.• * ' ' GreedyKL GraphKL SpectralKL ^  20 10.2 2 3 4 No of processors = (^f{p*p^y6vY (7) K„ = / G ^SGdV (4) where S is the Second PiolaKirchhoff stress matrix. . Conclusion For highly numerical techniques. Error estimation Once convergence has been reached in a load step. Computational framework The assemblage of the stiffness matrix utilizes over 70% [7] of the computational time and since stiffness components have to be updated for every iteration and increment. The yield stress analysis and stress update are carried out by iterative procedures like Backward Euler Integration schemes. 1 // f • —— " • • • 4 5 6 No of processors Fig.304 C. Superelement based domain decomposition described in the earlier section is very well suited and the frame work being developed for the Nonlinear AFEA under the distributed computing environment is shown in Fig. the additional task of checking errors locally and globally and remeshing for every load step. a typical step for error in elastoplastic analysis is described here briefly. Performance evaluation. 5.
Mesh Re^nemantj b^ed on MSD cr olh@f algorithms.cmu. To make all these development processes serve the industrial needs. http://www. A framework is also proposed in distributed computing environment for its efficient implementation.S.72:627644.53:10331043. Parallel mesh generation and adaptive twodimensional finite element analysis on distributed computing environment. WitNn Fig.^ f Traisf^fjg D ^ f mm the Slava^ Viaribies from mesh Not WitNn limits.C.D. Next Lpaei Step to tie mas^r Ibf /s^sem^ Msemi^c^the $iffr>ass mafeix and kimr^ Force Sector. Berstad T. available on the Internet at World Wide Web \JB1. Mukherjee S. areas like Superelement based mesh generation for surfaces and 3D solid elements need further development. 4. Zhu JZ. Niekamp R. Framework of nonlinear AFEA in distributed computing environment. of Workstations and PCs is the most economically viable solution. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1987.20:137. A survey of unstructured mesh generation tech [7] [8] . Ph. C&S 1994. 1999. Klaas C. Nonhnear AFEA provides the ultimate key. Gangaraj SK. A posteriori estimation of the error in the finite element solution by computation of the guaranteed upper and lower bounds. Comput Struct 1999. Dissertation submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University. Hamini AH.edu/user/sowen/survey/softref. Meshing by successive superelement decomposition (MSD) . Okstad KM. Fahmt MW. 1999. Krishnamoorthy et al /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 305 Ev^yationof stiffness components like Ki + KLO •• K0 and Residual Force Vectcsr ^ Evaluation c^stfUhess ^ componerts like Kl + KLDf Key and Reskfeial Force I Vector / ^ *_^ ^^ . To solve real life practical problems. Meshing of the problem domain by successive Superelement decomposition techniques has an inherent parallelism and is ideally suited for parallel implementation of AFEA. Error estimation and adaptivity in explicit nonlinear finite element simulation of quasistatic problems.html Krishnamoorthy CS. A survey of parallel nonlinear dynamic analysis methodologies.a new approach to quadrilateral mesh generation. ComputMech 1995. However.andrew. MS thesis submitted in the Department of Civil Engineering.24:337357. IIT Madras. Raphael B. Annamalai Vr. Stein E.16:4552. A simple error estimator and adaptive procedure for practical engineering analysis. Mathisen KM. nology. [3] [4] [5] [6] References [1] Zienkiewicz OC. the adaptive processes need to be integrated with the Finite Element packages on HPC platform for providing the much needed reliability to analysis and design in engineering industry. India. Finite Elem Anal Des 1995. Hopperstad OS. Parallel adaptive finite element computations with hierarchical preconditioning. [2] Owens S.
Transition 1. Multibody system. Introduction The analysis of contact problems is an important technical problem which unfortunately always involves great computational effort. the review paper by Wriggers [2]. The relevant algorithms which are required as well as a detailed description of the mechanical transitions are included in Eberhard [3]. the problem arises. Energybased switching criterion. see e. Kinematical relations and balance laws for momentum and angular momentum are utilized for this purpose. In this paper. The transition from rigid to discretized deformable bodies is illustrated in Fig. 2.J. Transition from rigid bodies to discretized bodies After contacts between bodies are detected they are discretized for the finite element computations using onthefly created highquality meshes with quads or triangles [3]. Since it is not known in advance which bodies collide and how long they remain in contact. a criterion is discussed * Corresponding author. The motion of rigid bodies during planar multibody system simulation is defined by . Keywords: Contact. An energybased criterion to automatically propose the appropriate switching time is presented. the nontrivial problem when and how to switch back and forth between the different modeling approaches is investigated. the text book by Pfeiffer and Glocker [1]. Several aspects have to be considered to enable a reliable hybrid contact simulation. 2. It will be shown how the required quantities are computed based on kinematical relations and balance laws for momentum and angular momentum. An important problem within the hybrid simulation approach is the computation of the required mechanical information for the transitions between the two approaches. 91058 Erlangen. it has been shown to be efficient to compute the motion of noncolliding bodies by the multibody system (MBS) method and the motion and deformation of colliding bodies with the nonlinear finite element (FE) method. This paper focuses additionally on the determination of a sound switching time. University of ErlangenNuremberg. Hybrid simulation.e. sophisticated administration schemes have been developed. when to switch back to the multibody system method after contact separation. This makes it possible to combine the advantages of both methods. All rights reserved.de © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Especially the transition from FE to MBS modeling requires great care. 5. Nonlinear finite element method. For the example of three moving bodies which are colliding successively and the corresponding MBS/FEM transitions see Fig.unierlangen. as here the intrinsic information of the discretized body has to be reduced to the smaller amount of rigid body information. 1. see e. Email: kuebler@ltm. the efficiency of the multibody system approach and the possibility to describe and compute deformations correctly with the nonlinear finite element method. Furthermore. Finally. i. While for the contact of rigid bodies a lot of work has been done during the last decade. If several potentially colliding bodies are under consideration. there seems to be few material in literature concerning mixed or hybrid multibody system/finite element contacts. Egerlandstr. Peter Eberhard Institute of Applied Mechanics. Bathe (Editor) to propose an appropriate mesh deletion time after contact separation. Germany Abstract The analysis of contact problems using hybrid multibody system (MBS)/finite element (FE) simulation is presented.306 Multibody system/finite element contact simulation with an energybased switching criterion Lars Kubler *.g. and also finite element contact has gained great maturity. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K.g.
