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l C...Stool l Side-Table l Simplizissimus-Table l Zoom-Table l Frame-Shelf
Examples for application
l Meander-Shelf l Clip-Shelf l C...Frame and Panel l Chest of drawers l Upright furniture
l About this CD
l Wood Joints
Side-Table The side-table consists of an endless frame as well as of two shelves that are let in the frame. The individual solid wood parts of the framing timbers are joined at the corners with a Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key. The shelves are let in the framing timbers by means of modified Dovetail Tenons. Not only a ridgid construction is thus created, but also, depending on the choice of material, a very attractive small piece of furniture.
The use of the Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key makes a simple and problemless assembly of the endless frame possible.
Used wood joints l T_011 Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key l T_013 Lapped Dovetail in a modified version
Clip-Shelf For the Clip-Shelf, the crossbars are simply clipped in the sides and the shelf is already assembled. This is made possible by the use of the Clip Tenon Joint. Because of the heavy demands on the material of this joint, the Clip-Shelf should be made out of multiplex plywood. The shelves are mortises in the sides by means of Finger Tenons, but they could also be put on drilled in shelf bearers.
Used wood joints l C_001 Clip Tenons l F_010 Finger Tenons
C...Stool The C...Stool by Jochen Gros is one of the first pieces of furniture developed at the C…Lab at the Hochschule für Gestaltung. The C...Stool is based on the “Ulm Stool”, which was designed in the early 50s by the Swiss architect and sculptor Max Bill for the Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm. Jochen Gros redesigned this design classic with the intention of clearly showing the effects of the CNC-production technology on the “Ulm Stool”. The influence of the production technology on furniture design is illustrated by the CNC-compatible wood joints as well as by the possibility of engraving various motives in the stool surfaces.
The C...Stool is manufactured under license and distributed in various variants by l NEWCRAFT.
Used wood joints l F_001 Fingertip Tenons l F_009 Fingertip Tenons with Central Positioning Tenon, executed as open and blind version
and at the same time be manufactured with as little trim waste as possible.? # p1 Meander-Shelf The Meander-Shelf was created in the course of the project l 100% C…NC. . The two vertical shelf bearers merge in such a way. The design aimed at developing a simple shelf that can be slotted together and thus assembled without problems nor tools. that they can be cut out of one board in one go.
? # p2 The shelves have slots that correspond to the designated vertical shelf bearers. Used wood joint l St_002 Slotting Girder Joint . the better the stability of the shelf. The better the fit of the joints. The shelves are put in place and lock when pushed back. The Meander-Shelf can be made out of various board materials.
. at the same time.? # p1 C…Frame and Panel The construction principle of frame and panel has a long tradition in furniture construction. like board materials. synthetic materials or glass. While the framing timbers are cut out of solid wood. greatly facilitates the assembly of the frames. the panels can be made out of various materials. The use of digital wood joints as joining elements for the framing timbers gives rise to interesting design solutions and.
? # p2 In the case of the C…Frame with Dovetail Key Corner Joint. . but joined with the use of a connector. which can be made out of various materials. the framing timbers are not directly interlinked. This makes it possible to push the mitred framing timbers on the panel and to then fix them in place with the connectors.
For the vertical timber frames to go through. Used wood joints l T_007 Dovetail Key Corner Joint l X_003 Halving with Elliptical Tenon .? # p3 For the second type of frame. the framing timbers are joined by means of a Halving with Elliptical Tenon. Afterwards the panel needs to be cleated from behind. they need to be rabbetted rather than grooved in order to take on the panel.
. At the corners the framing timbers are joined by means of decorative wood joints. like MDF. or out of solid wood. The sides and shelves can be made out of board material.? # p1 Frame-Shelf The loose sides and shelves of the Frame-Shelf are held together and stabilised by a closed frame out of solid wood. that they can be put together and taken apart at any time without the use of tools. The joints are executed in such a way.
? # p2 The Frame-Shelf that was designed by Jochen Gros is manufactured under license and distributed by lNEWCRAFT. Used wood joint l P_001 Jigsaw Mitre Joint .
there is no need for written instructions. All joining elements are machined together with the individual table parts. As soon as all parts are machined.? # p1 Simplizissimus-Table The Simplizissimus-Table is based on a fairly simple and ingenious construction principle. the table can be put together without tools. As the assembly of the Simplizissimus-Table is self-explanatory. . The Simplizissimus-Table was first presented by the C…Lab at the special show l “Digital Furniture Construction … 100% CNC” on the occasion of the Interzum’97 in Cologne.
and with standard tools. even more so when we bear in mind that the construction principle of the SimplizissimusTable can be materialised in a multitude of variants. thus making every table a one-off piece. of the kind one can already find today in many cabinet-maker’s and joiner’s workshops. materials and production methods. Used wood joints l St_001 Simple Sotting Joint l F_010 Finger Tenons . For traditional constructions.? # p2 At the special show the Simplizissimus-Table was manufactured in only 7 minutes on a CNC-machining center. this would be unthinkable.
Top shelf and sides are joined by means of a Lapped Finger Tenon Joint. The Secret Finger Tenon Joint is put to use as the joining element for the drawer sides with front. The board shelves or bottom shelf are mortised in or through the sides by means of Finger Tenons. .? # p1 Chest of drawers The chest of drawers is based on a simple board construction. back and bottom shelf.
? # p2 The chest of drawers can be maded with various numbers of drawers. Used wood joints l F_003 Lapped Finger Tenons l F_007 Secret Finger Tenons l F_010 Finger Tenons . The height of the drawers can be adapted to the given requirements.
. the corners of the shelves do not need to be notched. the Halved Dovetail Corner.? # p1 Upright furniture For upright construction. Uprights and sides are connected with tongues. As the sides are flush with the inner edge of the upright. so that the sides can be pushed up into the thus created U. the sides of the furniture piece are fitted with two vertical and one horizontal upright. The vertical and horizontal uprights are connected with a decorative corner joint.
Used wood joint l T_009 Halved Dovetail Corner .? # p2 The principles of upright construction can be put to use for a number of furniture. like cabinet furniture and low tables.
always stays the same. which join tabletop and legs. they are abutted in the middle by means of a table joint. . but all joining elements are also proportionally adapted according to the zoom factor. that its height. In order to manufacture the legs with as little trim waste as possible. In addition. This means that the number of Lapped Finger Tenons.? # p1 Zoom-Table The Zoom-Table is designed in such a way. width and length can be proportionally enlarged or reduced. this table joint prevents a deflection of the tabletop when loaded. Not only the outer dimensions of the table are zoomed in the process.
the table is either simply put together or it needs to be glued.? # p2 The Zoom-Table can be made out of various board materials. Used wood joints l F_002 Finger Tenons l F_003 Lapped Finger Tenons . Depending on the cutting tolerances for the joints of the Zoom-Table.
e. like Ginkgo leaves. as well as boards or panels. the joint is secured against longitudinal tension. which can be arranged regularly or freely.p1 7 # name of file: T_013 Lapped Dovetail The Simple Lapped Dovetail can be used to lengthen framing timbers. the tenons can take different shapes. while the scarf prevents a perpendicular shift. Due to the dovetailed tenons.g. For decorative purposes. Example of application l Side-Table l to the data files .
The second row of dovetails is offset and this prevents an opening of the lower rabbet caused by loading.p2 7 # name of file: T_015 Double Lapped Dovetail As opposed to the simple version. the manufacturing of the Double Lapped Dovetail is much more costly. which can occur with the simple version. the joint can be executed as detachable or glued versions. Depending on the precision requested of the router. l to the data files . In exchange one gets a joint that is more durable and very decorative from both sides.
The dovetail keys can be used for lengthenings as well as for width joints. which here are presented in an asymmetrical and alternating version.p3 7 # name of file: T_012 Board Lengthening with Asymmetrical Dovetail Keys The Board Lengthening with Asymmetrical Dovetail Keys is a very decorative joint. secure the joint against tension. The decorative value of the joint can be increased by the use of fine woods or other materials. The dovetailed keys. or for securing cracks in solid wood boards and planks. Even though joints with dovetail keys are very old. they are hardly used in furniture construction. l to the data files .
can take on a multitude of shapes. When the Jigsaw Keys are used in width joints. l to the data files . They can also be arranged in various ways in order to make a durable as well as decorative joint. a Jigsaw Key in our example.p4 7 # name of file: P_002 Board Lengthening with Jigsaw Keys The Board Lengthening with Jigsaw Keys clearly shows that let in loose connectors. due to the opposing main directions of shrinkage. it is recommended to keep the length of the keys to a minimum and to slightly undercut them at the ends.
When joining boards with a Meander Key. l to the data files . e.p5 7 # name of file: S_002 Lengthening with Meander Key Unlike other loose connectors.g. inter alia. acrylic glass or aluminium. Suitable materials are. multiplex plywood. the dovetail key. there is no traditional model for the Meander Key. it is important to make sure that the wood is well dried and that there is enough material left at the inner radii of the key to withstand the tensile force. The reason for this is that a key of this shape can only be made out of material that can stand longitudinal as well as cross tension.
The region around the joint is flattened on both boards and is provided with a slot. It can be detached and relocked at any time without tools. it is recommended to execute it in multiplex plywood. When both parts are assembled. As the strain on all parts of this joint is particularly high. The geometry of the slot stops the key after a quarter turn.p6 7 # name of file: V_001 Detachable Lengthening with Key The Lengthening with Key was designed from the start to be a detachable joint. l to the data files . the key is introduced into the interconnected slot and then turned.
digital wood joints
Survey BoardJ Joints
To open a file of the kind you need, just press the name of the appropriate folder (e. g. lDXF.10).
Name of file: in folder:
Name of the joint:
ö Lapped Dovetail
l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D
l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0
l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0
l Iges 5
l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1
ö Double Lapped Dovetail ö Board Lengthening with Asymmetrical Dovetail Keys ö Board Lengthening with Jigsaw Keys
l Iges 5
l Iges 5
l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 3 l MBA_SIM Part 3 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2
l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D
l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0
l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0
l Iges 5
digital wood joints
Survey BoardJ Joints
ö Board Lengthening with Meander Key ö Detachable Lengthening with Key
l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D
l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0
l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0
l Iges 5
l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 3 l MBA_SIM Part 3
l Iges 5
name of file:
Finger Tenons Due to the superior stability of finger tenons, it is hard to imagine traditional furniture construction without them. Finger Tenons are the simplest of the CNC-compatible tenons. They differ from their traditional models - the European finger tenon or the Japanese “Go-mai-hozo-gata“ - through the deeper drawn cuts at the inner corners of the tenon base. The thus created jutted out tenons are characteristic for CNC-compatible manufacturing and give the joint its individual character. The width of the tenons should be at least three times the diameter of the router bit.
Example of application l Zoom-Table
to the data files
name of file:
Lapped Finger Tenons The Finger Tenon Joint can also be executed as a lapped variant. The Lapped Finger Tenons are used wherever one of the two surfaces must not be interrupted by the joint for aesthetical or functional reasons, for example, drawer fronts or cupboard sides. Like all other tenons, the lapped finger tenons can be made using solid wood or various board materials like multiplex plywood or MDF.
Examples of application l Zoom-Table l Chest of drawers
to the data files
name of file:
Secret Finger Tenons The Secret Finger Tenon Joint hides the tenons in its interior from curious glances. As opposed to the traditional secret tenon mitre joint, the CNC-compatible version leads to a rabbet at the front edge. Secret joints are traditionally looked upon as the height of a cabinet-maker’s craftsmanship. Sweat and skill of the craftsman are hidden from the eyes of the world in the interior of the joint. It is said: Out of awe for his material, the cabinet-maker humbly conceals his own efforts in making a piece of furniture.
Example of application l Chest of drawers
to the data files
name of file:
Fingertip Tenons The Fingertip Tenons are slenderer than the Finger Tenons. Ideally the width of the tenons equals the diameter of the router bit. In order to avoid that the tenons slip through, a special positioning tenon is placed at either end of each row of tenons. In the case of broader rows of tenons, additional positioning tenons can be inserted. Due to the greater number of tenons for an equal width, the Fingertip Tenons, as opposed to the Finger Tenons, have a higher friction tight which leads to a higher durability of the joint.
