This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
NAVAL WEAPONS SYSTEMS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
1. Identify the gunnery systems used on Navy
6. Identify the air-to-air missiles used by the Navy. 7. Identify the air-to-ground missiles used by the Navy. 8. Identify various airborne weapons used by the Navy. 9. Identify the Navy’s nuclear weapons capability.
2. Describe the purpose of gun fire control
3. Identify the antiair warfare (AAW) missiles
used by the Navy.
4. Identify the cruise missiles used by the Navy. 5. Identify the antisubmarine warfare (ASW)
weapons used by the Navy.
Before the discovery of gunpowder, naval battles were fought with row-galley tactics. In general, two methods were employed. A galley could maneuver near the enemy vessel and attempt to ram it, overturn it, board it by grappling hooks, or shave off its oars by a close run. An alternative procedure was to catapult flaming sulphur, pitch, niter, or oil onto the enemy ship; row away; and watch the fire. Although crossbows and shipborne spring- or torsion-powered artillery did allow some battle action before actual ship-to-ship contact, the ram was the main weapon. Speed and maneuverability were the best defenses. Today, however, weapons systems are extremely complex. They include both the weapon and the fire control equipment used with the weapon. Fire control entails problem solving: the problem of destroying a target with the armament of your ship or aircraft. Solutions must be found for the three types of targets: surface, subsurface, and air targets. The effective use of any weapons system requires the delivery of a destructive device to a target. The destructive device (weapon) could
be a guided missile, gun projectile, rocket, torpedo, or depth charge. To deliver the weapon accurately, we must know the location, direction of travel, and the velocity of the target. Since many air targets now travel faster than sound, they must be engaged at great distances. A weapon is most effective when used as part of a ship’s or aircraft’s weapons system against such targets. A weapons system includes the following: 1. Units that detect, locate, and identify the target 2. Units that direct or aim a delivery unit (for example, gun or guided-missile fire control radar) 3. Units that deliver or initiate the delivery of the weapon to the target (for example, missile battery, gun battery) 4. Units termed weapons that destroy the target when in contact with it or near it While this serves as a brief overview of a weapons system, let’s look a little deeper
The barbette encloses the ammunition-handling rooms. Large guns are usually mounted in turrets. 20-1) provides destroyers and large ships with an all-weather capability for support of amphibious operations. The DD-963. During the revolutionary war. Installed only on battleships. and method of fire. The Mk 45 (fig. Total installation weight varies from 49. destroyers (DDs).500 yards and fires 70-pound shells at a rate of 32 rounds per minute. Smaller guns are housed in two types of gun mounts: open and closed.700 pounds.700-pound projectile a distance of 24 miles. American ships fought at ranges of only several hundred yards. exclusive of small arms. GUNS The gun is the Navy’s oldest and most frequently used piece of ordnance equipment. 20-2 . Modern guns hurl explosive shells that may weigh up to 2. The latter type resembles a turret but does not have an armored barbette.000 to 54. This gun can destroy a ship or some other target with only one of its projectiles. Modern improvements in the construction of guns and ammunition have revolutionized gunnery by increasing the destructive power and maximum range of this weapon. which are usually automatic. 5"/54 The 5"/54 Mk 42 is an automatic dual-purpose (DP) gun carried by most frigates (FFs). Although it has a low firing rate (2 rounds per minute). the weapons maybe located on one. It also provides them with an all-weather capability for delivery of rapid and accurate naval gunfire against surface craft. 134. depending on the installation configuration. boxlike structures of armor enclosing the breech end of two or three guns. are classified according to size. move the gun to a position designated by a fire control system. and guided-missile cruisers (CGs) built in the 1950s and 1960s. Using inaccurate cast-iron guns without sights. a fixed circular tube of armor extending down to the armored decks. the 16" projectile is quite destructive. and the guns are elevated by electric or electric-hydraulic power drives.-Mk 45 5"/54. or three single mounts. The following sections briefly describe some of the gunnery systems used by the Navy. The mounts or turrets of all naval guns except the smallest are trained (rotated in the deck plane).202 Figure 20-1. It is a shielded. they threw solid shots that usually failed to penetrate. it can fire a 2.at some of the systems and equipment the Navy uses. The gun has an effective range of 24. type of ammunition used. LHA-1. Depending on the class of ship. hoists. and shore targets. two. single-barrel. The power drives. Naval guns. 16"/50 The 16"/50 turret-mounted gun is the only major-caliber weapon in the fleet today. CGN-36. aircraft. The turret rotates within and on top of a barbette.000 pounds. The range of the largest (16-inch) gun now in service exceeds 24 miles. fully automatic gun that fires 5"/54 semifixed ammunition. DDG993. and gun-laying machinery of the turret.
