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Naval Weapons Systems

Naval Weapons Systems

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

1. Identify the gunnery systems used on Navy

6. Identify the air-to-air missiles used by the Navy. 7. Identify the air-to-ground missiles used by the Navy. 8. Identify various airborne weapons used by the Navy. 9. Identify the Navy’s nuclear weapons capability.

2. Describe the purpose of gun fire control

3. Identify the antiair warfare (AAW) missiles
used by the Navy.

4. Identify the cruise missiles used by the Navy. 5. Identify the antisubmarine warfare (ASW)
weapons used by the Navy.

Before the discovery of gunpowder, naval battles were fought with row-galley tactics. In general, two methods were employed. A galley could maneuver near the enemy vessel and attempt to ram it, overturn it, board it by grappling hooks, or shave off its oars by a close run. An alternative procedure was to catapult flaming sulphur, pitch, niter, or oil onto the enemy ship; row away; and watch the fire. Although crossbows and shipborne spring- or torsion-powered artillery did allow some battle action before actual ship-to-ship contact, the ram was the main weapon. Speed and maneuverability were the best defenses. Today, however, weapons systems are extremely complex. They include both the weapon and the fire control equipment used with the weapon. Fire control entails problem solving: the problem of destroying a target with the armament of your ship or aircraft. Solutions must be found for the three types of targets: surface, subsurface, and air targets. The effective use of any weapons system requires the delivery of a destructive device to a target. The destructive device (weapon) could

be a guided missile, gun projectile, rocket, torpedo, or depth charge. To deliver the weapon accurately, we must know the location, direction of travel, and the velocity of the target. Since many air targets now travel faster than sound, they must be engaged at great distances. A weapon is most effective when used as part of a ship’s or aircraft’s weapons system against such targets. A weapons system includes the following: 1. Units that detect, locate, and identify the target 2. Units that direct or aim a delivery unit (for example, gun or guided-missile fire control radar) 3. Units that deliver or initiate the delivery of the weapon to the target (for example, missile battery, gun battery) 4. Units termed weapons that destroy the target when in contact with it or near it While this serves as a brief overview of a weapons system, let’s look a little deeper


Total installation weight varies from 49. The Mk 45 (fig. Although it has a low firing rate (2 rounds per minute). and method of fire. boxlike structures of armor enclosing the breech end of two or three guns. exclusive of small arms. Using inaccurate cast-iron guns without sights.at some of the systems and equipment the Navy uses. are classified according to size. or three single mounts. two.000 to 54. This gun can destroy a ship or some other target with only one of its projectiles. single-barrel. DDG993. Modern improvements in the construction of guns and ammunition have revolutionized gunnery by increasing the destructive power and maximum range of this weapon. The gun has an effective range of 24. Installed only on battleships. The barbette encloses the ammunition-handling rooms. Smaller guns are housed in two types of gun mounts: open and closed. 20-2 . which are usually automatic. and gun-laying machinery of the turret. The latter type resembles a turret but does not have an armored barbette. The range of the largest (16-inch) gun now in service exceeds 24 miles. During the revolutionary war. and shore targets. It is a shielded. The DD-963. 20-1) provides destroyers and large ships with an all-weather capability for support of amphibious operations. and guided-missile cruisers (CGs) built in the 1950s and 1960s. depending on the installation configuration.700-pound projectile a distance of 24 miles. fully automatic gun that fires 5"/54 semifixed ammunition. American ships fought at ranges of only several hundred yards.700 pounds. It also provides them with an all-weather capability for delivery of rapid and accurate naval gunfire against surface craft. they threw solid shots that usually failed to penetrate. Depending on the class of ship. The turret rotates within and on top of a barbette. move the gun to a position designated by a fire control system.-Mk 45 5"/54. The following sections briefly describe some of the gunnery systems used by the Navy.202 Figure 20-1. 16"/50 The 16"/50 turret-mounted gun is the only major-caliber weapon in the fleet today. and the guns are elevated by electric or electric-hydraulic power drives.000 pounds. LHA-1. it can fire a 2. GUNS The gun is the Navy’s oldest and most frequently used piece of ordnance equipment. the weapons maybe located on one. The power drives. hoists. a fixed circular tube of armor extending down to the armored decks.500 yards and fires 70-pound shells at a rate of 32 rounds per minute. destroyers (DDs). Modern guns hurl explosive shells that may weigh up to 2. aircraft. 5"/54 The 5"/54 Mk 42 is an automatic dual-purpose (DP) gun carried by most frigates (FFs). The mounts or turrets of all naval guns except the smallest are trained (rotated in the deck plane). the 16" projectile is quite destructive. Large guns are usually mounted in turrets. CGN-36. type of ammunition used. Naval guns. 134.

