OVERVIEW OF PROCESS PLANT PIPING SYSTEM DESIGN

By: Vincent A. Carucci Carmagen Engineering, Inc.

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Piping System
Piping system: conveys fluid between locations Piping system includes: • Pipe • Fittings (e.g. elbows, reducers, branch connections, etc.) • Flanges, gaskets, bolting • Valves • Pipe supports
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ASME B31.3
• Provides requirements for:
– Design – Materials – Fabrication – Erection – Inspection – Testing

• For process plants including
– – – –
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Petroleum refineries Chemical plants Pharmaceutical plants Textile plants

– Paper plants – Semiconductor plants – Cryogenic plants

all fluid services: – Raw. intermediate. air.Scope of ASME B31.3 • Piping and piping components. and water – Fluidized solids – Refrigerants – Cryogenic fluids • Interconnections within packaged equipment • Scope exclusions specified 4 . and finished chemicals – Petroleum products – Gas. steam.

Strength • • • • • • Yield and Tensile Strength Creep Strength Fatigue Strength Alloy Content Material Grain size Steel Production Process 5 .

Stress .Strain Diagram S A B C E 6 .

Corrosion Resistance • Deterioration of metal by chemical or electrochemical action • Most important factor to consider • Corrosion allowance added thickness • Alloying increases corrosion resistance 7 .

May be combined with erosion if high-velocity fluids. Occurs when two dissimilar metals contact each other in corrosive electrolytic environment. Graphitic Corrosion 8 . Localized metal loss randomly located on material surface. and leaves graphite in place. Concentration Cell Corrosion Occurs when different concentration of either a corrosive fluid or dissolved oxygen contacts areas of same metal.Piping System Corrosion General or Uniform Corrosion Pitting Corrosion Uniform metal loss. or moving fluids containing abrasives. Result is extremely soft material with no metal loss. Occurs in cast iron exposed to salt water or weak acids. Occurs most often in stagnant areas or areas of low-flow velocity. and bolts where crevice exists. Occurs at places such as gaskets. Anodic metal develops deep pits or grooves as current flows from it to cathodic metal. Usually associated with stagnant fluid. lap joints. Reduces iron in cast iron. Galvanic Corrosion Crevice Corrosion Localized corrosion similar to pitting.

Material Toughness • Energy necessary to initiate and propagate a crack • Decreases as temperature decreases • Factors affecting fracture toughness include: – Chemical composition or alloying elements – Heat treatment – Grain size 9 .

valves – Cast valves 10 . crosses – Forged flanges. reducers. couplings.Fabricability • Ease of construction • Material must be weldable • Common shapes and forms include: – Seamless pipe – Plate welded pipe – Wrought or forged elbows. tees.

Availability and Cost • Consider economics • Compare acceptable options based on: – Availability – Relative cost 11 .

Pipe Fittings
• Produce change in geometry
– – – – Modify flow direction Bring pipes together Alter pipe diameter Terminate pipe

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Elbow and Return

90°

45°

180° Return
Figure 4.1

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Tee

Reducing Outlet Tee Figure 4.2
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Cross Tee

Reducer Concentric Eccentric Figure 4.3 15 .

4 .Welding Outlet Fitting 16 Figure 4.

5 17 .Cap Figure 4.

6 .Lap-joint Stub End Note square corner R R Enlarged Section of Lap 18 Figure 4.

7 .Typical Flange Assembly Flange Bolting Gasket 19 Figure 4.

Types of Flange Attachment and Facing Flange Attachment Types Threaded Flanges Socket-Welded Flanges Blind Flanges Slip-On Flanges Lapped Flanges Weld Neck Flanges Ring Joint Raised Face Flange Facing Types Flat Faced 20 Table 4.1 .

Flange Facing Types 21 Figure 4.8 .

Gaskets • • • • Resilient material Inserted between flanges Compressed by bolts to create seal Commonly used types – Sheet – Spiral wound – Solid metal ring 22 .

500. 300. 2.500) • Flange strength increases with class number • Material and design temperature combinations without pressure indicated not acceptable 23 . 900. 400. 1. 600.Flange Rating Class • Based on ASME B16.5 • Acceptable pressure/temperature combinations • Seven classes (150.