Example of application l C...Stool
to the data files
name of file:
Lapped Fingertip Tenons The lapped version of the Fingertip Tenons is used wherever one of the two surfaces must not be interrupted by the joint for aesthetical or functional reasons. Depending on the degree of precision according to which the joint has been machined, we get a perfect fit joint that is durable simply by friction tight and can be detached at any time, or a joint that easily comes undone and needs to be glued. The exactness of the fit depends also on the correct tool, as well as feed and the depth of the Z-step.
to the data files
The demonstratively shown joints are a sign for the quality of furniture made by a craftsman. in the age of industrial furniture construction with its invisible connectors in the form of dowels and lamellos. From a design-oriented viewpoint.p6 7 # name of file: F_006 Secret Fingertip Tenons The secret version of the Fingertip Tenons Joint leads to a rabbet at the front edge of the assembled joint. times have changed. l to the data files . But today. however complicated its execution might have been. this rabbet is an interesting design detail on furniture. For traditional wood and furniture construction the rule was not to let a joint show.
p7 7 # name of file: F_005 Fingertip Tenons with Key A special form of the Fingertip Tenon is the variant with key. There is no direct model for the Fingertip Tenons with Key. After assembling the joint. Ideas came from decorative forms of various corner locks. Its characteristic are the prolongated tenons that have a groove on the outside which perpendicular runs across the tenons. a key with a square end-grain cutting is inserted into the groove and thus secures it against tension. l to the data files . where surpassing tenons are employed as decorative elements.
p8 7 # name of file: H_001 Hammer Tenons Similar to the dovetail tenon joint. This is not achieved through trapeze-shaped dovetails. a characteristic of the Hammer Tenons is the fact that it withstands tension in one direction even without glue. A stop in the centre of the tenon base prevents the tenons from slipping through. l to the data files . The Hammer Tenons can be made using solid wood as well as various board materials or three-layer boards. The best tensile strength of the joint is given when the thickness of the inner Hammer Tenon equals half the thickness of the board. so-called Hammer Tenons. but through tenons that are shouldered in their width.
the Hammer Tenons can also be made as a lapped version. If the sides are joined with the use of hammer tenons. they prevent a warping of the surface. l to the data files . The strength of the rabbet that covers the hammer tenons should be between 1/4 and 1/3 of the thickness of the material. as opposed to the Finger or Fingertip Tenons. As the Lapped Hammer Tenons are durable against tension in one direction even without glue.p9 7 # name of file: H_002 Lapped Hammer Tenons Like most tenon joints. there are particularly suitable for drawers when the front should not be interrupted for design reasons.
10 – 2D l DXF.7 l Velum 4.12 – 3D l DXF.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.7 # p1 digital wood joints Survey BoardJ Joints Corner Joints To open a file of the kind you need. g.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 ö Lapped Finger Tenons F_003 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 ö Secret Finger Tenons F_007 l Iges 5 ö Fingertip Tenons F_001 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 ö Lapped Fingertip Tenons F_004 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 ä .10 – 2D l DXF.0 l Velum 2.0 l Velum 2.12 – 3D l DXF.10).10 – 2D l DXF.0 l Velum 2.0 l Velum 2.12 – 3D l DXF.12 – 3D l DXF.7 l Velum 4. lDXF.12 – 3D l MicroStation l Minicad 7.7 l Velum 4. Name of file: in folder: Name of the joint: ö Finger Tenons F_002 l DXF.0 l Velum 2.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.10 – 2D l DXF.7 l Velum 4.7 l Velum 4. just press the name of the appropriate folder (e.10 – 2D l DXF.
0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D l MicroStation l Minicad 7.12 – 3D l DXF.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0 l Velum 2.10 – 2D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D l DXF.0 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 F_005 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 H_001 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 ö Lapped Hammer Tenons H_002 l Iges 5 B .7 l Velum 4.12 – 3D l DXF.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.10 – 2D l DXF.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.7 # p2 digital wood joints Survey BoardJ Joints Corner Joints ö Secret Fingertip Tenons ö Fingertip Tenons with Key ö Hammer Tenons F_006 l DXF.
the slot is executed 2 mm less than the thickness of the board and a 2 mm groove is cut as a prolongation of the slot. Example of application l Simplizissimus-Table l to the data files .p1 7 # name of file: St_001 Simple Slotting Joint The here presented slotting joints were created when it became necessary to develop detachable joints for demountable furniture manufactured from modern wood-derived materials. In order to achieve a high durability of the joint despite frequent variations of the thickness of the board. For the Simple Slotting Joint. a slot is cut up to the middle of the board. at the end of the two construction elements that are to be joined. An exact slotting together of the joint is thus made possible. like multiplex plywood for example.
An advantage of the joint is a quick assembly and dismantling of the shelf without tools and small connectors. e. Thus the board can not tip over and a durable joint is created that can be detached again at any time. Example of application l Meander-Shelf l to the data files . is placed onto the tenon of the girder and pushed back in the slot that has been provided.g. Should the shelf be flush with the back of the girder.p2 7 # name of file: St_002 Slotting Girder Joint For the Slotting Girder Joint. a shelf. the horizontal construction element. The Slotting Girder Joint is used for example for shelves. the self will be provided with an additional slot at its back edge.
the narrow parts either butt-joint in the middle or overlap each other. the Double Lapped Slotting Joint is particularly suited for wider construction elements. aligned or offset. Depending on the lay-out of the two slots. When they overlap each other. the thus created shoulder can be used as a rest base for further parts.p3 7 # name of file: St_003 Double Lapped Slotting Joint As opposed to the Simple Slotting Joint. like in the case presented here. A slot is cut in the wide construction element from above and from below and the narrow parts are inserted into it. l to the data files .
the cross bar is pushed through a slot in the girding side or headboard and thus hooked. The Hooked Slotting Joint is suitable for bed construction or for cross bars of tables. but also guides the cross bar along its width and thus secures it against torsion.p4 7 # name of file: St_004 Hooked Slotting Joint For the Hooked Slotting Joint. and can be detached at any time. It is secured through its own weight. l to the data files . The groove cut in prolongation of the slot not only permits to even out variations in the thickness of the material.
that should be made of multiplex plywood as it has to withstand great strain.p5 7 # name of file: St_005 Double Lapped Slotting Joint with Key The Double Lapped Slotting Joint with Key is useful wherever the joint needs to be secured against unintentional loosening. is inserted in the slot created when assembling both parts and then turned. Around the key. the construction elements that are to be secured are flattened in a circular area and a slot is cut in it. l to the data files . The two lapped construction elements are locked with a turnable key and the enclosed part is thus fixed. The key. The geometry of the slot is such that the key stops after a quarter of a turn.
10 – 2D l DXF.7 l Velum 4.0 l Velum 2.0 l Velum 2.0 l Velum 2. Name of file: in folder: Name of the joint: ö Simple Slotting Joint St_001 l DXF.0 l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.0 l Velum 2. lDXF.10).12 – 3D l DXF.12 – 3D l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.0 l Velum 2. g.7 l Velum 4.0 l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7. just press the name of the appropriate folder (e.12 – 3D l DXF.12 – 3D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.7 l Velum 4.7 l Velum 4.0 l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.12 – 3D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.0 l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.10 – 2D l DXF.0 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD l MBA_CAD l MBA_CAD l MBA_CAD Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 l MBA_SIM l MBA_SIM l MBA_SIM l MBA_SIM Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 ö Slotting Girder Joint St_002 l Iges 5 ö Double Lapped Slotting Joint ö Hooked Slotting Joint St_003 l Iges 5 St_004 l Iges 5 ö Double Lapped Slotting Joint with Key St_005 l Iges 5 B .7 # p 1 digital wood joints Survey BoardJ Joints Slotting Joints To open a file of the kind you need.7 l Velum 4.
a typical characteristic of CNC-compatible manufacturing. The width of the Finger Tenons should be at least three times the diameter of the router bit. like the jutted out finger tenon corner joint.p1 7 # Dateiname: F_010 Finger Tenons In furniture construction. the Finger Tenons are suitable for the fitting of shelves. differ from their traditional models in the more deeply cut rebate on the inner corner of the tenon base. as well as the shape of the tenons. The Finger Tenons. cross bars and footrails. These items are mortised into the side parts being either executed as an open or as a blind version. Examples of application l Simplizissimus-Table l Chest of Drawers l Clip-Shelf l to the data files . The H-shaped mortises are.
to chose a one to two tenths of a millimetre larger width of the tenons. The outer tenons have been designed as positioning tenons in order to avoid a lateral shift of the tenons. however. It is characterised by its slender tenons and can be executed either open or blind. It is recommended. Furthermore they prevent a distortion of the mortised parts. Ideally the width of the tenons equals the width of the router bit. l to the data files . so that the router can work the tenons without problem in one go.p2 7 # name of file: F_008 Fingertip Tenons with Lateral Positioning Tenons The Fingertip Tenons for T-shaped joints were developed parallel to the Fingertip Tenon Corner Joint.
e. cross bars and foot-rails.. When solid wood is used. it is recommended to place more positioning tenons in the row of tenons.p3 7 # name of file: F_009 Fingertip Tenons with Central Positioning Tenon The Fingertip Tenons can not only be executed with lateral positioning tenons.. but also with one central positioning tenon. The Fingertip Tenons can be executed in solid wood as well as board materials.g.Stool l to the data files . Example of application l C. one needs to pay attention to the main direction of shrinkage in the mortised parts. The latter version is mainly used when there is no great need to secure the mortised parts. against torsion. If the mortised parts are broad.
The Clip Tenons are made in such a way that both clip hooks flip back to their original position after being pushed through the mortises in the side part und thus secure the joint. The joint can be detached manually again and again by pressing together both clip hooks. The model for this joint is found in the field of synthetic materials. Example of application l Clip-Shelf l to the data files . Clip Tenons make a detachable joint which consistently uses the springiness of multiplex plywood.p4 7 # name of file: C_001 Clip Tenons The use of modern derived wood products and the transfer of jointing techniques from other fields necessarily leeds to new and innovative solutions.
The Catch Tenon Joint can therefore be put together and detached without tools. However. while the tenons take on the arising forces. unlike traditional solutions in the form of connectors made out of metal or synthetic materials. which makes it particularly suitable for packaged furniture. When assembling. l to the data files . the catch is pushed through the matching latch and as soon as it is in the right position it flips back. The joint is secured against tension by the catch.p5 7 # name of file: C_002 Catch Tenon The Catch Tenon Joint is a detachable corner joint. the joining elements are part of the individual pieces of furniture.
0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.12 – 3D l DXF.10).7 l Velum 4.12 – 3D l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l Velum 2. just press the name of the appropriate folder (e.0 l Velum 2. g.10 – 2D l DXF.7 l Velum 4. Name of file: in folder: Name of the joint: ö Finger Tenons F_010 l DXF.12 – 3D l DXF.7 l Velum 4.0 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 ö Fingertip Tenons with Lateral Positioning Tenons ö Fingertip Tenons with Central Positioning Tenon ö Clip Tenons F_008 l Iges 5 F_009 l Iges 5 C_001 l Iges 5 ö Catch Tenon C_002 l Iges 5 B .10 – 2D l DXF.0 l Velum 2.12 – 3D l DXF.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.12 – 3D l DXF.7 # p 1 digital wood joints Survey BoardJ Joints T-shaped Joints To open a file of the kind you need.10 – 2D l DXF. lDXF.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.10 – 2D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.
The project group’s goal was to develop virtual furniture which could be manufactured in a decentralised way on CNC-standard machines of the kind that are already increasingly used in the cabinet-makers’ and joiners’ workshops.prototypes for the immediate production of customized furniture“ took place in the summer term 1996 in co-operation with the Technology Centre for the Woodprocessing Industry. Kitchen table with tenon relief Design: Thilo Schwer C..NC ..Stool ....a tribute to the “Ulm Stool“ by Max Bill Design: Jochen Gros B . Ideally at 100%! In addition. the virtual furniture should not only use the potentials of CNCmanufacturing. Prototypes of the furniture developed within the framework of this project were presented at the professional conference “Creativity & Technology“ in Hamm in November 1996.NC The project “100% C..# p 3 100% C. Lemgo. but also express the latter in their design.