) GUN FIRE CONTROL EQUIPMENT Gun fire control equipment must solve a difficult problem. The system is an automatic.CGN-38. 76-MM/62 The Mk 75 76-mm/62-caliber. 20-2. 20-3 . Navy from 1939 until the late 1960s. The projectile weighs 55 pounds and has an effective range of 18.000 yards. Its projectiles are 2.000 rounds per minute. The enemy’s use of combat suicide planes and dive bombers prompted the need for rapid-fire weapons having a larger explosive projectile than 40-mm guns. Although the 3"/50 gun was not produced in time for wartime service. Becoming standard throughout much of the fleet. a few single mounts were installed. Because of its light weight. FFs. The gunhouse. A few of these mounts remain on major combatant ships. This system is suitable for installation on most ships as a single unit. The twin mounts are the secondary gun battery on battleships (BBs). It must direct the guns to hit Figure 20-2. fixed-wing aircraft. rapid-fire. hard defense against antiship cruise missiles. and guidedmissile frigates (FFGs). The system has a high-kill probability. fast-reaction.200 yards. For short periods. an efficient gun crew can get off 15 rounds per minute for single mounts and 30 rounds per minute for single twin mounts. requires only three handlers to reload the magazine. however. semiautomatic 3"/50 gun was planned during World War II. it replaced the 40-mm twin and quadruple mounts on all combat ships.800 yards. Single or twin mounts made up the secondary batteries on early cruisers and battleships. it is suitable for installation on the new guided-missile frigates and missile hydrofoil boats. 5"/38 The 5"/38 semiautomatic DP gun was the mainstay of the U. 3"/50 The dual-purpose. and surface targets. (See fig. it proved to be a very effective gun. CLOSE-IN WEAPON SYSTEM (CIWS) The close-in weapon system (CIWS) was developed to provide the fleet with a close-range. One or two single mounts are now the main battery of the older DDs. and CG-47 classes of ships carry the Mk 45. It permits smaller ships to have a degree of self-protection never before possible. It combines a single-mount fire control radar and a six-barrel Gatling gun that fires depleted-uranium projectiles at a rate of 3. which is not manned. computercontrolled radar with a rapid-fire 20-millimeter gun. Most of the mounts installed were open twin mounts.S. It is a watercooled single mount with a rate of fire of 85 rounds per minute and a maximum range of 17. The 3"/50 fires 45 rounds per minute per barrel and has a range of 14. but most are found on auxiliary and amphibious landing ships.5 times heavier than those made of steel.—Close-in weapon system (CIWS). dual-purpose gun mount was developed in the late 1960s to combat increased aircraft target speeds and the cruise missile threat.
Furthermore. Wind.and Virginia-class cruisers. one above deck and the other below deck in a protected position. Surfacelaunched missiles are used to destroy surface. In addition. The computer receives data about target coordinates from the director and/or radar. STANDARD The Standard family of missiles is one of the most reliable in the Navy’s inventory. The fire control equipment that solves this problem is usually known as a gun fire control system. The Standard missile can be used against missiles. Each battery frequently has more than one of these systems. The above-deck portion consists principally of a gun director that acts as the eyes of the battery. In an antiair warfare (AAW) operation. Introduction of radar into the fire control system has greatly enhanced its flexibility and accuracy. 6 inches SM-1-1. and other forces also affect the path of the projectile. Some of the older guided-missile destroyers (DDGs) and the Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates use the SM-1(MR) as a medium-range defense weapon. Computers make use of complex electrical and mechanical components to perform continuous complex calculations. 