2 .Material Specification List 24 Table 4.

9 300 750 750 720 695 695 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 320 215 400 1000 1000 965 885 805 785 785 710 675 650 600 425 290 190 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 1.10 300 750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 375 260 400 1000 1000 970 940 885 805 785 755 710 675 650 600 505 345 25 Table 4.Temperature Ratings Material Group No.. Classes Temp. °F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1.Pressure .8 150 235 220 215 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 300 620 570 555 555 555 555 555 545 515 510 485 450 320 215 400 825 765 745 740 740 740 740 725 685 675 650 600 425 290 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 1.3 .

• Pipe Material: • Design Temperature: • Design Pressure: 1 1 Cr − 1 Mo 4 2 700°F 500 psig 26 .Sample Problem 1 Flange Rating New piping system to be installed at existing plant. Determine required flange class.

– Allowable pressure = 110 psig < design pressure – Move to next higher class and repeat steps • For Class 300. 4. allowable pressure = 570 psig • Required flange Class: 300 27 .2) Group Number = 1. Check Class 150.Sample Problem 1 Solution • Determine Material Group Number (Fig.9 • Find allowable design pressure at intersection of design temperature and Group No.

Valves • Functions – Block flow – Throttle flow – Prevent flow reversal 28 .

Full Port Gate Valve 1. 13. 11. 7. 9. 2. 14. 12. Handwheel Nut Handwheel Stem Nut Yoke Yoke Bolting Stem Gland Flange Gland Gland Bolts or Gland Eye-bolts and nuts Gland Lug Bolts and Nuts Stem Packing Plug Lantern Ring Backseat Bushing Bonnet Bonnet Gasket Bonnet Bolts and Nuts Gate Seat Ring Body One-Piece Gland (Alternate) Valve Port 29 Figure 5.1 . 4. 15. 6. 18. 22. 16. 3. 20. 10. 19. 5. 17. 8. 21.

Globe Valve • • • • • Most economic for throttling flow Can be hand-controlled Provides “tight” shutoff Not suitable for scraping or rodding Too costly for on/off block operations 30 .

Check Valve • • • • Prevents flow reversal Does not completely shut off reverse flow Available in all sizes. materials Valve type selection determined by – Size limitations – Cost – Availability – Service 31 . ratings.

Swing Check Valve Cap Pin Seat Ring Hinge Flow Direction Disc Body 32 Figure 5.2 .

3 .Ball Check Valve 33 Figure 5.

Lift Check Valve Seat Ring Piston Flow Direction 34 Figure 5.4 .

5 .Wafer Check Valve 35 Figure 5.

6 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Part Names Body Body Cap Ball Body Seal Gasket Seat Stem Gland Flange Stem Packing Gland Follower Thrust Bearing Thrust Washer Indicator Stop Snap Ring Gland Bolt Stem Bearing Body Stud Bolt & Nuts Gland Cover Gland Cover Bolts Handle 36 Figure 5.Ball Valve No.

Plug Valve
Wedge Molded-In Resilient Seal

Sealing Slip

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Figure 5.7

Valve Selection Process
General procedure for valve selection. 1. Identify design information including pressure and temperature, valve function, material, etc. 2. Identify potentially appropriate valve types and components based on application and function (i.e., block, throttle, or reverse flow prevention).
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Valve Selection Process, cont’d
3. Determine valve application requirements (i.e., design or service limitations). 4. Finalize valve selection. Check factors to consider if two or more valves are suitable. 5. Provide full technical description specifying type, material, flange rating, etc.
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Determine Required Flange Rating • Pipe: • Flanges: • Design Temperature: • Design Pressure: 1 1 Cr − 1 Mo 4 2 A-182 Gr. F11 900°F 375 psig 40 .Exercise 1 .

– Class 300 has 450 psig maximum pressure at 900°F 41 . Identify material specification of flange A-182 Gr.2) Group 1. Determine class using Table 4. F11 2. Determine Material Group No.9 3. – The lowest Class for design pressure of 375 psig is Class 300.Solution 1.Exercise 1 . (Table 4.3 with design temperature and Material Group No.

Design Conditions • General – Normal operating conditions – Design conditions • Design pressure and temperature – Identify connected equipment and associated design conditions – Consider contingent conditions – Consider flow direction – Verify conditions with process engineer 42 .