Kiibler.re Pi of the boundary polygon points Pi with respect to the inertial coordinate system Kj are given to the meshing algorithm. Transition from rigid to discretized bodies. P. and its angular rotation and velocity a 0 = Vc\.rcKj X 0 (0 (1) These nodal velocities complete the determination of kine . Discretized bodies possess much more degrees of freedom than rigid bodies. t T T 7 T T T T T T T T 1 4 • 1 rJk^ i^j I 4 Fig. Eberhard / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 307 (d) Fig. Therefore. With the position roKj of the nodes Kj of the finite element mesh the node velocities VK can be calculated 0 VKJ = Vc + {roKj roc)^ 0 CO matic quantities of the discretized body. 2. Transition from discretized bodies to rigid bodies A more complicated topic within the hybrid MBS/FEM simulation is the transition from the finite element description to the multibody system. In order to create the finite element mesh. as well as the respective velocity Vc and angular velocity co. 1. Example for a hybrid MBS/FEM simulation. 1. the position rocit) and angular rotation a{t) of a coordinate system Kc in an arbitrary body fixed point C.L. used then as initial conditions for the further dynamic simulation. see Fig. the positions roPi =roc \. 3. a reduction of the available information is necessary for the transition FEM to MBS. where some approximations are necessary. The position roc and the velocity re of the rigid body. that computes the mesh [4].
a body moves freely with its center of mass being on a parabola.S _ R M V E. \ Eqs. Then the bodies expand again and their velocity increases.. for 100 time steps. for the moment of momentum of the discretized body Dp = R M V. (7) and CO must be determined appropriately from the positions ToKj and velocities VKJ of the n nodes of the finite element mesh of this body. Both bodies approach with same velocity. is investigated. P. The basic idea for determining the velocity Vs is the conservation of linear momentum before and after mesh deletion. which is based on the 'EarCutting' algorithm by O'Rourke [6]. Determination of the switching time m 1 0 0 1 0 1 . Eberhard / First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics with R := X \U . Mesh creation and deletion. whereas for a discretized body the momentum follows as = / pNdQV = A'M 'V.. (5) The angular velocity co of the rigid body is determined similarly by conservation of angular momentum. The kinetic energy does not reach exactly zero as some of the nodes are still in motion because of wave effects within the elastic bodies.f pNdQ'iX m J + U). mass matrix M. M. After the collision the discretized bodies decelerate almost to rest. The center of mass of the body should remain at the same position before and after the deletion of the mesh and the transition to the rigid body.308 L. the calculation of the angular momentum requires a reference point. Fig.. see Eberhard [3] or Kubler [5]. frequent (nonphysical) contact/separation transitions occur and the total simulation efficiency decreases. The conservative approach to overcome this problem is. After their separation the bodies remain meshed.s ~ R M R Finally ros and Vs are converted to the body fixed reference point C [5]. The kinetic energy decreases to a minimum when the maximum deformation is reached. as shown in Fig.] e 1^2/1 xi j ^ follows after some transformations [5]. where it is almost fully transformed into potential or strain energy. Fig. (4) With Js = JFE the velocity follows 1 Vs = —A. This also requires the determination of rc5.V2x ••] and (7) allow the determination of the angular velocity (8) JfE. (6) Another problem that arises for the hybrid simulation is how long bodies should be computed by the finite element method after separation. Kiibler. . density p. .. e.Xs md Xs := [xs ys Xs ys . A more advanced and efficient approach to deal with this aspect uses estimates for the ratio of the internal elastic energy before mesh deletion and the kinetic energy of the rigid body after mesh deletion. The moment of inertia of a discretized body with reference to its center of mass can be determined as follows JpE.. A favorable reference point is given by the center of mass 5. if the mesh is deleted too early. node reference positions X and nodal displacements U is ros = . The position ros of the center of mass for a homogeneous planar body with finite element displacement shape functions A^. even if the efficiency suffers. 3.M m V. After separation.g. to keep the mesh for many time steps after the separation. (2) or with the auxiliary matrix A 4. Whereas CO is the same for each point of a rigid body. _ DFE. As an example for this approach. The momentum of a rigid body can be calculated by 75 = mvs. It is desirable to delete the mesh as soon as possible after the separation in order to switch back to the more efficient multibody system simulation. a simple system of two elastic bodies.s = jNRNRpdn = R MR. 3. mass m. The kinetic energy of the discretized bodies after the separation slightly varies because of their eigenvibrations. However.. 1 0 0 1 (3) 1 0 The angular rotation of the rigid body is determined approximately by averaging of appropriate edge rotations or by an suitably formulated Least Squares problem. (6) with V := [v\y Vlx V2y .. 4 shows computed curves for the kinetic energy of the bodies for different material damping coefficients at.
