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By Walter A. Rutes & Richard H. Penner & Lawrence Adams | Planning the typical guest-room floor presents one of the greatest challenges in hotel design. Because guest rooms and suites generally represent between 65 and 85 percent of the total floor area in a hotel or resort, any savings in the planning of a given floor arrangmenr (or grouping of rooms) is multiplied many times. Therefore, a major planning goal in every lodging project should be to maximize the amount of salable guest-room space and keep to a minimum the vertical core, horizontal circulation, and necessary support areas. A chief goal for hotel planners is to find an efficient floor plan for guest rooms In addition, guest-room planning comprises several important architectural objectives. The architect should select a particular plan configuration and orient the building to (1) enhance the appearance and visibility of the structure, (2) reduce energy costs, and (3) accommodate possible future expansion. Should lodging demand increase, the owner may want to add rooms, whether by extending the guestroom wings, adding additional floors, or building a new structure. For many projects the architect needs to consider a configuration and orientation to take advantage of views from the guest rooms. In developing the plan itself, the designer should reduce as much as possible the walking distances for both the guest and the housekeeping staff, provide for support functions, and seek ways to reduce construction cost and non-salable space. Exhibit 1 (overleaf) lists the principal objectives in planning the guest-room floor. The program requirements for the guest-room floors are relatively few: a designated number of guest rooms or suites, conveniently located public and service elevators, exit stairways to meet building codes and provide safe emergency egress, adequate linen storage and vending areas, and small-electrical-and telephone-equipment rooms. Myriad variations. The analysis of alternative plan. configurations for the guest-room structure is one of the earliest design studies for a hotel, even before the exact guest-room mix is confirmed. The conceptual program may call for, say, 300 rooms including 15 suites, at a typical size of 350 sq. ft. (32.5 [m.sup.2]). The architect starts with the objective of providing a specific number of guest-room bays of a particular size and, taking into account constraints and opportunities of a particular site, may initially select a double-loaded corridor configuration (i.e., one with rooms on either side), a compact vertical tower, or a spacious atrium structure--each with its myriad variations. Low-rise properties generally are planned
The most appropriate configuration for the guest rooms depends largely on the nature of the building site. and equipment (FF&E). and other minor support spaces). At resort properties. such as that of John Portman's Hyatt Regency Atlanta. for instance. as well as afford a more interesting spatial sequence.. service-elevator lobby. in which the guest rooms surround a central core. shorter walking distances. were designed on a basic rectangular plan. furniture. or they can adjoin a large lobby space so that some of the rooms look into the hot el's interior. and enhance the sense of privacy. the architect must realize that a particular configuration will shape the economics of the project. and program requirements. Early atrium configurations. most profitable) design solution. Those requirements are the preferred location of the public and service elevators and of the column-free ballroom. the design team must maximize the percentage of floor area devoted to guest rooms and keep to a minimum the amount of circulation and service space (e. or a +. More recent projects have taken on numerous. give the guest a greater connection to the site and the recreational amenities. may not provide the best (i. linen storage. In densely populated urban areas. a simple comparison among alternative plans of the percentage . The tower plan. provide a number of villa structures that greatly reduce the perceived scale of the project. they can be terraced into pyramid-like forms.e.using a double-loaded corridor and may be shaped into an L. thus. Although the architect and developer must not ignore aesthetic and functional issues. While the choice of an architectural plan is a function of a balanced consideration of site. among other configurations. environment. and ongoing energy and payroll expenses-but the choice of a plan also influences the more subtle aspects of guest satisfaction. and other advantages that affect the guest's perception of the value of the hotel experience.. Many resorts feature not a single building but. although rectangular or circular are most common. on the other hand. High-rise buildings may follow those patterns. a T. the opposite is true: the functional organization of the hotel's elements is secondary to the careful siting of the buildings to minimize their impact on the site and to provide views of the surrounding landscape or beach. Not only does the type of plan drive budgetary issues--including the cost of initial construction. where land costs are high and the site may be relatively small. height limitations often dictate the choice of a specific plan--one that packages the rooms into a relatively low and spread-out structure. more expensive) plan type may offer more variety in room types than an efficient construction design. can be practically any shape.g. the ideal arrangement of public and support spaces on the lower floors may be the most critical consideration. instead. At airport sites. a U. complex shapes. Analyzing Alternative Configurations For an operator to realize profits. vending. The design that is most economical to build. A relatively less efficient (and. fixtures. The various configurations are illustrated throughout this article. Two major planning requirements often dictate both the shape and the placement of the guest-room structure on urban sites.
