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For instance the average return on investment was hardly 2% during the 1980s and 1990s. 2. To reduce budgetary deficits One of the factors of budgetary deficits is the allocation of huge amount of funds to PSUs. Due to lack of improvement of performance in such units, these deficits lead to rising prices which in turn affected the economy. 3. To overcome the problem of political involvement in PSUs There was too much political interference with respect to location of the project, selection and promotion of top personnel, awarding important contracts etc. This has lead to poor performance of the PSUs. 4. Enable the government to concentrate on Social development It is of the belief that by transferring PSUs to private players, it would enable the government to concentrate on the government¶s main job i.e. social development in areas such as primary health, primary education, law and order, family welfare and so on. OTHER OBJECTIVES WOULD INCLUDE
y y y y y
To provide better service to customers To ensure proper planning and execution To overcome the problem of corruption To fix the responsibility on management To make efficient use of disinvestment proceeds.
personnel and management .W h at is Disinvestment ? T he process of reducing the stake of Government in PSUs /PSEs through sale of equity Disinvestment may be aimed at dilution or tranfer of government ownership T hus Disinvestment can lead to partial or complete disinvestment It may be inferred that Disinvestment is a Process whereas Privatision is one of its aim W h at is PSU ? T he public sector is the part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the government After independence and with the advent of planning.India opted for a public sector oriented planning It was believed that a dominant public sector would reduce the inequality of income and wealth. and advance the general prosperity of the nation Problems faced by PSUs Under utilization of Capacity Problem related to planning and construction of projects Problems of labour.
Large number of loss making firms y Disinvestment y Disinvestment is a process in which the public undertaking reduces its portion in equity by disposing its shareholding. It implies selling of govt. which started in the year 1992. It is a concrete step towards privatization and liberalization of our economy . the new economic policy have given rise to significant focus for privatization of public sector enterprises. disinvestment is one of the method of privatization. equity shares of public sector units in the market. in PSUs.Lack of autonomy Low Productivity. Hence. means the sale by the central government/state government. ³Disinvestment´ as per SEBI (substantial acquisition of shares) guideline. y Cont«. of its shares or voting rights and/or control. Low capacity utilization and low efficiency Low rate of return on capital. y y y y y y Criteria for disinvestment . In India . The disinvestment reduces government participation in the company.
the decision making process is quick and decisions are linked with the competitive market changes. The market participation in capital of PSUs through stock exchanges would enable the market to discover the latent worth of PSUs. f) Whether socio-economic objectives lots its purpose y y y y y y y Merits of disinvestment y In Private Sector. e) Whether the original rate of return targeted could not be possible to achieve. improvement in work environment etc. land and buildings etc. The Government¶s Policy or disinvestment includes the disposal of both profit making.y The decision regarding disinvestment or liquidation viewed in the light of following criteria: a) Whether the objectives of the company are achieved b) Whether there is decrease in number of beneficiaries c) Whether serving the national interest will be affected because of disinvestment d) Whether private sector can efficiently operate and manage the undertaking. Most of the PSUs have valuable assets in the shape of plant and machinery. y y y y y . exposure to competitive. The privatization of public sector enterprises will occur only when govt. The Loss making PSUs can be successfully revived by asking the strategic partner to infuse fresh capital and exercising excellent management control over sick PSUs y y y y Demerits of disinvestment y Selling of profit-making and dividend paying PSU would result in loss of regular source of income to the government. as well potentially viable PSUs. corporate responsibility. The disinvestment process would bring in better corporate governance. sells more than 51% of its ownership to private entrepreneurs. resulting in a change in management. There would be chances of µasset stripping¶ by the strategic partner. y Privatization and Disinvestment Privatization implies a change in ownership.
while launching the New Economic Policy (NEP). had appointed the Krishnamurthy committee in 1991 and Rangarajan committee in 1992 to look after the disinvestment process. Both the committees have recommended disinvestments to fulfill objectives of modernization of the PSE¶s through: Strengthening R &D y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y . The top 20 profit making PSU¶s were responsible for 80 percent of profits. many public sector enterprises have become more a burden than an asset to the government. in July 1991 initiated the disinvestment process in India. y Background of Disinvestment The Indian economy had virtually embraced bankruptcy during the period of 1980-92. continuing to have a major say in the undertaking . Disinvestment beyond 50% involves transfer of management. y Process of Disinvestment The govt. where as disinvestment below 50% would result in the govt.y Disinvestment on the other hand. to retain control over the organization. bureaucratization leading to excessive delays and wastage of scares resources. In 1991. stake to a level that result in a transfer of management or could also be limited to such a level as would permit govt. On account of these phenomenon. of which only 123 were profit making. The return on public sector investment for the year 1990-91 was just over 2 percent. y The basic charges against the public sector for its Poor performance are as follows: Low rate of return on Investment Declining contribution to national savings Poor capacity utilization Overstaffing. The govt. there was 236 operating public sector undertakings. has a much wider connotation as it could either involve dilution of govt.