It combines a single-mount fire control radar and a six-barrel Gatling gun that fires depleted-uranium projectiles at a rate of 3.—Close-in weapon system (CIWS).S. computercontrolled radar with a rapid-fire 20-millimeter gun. This system is suitable for installation on most ships as a single unit. dual-purpose gun mount was developed in the late 1960s to combat increased aircraft target speeds and the cruise missile threat. For short periods. which is not manned. CLOSE-IN WEAPON SYSTEM (CIWS) The close-in weapon system (CIWS) was developed to provide the fleet with a close-range. A few of these mounts remain on major combatant ships. 3"/50 The dual-purpose. 20-2. It permits smaller ships to have a degree of self-protection never before possible.800 yards. it proved to be a very effective gun.CGN-38. The system has a high-kill probability. One or two single mounts are now the main battery of the older DDs. it is suitable for installation on the new guided-missile frigates and missile hydrofoil boats. The twin mounts are the secondary gun battery on battleships (BBs). The enemy’s use of combat suicide planes and dive bombers prompted the need for rapid-fire weapons having a larger explosive projectile than 40-mm guns. Single or twin mounts made up the secondary batteries on early cruisers and battleships. fast-reaction. The 3"/50 fires 45 rounds per minute per barrel and has a range of 14. it replaced the 40-mm twin and quadruple mounts on all combat ships. Most of the mounts installed were open twin mounts. but most are found on auxiliary and amphibious landing ships. 5"/38 The 5"/38 semiautomatic DP gun was the mainstay of the U. Becoming standard throughout much of the fleet. FFs. (See fig.) GUN FIRE CONTROL EQUIPMENT Gun fire control equipment must solve a difficult problem. rapid-fire. 76-MM/62 The Mk 75 76-mm/62-caliber. Because of its light weight.200 yards. 20-3 . and CG-47 classes of ships carry the Mk 45. Navy from 1939 until the late 1960s.5 times heavier than those made of steel. The projectile weighs 55 pounds and has an effective range of 18. Its projectiles are 2. The gunhouse. semiautomatic 3"/50 gun was planned during World War II. hard defense against antiship cruise missiles.000 yards. It is a watercooled single mount with a rate of fire of 85 rounds per minute and a maximum range of 17.000 rounds per minute. and guidedmissile frigates (FFGs). The system is an automatic. Although the 3"/50 gun was not produced in time for wartime service. and surface targets. fixed-wing aircraft. however. an efficient gun crew can get off 15 rounds per minute for single mounts and 30 rounds per minute for single twin mounts. a few single mounts were installed. requires only three handlers to reload the magazine. It must direct the guns to hit Figure 20-2.

pitching. that is. The Standard missile can be used against missiles. All naval ships now use gun fire control equipment. guided missiles are the second line of defense. others are electromechanical. 20-4 . it replaced the Tartar and Terrier missiles. Some are large rotating structures with complex electrical driving equipment while others are small. and Kidd-class destroyers. Characteristics of the SM-1(MR) and SM-2(MR) missiles: Length: Diameter: Wing span: Weight: 14 feet. Entering the fleet more than a decade ago. and Long Beach classes of cruisers. Each battery frequently has more than one of these systems. aircraft. It then computes this data into orders needed for the guns to aim properly to hit the target. It is trained and elevated so that its optics and radar are always directed toward the target.a moving target with a projectile that takes a considerable length of time to arrive at its destination. the predicted position of the target. Accordingly. 6 inches SM-1-1. The above-deck portion consists principally of a gun director that acts as the eyes of the battery. It uses built-in data about the wind. each controlled by a separate system. A gun fire control system generally consists of two parts. Radar provides more accurate range as well as target direction data that is almost as good as the best optics. Truxton. 7 inches 13.5 inches 3 feet. In an antiair warfare (AAW) operation. Directors vary in size and complexity. Surfacelaunched missiles are used to destroy surface. Belnap. with quantities represented by positions of shafts. thus establishing a line of sight. SURFACE-LAUNCHED ANTIAIR WARFARE (AAW) MISSILES The Navy uses surface-launched missiles both as offensive and defensive weapons. the guns and the fire control equipment are mounted on a ship that is rolling. Bainbridge. It must be aimed at the point where the target will be when the projectile gets there. Some of the older guided-missile destroyers (DDGs) and the Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates use the SM-1(MR) as a medium-range defense weapon. and air targets. Wind. In addition. The whole battery may be controlled by one system or may be broken down into smaller groups.100 pounds. and other forces also affect the path of the projectile. one above deck and the other below deck in a protected position. the path of the projectile is not a straight line but is curved by gravity. Arleigh Burke-class destroyers. California. The SM-2(MR) is a medium-range defense weapon for Ticonderoga-class Aegis cruisers. The following sections briefly describe some of the Navy’s surfacelaunched missiles. The computer receives data about target coordinates from the director and/or radar. variations in atmospheric density.and Virginia-class cruisers. and the projectile path. land.380 pounds More than 15 nautical miles Range: The SM-2(ER) is an extended-range area defense weapon for the Leahy. motion of the ship. SM-2-1. These orders are transmitted directly to the train and elevation power drives of the gun mounts or turrets. with quantities represented by both positions and voltages. Computers make use of complex electrical and mechanical components to perform continuous complex calculations. Furthermore. hand-operated devices. The first line of defense is aircraft. The below-deck components of the system usually consist of a computer and other related equipment. The fire control equipment that solves this problem is usually known as a gun fire control system. and moving through water. Introduction of radar into the fire control system has greatly enhanced its flexibility and accuracy. although the computer is sometimes part of the director. and ships. Some are entirely mechanical. STANDARD The Standard family of missiles is one of the most reliable in the Navy’s inventory. The AAW missiles in the Navy’s current inventory include the Standard and Sea Sparrow missiles. the gun cannot be aimed at the point where the target is when detected. atmosphere.

