With much gratitude, I would like to thank all those who supported to complete this project. First of all, I would like to thank BANK OF MAHARASHTRA and concerned people for their support from approval of all the correspondence during the project.

A special thanks to the Director of the institute, Mrs. Prachee Javadekar and my internal guide Mrs. Purvi Shah for providing me helpful advice, and guidance, in all stages for completing project. Many thanks especially to my project guide in the organization, Mr. N.V.Pujari, Principal Staff College, Bank Of Maharashtra & Mr. M.L. Kalamkar for giving me the opportunity, direction and support which have made my report viable and helping me in preparing this report.

Last but not the least; I would like to thank my parents who have scarified their “Today” for my better “Feature” for supporting me & constantly encouraging me during the tenure of the course.

Nitesh A. Salunke


CHAPTE R NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7 8 9 10 11 12 CONTENTS Executive Summary Introduction Objective Company Profile Literature Survey Research Design Introduction of Research Type of Research Data Collection Data Classification & Tabulation Data Analysis & Interpretations Findings Conclusion Recommendations Bibliography Annexure PAGE NO.


List of Tables Sr. Write off A/c.no. Recovery in Ledger Balance. Page. Upgradation of NPAs. Fresh Additions during the Year. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 List of Tables General Methods of Management of NPAs. 53 58 59 61 63 65 67 List of Graphs 4 . No. Recovery Performance. Closing Level of NPAs.

60 62 64 66 68 5 . Upgradation of NPAs.Sr.no. Fresh Additions during the Year. Page. No. Write off A/c. Recovery in Ledger Balance. 1 2 3 4 5 List of Graphs Closing Level of NPAs.


Report is prepared on the topic ‘Management of Non-performing Assets’ at Bank of Maharashtra. Initially the information was collected about the topic from the organization. The concept of NPA can be understood by the rules and regulations provided by the RBI which are studied in while preparing this project. The purpose behind preparing this report is to study the present situation of NPAs and to provide suggestions to reduce it. Objective 7 . The financially bank has less NPA. NPA is an important concept in the Banking industry. In the theoretical aspects some of the General reasons of assets becoming NPAs. Causes of NPAs. their identification. identified its short comings and weakness and made various recommendations with regard to non-performing assets.The Committee Studied the prevailing financial system. The need was felt because the prevalent accounting and disclosure practices did not always reflect the true state of affairs of banks and Financial Institutions.17 1991. disclosure and the extent of provisioning same. The banks have to follow RBI norms and guidelines being published by RBI in this regard constantly. The concept of Non-Performing Assets was introduced for the first time in the Narasimham Committee report that was tabled in parliament on Dec. Some of the indicators suggesting slippages to NPAs and General methods of management of NPAs has been given in the p roject.

an experience survey. It does not have a formal and rigid design as the researcher may have to change his focus or direction. to study the concept of Non-Performing Assets. 8 . experimental research. to make the suggestions to overcome the problems of NPA in Pune City Region of Bank of Maharashtra. and an analysis of insight stimulating cases. to find out the effect of NPA on the financial health of the Region. An exploratory study usually involves three steps. Research Methodology  Exploratory / Formulative Research:Exploratory research is a preliminary study of the subject matter. It attempts to see what is there.a review of pertinent literature. Data Collection The secondary data has been used during the project for collection of data (information) the companies’ internal records were explored as well as the external sources like electronic media (web sites) were used. rather than trying to predict the underlying relationships. The Exploratory Type of Research has used in this project. Remedial steps taken by the Region in order to reduce the NPA. It is usually a preliminary study and is followed by descriptive. study present status of NPAs in Pune City Region of Bank of Maharashtra.The Objective behind the project is. depending on the availability of new ideas and relationships among variables. It aims to delve into the nuances of the problem. comparative study of NPA of the Region for 4 Years.

Bank has to gear up efforts for upgrading S.A and recovery in D. the conclusion behind the project is. Conclusion However. Interpreting the Data:The data which was analyzed with various Graphs thereafter it have been Interpreted with various techniques by taking into consideration the ups & downs of the Graphs.A & Loss Assets. Bank has to keep tab on fresh additions by increasing quality advances and monitoring them. On the basis of that analysis some Findings and Suggestions are given at the end of the project.  Mapping potential of the Company:The data which was interpreted with various techniques. Finally with the help of some Reference Books and Secondary Data the report is finalized. Data Analysis With the help of Annual Report of the Bank of Maharashtra & figures made available for Pune City Region the present NPA of the Pune City Region are studied and analysis has been made in the project. Staff in Bank of Maharashtra has gained good experience to fight the menace of NPAs. 9 . Critical care has to be taken of stressed accounts to keep control on fresh additions. thereafter it has been given various suggestions for mapping the potential of the company.S.

INTRODUCTION Introduction 10 .

bank nationalization and other reforms have worked as catalyst in the development drive. There was always a need to have regulated. banks tended to lean towards security-oriented approach in assessment of credit proposal as also subsequent classification of the assets in their books. In general there are several challenges confronting the commercial banks in its day-to-day operations. Indian Banks have consolidated their growth year after year. Since the dawn of independence. Such 11 . Overemphasizing the security interest and other charges debited to a borrower’s account was taken into income on the basis of accrual irrespective of the fact whether such interest and charges accrued earlier were actually realized or not. A bank is an establishment. The basic functions of commercial banks are the accepting of all kinds of deposits and lending of money. The main challenges facing the commercial banks is the disbursement of funds in quality assets (Loans and Advances) or other wise it leads to Non-performing assets. uniform and prudent accounting policies for the banks with special reference to the credit risk involved in lending activities so that the significant growth in the business volumes of banks was ably supported by a well set regulatory norms. which deals with money. Measures like setting up of Reserve Bank of India as the regulator. As per the traditional frame of mind.“A Man without money is like a bird without wings”. Indian financial sector in general and banking in particular has leaped giant strides into a systematized growth environment. the Rumanian proverb insists the importance of the money.

Interest on deposits is required to be paid by bank in regular period. It is of poor consolation to know that the asset is fully secured as the availability of security does not mitigates the liquidity risk. The imbalance is cash flows due to irregular income may necessitate temporary market borrowings at high rate of interest cutting in to business profits. The business of banking eventually is mobilization of low cost deposits and investment and making loans. PERFORMING ASSETS:- 12 . Deposits are Liabilities and loans and advances are the assets of the bank.income was taken to Profit & Loss Account and dividend was declared on the basis of profits so arrived at. Loans were treated as realizable without actually looking into the record of recovery. If an asset does not generate income at fixed intervals quarterly or half yearly. it becomes a NonPerforming asset. All these resulted in overstating of profit and distorted depiction of the state of affairs of the banks in their books of accounts. The asset is deemed to be performing only if it yields timely returns because time is essence in maintaining the liquidity. hence. which enables the bank to make timely payment of interest on deposits. advances and investments at higher rates of interest to generate surplus. the assets of the bank must also generate a regular income by way of interest earnings.