Habilitation. Finite element algorithms for contact problems. Institute B of Mechanics. Computational Geometry in C. 2000. Special attention is further required after the contact .2(4): 149. 1998. The proposed procedure allows efficient simulations of contact problems without neglecting mechanical soundness during contacts. Multibody Dynamics with Unilateral Contacts. Kinetic energy for different damping coefficients. which is quite low in this example. [6] O'Rourke J. 5. Quadriliteral mesh generation via geometrically optimized domain decomposition.1 time 0. Kubler. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. References [1] Pfeiffer F. 1997. Hopefully. University of Stuttgart. Eberhard/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 14 12 10 c 309 I 0. separation to decide when to switch from the discretized bodies in the FE model back to the rigid bodies of the multibody system. 309320. P. A certain amount.25 Fig. 1996. This part corresponds to the kinetic energy of the rigid body after mesh deletion. While the transition from multibody systems to finite elements is usually not problematic and also during the reverse transition the computation of the velocities and angular velocities from balance of momentum and angular momentum requires no approximations. Proceedings of the 6th International Meshing Roundtable. New York: Wiley. [5] Kubler L. [4] Nowottny D. 4. For the automatic determination of the mesh deletion time a certain ratio p of the strain energy to the kinetic energy ^ E^^ ^ UKU ^ Ekin V M V ^^ can be used as a threshold criterion. [2] Wriggers P. it may contribute to the simulation of largescale systems with many moving bodies and multiple simultaneous contacts. 1999. of the total energy of the bodies oscillates between kinetic and strain energy. Special care is required if the center of gravity of a body remains at rest after separation. pp. Conclusions An important topic within the mixed MBS/FEM contact simulation is given by the transitions between the two modeling approaches. One idea described in this paper is to use a threshold of the ratio of the internal elastic energy before mesh deletion and the kinetic energy of the rigid body after mesh deletion.15 0. Kontaktuntersuchungen durch hybride Mehrkorpersystem/Finite Elemente Simulationen (in German).L. The remaining amount of the total energy is the kinetic energy resulting from the free motion of the body. The strain energy decreases because of material damping in a nonconservative system. Arch Comput Methods Eng 1995 . the computation of the position and orientation of the rigid bodies from the node positions requires a lot of care and approximations cannot be avoided. Zur hybriden Simulation von Kontaktvorgangen mit Mehrkorpersystemen undfinitenElementen (in German). Aachen: Shaker. Stud173. docker C. [3] Eberhard P.
Gtj are the components of the metric tensor in a Cartesian frame. which are in some cases implemented with void nucleation and coalescence properties. Keywords: Damage mechanics. the numerical works in relation to ductile crack propagation have adapted the computational cell approach. Sij the logarithmic strain tensor. and the scaling of the damage evolution description is found to be principally different to those commonly applied in fracture mechanics preeminently in reference to experimental results. Current work addresses the behavior of the GursonTvergaardNeedleman (GTN) model when subjected to assessment of damage formation in different dimension fracture mechanics test specimens. The used numerical formulation was Lagrangian with isotropic incremental plasticity description (A533B steel: yield strength = 400 MPa. Current study focuses on the quality and nature of the computational estimates for ductile crack propagation. (la. CQ the flow stress and A the normal distribution parameter for void nucleation as given in [2].J.akkGij/3. Bathe (Editor) In Eqs. a/y T the Cauchy stress tensor.laukkanen @ vtt. when the investigation is carried out over a range of specimen sizes of single edge notched bend type and the results are interpreted in coincidence to experimental and fracture mechanical assessment procedures of the related micromechanical fracture phenomena. / is the scalar valued damage variable. The applicability and limitations of the model are considered by assessing the constraint description of the GTN model in the investigated cases. i. 2. Damage evolution 1. The micromechanical interpretations and the quantitative predictive properties of the GTN model are still under debate.e. qt are the constants introduced in [1]. computational cell size = 100 iim).b) a^ = ^/3siJsi~/2.jGij 'q2crkk\ K 2oro / (1+^3/'). Finland Abstract Damage mechanics formulations of fracture phenomena are qualified on the basis of transferability. 02044VTT. strain hardening exponent = 1 0 . Introduction Ductile fracture and crack propagation in local approach are modeled by void growth models. Espoo. Stj = dtj . Fax: +358 (9) 4567002. Email: anssi. sf' = Jlkfjefj /2i is the effective plastic strain rate. Technical Research Centre of Finland. All rights reserved. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Laukkanen * VTT Manufacturing Technology. Ductile failure. Particularly since the most common solution method of the governing field equations is the finite element method (FEM). how ample is the margin of applicability and the level of precision they can produce with minimal investment to the various intrinsic material parameters.310 Consistency of damage mechanics modeling of ductile material failure in reference to attribute transferability A. Constraint. Different calibration procedures for the constants of the GTN model were ap . The model predictions and the overall response are inferred by a comparison with experimental trends and fracture mechanics scaling estimates. Methods and theory Numerical simulations were performed incorporating the computational cell approach for ductile crack propagation with finite strains and the GTN model utilizing the WARP3D research code. (la) (lb) *TeL +358 (9) 4565538. The issues that have arisen concerning the modeling have been especially the parameters and the generality of the GTN approach. The associative flow potential and the damage evolution equation of the used implementation of the GTN model were [13]: 0 f = ~ \2qif cosh (\f)s. Transferability.fi © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.