20-4 . Accordingly. motion of the ship. The first line of defense is aircraft. Truxton. Bainbridge. and moving through water. guided missiles are the second line of defense. These orders are transmitted directly to the train and elevation power drives of the gun mounts or turrets. A gun fire control system generally consists of two parts. the guns and the fire control equipment are mounted on a ship that is rolling. California. Belnap. The SM-2(MR) is a medium-range defense weapon for Ticonderoga-class Aegis cruisers. It then computes this data into orders needed for the guns to aim properly to hit the target. thus establishing a line of sight. The below-deck components of the system usually consist of a computer and other related equipment. the gun cannot be aimed at the point where the target is when detected. Entering the fleet more than a decade ago. Characteristics of the SM-1(MR) and SM-2(MR) missiles: Length: Diameter: Wing span: Weight: 14 feet.a moving target with a projectile that takes a considerable length of time to arrive at its destination. hand-operated devices. Directors vary in size and complexity. It must be aimed at the point where the target will be when the projectile gets there. Some are entirely mechanical. SM-2-1.5 inches 3 feet. with quantities represented by positions of shafts. others are electromechanical. It is trained and elevated so that its optics and radar are always directed toward the target. land.380 pounds More than 15 nautical miles Range: The SM-2(ER) is an extended-range area defense weapon for the Leahy. Some are large rotating structures with complex electrical driving equipment while others are small. atmosphere. The whole battery may be controlled by one system or may be broken down into smaller groups. The following sections briefly describe some of the Navy’s surfacelaunched missiles. it replaced the Tartar and Terrier missiles. and ships. It uses built-in data about the wind. the path of the projectile is not a straight line but is curved by gravity. and Kidd-class destroyers. pitching. Radar provides more accurate range as well as target direction data that is almost as good as the best optics. SURFACE-LAUNCHED ANTIAIR WARFARE (AAW) MISSILES The Navy uses surface-launched missiles both as offensive and defensive weapons.100 pounds. aircraft. and Long Beach classes of cruisers. 7 inches 13. the predicted position of the target. although the computer is sometimes part of the director. Arleigh Burke-class destroyers. All naval ships now use gun fire control equipment. with quantities represented by both positions and voltages. variations in atmospheric density. each controlled by a separate system. and the projectile path. The AAW missiles in the Navy’s current inventory include the Standard and Sea Sparrow missiles. that is. and air targets.
Navy has relied upon carrier aircraft to maintain sea control. 134. The fifth operational missile of the Sparrow family. Other navies. turbo-sustained.53 Figure 20-3. 2 inches 13.Characteristics of the SM-2(ER) missiles: Length: Diameter: Wing span: Weight: Range: SPARROW The AIM/RIM-74 is a much-improved and highly successful air-to-air and surface-to-air version of the Sparrow missile. antiship cruise CRUISE MISSILES Since World War II the U. 4 inches 510 pounds More than 2. These missiles were first used successfully by the Egyptians to sink the Israeli destroyer Elath in 1967. This led to the development of the Harpoon cruise missile. Further research eventually led to the development of the Tomahawk cruise missile.-Harpoon missile being launched from a canister launcher aboard USS Leahy (CG-16). It has considerably greater invulnerability to electronic countermeasures (ECM) and better target-tracking capability. 20-3) is a medium-range.980 pounds More than 30 nautical miles The United States did not start development of a similar weapon until 1971. not having the money for carriers. rocket-boosted. Any nation with a relatively modest investment could successfully challenge the most powerful naval forces. At that time the United States realized our Navy did not have the benefit of an equal weapon against ships equipped with antiship missiles. The battle opened a new era in naval warfare. 20-5 .S. it can be employed against attacking aircraft at all tactical speeds and altitudes in all weather. developed antiship missiles. this latest version of the Sparrow family continues to be one of the Navy’s most heavily procured missiles. Characteristics of the Sparrow: Length: Diameter: Wing span: Weight: Speed: Range: 12 feet 8 inches 3 feet.5 inches 5 feet. HARPOON The Harpoon (fig. With folding wings and clipped tail fins. it is compatible with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Sea Sparrow launcher. Entering the Navy’s inventory in 1983. 2 inches 2.660 miles per hour More than 30 nautical miles 26 feet.