• A default in the repayment of the installments pertaining to the principal amount of the advance. In initial stages of Income recognition. Assets Classification Guidelines. NON-PERFORMING ASSETS:NPA are advances that have ceased to perform. • Prompt realization of installments pertaining to the principal amount of the advance. • A default in the payment of interest amounts. which are debited to the advance account.An assets can be considered as a performing asset if. • Prompt realization of interest debited to the advance account at periodical intervals. 13 . An advance asset will cease to be a “Performing” asset and will be deemed to have become a “Non-Performing” asset when there is. MEANING:An asset that ceases to generate income for the bank is called Non-Performing Asset.

and (v) Any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 180 days in respect of other accounts.. Accordingly. with effect from March 31. up gradation of technology in the banking system. it was decided to dispense with “Past Due” concept. a from that date. in respect of an Overdraft / Cash Credit. 2001. With a view to moving towards international best practices and to ensure greater transparency. (iv) Interest and / or installment of principal remains overdue for two harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two half in the case of an advance granted for agriculture purpose. etc. (ii) The account remains ‘out of order for a period of more than 180 Days. (i) Interest and / or installment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 180 days in respect of a Term Loan. it has been decided to adopt the ’90 days Overdue’ norm for identification 14 . recovery climate. Due to the improvement in the payment and settlement systems.a amount due under any credit facility was treated as “Past Due” when it has not been paid within 30 days from the due date. (iii) The bill remains overdue for a period of more than 180 days in the case of Bills Purchased and Discounted. a Non-Performing Asset shell be an advance where.

(b) Loan granted for long duration crops will be treated as NPA. (v) Any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of other accounts 15 . if installment of principal or interest thereon remains outstanding for one crop seasons. if installment of principal or interest thereon remains outstanding for two crop seasons. a Non-Performing Asset shell be a loan or an advance where. form the year ending March 31. (iv) In case of direct agricultural advances. 2004. the norms would depend on type & crop cultivated by Agriculturist. the overdue norms specified below are applicable. Accordingly with effect form March 31. (iii) The bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in the case of Bills Purchased and Discounted.of NPAs. (i) Interest and / or installment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of a Term Loan. 2004. (ii) The account remains ‘out of order for a period of more than 90 Days. (c) For Agriculture term loans. (a) Loan granted for short duration crops will be treated as NPA. in respect of an Overdraft / Cash Credit.

OVERDUE: - Any amount due to the bank under any credit facility is 'Overdue' if it is not paid on the due date fixed by the bank. 16 .OUT OF ORDER:An account should be treated as 'out of order' if the outstanding balance remains continuously in excess of the sanctioned limit/ drawing power. but there are no credits continuously for 90 Days as on the date of balance sheet or credits are not enough to cover the interest debited during the same period. the account is classified as NPA. these account should be treated as 'Out of Order'. If the stock statement is not received within 6 months of its due date. In case where the outstanding balance in the principal operating account is less than the sanctioned limit/ drawing power.


 Remedial steps taken by the Region in order to reduce the NPA.  To find out the effect of NPA on the financial health of the Region.OBJECTIVE  Study the concept of Non-Performing Assets. 18 .  Comparative Study of NPA of the Region for 4 Years.  To make the suggestions to overcome the problems of NPA in Pune City Region of Bank of Maharashtra.  Study present status of NPAs in Pune City Region of Bank of Maharashtra.


The Diyas. 3M’s MOBILISATION OF MONEY MOTIVATION MODERNISATION AIM 20 .BANK OF MAHARASHTRA Philosophy TECHNOLOGY WITH PERSONAL TOUCH It is this philosophy that enables Bank of Maharashtra to reach out to its customers and cater to the needs of the classes and masses.symbolizing strength.Our institution. EMBLEM The Deepmal.With it’s many lights rising to greater heights.Our branches-Symbolizing services. The Pillar.

The bank wishes to cater all types of needs of the entire family. N.K. Deshpande Shri Tuljapurkar Devidas Ramchandra Shri Anand Kamalnayan Pandit Shri Subhash Chandra Bhargava Shri Avinash Laxmikant Patil Shri A. One Bank. Mallya Shri Rajiv Madhok Shri Tarun Bajaj DESIGNATION Chairman and Managing Director Executive Director Director. Banking Division Govt of India. Gogia Shri P.” NAME Shri M. Ali Azizi Shri Rajeev K Deshpande 21 . Department of Economic Affairs. in the whole country. D. Its motto is “One Family. Maha Bank. Ministry of Finance Director Officer Director Workmen Director Director Director (Representing Life Insurance Corporation of India) Director Director Director Shri S.

etc. personal loans. corporate loans and equipment loans. Pune in 1978. 22 . global banking.Bank of Maharashtra. Bank of Maharashtra has full-fledged Training College. At today’s date Bank of Maharashtra has 1345 Branches and 13 extension counter spread over 22 States and 2 Union territories. savings/current bank account. Thereafter it was shifted to new corporate office at LOKMANGAL. 1935. retail loans and other financial services. The Bank of Maharashtra has a network of 302 ATM’s with VISA connectivity. The Bank offers personal banking. on 6th February. vehicle loans. Query terminal. First branch was opened at Bajirao Road. Tele banking facility and ATM. Information Technology Training Institute and Staff Training Centers. Remote access. foreign exchange and export finance. Bank of Maharashtra also provides banking and other financial services to corporate and private customers. Overseas. Bank of Maharashtra provides facilities in area like Agriculture High Tech. retail trade finance. In a nutshell. established on 16th September. It came into commencement on 8th February 1936. It is a Public Sector Bank. lending to priority sector and small scale sector. Pune. cash management. Industrial financing. These services include deposits. 1936. Shivaji Nagar. The objectives behind establishing Bank of Maharashtra were to mobilize the savings of household and extend financial support to persons of small means who were then not considered for credit facilities by banks. V Sat facility. the philosophy of founder fathers of the Bank was something more than what has been emphasized about the role of Public Sector Banks in the economic upliftment of rural poor and neglected segments of the society.

in the whole country. Modernization of Methods and Motivation of Staff.00 Crores Financial Sector Commercial Banks INDIA 13893 Special Services: -  All India help line numbers are 1800-222-340 & 1800-220-888. 23 . Company Profile: Exchanges: Total Deposits: Total Advances: Major Industry: Sub Industry: Country: Employees: Bank Of Maharashtra BOM 33919. Maharashtra Bank has tied up with Master card International and Visa Card to impart plastic money facility to the customers.  Credit card and Visa Debit Card facilities. Mobilization of Money.The bank has fine tuned its services to cater to the needs of the common man and incorporated the latest technology in banking offering a variety of customized services. One Bank. Maharashtra Bank". Its dream is "One Family. The 3 M’s of the Bank are. The Aim for Bank is to cater to all types of needs of the entire family.34 Crores 23462. keeping the pace with the market conditions.