The . overall following a principle of unified stressed volume. the predicted process zone of fracture is larger the larger the specimen. NCi >>^cro 3. The results of Fig. It is seen that the differences between specimen sizes start to become significant quite early on when compared to the fracture resistance curves.•*^ 3427 mm 101055 mm^ 10201 G mm^ O 2550225 mm^ 1010 mm^ 2 Aa 3 4 5 Aa [mm] Fig. (2) is given in Fig. of which the specimen dependent results are given for the 101055 mm^ calibration. 1. results pertaining the sensitivity of damage rate on geometric size are presented in Fig. the GTN model predictions can be presented as dependent on the levels attained by the field variables.£^=0.3 2D Plane Strain A^ 1J J" / . To illustrate this effect. Results and discussion The computational fracture resistance curves for bend specimens of different size are presented in Fig.•^ IF* 2550 mm . Included are standard validity bounds following ASTM E1737. There is also a moderate scale effect. /' (P\^ 0r (2) d(Afl + ^. 1 demonstrate the overly conservative nature of standard set validity bounds in relation to the predictions of the GTN model. Afl the crack growth and (0. 1. (p) the complete and specific mappings of oi over the criterion specified volume. plied and evaluated and some of these observations are given in the course of current work. In addition to the GTN model. D the size of the computational cell. This fracture mechanics prediction is in very limited agreement with the outcome of the GTN model.5. 3 rely on the properties of the near cracktip conditions as presented in Fig.25 fQ=0.e. As such. specimen size and crack propagation. To describe the local response within the process zone. q^=1. 1. To illustrate specimen size related effects to crack tip constraint. The results of Fig.=1. as can be seen by comparing the results to those of Fig. the relationships in the scaling treatment of field variables and the response provided by the constitutive equations of the GTN model differ. the criterion . (2) / is the Jintegral. 4. f^=0.0015. see [4]): GTN model was calibrated for 101055 mm^ 1020100 mm^ and 2550225 mm^ specimens.2). The fracture toughness prediction according to the scaUng criterion of Eq. The results of Fig. i.) where the integration domain carries over the near crack tip region satisfying the specified condition for the first principal stress with the value of A = 1. 4 can be in approximate sense understood as the equivalent deformation rate of different specimens.02. q3=2. scaling predictions for overall toughness effects were performed following a smallscale yielding type of a correction for fracture toughness given in form (for similar references. 2 present clear specimen dependent differences as a function of applied loading. Values of the damage variable / were transformed to crack propagation by defining the crack tip to be located at a point within the cell elements where the damage was 3/4 of that required for element extinction (which was taken as / ^ = 0. In Eq. 2. Simulated fracture resistance curves for bend specimens of different size. This is given in Fig.A. The parameter introduced as abscissa in Fig. the local hoop stress field ahead of a propagating crack is presented in Fig. 2. Laukkanen /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics fg = initial void volume fraction f^ = fraction of nucleating voids e^ = average void nucleation strain 311 140012001000r^ Jii^ 800 H 600 400 200 H 11020 mm^ T T" H—« A T«rq. 5. 3.
