# Code No: 64228/MT

NR

M.Tech. – II Semester Regular Examinations, September, 2008 MICROWAVE COMMUNICATIONS (Wireless & Mobile Communication) Time: 3hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a) b) With reference to FM Microwave stations, explain the following: i) WLEL ii) FM-IF Section Explain the significance of the term “System Gain”, and account for the different parameters on which it will depend. Hence calculate the path loss and fade margin for a microwave radio system at 1.8 GHz and 30 km, with 99% reliability. Compare the merits and demerits of analog and digital radio link systems, in detail. Calculate the received signal level and the necessary antenna gains, for an LOS digital radio link at 10 GHz, with 20 km single Eb =15dB, fade margin=40 dB, and hop, 90 Mbps data rate, No receiver noise figure of 6 dB. Assume a transmitter power of 10 watts, and a line loss of 1 dB at each end, and identical antennas. Distinguish between Multipath fading and Power fading, and account for the utility of different diversity systems. List out the parameters and the operational features in establishing a frequency usage plan. Max. Marks:60

2.a) b)

3.a) b) 4.a)

Describe the trophosheric scatter phenomenon and the process of troposcatter communications, and establish the link equation for the path loss involved, as compared to Los case. b) Explain the significance of the terms: “Attenuation function”, and “Take of Angle” in the estimation of troposcatter link loss. Contd…2.,

Code No: 64228/MT

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5.a)

b)

For a 4/6 GHz synchronous satellite link, estimate the path losses in both links. If the satellite’s EIRP is 30 dbW, find the FM Threshold, receiving antenna gain, G/T ratio and the value of T, for a receiver with 8 dB noise figure, 4 MHz bandwidth. Explain the significance of G/T and C/T ratios, accounting for the different noise components present. Calculate the C/T ratio for the above case.

6.a)

Compare the requirements, merits and demerits of FDMA and TDMA systems, Explain which is better suited for digital transmission, and why? b) Explain the concepts of CDMA, and hence describe the principles of operation of FH-SS transmission. List out the requirements and the characteristic features of practical antennas used in LOS applications. Give representative numerical values wherever necessary. Comment on the choices of plane and curved reflector antennas for microwave links. Hence compare the performances of a 10 ft. Paraboloid and a 10 ft x 10 ft. plane reflector, at 10 GHz.

7.a) b)

8.a)

Explain the special features of transmission at millimeter wavelengths, and account for the changes in free space path calculations, compared to those at 1-10 GHz. b) Write short notes on: i) Rain attenuation and hop distance for mm wave link. ii) ALOHA system and its merits. ^*^*^