Kharadi. Touch screen facility and Mobile Van information center facility for rural areas. training centers and central offices. Tele banking. and Pune.  583 Rural and semi urban branches are to be computerized with small TBA solutions up to march 2007. 524 branches.  ATM facility. 32 regional offices. 5 circle offices.e. Depository services. The Maharashtra executor trustees company (METCO) performs business ranging from investment management to consultancy and managing various trusts efficiently. Information Technology Training Institute and 3 Staff Training Centers.  Maharashtra Bank has full-fledged Training College. 24 . training colleges.  Bank has implemented Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) system for customer transactions and inters bank payments in 368 branches.  Bank is establishing its own Data Center at IT Park.  Bank has established its own corporate Networking “MAHANET” connecting 562 locations i.

25 . Cheque Truncation System is run on pilot basis and will be implementing as RBI time schedule.  The Bank has established Rural Development Centers at Hadpsar & Bhigwan.  Bank has entered in to agreement with Mrs. It has also established MESETI at Pune. Marathwada Gramin Bank. Aurangabad and Nagpur Centers for training the new entrepreneurs.  Bank of Maharashtra has sponsored 3 regional rural Banks. TCS for providing Core Banking Solution "BANCS" and has appointed Mrs. Gramin Mahila VA BAL Vikas Mandal is established at Pune for the development of the women and children in rural areas and forming Self Help Groups. Ernst & Young as consultants for implementation of CBS in 600 branches. and Thane Gramin Bank. Aurangabad-Jalna Gramin Bank.  Bank of Maharashtra acts as Lead Banker in 6 Districts and works as State Level convener of Banker's committee for Maharashtra State.  Bank of Maharashtra is now working as corporate agent for life and non life insurance products of LIC of India and United India Insurance Company.

26 .05%.  Extensive use of Wide Area Network-MAHANET inter-connectivity of branches by providing more customer-centric applications like Any Branch Banking Service.Future Plans: -  Systematic approach for reducing Net NPA level to below .  Extending RTGS facility to 368 branches. Demat etc.  SHGs with special reference to agriculture to be promoted and financing be implemented so as to increase financing to small and marginal farmers.  Moving towards Core Banking Solution (CBS) by implementing in 600 branches.  Consolidation of Regional Rural Banks sponsored by Bank of Maharashtra.  Establishing ATM network of more than 345 ATMs with on-line connectivity across the country.


Literature Survey The concept of Non-Performing Assets was introduced for the first time in the Narasimham Committee report that was tabled in parliament on Dec. The need was felt because the prevalent accounting and disclosure practices did not always reflect the true state of affairs of banks and Financial Institutions. 28 . their identification. disclosure and the extent of provisioning same. identified its short comings and weakness and made various recommendations with regard to non-performing assets. RBI has implemented the prudential norms for improving the financial heath of commercial banks and the quality of their loan portfolio. Based on the Narasimham Committee recommendations.The Committee Studied the prevailing financial system.17 1991.

Research Design 29 .

or purpose.6. • SYSTEMATIC: . Research Methodology:Research Methodology is the systematic design.Organized in that there is a structure or method in going about doing research. useful. but it is still an answer.1 Introduction of Research Research is an ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way of FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS. Sometimes the answer is no.Systematic because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you will follow. Research is focused on relevant. research has no focus. Whether it is the answer to a hypothesis or even a simple question. then the answer is of no use.Finding Answers is the end of all research. It is a planned procedure. The Research was an exploratory type. • FINDING ANSWERS: . not a spontaneous one. If there is no question. relevant to appraisal specific situation facing the company. analysis & reporting of data & findings. research is successful when we find answers. drive. • QUESTIONS:-Questions are central to research. which aims at finding the true potential of the organization and also 30 . It is focused and limited to a specific scope. • ORGANIZED: . Without a question. collection. There are certain things in the research process which are always done in order to get the most accurate results. and important questions.

an experience survey. 6. experimental research. It aims to delve into the nuances of the problem. rather than trying to predict the underlying relationships. It attempts to see what is there. An exploratory study usually involves three steps. and an analysis of insight stimulating cases.a review of pertinent literature. It does not have a formal and rigid design as the researcher may have to change his focus or direction. It is usually a preliminary study and is followed by descriptive. 31 . Learning the Theoretical aspects:Various books on Non-Performing Assets have been collected from Bank of Maharashtra (Library) and the theoretical aspects have been understood.a qualitative analysis regarding the Recovery Performance of NPA of a Pune City Region of Bank of Maharashtra.2 Type of Research  Exploratory / Formulative Research:Exploratory research is a preliminary study of the subject matter. depending on the availability of new ideas and relationships among variables. Analyzing the Data:The data of Recovery Performance of Pune City Region of Bank of Maharashtra was collected and analyzed with various Graphs.

Collecting the Data:Collecting sources of data is of two types. In this research there is no need of primary data. Data used in this project is Secondary Data.  Secondary Data:When an investigator uses the data.6. 32 . Primary Data & Secondary Data. such data is called secondary data. Such data is original in character and is generated by surveys conducted by individuals or research institution. which is collected from Pune City Region of Bank of Maharashtra.3  Primary Data: Data Collection - Primary Data is one. which has been already collected by others. which is collected by the investigator himself for the purpose of a specific inquiry or study. Various articles like Annual Report.e. Reference Books have been collected. Secondary sources of data provide wealth of information to the researcher. During this project for the collection of data (information) the companies internal records were explored as well as the external sources like electronic media (web sites) were used. i.