q^=1.6=0. leading to overshoot in constraint corrections. q3=2. The results of the study can be concluded as follows.5.100 0. f =0.q^=1.025 0. this does not affect the fracture toughness development due to the range of void growth and since the voids grow several orders of magnitude before final failure. 5 illustrates that the near crack tip cells exhibiting the highest states of dilatational deformation do not contribute to the overall damage formation rate with such a difference that the results would pertain size dependencies particularly when the scale effects are noted. 3.q3=2.25 f =0.02. Fig. (2) Overall.150 Fig. the GTN model provides a characteristic description to experimental results.5. Dependency of near crack tip hoop stressfieldon loading level.3 3427 mm 101055 mm' 1020100 mm' 2550225 mm' ^ ^ ^ ^ T l r * * * * 0.3 J = constant lAa approx 0. . the standard specified validity restrictions to fracture resistance determination appear overly conservative.050 0.=1.25 f =0.6 mm r = distance from crack tip b = initial specimen ligament Fig.0015.02. and even though the material outside the immediate damage zone experiences higher loading conditions in larger specimens. (1) According to damage mechanics based analyses. Laukkanen /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics q^=1. £^=0. Since the damage evolution equation is basically straincontrolled.0015. Scaling fracture resistance criterion for toughness differences between specimens. Conclusions Numerical and analytical studies were carried out to evaluate the characteristics and properties of the GTN model in relation to consistency and behavior when subjected to different constraint conditions. 4. the predictions between damage and fracture mechanics have a scale difference due to the differences in parameters and the locality of the applied formulations.1 =0. (3) The predictions of fracture mechanical analysis methods for domainrelated effects can be greatly different to those of local approach particularly for ductile rupture. 2. crack propagation and specimen size.125 0.312 A. As such.075 0. H e A Aq. but the generality of the material model parameters poses restrictions.
References [1] Tvergaard V.a l l 1020100 mm'.6x10" over cells 313 ~«—3427 mm . (4) The scale of the interpretation in toughness transferability is greatly different. In: Kirk Mark. the GTN model focusing on the immediate near tip damage conditions leading to relative insensitivity to boundary conditions. (6) Considering the fracture resistance predictions. Laukkanen /First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics over domain 1. Influence of voids on shear band instabilities under plane strain conditions. I D . Fig. Anderson TL.A . (Aa+3D) 3427 mm'. 1995. 4. (Aa+3D) —©—101055 mm^ (Aa+3D) .17:389407.1 0 0 mm^ (Aa+3D) 2550225 mm'.all 10 15 20 J/(CT„D) Fig. J Eng Mater Technol 1980. Int J Fract 1981.2 0 . Adv Appl Mech 1990. x a . Constraint Effects in Fracture Theory and Applications: Second Volume. . Dependency of damage rate of the GTN model on state of stresstriaxiality and damage. 5. [4] Dodds RH.all 101055mm'. Material failure by void growth to coalescence. [2] Chu CC. I D . Needleman A. the GTN model predicts a mild ligamentcontrolled effect for resistance and a greater applicability of miniature specimen testing techniques in harmony with experimental results. Bakker Ad (Eds). ZDjall 2550225 mm'. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials. Void nucleation effects in biaxially stretched sheets. Scaledependent damage rate of the GTN model results as dependent on crack propagation and level of crack driving force.1 0 . (5) The straincontrolled formulation of the damage evolution equation in the GTN model makes it more independent of near crack tip region stress fields and also connects to the range of damage formation all the way to element extinction. Numerical modeling of ductile tearing effects on cleavage fracture toughness.27:83151.A. . Tang M. ASTM STP 1244. [3] Tvergaard V.102:249256.
Each element deteriorates in a unique manner. which in turn increases the overall deterioration of the bridge. This modeling approach offers a qualitative disassembling of the deterioration of the structure revealing the critical failure paths and significant elements. Current bridge management options The inevitable deterioration of a structure can be controlled through the monitoring of its system performance. Although attempts are made to incorporate the interrelationships of f DECK " D«ck MatttHil " JoJntB s«»ERsmucrryi?E *Gk4mik • Braringd D«Ndk SS^STHUCTtmE *MmmmrM • P'mr ^ «/ V. System performance 1. A fault tree model of a structure appropriately represents the element and component interrelationships. a reinforced concrete deck deteriorates through cracking which allows chloride contamination that leads to delamination of the reinforcement and spalling of the concrete. LeBeau*. Element interaction. repair and rehabilitative projects [5. In the case of bridges owned by states and municipalities. The malfunctioning of bearings induces stress on the beams and deck. 1: (1) deck. the main structural members. All rights reserved. Civil and Environmental Engineering Department. Components and elements of a bridge system. The interconnectedness of the elements into a system relates the deterioration of one element to the deterioration of another. Prediction models that are Markovian in nature and implemented by these tools. Bridge management. (2) superstructure. Bridge deterioration. 2).314 A model of deteriorating bridge structures K. WadiaFascetti Northeastern University. a bridge has three main components as shown in Fig. Gk49t AlHtlnMM«t * Corresponding author.J. For example. Introduction A structure is an assemblage of loadbearing and connective components and elements.edu © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. which carries traffic.H. a steel girder is susceptible to corrosion causing section loss and compromising its strength. 2. On the other hand. . 1. USA Abstract A structure is a system comprised of components and elements. are applied on an elementbyelement basis at the population level (see Fig. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Bathe (Editor) C 1 Fig. The leaky joints of a bridge introduce corrosion to the girders and bearings. Email: klebeau@coe. MA 02115. Tel. Boston. The numerical inspection data along with expert elicitation serve as input data for bridge management software packages that act as decisionmaking tools in the prioritizing of maintenance. which upholds the superstructure. which transmit loads from the superstructure to the substructure. For example. and (3) substructure. This phenomenon of element interaction accelerates the deterioration of the component. each having a unique deterioration pattern. which supports the deck. and bearings. Keywords: Fault tree. This paper presents a fault tree model of a bridge structure that is useful in the area of bridge management. The interaction of the degenerating elements influences the system performance. A superstructure has girders.: +1 (617) 3733987.6].J. \ ^aiarins IV. biannual inspections are conducted that are primarily visual.neu. S. A steel girder is also vulnerable to fatigue which may lead to sudden brittle fracture. Each component is comprised of a number of elements.