and planning efficient access to end or corner rooms. In some plans. expand other functional areas such as meeting space or recreational facilities. The choice of one configuration over another can mean a savings of 20 percent in gross floor area of the guest-room structure and of nearly 15 percent in the total building. grouping public and service elevators.70 figure) x the net area. including both single and double-loaded corridor schemes (as shown in Exhibit 3). Because guest rooms account for so much total hotel area. (44 to 54 [m. the three principal plan alternatives--the double-loaded slab. the key factor is the number of rooms per floor. the architect should establish a series of quantitative benchmarks for the efficient design of the guest-room floors. In turn. or lower the construction cost and project budget. Our study also indicates the effect of subsequent minor decisions on the efficiency of the plan--pairing two guest rooms back-to-back. while in others the driving factor is the location of the elevator core or the shape of the building. provide larger guest rooms for the same capital investment. Slab Configuration The slab configuration includes those plans that are primarily horizontal. say. for example. if the gross area isn't more than 1. In that case. yield final designs that vary from about 470 to 580 gross sq.2]). one approach is to set a goal of the median guestroom percentage figure. The relative efficiency of typical hotel floors can be compared most directly by calculating the percentage of the total floor area devoted to guest rooms.2]) per room. Our analysis of hundreds of different guestroom floor plans shows that some patterns yield more costeffective solutions than others.or single-loaded corridor. and the atrium--when designed with identical guest rooms of 350 net sq. 70 percent for the double-loaded slab.of space allocated to guest rooms versus non-revenueproducing space can suggest a set of efficient solutions. For example. For example. ft. the most efficient configurations to construct and operate are those where circulation space is kept to a minimum--either the double-loaded corridor slab or the compact center-core tower.sup.sup. the lower the construction cost per room.5 [m. The few planning variables are concerned . or choosing a double. The major alternatives among plan types are described in Exhibit 2 (on the previous page). Clearly. the rectangular tower. (32. In general. This varies from below 60 percent in an inefficient atrium plan to more than 75 percent in the most tightly designed double-loaded slab. then the plan is relatively efficient. The following sections describe the planning decisions that have the most influence on creating an economical plan for each of the basic guest-room configurations. ft.42 (the reciprocal of the . the higher this percentage. improve the quality of the furnishings or of particular building systems. a relatively low construction cost offers the developer a range of options: build additional guest rooms.