Income accounting in case of NPA is. interest on such advances should not be taken to income account. The Recommendations of Narasimham Committee were divided in to Three parts which are as follows:- (1) INCOME RECOGNITION:- The policy of Income Recognition should be objective and based on record of recovery rather than any subjective considerations like availability of security. net worth of borrower / guarantor etc. This would help in preventing further deterioration in the value of asset.6.  Government Guaranteed Advances:If any income with respect to advances guaranteed by Governments remain overdue for specified period and thereby advance becomes NPA. based on actual realization.  Renegotiated / Rescheduled Advances:- 33 . therefore.4 Data Classification & Tabulation The Narasimham Committee gave a thought that income recognition should be done on scientific basis. unless the same is realized. The screening should be done to expose the bad and doubtful assets.

Appropriation of recovery in NPAs:Interest realized on NPAs may be taken to income account provided the credits in the accounts towards interest are not out of fresh / additional credit facilities sanctioned to the borrower concerned. should be shown as a deduction from gross NPAs as well as gross advances while arriving at the net NPAs. Reporting of NPAs:Banks are required to furnish a report on NPAs as on 31st March each year after completion of audit. While reporting NPA figures to RBI. In the absence of a clear agreement between the bank and the borrower for the purpose of appropriation of recoveries in NPAs. the amount held in interest suspense account. may furnish the amount of interest receivable on NPAs as a foot note to the Report.Fees and Commission earned by the banks due to renegotiation or rescheduling of outstanding advances should be recognized on accrual basis over the period of time covered by the renegotiated or rescheduled extension of credit. The NPAs would relate to the banks global portfolio. 34 . Banks which do not maintain Interest Suspense Account for parking interest due on non-performing advance accounts. banks should adopt an accounting principle and exercise the right of appropriation of recoveries in a uniform and consistent manner. including the advances at the foreign branches.

 Assets Classification under Prudential Norms:Under the prudential norms of asset classification. etc. bank are required to classify the advances under any one of the heads depending upon the status of the account. There are generally three ways of classification of assets. 1949 which bankers / auditors are well conversant with. availability of security cover. should be reduced from the outstanding gross advances and gross NPAs to eliminate any distortion in the quantum of NPAs being reported. if any. (2) ASSETS CLASSIFICATION:- Classification of Assets should be done on the basis of objective criteria with uniform and consistent application of norms duly ensured.Whenever NPAs are reported to RBI.  Asset Classification for Final Accounts:Banks are required to prepare their final accounts as per Third Schedule to the Banking Regulation act. which are given as under:  Assets classification under Health Code System:Under the Health Code system. dealings. banks are now required to classify their advances in the following four broad groups:(a) Standard Assets:- 35 . the amount of technical write off.

(b) Sub-Standard Assets:These are assets which have ceased to ‘Perform’ but which have not completed a period of 18 months (now 12 Months) after getting classified as Non-performing and there is no threat to recovery on account of erosion in the realizable value of security or due to nonavailability of security or due to other factors. conditions and values-highly questionable and improbable. (d) Loss Assets:- 36 . With effect from March 31st. A loan classified as doubtful has all the weakness inherent in assets that were classified as sub-standard.These are assets which are ‘Performing’ and do not disclose any weakness and do not carry more than normal business risk. which has remained NPA for a period less than or equal to 12 months. (c) Doubtful Asset:These are accounts which have completed a period of 18months (now 12 Months) after getting classified as Sub-standard Assets. an asset would be classified as doubtful if remained in the sub-standard category 12 months. to the extent that the account is to be classified either as Doubtful Assets or as Loss Assets. with the added characteristic that the weakness make collection or liquidation in full on the basis of currently known facts. With effect from 31st March. a sub-standard asset would be one. 2005. 2005.

37 . The banks may fix a minimum cut off point to decide what would constitute a high value account depending upon their respective business level. The cut of point should be valid for the entire accounting year. The system should ensure that doubts in asset classification due to any reason are settled through specified internal channels within one month from the date on which the account would have been classified as NPA as per extant guidelines. especially in respect of high value accounts. Banks should establish appropriate internal systems to eliminate the tendency to delay or postpone the identification of NPAs. Guidelines for Classification of Assets:Classification of Assets in to above categories should be done taking into account the degree of well-defined credit weakness and the extent of dependence on collateral security for realization of dues.  Upgradation of Loan Accounts classified as NPAs:-. Responsibility and validation levels for ensuring proper asset classification may be fixed by the banks.A Borrower account in which a loss has been identified by the internal or external auditors or by the RBI inspectors. The releasable value of security in the accounts is very little.

If the debits arising out of devolvement of letters of credit or invoked guarantees are parked in a separate account.  Asset Classification to be borrower-wise and not facility-wise:It is difficult to envisage a situation when only one facility to a borrower becomes a problem credit and not others.If arrears of interest and principal are paid by the borrower in the case of loan accounts classified as NPAs. the balance outstanding in that account also should be treated as a part of the borrower’s principal operating account for the purpose of 38 . the account should no longer be treated as non-performing and may be classified as ‘standard’ accounts.  Accounts regularized near about the balance date:The asset classification of borrowal account where a solitary or a few credits are recorded before the balance sheet date should be handled with care and without scope for subjectivity. all the facilities granted by a bank to a borrower will have to be treated as NPA and not the particular facility or part thereof which has become irregular. the account should be deemed as a NPA. In other genuine cases. Therefore. the banks must furnish satisfactory evidence to the Statutory Auditors / Inspecting Officers about the manner of regularization of the account to eliminate doubts on their performing status. Where the account indicates inherent weakness on the basis of the data available.

application of prudential norms on income recognition. 2004 the period of default would be revised as more than 90 days. This exemption from classification of Government guaranteed advances as NPA is not for the purpose of recognition of income. 39 . asset classification and provisioning. With effect from March 31st.  Government guaranteed Advances:The credit facilities backed by guarantee of the Central Government though overdue may be treated as NPA only when the Government repudiates its guarantee when invoked. if the guarantee is invoked and remains in default for more than two quarters.  Advances under rehabilitation approved by BIFR / TLI:Banks are not permitted to upgrade the classification of any advance in respect of which the terms have been renegotiated unless the package of re-negotiated terms has worked satisfactorily for a period of one year. 2000. Asset Classification norms will become applicable after a period of one year from the date of disbursement. 2001 the period of default is revised as more than 180 days and with effect from March 31st. April. With effect from 1st. advances sanctioned against State Government Guarantees should be classified as NPA in the normal course. While the existing credit facilities sanctioned to a unit under rehabilitation packages approved by BIFR / Term Lending Institutions will continue to be classified as sub-standard or doubtful as the case may be. in respect of additional facilities sanctioned under the rehabilitation packages. the Income Recognition.

