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III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008

DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

1. Write short notes on:

(a) Folding

(b) Aliasing

(c) Hidden oscillation

(d) Anti aliasing ﬁlter. [16]

2. Consider the following oscillator system

Y (s)

U(s)

=

w

2

s

2

+w

2

Obtain the continuous time state space representation of the system. Then dis-

cretize the system and obtain the discrete time state space representation. Also

obtain the pulse transfer function of the discretized system. [16]

3. (a) Given the systems

X =

−1 0 0

0 −2 0

0 0 −3

¸

¸

¸

x +

¸

¸

0 1

2 0

0 1

u

Y =

0 1 2

0 1 0

x

Determine the controllability and observability?

(b) Determine the state controllability for the systems, whose system matrix and

input matrices given as: [8+8]

i. A =

2 1

0 −1

; B =

1

0

ii. A =

0 1

−1 0

; B =

0

1

**4. (a) Consider the following characteristic equation
**

P(z) = z

3

? 1.3z

2

? 0.08 z + 0.24 = 0

Determine whether or not any of the roots of the characteristic equation lie

outside the unit circle in the z - plane.

(b) Explain the following conditions for discrete time systems.

i. Stability

1 of 2

Code No: R05322201 Set No. 1

ii. Instability

iii. Critical stability: [10+6]

5. (a) Draw the block diagram for digital control system with cascade digital con-

troller and explain the same.

(b) Draw the block diagram to represent a single input - single output digital

controller and explain the same. Write down the transfer function of the

controller. [8+8]

6. (a) A state feed back control system has following system equations

X(k+1) = GX(k) + HU(k)

Y(k) = CX(k)

U(k) = -KX(k)

where K is state feed back gain matrix

Draw the necessary block diagram for the control system and derive the ob-

server error equation.

(b) Brieﬂy explain design of digital control systems that must follow changing

reference inputs, applying observed-state feed back method. Draw necessary

block diagram.

[8+8]

7. If the system with ˙ x

1

(t) = x

2

(t), ˙ x

2

(t) = u(t) is to be controlled to minimize

the performance measure J(x, u) =

2

0

u

2

dt, ﬁnd a set of necessary conditions for

optimal control using Hamiltonian method. (Assure boundary conditions as x

1

(0)

= x

2

(0) =1 and x

1

(2) = x

2

(2) =0) [16]

8. (a) Explain the minimum time problem. Write the performance index for the

same. What are the constraints associated with the problem.

(b) Explain minimum energy problem. [10+6]

⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05322201 Set No. 2

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008

DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

1. (a) Explain the following:

i. Continuous time signal

ii. Analog signal

iii. Discrete time signal

iv. Sampled data signal.

(b) What are the methods of representing a discrete time signal? Give the dia-

grammatic representation. [8+8]

2. (a) Using nested programming method, derive the state equation and output equa-

tions for the system deﬁned by,

Y(z)

U(z)

=

z

−1

+5z

−2

1+4z

−1

+3z

−2

Then draw a block diagram for the system showing all state variables.

(b) Derive the solution of discrete time state space equation and state the prop-

erties of state transition matrix. [8+8]

3. Convert the following state model into Jordan canonical form and there from com-

ment on controllability and observability. [16]

X(k+1)=

0 1 0

0 0 1

−2 −4 −3

X(k) +

1 0

0 1

−1 1

u(k)

y (k)=

0 1 −1

1 2 1

X(k)

4. (a) Using direct method of Lyapunov , determine the stability of the equilibrium

state of the system

•

X

= AX

with A =

0 1

−1 1

**(b) Explain how to ﬁnd the stability analysis of discrete time system using Bilinear
**

Transformation. [8+8]

5. (a) Explain down the design steps for design of digital controller through bilinear

transformation using the frequency-domain technique. Draw necessary block

diagram for the same.

1 of 2

Code No: R05322201 Set No. 2

(b) State the necessary and suﬃcient condition for the arbitrary pole placement

and explain the same with necessary block diagram for a system with state

equation X(k + 1) = GX(k) +Hu(k) [8+8]

6. Draw a typical block diagram of a digital control system with state observer and

explain the same. Write the equation for the control signal in terms of reference

signal and observed state vector. [16]

7. Brieﬂy write down the procedure for solving optimal control problems using Hamil-

tonian Formulation of variational calculus. Also give the boundary condition for

various problems. [16]

8. (a) What are the steps involved in ﬁnding a solution of an optimal control problem.

(b) What are the factors relating to a plant for design of an optimum controller.