9 inches 3. subsonic. it then makes a course correction to guide the missile to the target. acquire.-The first fully guided Tomahawk cruise missile in flight after being launched from an A-6 Intruder aircraft. longrange. The antiship version has a modified Harpoon cruise missile guidance system. nuclear warhead —1. Tomahawk is a highly survivable weapon against predicted hostile defense systems. the missile begins an active radar search to seek.missile. Characteristics of the Harpoon: Length: 15 feet (surface/submarinelaunched). The Navy is now developing a new infrared Harpoon variant called the Standoff Land Attack missile (SLAM). 20-4) is an all-weather submarine/surface-combatant-launched. It was introduced in the fleet on ships and submarines in 1977 and on the P-3 series aircraft in 1979. 12 feet. The Harpoon can be launched from surface ships. antiship or land-attack cruise missile.4 inches 8 feet. Radar detection of the Tomahawk is difficult because the missile has a very small cross section and can fly at extremely low altitudes. At a programmed distance. conventional warhead— 600 nautical miles Antiship configuration-250 nautical miles Diameter: Wing span: TOMAHAWK 3 feet (with booster fins and wings) Diameter: Wing span: The Tomahawk (fig. surfaced submarines. Its primary mission is to destroy hostile surface targets such as combatants. The Harpoon was used effectively in attacks on Libyan targets in the Gulf of Sidra in 1986. Characteristics of the Tomahawk: Length: 20 feet. The land-attack version of the Tomahawk has an inertial and terrain contour-matching Weight: Speed: Range: 134. 20-6 . The Harpoon is being improved to add range and to decrease altitude in its sea-skimming mode. and hit the target ship. infrared detection is difficult because the turbofan engine emits a low level of heat. Similarly. This system permits the launching and flying of the Tomahawk in the general direction of an enemy ship at low altitudes. 6 inches (with booster) 20. It can be conventionally armed for antisurface warfare and conventionally and nuclear armed for land-attack versions. a solid-propellant rocket booster propels the missile until a small turbofan engine takes over for the cruise portion of the flight. or other vessels. The TERCOM system compares a stored map reference with the actual terrain to determine the missile’s position. submarines. or aircraft (without the rocket booster). After launch.54 Figure 20-4. If necessary.200 pounds (with booster) About 550 miles per hour Land-attack.350 nautical miles Landattack. 7 inches (airlaunched) 14 inches (TERCOM) guidance system.
55 Figure 20-5.000 nautical miles (4. 134. SSBNs makeup one leg of the TRIAD. Poseidon (C-3). Navy’s Fleet Ballistic Missile Program that started in 1956. The Trident II is a three-stage. Some of the older submarines carry the Poseidon (C-3) missiles. As discussed in chapter 11. Since then.S. 20-7 . A considerable increase in payload . and Trident I (C-4) have served as a significant deterrent to nuclear aggression. A-2. was incorporated into the Trident II. 20-5) is the sixthgeneration member of the U. and A-3). This was Fleet ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) carry the missiles the United States uses to ensure it has a second-strike capability in case of nuclear war. inertially guided ballistic missile with a range of more than 4. the Polaris (A-1.600 statute miles). These submarines carry the Trident (C-4 and D-5) missiles. solid-propellant.—Trident 11 (D-5) missile. . Submarines are also capable of launching the Harpoon and Tomahawk cruise missiles discussed previously in this chapter.SUBMARINE-LAUNCHED MISSILES TRIDENT II (D-5) The Trident II (D-5) (fig.
solid-fuel rocket used by the Poseidon. The post-boost control system provides thrust and control to the equipment sec-t ion until all reentry bodies have been deployed.done by encasement of the first two stages in epoxied graphite and the third stage in the filament-wound Kevlar.600 mph). solid-fuel rocket instead of the two-stage. a telescoping outward extension that reduces frontal drag by about 50 percent. the first-stage motor ignites.—An F/A-18 Hornet With Sidewinders missiles. and warhead. Characteristics of the Trident II: Length: 44 feet Diameter: 83 inches Weight: 130. range. It uses a three-stage. the Trident II is ejected by the pressure of expanding gas within the launch tube. is still in active use in the Navy. Trident I has a range almost double that of the Poseidon. all of which were improved in the Trident I missile. the aerospike extends. The range of the missile was also increased by the aerospike. With separation.000 nautical miles POSEIDON (C-3) The Poseidon (C-3) missile.000 nautical miles TRIDENT I (C-4) The Trident I (C-4).111 Figure 20-6.000 feet per second (13. 3. When the missile reaches the proper distance from the submarine. concluding the boost phase. and the boost stage begins. though being phased out. The Poseidon was the fourth missile in the Navy’s Fleet Ballistic Missile Program. 20-8 . The new Trident and Ohio classes of submarines carry 24 Trident II missiles that can be launched under water or on the surface. This enabled the existing Poseidon submarines as well as the newer Trident submarines to use the Trident I. Characteristics of the Trident I: Length: 34 feet Diameter: 74 inches Weight: 73. first deployed in 1979. After about 65 seconds the first-stage motor and interstage separate from the missile. This allows the secondstage motor to ignite and continue the boost phase for approximately 65 seconds. The key differences are in weight. The physical dimensions of the Poseidon are identical to the Trident 1. Upon firing. will remain on patrol until phased out in the late 1990s. At this point the missile is traveling more than 20.000 pounds Range: 4. This missile was designed to have the same dimensions as the Poseidon (C-3) missile. propulsion.000 pounds Range: Over 4. the third stage burns for nearly 40 seconds.
