# Code No: R05322201 Set No.

1
III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
1. Write short notes on:
(a) Folding
(b) Aliasing
(c) Hidden oscillation
(d) Anti aliasing ﬁlter. [16]
2. Consider the following oscillator system
Y (s)
U(s)
=
w
2
s
2
+w
2
Obtain the continuous time state space representation of the system. Then dis-
cretize the system and obtain the discrete time state space representation. Also
obtain the pulse transfer function of the discretized system. [16]
3. (a) Given the systems
X =

−1 0 0
0 −2 0
0 0 −3
¸
¸
¸
x +

¸
¸
0 1
2 0
0 1

u
Y =

0 1 2
0 1 0

x
Determine the controllability and observability?
(b) Determine the state controllability for the systems, whose system matrix and
input matrices given as: [8+8]
i. A =

2 1
0 −1

; B =

1
0

ii. A =

0 1
−1 0

; B =

0
1

4. (a) Consider the following characteristic equation
P(z) = z
3
? 1.3z
2
? 0.08 z + 0.24 = 0
Determine whether or not any of the roots of the characteristic equation lie
outside the unit circle in the z - plane.
(b) Explain the following conditions for discrete time systems.
i. Stability
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Code No: R05322201 Set No. 1
ii. Instability
iii. Critical stability: [10+6]
5. (a) Draw the block diagram for digital control system with cascade digital con-
troller and explain the same.
(b) Draw the block diagram to represent a single input - single output digital
controller and explain the same. Write down the transfer function of the
controller. [8+8]
6. (a) A state feed back control system has following system equations
X(k+1) = GX(k) + HU(k)
Y(k) = CX(k)
U(k) = -KX(k)
where K is state feed back gain matrix
Draw the necessary block diagram for the control system and derive the ob-
server error equation.
(b) Brieﬂy explain design of digital control systems that must follow changing
reference inputs, applying observed-state feed back method. Draw necessary
block diagram.
[8+8]
7. If the system with ˙ x
1
(t) = x
2
(t), ˙ x
2
(t) = u(t) is to be controlled to minimize
the performance measure J(x, u) =
2

0
u
2
dt, ﬁnd a set of necessary conditions for
optimal control using Hamiltonian method. (Assure boundary conditions as x
1
(0)
= x
2
(0) =1 and x
1
(2) = x
2
(2) =0) [16]
8. (a) Explain the minimum time problem. Write the performance index for the
same. What are the constraints associated with the problem.
(b) Explain minimum energy problem. [10+6]
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Code No: R05322201 Set No. 2
III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
1. (a) Explain the following:
i. Continuous time signal
ii. Analog signal
iii. Discrete time signal
iv. Sampled data signal.
(b) What are the methods of representing a discrete time signal? Give the dia-
grammatic representation. [8+8]
2. (a) Using nested programming method, derive the state equation and output equa-
tions for the system deﬁned by,
Y(z)
U(z)
=
z
−1
+5z
−2
1+4z
−1
+3z
−2
Then draw a block diagram for the system showing all state variables.
(b) Derive the solution of discrete time state space equation and state the prop-
erties of state transition matrix. [8+8]
3. Convert the following state model into Jordan canonical form and there from com-
ment on controllability and observability. [16]
X(k+1)=

0 1 0
0 0 1
−2 −4 −3

X(k) +

1 0
0 1
−1 1

u(k)
y (k)=

0 1 −1
1 2 1

X(k)
4. (a) Using direct method of Lyapunov , determine the stability of the equilibrium
state of the system