The primary responsibility for making adequate provision for any diminution in the value of loan assets. etc. where the variance in the provisioning requirements between the RBI and the bank is above certain cut off levels so that the bank and the statutory auditors take into account the assessment of the RBI while making provisions for loan loss. it was suggested that bank’s statutory auditors. if they so desire. could have a dialogue with RBIs Regional Office / Inspectors who arrived out for bank’s inspection during the previous year with regard to the accounts contributing to the difference.(3) PROVISIONING NORMS:- In order to narrow down the divergences and adequate provisioning by banks. regional offices were advised to forward a list of individual advances. Pursuant to this. investment of other assets is that of the bank managements and the statutory auditors The assessment made by the inspecting officer of the RBI is furnished 40 .

(b) Sub-standard Assets:A general provision of 10 per cent on Total Outstanding should be made without making any allowance for DICGC / ECGC guarantee cover and securities available. 100 per cent of the outstanding should be provided. Taking into account the time lag between an account becoming doubtful of recovery. doubtful assets and sub-standard assets as below: (a) Loss Assets:The entire assets should be written off after obtaining necessary approval from the competent authority. (c) Standard Assets:- 41 . the realization of the security and the erosion over time in the value of security charged to the bank. In conformity with the prudential norms. provisions should be made on the nonperforming assets on the basis of classification of assets into prescribed categories as detailed above. full provision at 100 per cent should be made if the expected salvage value of the security is negligible. In respect of an asset identified as a loss asset. 20% provision in case of advances where there was no security/clean form at the time of sanction. the banks should make provision against loss assets.to the bank to assist the bank management and the statutory auditors in taking a decision in regard to making adequate and necessary provisions in terms of prudential guidelines. If the assets are permitted to remain in the books for any reason. its recognition as such.

25% 0.40% (d) Doubtful Assets:- 100 per cent of the extent to which the advance is not covered by the realizable value of the security to which the bank has a valid recourse should be made and the realizable value is estimated on a realistic basis. Advances qualifying as capital market Exposures & Commercial real estate loans: (4) Other standard advances: 0.25% till 2006.40% 2. provision may be made on the following basis. at the rates ranging from 20 per cent to 100 per cent of the secured portion depending upon the period for which the asset has remained doubtful: 42 .Banks are providing for Standard Assets @ 0. (1) Direct Advances to agriculture & SME sectors: (2) Residential housing loans beyond 20 Lakhs: (3) Personal Loans. In regard to the secured portion.00% 0. Now the provisions are as under with effect from 2006-07.

could be set off against provisions required to be made as per above stated provisioning guidelines. 50% as on March. 31. 2007. considered as Doubtful ‘Category’. 2004. Up to One Year One to Three Years More Than Three Years (1) Outstanding stock of NPAs as on March. --. 20% of secured portion + 100% for unsecured portion. The floating provisions. 31. 2004 of secured portion + 100% for unsecured portion --. Considering that higher loan loss provisioning adds to the overall financial strength of the banks and the stability of the financial sector. 31. banks are urged to voluntarily set apart provisions much above the minimum prudential levels as a desirable practice. 2004. of secured portion + 100% for unsecured portion --. 30% of secured portion + 100% for unsecured portion.75% with effect from March. 2005.100% with effect from March. 43 . wherever available. 31. of secured portion + 100% for unsecured portion --. 31.Period for which the advance has been Provision Requirement Percentage. 1. 2006. of secured portion + for unsecured portion (2) Advances Classified as ‘Doubtful” for more than three years on or After April.60% with effect from March.100% Floating Provisions:Some of the banks made a “floating provision” over and above the specific provisions made in respect of accounts identified as NPAs.

 Doubtful Assets:- 100 percent of the extent to which the finance is not secured by the realizable value of the leased assets.  Loss Assets:- 44 . ‘Gross book value’ of a fixed asset is its historical cost or other amount substituted for historical cost in the books of account of financial statements. balance standing in ‘Lease Adjustment Account’ should be adjusted in the ‘net book value’ of the leased assets. the following provision on the net book value of the secured portion should be made.Provisions on Leased Assets: Sub-Standard Assets:(1) (2) 10 percent of ‘net book value’. Statutory depreciation should be shown separately in the profit and loss Account. Accumulated depreciation should be deducted from the Gross Book Value of the leased asset in the balance sheet of the lessor to arrive at the ‘net book value’. In addition to the above provision. depending upon the period for which the asset has been doubtful. Realizable value to be estimated on a realistic basis. (3) Also. The amount of adjustment in respect of each class of fixed assets may be shown either in the main balance sheet or in the Fixed Assets Schedule as a separate column in the section related to leased assets. As per the ‘Guidance Note on Accounting for Leases’ issued by the ICAI.

1961. Therefore. This stipulation is not applicable to provisioning required to be made as indicated above. income by way of u\interest in relation to such categories of bad and doubtful debts as may be prescribed having regard to the guidelines issued by the RBI in relation to such debts.The entire asset should be written off. A few prominent reasons for assets becoming NPAs are as under. shall be chargeable to tax in the previous year in which it is credited to the bank’s profit and loss account or received.  Poor credit appraisal system. Write Off of NPAs:In terms of Section 43(D) of the Income Tax Act. an asset is allowed to remain in books. whichever is earlier. GENERAL REASONS FOR ASSETS BECOMING NPAs:A multiplicity of factor is responsible forever increasing size of NPAs in banks.  Lack of proper monitoring. 100 percent of the ‘net book value’ should be provided for. If for any reasons. In other words. by evolving appropriate methodology in consultation with their auditors/ tax consultant. 45 . the banks should either make full provision as per the guidelines or write off such advances and claim such tax benefits as are applicable. amounts set aside for making provision for NPAs as above are not eligible for tax deductions. Recoveries made in such accounts should be offered for tax purposes as per the rules.

 Lack of coordination between banks. In adequate legal provisions on foreclosure and bankruptcy.  Directed lending to certain sectors. Reckless advances to achieve the budgetary targets.  There is no or lack of corporate culture in the Bank. CAUSES OF NPA:There are many causes for performing assets becoming Non-performing.  Change in economic policies/ environment. The following are some of the general causes which Contribute to creation of NPAs and the same can be categorized under three Classes:- (1) Causes attributable to the Promoter / Borrower:- 46 .  No transparent accounting policy and poor auditing practices.