The task of the C.. research and experimental design on cultural or aesthetic aspects of the product. Of fenbach Design School B .Lab was founded by the product design department at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach (Offenbach Design School) in 1994 and analyses changes in product design.# p 1 C..Lab . Particular attention is paid to defining foundations of CNC-compatible design.. and to the experimental development of so-called virtual products with emphasis on the furniture industry... as well as on conditions and objectives of the new production technology.Lab is to continually focus teaching.design research for the digital age The C.. which are a result of the current transfer from industrial to computerintegrated or virtual manufacturing.
Stand at the special show “Digital Furniture . the de- Simulation of the product publisher on the Internet signers at the C...100% C. In order to give as clear an idea as possible of the elements of l “Vision of a virtual furniture construction“. Together with the companies l CAD+T.100% C...NC“.. of the l “Simplizissimus table“ by the customer on the computer screen.NC“ On the occasion of the Cologne Interzum Fair 1997.# p 3 Special Show “Digital Furniture 100% C. the Technology Centre for the Woodprocessing Industry..NC“ at the Interzum 1997 B . e. EDP-Consulting Stange and the Italian machine manufacturer l Morbidelli.g.Lab. as well as its immediate production on a CNC-machining center could be demonstrated.. the customization of the virtual furniture. which was developed at the C...Lab developed a small collection of “virtual furniture“ especially for the Interzum. Lemgo and the C..Lab presented the special show “Digital Furniture .
. of editing publications and advising companies and institutions on technology transfer.. These research projects are partly internal projects and partly projects with external partners.# p 2 Research and transfer of technology At the C..Lab has acess to the technical equipment of the Product Design Department: Training at the CNC-wood machining center • Computerpool .Macintosh.Lab is also in charge of organizing conferences.. PC and Silicon Gra phics / CAD/CAM. The C.Lab professors and students of the product design department work together on projects. Graphics and Multimedia • 3D Laser scanner • CNC-model-making router • CNC-wood machining center B . DTP. seminars and workshops. The C..
digital“ laid the foundations for the CNC-compatible wood joints presented on the CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“. The project aimed at reviving the technical and aesthetic qualities of traditional wood joints by making use of computer-controlled manufacturing. Japanese wood joints.Digital Wood Joints. Plain Scarf with Dovetail Keys Taubenschwanz-Eckblatt Blattstoß mit Taubenschwanzriegeln B .Lab in the winter term 1995/96. digital“ look up the article l IT’S NOT A TRICK ....... To get more information about the project “Japanese wood joints .# p 2 Jigsaw Mitre Joint Japanese wood joints. which epitomize skills that have been perfected over centuries.. digital“ formed part of the activities carried out by the C.. digital The experimental study project “Japanese wood joints .. The project “Japanese wood joints . were chosen Halved Dovetail Corner Gehrungspuzzle-Eckblatt as models for the CNC-compatible wood joints which were yet to be developed..
63065 Offenbach/Main Tel..Labor an der HfG Offenbach Fachbereich Produktgestaltung Schloßstraße 31 D .de B .. +49 69 80059-63 Fax +49 69 80059-66 eMail: l C-Labor@em..de Jochen Gros professor for design theory eMail: l Gros@em.uni-frankfurt. master cabinet-maker and associate lecturer for C.de Friedrich Sulzer qualified designer.uni-frankfurt..uni-frankfurt.technologies eMail: l Sulzer@em.# p 4 Contact C.
where CAD-suppliers.NC .“ Topics of Panel discussion the conference were: Interrelation between design and C-technology. Further information could be gathered at an accompanying exhibition.prototypes for the immediate production of customized furniture“. digital production .Lab presented the projects l “Japanese wood joints . in cooperation with the C. CNC-technology in the cabinet-maker’s workshop.Lab...# p 2 HKH-professional conference “Creativity & Technology“ The North Rhine-Westphalia Wood and Synthetic Materials Professional Association (HKH). organized the professional conference “Creativity & Technology“ in Hamm on the 8th and 9th November 1998.. Exhibition “100% C.a user’s view. CAD in contest and training.. while the C. digital“ and l “100% C. manufacturers of mountings and fittings as well as computer visualization specialists showed their newest products... Its theme was: “Electronic media also open new perspectives to the cabinet-maker’s craft..NC“ in the machine hall of a former coal mine B ..
C C ö About this CD 0 Welcome at the l Design research for the digital age l Research and technology transfer l Projects l Conferences and trade fair participation l Topics l Contatct l Help .
within the tradition of the cabinet-maker’s craft as well as on the most modern computer-controlled production machines. They are the cabinet-makerís answer to the increasing individualisation of mass production.. The furniture is manufactured in the NEWCRAFT workshops: decentralised.# p 4 NEWCRAFT is a project. environmentally friendly.Lab at the Offenbach Design School NEWCRAFT trade fair stand at the Cologne Crafts Fair 1998 The tradition of the cabinet-maker’s craft and new Tenon shelf Unit R1 Design: Jochen Gros technologies find a new expression in the workshop furniture. without long-distance transport.. B . 11 cabinet-makers from North Rhine-Westphalia have been developing and marketing the Werkstätten-Möbel under the brand name NEWCRAFT since summer 1998. Lemgo • C. a co-operation of: Die Werkstätten Möbel • North Rhine-Westphalia Wood and Synthetic Materials Professional Association • Technology Centre for the Woodprocessing Industry.
The scenarios were based on the l model for virtual production. produkt in the Internet“ and l “Virtual company?!“ B . Its foundation was simulated by 15 students on the occasion of the C. To get more information about the project online.Lab. produkt is a virtual product publisher..Product Design in the Digital Age in July 1995. produkt look up the articles l“With online. which had been developed at the C.produkt a theory seminar under the tutelage of Prof. Jochen Gros in the summer term 1995. which project the effects of the new technology on the production style and therefore also on product design in the future.Lab conference lFrom the Good to the Virtual Form . produkt was developed during online. online.# p 1 The project online.. The goal of the seminar was to work out scenarios...
. digital l 100% C..produkt l Japanese wood joints...Die Werkstätten-Möbel l (the workshop furniture) l Help ..C C ö C.Labor 0 Projects l online..NC-furniture for the immediate prol duction of costumized furniture l NEWCRAFT .
product l design in the digital age“.Lab..NC“. a professional l conference of the C. Offenbach 1995 l HKH-conference “Creativity & Technology“.Labor 0 Conferences and trade fair participation l “From the good to the virtual form ..C C ö C....100% C. a special l show at the Cologne Interzum Fair 1997 l Help . l Hamm 1996 l “Digital furniture ..
Lab will be on: • customized production instead of mass production • the electronic craft trade • digital arts and crafts • ornament in art and design • the customer as co-designer • digital sample libraries for design elements • design systems for customized products • development of online products B .# p 3 Topics Special emphasis for future research and development by the C...
Lab . craft trade and industry. there were reports from the practical side of design.professional conference in Offenbach“.product design in the digital age“ in order to discuss the effects of the new technology on furniture design from the most varied perspectives. like virtual reality..# p 1 Professional conference “from the good to the virtual form“ Prof. In addition to the lectures.. Announcement of the conference on the shop-windows of a former furniture store in Of fenbach . Next to specific aspects of the computer technology. Jochen Gros during his lecture on “product language criteria of the virtual form“ On the 13th and 14th of July 1995 many experts gathered at the professional conference “from the good to the virtual form . virtual modelling or CNC-wood machining. the lectures also dealt with philosophical aspects of an aesthetic of the new technology. as well as various exhibitions. To get more information about the professional conference “from the good to the virtual form“ look up the article l“C.
based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution a AutoCad und 3D-Studio Autodesk .autodesk.de ä . Incorporated 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael.com Europa / Europe Autodesk SA.autodesk. California 94903. USA Tel.: +41 61 8210204 Fax: +41 61 821010 Internet: http://www.9 # p1 CAD/CAM Producers PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.: +1 415 507 5000 Fax: +1 415 507 5100 Internet: l http://www. Europe Headquarters 20 Route de Pre-Bois Case Postale 766 CH .1215 Geneva 15 Tel.
de ä .4600 Wels Tel.H Traungasse 16 A .de Österreich / Austria Autodesk Ges.: +43 7242 68465 Fax: +43 7242 67994 Internet: http://www.b. m.autodesk.based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers Autodesk # Deutschland / Germany AutoDesk GmbH Deutschland Hansastraße 28 D .3 # p2 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.: +49 89 54769-0 Fax: +49 89 54769-400 Internet: http://www.autodesk.80686 München Tel.
3 # p3 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.A.Guildford.94150 Saint-Maurice Tel.R.: +33 1 45115000 Fax: +33 1 45115001 Internet: http://www.fr Großbritannien / Great Britain Autodesk LTD.: +44 1483 303322 Fax: +44 1483 304556 ä . England Cross Lanes GB . Avenue du Chemin de Presles F .co.autodesk.based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers Autodesk # Frankreich / France Autodesk S.L. Bâtiment Les Ellipses 3/5. Surrey GU1 1UJ Tel.
2909 LC Capelle a/d IJssel Tel. Italy Milanofiori Strada 4 Palazzo A5 I ..: +31 10 2885024 Fax: +31 10 2022155 ä .autodesk.based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers Autodesk # Italien / Italy Autodesk S.it Niederlande / Netherlands Autodesk Benelux B.p.: +39 2 57510050 Fax: +39 2 57510205 Internet:http://www.A.V. Rivium Quadrant 81 NL .3 # p4 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.20090 Assago (Milano) Tel.
150. 391B Orchard Road #12-06 Ngee Ann City. Ebisu Shibuya-Ku Tokyo.com/japan/ Singapur / Singapore .: +65 7355388 Fax: +65 7355188 . Tower B Singapore 238874 Tel.3 # p5 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC. 24F 4-20-3.autodesk.: +81 33 4739511 Fax: +81 33 4736755 Internet: http://www.Regional Headoffice for ASEAN Autodesk Asia Pte Ltd. Japan Tel.based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers Autodesk # Japan Autodesk. Ltd. Japan Yebisu Garden Place Tower..
based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers c CADKEY Baystate Technologies 33 Boston Road Marlborough.com E-Mail International: mgraveli@baystate.: +49 7152 42081 Fax: +49 7152 74166 d DeskArtes DeskArtes Oy Apollonkatu 3 C 17 Fin .cadkey.fi Internet: l http://www.81804 München Tel.3 # p6 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.deskartes. Finland Tel. MA 01752-1829.fi Deutschland / Germany Macrotron Systems Wamslerstraße 9 D . USA Tel.00100 Helsinki.com Deutschland / Germany Advanced Grafics Software GmbH Mollenbachstraße 37 D .: +49 89 45111-0 Fax: +49 89 45111-102 E-Mail:RGS@mcsystems.com Internet: l http://www.de .: +358 0 444335 Fax: +358 0 444 601 E-Mail: DA@deskartes.macrotron.71229 Leonberg Tel.: +1 508 229 -2020 E-Mail USA: sales@baystate.
de ä .3 # p7 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC. USA Tel.formZ.33102 Paderborn Tel.: +1 860 875 5006 Fax: +1 860 872 1565 E-Mail: mcinfo@mastercam. USA Tel. Inc.com Deutschland / Germany Intercam Lagesche Straße 12 D .based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers f m Form Z autodessys Incorporation 2011 Riverside Drive Columbus.mastercam.: +1 614 488-8838 Fax: +1 614 488-0848 Internet: l http://www.: +49 5251 14905 Fax: +49 5251 14906 E-Mail: info@mastercam. 344 Merrow Road Tolland.com Mastercam CNC Software. Conneticut 06084. Ohio 43221.com Internet: l http://mastercam.de Internet: http://www.
bentley.3 # p8 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC. Incorporated 690 Pennsylvania Drive Exton.: +41 21 8022790 Fax: +41 21 8022878 MicroStation Bentley Systems.com Europa /Europe Bentley Systems Europe Wegalaan 2 NL . USA Tel.1110 Morges Tel.: +31 23 5560560 Fax: +31 23 5560565 ä .based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers Mastercam # Schweiz / Switzerland Intercam SA Case Postale 249 CH . PA 19341.2132 JC Hoofddorp Tel.: +1 610 458-5000 Tollfree: 800-Bentley Fax: +1 610 458-1060 E-Mail: email@example.com Internet: l http://www.