The core design is complicated by the need to connect the public elevators to the lobby and the service elevators to the housekeeping and other back-of-house areas. The architect must consider the following issues relating to a slab pattern. Given site conditions. What is the best way to organize public and service elevators. and where in the tower should they be positioned? * Core layout. The offset-slab plan. The knuckle configuration. L. require 5. although in many hotels those areas are located side by side. Most often the vertical core is fully integrated into the body of the tower. are any single-loaded rooms appropriate? * Shape. One common design is to position the elevator core in the middle third of a floor to reduce walking distances to the farthest rooms.. they do not displace any guest rooms from the building perimeter. linen storage. Therefore. and breaks up the slab's long corridors. Configurations that bury the elevator and service cores in interior corners. The final layout of the core is another factor that determines a plan's efficiency.to 8-percent-more floor area for the same number of rooms. which bends at angles. How can the exit stairs best be integrated into the plan? The high degree of efficiency found in the slab plan arises primarily from double-loaded corridors. various approaches can nevertheless further tighten the layout. This often necessitates two distinct core areas at some distance from each other. reduce the building perimeter. and the position of the fire stairs. but the designer may occasionally add the core to the end of a compact room block or extend it out from the face of the facade. L-shaped.primarily with the building's shape (straight. the layout of the core.g. straight. for instance. * Corridor loading. one should employ a single-loaded design only where external factors militate. courtyard) best meets site and building constraints? * Core location. While slab plans constitute the most efficient design category. and other support areas? * Stair location. creates the potential for interestingly shaped elevator lobbies. accomplish this task. such as a narrow site dimension or the availability of spectacular views in one direction. in addition. or other). They reduce the non-guest-room area. in contrast. Should the public and the service cores be combined or separated. In most slab-plan hotels. One goal is to keep the . Single-loaded schemes. provides compact service areas. and increase the opportunities for creating architecturally interesting buildings. for example. Which particular shape (e. vending. is especially economical because the public and service elevator cores share one area and. the vertical cores require space equivalent to two to four guest-room modules.
and stairs organized? . and the plan's efficiency improves when the core displaces the smallest number of guest-room bays. These generally comprise a central core surrounded by a single-loaded corridor of guest rooms. Therefore. Many of the more efficient configurations also feature a distinct elevator lobby. Also. triangular). * Corridor: How is hallway access to corner rooms arranged?. instead. or within the usual bathroom zone of a guest-room bay (where the bathroom is part of an oversized room or suite). depending on the geometric shape of the plan (e. Our comparison of many projects shows that the vertical core displaces fewer guestroom bays when the service areas are located behind the public elevators than when those areas are beside or at some distance from the public elevators. circular. cross-shaped. * Shape: Which shape is most efficient and permits the desired mix of rooms?.. Each such stair tower might simply replace the last guest room on the corridor. Building codes generally require emergency-exit stairs to be located at opposite ends of the building. Careful placement of the stairs provides one more opportunity to create a more efficient overall plan by reducing gross floor area. Tower plans exhibit different characteristics than those of the slab. another goal in planning the repetitive guest-room floor is to create a layout that does not require a third fire stair. at an "inside corner" where the building turns.core to a minimum. and * Core layout: How are the elevators. as part of an elevator core. compared with simply attaching the stair tower to the end of the building. linen storage. Experienced hotel architects have established techniques for maximizing the number of rooms per floor and manipulating the stairs and corridors to increase the building's overall efficiency. plans that incorporate an elevator lobby generally have fewer awkwardly shaped rooms. One factor that limits the number of rooms on the guest-room floor is the typical code requirement for hotels with automatic sprinklers that there be no more than (typically) 300 ft. square. (91 m) between exit stairs. but towers still raise a similar series of questions for the designer: * Number of rooms: How many guest rooms economically fit a particular layout?. But. The tower's exterior architectural treatment can vary widely. thereby providing a more uniform guest-room design. Tower Configuration Tower plans are the second major category of guest-room-floor layouts (as shown in Exhibit 4).g. the architect may be able to integrate the stairs within the building. Such a foyer space helps to isolate nearby guest rooms from the noise and congestion of people waiting for the elevator.