Loading Conditions Principal pipe load types • Sustained loads – Act on system all or most of time – Consist of pressure and total weight load • Thermal expansion loads – Caused by thermal displacements – Result from restrained movement • Occasional loads 43 – Act for short portion of operating time – Seismic and/or dynamic loading .

Stresses Produced By Internal Pressure Sl Sc P t Sl Sc t P = = = = Longitudinal Stress Circumferential (Hoop) Stress Wall Thickness Internal Pressure 44 Figure 6.1 .

Stress Categorization • Primary Stresses – Direct – Shear – Bending • Secondary stresses – Act across pipe wall thickness – Cause local yielding and minor distortions – Not a source of direct failure 45 .

cont’d • Peak stresses – More localized – Rapidly decrease within short distance of origin – Occur where stress concentrations and fatigue failure might occur – Significance equivalent to secondary stresses – Do not cause significant distortion 46 .Stress Categorization.

Allowable Stresses Function of – Material properties – Temperature – Safety factors Established to avoid: – General collapse or excessive distortion from sustained loads – Localized fatigue failure from thermal expansion loads – Collapse or distortion from occasional loads 47 .

9 17.8 15.4 3.0 300 20.7 4.3 1.9 16.0 17.3 500 18.0 18.4 2.3 800 10.1 2.8Ni pipe 16Cr .0 15.0 16.6 16.1 15. No/Grade 100 20.½Mo 1¼ .5 15.0 18.0 20.½Mo 18Cr .0 20.0 Table 6.B31.2 15.4 1.5 18.7 12.9 600 17.0 400 20.0 16.3 17.5 4.2 6.3 1.5 12.3 1200 1300 1400 1500 A 106 A 335 A 335 A 312 A 312 B P1 P11 TP304 20.5 15.3 13.6 15.5 1000 1100 2.7 20.7 12. 6.5 18. At Metal Temperature.3 Allowable Stresses in Tension Basic Allowable Stress S.4 17.0 20.3 20.8 14.0 TP316 20.7 16.4 1.5 17.1 48 .3 2. Material Carbon Steel C .3 18.8 13.3 15. ksi.7 16.8 9.2 17.7 19.9 900 6.0 700 16. °F.0 2.0 200 20.0 7.12Ni-2Mo pipe Spec.

psi E = Longitudinal-joint quality factor Y = Wall thickness correction factor • • 49 t m = t + CA t nom = tm 0. psig D = Pipe outside diameter.875 . S = Allowable stress in tension.Pipe Thickness Required For Internal Pressure • PD t= 2 (SE + PY ) P = Design pressure. in.

00 0. . double butt seam Nickel and Nickel Alloy B 161 B 514 B 675 .85 1.. .85 0. 4 5 2 Seamless pipe Electric fusion welded pipe.. Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Electric fusion welded pipe.00 0.80 1. .00 0. .. No... double butt seam Electric fusion welded pipe... double butt..80 0.85 0. ..00 A 106 A 358 50 Table 6.90 0...00 1.60 1. 1. 3. . .. 1.. 100% radiographed Electric fusion welded pipe.00 0.. straight or spiral seam Furnace butt welded Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Furnace butt welded pipe Seamless pipe Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel A 333 A 335 .95 A 53 Type S Type E Type F .80 1.00 0..85 1......... All Seamless pipe and tube Welded pipe Welded pipe 1..2 . Class (or Type) Description Ej Carbon Steel API 5L . Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Seamless pipe Stainless Steel A 312 .00 0.85 0. single butt seam Electric fusion welded pipe.Spec. spot radiographed Electric fusion welded pipe.

.7 0.4 1100 0..4 0. .4 0. ..4 0. Table 6.4 0.Temperature..4 1050 0.7 0.4 950 0... °F Materials Ferritic Steels Austenitic Steels Other Ductile Metals Cast iron 900 & lower 0.7 0.0 ..4 0.3 51 .4 1150 & up 0. .5 0.4 0..7 0..5 0.4 1000 0.7 0. ..

Curved and Mitered Pipe • Curved pipe – Elbows or bends – Same thickness as straight pipe • Mitered bend – Straight pipe sections welded together – Often used in large diameter pipe – May require larger thickness • Function of number of welds. conditions. size 52 .