Ltd.: +49 89 962432-0 Fax: +49 89 962432-20 Asien-Pazifik / Asia .based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers Bentley Systems # Deutschland / Germany Bentley Systems Germany GmbH Carl-Zeiss-Ring 3 D .Pacific Bentley Systems Pty. 51 City Road South Melbourne VIC 3205.85737 Ismaning Tel.: +61 3 9699 8699 Fax: +61 3 9699 8677 . AUSTRALIA Tel.3 # p9 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC. Suite 8.
3 # p 10 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.designexpress.: +1 410 290 5114 Fax: +1 410 290 8050 E-Mail: marketing@diehlgraphsoft. MA 21046.: +32 15 202828 Fax: +32 15 202868 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: l http://www.: 07621 4018-0 Fax: 07621 4018-18 ä .diehlgraphsoft. Inc.be Deutschland / Germany ComputerWorks GmbH Schwarzwaldstraße 67 D . USA Tel. 10270 Old Columbia Road Columbia.based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers MiniCad Diehl Graphsoft.com Belgien / Belgium Design Express Kon Astridlaan 56 B .79539 Lörrach Tel.2800 Mechelen Tel.be Internet: http://www.
3 # p 11 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.com ä .: +44 171 7317930 Fax: +44 171 7361215 Internet: http://www.75013 Paris Tel.com Großbritannien / Great Britain Gomark 10 Hurlingham Business Park Sulivan Road GB .London SW6 3DU Tel. Rue Jeanne d’Arc F .gomark.based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers MiniCad # Frankreich / France CESYAM 62.: +33 1 44065251 Fax: +33 1 44065355 E-Mail: info@cesyam.
it Internet: http://videocom.it Österreich / Austria Net Consult Körblergasse 5 A .: +43 316 348540-0 Fax: +43 316 348540-30 ä .8010 Graz Tel.: +39 383 3666712 Fax: +39 383 43899 E-Mail: email@example.com CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers MiniCad # Italien / Italy VideoCom Via Lamarmora 7 I .3 # p 12 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.27058 Voghera (PV) Tel.
jp Internet: http://www.based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers MiniCad # Japan A & A Co.co. V9C 3N2 Tel.3 # p 13 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.jp Kanada / Canada PaXar 3443 Fulton Road CDN . Ltd.com ä .aanda.: +1 250 474 8975 Fax: +1 250 474 8976 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org..Victoria BC.: +81 3 52852351 Fax: +81 3 52822350 E-Mail: info@aanda. Takadanobada Building Nishi-Waseda 2-20-15 Sinjuku-ku. Tokyo Tel.
3 # p 14 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.de .computerworks.: + 41 486 4343 Fax: +41 486 4342 E-Mail: email@example.com Allschwill Tel.: +31 78 6139439 Fax: +31 78 6136429 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http://www.based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers MiniCad # Niederlande / The Netherlands Design Express NL .be Schweiz / Switzerland ComputerWorks Langgartenweg 27 CH .designexpress.be Internet: http://www.3311 AD Dordrecht Tel.
based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers p Pytha TWS Flassig GmbH Inselstraße 3 D .com Internet: l http://www.63741 Aschaffenburg Tel.4100 USA Tel.: +49 6021 37060 Fax: +49 6021 48455 E-Mail: pytha@compuserve. Suite E Sedona.3264 Gresten Tel. Arizona.: +1 520 282-6300 .at USA Parallel Performance Group Inc.: +43 7487 2656 Fax: +43 7487 26564 E-Mail: email@example.com Österreich / Austria Herwig Peer EDV-Berater Joisingweg 2A A . 450 Jordan Road.3 # p 15 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC. 86 336 .pytha.
based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers s SolidWorks SolidWorks Corporation 150 Baker Avenue Ext Concord.com Deutschland / Germany SolidWorks Germany Rotwandweg 5a D .Bat.3 # p 16 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.solidworks. MA 01742.: +1 508 371-2910 Tollfree: 800 693-9000 Fax: +1 508 371-7303 E-Mail: info@solidworks. France Tel. Route de la Seds F .: +33 442 150385 Fax: +33 442 753194 . D 201.: +49 89 612956-0 Fax: +49 89 612956-16 ä Europa / Europe SolidWorks Europe Parc du Relais . USA Tel.13127 Vitrolles.com Internet: l http://www.82024 Taufkirchen Tel.
co.Luton Hoo.com. SINGAPORE Tel.3 # p 17 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers SolidWorks # Großbritannien / Great Britain SolidWorks UK 4 Home Farm GB .uk Asien-Pazifik / Asia-Pacific SolidWorks Asia Pacific 27 Jalan Jintan #12-29 Singapore 229017.: +44 1582 431166 Fax: +44 1582 431188 E-Mail: info@solidworksuk. Bedfordshire LU1 3TD Tel.sg .: +65 8353952 Fax: +65 8353714 E-Mail: Cmartel@SolidWorksAP.
Suite 300 West San Jose.vellum.63897 Miltenberg Tel.com Deutschland / Germany Vellum Software GmbH Burgweg 79 D .3 # p 18 PC-basierte CAD/CAM-Systeme PC.: +33 1 40848801 Fax: +33 1 40849702 E-mail: lbergeron@cadware. 50.: +49 9371 65397 Fax: +49 9371 69241 E-Mail: Info@vellum.com Internet: l http://www. avenue de la République F .de Frankreich / France Vellum France S.fr Internet: http://cadware.92120 Montrouge Tel.de Internet: http://www. CA 95110.: +1 408 487 9800 Fax: +1 408 487 9815 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ä .A. 2001 Gateway Place.based CAD/CAM-Systems Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers v Vellum CAD Ashlar Inc. USA Tel.ashlar.
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# Großbritannien / Great Britain Vellum Software Ltd. Bishop Bateman Court GB - CB5 8AQ Cambridge Tel.: +44 1 223 300943 Fax: +44 1 223 363812 E-Mail: email@example.com Internet: http://vellum.com Italien / Italy Mikron Research Computer Viale Zileri 8/23 I - 36050 Monteviale Tel.: +39 444 961243 Fax: +39 444 960521 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Virtual Gibbs Gibbs and Associates 5400 Tech Circle Moorpark, CA 93021, USA Tel.: +1 805 523 0004 Tollfree Us only: 800 654 9399 Fax: +1 805 523 0006 E-Mail: email@example.com Internet: l http//:www.gibbsnc.com Schweiz + Frankreich / Switzerland + France Productec SA Les Grands-Champs 85 CH - 2842 Rossemaison Tel.: +41 32 4214433 Fax: +41 32 4214438 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: http//:www.access.ch/productec Deutschland / Germany Wingenbach & Pickhardt GmbH Potshauser Straße 12 D- 42 651 Tel.: +49 212 2541610 Fax: +49 212 2541611 E-Mail: email@example.com Internet: http//:www.datho.de
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AlphaCAM Licom Systems Ltd. Davenport Road GB - Coventry, CV5 6PY Tel.: +44 1203 713439 Fax: +44 1203 714449 Licom Systems Inc. 125 Turnpike Road Westborough, MA 01518, USA Tel.: +1 508 870 1941 Fax: +1 508 870 5793 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: l http://www.licom.com Niederlande / The Netherlands Licom Systems bv Kloosterstraat 3 NL - 5408 BA Volkel Tel.: +31 413 272092 Fax: +31 413 274360 ä Deutschland / Germany Licom Systems GmbH Kaiserstraße 100 D - 52134 Herzogenrath Tel.: +49 2407 91867-0 Fax: +49 2407 91867-5
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# Schweiz + Frankreich / Switzerland + France MW Programmation CNC Rue Ch. Schaublin 2 CH - 2735 Malleray Tel.: +41 32 4916530 Fax: +41 32 4916535
AutoCabinet 15200 Babcock Avenue Rosemount, MN 55068, USA Tel.: +1 612 423-9285 Toolfree US only 800 242-6903 Fax: +1 612 423-9285 e-mail: email@example.com Internet: l http://www.autocabinet.com
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BormCAD Borm- Informatik GmbH Kanalstraße 1/2 D - 72669 Unterensingen Tel.: +49 7022 67592 ? Fax: +49 7022 67594
Cad Tischler Cad+T GmbH Gewerbepark 16 A - 4052 Ansfelden Tel.: +43 729 83100-0 Fax: +43 729 83100-60 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: l http://www.cadt.co.at Deutschland / Germany Cad+T Consulting GmbH Vattmannstraße 1 D - 33100 Paderborn Tel.: +49 5251 150-240 Fax: +49 5251 150-249 E-Mail: email@example.com
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CAMtasik Direkt CNC-Systeme GmbH Brühlweg 26 D - 73553 Alfdorf Tel.: +49 7172 93770-0 Fax: +49 7172 93770-8
DaVinci Pinncalc - EDV Beratungs- und Vertiebs- GmbH Norderstraße 8 D - 24340 Eckernförde Tel.: +49 4351 7505-40 Fax: +49 4351 7505-70
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Hoku CAD Osterloh, G. Schuler & Partner Software GmbH Fritz-Müller-Straße 100 D - 73730 Esslingen Tel.: +49 711 93940-0 Fax: +49 711 93940-40 Österreich /Austria Unternehmensberatung G. Schuler & Partner GmbH Schillerstraße 12 A - 8940 Liezen Tel.: +43 3612 26978 Fax: +43 3612 26978 Italien-Tirol / Italy-Tyrol CS-Computer Service GmbH Unterdrittelgasse 16 I - 39042 Brixen (Bo) Tel.: +39 472 831122 Fax: +39 472 831125
de IMOS .CAD/CAM Dr.vsa-cad.: +49 5221 97005 Fax: +49 5221 97009 .based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers i I-CAD Vellum VSA Software GmbH Alter Spitalweg 1 D .3 # p6 CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung PC.77723 Gengenbach Tel.32052 Herford Tel. Prekwinkel GmbH Lehmkuhlenweg 9 D .de Internet: l http://www. F.: +49 7803 980952 Fax: +49 7803 980953 E-Mail: raepple@vsa-cad.
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de Internet: l http://firstname.lastname@example.org.: +49 721 91324-0 Fax +49 721 91324-44 E-Mail: email@example.com # p9 CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung PC.71083 Herrenberg Tel.co.: +49 7032 9269-00 Fax: +49 7032 9269-31 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org .: +43 316 348540-0 Fax: +43 316 348540-30 E-Mail: netconsult.76133 Karlsruhe Tel.based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers p ProHandwerk theta group .digitalis.at/NCGraz Pytha CAD/CAM Holz Frank Ruschmeier Benzstraße 33 D .Gesellschaft für EDV-Systeme Waldstraße 49 D .at Internet: l http://www.com Österreich / Austria Net Consult Körblergasse 5 A-8010 Graz Tel.
USA Tel.: +49 7135 4016 Fax: +49 7135 12715 RouterCIM CIM-Tech 1020 Carolina Drive West Chicago. Pook Jahnstraße 5 D .74336 Brackenheim Tel. +1 708 876-7600 Fax: +1 708 876-9836 E-Mail: sales@cimtech-cnc. M.based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers r ROBOCAD Holz Robocom Deutschland Dipl.com .3 # p 10 CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung PC.-Ing. IL 60185.com Internet: l http://cimtech-cnc.
97688 Bad Kissingen Tel.com Internet: l http://www. POB 58158 IL-61581 Tel Aviv Tel.based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers s Scanvec The Graphics Specialist Atidim Industrial Park. Georg Heim Straße 15 D .com Deutschland / Germany Scanvec Deutschland Dr.3 # p 11 CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung PC.: +1 800-866-6227 / 508-694-9488 Fax: +1 508-694-9482 e-mail: usasales@scanvec. USA Tel.: +972 3 6474477 Fax: +972 3 6490778 e-mail: email@example.com . MA 01887.: +49 971 72600 Fax: +49 971 726060 USA Scanvec USA 115 West Street Willmington.