missiles. least expensive. the trend is toward versatility by means of rockets. since then various versions of it have been produced for more than 27 nations. The prototype of this heat-seeking missile was fired more than 30 years ago. These missiles include the Sparrow. 20-9 . 20-7) is an allweather air-to-air missile designed to destroy 195 pounds More than 1. and. it provides Navy fighter aircraft with air superiority in a hostile environment. guns. dogfight missile used by all Navy fighters and attack aircraft against hostile aircraft. This section briefly describes some of the existing airborne weapons. In this role. 20-6) is a short-range.000 pounds 2.56 Figure 20-7. and AMRAAM.900 miles per hour More than 3.—Two AIM-54A Phoenix missiles mounted on the undercarriage of an F-14A Tomcat aircraft. Phoenix. Sparrow Although earlier described as a surface-to-air missile. The Navy’s Research and Development team is constantly seeking ways to improve existing airborne weapons while working simultaneously on new weapons. in some aircraft. Sidewinder. the Sparrow missile is also used as an air-toair missile. AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES The Navy uses four air-to-air missiles. 5 inches 5 inches AIRBORNE WEAPONS In today’s high-performance aircraft.Characteristics of the Poseidon: Length: Diameter: Weight: Range: 34 feet 74 inches 65. Characteristics of the Sidewinder: Length: Diameter: 9 feet.500 nautical miles Sidewinder The Sidewinder air-to-air missile (fig. The Sidewinder is one of the oldest. weapons inventory. and most successful missiles in the entire U. The latest version has a significantly improved infrared countermeasure capability.S. 1 inch Weight: Speed: Range: Phoenix The Phoenix missile (fig. Wing span: 2 feet. bombs.5 nautical miles 134.
The AN/AWG-9 system is capable of long-range tracking of multiple hostile air targets. With AMRAAM. radarguided. lighter. is used by F-14 and F/A-18 aircraft. Characteristics of the Phoenix: Length: Diameter: Wing span: Weight: Speed: 13 feet 15 inches 3 feet 1. 20-10 . 20-8) is an all-weather. the pilot can aim and fire several missiles at multiple targets simultaneously. a follow-on to the Sparrow missile. In addition to the great range of the Phoenix missile. It can launch up to six missiles against six targets simultaneously.57 Figure 20-8. It is faster.040 miles per hour More than 104 nautical miles AMRAAM The advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM) (fig. The AMRAAM missile. It is designed to provide launch-and-leave capability as well as multiple-target engagement capability. smaller. beyond-visual-range missile.multiple hostile air targets at great range. it has excellent intercept capability against high-speed maneuvering targets at both high and low altitudes.—An AIM-120A advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM) being readied for loading on an F/A-18A Hornet aircraft. The Phoenix missile was introduced into the fleet with the F-14A aircraft and AN/AWG-9 weapons control system in 1974.024 pounds More than 3. Characteristics of AMRAAM: Length: Diameter: Wing span: Weight: Speed: 12 feet 7 inches 13 inches 335 pounds More than 760 miles per hour More than 35 nautical miles Range: Range: 134. and better able to attack at a lower altitude than the Sparrow.
The gun fires at a rate of 6. solid-fuel. M61A1 20-mm gun. and CGs. antisubmarine ballistic projectile. Air-to-ground missiles in current inventory include the Harpoon and Harm missiles. 20-mm Guns The only 20-mm gun now used by operational fleet aircraft is the internally mounted. shipboardlaunched. and penetration effects.000 rounds per minute in the GUNLOW position. it delivers a torpedo or nuclear depth charge through the air to a specific point in the water. The purpose of the ASROC is the destruction of submarines at long ranges. On most ships. ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE WEAPONS The Navy’s primary operational weapons are (1) antisubmarine rockets (ASROCs). and bombs. The Harm missile proved effective against Libyan targets in the Gulf of Sidra in 1986. rockets. The ABF will replace the Mk 80-series bomb with a 500-pound-class bomb optimized for blast fragmentation and a 1. (2) submarine rockets (SUBROCs). It has an electrically controlled and hydraulically operated ammunition drum. The new advanced bomb family (ABF) will provide two bombs to meet the general-purpose bombing requirements for increased blast. DDGs.000 rounds per 20-11 . the ASROC enables the antisubmarine warfare (ASW) ship to launch its weapons before the submarine discovers it is under attack. DDs. 8 inches 10 inches 3 feet. and the IR Maverick missile. six-barrel. 