certain specific issues have to be resolved. those with only 16 rooms per floor) usually do not feature an elevator lobby.. and the optimum core size. because of the critical nature of the corridor access to the corner rooms in the rectangular towers and the design of the wedge-shaped guest room and bathroom in the circular towers. The analysis of a large sample of hotel designs shows that. and the vertical elements are tightly grouped. depending on the guest-room dimensions. the core is split into two parts. and minimum amounts of storage. the more efficient the layout. Those plans that minimize the amount of circulation and. (2. Small hotels (i. towers can accommodate between 16 and 24 rooms. the perimeter of the wedge-shaped guest rooms is about 16 ft. the core is centrally located. as a result. in addition to the core design. the core would barely be large enough for two or three elevators. Some hotel architects introduce a series of multistory "sky lobbies" to make this space a positive feature. With only 16 rooms. two egress stairs. whereas the corridor dimension may be less than 8 ft. and the guests in rooms opposite the elevators must tolerate noise from guests waiting for the elevator. thus challenging the designer's skill to plan the bathroom. In a few cases. the fewer the number of rooms per floor. or add conference rooms on every guest floor. by necessity must be extremely compact and. For the most part. in addition. selection of the tower shape creates specific limitations on the number of rooms per floor.e. Inefficient layouts. With the tower plan. The efficient design of hotel towers requires the simultaneous study of the core and an imaginative layout to meet the demand for ultra-high-rise mixed-use structures. on the other hand.Unlike the other plan configurations. surprisingly. the amount of corridor area is kept to a bare minimum. Generally. The shape of the tower has a direct effect on the structure's appearance and perceived scale. creating roughly an Hshaped circulation zone. create unusual corner rooms exemplify the best in both architectural planning and interior layout.9 m). entry vestibule. The two fire stairs can be efficiently arranged in a scissors configuration (if permitted by code) to conserve space.4 m). The efficiency of the plan is also a direct result of the shape. the measures of efficiency are judged by the layout of the room. For circular tower plans. Typically. often result from adding rooms and from extending single-loaded corridors into each of the building corners. This is true because the core. effectively providing an elevator lobby on each floor. the number of floors. While the design of the core in both rectangular and circular towers is less critical than the arrangement of guest rooms. (4. designs with more than 24 rooms become so inflated and the core so large that the layout becomes highly inefficient. with little or no expansion in the core or building-service areas. In tower plans with 24 or more rooms per floor. . and closet. the opposite is true. The efficiency of most guest-room configurations improves as the number of rooms on a floor increases. On the other hand. the central core becomes excessively large.
creating two distinct experiences for the guest. * Public elevators: How are scenic or standard elevators best arranged?. In some cases. By far the least efficient of the plans we are highlighting here. * Corridor: How can the amount of single-loaded corridor space effectively be reduced?. which is a primary goal in selecting the atrium configuration. This approach effectively draws together the architectural excitement of the atrium space (on a smaller and more personal scale than in the large hotels) with the desirable economies of the double-loaded plan. many developers and architects believe that the . each atrium hotel is distinguished by the plan of the guestroom floors. housekeeping-support functions. * Guest-room location: Should any guest rooms look into the lobby?. The following issues must be addressed by the architect: * Shape: What configuration of rooms best fits the site and can be integrated with both public and backof-house area needs?. much like open balconies overlooking the lobby space. While the basic prototype is square. which was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake and fire. architects have sought ways to gain the prestige benefits of the atrium while increasing its efficiency. scenic elevators are placed opposite conventional ones. The atrium prototype had been used successfully late in the nineteenth century in both Denver's Brown Palace (still in operation) and San Francisco's first Palace Hotel. many of the recent atrium designs are irregularly shaped to respond to various site constraints. One technique that has been successful in several hotels is to combine a central atrium with extended double-loaded wings. However. the generic atrium configuration has the guest rooms arranged along single-loaded corridors. This sculpting of the building contributes to creating a distinctive image for the hotel. The location of the service elevators. as was done at the Hyatt Regency hotels in Cambridge (Massachusetts) and Dallas. while needing to be integrated into the plan. Recognizing the atrium's inefficiency. and emergency-exit stairs. the present-day atrium design was introduced by architect John Portman for the Hyatt Regency Atlanta in 1967. are not particularly critical to the efficiency of the guest-room floor.Atrium Configuration Atriums constitute the third major category of guest-room floor plans (see Exhibit 5). and * Service core and stairs: Where are service areas best located and integrated into the building design? Practically all atrium hotels feature glass-enclosed elevators that provide the guest with an ever-changing perspective of the lobby activity. In addition to the open lobby. as well as add animation to the space itself. As we mentioned above.