73431 Aalen Tel.3 # p 12 CAD/CAM-Systeme für Holzverarbeitung PC.based CAD/CAM-Systems for the wood worker Internationaler Vertrieb International Distribution CAD/CAM Producers w WoodCAM Gesellschaft für Technische Rechneranwendungen mbH Felix-Wankel-Straße 10 D . + Fax : +49 73661 94110 B .
professional seminars. The dds “belly-shop“ offers know-how for the cabinet-maker in the shape of selected technical literature. technical literature and special products can be ordered with ldds media service. software. The dds-software. where you can also obtain the exclusive book and software catalogue. . videos. exclusive study trips.# p1 dds-aktiv offers real added value for the committed cabinet-maker and joiner. as well as all sorts of things from the joiner’s shop.
Axel Müller-Schöll has been in charge of the dds trips for readers for years. B . His graphic and vivid lectures are very helpful for the visualisation of the cabinet-makers and joiners ideas and design projects. but also through their exclusive side-program. sightseeing and lectures.# p2 Impressions from the dds trip for readers to Verona Prof. dds trips for readers distinguish themselves not only through interesting visits to workshops. Information on workshops and dds readers trips can be obtained from the current edition of dds. from dds-online or from the l dds-Leserservice.
technicians and designers. through their blueprints. Ehemaliges Pfarrhaus Wiechs am Randen . Next to an extensive look at the design quality of each piece of work.# p1 offers constructive and design-oriented solutions dds-im Detail (in detail) for complex interior fittings and complicated oneoff furniture pieces to prospective master craftsmen. who. there is a presentation of the respective designers. Gespachtelte Flächen in Türfüllungen Entwurf: Studio Paretaia Stuttgart . IM DETAIL Ausführende Betriebe: Schreinerei Wesle. We not only aim at attractive and ambitious reports.. The concrete examples are presented in co-operation with the Hochschule für Kunst und Design (Academy for Art and Design) Burg Giebichenstein in Halle and are published in every dds edition.. permit an interesting glimpse behind the scenes. but also at giving pragmatic help which will support designers and craftsmen in their everyday work. It also offers specific help to the craftsman in the workshop in the form of blueprints.
den der 2 Gast für seine Kleidung benutzen soll). um so Wirkung und Wertigkeit des Holzes zu steigern. um in einem Gästezimmer denjenigen Schrank zu markieren. Neben Umbauten und Erweiterungen bestehender Gebäude und der Entwicklung von Ausstellungs. um so die Birnbaumschrankﬂäche in ihrem Ausdruck zu steigern.# p2 Studio Paretaia Das Studio Paretaia wurde 1984 als Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Innenarchitektur und Designplanung in Stuttgart gegründet. dds-im Detail 1 Die gestaltete Oberﬂäche als Kodierung Bei Schrankeinbauten setzt das Studio Paretaia häuﬁg Kassetten als gestalterische Kodierung ein. Häuﬁg verwenden sie aber die Kassettierung als Kontrast. Bei einem 4 1 2 3 4 5 Esszimmer mit gespachtelten Füllungstüren Detail der Esszimmerschranktüren Ankleide mit Linoleumkassetten Schrankoberﬂächen im Bad mit Linoleumkassetten Schlafzimmer mit Linoleumkassetten dds – . Bei einem Schlafzimmerschrank aus Birnbaum und Ahorn zum Beispiel wurden die Füllungen in blauem Linoleum ausgeführt..und Messe-Environments setzt sich das Studio Paretaia in auftragsungebundenen Arbeiten mit der Schnittstelle von Handwerk. entweder.IM DETAIL . industrieller Fertigung und deren Auswirkungen auf die Wohnumwelt auseinander.. um in einer langen Zeile ein besonderes Element hervorzuheben (zum Beispiel.
.# p3 Vorderansicht M 1:20 dds-im Detail Typ A Typ B M 1:20 1m dds – .IM DETAIL B ..
70049 Stuttgart Ulrich Müller. machines and material Elke Hambrecht. in charge of current-affairs Manuela Fischer.dds-online. editor-in-chief.de .Editorial Staff dds-Contact PO box 106012 D . in charge of new media and training Hans-Jörg Graffé.de l Internet: http://www. secretariat Tel. in charge of technology. in charge of marketing and design Thomas Hausberg.: +49 711 2631-245 Fax: +49 711 2631-108 e-mail: dds@dva.# p1 dds . deputy editor-in-chief.
70049 Stuttgart Tel. technical literature. etc.82197 Gilching Tel. Trial Copies. Single Copy Sale Monika Schmid PO box 1280 D .frank@dva. dds software.: +49 8105 388-201 Fax: +49 8105 388-180 Purchase of dds-videos. l dds media service (specialist media) Information on Workshops and Journeys for readers dds-Leserservice Petra Frank PO box 106012 D .: +49 711 2631-384 Fax: +49 711 2631-110 e-mail: petra.# p2 Verlegerdienst München (publishers’ service) Subscribers’ Service.de B . special products.
dds is read in small and medium-sized craft companies as well as in vocational and technical colleges. business management. CAD and CAM.de is a technical journal of “Der Deutschen Schreiner Verlag GmbH“. As regards content. academies and universities in the fields of architecture. and specialized EDP for cabinet-makers and joiners. a subsidiary of the renowned Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt Stuttgart. polytechnics. interior design and furniture design. dds is an active and innovative technical journal for cabinet-makers and joiners. GESTALTUNG MÖBEL MIT NEUEN IDEEN MASCHINEN HOHER STANDARD BESCHLÄGE ZUM SCHIEBEN UND FALTEN BAUELEMENTE WIN DOOR Fenster · Türen · Bauelemente . The machine manufacturers and suppliers of semi-finished products for woodworking also value the comprehensive information of this technical journal.dds-online. the main emphasis of dds is design and construction.# p1 E 6154 E 3 / MÄRZ 1998 das magazin für möbel und ausbau dds-the magazine for furniture and interior fitting l http://www. machine and tool technology.
And this is how you l contact dds dds supports the training of future master craftsmen and technicians with the specialist insert l ddsim Detail (in detail). One year’s subscription in Germany costs DM 199. The technical journal offers a wide range of help and know-how for the everyday work in l dds-aktiv. For window and door construction dds offers a quarterly specialist insert l WINDOOR with interesting information for this field. the Internet user will find the springboard to the world of woodworking.de. apart from information. Aussichten im Beruf (professional prospects) six times a year. dds also offers the latest information for cabinetmakers and joiners via the Internet. specialist TV for cabinet-makers and joiners.000 copies and is sold via subscriptions only.20 and can be obtained via the l Verlegerdienst München. B .# p2 dds appears monthly with an average circulation of 26. Under lwww.dds-online. dds is the only technical journal for cabinet-makers and joiners that offers information in moving pictures with l dds-Video. that is part of every edition. dds not only stands for the printed product. For apprentices to cabinet-makers and joiners dds edits the insert l view.
de/krebs dds-Medienservice PO box 10 28 63 D . practical guides.# p 17 dds Media service professional knowledge for cabinet-makers and joiners formerly Krebs Fachmedien One of the biggest German language suppliers of professional knowledge for cabinet-makers and joiners.500 books. with more than 1.70024 Stuttgart Ask for our free comprehensive catalogue! B . 24 hour ordering service: Tel +49 711 2631-381 +49 711 2631-382 Fax Internet Mail +49 711 2631-112 l http://www.dva. CD-ROM’s and Videos.
de Association of the Swiss master cabinet-makers and furniture manufacturers or simply onto the websites of cabinet-maker’s workshops in the Internet.dds-online. e.g. onto the homepage of the American cabinet-makers magazine “Fine Woodworking“. . or the l http://www. Via the webside “Links“.# p1 dds-online informs about the content of the curdds-online rent dds magazine and offers up-to-date as well as continuous information in its many columns and fora. Internet users can jump directly into the online-world of woodworking.
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The spectator experiences “life“ how tasks and problems are solved. Experts are directly addressed. which will be analysed and presented in four to five individual reports from different angles. . So far ldds-Videos with the following topics have been published. Processes thus become easy to understand and to comprehend. The video-magazine is published twice a year and offers 30 exciting minutes on a selected topic.# p1 SICHERHEIT dds-video. technical TV for cabinet-makers and joiners complements the technical journal with moving pictures.
# p2 dds-Videos published: C-Technology .dds-video 1/97 Security for Windows and Doors .dds-video 4/94 Fitting and Transport .dds-video 4/95 Windows and Doors .dds-video 1/96 Masterly Furniture .dds-video 2/97 Renovating Kitchens .dds-video 3/93 Masterpiece .dds-video 1/95 Machine Technology .dds-video 3/94 Environment .dds-video 3/95 Renovating and Refurbishment .dds-video 1/94 Construction Elements .dds-video 1/98 each video has a running time of about 35 minutes.2/95 Price: DM 68.dds-video 2/96 Winning Customers .dds-video 4/93 Windows .dds-video 2/94 Interior Fitting . B . Dry Construction .90 The dds-videos can be ordered from l dds media service.
In “expert tip“ peculiarities and suggestions for improvement are shown by competent design experts. In 6 editions each year view. view. Aussichten im Beruf Nr.# p1 Supporting vocational and further training is of [vju:] die Lehrlingsbeilage von dds [vju:] particular importance to dds.1 Februar/März ’98 Vorschlag fürs Gesellenstück Überblick Themen aus dds Durchblick Barschrank– Mit X-pertentip dds das magazin für möbel und ausbau Einblick Fineline-Furnier . Problems and their solutions are shown. Aussichten im Beruf (professional prospects) presents and describes a particular apprentice’s diploma piece. dds is the only technical journal for cabinet-makers and joiners that offers a separate brochure to the young people of the trade.
Auch in zeigenössischen Möbeln findet man diese klassischen Proportionen – z. der das Quadrat 60 50 MAE 0. 1 2 x pertentip In der Antike. In Flächen lassen sich diese Maßbeziehungen über die 1315 430 1 Diagonale nachweisen. die aus den 30 Körpermaßen des Menschen und Erkentnissen der Geometrie hergeleitet wurden.5 X MAE 0. Als ich ihn einmal dar- MDF 16 975 5 270 270 Rollenband gerade 815 auf ansprach und ihn fragte. 1 Zum anderen die Fläche. 5 X x 15 umschreibt. 3 Handschriftliche Anmerkungen: Prof.5 60 2 perten Göttlichkeit.5 MAE 0. Zum einen das Quadrat (a) – und mit ihm der Kreis. Am besten nimmt man sich 3 hierfür ein Transparentblatt und zeichnet sich die Winkel 420 10 385 45° (Quadrat). In seinem Büro. 60° (gleichseitiges Dreieck) und 32° (= Goldener 2 Schnitt) auf. Schönheit und Harmonie.B. bei dem Regal „Carlton“ von Ettore Sottsass. bedienten sich Baumeister und Handwerker insbesondere dreier Proportionsparameter.5 X Goldenen Schnitt (c). Axel Müller-Schöll dds dds B . vor allem aber in der Renaissance. Diese Maßbeziehungen verkör- AH 0. gleichseitige Dreiecke (b) beschreiben und schließlich den MDF 16 MDF 16 AH 0. wie er dabei beim Entwerfen vorgeht. deren Diagonalen zwei sich gegenüberliegende. war er erstaunt.# p2 Entwurf [vju:] [vju:] Durchblick.
1998 öffnet die „Fensterbau ´98“ in Nürnberg ihre Pforten. neue Produkte. dds offers information to window and facade constructors. WINDOOR always supplements dds in March.# p 1 WINDOOR . Design.000 specialised companies. dds-WINDOOR wird für Sie dabei sein und berichtet schon vorab über Neuheiten im Sektor Bauelemente. June. (Bild: Sälzer B . bis zum 29. doors and construction ele- WIN DOOR Fenster · Türen · Bauelemente WIN DOOR Fenster · Türen · Bauelemente ments are the topics of this specialist dds insert. With an additional circulation to 6. use of semi-finished products and ready-made construction elements as well as machine technology and construction physics are typical themes of WINDOOR.3. JUGENDSTIL-VILLA KASTENFENSTER HAUSTÜREN TÜRSCHLIESSER SICHERHEIT BESCHLÄGE JALOUSIESYSTEME PRODUKTE FENSTER • TÜREN • BAUELEMENTE Vom 26. September and December. Daten und Fakten zum Fenstermarkt.windows. construction.Verfahren und Techniken – ein kaum überschaubares Informationsangebot.3. door manufacturers. glazier’s workshops and fitters.