K. Current bridge management systems. F = Ci U C2 U C3 (1) Further disassembly relates the deterioration of each Table 1 Symbolic notation used in fault trees (Ang et al. water and other agents that induce corrosion and fatigue. These interrelationships are reflected in Eq. 3. element to each of the three components described in Eq. 8^ B^anclBj 84anaB. However. Deterioration of Bridge Performance (F). Bearings that are badly decayed no longer function properly placing undue stress on the girders. WadiaFascetti/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 315 Asstssmtnt of Bridgts at Population Ltv^l PopirtaM^n 09 hM^mi Sutrlnfisl c. SJ. The fault tree presented in this paper takes the failure event. 2. An abutment or pier that is in poor condition (B5). 8 81 B2 Bj B4 8. for example a pier cap that is cracked and spalled to the degree that the bearing is undermined. [1]) Symbol Name Event Basic Event OR Gate AND Gate Usage Top and intermediate positions of tree Bottom positions of the tree Representing the union of two or more events Representing the intersection of two or more events 1 n 0 The laws of Boolean algebra reduce the probability of the deterioration of the deck to the probability of the condition of the deck material itself. joints and girders with the deck inconsequential [4. the joints (^2). It identifies failure paths and critical elements with the advantage of unveiling logical interrelationships of a system through graphical depiction and Boolean algebra. Fault tree model of element interaction A fault tree is a viable approach to modeling a structure and provides a mechanism that evaluates the failure probability of the system [8. and girders (^4). See Table 1 for explanation of the symbols used in a fault tree. 3). The top event is the consequence of deterioration of the three components: deck (Ci). bearings (^3). B^ B4 84 Bg Bj B3 B§ Bj B tefend: Oetefioratioii of bridge peffwmance Deterioration of deck componwt Deterioration of syp^strudure a^mpcment Det^oratiort of sybstmdure component Deterioration of deck material Oet^oratiofl of Joints Deterioration of tjearings Oet^loratkjn of girders Oet^oratloii of abutments/f^ers Fig. The element interactions pertaining to the superstructure are shown in Eq. and qualitatively explains the different failure paths. Superstructure deterioration can be directly attributed to the condition of the girders (primary structural members). poor deck material (Bi) that is cracked and spalled introduces debris. Also. (1).7]. which are combinations of condition states of different elements (See Fig. A leaky joint allows intrusion of water and deicing salts into the concrete promoting decay. also have an influence over the condition of the deck. (1). Poor deck material condition (Bi) directly contributes to the deterioration of a deck. Leaky joints (B2) are culprits of rust and section loss of girders and corrosion of bearings (B3). elements through the declaration of environmental effects categories or the linking of element deterioration models with the respective protection systems. Malfunctioning bearings that are 'frozen' induce stress on the deck. compromises the structural integrity of the superstructure. Girders with extensive corrosion and section loss are unable to support the loads of the deck and accelerate its deterioration. A fault tree model of bridge deterioration. B^m4B^ 84 e^aridBs 8^ e^andS^ e^amlB^ B^m^B^ B^andB. rendering the interactions of the bearings. this methodology fails to realistically represent element interaction. superstructure (C2) or substructure (C3) as described in Eq. Fig.2]. (3): 0 C2 = ^4 u (B4 n Bi) u (B4 n B2) u (^3 n B4) u (B2 n 53) u (^3 n B5) (3) .H. (2): Ci = BiU (Bi n B2) U (Bi n B3) U (Bi n B4) = Bi (2) 3. LeBeau.