P11 ( 1 14 Cr − 12 Mo ).0625 in.Sample Problem 2 Determine Pipe Wall Thickness Design temperature: 650°F Design pressure: 1. Material: ASTM A335. Pipe outside diameter: 14 in. Gr. 53 . seamless Corrosion allowance: 0.380 psig.

Sample Problem 2 .380 × 14 t= 2[(16.380 × 0. 54 .577 in.200 × 1) + (1.Solution PD t= 2(SE + PY ) 1.4 )] t = 0.

6395 in.0625 = 0.875 55 .6395 t nom = = 0. cont’d tm = t + c = 0.577 + 0. 0.Sample Problem 2 Solution. 0.731 in.

Pipe C c th Mill Tol. Db Nom.2 . Thk.Welded Branch Connection Tb Reinforcement Zone Limits tb c Mill Tol. A2 d1 d2 d2 A2 β 56 Figure 6. Thk. Reinforcement Zone Limits A3 A3 A4 L4 A4 A1 Tr Th Dh Nom.

Tb = Minimum branch thickness. in. β== Acute angle between branch and header === == 57 . c = Corrosion allowance.Reinforcement Area Db − 2(Tb − c) d1 = sin β d1 = Effective length removed from run pipe. in. in. Db = Branch outside diameter. in.

A1: A 1 = t h d1(2 − sin β) Where: th = Minimum required header thickness.Required Reinforcement Area Required reinforcement area. 58 . in.

Reinforcement Pad • Provides additional reinforcement • Usually more economical than increasing wall thickness • Selection variables – Material – Outside diameter – Wall thickness æ (Dp − Db ) ö Tr A4 = ç ç sin β è 59 .

Sample Problem 3
• Pipe material: Seamless, A 106/Gr. B for branch and header, S = 16,500 psi • Design conditions: 550 psig @ 700°F • c = 0.0625 in. • Mill tolerance: 12.5%

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Sample Problem 3, cont’d
• Nominal Pipe Thicknesses: • Required Pipe Thicknesses: Header: 0.562 in. Branch: 0.375 in. Header: 0.395 in. Branch: 0.263 in.

• Branch connection at 90° angle
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Sample Problem 3 - Solution
Db − 2(Tb − c) d1 = sin β
16 − 2 (0.375 × 0.875 − 0.0625 ) d1 = = 15.469 in. sin 90°

A1 = thd1(2 − sinβ) A1 = 0.395 × 15.469 (2 − sin90°) = 6.11 in.2
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A 2 = (2d2−d1)(Th−th−c ) d2 = d1 = 15. A2 = (2 × 15. cont’d • Calculate excess area available in header.Sample Problem 3 Solution.562 0. < Dh = 24 in.395 .53 in.875 × 0.2 63 . A2.469 in.0625) A2 = 0.15.0.469 .469) (0.

• A3.664 in.0625 ) = 0.664 (0.875 × 0. A3 = 64 2 × 0.003 in.375 − 0. 2L 4 (Tb − tb−c ) A3 = sinβ L 4 = 2.375 − 0. cont’d • Calculate excess area available in branch.875 × 0.263 − 0.Sample Problem 3 Solution.5 (0.2 sin 90° .0625 ) = 0.

A4.533 in. AT < A1 ∴ Pad needed 65 . cont’d • Calculate other excess area available.2 available reinforcement. A4 = 0.003 + 0 = 0.53 + 0. • Total Available Area: AT = A2 + A3 + A4 AT = 0.Sample Problem 3 Solution.

c) = 2.562 .Sample Problem 3 Solution.0.5 (Tb .0625) = 1.073 in.16 in 66 .5 (Th . thick • Recalculate Available Reinforcement L41 = 2.0625) + 0.c) + Tr = 2.0.875 × 0. B. Gr. cont’d • Reinforcement pad: A106.5 (0.5 (0.562 in. L42 = 2.562 (0.375 . 0.875) = 1.875 × 0.