660 miles per hour More than 30 nautical miles 26 feet.53 Figure 20-3. 20-3) is a medium-range. 134. Other navies. This led to the development of the Harpoon cruise missile. rocket-boosted.-Harpoon missile being launched from a canister launcher aboard USS Leahy (CG-16). Entering the Navy’s inventory in 1983. it is compatible with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Sea Sparrow launcher. These missiles were first used successfully by the Egyptians to sink the Israeli destroyer Elath in 1967. 4 inches 510 pounds More than 2. It has considerably greater invulnerability to electronic countermeasures (ECM) and better target-tracking capability. 2 inches 13. 2 inches 2. The battle opened a new era in naval warfare. Further research eventually led to the development of the Tomahawk cruise missile. Characteristics of the Sparrow: Length: Diameter: Wing span: Weight: Speed: Range: 12 feet 8 inches 3 feet. not having the money for carriers.Characteristics of the SM-2(ER) missiles: Length: Diameter: Wing span: Weight: Range: SPARROW The AIM/RIM-74 is a much-improved and highly successful air-to-air and surface-to-air version of the Sparrow missile. turbo-sustained. With folding wings and clipped tail fins.980 pounds More than 30 nautical miles The United States did not start development of a similar weapon until 1971.S. it can be employed against attacking aircraft at all tactical speeds and altitudes in all weather. Navy has relied upon carrier aircraft to maintain sea control. developed antiship missiles. antiship cruise CRUISE MISSILES Since World War II the U. this latest version of the Sparrow family continues to be one of the Navy’s most heavily procured missiles. The fifth operational missile of the Sparrow family. At that time the United States realized our Navy did not have the benefit of an equal weapon against ships equipped with antiship missiles.5 inches 5 feet. Any nation with a relatively modest investment could successfully challenge the most powerful naval forces. HARPOON The Harpoon (fig. 20-5 .