47 .  Lack of professional management.  Low priority to technology upgradation and inadequate attention to research and development. groupings among the directors of the company etc.  Problems due to adverse exchange fluctuations faced by exporters/ importers.  Inability to tie up the funds required as margin (promoters’ contribution) as per the projection furnished.  Differences / disputes amongst promoters---family splits.  Financial indiscipline—diversion of funds for unapproved purposes. Bad intention of securing wrongful gains from banks by availing advances by misrepresentation of facts.  Huge deviation in the demand (2) Causes attributable to the Bank:-  Delay in decision making and sanction of credit facilities.  Death / disability of the chief promoter / person behind the show.  Inadequate control / supervision resulting in time and cost overrun. lack of co-ordination among partners.  Improper /poor credit appraisal due to lack of expertise and scales required for critical pre-sanction scrutiny of loan proposals.  Mismanagement of Units / Projects---willful or otherwise. quality control etc.  Defective / deficient monitoring and supervision of advance accounts.

(3) Causes beyond the control of banks and borrowers:-  Political uncertainties.  Disbursement of advance facilities before compliance of terms ad condition of sanction and incomplete / defective documentation.  Delayed and / or non detection / diagnosis of warning signals and inaction in the initiation of the remedial measures. with or without the collusion of outsiders.  Long pending judicial proceedings and protracted legal battles in courts act more as a cover to the defaulting borrowers.  Compromise on project viability with overemphasis on security while assessing the loan proposals. 48 . Non-availability of reliable market and industry relevant data on demand / supply scenario.  Frauds committed by outsiders.  Lack of government support and apathy of public to bank’s recovery efforts.  Inadequate infrastructure facilities such as supply of power and other essential inputs.  Non observance of bank’s well laid down norms and systems and of preventive / precautionary measures facilitating perpetration of frauds by insiders / outsiders.

. draughts and floods. resulting in largescale destruction of properties and life. it does give symptoms beforehand. 49 . riots etc. etc.  Outdated laws.  Natural calamities like earthquakes. Debt Relief Schemes introduced by some states for political mileage have vitiated the repayment culture and has resulted in a large number of willful defaulters. It is only up to the banker to take sight of these symptoms and initiate timely remedial measures to prevent the account from actually slipping in to NPA. Like a major disease to human body.  Inconsistency in judicial verdicts as a result of improper presentation of facts. labour unrest / lockouts / strikes.  Law and order problems affecting commercial and industrial activity in certain parts of the country. SOME OF THE INDICATORS SUGGESTING SLIPPAGES TO NPA:- A borrower account will not become NPA overnight.

dishonor / return of bills in excess of 5% of bills may be taken as the danger signal.  Frequent requests for temporary overdrawing.  Self Cheques presented through some other bank.  Gradual increase in realization period.  Increasing number of unrecoccilied book debts. the following notable indications would be available in different types of borrower’s accounts:- (1) Cash Credit / Overdraft: Increasing number of goods returned by the clients.  Increasing number of incidences of debit / credit notes in the books of accounts.On the basis of auditors’ experience of banks.  Increase in transactions in personal accounts of proprietor / partner / directors.  Gradual increase in dishour of bills discounted and return of bills purchased.  Frequent requests for release / exchange of securities.  Huge cash withdrawals without proper explanation. 50 .  Unexplained delay in submission of financial statements and tax returns. (2) Bills Discounted / Purchased: Incidences of accommodation bills.  Frequent incidences of partial realization of bills. As guidance.

 Frequent breakdowns in plant and machinery. Frequent requests for discount / purchase of bills draw on parties outside the list of drawers approved by the bank. (4) Term Loans: Misconception of the project.  Labour unrest in the plant.  Default in payment of installments / interest.  Non receipt of original LC / BGs bonds after expiry and several reminders.  Non-introduction of margin from time to time and mis-utilisation of loan proceeds.  Undue and unreported delay in project implementation.  Disposal / replacement of vital plant and machineries without the consent of the bank and without putting an effective alternative arrangement in place. 51 . (3) Letter of Credits / Bank Guarantees: Invocation of Bank Guarantees / development of Letter of Credit. (5) Foreign Exchange Finance: Incidences of accommodation and kite flying.  Requests for meeting the amount of dishonored / returned bills from out of discount / purchase of fresh bills.  Drastic fluctuations in operational efficiency and capacity utilization.

Excise. Sales tax.  Frequent cancellation of orders by the overseas buyers.  Death of key person in the conduct of business of the borrower’s.  Unexplained swing in the behavioral pattern of the borrower.  Increasing delay in realization of export bills.  Huge uncovered Foreign Exchange position. 52 . etc.  Notice by partner / director of the borrowing firm / company of irregularities.  Noticeable reduction in ancillary business like DDs.  Frequent return of goods.  Serious violation of FEMA / RBI Guidelines by the exporter’s attracting penal action. ESIC etc  Receipt of attachment orders as a result of non payment of any of the above duties. (6) Other General Warning Signals: Opening of bank accounts with other banks without the consent of the lending banker.  Issuance of notices to the borrowers from the respective body for not meeting statutory dues like Income Tax.  Drastic changes in the economic / political atmosphere in the importer’s country.  Unrecoccilied branch accounts where borrowers have branches elsewhere. TTs. Frequent overdue in PCL without genuine reasons.  Suits filed against the borrowers other than in normal course of business.

putting vigorous efforts to reduce the size of existing NPA segment. at the same time. Management of NPAs means. The methods are differs from bank to bank. In order to build-up and maintain a portfolio of quality advances. Material changes in the demand / supply scenario and supply of raw material potent enough to pose serious threat to the economic viability of the project / business. As the saying goes. In simple it focuses on the methods of settlement of NPAs account. The following 53 . It is the alertness and constant vigil exercised at the operational levels along with quality monitoring and timely follow-up of borrower accounts that will prevent fresh slippages from performing to non-performing. The practical banker should develop necessary skill to take note of the warning signals and initiate necessary corrective action. The above list is not exhaustive and each case of advance may require special attention depending on each case. The best way to tackle NPA menace is to prevent fresh additions to this undesirable club and. a stitch in time saves nine. it is essential to meticulously follow the good and time-tested systems and procedures. how to settle the NPAs account in the books. GENERAL METHODS OF MANAGEMENT OF NPAs:The management of NPA is the difficult task in practice.

The same information is given in the chart. Compromise Legal remedies Regular Training Program Recovery Camps Write offs Spot Visit Rehabilitation of potentially viable units Other Methods General Methods of Management of NPAs (1) Compromise:The dictionary meaning of the term compromise is settlement of dispute reached by mutual concessions.paragraph explains some general methods of Management of NPAs by the bank. 54 . The following are the detailed guidelines for compromise/negotiated settlements of NPAs.

