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57536552 2770 Understanding the Brain the Birth of a New Learning Science v 2 by Organization for Economic Cooperation

57536552 2770 Understanding the Brain the Birth of a New Learning Science v 2 by Organization for Economic Cooperation

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Published by: rafa_w on Jul 27, 2011
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  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • Acquisition of knowledge
  • Brain
  • Cognitive functions
  • Development
  • Emotions
  • Functionality, neural base of learning
  • Genetics
  • “Hands on” and Holistic –learning by doing
  • Intelligence
  • Joy of learning
  • Kafka
  • Language
  • Memory
  • Neuron
  • Opportunity windows for learning
  • Plasticity
  • Quality existence and healthy living
  • Representations
  • Skills
  • Team and social interactions
  • Universality
  • Variability
  • Work
  • How the Brain Learns throughout Life
  • Basic principles of the brain’s architecture
  • Functional organisation
  • The structure of the brain
  • How the brain learns over the lifetime
  • Plasticity and sensitive periods
  • Childhood (approximately 3-10 years)
  • Adolescence (approximately 10-20 years)
  • Adulthood and the elderly
  • Learning to delay age-related cognitive decline
  • Combating declining cognitive function
  • Combating damaged brain function
  • Box 2.1.Learning Therapy (Japan)
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Box 3.1.Nutrition
  • Social interactions
  • The regulation of emotions
  • Box 3.2.Attention as seen through the neuroscientific lens as an organ system
  • Box 3.3.Physical exercise
  • Motivation
  • Box 3.4.Music
  • Box 3.6.Video games
  • Sleep and learning
  • Box 3.7.Sound pressure level
  • Language and developmental sensitivities
  • Literacy in the brain
  • Linguistically-mediated literacy development
  • Developmental dyslexia
  • Creating numeracy
  • Babies calculate
  • Numeracy in the brain
  • Number and space
  • The role of instruction
  • Gender and mathematics
  • Barriers to learning mathematics
  • What is a “neuromyth”?
  • “There are critical periods when certain matters must be taught and learnt”
  • “But I read somewhere that we only use 10% of our brain anyway”
  • “I’m a ‘left-brain’, she’s a ‘right-brain’ person”
  • “Let’s face it– men and boys just have different brains from women and girls”
  • “A young child’s brain can only manage to learn one language at a time”
  • “Improve your memory!”
  • “Learn while you sleep!”
  • The ethical challenges facing educational neuroscience
  • For which purposes and for whom?
  • Ethical issues regarding the use of products affecting the brain
  • Brain meets machine –the meaning of being human?
  • The risk of an excessively scientific approach to education?
  • Creating a new trans-disciplinary approach to understanding learning
  • Trans-disciplinarity
  • Box 7.3.Learning Lab Denmark
  • Reciprocal inputs from both sides –bi-directional progress
  • Box 7.4.Harvard Graduate School of Education
  • Box 7.5.Educators’ views of the role of neuroscience in education
  • Box 7.6.Technology and a world wide education perspective
  • Moving beyond national boundaries through international initiatives
  • Box 7.7.Transfer Centre for Neuroscience and Learning, Ulm, Germany
  • Box 7.9.Educational Neuroscience Initiatives in the Netherlands
  • Cautions and limitations
  • Conclusions and Future Prospects
  • Key messages and conclusions
  • Key areas for further educational neuroscientific research
  • Birth of a learning science
  • The Brain, Development and Learning in Early Childhood
  • A.1. Introduction
  • A.2.1. The onset and process of brain development
  • Box A.1.Emotions and memory (learning)
  • A.2.2. The part played by experience
  • A.2.3. Timing and sequencing –important factors in brain development
  • A.2.4. Plasticity– a key feature of the infant brain
  • A.2.5. Critical or sensitive periods in neural development?
  • A.2.6. Sensitive periods and brain plasticity
  • Box A.2.Initial language development
  • A.2.7. Learning in and beyond early childhood
  • A.3. How important are the early years of development and learning?
  • A.3.1. The case for early intervention and education programmes
  • Box A.3.Mirror neurons
  • A.3.2. Children’s learning dominates early childhood
  • A.3.3. Negative contexts for learning
  • A.4.1. The subtleties of play and learning in this period
  • development
  • A.4.3. Learning environments that support language development
  • A.6. Practitioner’s response
  • The Brain and Learning in Adolescence
  • B.1. Introduction
  • B.2. Understanding brain development– what are we looking at?
  • B.2.1. Brain development at the microscopic level
  • B.2.2. Brain development at the macroscopic level
  • B.2.3. Brain development can be examined at multiple levels
  • B.2.4. Imaging techniques
  • Box B.1.The principle behind MRI
  • Box B.2.The principle behind PET and fMRI
  • B.3. The brain is a sculpture carved by experience
  • B.3.1. Brain activity seen over time
  • B.3.2. Brain structure seen over time
  • B.3.4. Children and adults do not use the brain in the same way
  • B.3.5. The adolescent brain and changes in adolescent behaviour
  • B.3.6. Summary and general implications
  • B.4. Theories of learning in adolescence and the life course
  • B.4.1. Implications for teaching and learning in the adolescent years
  • B.5. Challenges and future directions: towards a new synthesis?
  • B.6. Practitioner’s response: I have a dream
  • B.6.1. Re-considering teaching
  • C.1. Introduction
  • C.1.1. What is learning?
  • C.1.2. The human brain in adulthood
  • C.1.3. Overview of paper
  • C.2. Adult age-related changes in cognition and learning
  • C.2.1. Cognitive aging
  • C.2.2. Lifelong learning: a perspective from adult education
  • C.3. Aging and brain function: structural neuroimaging
  • C.4. Aging and brain function: functional neuroimaging
  • C.5. Individual differences in age-related brain and cognitive changes
  • C.6. Genetics and individual differences in cognition
  • C.7. Training and aging
  • C.7.1. Cognitive training
  • C.7.2. Training– the developmental perspective
  • C.8. Creating positive learning environments for adults
  • C.8.1. Competence-based learning: prepare for solving problems
  • C.8.2. Constructivist learning: making use of subjective experiences
  • C.8.3. Situated learning: organising learning environments
  • C.9. Future agenda
  • C.10. Practitioner’s response
  • Box A.What is fMRI?
  • Glossary
  • Also Available in the CERI Collection

Experience plays a fundamental role in individual development and the make-up of a

human being, but it remains personal and subjective. Representations resulting from

experience are consequently different from one person to another. Experience also plays a

major role in building preferential styles, leading the learner to use particular learning

strategies according to the situation.

Specific learning causes changes –transitions from one state to another. Yet, the

diversity of personal experience and representations implies different conditions at the

outset for each person. In addition, modifications resulting from learning vary according to

learning motivations, interactions and strategies. This is why the impact of instruction

differs from one person to another, and why we speak of variability.

Students in the same class, taking the same course will not learn the same things. Their

representations of the concepts presented will vary as they do not all start with the same

basic knowledge nor the same mode of learning. The result is that their representations will

not develop in the same manner. They will all maintain traces of this learning experience,

but these traces will be different and specific to each individual.

Learning experiences need to take into account individual differences, so that diversification of

the curriculum to accommodate them is an increasingly important educational goal.

The question of cortical differences between men and women is frequently raised. As yet,

neuroscientific data neither confirm nor disprove this conjecture.




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