073 in.263 − 0.073 (0.005 + 0 = 0. the 0.2 previously calculated ) A T = A 2 + A 3 + A 4 = 0. cont’d Therefore.53 + 0. L4 = 1. 2L 4 (Tb − t b − c) A3 = sin β A3 = 2 × 1.005 in.375 − 0.0625 ) sin90 o A 3 = 0.003 in.2 67 .535 in.875 × 0.Sample Problem 3 Solution.2 (vs.

0.575 Dp = + = + 16 = 27.562 (0. cont’d Since 2d2 > Dp.3 Tr sin β 0.2 Pad diameter.• Calculate additional reinforcement required and pad dimensions: A4 = 6.535 = 5.575 in.11 .875) = 0.492 Sample Problem 3 Solution. Dp is: Tr = 0. A 4 Db 5. pad diameter is acceptable 68 .492 in.

5% Thickness for internal pressure and nominal thickness? . Pipe material: A 106.Determine Required Pipe Wall Thickness • • • • • • • 69 Design Temperature: 260°F Design Pressure: 150 psig Pipe OD: 30 in. B seamless Corrosion allowance: 0. Gr.125 Mill tolerance: 12.Exercise 2 .

3 obtain values: – S = 20.000 × 1.000 psi – E = 1. 6.1.4 • Thickness calculation: PD 150 × 30 t= = 2(SE + PY ) 2[(20.Exercise 2 . 70 .112 in.2.0 – Y = 0. and 6.0 ) + (150 × 0.Solution • From Tables 6.04 )] t = 0.

• Mill tolerance calculation: t nom t nom 71 tm 0. cont’d • Corrosion allowance calculation: t m = t + CA = 0.875 = 0.271 in.875 0.112 + 0. .Solution.237 = = 0.Exercise 2 .125 t = 0.237 in.

Layout Considerations • Operational – Operating and control points easily reached • Maintenance – Ample clearance for maintenance equipment – Room for equipment removal – Sufficient space for access to supports • Safety – Consider personnel safety – Access to fire fighting equipment 72 .

Pipe Supports and Restraints • Supports – Absorb system weight – Reduce: + longitudinal pipe stress + pipe sag + end point reaction loads • Restraints – Control or direct thermal movement due to: + thermal expansion + imposed loads 73 .

Support and Restraint Selection Factors • • • • • • Weight load Available attachment clearance Availability of structural steel Direction of loads and/or movement Design temperature Vertical thermal movement at supports 74 .

1 .Rigid Supports Shoe Saddle Base Adjustable Support Dummy Support Trunnion 75 Figure 7.

2 .Hangers 76 Figure 7.

Flexible Supports Load and Deflection Scale Small Change in Effective Lever Arm Large Change in Effective Lever Arm Relatively Constant Load Typical Variable-Load Spring Support Typical Constant-Load Spring Support Mechanism 77 Figure 7.3 .

limit. redirect thermal movement – Reduce thermal stress – Reduce loads on equipment connections • Absorb imposed loads – Wind – Earthquake – Slug flow – Water hammer – Flow induced-vibration 78 .Restraints • Control.

Restraints. cont’d • Restraint Selection – Direction of pipe movement – Location of restraint point – Magnitude of load 79 .

Anchors and Guides • Anchor – Full fixation – Permits very limited (if any) translation or rotation • Guide – Permits movement along pipe axis – Prevents lateral movement – May permit pipe rotation 80 .

Anchors Anchor Anchor Partial Anchor 81 Figure 7.4 .Restraints .

5 .Restraints .Guides Guide Guide x Vertical Guide 82 Guide Figure 7.

Piping Flexibility • Inadequate flexibility – Leaky flanges – Fatigue failure – Excessive maintenance – Operations problems – Damaged equipment • System must accommodate thermal movement 83 .

Flexibility Analysis • Considers layout. restraint • Ensures thermal stresses and reaction loads are within allowable limits • Anticipates stresses due to: – Elevated design temperatures + Increases pipe thermal stress and reaction loads + Reduces material strength – Pipe movement – Supports and restraints 84 . support.