X
= AX
with A =

0 1
−1 1

(b) Explain how to ﬁnd the stability analysis of discrete time system using Bilinear
Transformation. [8+8]
5. (a) Explain down the design steps for design of digital controller through bilinear
transformation using the frequency-domain technique. Draw necessary block
diagram for the same.
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Code No: R05322201 Set No. 2
(b) State the necessary and suﬃcient condition for the arbitrary pole placement
and explain the same with necessary block diagram for a system with state
equation X(k + 1) = GX(k) +Hu(k) [8+8]
6. Draw a typical block diagram of a digital control system with state observer and
explain the same. Write the equation for the control signal in terms of reference
signal and observed state vector. [16]
7. Brieﬂy write down the procedure for solving optimal control problems using Hamil-
tonian Formulation of variational calculus. Also give the boundary condition for
various problems. [16]
8. (a) What are the steps involved in ﬁnding a solution of an optimal control problem.
(b) What are the factors relating to a plant for design of an optimum controller.
(c) What is admissible control? [6+6+4]
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Code No: R05322201 Set No. 3
III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
1. (a) Given the Z-transforms
X (z) =
z
−1
(1−z
−1
) (1+1.3z
−1
+0.4z
−2
)
Determine the initial and ﬁnal values of x ( k ). Also ﬁnd x (k ), in a closed
form.
(b) Solve the following diﬀerence equation
(k + 1) x ( k + 1) -x ( k ) = k + 1
Where, x (k) = 0 for k < 0 and x (0) = 1. [8+8]
2. For the following discrete control system represented by
G (z) =
z
−1
(1+z
−1
)
(1+0.5z
−1
)(1−0.5z
−1
)
Obtain the state representation of the system in the observable canonical form.
Also ﬁnd its state transition matrix. [16]
3. (a) State and explain the complete observability of discrete time systems.
(b) State the condition for complete observability and complete state controlla-
bility in the z-plane
(c) Determine the controllability for the following system

x
1
(k + 1)
x
2
(k + 1)

=

0 0
−1 1

x
1
(k)
x
2
(k)

+

0
1

u(k) [5+5+6]
4. (a) Consider the discrete - time unity feedback control system (with sampling
period T=1 sec) whose open loop pulse transfer function is given by
G(z) =
K(0.3679z+0.2642)
(z−0.3679z)(z−1)
Determine the range of gain K for stability by using the Jury stability test.
(b) What is bilinear transformation? Explain brieﬂy the stability analysis using
bilinear transformation and Routh stability? [10+6]
5. A discrete-time regulator system has the plant equation
X(k + 1) =

2 −1
−1 1

X(k) +

4
3

u(k) and
y(k) =

1 1

X(k) +7u(k). Design a state feed back control system with u(k) =
−KX(k) to place the closed loop poles at ±j0.5. [16]
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Code No: R05322201 Set No. 3
6. Draw a typical block diagram of a digital control system with state observer and
explain the same. Write the equation for the control signal in terms of reference
signal and observed state vector. [16]
7. With suitable diagram, explain the ﬁxed end-point problem and derive the neces-
sary conditions of variational calculus. [16]
8. (a) What are the aspects, to be considered while introducing optimal control
theory in an industry?
(b) What are the characteristics of a plant to be considered while planning optimal
control? [8+8]
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Code No: R05322201 Set No. 4
III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆
1. Consider the diﬀerence equation
y(k+2) - y(k+1) - y(k) = 0; with y(0) = 0 , y(1) = 1.
Obtain the general solution y(k) in a closed form and hence show that
Lt
k →∞
y(k+1)
y(k)
=
1+

5
2
. [16]
2. A discrete time system has the following transfer function
Y(z)
U(z)
=
4z
3
−12z
2
+13z−7
(z−1)
2
(z−2)
Determine the state model of the system in:
(a) Phase variable form
(b) Jordan canonical form. [8+8]
3. Consider the following continuous time control system

˙ x
1
(t)
˙ x
2
(t)

=

0 1
−1 0

x
1
(t)
x
2
(t)

+

0
1

u(t)
y (t) = x
1
(t)
Show that the system is completely controllable and completely observable. The
control signal u
+
(t) is now generated by processing the signal u(t) through a sampler
and zero order hold. Study the controllability and observability properties of the
system under this condition. Determine the hidden values of the sampling period
for which the discretized system may exhibit hidden oscillations. [16]
4. (a) Determine a Lyapunov function v ( x ) for the following system :

x
1
(k + 1)
x (k + 1)

=

1 −1.2
0.5 0

x
1
(k)
x
2
(k)

(b) State and prove Lyapunov theorem on asymptotic stability. [8+8]
5. (a) Explain down the design steps for design of digital controller through bilinear
transformation using the frequency-domain technique. Draw necessary block
diagram for the same.
(b) State the necessary and suﬃcient condition for the arbitrary pole placement
and explain the same with necessary block diagram for a system with state
equation X(k + 1) = GX(k) + Hu(k) [8+8]
6. (a) What is a state estimator? Brieﬂy explain the same.
(b) What are the diﬀerent types of state observation and explain the same. [8+8]
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Code No: R05322201 Set No. 4
7. (a) Write Euler-Lagrange equation and explain each of the terms.
(b) Brieﬂy explain application of Euler-Lagrange equation for optimal control.
[8+8]
8. Write a general equation for performance index for minimum energy problem con-
sidering adjustment of each of control variables. Explain each term in equation.
[16]
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