Defining the Guest-room and Suite Program After the architect establishes the conceptual design. or the total number of individual guest-room units available for sale. * Structural bay: The dimension between two structural columns. and leisure market segments.atrium design has become a cliche--and also recognize its tremendous cost premium--and seek other means to create a memorable building and guest experience. single king bed. and the arrangement of suites. But the same arrangement is only two keys if the living room cannot function as a room on its own and must be sold with one bedroom. the former being the basis of the contract documents and the latter a chief component of cost estimates for the guest-room portion of the hotel.g. A suite containing a living room that connects to two bedrooms totals three keys if the parlor has a full bathroom and convertible sofa and the bedrooms can be locked off. typically equal to the width of one or two guest rooms. * Guest-room bay: The typical guest-room module. the mix of room furnishings (e.. more important. often refer to the individual rooms and to structural bays. on the other hand. the following definitions should be used: * Key: A separate. Architects. on the advice and experience of the hotel-operating company. . the location and layout of the elevator and service cores. Generally. rentable unit. group. the number of bays per floor. including a basic configuration for the guestroom floors. The guestroom program defines the typical room module (key dimensions and bathroom configuration). To avoid misunderstandings. and the variety of suites. a hotel's management thinks in terms of keys. The room mix is based on the initial market study and. including changing the width of the guest-room module. and * Suite: Combination of living room and one or more bedrooms. the team needs to refine and modify the earlier thumbnail guest-room program to fit the architectural concept--or shape the building to accommodate the nuances of the program. The design team studies a wide range of possible modifications. Large suites often are described in terms of the equivalent number of guest-room bays so that a hotelier may refer to a four-bay suite containing a two-bay living room and two connecting bedrooms. two double beds). The proposed room mix is intended to reflect the estimated demand from the individual business. Design development of the guest-room floors to meet the specific requirements of the program is among the earliest steps in refining the conceptual design.
To begin with. details of the repetitive guest-room block can be considered at a relatively early phase. Because it is important that the team be able to keep an accurate count of the total bays and keys. But often changes in the guest rooms occur when the designs are fleshed out for the building's mechanical and electrical distribution systems. or as the result of changes in the public and service areas on the lower floors. Third. However. Exhibit 7 illustrates one typical approach for documenting the guest-room mix. the design team can test the schematic design against the major element in the space program--the required number of guest rooms-and initiate any necessary changes at the earliest point in the conceptual design. occupancy percentages. * Connecting rooms: Indicate adjoining guest rooms. * Suite locations: Position and label any suites. The technique presented here forces the architect or interior designer to make a number of conscious decisions: * Architectural shape: Categorize each room by its shape or configuration." Documenting the Guest-room Mix Throughout the late design phases the architect and other design-team members continually modify details of the guest-room structure. and * Key and bay analysis: Develop and maintain a summary table of keys and bays by architectural shape or bed type. or stair towers. Second. In addition. * Guest-room numbers: Assign final room numbers. Documenting the room count confers a number of advantages. in response to the owner's or operator's input. the architect or interior designer should prepare and regularly update a guest-room-mix analysis. For example. the documentation establishes a format that allows the designers readily to analyze the guest-room mix and maintain a precise record of the guest-room count through the later design phases. feasibility consultants project revenues and expenses. clarification is essential to avoid possible misunderstandings and delays. Exhibit 6 illustrates an example of a typical guest-room and suite program and the use of the terms "key" and "bay.During the development phases. the architect can study possible pairing of rooms to increase the number of back-to-back bathrooms and to establish a . elevator cores. and average room rates based on the number and type of guest-room keys. * Bed type: Label each room by its bed type. both parking requirements and zoning ordinances (used to control project size and density) are usually based on the key count.