Flexibility Analysis. cont’d • Evaluates loads imposed on equipment • Determines imposed loads on piping system and associated structures • Loads compared to industry standards – Based on tables – Calculated 85 .

thickness • Design temperature and pressure • End-point movements • Existing structural steel locations • Special design considerations .Design Factors • Layout • Component design details • Fluid service • Connected equipment type • Operating scenarios 86 • Pipe diameter.

height. Stress analysis required. material Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal Compressors API 610 API 617. Exchanger Nozzles WRC 297 Nozzle size. nozzle elevation.Equipment Nozzle Load Standards and Parameters Equipment Item Industry Standard Parameters Used To Determine Acceptable Loads Nozzle size Nozzle size.1 . vessel/exchanger diameter. Shell. shell thickness. tank diameter. and wall thickness.ASME Code Section and-Tube Heat VIII. Nozzle size. 1. reinforcement details. Nozzle size Tank Nozzles API 650 Steam Turbines NEMA SM-23 87 Table 7. thickness. WRC 107.85 times NEMA SM-23 allowable API 661 Nozzle size Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers Pressure Vessels.

Computer Analysis • Used to perform detailed piping stress analysis • Can perform numerous analyses • Accurately completes unique and difficult functions – Time-history analyses – Seismic and wind motion – Support motion – Finite element analysis – Animation effects 88 .

≥ 400°F ≥ 300°F ≥ 200°F any Any Any Any For rotating equipment For air-fin heat exchangers For tankage ≥3 ≥4 ≥ 12 89 Table 7. NPS ≥4 ≥8 ≥ 12 ≥ 20 Maximum Differential Flexibility Temp.2 .Computer Analysis Guidelines Type Of Piping General piping Pipe Size.

and restraints • Extent of analysis depends on situation 90 .Piping Flexibility Temperature • Analysis based on largest temperature difference imposed by normal and abnormal operating conditions • Results give: – Largest pipe stress range – Largest reaction loads on connections. supports.

Requires multiple analyses to evaluate expected temperature variations. if tower is heated while attached piping remains cold. Startup and Shutdown Regeneration and Decoking Piping Spared Equipment 91 Table 7. use of design temperature rather than operating temperature) allows for process flexibility..e.3 . or decoking. An example is furnace decoking. Common example is piping for two or more pumps with one or more spares. For example. Margin above operating temperature (i. regeneration. piping flexibility should be checked. and for switching from one piece of equipment to another. and switching from one service to the other.Normal Temperature Conditions To Consider Stable Operation Temperature range expected for most of time plant is in operation. Determine if heating or cooling cycles pose flexibility problems. for no flow in some of piping. Design for normal operation.

4 . 300°F is typically used for metal temperature. should be checked for tower at 300°F and piping at ambient plus 50°F. This may govern flexibility of lines connected to towers that operate at less than 300°F or that have a smaller temperature variation from top to bottom. while subject to solar radiation. Such situations can occur with Continues steam tracing and steam jacketing.Abnormal Temperature Conditions To Consider Loss of Cooling Medium Flow Temperature changes due to loss of cooling medium flow should be considered. flexibility should be checked for maximum While Heating metal temperature. are freed of gas or air by using steam. Includes pipe that is normally at ambient temperature but can be blocked in. and many off-site lines. Piping connected to equipment which Steamout for Air will be steamed out. If process flow can be stopped while heat is still being No Process Flow applied. 92 Table 7. Most on-site equipment and lines. For 125 psig steam. especially piping connected to or Gas Freeing upper parts of towers.

Extent of Analysis • Extent depends on situation • Analyze right combination of conditions • Not necessary to include system sections that are irrelevant to analysis results 93 .

Modifying System Design • • • • Provide more offsets or bends Use more expansion loops Install expansion joints Locate restraints to: – Minimize thermal and friction loads – Redirect thermal expansion • Use spring supports to reduce large vertical thermal loads • Use Teflon bearing pads to reduce friction loads 94 .

System Design Considerations • Pump systems – Operating vs. spared pumps • Heat traced piping systems – Heat tracing + Reduces liquid viscosity + Prevents condensate accumulation – Tracing on with process off 95 .

cont’d • Atmospheric storage tank – Movement at nozzles – Tank settlement • Friction loads at supports and restraints – Can act as anchors or restraints – May cause high pipe stresses or reaction loads • Air-cooled heat exchangers – Consider header box and bundle movement 96 .System Design Considerations.

6 .Tank Nozzle NOZZLE SHELL BOTTOM 97 Figure 7.