8 inches 807 pounds More than 760 miles per hour More than 50 nautical miles minute in the GUNHI position and 4. Harm The Harm missile was designed to destroy or suppress enemy electronic emitters.000pound-class bomb with improved penetration capabilities. The missile has two configurations-one with a depth charge and one with a torpedo. Many naval aircraft are capable of carrying the Harpoon. However. rocket-propelled. fragmentation. Harpoon The Harpoon missile discussed previously in this chapter under surface-to-surface missiles can also be used as an air-to-ground missile. The new advanced rocket system will provide a high volume of air-to-ground fire from standoff ranges against a broad target spectrum. ASROC launchers are installed in FFs. it can either attack under the most favorable circumstances or have the submarine within its lethal radius. Harm is a high-speed antiradiation missile that succeeds the Shrike and Arm missiles as the Navy’s primary defensesuppression air-to-surface missile. The AV-8B Harrier uses a similar 25-mm gun. Characteristics of Harm: Length: Diameter: Wing span: Weight: Speed: Range: 13 feet. To achieve this. and (3) torpedoes.AIR-TO-GROUND MISSILES The Navy is currently developing two new airto-ground missiles. ASROC The ASROC missile is a subsonic. Because of its standoff range. It was designed especially to suppress those associated with radar sites used to direct antiaircraft guns and surface-to-air missiles. these missiles are not yet operational. From that point. Aircraft Rockets and Bombs The Navy is currently developing new rockets and bombs to meet today’s operational requirements. the Tacit Rainbow missile. the launcher is OTHER AIRBORNE WEAPONS Other airborne weapons used by naval aircraft include 20-mm guns.
an important defense against enemy tactics. These torpedoes enable U. the motor and depth bomb separate. Sturgeon. or aircraft. is launched from a submarine torpedo tube by conventional methods. After clearing the submarine. The Mk 46 torpedo is designed to be launched from surface combatant torpedo tubes. Both will conduct multiple reattacks in the unlikely event they miss the target.S. The target may be a surface ship as well as a submarine.a boxlike device containing eight cells.S. Both torpedoes can operate with or without wire guidance and use active and/or passive homing. and Los Angeles classes of attack submarines (SSNs). The Mk 48 has been operational in the U. The Mk 48 ADCAP will also be used by the Seawolf-class attack submarines and Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines. The SUBROC system can fire missiles in rapid succession. SUBROC systems are installed in the Permit. The Mk 48 ADCAP became operational in 1988 and was approved for full production in 1989. When launched they execute preprogrammed target-search. and fixed. Upon reentry into the water. The Mk 46 torpedo is presently identified as the NATO standard torpedo. The improved version—the Mk 48 ADCAP—is carried by the SSN 688 and SSN 637 classes of attack submarines. as shown in figure 20-9. TORPEDOES A torpedo can be launched from submarines. The design of both of these weapons enables them to combat fast. where the warhead explodes. the latter continuing toward the target area. Since introduction of the Mk 46 in 1967.—The ASROC cellular launcher. These capabilities allow its employment against the most advanced Soviet submarines. . the bomb sinks to a preset depth. ASROC missiles. An inertial guidance system then directs the SUBROC toward its target. navies of several other countries have acquired it. submarines to sink hostile surface ships or submarines in the presence or absence of torpedo countermeasures. Mk 46 The Mk 46 torpedo is a lightweight ASW torpedo designed to attack high-performance submarines. each containing a missile.and rotary-wing aircraft. acquisition. and attack procedures. The ADCAP has significantly increased capabilities over the Mk 48. Navy since 1972. A new Mk 48 advanced capability (ADCAP) and Mk 50 torpedo are being phased into the fleet. an antisubmarine rocket with a nuclear warhead. 20-12 15. SUBROC The SUBROC.106 Figure 20-9. deep-diving nuclear submarines and high-performance surface ships. Mk 48 and Mk 48 Advanced Capability (ADCAP) The Mk 48 torpedo is carried by all Navy attack and ballistic missile submarines. a rocket motor ignites and propels the weapon upward and out of the water. The two primary torpedoes in the Navy inventory are the Mk 46 and the Mk 48. surface ships. At a predetermined range.