(c) What is admissible control? [6+6+4]

⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05322201 Set No. 3

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008

DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

1. (a) Given the Z-transforms

X (z) =

z

−1

(1−z

−1

) (1+1.3z

−1

+0.4z

−2

)

Determine the initial and ﬁnal values of x ( k ). Also ﬁnd x (k ), in a closed

form.

(b) Solve the following diﬀerence equation

(k + 1) x ( k + 1) -x ( k ) = k + 1

Where, x (k) = 0 for k < 0 and x (0) = 1. [8+8]

2. For the following discrete control system represented by

G (z) =

z

−1

(1+z

−1

)

(1+0.5z

−1

)(1−0.5z

−1

)

Obtain the state representation of the system in the observable canonical form.

Also ﬁnd its state transition matrix. [16]

3. (a) State and explain the complete observability of discrete time systems.

(b) State the condition for complete observability and complete state controlla-

bility in the z-plane

(c) Determine the controllability for the following system

x

1

(k + 1)

x

2

(k + 1)

=

0 0

−1 1

x

1

(k)

x

2

(k)

+

0

1

u(k) [5+5+6]

4. (a) Consider the discrete - time unity feedback control system (with sampling

period T=1 sec) whose open loop pulse transfer function is given by

G(z) =

K(0.3679z+0.2642)

(z−0.3679z)(z−1)

Determine the range of gain K for stability by using the Jury stability test.

(b) What is bilinear transformation? Explain brieﬂy the stability analysis using

bilinear transformation and Routh stability? [10+6]

5. A discrete-time regulator system has the plant equation

X(k + 1) =

2 −1

−1 1

X(k) +

4

3

u(k) and

y(k) =

1 1

**X(k) +7u(k). Design a state feed back control system with u(k) =
**

−KX(k) to place the closed loop poles at ±j0.5. [16]

1 of 2

Code No: R05322201 Set No. 3

6. Draw a typical block diagram of a digital control system with state observer and

explain the same. Write the equation for the control signal in terms of reference

signal and observed state vector. [16]

7. With suitable diagram, explain the ﬁxed end-point problem and derive the neces-

sary conditions of variational calculus. [16]

8. (a) What are the aspects, to be considered while introducing optimal control

theory in an industry?

(b) What are the characteristics of a plant to be considered while planning optimal

control? [8+8]

⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05322201 Set No. 4

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008

DIGITAL AND OPTIMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

1. Consider the diﬀerence equation

y(k+2) - y(k+1) - y(k) = 0; with y(0) = 0 , y(1) = 1.

Obtain the general solution y(k) in a closed form and hence show that

Lt

k →∞

y(k+1)

y(k)

=

1+

√

5

2

. [16]

2. A discrete time system has the following transfer function

Y(z)

U(z)

=

4z

3

−12z

2

+13z−7

(z−1)

2

(z−2)

Determine the state model of the system in:

(a) Phase variable form

(b) Jordan canonical form. [8+8]

3. Consider the following continuous time control system

˙ x

1

(t)

˙ x

2

(t)

=

0 1

−1 0

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

+

0

1

u(t)

y (t) = x

1

(t)

Show that the system is completely controllable and completely observable. The

control signal u

+

(t) is now generated by processing the signal u(t) through a sampler

and zero order hold. Study the controllability and observability properties of the

system under this condition. Determine the hidden values of the sampling period

for which the discretized system may exhibit hidden oscillations. [16]

4. (a) Determine a Lyapunov function v ( x ) for the following system :

x

1

(k + 1)

x (k + 1)

=

1 −1.2

0.5 0

x

1

(k)

x

2

(k)

**(b) State and prove Lyapunov theorem on asymptotic stability. [8+8]
**

5. (a) Explain down the design steps for design of digital controller through bilinear

transformation using the frequency-domain technique. Draw necessary block

diagram for the same.

(b) State the necessary and suﬃcient condition for the arbitrary pole placement

and explain the same with necessary block diagram for a system with state

equation X(k + 1) = GX(k) + Hu(k) [8+8]

6. (a) What is a state estimator? Brieﬂy explain the same.

(b) What are the diﬀerent types of state observation and explain the same. [8+8]

1 of 2

Code No: R05322201 Set No. 4

7. (a) Write Euler-Lagrange equation and explain each of the terms.

(b) Brieﬂy explain application of Euler-Lagrange equation for optimal control.

[8+8]

8. Write a general equation for performance index for minimum energy problem con-

sidering adjustment of each of control variables. Explain each term in equation.

[16]

⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆

2 of 2

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