Radar detection of the Tomahawk is difficult because the missile has a very small cross section and can fly at extremely low altitudes. subsonic. it then makes a course correction to guide the missile to the target. or other vessels. surfaced submarines. and hit the target ship.54 Figure 20-4. submarines. Similarly. After launch. 20-4) is an all-weather submarine/surface-combatant-launched.-The first fully guided Tomahawk cruise missile in flight after being launched from an A-6 Intruder aircraft. It can be conventionally armed for antisurface warfare and conventionally and nuclear armed for land-attack versions. antiship or land-attack cruise missile. the missile begins an active radar search to seek. The antiship version has a modified Harpoon cruise missile guidance system. 6 inches (with booster) 20. or aircraft (without the rocket booster). 9 inches 3. nuclear warhead —1. This system permits the launching and flying of the Tomahawk in the general direction of an enemy ship at low altitudes. conventional warhead— 600 nautical miles Antiship configuration-250 nautical miles Diameter: Wing span: TOMAHAWK 3 feet (with booster fins and wings) Diameter: Wing span: The Tomahawk (fig. 20-6 . 7 inches (airlaunched) 14 inches (TERCOM) guidance system. The Harpoon was used effectively in attacks on Libyan targets in the Gulf of Sidra in 1986. Characteristics of the Harpoon: Length: 15 feet (surface/submarinelaunched). If necessary. The Harpoon can be launched from surface ships. The TERCOM system compares a stored map reference with the actual terrain to determine the missile’s position. infrared detection is difficult because the turbofan engine emits a low level of heat.missile. longrange.350 nautical miles Landattack. 12 feet. Its primary mission is to destroy hostile surface targets such as combatants. The land-attack version of the Tomahawk has an inertial and terrain contour-matching Weight: Speed: Range: 134. Tomahawk is a highly survivable weapon against predicted hostile defense systems. The Harpoon is being improved to add range and to decrease altitude in its sea-skimming mode. At a programmed distance. a solid-propellant rocket booster propels the missile until a small turbofan engine takes over for the cruise portion of the flight.200 pounds (with booster) About 550 miles per hour Land-attack. acquire.4 inches 8 feet. The Navy is now developing a new infrared Harpoon variant called the Standoff Land Attack missile (SLAM). Characteristics of the Tomahawk: Length: 20 feet. It was introduced in the fleet on ships and submarines in 1977 and on the P-3 series aircraft in 1979.

134. 20-5) is the sixthgeneration member of the U.600 statute miles). SSBNs makeup one leg of the TRIAD. The Trident II is a three-stage. the Polaris (A-1. solid-propellant. 20-7 . and A-3). and Trident I (C-4) have served as a significant deterrent to nuclear aggression. inertially guided ballistic missile with a range of more than 4. A-2. was incorporated into the Trident II.SUBMARINE-LAUNCHED MISSILES TRIDENT II (D-5) The Trident II (D-5) (fig.—Trident 11 (D-5) missile. A considerable increase in payload . Navy’s Fleet Ballistic Missile Program that started in 1956. This was Fleet ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) carry the missiles the United States uses to ensure it has a second-strike capability in case of nuclear war.000 nautical miles (4. Since then.S. Submarines are also capable of launching the Harpoon and Tomahawk cruise missiles discussed previously in this chapter. Poseidon (C-3). . Some of the older submarines carry the Poseidon (C-3) missiles. These submarines carry the Trident (C-4 and D-5) missiles.55 Figure 20-5. As discussed in chapter 11.

111 Figure 20-6. At this point the missile is traveling more than 20. After about 65 seconds the first-stage motor and interstage separate from the missile. The new Trident and Ohio classes of submarines carry 24 Trident II missiles that can be launched under water or on the surface. The physical dimensions of the Poseidon are identical to the Trident 1. range. The Poseidon was the fourth missile in the Navy’s Fleet Ballistic Missile Program. This enabled the existing Poseidon submarines as well as the newer Trident submarines to use the Trident I. the aerospike extends. This missile was designed to have the same dimensions as the Poseidon (C-3) missile. 20-8 . The post-boost control system provides thrust and control to the equipment sec-t ion until all reentry bodies have been deployed. The key differences are in weight. all of which were improved in the Trident I missile. the third stage burns for nearly 40 seconds.000 nautical miles TRIDENT I (C-4) The Trident I (C-4).—An F/A-18 Hornet With Sidewinders missiles. a telescoping outward extension that reduces frontal drag by about 50 percent.done by encasement of the first two stages in epoxied graphite and the third stage in the filament-wound Kevlar. though being phased out.600 mph). Trident I has a range almost double that of the Poseidon.000 nautical miles POSEIDON (C-3) The Poseidon (C-3) missile. Upon firing. and the boost stage begins. This allows the secondstage motor to ignite and continue the boost phase for approximately 65 seconds.000 pounds Range: 4. Characteristics of the Trident II: Length: 44 feet Diameter: 83 inches Weight: 130. Characteristics of the Trident I: Length: 34 feet Diameter: 74 inches Weight: 73. When the missile reaches the proper distance from the submarine. is still in active use in the Navy. the first-stage motor ignites. propulsion. The range of the missile was also increased by the aerospike. will remain on patrol until phased out in the late 1990s. and warhead. solid-fuel rocket instead of the two-stage. first deployed in 1979. the Trident II is ejected by the pressure of expanding gas within the launch tube. concluding the boost phase. 3.000 pounds Range: Over 4. With separation. It uses a three-stage. solid-fuel rocket used by the Poseidon.000 feet per second (13.