At that time two Iranian surface combatants fired on U. the U.200 feet fuze. The Mk 50 is being phased in to replace the Mk 46 torpedo as the fleet’s lightweight torpedo. several generations of antiship missiles have emerged as an air threat to the fleet.S. such as the . and operational availability in all environments did not match the threat. and depth bombs by use of adaptational kits. Because of the radioactive mushroom-type cloud resulting from a nuclear bomb. missiles. Air. Guns were replaced in the late fifties by the first generation of guided missiles in our ships and aircraft.S. Several Navy weapons (ASROC. Either method allows the aircraft to reach a point of safety before weapon detonation. surface. we realized our reaction time. Navy has developed systems and tactics to protect itself from air attacks. maybe required to makeup the complete nuclear weapon. The first combatant ship sunk by one of these missiles was an Israeli destroyer. and more sophisticated submarines being developed and operated by the Soviet Union. for instance) have both conventional and nuclear capability.S. The second is the use of a parachute to slow the bomb (retarded free-fall bomb). Major operational components and nuclear components contained in a basic assembly are considered part of the bomb. The primary air-launched nuclear weapon is. The Navy then started a comprehensive engineering development program to meet an operational requirement for an advanced surface missile system (ASMS). By that time. The Mk 50 uses an active/passive acoustic homing guidance system.695 pounds (ADCAP) More than 28 knots More than 5 nautical miles More than 1. A complete stockpiled weapon. These missiles continued to perform well until the late sixties.75 inches 750 pounds More than 40 knots 19 feet 21 inches 3. torpedoes. Navy ships and aircraft in the Persian Gulf. radar. and power supply. For more than 40 years. The reason is additional assemblies. may consist of more than one package.S. the nuclear bomb. hit by a Soviet-built missile in October 1967. Some cruise missiles have both nuclear and conventional variants.Characteristics of the Mk 48 and the Mk 48 ADCAP: Length: Diameter: Weight: Speed: Range: Depth: Mk 50 Torpedo The Mk 50 torpedo is an advanced. of course. The threat posed by such weapons was reconfirmed as recently as April 1988. deeperdiving. The U. ASMS was renamed the Aegis weapons system (after the mythological shield of Zeus) in December 1969. One is the use of a timing mechanism inserted in the bomb to delay detonation. of which little can be said regarding specific characteristics. Nuclear warheads can be employed with rockets. Navy’s defense against this threat has continued to rely on the winning strategy of defense in depth. The resulting exchange of antiship missiles led to the destruction of an Iranian frigate and corvette by U. and subsurface launches can be coordinated so that the missiles arrive on target almost simultaneously. Based on the latest technology—particularly in digital computers and radar-signal processing—the Aegis weapons system was designed as 20-13 NUCLEAR WEAPONS The United States has pursued a policy of making the fewest number of nuclear weapons cover as wide a range of military applications as possible. This capability is achieved by planned interchangeability.-built Harpoon missiles. firing set. however. the deploying aircraft crew must be protected once a bomb is dropped. AEGIS WEAPONS SYSTEM Any discussion of the Navy’s weapons systems would not be complete without a look at the shipboard integrated AAW combat weapons system (Aegis). A safe separation time is provided by two methods. lightweight torpedo for use against the faster. Characteristics of the Mk 50: Length: Diameter: Weight: Speed: 9 feet. 4 inches 12. firepower. Modern antiship missiles can be launched several hundred miles away. Since the end of World War II. The Mk 50 can be launched from all ASW aircraft and from torpedo tubes aboard surface combatant ships.434 pounds (Mk 48) 3.
The Aegis is effective in all environmental conditions. a contract was awarded in 1985 for construction of the first DDG-51-class ship. As a result. Commenting on the ship’s performance. It supplied outstanding air defense coverage to our ships off the coast of Lebanon. multifunction phased-array radar-the AN/SPY-1. The surface Navy’s Aegis ships provide area defense for the battle group as well as a clear air picture for more effective deployment of F-14 and F/A-18 aircraft.S. and surface ships. Nancy Reagan on Armed Forces Day 1981 and commissioned on 23 January 1983. It is this interface that makes the Aegis capable of simultaneous operations against a multimission threat: antiair. In 1980 the preliminary plans for a smaller ship with Aegis capabilities were studied. ushering in another advance in Aegis capabilities. track. the Aegis weapons system enables fighter aircraft to concentrate more on the outer air battle while cruisers and destroyers concentrate on battle group area defense. The design chosen was based on the hull and machinery designs of Spruance-class destroyers. Because of advanced technology. Within weeks the Aegis weapons system had successfully engaged the most difficult targets possible in extremely demanding antiair warfare scenarios intended to stress it to its limit. This system allowed greater missile