While the interaction between the joints and the substructure is a significant contributor when considering the deterioration of the superstructure. the failure event in terms of basic events takes the form: (5) r = 5i u ^4 u ^5 u (^2 n 53) u (^3 n B^) (6) Eq. Also contributing are bearings that have allowed excessive movement of the superstructure resulting in stress on the substructure from the unbalanced load. Tang WH. Fault trees applied to bridge structures enhance current techniques in bridge management. [7] Johnson P. WadiaFascetti/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics quantitative fault tree provides an objective tool to compare maintenance alternatives based on the probabilities of the basic events reflecting the condition of the elements.8:309314. 1991. Reliability analysis in engineering applicafions. 1992. (5): 4. [5] Golabi K. No. The deterioration of one element affects other elements. These interactions are represented by Eq. the Boolean algebra of the tree can be executed resulting in the probabilities of the intermediate events and ultimately. the failure event. calculated from existing inspection data. C3 = ^5 u (^3 n Bs) u {B2 n B5) = Bs Combining the expressions for the three components. Thompson PD. Faulttree model of bridge element deterioration due to interaction. However. No. Hyman WA. A numerical fault tree also suggests element weight factors that a bridge inspector could utilize in determining a component or overall bridge rating. Struct Eng Int 1998. The logic of the fault tree following the laws of Boolean algebra reveals the critical failure paths and significant elements. Cambridge. The BRIDGIT bridge management system.. water from leaky joints initiates decay of the abutments and piers. u ^4 u ^5 u (^2 n ^3) (7) Therefore. Fault tree analysis of bridge failure due to scour and channel instability.5(1):3541. ASCE J Infrastruct Syst 1999. MA: Optima Inc. girders and abutment/piers. A References [1] Ang AHS. and Cambridge Systematics. CMS9702656 is appreciated.: Federal Highway Administration. Conclusions Structures are systems made up of components and elements. This demonstration that the deterioration of bridge performance is the union of the conditions of the deck material. 1992. LeBeau. A fault tree can properly model the structure as a system including the various element interactions. [6] Hawk H. (6) can be simplified to Eq. Adams T. A fault tree also has the advantage of being used in a quantitative aspect to obtain the probabilities of the failure events. New York: Wiley. .C. D. The laws of Boolean algebra reduce Eq. FHWASA94031. it is redundant information when the structure is considered as a whole. Pontis technical manual. Information on the importance of elements is helpful to field inspectors when evaluating the condition of bridges. the joints and the bearings together are also significant contributors. the deterioration of bridge performance is directly attributed to the condition of the deck material. girders. FHWAPD91015. 1993. Probability Concepts in Engineering Planning and Design: Vol II. Rep. In addition. Inc. abutments/piers and the interaction between the joints and bearings enhances the existing software through the suggestion of links between the element deterioration models to evaluate an overall assessment of the structure. [4] Dai SH. [8] Sianipar P. [2] Aven T Reliability and Risk Analysis. Once the probabilities of the basic events are acquired. London: Elsevier.3(3): 103110.J. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. This acknowledgement of critical elements is beneficial in the arena of bridge management. (7). [3] Bridge inspector's training manual/90.316 K. ASCE J Infrastruct Syst 1997. S. Rep. The probabilities of the basic events of the fault tree demonstrated in this paper could be elicited from experts. (3) to the following: C2 = ^4 u {B2 n 53) u (^3 n Bs) (4) The deterioration of the substructure is determined by the condition of the abutments and piers (B5). Small E. Acknowledgements Support from NSF Award No. r = fi. 1984. or obtained from analytical reliability models.H. Tech. Washington. Wang M0.
motivated by previous works on scattered Hermite interpolation. The basic idea of scattered data interpolation is described in detail in the works of Kansa [1] and Fasshauer [2]. Hermite collocation. see Kansa [1]) with interior LI and boundary LB operators domain: Cu = T (3) where C^ = [LI LB] and T^ = [FI FB] is the righthand side vector. This form of collocation gives rise to an asymmetric system of equations and is therefore known as the asymmetric collocation method or Kansa's approach.: +351 (21) 8418234.Xj ) = J(x — Xj)^ ^cj (the multiquadric RBF for example) and Cj 7^ 0 is an adjustable parameter. Fax: +351 (21) 8497650. Fasshauer [4].ist. Leitao * Departamento de Engenharia Civil.317 Analysis of 2D elastostatic problems using radial basis functions Vitor M. by collocating) the operators LI and LB to the approximation defined in Eq. nonsymmetric or symmetric systems of linear equations are obtained.utl.A. Radial basis functions 1. Keywords: Collocation technique.Xj ) . Portugal Abstract The work presented here concerns the use of radial basis functions for the analysis of stretching and bending plates. . by using radial basis functions: N ^ ~ ^j ) (1) i^hM = y^aj(p( 7=1 X• ) (4) where 0( x . This equation is solved for the aj unknowns from the system of A linear equations of the type: ^ N s(Xi) = f{Xi) = ^ a . N. *Tel. Bathe (Editor) where Xj. define a data set. The unknown coefficients aj are determined by solving the system of N linear equations formed by applying (that is. PDEs solution using RBFs The application of the interpolation technique described above to the analysis of PDEs arising in computational mechanics was first presented by Kansa [3]. All rights reserved. for example. j = 1 . . 0 ( Xi . that is. Email: vitor@civil.J. The basic characteristic of the formulation is the definition of a global approximation for the variables of interest in each problem (the deflection for the plate bending problem and the stress function for the stretching plates) from a set of radial basis functions conveniently placed (but not necessarily in a regular manner) at the boundary and in the domain. Instituto Superior Tecnico. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. Meshless.pt © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. presented a method to obtain an approximate PDE solution which leads to inherently symmetric and nonsingular systems of linear equations. 1049001. Av. Rovisco Pais. Depending on the type of collocation chosen. Interpolation using RBFs Radial basis functions have initially been used by mathematicians working on scattered data fitting and general multidimensional data interpolation problems. Assume an approximation Uh(X) to the PDF in the form. The basic characteristic of this method is that the operators are applied twice for each pair of collocation pointRBF center that is being evaluated. ^ 2. .=i (2) where the field to approximate is known at A points. (4) at N selected points. fj. Lisboa. An RBF interpolant is assumed in the form of: s{x) = 22^J^^ 7=1 Consider an elliptic PDF (hyperbolic and parabolic PDEs are formulated similarly.