edu).. In addition. * Locate elevators and stairs at interior locations to use the maximum possible length of outside wall for guest rooms. * Develop the corridor plan to facilitate guest and staff circulation.. * Position the guest-room structure to limit its structural impact on the ballroom and other major public spaces. the engineering consultants can review the major systems in the guest-room tower--the elevators. generally north--south exposures are preferable to east--west exposures. and communications systems. such as odd-shaped rooms. Walter A. Floor layout * Organize the plan so that the guest rooms occupy at least 70 percent of gross floor area. For instance. a hotel-design consulting firm (Tek9Ltd@aol. * Consider solar gain.repetitive pattern of setbacks at the guest-room doors. HVAC. Rutes (not pictured). M. that might not easily accommodate the necessary furnishings and amenities. Penner. . for example--in the same context as the rest of the design team. Richard H. other members of the team can offer better input when changes to the gues t-room tower are fully documented through the different design phases.S. Finally. EXHIBIT 1 Guest-room planning objectives Siting and orientation * Site the guest-room structure to be visible from the road. Lawrence Adams is an architect in New York City (lawadams@aol. * Orient guest rooms to enhance views. * Assess the relative visual impact and construction cost of various guest-room configurations. the interior designer can identify any potential problems. is a professor of property-asset management at the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration (firstname.lastname@example.org). is chair of 9 Tek Ltd.com). A teacher of hotel design at New York University. FAIA.
linen storage. * Place the service elevator.5 m). * Locate handicap-access guest rooms on lower floors and near elevators.* Place the elevator lobby in the middle third of the structure. and vending in a central location. but consider the option of 5' 6" (1. * Design guest bathrooms back-to-back for plumbing economies.65 m). EXHIBIT 2 Guest-room floor analysis Rooms Configuration Single-loaded slab Double-loaded slab per floor Varies by site size: 12-30+ Varies by site size: 16-40+ Offset slab Varies by site size: 24-40+ Rectangular tower 16-24 Dimensions ft (m) 32 (10) x available length 60 (18) x available length 80 (24) x available length 110 x 110 (34 x 34) Guest-room percentage 65% 70% 72% 65% Circular tower 16-24 90-130 diameter (27-40) 67% Triangular tower 24-30 Varies 64% Atrium 24+ 90+ (27) 62% . * Plan corridor width at a minimum of 5' 0" (1.
9) Atrium 95 (8.6) Rectangular tower 60 (5.2) Offset slab 50 (4.6) Circular tower 45-65 (4.Corrider area per room. [ft.sup.2]) 80 (7.2-6) Triangular tower 65-85 (6-7.5) 45 (4.8) Configuration Single-loaded slab Comments Vertical core usually not affected by room module.2] Configuration Single-loaded slab Double-loaded slab ([m.sup. .
Triangular tower Central core inefficient due to shape. This table shows the basic building dimensions. the table shows that the offset double-loaded slab is the most efficient in terms of guest-room-area percentage and that the atrium configuration is the least economical. difficult to plan guest bathroom. Atrium Open volume creates spectacular space. corner rooms easier to plan than with square tower. Circular tower High amounts of exterior wall per room. Each guest-room floor configuration has certain characteristics that affect its potential efficiency. Rectangular tower Planning issues focus on access to corner rooms. Offset slab Core is buried.Double-loaded slab Economical length limited by exitstair placement to meet building code. fewer rooms per floor make core layout difficult. largely because of the high amount of corridor area required per room. open corridors. For Example. more corridor because of elevator lobby. opportunity for glass elevators. creating less perimeter wall per room. and the amount of area per room needed for corridors. the usual percentage of floor area devoted to guest rooms. EXHIBIT 6 Typicql guest-room program for a 300-room hotel Room type Unit area (*) Keys Bays Total bays . requires careful engineering for HVAC and smoke evacuation.