Specialist.C C ö About this CD 0 Welcome to C dds l dds. the magazine for furniture and interior l WINDOOR fitting l view.l dds-in detail TV for cabinet-makers l dds-online and joiners l dds-activ l Help l dds media service C C . the insert for apprentices l dds-contact l dds-video.
2 / update 98 . and include the selection of necessary tools.cad Data format of the FBZ CAD/CAM 2D software of the l MBA GmbH. the dimensions of the stock part. as well as the work plan. formerly Robert Bosch GmbH. The digital wood joints are available in the CADformat .version 1. and then be machined.ß # s 1 The Data formats .as 2D router contours. B . together with the CNC-training machine FBZ.. The FBZ CAD/CAM 2D software is mainly used in vocational schools for training purposes.. The FBZ CAD/CAM 2D software contains all functions that are necessary to create simple geometries and to prepare their machining. The machining process can be simulated on the screen for controlling purposes. These data can be passed on directly to the corresponding CNC-training machine FBZ 40/30 via the postprocessor..
. Design files of the CAD program MicroStation of l Bentley Systems Incorporated are filed in IGDS data formats.. i. but they can not be converted back to a parametric solids.. B .e. This ensures a maximum of flexibility in processing and a high investment protection for existing data. data can be processed on a Windows PC or Macintosh today. In addition.dgn Short for design-file. this data format is binary-compatible for all operating systems. Modeller for Windows. The parametric volumes can be opened with the MicroStation Modeller. the solids will be converted into wire frames. This format has been tried and tested for many years. Should the DGN-files be opened without the Modeller. and vice versa. The digital wood joints are available in the DGNformat as solids. It allows the user to read and work on data from former Micro Station versions without having to convert them first.ß # s 2 The Data formats . The following MicroStation demo-version is available on this CD-ROM: MicroStation SE incl. They can be processed as wire frames. and processed further on a Unix system tomorrow.
It is a neutral data exchange format for exchanging design-files..dxf Short for drawing exchange format. Most CAD/CAM-systems support importing and exporting of design-files in the DXFformat... DXF is mainly suited for the transfer of simple geometrical models. The efficiency of the DXF-format is directly linked to the development of AutoCad. B . DXF has been developed by the software company l Autodesk. Due to its restrictive number of describable geometric elements. The digital wood joints are available as 2D-contours in the DXF-format version 10 and as 3D wire frames in the DXF version 12.ß # s 3 The Data formats .
B . plane or free form areas ..ß # s 4 The Data formats . It is. and normed by ANSI. an interface for the transfer of product definition data.e.g. circular arch.e. text.and symbolic elements . dimensioning or hatching . the American National Standardisation Institute.g. IGES transfers apart from geometric elements .. however.also structural elements like allocations and attributes. as well as technical drawings. line. The digital wood joints are available as surface models in the IGES-format version 5.iges Short for initial graphics exchange specification.. only of limited use for the transfer of complex surfaces and solid models. point. that is independent of the software producer. IGES allows the transfer of all currently available wire frames and surface models.
. The digital wood joints are available as wire-frames in the MiniCad-format version 7. B . Incorporated..ß # s 5 The Data formats .. MiniCad is a wire frame and surface Modeller of lDiehl Graphsoft.mcd Short for MiniCad file. There is a demo-version of MiniCad 7 Interior Fittings for Windows and for MAC-OS on this CDROM.
.. Please take note of your CAD or CAM software producer’s instructions when importing data via the exchange formats DXF and IGES.vlm l ....iges l ....sim l Help H H H H D ßData formats D H .dxf l .dgn l . l .....H on this CD-Rom ö Tutorial The digital wood joints are available on this CD-ROM in various data formats: 2 data exchange formats.. 3 native CAD formats and 2 CAM formats.cad l .....mcd l .....
In the header of the SIM-file are given the dimensions of the stock part.E=cutter diameter. Z as well as the reference point as starting point for the tools . and generated with the postprocessor for their use on the MBA CNC-training center FBZ 40/30.sim Short for simulations file. L=cutter length. like Wordpad or Simpletext.with the position of the workpiece origin X. The digital wood joints are available as data files in SIM-format. SIM-files can be opened with text editors. Y.. H=total cutter length. W=height .. They have been prepared on the FBZ CAD/CAM 2D software by the MBA GmbH.U=length.ß # s 6 The Data formats . B .. V=width. The SIM-file contains the NC data file of a workpiece according to DIN 66025 in the ASCII-format.
0 as surface models.. Incorporated. Vellum is a wire frame.vlm Short for Vellum-file.. The digital wood joints are available in the Vellumformats version 2.ß # s 7 The Data formats .0 for Windows and for MAC-OS on this CD-ROM.7 as 3D wire frames and in version 4. B .. surface or solid Modeller of l Ashlar. There is a demo-version of Vellum 3D Pro 4.
j 7 j ö Start J wood joints the digital J l Frame Joints l Tutorial l Infothek l Board Joints l Carcass Joints l Examples l About this CD l Help .
j 7 j Board Joints T-shaped joints l Finger Tenons l Fingertip Tenons with Lateral wood joints The digital J J ö Wood Joints Corner Joints l Finger Tenons l Lapped Finger Tenons l Secret Finger Tenons l Fingertip Tenons l Lapped Fingertip Tenons l Secret Fingertip Tenons l Fingertip Tenons with Key l Hammer Tenons l Lapped Hammer Tenons Positioning Tenons l Fingertip Tenons with Central Positioning Tenon l Clip Tenons l Catch Tenon Lengthenings l Lapped Dovetail l Double Lapped Dovetail l Board Lengthening with Asymmetrical Slotting Joints l Simple Slotting Joint l Slotting Girder Joint l Double Lapped Slotting Joint l Hooked Slotting Joint l Double Lapped Slotting Joint with Key Dovetail Keys l Board Lengthening with Jigsaw Keys l Board Lengthening with Meander Key l Detachable Lengthening with Key l Help .
j 7 j Carcass Joints l Tenon Joint with Star-Shaped Mortise l Shouldered Tenon l Locked Leg Framing l 3-Dimensional Finger Tenon Joint wood joints The digital J J ö Wood Joints l Help .
j 7 j Frame Joints Frame Corner Joints l Halved Dovetail Corner l Dovetail Key Corner l Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key l Jigsaw Mitre Joint l Halving with Elliptical Tenon l Double Jigsaw-Hook Corner wood joints The digital J J ö Wood Joints Lengthenings l Shouldered Dovetail l Shouldered Triple Dovetail l Double Dovetail l Triple Dovetail l Symmetrical Double Dovetail l Double Jigsaw l Plain Scarf with Dovetail Keys l Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon Joint with Stub Cross Joints l Oval Shouldered Halving l Dovetailed Cross Halving l Jigsaw Cross Halving l Cross Mitre Joint with Jigsaw Key Tenons l Ginkgo Scarf with Stub Tenons Stop Laps l Shouldered Dovetail Halving l Stop Lap with Jigsaw Key l Hooked Jigsaw Halving l Help .
The extended corners of the mortise ensure an accurate support of the rectangular tenon. They are. nevertheless. is placed into the vertical framing in such a way. that it is flush at the front. For the Tenon Joint with Star-Shaped Mortise. They have been replaced more and more by dowel joints due to industrial furniture production. It is impossible to imagine furniture and carcass construction without them.p1 7 # name of file: Z_003 Tenon Joint with Star-Shaped Mortise Tenon joints count among the oldest wood joints. the tenon of the cross bar. still superior in terms of durability. l to the data files . The Star-Shaped Mortise is a result of machining the joint on a CNC-router. that has beeen shouldered up to half the thickness of the wood.
the tenon should be shorter than the depth of the mortise in order to avoid the tenon forcing on the mortise ground in case the wood shrinks. The flattened part of the vertical frame prevents the horizontal shift of the cross bar. The Tenon Joint can also be secured against tension with the help of wood pins. while its side forces are transmitted by the tenon. The Shouldered Tenon Joint can be executed as a blind or open version.p2 7 # name of file: Z_002 Shouldered Tenon The Shouldered Tenon combines the idea of the housed butt joint with the idea of the tenon joint. l to the data files . For the blind version.
ensure a high stability of the angle joint. which is used wherever legs are joint with framing rails. l to the data files . at the same time.p3 7 # name of file: KN_001 Locked Leg Framing The Locked Leg Framing is a removable carcass joint. When assembling the joint. Both rails are flattened on the outside around the tenons as well as around the mortises. the rails will be slotted together and the leg will be introduced from below in the flattened area. The front and back rails have tenons. as for example for tables and beds. The rails thus resist tensile forces and. the side rails have mortises.
These two almost identical elements enable the problem-free assembly of complex structures.p4 7 # name of file: KN_002 3-Dimensional Finger Tenon Joint The 3-Dimensional Finger Tenon is a joint used for three-dimensional space structures in furniture construction as well as trade fair construction. Because of their geometry and the stress under which element is put. l to the data files . consists of two basic elements: the outer and the inner framing timber which run parallel to each other. illustrated here as a corner solution. the 3-Dimensional Finger Tenon Joint should be made. The joint. if at all possible. of multiplex plywood.
0 l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.0 l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.12 – 3D l Iges 5 ö 3-Dimensional Finger Tenon Joint l Iges 5 B .0 l Velum 2.0 l Velum 2.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4. Name of file: in folder: Name of the joint: ö Tenon Joint with Star-Shaped Mortise ö Shouldered Tenon Z_003 l DXF.12 – 3D KN_002 l DXF.0 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 3 l MBA_SIM Part 3 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 Z_002 l Iges 5 ö Locked Leg Framing KN_001 l DXF. g.7 l Velum 4.0 l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.10).7 l Velum 4.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D l DXF.7 l Velum 4.0 l Velum 2.12 – 3D l MicroSt 95 l Minicad 7.10 – 2D l DXF. lDXF.7 # p 1 digital wood joints Survey J Carcass Joints To open a file of the kind you need. just press the name of the appropriate folder (e.10 – 2D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.
Should it not be possible to solve your problem with the assistance provided. as well as an assistance with selected topics.I 8 Help I the I I I ö Start l Tutorial The chapter HELP provides you with access to the Acrobat Reader Manual.de.dds-online. l Infothek l Examples l About this CD l Acrobat Reader Manual l Opening files directly l out of Acrobat Reader l Screen visualization l Importing the data files l Printing l CAD-demo versions l Webjump l Wood Joints . We will do our best to find an answer to your problem as soon as possible. then please describe the problem you encountered in the forum DIGITAL WOOD JOINTS on the dds Website l www.
which you open in the standard view.000 colors. These set ups will from then on be applied to all PDF-documents. B .8 # p 1 Help The graphical adaptation of the overview and text Screen visualization pages of the CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“ was optimized for the visualization on a 17 inch monitor with a resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels and 32. For the visualization of Acrobat documents on your the page layout and other options. like the mode for displaying large images in the General Preferences menue in Preferences. 1024 pixels 768 pixels 32. you can define the default magnification.000 colors 17“ screen.
8 # p1 Help The demo versions of the CAD-programs MicroStaCAD-demo versions tion. ä . In case problems occur when installing and testing the demo versions. please contact the distributors directly. MiniCad and Vellum were provided by the distributors named below. Installation instructions or system requirements and possible limitations of functions can be found in the corresponding READ ME-files.
de B .thetagroup.de Vellum VSA Software GmbH Alter Spitalweg 1 D-77723 Gengenbach Tel.: +49 6071 979220 Fax: +49 6071 979229 Internet: l www.doerr-systeme.: +49 7803 980952 Fax: +49 7803 980953 Internet: l www.vsa-cad.: +49 721 91324-0 Fax: +49 721 91324-44 Internet: l www.8 # p2 Help Micro Station Doerr CAE Systeme GmbH Hauptstraße 41 D-64380 Roßdorf Tel.de MiniCad theta group Gesellschaft für EDV-Systeme bR Waldstraße 49 D-76133 Karlsruhe Tel.
These problems are known and were accepted in view of an optimal screen visualization. you need to activate the function Shrink to fit in the Printer Set Up. you also need to take into account that the page format does not correspond to the paper sizes normally loaded in your printer. When printing. as it was also optimized for the visualization on the screen. this lessens in some cases the printing quality. Line graphics sometimes appear “muddy“. Unfortunately.8 # p 2 Help The graphical adaptation of the overview and text Printing pages of the CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“ was optimized for screen visualization. B . In order to adapt the page format to the paper size. Texts placed on colored backgrounds do not appear when printing on a simple laser printer.