 Proposal for write off/ compromise should be first by a committee of senior executives of the bank. (2) Legal remedies:The legal remedies are one of the methods of management of NPAs.  An advantage in settlement cases is that banks can promptly recycle the funds instead of resorting to expensive recovery proceedings spread over a long period. no more time should be lost instituting appropriate recovery proceedings.  All compromise proposals approved by any functionary should be promptly reported to the next higher authority for post facto scrutiny. proper weight age should be given to the location. The compromise should be a negotiated settlement under which the bank should ensure recovery of its dues to the maximum extent possible of minimum expenses. The banks observed that the borrower is making willful default.  Where security is available for assessing the realizable value. condition and marketable title and possession of such security. The legal remedies are: 55 .  Proper distinction should be made between willful defaulters and borrowers defaulting in repayments due to circumstances beyond their control.

when the bank writes off the balances.  Use of SARFAESI Act for quick recovery. (4) Recovery Camps:The banks should conduct the regular or periodical recovery camps in the bank premises or some other common places. (3) Regular Training Program:The all levels of Staff. 56 . The ultimate aim of the write off is to clean the Balance sheet. (5) Write offs:Write offs is also one of the common management techniques of NPAs. Officers & Executives for dealing with proper appraisal of advances & using correct techniques for NPA recovery & reduction. It is very useful and helpful to the Staff.138. Filing civil suits. such type of recovery camps reduces the level of NPAs in the Banks.  Putting cases to Lokadalat.  Filing criminal suits under sec.  Filing suits in DRT. The assets are treated as loss assets. Officers should undergo the regular training program on credit and NPA management.

additional financial support. (8) Other Methods: Persistent phone calls.  Help of recovery agents.(6) Spot Visit:The bank officials should visit to the borrower’s business place or borrowers field regularly or periodically & should have continuous meaningful dialogue.  Help of advocates for speedy disposals.  Media announcement. etc. it will help in proper diagnosis of reasons and deciding correct course of action for recovery. interest rebate. rephrasing. (7) Rehabilitation of potentially viable units:Technically feasible & economically viable NPA units can be rehabilated through rescheduling.  Upgradation of account through recovery of overdue amount. This will help the units to come back on the track & start generating income to banks overdue & come out of NPA status. It is also help full to the bank to control or reduce the NPAs limit. 57 .


53 4.74 CLOSING LEVEL OF NPAs (Rs. In Crores) YEAR Opening NPA Reduction in Ledger Balance Due to Recovery Up gradation Written off Total Reduction Sub total Fresh Additions Closing NPAs 2004 133.47 19.94 IN % 11.60 2007 194.00 48.05 20.49 9.83 128 60.72 3.(Rs.23 17.57 27.82 60.83 160 34.74 TOTAL ADVANCES 1399.92 2280.64 59 .67 3180.01 188.20 194.6 147.25 27.35 2.21 2.05 156.49 0.59 27.47 108. in Crores) YEAR 2004 2005 2006 2007 CLOSING NPA AMT 156.14 11.60 32.23 194.40 25.23 2006 188.37 5.40 8.88 135 13.08 147.05 188.05 2005 156.75 0.90 1650.

2006 & 2007. (2) Acquiring quality assets through proper technical. It is observed on the basis of above table that the closing NPA level has increased continuously for three years and finally reduced by good margin in 2007. 60 . SARAFAESI act etc. financial.Interpretation:The above table is giving information about closing NPA level for the year 2004. (6) Help of various government organization & authorities NGOS. Immediate timely steps for recovery may be by way of criminal. economical. legal. commercial. 2005. and incentives to advocates for early execution may also help in recovery NPAs & put a tab on closing NPAs. It is very important to keep NPA level much low & have a reducing graph. social and risk appraisal. Most important ways to keep the graph coming down is as under. Recovery department plays a vital role for keeping the NPA level low by negotiating to various recovery techniques. environmental. (3) Continue pre and post sanction visits by different officers where by any deteriation in health of account can be spotted by either of them. organizational. (4) (5) Immediate timely steps for support in deserving cases. compromise Lokadalat. farmers clubs. managerial. legal. SHGS deployment of recovery agents. (1) Acquiring quality assets only through proper selection of borrowers.

60 IN % 14.05 188.14 11.72 20.53 RECOVERY IN LEDGER BALANCE (Rs.47 156.42 16.21 17.77 12.4 8.23 194.CLOSING NPA 12 10 8 IN % 6 4 2 0 2004 2005 YEAR 2006 2007 4.95 9.75 32.49 OPENING NPAs 133.64 11.69 61 . in Crores) YEAR 2004 2005 2006 2007 RECOVERY AMT 19.

Recovery helps in getting write back in provisions already made which helps in improving the bottom line of the bank.Interpretation:The above table is giving information about recovery in ledger balance. but in the year 2006 it was 9. Thus the target is achieved professionally only because of good recovery techniques. Good recovery gives moral boost to the staff to work more for enhanced recovery in remaining NPA account.69%. in 2005 it was 12.77%. It is observed that on the basis of above figures that the recovery from opening NPAs in the year 2004 was 14. It is also seen that the total NPAs increased because of fresh additions in respective years. However.42%. in the year 2007 recovery was improved and it was 16. The recovery in NPAs can help Bank to use such amount for better earning by giving credit to quality borrowers.95%. 62 .

42 IN % 2004 2005 YEAR 2006 2007 UPGRADATION OF NPA (Rs.69 14.35 TOTAL NPAs 156.77 12.05 IN % 2.95 9. In Crores) YEAR 2004 UP GRADATION AMT 3.RECOVERY IN LEDGER BALANCE 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 16.14 63 .

14%.57 188.74 1. 64 .38 Interpretation:Above table is giving information about up gradation of NPA.25 0.28 194. The up gradation means to recover overdue amount due in given NPA account.49 0.49 0.2005 2006 2007 2. Just with small recovery in the NPA amount. The figures must show improvements every year. Especially sub-standard assets if are followed for amount. This account is then classified as a standard account for balance amount. If regularized it is withdrawn from NPA category. Immediate steps for recovery in hard cases like legal use of SARFAESI act may prove to be stitch in time. total outstanding amount is removed from NPA category and is classified as standard assets. bank can substantially reduce NPAs by up gradation and get write back in provisions.37 0.60 147. but in year 2005 to2007 is much less as compares to previous year. In the above table it is observed that in year 2004 up gradation amount was in percentage 2.