2] ([m. conference (*)Unit area and total net area given in [ft. connects to K and DD Kitchen. room number.900) 56.400 (130) 1.400 (130) 113.5) 350 (32. labeled with room shape. bed type.5) 700 (65) 700 (65) 1.100 (195) 4.000 (5.200) 2. connects to K and Connects to K and DD Connects to dedicated K and DD Include pantry. stairs. connects to K and DD Boardroom.800 (260) 3.400 (130) 1.500) Comments --Wet-bar.King Double-double Parlor Hospitality suite Conference suite Deluxe suite Presidential suite Concierge club Totals: Room type King Double-double Parlor Hospitality suite Conference suite DD Deluxe suite Presidential suite Concierge club room Totals: 350 (32.200 (390) 2. and connecting doors.5) 350 (32.2]) EXHIBIT-7 The guest-room-floor plans above illustrate the procedure for analyzing the architectural planning and room layout for a hypothetical hotel. as the standard room bay is modified to fit around elevators.000 (3. the latter with five different room types--not unusual. * Architectural shape: Identity each room of a different shape or configuration (primarily different dimensions or bathroom layout) and assign it a number. The number of different room types is increased further by handicap-accessible rooms and by various suites. Different room types are identified by a Roman . The following discussion describes the necessary steps including key plans for each floor.050 (10.050 (97.sub.150 (295) 1. The plans show the typical floor and suite floor. and a comprehensive tally of the guest-room mix.5) 1.400 (130) 120 160 6 6 4 3 1 0 300 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 321 120 160 6 12 8 9 4 4 Total net area (*) 42. or support areas.sub.
W. room III is the corner guest room with a wider bay and different bathroom. * Key and bay analysis: Develop a summary table to tally the number of rentable 'keys' and room modules for each floor by architectural shape or bed type.numeral in the top half of the circular code in each room. for example between rooms 15 and 17. combinations of a living room and one or more adjoining bedrooms. resorts. The accompanying article. maintain corresponding numbers on different floors. the new volume explores the latest trends in hotel and resort architecture. Doing this in schematic design greatly aids communication among the various design professionals and reduces later confusion if the operator were to modify the room numbers. DD) on the plan. queen. A total revision of our 1985 book. "Planning the Guest-room Floor. * Bed type: Label each room by its bed type (king. Note that the standard room type may be furnished in a variety of ways. and leisure-time amenities around the globe. parlor. or rentable unit. room II is similar but has a different configuration at the entry vestibule. The table next to each plan cross-references the number of room types (I-V) and the bed types for each floor. and Development. half the pairs connect K to DD). Planning. * Suites: Position all suites. * Connecting rooms: Mark interconnecting rooms with an open circle. * Room numbers: Assign room numbers to the bays to meet the management company's eventual operating requirements. because it has a full bathroom and a convertible sofa. Q. Two suites are shown in the example: a conference suite in the corner that connects to a standard double-double room. Often. Norton in the United States and the Architectural Press in the United Kingdom. business and pleasure travelers are demanding more diverse hotels. The VIP suite also counts as a key. and discusses key . handicap-accessible) and place a simple abbreviation (e. twin. K. and room V is a two-bay living room that connects to two standard guest rooms. and a VIP suite that connects to two bedrooms.g. published earlier this summer by W. double-double.. Hotel Planning and Design. Frequently." is excerpted from Hotel Design. establishes a wide range of planning and design criteria. king-studio. a larger chart is developed for the entire hotel showing the stacking of typical and suite floors and providing totals of the number of rooms for each type. Operating companies seek a specific number of connecting pairs of particular types (for example. the suites are grouped together on the top guest-room floors. RELATED ARTICLE: About This Book With the growth in world travel in recent years. within the typical room configuration. Room I is the most typical. Determine room numbers to simplify directional and destination signs. room IV is a two-bay conference suite (only one key).