y y y y y Initiating diversification/expansion programme Retaining and reemployment of employees Funding genuine needs of expansion Mitigating fiscal deficit of the government . ONGC. recommendations ranged from strategic sales in various proportions to disinvestments ant various level. y The committee submitted its report covering 58 enterprises. out of 70 enterprises referred to it by the govt. The govt. the govt. The govt. and GAIL to the commission for its independent advice.Ramakrshna for drawing a long term disinvestment programme for the PSU¶s. The govt. reconstituted the disinvestment commission with R. policy for disinvestment of PSU¶s was mainly attributed to poor performance of these enterprises and burden of financing their requirements through budget allocation. has decided to refer all µnon-strategic¶ PSU¶s and their subsidiaries. has announced in its NEP that mitigating the fiscal deficits is the only objective of disinvestment. The crucial shift in govt. not to sacrifice the long term goals for the sake of fulfilling the short term objectives. In 2001. This committee was ultimately abolished in 1999.Patil as its chairman. y These committees also distinguished between the short term and long term goals of the disinvestment and advised the govt. excluding IOC. which will increasingly emphasize strategic sales of identified PSU¶s. Further in 1996. set up a new Department of Disinvestment in 1991 to establish a systematic policy approach to disinvestment and to give fresh impetus to the programme of disinvestment. the govt. constituted a five member public sector disinvestment commission under the chairmanship of G.H.K. y Objectives of Disinvestment: The following are the main objectives of the disinvestment policy of the government: To reduce financial burden on the government To encourage wider share of ownership y y y y y y y y y y y y .
is not transparent about its approach towards privatization of PSE¶s. the govt. Stringent bureaucratic procedure. owned financial institutions were expected to buy the govt.¶s share in select PSU¶s and holding them until third buyer emerged. The Govt. the govt. y Modalities of Disinvestment: In order to achieve the various objectives and goals of disinvestment many methods have been formulated and implemented. (2) Cross Holding: In the case of cross holding. the status of majority share holder. the govt. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y .y y y y To introduce competition and market discipline To help public enterprise upgrade their technology to become competitive To rationalize and retain their workforce To improve efficiency and productivity in public enterprise through new industrial policies. the offer is made to the general public through the medium of recognized market intermediaries. govt. Out for the 222 state level public enterprises identified for disinvestment. These includes: Public Offer: offering shares of public sector enterprises at a fixed price through a general prospectus. The reason for such low proportion of disinvestment proceeds against the target are: The unfavorable market conditions. y (3) Golden Share: in this model. This 26 percent share will continue to give the govt. retains a 26 percent share in the PSU. would simply sell part of its share of one PSU to one or more PSU¶s. (5) Strategic Sale: Under this model. (4) Warehousing: Under this model. Out of which 30 enterprises have been privatized and 68 have been closed down. sells a major portion (51% and above) of its stake to the strategic buyer and also gives over the management control. the process has been initiated in 124 enterprises. y Progress of Disinvestment: Disinvestment has also been undertaken in states.
4. 2009) from over Rs 575 crore in 2008-09. MTNL CMD. The government has to form a policy framework for the entire disinvestment process. y y y y y y PM approves immediate 10% disinvestment of BSNL y Prime Minister. an announcement that brokered peace with employees' unions. Timing of disinvestment is crucial and the government should follow a specific method or process in order to reap more chunks. The government should de-link the disinvestment process from the budgetary exercise. Sam Pitroda gave a report that IPO is going to be discussed in the Telecom Commission.y Suggestion y y y 1. The PSU has 91 million users. attended by BSNL CMD. 2. Effectively it means the privatization of BSNL. Sam Pitroda panel was set up by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to suggest ways to improve BSNL financial health. Raja had said that the government will refer the issue of disinvestment in BSNL to a GOM. BSNL saw profits plummet to Rs 178 crore in 2009-2010 (up to December. y y BSNL (TELECOM) y The Telecom Commission. will soon take up the issue of disinvestment in state-run BSNL. y . the policy-making wing of the. who called off an indefinite strike y Sam Pitroda with banker Deepak Parekh & telecom secretary JS thomas recommended 30 % disinvestment in BSNL and VR of over 1 lakh staff as part of steps to improve the financial health of the PSU. Government should stop setting up of the targets in every year annual budget and should have a long-term plan. Sam Pitroda and Union Communications Minister A Raja among others arrived at a consensus to offload 10 % stake in BSNL through listing. both mobile and landline. as the PSU is rapidly losing market share to new entrants.DOT Telecom Minister A Raja . BSNL and MTNL two PSUs have been witnessing declining market share month after month even as their private counterparts continue notching up large number of new subscribers. 3.
o Two PSUs have been witnessing declining market share month after month even as their private counterparts continue notching up large number of new subscribers. earlier planned in October-November this year. licence fee for fixedline services in rural areas may be considered for exemption. SAIL's 20 per cent share sale plan to mop up about Rs 16. the government today informed the Rajya Sabha. Minister of State for Steel a Sai Prathap told the Upper House. y Unions are opposed to disinvestment in Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL).". The disinvestment of Government of India's shareholding in SAIL in line with the Government's policy to develop larger people's ownership of CBS Enterprises with Government retaining majority shareholding and control .000 crore to the company.800 crore to the PSU. Sail unions have resorted to distribution of pamphlets and also staged demonstrations protesting against the decision regarding disinvestment of SAIL. y y y y . already faces some regulatory hurdles. y y A Raja also called for exemption of annual licence fee for BSNL which will result in annual savings of about Rs 4. This move alone can result in savings of about Rs 1. As a first step.000 crore.
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