Welding • • • • Welding is primary way of joining pipe Provides safety and reliability Qualified welding procedure and welders Butt welds used for: – Pipe ends – Butt-weld-type flanges or fittings to pipe ends – Edges of formed plate 98 .

and Thinner Thickness 99 Figure 8.1 . Pipe 7/8 in.Butt-Welded Joint Designs Equal Thickness (a) Standard End Preparation (b) Standard End Preparation of Pipe of Butt-Welding Fittings and Optional End Preparation of (c) Suggested End Preparation. Pipe and Fittings Over 7/8 in.

(a) (b) (c) (d) 100 Figure 8.2 .Butt-Welded Joint Designs Unequal Thickness 3/32 in. max.

Fillet Welds 101 Figure 8.3 .

scale.Weld Preparation • Welder and equipment must be qualified • Internal and external surfaces must be clean and free of paint. rust. wall thickness. etc. oil. welding process – Smooth with no slag from oxygen or arc cutting 102 . • Ends must be: – Suitably shaped for material.

Preheating • Minimizes detrimental effects of: – High temperature – Severe thermal gradients • Benefits include: – Dries metal and removes surface moisture – Reduces temperature difference between base metal and weld – Helps maintain molten weld pool – Helps drive off absorbed gases 103 .

Postweld Heat Treatment (PWHT) • Primarily for stress relief – Only reason considered in B31.3 • Averts or relieves detrimental effects – Residual stresses + Shrinkage during cooldown + Bending or forming processes – High temperature – Severe thermal gradients 104 .

cont’d • Other reasons for PWHT to be specified by user – Process considerations – Restore corrosion resistance of normal grades of stainless steel – Prevent caustic embrittlement of carbon steel – Reduce weld hardness 105 .Postweld Heat Treatment (PWHT).

Storage and Handling • Store piping on mounds or sleepers • Stacking not too high • Store fittings and valves in shipping crates or on racks • End protectors firmly attached • Lift lined and coated pipes and fittings with fabric or rubber covered slings and padding 106 .

Pipe Fitup and Tolerances • Good fitup essential – Sound weld – Minimize loads • Dimensional tolerances • Flange tolerances 107 .

Pipe Alignment Load Sensitive Equipment • Special care and tighter tolerances needed • Piping should start at nozzle flange – Initial section loosely bolted – Gaskets used during fabrication to be replaced • Succeeding pipe sections bolted on • Field welds to join piping located near machine 108 .

Load Sensitive Equipment. cont’d • Spring supports locked in cold position during installation and adjusted in locked position later • Final bolt tensioning follows initial alignment of nozzle flanges • Final nozzle alignment and component flange boltup should be completed after replacing any sections removed 109 .

Load Sensitive Equipment. cont’d • More stringent limits for piping > NPS 3 • Prevent ingress of debris during construction 110 .

Flange Joint Assembly • Primary factors – Selection – Design – Preparation – Inspection – Installation • Identify and control causes of leakage 111 .

Inspection. and Installation • • • • • • Redo damaged surfaces Clean faces Align flanges Lubricate threads and nuts Place gasket properly Use proper flange boltup procedure 112 .Flange Preparation.

4 .“Criss-Cross” Bolt-tightening Sequence 113 Figure 8.

Causes of Flange Leakage • • • • • • • • 114 Uneven bolt stress Improper flange alignment Improper gasket centering Dirty or damaged flange faces Excessive loads at flange locations Thermal shock Improper gasket size or material Improper flange facing .

Inspection • Defect identification • Weld inspection – Technique – Weld type – Anticipated type of defect – Location of weld – Pipe material 115 .

Typical Weld Imperfections Lack of Fusion Between Weld Bead and Base Metal a) Side Wall Lack of Fusion b) Lack of Fusion Between Adjacent Passes Incomplete Filling at Root on One Side Only Incomplete Filling at Root c) Incomplete Penetration Due to Internal Misalignment d) Incomplete Penetration of Weld Groove External Undercut Root Bead Fused to Both Inside Surfaces but Center of Root Slightly Below Inside Surface of Pipe (Not Incomplete Penetration) Internal Undercut e) Concave Root Surface (Suck-Up) f) Undercut g) Excess External Reinforcement 116 Figure 9.1 .