and most successful missiles in the entire U. The Sidewinder is one of the oldest.Characteristics of the Poseidon: Length: Diameter: Weight: Range: 34 feet 74 inches 65. the Sparrow missile is also used as an air-toair missile.56 Figure 20-7. 20-9 . it provides Navy fighter aircraft with air superiority in a hostile environment. These missiles include the Sparrow.—Two AIM-54A Phoenix missiles mounted on the undercarriage of an F-14A Tomcat aircraft.900 miles per hour More than 3. since then various versions of it have been produced for more than 27 nations. 20-7) is an allweather air-to-air missile designed to destroy 195 pounds More than 1. In this role. 20-6) is a short-range. the trend is toward versatility by means of rockets. dogfight missile used by all Navy fighters and attack aircraft against hostile aircraft. and AMRAAM. The Navy’s Research and Development team is constantly seeking ways to improve existing airborne weapons while working simultaneously on new weapons. Phoenix. 1 inch Weight: Speed: Range: Phoenix The Phoenix missile (fig. guns. AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES The Navy uses four air-to-air missiles. least expensive. weapons inventory. bombs. Sparrow Although earlier described as a surface-to-air missile. and. The latest version has a significantly improved infrared countermeasure capability. The prototype of this heat-seeking missile was fired more than 30 years ago. missiles. Wing span: 2 feet. This section briefly describes some of the existing airborne weapons.000 pounds 2. 5 inches 5 inches AIRBORNE WEAPONS In today’s high-performance aircraft.500 nautical miles Sidewinder The Sidewinder air-to-air missile (fig. Sidewinder.5 nautical miles 134. Characteristics of the Sidewinder: Length: Diameter: 9 feet.S. in some aircraft.

024 pounds More than 3. a follow-on to the Sparrow missile. With AMRAAM. Characteristics of AMRAAM: Length: Diameter: Wing span: Weight: Speed: 12 feet 7 inches 13 inches 335 pounds More than 760 miles per hour More than 35 nautical miles Range: Range: 134. is used by F-14 and F/A-18 aircraft. Characteristics of the Phoenix: Length: Diameter: Wing span: Weight: Speed: 13 feet 15 inches 3 feet 1. 20-8) is an all-weather. It can launch up to six missiles against six targets simultaneously. The AMRAAM missile. The AN/AWG-9 system is capable of long-range tracking of multiple hostile air targets. The Phoenix missile was introduced into the fleet with the F-14A aircraft and AN/AWG-9 weapons control system in 1974. and better able to attack at a lower altitude than the Sparrow.—An AIM-120A advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM) being readied for loading on an F/A-18A Hornet aircraft. 20-10 . radarguided.57 Figure 20-8.040 miles per hour More than 104 nautical miles AMRAAM The advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM) (fig. smaller.multiple hostile air targets at great range. In addition to the great range of the Phoenix missile. beyond-visual-range missile. the pilot can aim and fire several missiles at multiple targets simultaneously. lighter. It is designed to provide launch-and-leave capability as well as multiple-target engagement capability. It is faster. it has excellent intercept capability against high-speed maneuvering targets at both high and low altitudes.