[4] Fasshauer GE. Leitdo/First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics forward and easy to apply to new problems.4:389396. In: LeMehaute A. Comput Math Appl 1990. TN: Vanderbilt University Press. Shumaker L (Eds). Further research on this subject must be pursued to extend its capabilities. of quite fast solution. a global approximation for the appropriate variable (that is the deflection for the plate bending problems and the stress function for the plane states) must be obtained based on the approximate satisfaction of the boundary conditions and of the governing equations. For typical problems. namely. References [1] Kansa EJ. thus. the resulting systems of equations are of reduced dimension and.M. two types of problems are analyzed. Conclusions The results obtained so far show good agreement with reference solutions. Tests are carried out on stretching or bending plates subjected to different loading and boundary conditions.pdf. 4. Nashville. hyperbolic and elliptic partial differential equations. Surface Fitting and Multiresolution Methods. Adv Comput Math 1999. Comparisons are made with other results available in the literature. Piecewise polynomial. Solving partial differential equations by collocation with radial basis functions. Solving differential equations with radial basis functions: multilevel methods and smoothing. Rabut C. For each problem. but many more families of RBFs are available. the multiquadrics. positive definite and compacfly supported radial basis functions of minimal degree. 3. The implementation is very straight . [2] Fasshauer GE. Analysis of elastostatic problems In this work.uah. to use compactly supported radial basis functions.19:149161. 1999. see Wendland [5]. It is also possible.A.11(23):139159. http://rbfpde. Motivation for using radial basis functions to solve PDEs.318 V. 1997. Multiquadrics — a scattered data approximation scheme with applications to computational fluiddynamics — II: Solutions to parabolic. plane states and plate bending. [3] Kansa J. This formulation seems very attractive for several other types of problems. [5] Wendland H.edu/kansaweb. although not considered in this work. Adv Comput Math 1995. This global approximation is constructed with radial basis functions of the type shown earlier.
Incompressible. Fax: +44 (2380) 593230. Isotropic models fail to capture the essential anisotropy characteristics and lead to unrealistic results [6]. the first three principal invariants of the right CauchyGreen deformation tensor C and a fourth invariant. The preferred orientation of the collagen fibres induces the transversely isotropic symmetry of the ligament. School of Engineering Sciences. Tel. New insights into the stress and strain distributions within the ACL confirmed experimental observations. A 3D FE analysis of the ACL was performed in order to simulate its behaviour during a passive knee flexion. SO 17 IBJ. Explicit.limbert@soton. Soft tissue. The mechanical behaviour of ligaments is assumed to be governed by a function ^m. Anisotropic.Limbert*.5. Highfield. UK Abstract A fully threedimensional (3D) incompressible transversely isotropic hyperelastic material was implemented into a commercial explicit finite element (FE) code in order to achieve realistic numerical simulations of the mechanical behaviour of human Hgaments. This unit vector can be defined globally or pointwise and X^^ is defined by Eq. corresponding to the stretch in the fibre direction characterized by the unit vector no. To overcome these shortcomings. Introduction The ACL is essential for the stability of the knee by preventing anterior displacement of the tibia relative to the femur and hyperextension of the joint. Constitutive modelling and finite element implementation Due to their natural composite structure.1. Keywords: Finite element. University of Southampton. M. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury within the ACL it is necessary to assess the magnitude and the distribution of stress within this ligament. an incompressible transversely isotropic hyperelastic material model was implemented into an explicit FE code. Email: g.uk © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. representing the mechanical contribution of the matrix (MooneyRivlin material) and by a function f{X) representing the contribution of the . (1): (X„j2 = no • (Cno) = h (1) where U is an invariant firstly introduced by Ericksen and Rivlin [4]. Bathe (Editor) 2. the present study focused on studying the mechanical behaviour of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) when the knee is submitted to a passive flexion. The natural prestressed state of the ligament was integrated into the FE formulation and its relevance was demonstrated. Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics K. ligaments can be accurately described by the Theory of Fibre Reinforced Composites at finite strains. Biomechanics 1.7. Anterior cruciate ligament. All rights reserved. * Corresponding author.J. This postulates the existence of a strain energy function ^ which depends on /i. Spencer [10]. AHQ. and is the most commonly injured ligament of the body. Southampton. Ligament.: +44 (2380) 597665.ac.12]. h and /s.8.319 An explicit threedimensional finite element model of an incompressible transversely isotropic hyperelastic material: application to the study of the human anterior cruciate ligament G. Very few 3D FE continuum models of human knee ligaments have been developed [2. Hyperelasticity. As an appHcation.Taylor Bioengineering Sciences Research Group. Materials and methods 2. Ligaments are dense connective tissues consisting of parall