Cracks. Shrinkage. Cracks. Miter groove welds. Ferromagnetic materials. Porosity. Slag inclusions. Laminations. Ferrous and nonferrous materials. Slag inclusions in thick plates. Porosity. Weld root pass. Intermediate weld passes. Slag inclusions. For flaws up to 6 mm (1/4 in. Incomplete penetration.1 . • • • Defect Minor structural welds.) beneath the surface. Simple and inexpensive. Folds. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ultrasonic Confirms high weld quality in pressurecontaining joints. Subsurface flaws. Inclusions. Girth welds. Gas pockets.Weld Inspection Guidelines Type of Inspection Visual Situation/Weld Type All welds. Surface defects. Liquid Penetrant • • • • 117 Table 9. • • • Radiography • • • Magnetic Particle • • Butt welds. Lack of fusion. Seams. Cracks.

Testing • Pressure test system to demonstrate integrity • Hydrostatic test unless pneumatic approved for special cases • Hydrostatic test pressure – ≥ 1½ times design pressure 118 .

cont’d – For design temperature > test temperature: 1 . psi 119 .5 P S T PT = S ST/S must be ≤ 6.Testing. psig = Allowable stress at test temperature. psig = Internal design pressure. psi = Allowable stress at design temperature.5 PT P ST S = Minimum hydrostatic test pressure.

Testing. cont’d • Pneumatic test at 1.1P • Instrument take-off piping and sampling piping strength tested with connected equipment 120 .

Nonmetallic Piping • Thermoplastic Piping – Can be repeatedly softened and hardened by increasing and decreasing temperature • Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Piping (RTR) – Fabricated from resin which can be treated to become infusible or insoluble 121 .

Nonmetallic Piping. cont’d • No allowances for pressure or temperature variations above design conditions • Most severe coincident pressure and temperature conditions determine design conditions 122 .

cont’d • Designed to prevent movement from causing: – Failure at supports – Leakage at joints – Detrimental stresses or distortions • Stress-strain relationship inapplicable 123 .Nonmetallic Piping.

In addition: – Piping must be supported. – Point loads and narrow contact areas avoided – Padding placed between piping and supports – Valves and load transmitting equipment supported independently to prevent excessive loads. 124 . guided.Nonmetallic Piping. anchored to prevent damage. cont’d • Flexibility and support requirement same as for piping in normal fluid service.

• Joined by bonding 125 .Nonmetallic Piping. cont’d • Thermoplastics not used in flammable service. and safeguarded in most fluid services.

Category M Fluid Service Category M Fluid • Significant potential for personnel exposure • Single exposure to small quantity can cause irreversible harm to breathing or skin. 126 .

cont’d • Requirements same as for piping in normal fluid service. In addition: – Design. 127 . – Detrimental vibration. layout. resonance effects to be avoided or minimized.Category M Fluid Service. pulsation. – No pressure-temperature variation allowances. and operation conducted with minimal impact and shock loads.

– Sensitive leak test required in addition to other required testing. – All fabrication and joints visually examined. cont’d – Most severe coincident pressure-temperature conditions determine design temperature and pressure.Category M Fluid Service. 128 .

caulked joints. – Threaded nonmetallic flanges. threaded. – Nonmetallic valves and specialty components. – Expanded.Category M Fluid Service. 129 . nonmetallic fabricated branch connections. fabricated laps. cont’d • Following may not be used – Miter bends not designated as fittings.

High Pressure Piping • Ambient effects on design conditions – Pressure reduction based on cooling of gas or vapor – Increased pressure due to heating of a static fluid – Moisture condensation 130 .

anchor. and terminal movement 131 .High Pressure Piping. cont’d • Other considerations – Dynamic effects – Weight effects – Thermal expansion and contraction effects – Support.

High Pressure Piping. cont’d • Testing – Each system hydrostatically or pneumatically leak tested – Each weld and piping component tested – Post installation pressure test at 110% of design pressure if pre-installation test was performed • Examination 132 – Generally more extensive than normal fluid service .

materials.3 covers process plant piping • Covers design.Summary • Process plant piping much more than just pipe • ASME B31. fabrication. and testing • Course provided overview of requirements 133 . erection. inspection.

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