the Tacit Rainbow missile. DDGs. it delivers a torpedo or nuclear depth charge through the air to a specific point in the water. On most ships. Many naval aircraft are capable of carrying the Harpoon. Characteristics of Harm: Length: Diameter: Wing span: Weight: Speed: Range: 13 feet. 8 inches 10 inches 3 feet. Harpoon The Harpoon missile discussed previously in this chapter under surface-to-surface missiles can also be used as an air-to-ground missile. The Harm missile proved effective against Libyan targets in the Gulf of Sidra in 1986. However. DDs. and the IR Maverick missile. 20-mm Guns The only 20-mm gun now used by operational fleet aircraft is the internally mounted. the launcher is OTHER AIRBORNE WEAPONS Other airborne weapons used by naval aircraft include 20-mm guns. and (3) torpedoes. antisubmarine ballistic projectile.000pound-class bomb with improved penetration capabilities. It was designed especially to suppress those associated with radar sites used to direct antiaircraft guns and surface-to-air missiles. rockets. M61A1 20-mm gun.000 rounds per minute in the GUNLOW position.000 rounds per 20-11 . ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE WEAPONS The Navy’s primary operational weapons are (1) antisubmarine rockets (ASROCs). these missiles are not yet operational. Because of its standoff range. The ABF will replace the Mk 80-series bomb with a 500-pound-class bomb optimized for blast fragmentation and a 1. To achieve this. ASROC The ASROC missile is a subsonic. Aircraft Rockets and Bombs The Navy is currently developing new rockets and bombs to meet today’s operational requirements. From that point. The purpose of the ASROC is the destruction of submarines at long ranges. 8 inches 807 pounds More than 760 miles per hour More than 50 nautical miles minute in the GUNHI position and 4. ASROC launchers are installed in FFs. Harm The Harm missile was designed to destroy or suppress enemy electronic emitters. The missile has two configurations-one with a depth charge and one with a torpedo. Harm is a high-speed antiradiation missile that succeeds the Shrike and Arm missiles as the Navy’s primary defensesuppression air-to-surface missile. (2) submarine rockets (SUBROCs). and bombs. shipboardlaunched. the ASROC enables the antisubmarine warfare (ASW) ship to launch its weapons before the submarine discovers it is under attack. Air-to-ground missiles in current inventory include the Harpoon and Harm missiles. fragmentation. rocket-propelled. The AV-8B Harrier uses a similar 25-mm gun. It has an electrically controlled and hydraulically operated ammunition drum. it can either attack under the most favorable circumstances or have the submarine within its lethal radius. The new advanced bomb family (ABF) will provide two bombs to meet the general-purpose bombing requirements for increased blast. solid-fuel. and CGs. The gun fires at a rate of 6. The new advanced rocket system will provide a high volume of air-to-ground fire from standoff ranges against a broad target spectrum. and penetration effects. six-barrel.AIR-TO-GROUND MISSILES The Navy is currently developing two new airto-ground missiles.

the latter continuing toward the target area. navies of several other countries have acquired it. The Mk 48 ADCAP became operational in 1988 and was approved for full production in 1989. the bomb sinks to a preset depth. The ADCAP has significantly increased capabilities over the Mk 48. . A new Mk 48 advanced capability (ADCAP) and Mk 50 torpedo are being phased into the fleet. Mk 46 The Mk 46 torpedo is a lightweight ASW torpedo designed to attack high-performance submarines. Both will conduct multiple reattacks in the unlikely event they miss the target.106 Figure 20-9. Navy since 1972. each containing a missile. or aircraft. a rocket motor ignites and propels the weapon upward and out of the water. SUBROC The SUBROC. At a predetermined range. and fixed. submarines to sink hostile surface ships or submarines in the presence or absence of torpedo countermeasures. and attack procedures. The Mk 48 has been operational in the U.S. The improved version—the Mk 48 ADCAP—is carried by the SSN 688 and SSN 637 classes of attack submarines.—The ASROC cellular launcher. The SUBROC system can fire missiles in rapid succession. The target may be a surface ship as well as a submarine. deep-diving nuclear submarines and high-performance surface ships. TORPEDOES A torpedo can be launched from submarines. surface ships. The design of both of these weapons enables them to combat fast. The Mk 46 torpedo is presently identified as the NATO standard torpedo.a boxlike device containing eight cells. where the warhead explodes. When launched they execute preprogrammed target-search. and Los Angeles classes of attack submarines (SSNs).S. an antisubmarine rocket with a nuclear warhead. These capabilities allow its employment against the most advanced Soviet submarines. After clearing the submarine. The Mk 46 torpedo is designed to be launched from surface combatant torpedo tubes. as shown in figure 20-9. Since introduction of the Mk 46 in 1967. the motor and depth bomb separate. The two primary torpedoes in the Navy inventory are the Mk 46 and the Mk 48. The Mk 48 ADCAP will also be used by the Seawolf-class attack submarines and Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines. These torpedoes enable U. An inertial guidance system then directs the SUBROC toward its target. Upon reentry into the water. an important defense against enemy tactics. ASROC missiles. acquisition. is launched from a submarine torpedo tube by conventional methods. Mk 48 and Mk 48 Advanced Capability (ADCAP) The Mk 48 torpedo is carried by all Navy attack and ballistic missile submarines. SUBROC systems are installed in the Permit.and rotary-wing aircraft. 20-12 15. Sturgeon. Both torpedoes can operate with or without wire guidance and use active and/or passive homing.