This is not surprising. texts. only party opened or displayed in a distorted way.8 # p 5 Help The data files of the digital wood joints provided on this CD-ROM in the various data formats have Importing the data files of the digital wood joints been carefully tested. Especially the dxf and IGESdata files were tested in different CAD and CAMprograms. among others. The 3D-data files in the dxf-format version 12 pose problems when being imported in some CAD/CAM-programs. Losses when exchanging data between various CAD/CAM-programs are generally caused by the use of different entities and differently defined dxf-converters. B . as the documentation of the dxf-format is still full of gaps. They do not contain dimensions. They are either not opened at all. The digital wood joints provided on this CD-ROM are represented in a 1:1 scale in all the data files. The data files only contain the geometric models of the digital wood joints. Please consult the manual of the manufacturer when importing data files into your CAD-program. in AutoCad version 14. hatching or special types of lines. which are placed completely on level 1. The dxf-files of the digital wood joints were opened faultlessly. even though nearly all CAD/CAM-programs are provided with a dxf-converter.
please make sure the software version of the corresponding application installed on your computer is the same to or newer than the one of the file. the dxf-files and IGES-files can be opened in several different CAD/CAM-programs. B . which are provided on this CD-ROM. In order to open a file. While the native CAD-data formats can only be opened in the corresponding CAD-programs. that you have installed the application needed to open the chosen file on your computer. have been carefully tested in the corresponding applications.8 # p 4 Help Every digital wood joint can be opened directly out Opening files directly out of the Acrobat Reader of the Acrobat Reader from the overview pages. All files of digital wood joints. As the data exchange formats dxf and IGES can not be allocated to a specific application. Condition is. It is normally not possible to open a file if the software version of the program is older than the one of the file. you need to select one of the applications installed on your computer in the upcoming dialog box in order to open the file. on which they are listed in all data formats provided on this CD-ROM.
then please check whether you can get there directly by means of your Web Browser. the choice of the Web Browser application. B . it happens time and again that URL’s change or get taken out of the Net.8 # p 3 Help Webjumps to Internet addresses have been careWebjump fully investigated and tested. However. for which we beg your pardon. We would be grateful if you pointed the mistake out to us. we must have made a programming mistake. If a Webjump does not launch the desired Website. Please set up the Weblink Preferences. ie. Should this be possible. in the Preferences menue.
f e ö Start 9 the e Infothek l Further Reading l Tutorial l The Model of Virtual Production e l Wood Joints l Examples l About this CD l The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction l List of CAD/CAMProducers l Publications of the C...Lab l List of CNC.Machine Manufacturers l Help .
Bürdek on the use of computer-aided production in design and the craft trades The digital future has started and the new technologies have already been tested in a research project at the “Stuttgart Institut für Innenarchitektur und Möbeldesign“ (Institute for Interior Design and Furniture Design).is broken. Results show that the dictate of the circular saw .always straight .3 # p1 Digital furniture construction New technologies: Forerunners of a new Aesthetics Bernard E. from: form 149 Robot insects? Digital design! “Spider shelf“ (above) and “Cactus table“ (right) from the series “Nature sampling“ by Mike Meire Operator: Joe Kinze .
appointed “design managers“ slowly obstruct the ment: research. The quickly formed or better tinkered prototype replaces intensive reflections on changing processes in society. . not every “design experiment“ lives up to its name. lean production or Kaizen-strategies. His idea of connecting the term avant-garde with high-tech production has been without consequences. the prototype already stood in a gallery or even in a museum. and especially in the fast technological development of the present. New design and new technologies stay irreconcilable. Experiments that point the way ahead . Once the varnish was dried.get little attention. Certainly. All too often the term “experiment“ like the term “avant-garde“ is being misused.as opposed to many management recipes . Even Jochen Gros’ attempt at mediation has not changed much. whose concoctions receive attention only for a short while. but also in design. Design turned into fashion. which shall be discussed throughout this article.3 # p2 Digital furniture construction from: form 149 The sometimes all too simple strategies of the selfview of the area of design dedicated to develop- At the moment we are experiencing a rapid change which manifests itself not only in re-engineering. Therefore furniture design in particular turned into a playground for disguised geniuses.
Votteler. Examples are rare in industrial design. Up to now this has become most obvious in graphic design where the use of desktop publishing and the related software tools make completely new forms of “visualization“ possible. . The research project in Stuttgart wanted to show the actual state of the art of this technology on one hand. for Interior and Furniture Design in Stuttgart researched. a qualified cabinet maker with a master craftsman’s certificate and design diploma and since spring 1994. but a tool that requires rethinking. the Institute The project was competently led by Friedrich Sulzer. The modelling workshop still seems to be the central place for the design process. If this is the case. Prof. keeping calmly apart from all trends. and opened up new perspectives to the practice of small and medium-sized wood working firms on the other hand. Under the overall control of Arno Votteler an ambitious research project was started in May 1993: New Technologies in Furniture Construction. bringing forth know-how or technology transfer in the best sense. What is it about? Again and again it is being said that the computer is not just a simple tool. The results are now available in a new documentation.3 # p3 Digital furniture construction from: form 149 Research out of the Public Eye Since the beginning of the eighties. visiting professor at the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Offenbach (Offenbach Design School). developed and designed. who is among the pioneers of post-war design in Germany continually followed his own path through decades. then its use changes the design process.
The new tools therefore change our perception. The dogma of the right angle (costeffective with the circular saw) is broken. The fact that this is being discussed again. which also concerns objects we live with. they widen our aesthetic horizon. The dimension of possibilities (the technology) therefore means: a workshop in the head.3 # p4 Digital furniture construction New Media . but with one that exists only as a programming language in the head. design “dematerializes“.“ Can this now be applied for the design of furniture? Whenever we talk of a transfer of “hardware“ to “software“. Every now and then designs are created which resemble robot insects. The means of presentation of toady’s computers make the creation of new realities possible. is in my opinion the “progress“ instigated by this research project. from: form 149 But this is slowly changing. Martin Burckhardt describes in his impressive “History of Perception“ how computer technologies constitute a new workshop: “We don’t deal any more with a material workshop at a specific location. . and the ornamental character is a topic again. for example on a “new aesthetics“. the contributions outlined in the Stuttgart research project fortunately are not limited to a technological debate. At last the focus is again on the content of design.New Aesthetics However. Its attempt to put the idea into practice is also exemplary.
with representatives of craft firms as well as industry participating at the seminar. from: form 149 During the 11th Weissenhof Seminar (at which participated. restaurants etc. transferred to the computer and then to some extent produced. The clients are private customers who want ione-off pieces of furniture. Germany) has been using CNC-technology for the production of the “slot together“ systems which have been awarded many prizes since then. Today he cooperates with an interior fitting company (Marco Bosso) in Griesheim near Darmstadt. Jochen Gros from the Of- fenbach Design School and Michele de Lucchi from Milan) first examples of designs were sketched. companies in need of furnishings for their commercial projects such as shops. Thomas Geyer already dealt with similar question in his degree dissertation at the Offenbach Design School in 1992. along with light construction furniture in the corporate design of the same company. among others. used during trade shows.3 # p5 Digital furniture construction Examples from the Practice For a few years now the product line “Architektur“ for the office by Holger Dannenberg (Werkhaus GmbH in Suhlendorf. . which was shown at the furniture fair in Cologne in January 1994. Consequently they aimed to create interest in new technologies. A design project at the Stuttgart academy resulted in “furniture in C“.
The individualization is done by the client through a choice from a range of surfaces. Equipped with a 5-axis CNC-machine center (workspace 360 x 360 cm). Quotations. the legs result out of the cutting. The table Contorno is made out of one board.3 # p6 Digital furniture construction from: form 149 The products of Xenoform are being designed on the computer (for example with “Freehand“ or “Corel Draw“). itemization and invoices are more or less automatically part of the system. as a data file “on-line“ to the CNC-router in the workshop. Thomas Geyer states that “the on-demand production today is not more expensive any more than serial production.“ . and it is transferred Ulrich Thierling. it already aims to leap into the new technology on a big scale. etc. intarsia. a participant of the Weissenhof Seminar. even plans his own edition of his company Lumcon in Filderstadt near Stuttgart. followed by a three-dimensional visualization on a CAD-system or a technical plan drawn with “Auto-Sketch“. The numerical translation is done with “Auto-Cad“.
and what influence do technical aspects have on the form? In furniture construction for example the CNC-router is used mostly 2 1/2-dimensional. It seems important to me that a question is being asked again. The evenly increasing spiral could not be produced manually. as opposed to the vehicle design. Photo: Kai Loges. Since the summer term 1994. . which has already played a role at the beginning of this century. What can be made out of a board was the topic of an introductory event by Jochen Gros and Friedrich Sulzer. What does compatibility along with production mean.3 # p7 Digital furniture construction from: form 149 Progress in Details The table Spiralo by Friedrich Sulzer unites essential aspects of digital manufacturing: new forms and new ornaments. The designs developed subsequently should put the findings into practice. especially product semantics. the product design department at the Offenbach Design School has been leading a rather intensive and design-related debate concerning the new CNC-technologies. It is the result of the CNC-compatible manufacturing process. The use of board material logically follows. where free form surfaces naturally need to be produced by five-axis-machines.
e. This high precision in wood working could not be achieved in this way before. and therefore to research. Even though design examples are still modest. De- show what this means. from: form 149 The jointing technologies. So far it is undisputed that the economic viability can be increased by the use of CNC-machines. seems to me the primary quality of these works. Tenon joints can easily be changed or individualized. the reflections already contain a new factor. joints are created to hold even without glue. The extensive use of serial production eliminated this element. clearly ard were worked upon in a vertical position with the circular saw or router. for example. Now the board is put in horizontally and worked upon by the router. i. New kinds of corner ljoints are a result of this. they subsequently change the daily routine of designing. Beyond the meta-design debates popular with new design and media theorists. To reflect upon this. . Up to now planks and bo- tailed research means using technology in a way that. tenon joints. The technical skills required for tenon joints allowed a cabinet maker to use them exclusively for the production of an one-off piece of furniture. new answers emerge to old questions.3 # p8 Digital furniture construction The computer-aided technology now offers a new scope. Craft firms report a yearly increase of 5% and more. If computer technologies change our lives and awareness. Traditional ways of manufacturing become economical again and can be applied efficiently.
. the assembly instructions “made in. And if one or two screws are missing then.“.. Holger Dannenberg has been using CNC-technology for several years for his product line “architecture for the of fice“ (Werkhaus GmbH in Suhlendorf ) to produce the meanwhile many times prizewinning slot together systems.. neatly taken to pieces. Typical for this is the take-away furniture which. Users manuals need to cover up the poor interface-quality of products.3 # p9 Digital furniture construction from: form 149 Interface-Design in a New Light This project also makes the currently so fashionable interface-design appear in a new light. The accompanying tools are pathetic. they already become instructions for survival. we have lost the insight into the “essence“ of things long ago. In the course of the rapidly changing electronics in nearly all parts of life. everything collapses. is supposed to be picked up and put together by the customer. Who has not experienced the helplessness that overcomes oneself at home after having opened IKEA’s little bag and spread out its contents.
This media therefore suggests itself for the objectives that have been described here in order to be able to “draw oneself a picture“. music. The natural “mappings“.3 # p 10 Digital furniture construction Presenting a wide Variety One remaining problem is how to convey to the potential customer the great variety made possible through new technologies. in every ordinary furniture store there are also only a few selected examples and thick catalogs completing the range. You get the construction plans on-line from a central place and the material from a local building material supplier. Can he “imagine“. Norman. . still or moving pictures (digitized video sequences or films) and. or else “draw a picture“ of how things would look like in his home? What would be the alternative? The market for new electronic storage media has been booming for two to three years now. The unpleasant side of electronics can be turned into the opposite through its meaningful use. according to Donald A. Of course. from: form 149 Simple fittings without screws or hinges is how furniture can work as well. Bundles of paper resulting from “sample books“ of the craftsmen make choices more difficult for the customer. About 600 MB of data can be stored on a CD-ROM: texts and numbers. an effect strongly recommended to be used in furniture construction. of course. Things become clear again. How the pieces are fitted together is also a que- stion of design. become noticeable again.