2.5 2 2.14

IN %

1.5 1 0.5 0 2004

1.25 0.49


2005 YEAR




(Rs. In Crores) YEAR 2004 WRITE OFF AMT 2.4 TOTAL NPAs 156.05 IN % 1.53


2005 2006 2007

5.25 9.59 27.82

188.28 194.60 147.74

2.78 4.92 18.83

Interpretation:The above table is giving information about write off figure.

The write off means taking away the non- performing assets from balance sheet. It is cleaning of the balance sheet. With the help of figures, we can observe that every year the write off is increasing and year 2007 it is in percentage 18.83% which also shows sustained growth in profit allowing higher write off. Regarding to write off the loss account for full amount as Banks has made 100% provision for loss accounts unless recoverable there is no need to continue such loss assets in the books of banks. Thus number of account will reduce and the recovery officer may concentrate on other NPA accounts. However, branches should concentrate on recovery in write off account as such recovery amounts to 100% additions to profit of the banks. Various techniques especially compromise in write off; can help a long way to recover in write off accounts.


20 15 18.83

IN %

10 5 0 2004 2005 YEAR 2006 2007 4.92 1.53 2.78

(Rs. In Crores) YEAR 2004 FRESH NPAs AMT 48.04 TOTAL ADVANCES 1399.90 IN % 3.43


63 1.94 3.41 Interpretation:The above table is giving information about additional fresh NPA during the year. but in year 2005 fresh additions were in percentage 3. 68 .92 2280. Branches must concentrate more on following of such stressed account which can slip down to NPAs.67 3180.43% which were quit high.2005 2006 2007 60. in the year 2006 it decreased and in year 2007 fresh additions had been quite low as compared to previous years. Bank must concentrate on reduction of fresh additions to NPA which should be minimized as compared to previous years.2 13. So.63% however. Control of fresh slippages is the real control on NPA assets.01 34. Improving appraisal techniques and financing for only quality credit is the better solution to reduce fresh slippages. In above table we can see that in year 2004 fresh additions are in percentage 3.08 1650.49 0.

63 IN % 1.41 2004 2005 YEAR 2006 2007 69 .FRESH NPAs 4 3.5 3 2.5 1 0.49 0.5 2 1.5 0 3.43 3.

FINDINGS FINDINGS (1) Absolute NPAs increased in 2005 over 2004 and again in 2006 over 2005. 70 .

In 2006 because of quantum jump in advances the NPAs % came down to 8. (3) In 2007 Pune city Region did exceptionally well in reducing Gross NPAs as well as a big leap in advances amount. Thus the target is achieved professionally only because of good recovery techniques. in 2005 it was 12. However. (Refer to graph 1) (5) The Region has done exceptionally well in recovery in NPA in 2007 over 2006. (4) If the trend of Gross reduction in NPAs and increase in quantum of quality advances is continued.95%. It is also seen that the total NPAs increased because of fresh additions in respective years.42%. The result has been fabulous reduction in NPA % to 4.69%. 71 .64% which is Banking Industry average. but in the year 2006 it was 9.53% inspite of increase in absolute NPAs. the Pune City Region would be an example to follow for other Regions of the Bank and also other Banks. The recovery from opening NPAs in the year 2004 was 14.77%. in the year 2007 recovery was improved and it was 16. This area needs special attention. (Refer to graph 2) (6) The Region has little to its credit as regards efforts in up gradation of NPA accounts.(2) Due to increase in amount of total advances the % NPA had been around the same in 2005 over 2004.

(Refer to graph 4) (8) Fresh Additions are controlled in 2006 over 2005 and there is repeat performance in 2007 over 2006. recovery in write off will help in increasing profits. (Refer to graph 5) 72 . This is a very positive sign of restricting NPAs.(Refer to graph 3) (7) The Write off amount has increased every year. However. Reduction of NPA is due to heavy write off which is not a good sign of real achievement.


.S. Bank has to gear up efforts for upgrading S. which affects bank profitability due to interest income not being recognized on NPA accounts and creation of provision from hard earned profit amount.A and recovery in D. The bank must adopt structured NPAs management policy for elimination or reducing the NPAs in the Bank. Bank of Maharashtra was facing a problem of NPA in 1992 to 2000. Bank of Maharashtra has adopted very good techniques to control the NPAs.Thereafter the bank has taken over the problem & achieved remarkable success in containing the NPAs. Now Bank has turned almost the corners in fresh additions also.NPA is a double-edged weapon. The Percentage of Gross NPAs & Net NPAs is much in line with other Nationalized Banks & especially peer group. Staff in Bank of Maharashtra has gained good experience to fight the menace of NPAs. 74 .A & Loss Assets. However Bank has to keep tab on fresh additions by increasing quality advances and monitoring them. There has been consistent recovery on NPA for many years but the problem was fresh additions. The recovery in 2007 has been the highest for last many years. Critical care has to be taken of stressed accounts to keep control on fresh additions.


 Fix target for recovery and draw time bound action plan.  Identify critical branches for recovery.  Proper selection of borrowers so that real entrepreneurs can be provided credit and willful defaulters can be avoided.  Weekly meeting of staff to take stock of recovery made in each account and deciding fresh strategies for achieving planned targets.  Training of staff for improving credit appraisal abilities.  Distribution of accounts for monitoring & NPA recovery within all staff members so that they feel that monitoring an NPA recovery is a job of all staff members. 76 . understanding legal formalities.  Forming recovery teams at the branch or team of staff pooled from branches with in the city. Monitoring Officers should be assigned the responsibility of monitoring the A/c with special efforts to maintain and upgrade the asset quality.  Proper appraisal of new proposals so that credit quality is given more importance. negotiations. improving techniques in recovery.

 Rephasing & rescheduling in NPA account so that they can be upgraded within one year from first repayment installment date.  Compromise in suitable cases with immediate decision.138 by obtaining post-dated Cheques.  Incentive to staff doing good work in NPA recovery. Uses of Lokadalat facility so that legal expenses can be reduced and further appeals are stopped.  Resorting to criminal actions in misuse cases and also under sec.  Early disposals of legal suits pending in courts & effective execution of decrees.  Use of SARFAESI Act so that recovery can be done without intervention of courts and time is saved. 77 .  NPA free branches Target be Set up.


Agarwal. Banker’s guide to Non-Performing Advances: By S.org. P. Jain.rbi. V. C. S.maharashtrabank.  Management of Non-Performing Assets: By N. Yardi.  Web site of Bank of Maharashtra: www. S.com  Web site of Reserve Bank of India: www. Prabhu. D.in 79 .

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