radar. This capability is achieved by planned interchangeability. several generations of antiship missiles have emerged as an air threat to the fleet. however. hit by a Soviet-built missile in October 1967.S. Air. The Mk 50 can be launched from all ASW aircraft and from torpedo tubes aboard surface combatant ships. we realized our reaction time. surface. Navy ships and aircraft in the Persian Gulf.695 pounds (ADCAP) More than 28 knots More than 5 nautical miles More than 1. By that time. The second is the use of a parachute to slow the bomb (retarded free-fall bomb). torpedoes. firing set. Navy has developed systems and tactics to protect itself from air attacks. Major operational components and nuclear components contained in a basic assembly are considered part of the bomb.75 inches 750 pounds More than 40 knots 19 feet 21 inches 3. the U. the nuclear bomb. The Mk 50 is being phased in to replace the Mk 46 torpedo as the fleet’s lightweight torpedo. may consist of more than one package. A safe separation time is provided by two methods. Guns were replaced in the late fifties by the first generation of guided missiles in our ships and aircraft. maybe required to makeup the complete nuclear weapon. The threat posed by such weapons was reconfirmed as recently as April 1988. lightweight torpedo for use against the faster. One is the use of a timing mechanism inserted in the bomb to delay detonation. the deploying aircraft crew must be protected once a bomb is dropped. Navy’s defense against this threat has continued to rely on the winning strategy of defense in depth. firepower. such as the .434 pounds (Mk 48) 3. deeperdiving.Characteristics of the Mk 48 and the Mk 48 ADCAP: Length: Diameter: Weight: Speed: Range: Depth: Mk 50 Torpedo The Mk 50 torpedo is an advanced. Some cruise missiles have both nuclear and conventional variants. These missiles continued to perform well until the late sixties.S. Nuclear warheads can be employed with rockets. A complete stockpiled weapon.200 feet fuze. Based on the latest technology—particularly in digital computers and radar-signal processing—the Aegis weapons system was designed as 20-13 NUCLEAR WEAPONS The United States has pursued a policy of making the fewest number of nuclear weapons cover as wide a range of military applications as possible. Because of the radioactive mushroom-type cloud resulting from a nuclear bomb. The U.S. of course. missiles. The reason is additional assemblies. and more sophisticated submarines being developed and operated by the Soviet Union. 4 inches 12. The Navy then started a comprehensive engineering development program to meet an operational requirement for an advanced surface missile system (ASMS). and operational availability in all environments did not match the threat.S. AEGIS WEAPONS SYSTEM Any discussion of the Navy’s weapons systems would not be complete without a look at the shipboard integrated AAW combat weapons system (Aegis). Since the end of World War II. The resulting exchange of antiship missiles led to the destruction of an Iranian frigate and corvette by U. for instance) have both conventional and nuclear capability. At that time two Iranian surface combatants fired on U. and depth bombs by use of adaptational kits. Several Navy weapons (ASROC. The first combatant ship sunk by one of these missiles was an Israeli destroyer. For more than 40 years. The Mk 50 uses an active/passive acoustic homing guidance system. The primary air-launched nuclear weapon is. Modern antiship missiles can be launched several hundred miles away. Characteristics of the Mk 50: Length: Diameter: Weight: Speed: 9 feet.-built Harpoon missiles. and subsurface launches can be coordinated so that the missiles arrive on target almost simultaneously. of which little can be said regarding specific characteristics. Either method allows the aircraft to reach a point of safety before weapon detonation. and power supply. ASMS was renamed the Aegis weapons system (after the mythological shield of Zeus) in December 1969.