selection. This allows for “forwardfitting” technology rather than very expensive “back-fitting” technology during scheduled overhauls. The 27th and final CG-47-class cruiser will be commissioned in 1994. USS Norton Sound (AVM 1) in 1973. Technological advances in missile and computer battle management systems will soon permit Aegis-equipped ships to join carrier air assets in outer air defense. It has both all-weather capability and outstanding abilities in chaff and jamming environments. It can defeat an extremely wide range of targets from wave top to directly overhead. automatic detect-and-track. The commissioning of USS Bunker Hill (CG-52) opened a new era in surface warfare as the first Aegis ship outfitted with the vertical launching system (VLS). Aegis-equipped ships are capable of engaging and defeating enemy aircraft. antisurface. from detection to kill. we can now build an Aegis weapons system compatible with a smaller ship while maintaining the multimission capability vital to modern surface forces. The highly accurate firing of Aegis will result in a decrease of asset expenditures. Admiral Burke has attended each design phase of the DDG-51 and observed its keel laying in Bath. Aegis-equipped ships are key elements in modern carrier and battleship battle groups. The computer-based command-decision element is the core of the Aegis weapons system. This combat system can also be used for overall force coordination. firepower. The lead ship of the DDG-51 class bears the name of a living person—the legendary Admiral Arleigh “31-knot” Burke. Maine. It is extremely capable against antiship cruise missiles and manned aircraft flying in all speed ranges from subsonic to supersonic. was christened by Mrs. Originally identified as a guidedmissile destroyer (DDG-47). Several shipboard applications were studied before the design of the first Aegis ships was chosen. The first ship of the class. the Chief of Naval Operations said.” Since 1983 additional Aegis cruisers have joined USS Ticonderoga in the fleet. In other words. CG-47-class cruisers are also constructed by this method. USS Ticonderoga (CG-47). The Aegis weapons system is the most capable surface-launched missile system the Navy has ever put to sea. 20-14 . After several years of development and land-based testing. and missileguidance functions simultaneously with a track capacity of well over 100 targets. “Ticonderoga provided to the Eastern Mediterranean Task Force an impressive new tactical dimension which included 100 percent weapon system availability and a coherent air picture allowing the antiair warfare coordinator (AAWC) (embarked in Ticonderoga) to manage. which allows incorporation of technological advances during construction. missiles. The improved SPY-1B radar went to sea in USS Princeton (CG-59). submarines. At present. rather than react to a difficult situation. Navy. The heart of the system is an advanced. USS Ticonderoga deployed to the Mediterranean with the USS Independence battle group in October 1983.a total weapons system. The Aegis weapons system brings a revolutionary multimission combat capability to the U. and survivability. He was the most famous destroyerman of World War II. the first Engineering Development Model (EDM-1) was installed in the test ship. this allows for advanced planning to prevent costly changes after the completion of the ship. The DDG-51s will be built in cycles. the class was redesignated a guided-missile cruiser. This high-power (4 megawatt) radar can perform search. and antisubmarine warfare.
THIS EXPRESSION DENOTED THE SPECIFIC TASK ABOARD SHIP OF CAULK THE THE SHIP'S LONGEST SEAM. Fla. REFERENCES Naval Science for the Merchant Marine Officer. the Navy develops new weapons systems and improves existing systems.C. It often develops new weapons with physical characteristics similar to their predecessors to preclude designing a new system.. D. Navy Fact File. 9th ed. Office of Information.As long as our Navy must steam “in harm’s way” to carry out its assigned missions. SUMMARY To meet present and future threats. however. The Aegis weapons system gives surface AAW forces a decided edge against the sophisticated modern air threat. it will require a formidable antiair warfare capability.. This practice is also cost effective.. ORIGINALLY. THE “DEVIL” WAS THE LONGEST SEAM ON THE WOODEN SHIP. Naval Education and Training Program Management Support Activity. will always remain constant— the Navy will always use every resource available to meet any threat. AND CAULKING WAS DONE WITH “PAY” OR PITCH. Washington. 1986. AND THE EXPRESSION CAME TO DENOTE ANY UNPLEASANT TASK. This practice has the advantage of being both cost effective and time saving. 1989. NAVEDTRA 38051. During periods of budget reductions. this policy just makes good sense. Planned upgrades to standard missiles and evolving improvements to the Aegis weapons system promise the fleet an extremely capable AAW system well into the 21st century. Many weapons are capable of being used by different types of ships and aircraft. THIS GRUELING TASK OF PAYING THE DEVIL WAS DESPISED BY EVERY SEAMAN. Pensacola. One fact about our weapons and weapons systems. DEVIL TO PAY T0DAY THE EXPRESSION “DEVIL TO PAY” IS USED PRIMARILY AS A MEANS OF CONVEYING AN UNPLEASANT AND IMPENDING HAPPENING. 20-15 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?