M. social and cultural implications. and organizational objectives of an owner and developer influence the project and its prospect for success (as found in Part 3. Robert E. and future trends. lobby. If those objectives are in balance with demand for hotel facilities. and industry consultant Bjorn Hanson. reviews more than 50 different types of hotels now flourishing in today's increasingly customized marketplace.. (Those trends are summarized in the final chapter of the book. planning and design options. Separate chapters are devoted to each of 12 major categories. another theme threading through these chapters. and from high-fashion boutique hotels to flexible office suites. Many owners update existing hotels. and recreational areas. including airport hotels. Resorts encompass an ever-widening array as unique as the ecotourist retreat or vacation village is from the convention resort. Hotel Types. Robert A. so that the hotel may better fulfill its function. as well as commentary from I. John C. Ian Schrager. For example. operational. additions. the Design Guide. It also features an evolutionary-tree diagram of hotels. food and beverage. Each hotel type is clearly addressed in terms of development considerations. The Design Guide concludes with a discussion of special building systems and construction methods important to the whole range of hotel properties. Portman. and design issues critical to creating a successful lodging property. Kastner. Stern. with the site's . and Howard J. To develop a successful hotel. Succeeding chapters detail the key design guidelines for the functional areas in hotels: the guestroom floor (excerpted here). meeting. The Book at a Glance Part 1.) A continuing theme is the emphasis on strongly targeting specific market sectors. or adaptive reuse. its principals must be familiar with more than just the distinct variety of hotel types and the design criteria outlined in Parts 1 and 2. the book features a three-part foreword by architect Gyo Obata. Lehr. suburban hotels comprise many design types. restoration. and country inns. marketing. guest rooms and suites. focuses on the program. The developers must also be familiar with the development process itself and how the many financial. Part 2. roadside hotels. This section highlights the types of operational and financial decisions that affect and influence the architectural and interior design. Pei. Wolff. designer Michael Bedner. For example. where concepts range from theme resorts to efficient extended-stay properties. luxury resorts and super-luxury hotels need small. Jr. perhaps the most important design issue for many resort properties.M. superb restaurants and health spas to maintain their clientele. office-park hotels. Valentine A.development issues. mall or university hotels. This section begins with an overview that traces the hotel's evolution and offers the latest forecasts of its future development. The first chapter introduces site and master planning. planning. and administration and backof-house areas. reinventing their ambiance through innovative renovations. In addition to extensive photographs and scores of plans and checklists. the Development Guide).
capacity to support a hotel or resort. and interior design. Rutes was vice president and director of architecture at such major hotel companies as Inter-Continental.P. With truly collaborative partnerships among developer. Sheraton. Stuart Farnet. and operator the industry should see a continued explosion of creative hotels and resorts in the twentyfirst century. Lawrence Adams has specialized in hotel design and large-scale developments at major architectural and planning firms including HOK. the project can prosper. broad socioeconomic trends.H. and L. and with the programmatic and design decisions.--W. Tablet. . and the hotel opening. assembling the development and design ream. and Holiday Corporation. schedule. At Cornell University.. including the prospect of increasing numbers of focused niche-lodging types.R. In addition. R. The chapters in this third section trace the hotel-development process beginning with the initial concept of developing a lodging property. Ramada. planning. William B.A. The process includes a number of key steps: analyzing feasibility. Penner teaches courses in hotel development. This allows the team to consider solutions that effectively reduce staff numbers or accommodate important life-safety or mechanical requirements. and Frank Williams and Associates. Finally. design team. S. The future is wide open. establishing the building program. Before founding 9 Tek Ltd. and managing the budget. Together the authors have many decades' experience comprising three long careers in hotel design and development. the team should understand the issues of hotel operation and how the planning and design decisions influence many of the practical and technical aspects of running a hotel. Richard H. He also is the author of Conference Center Planning and Design. the book considers lodging's future. Walter A.A. or creative proposals for new resorts under the sea or in outer space.
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