a total weapons system. The lead ship of the DDG-51 class bears the name of a living person—the legendary Admiral Arleigh “31-knot” Burke. we can now build an Aegis weapons system compatible with a smaller ship while maintaining the multimission capability vital to modern surface forces. The commissioning of USS Bunker Hill (CG-52) opened a new era in surface warfare as the first Aegis ship outfitted with the vertical launching system (VLS). was christened by Mrs. automatic detect-and-track. a contract was awarded in 1985 for construction of the first DDG-51-class ship. USS Norton Sound (AVM 1) in 1973. The heart of the system is an advanced. Commenting on the ship’s performance. In other words. It is extremely capable against antiship cruise missiles and manned aircraft flying in all speed ranges from subsonic to supersonic. the Aegis weapons system enables fighter aircraft to concentrate more on the outer air battle while cruisers and destroyers concentrate on battle group area defense. Aegis-equipped ships are key elements in modern carrier and battleship battle groups. CG-47-class cruisers are also constructed by this method. Because of advanced technology. and surface ships. It has both all-weather capability and outstanding abilities in chaff and jamming environments. Several shipboard applications were studied before the design of the first Aegis ships was chosen. This allows for “forwardfitting” technology rather than very expensive “back-fitting” technology during scheduled overhauls. At present. The computer-based command-decision element is the core of the Aegis weapons system. The 27th and final CG-47-class cruiser will be commissioned in 1994. The improved SPY-1B radar went to sea in USS Princeton (CG-59). this allows for advanced planning to prevent costly changes after the completion of the ship. Technological advances in missile and computer battle management systems will soon permit Aegis-equipped ships to join carrier air assets in outer air defense. The surface Navy’s Aegis ships provide area defense for the battle group as well as a clear air picture for more effective deployment of F-14 and F/A-18 aircraft. the Chief of Naval Operations said. ushering in another advance in Aegis capabilities. the first Engineering Development Model (EDM-1) was installed in the test ship. and antisubmarine warfare. USS Ticonderoga deployed to the Mediterranean with the USS Independence battle group in October 1983. which allows incorporation of technological advances during construction. Nancy Reagan on Armed Forces Day 1981 and commissioned on 23 January 1983. Maine. He was the most famous destroyerman of World War II. from detection to kill. firepower. Within weeks the Aegis weapons system had successfully engaged the most difficult targets possible in extremely demanding antiair warfare scenarios intended to stress it to its limit. “Ticonderoga provided to the Eastern Mediterranean Task Force an impressive new tactical dimension which included 100 percent weapon system availability and a coherent air picture allowing the antiair warfare coordinator (AAWC) (embarked in Ticonderoga) to manage. This system allowed greater missile selection. It can defeat an extremely wide range of targets from wave top to directly overhead. submarines. As a result. Aegis-equipped ships are capable of engaging and defeating enemy aircraft.S. Originally identified as a guidedmissile destroyer (DDG-47). The design chosen was based on the hull and machinery designs of Spruance-class destroyers. Admiral Burke has attended each design phase of the DDG-51 and observed its keel laying in Bath. rather than react to a difficult situation. the class was redesignated a guided-missile cruiser. USS Ticonderoga (CG-47). antisurface. and survivability. track. multifunction phased-array radar-the AN/SPY-1. Navy. The Aegis is effective in all environmental conditions. The DDG-51s will be built in cycles. After several years of development and land-based testing. The first ship of the class. The Aegis weapons system brings a revolutionary multimission combat capability to the U. and missileguidance functions simultaneously with a track capacity of well over 100 targets. 20-14 . It supplied outstanding air defense coverage to our ships off the coast of Lebanon. This combat system can also be used for overall force coordination. It is this interface that makes the Aegis capable of simultaneous operations against a multimission threat: antiair. This high-power (4 megawatt) radar can perform search. The highly accurate firing of Aegis will result in a decrease of asset expenditures.” Since 1983 additional Aegis cruisers have joined USS Ticonderoga in the fleet. The Aegis weapons system is the most capable surface-launched missile system the Navy has ever put to sea. In 1980 the preliminary plans for a smaller ship with Aegis capabilities were studied. missiles.

Fla. Office of Information. THIS GRUELING TASK OF PAYING THE DEVIL WAS DESPISED BY EVERY SEAMAN. AND CAULKING WAS DONE WITH “PAY” OR PITCH. The Aegis weapons system gives surface AAW forces a decided edge against the sophisticated modern air threat. Pensacola. THE “DEVIL” WAS THE LONGEST SEAM ON THE WOODEN SHIP. Planned upgrades to standard missiles and evolving improvements to the Aegis weapons system promise the fleet an extremely capable AAW system well into the 21st century. 20-15 . Many weapons are capable of being used by different types of ships and aircraft. During periods of budget reductions. DEVIL TO PAY T0DAY THE EXPRESSION “DEVIL TO PAY” IS USED PRIMARILY AS A MEANS OF CONVEYING AN UNPLEASANT AND IMPENDING HAPPENING. it will require a formidable antiair warfare capability. this policy just makes good sense. ORIGINALLY. THIS EXPRESSION DENOTED THE SPECIFIC TASK ABOARD SHIP OF CAULK THE THE SHIP'S LONGEST SEAM. This practice is also cost effective. will always remain constant— the Navy will always use every resource available to meet any threat. the Navy develops new weapons systems and improves existing systems.. Naval Education and Training Program Management Support Activity.C. 1989. 1986. REFERENCES Naval Science for the Merchant Marine Officer. 9th ed. AND THE EXPRESSION CAME TO DENOTE ANY UNPLEASANT TASK. One fact about our weapons and weapons systems.. Navy Fact File. Washington.. This practice has the advantage of being both cost effective and time saving.As long as our Navy must steam “in harm’s way” to carry out its assigned missions. It often develops new weapons with physical characteristics similar to their predecessors to preclude designing a new system. SUMMARY To meet present and future threats. however. D. NAVEDTRA 38051.

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