Leafing through a book will give way to a journey through virtual spaces. This certainly has advantages. Through inter- The planned CD-ROM version will still go further.3 # p 11 Digital furniture construction from: form 149 The sample books become digital. The terminals are connected on-line with the factory and the delivery is due only a few days later. choosing from a multitude of components. The enormous amount of text (directly taken from the book version) has not yet been visually adapted and reading from the monitor is quite exhausting. The linear nature of the book is broken.all this can be activated by a mouse click. Proposed are construction plans. names and terms . whose destination can only be reached through intensive personal experiences. CNC-router programs for production or Quick-Time video clips(digitized video sequences) to explain the machines that were used for a particular process. . explanations. complementing picture material. already has several advantages compared to the printed book. The often questioned “added value“ of an electronic book as opposed to a printed book becomes obvious. even though the user surface of this version leaves a great deal to be desired. which has now been published in a Windows version. active media. an up to now unknown multitude of be presented to the interested customer. The disk version of the book “Digitaler Mˆbelbau“ (digital possible combinations (so-called hyper-links) can furniture construction). Japanese automobile companies have already put up interactive terminals in their “show-rooms“ where the customer can put together the car he desires.
the form of the legs results out of the cut. these are exceptions. intarsia. Experts agree. You can chose products sitting on The table Contorno from the program of the company Xenoform is made out of one board. card will be debited and all that is left to do is to fill up the peanut bowl and get beer from the refrigerator. from: form 149 Plans for interactive TV in the USA even go one your sofa and order via back channel. However. 450 reader desks are furnished with PCs which can be used for investigations even in libraries world-wide via a network and the World Wide Web (an information service of the Internet). A good example is the university library in Frankfurt/Main. the new “media-variety“ will look differently.3 # p 12 Digital furniture construction Virtual Worlds Not all of it is only for the future. can be produced without problems. On the server there are a multitude of silver discs which can be connected to from anywhere at any time. . Individual cutting is possible: various surfaces. Your credit step further. etc. In 1994 an “info-net“ was put into operation which permits direct access to a CD-ROM server.
If our ways change through and with the new media. which will be part of a global network and available any time and at any place. Via modem and the Internet it is possible to rummage or search for a specific subject. it will soon be possible for the individual to click into the net from anywhere. Authors. the much talked about “data super highway“ is not only technological. . Keeping these visions in mind. whose business is visualization and communication. publishers and distributors practice with these silver discs for the next generation of publications. Design. Not only investigation. the home office for example. And when there are no copyrights restrictions. then things simply call for new “forms“. At the moment production and reception change at a high speed. needs to face this challenge today. but foremost containing information. but also “lending“ will be organized differently soon. the present CDROM boom is certainly only a “transitional technology“.3 # p 13 Digital furniture construction New Alliances Consequently the “virtual companies“ will undoubtedly form an alliance with “virtual media“. The potential of new fields of activity is in the nonmaterial. the desired documents can be transferred to anybody’s PC. The library of congress in Washington. As far as design is concerned. from: form 149 With the increasing extension of ISDN-services. the software or the virtual and no longer in designing small chairs and tables plus their packaging. is already open 7 days a week 24 hours a day for everybody. So far only the outlines of the consequences of these new forms of technology become apparent. for example.
. whereas the 500 planned TV channels are senseless. the coherence of the work Bernhard E. one of the promoters of the new media and acceleration theories. designer and producer come closer together .3 # p 14 Digital furniture construction from: form 149 The media artist and theoretician Peter Weibel summed up current tendencies in art: The indiviis in the foreground. predicts: “The metadesign of customs and social behavior in the post industrial era will take over from the design of forms and objects in the industrial age. He teaches at the Offenbach Design School and runs the office “Vision & Form“ in Oberhausen.virtually of course. Bürdek is designer.“ dual work of art fades. Paul Virilio. Then the networks make sense. publicist and professor for design. What is most exciting about “digital furniture construction“ is the whole context: customer.
as is compatible with production. Here as well the furniture is cut out of flat board. .3 # p 15 Digital furniture construction from: form 149 Angular and round table by “Jahn Design“ in Stuttgart. put together and glued.
Suddenly this design classic appears in a new light.3 # p 16 Digital furniture construction from: form 149 Clamping of the mold and press fit are well-known construction principles.a homage to Max Bill by Jochen Gros . New to woodwork is the combination of these two principles .where the tenons press into each other and hold even without glue. The Ulm Stool . .
3 # p 17 Digital furniture construction from: form 149 What can be made out of a board: The side-table by Dirk Sch‰fer is being stabilized by a simple tenon and mortise joint. The design of the top shows: ornaments are possible again. .
B .it fits and is stable. When designed in this way the instruction becomes superfluous as things are brought back to life again. an ef fect which could be used very well particularly in furniture construction.3 # p 18 Digital furniture construction from: form 149 A gentle click when it engages gives the user the appropriate feedback .
you can come across a web-site of a company called “online. as the first Product-Publisher. This company self-confidently describes itself as a virtual company. The use of these data for the average net surfer seems questionable on first glance .3 # p1 “0nline. created with a CAD-program and modified for CNC-production. has a CNC-router in his basement? It logically follows that the sense of this virtual offer can rather be found in theoretical discussion.produkt“.produkt“ user interface called Product-Finder and an illustrated hyper-text glossary where all these new terms are being explained. . You will also find the model of an interactive chen Gros on the task of correlating existing models and thesis on design in the age of the data networks with practical experiences. 14 prospective product designers worked in the summer term ‘95 under Professor Jo- from: Form 151 With “online.who. the possibilities of the “virtual production“ Rummaging the Internet for design. are being tested. after all.produkt“ in the Internet. Working through the web-page it becomes clear: “online. Finally you can down load a dxf-file onto your own computer: Geometrical data of the famous Ulm stool.produkt“ is the planning game of a group of students at the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Offenbach (Offenbach Design School).
The concept of the production-compatible form comes into play again: However. a so-called Techno- . formulated by Jochen Gros (1). Turning this complex model real. the manufacturer or designer becomes a Product-Publisher. At the same time an interlaced CAD/CAM system enables you to develop a virtual product which only exists as a data product on the screen and which can be materialised at any place with the corresponding CAM-equipment. this argument from the times of the Werkbund now demands products which can be produced preferably in one go by CNC-machines. Malone (3).produkt“ from: Form 151 Factory. Davidow and Michael S. the retail trade mutates into Product-Galleries which exhibit samples and materials. The customer’s wish for individual products could be fulfilled at low costs. The hypothesis of future virtual production. seemed difficult Jochen Gros therefore suggested to his students to found a Product-Publisher. Product-Finders which offer orientation in a new multitude of possibilities. Its effect is a restriction on the freedom of design which needs to be counterbalanced by advantages. A number of advantages are evident: Transportation shifts from the real motorway to the data highway. The customer becomes co-producer or prosumer. It is based upon the following idea: Interlaced information systems turn product development into an interactive process between customer and producer. in practice. out of flat board for example.3 # p2 “0nline. Traditional factories become mainly suppliers of semifinished products and black box-like functional groups. is a condensate of his own works on the effects of information technology on design (2) and the book The Virtual Corporation by the American economists William H. This process is supported by multi-media programmes.
In order to make individualize it. The students invented a story of origin for every term in order to build a bridge from the future scenario back to a familiar situation in the present. The following method of working proved itself. the C -Lab for computer technology at the Offenbach 18 July 1995: From the good to the virtual form. The task of defining the context and filling terms with meaning established itself of being of equal importance to the actual work on the company concept.produkt“ A team of 14 students worked on putting a theoretical concept into action. “online.3 # p3 “0nline. CNC-production departments of the industry which became independent profit centres. Design College organised a conference on 17 and . Therefore the first virtual product of the company program was the beforementioned Ulm Stool. or even subcultural neighbourhood workshops.produkt“ offered the conference from: Form 151 In order to offer a platform for this experiment.produkt“ with text and illustrations at an exhibition. They now aimed at being able to demonstrate as many elements as possible in a working state for the time of the conference. The outcome was the presentation of “online. Thus several possible origins of the technofactory emerged: a craft company which added a CNC-machine to its machinery.
produkt“ which was turned into a Product-Gallery equipped with stool. The Stuttgart furnishings store Magazin cleared some space for “online.3 # p4 “0nline. sketches by (c) Stefan Leowald The interior fitting company Harich from Albstadt in Swabia. To speculate on the possibilities of the Internet is one thing . put itself at their disposal figuring as a decentral production unit with roots in the craft trade.produkt“ Design School in the field of CNC wood working.it thus became a multifunctional piece of furniture. Some illusions of speed and interactive multi-media from: Form 151 guests to change size and proportion of the design . internet-terminal and notice boards. from plant pillar to garden bench.a manufacturer of CNC-routers who gave live demonstrations of its machines at the conference . an experienced partner of the Offenbach . The Wissner company .to use it another.took on the role of the Techno-Factory.
However.produkt“ confirm this statement by Jochen Gros.the experiences made with “online. 119-III-1987 3. Jochen Gros. student of vi- 1.3 # p5 “0nline. “Virtuelle Alternativen?“ in: Dagmar Steffen (Hg. Jochen Gros. “Welche Dinge braucht der Mensch?“ Giessen: Anabas-Verlag 1995 one thing crystallised: The electronic media crea- sual communication at the Offenbach Design School. New York 1992 B .). which he created on the graphics tablet. 118-II1987. (3) in: form 117-I-1987. Davidow und Micheal S. the need for explanation of the model and the lack of evidence show: There is not only a lack of products which are compatible with the model. for example. “High-Tech-Avantgarde“ (1). but there are also other open questions: Where. the virtual production can already work . ted even at the college a new basis for interdisciplinary co-operation as can be demonstrated with the illustrations by Stefan Leowald. However.produkt“ from: Form 151 Technically. The Virtual Corporation William H. (2). 2. are the markets for virtual products? What exactly are the advantages for the customer and what price will he be prepared to pay for them? What exactly means individualisation and how will product identities be created in the future? The students of the coming terms at the Offenbach Design Schoolwill not run out of seminar themes for quite some time. possibilities have been dispersed by collapsing te- Literature: lephone lines and crashing www-servers. Malone Harper Collins.
3 # p1 Companiesvirtual?! from: dds 9/95 Product design in the digital age The project group “online. also in the craft trade.produkt“ at the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Offenbach (Offenbach Design School) proved that again and again universities give vital impulses for future developments.the future of the cabinet maker’s craft? . Flexible computer data as the basis for furniture design according to the customers’ wishes .
that means via data networks. Their central point was a simulated founding of a virtual company.-Lab on 13 and 14 July 1995.Product-Publisher for digital Furniture“. ..3 # p2 Companiesvirtual?! They presented completely new types of technical and logistical possibilities. The designers asked themselves how the outlook on the new computer-integrated or so-called virtual production might look in detail. a company that only existed in the data network. The transfer of products and services takes place in the form of data. without geographical reference.produkt . How will it change the design process? Who will produce the design projects? And what influence will all of it have on the form? In the course of the seminar various possibilities of future developments were sketched using theoretical models and scenarios. The group which calls itself “online. from: dds 9/95 In the course of a seminar during the summer term ‘95. which will be available in the future to companies and customers via CNCtechnology and data networks. The virtual company publishes and sells digital furniture and communicates exclusively on-line. introduced itself to the public in the halls of the university during the conference C. 15 designer and design students initiated the project “Virtual Company“ at the Offenbach Design School.
offers basic furniture types to its customers.the project by the Of fenbach students might perhaps be compared to the first flight to the moon.profunctions in a virtual company. .3 # p3 Companiesvirtual?! from: dds 9/95 The project group which called itself “online. not only helps select from the products of the publis- dukt“ elaborated the way everything flows and her. the Product-Finder. the so-called Product-Publisher. which could be a design studio. but also gives access to sample libraries and provides tools which allow to customize the basic Buying furniture via data highway and screen . A software. The Product-Publisher.
The product range can be called upon by any household connected to the network . via online dialogue and personal sales consulting in a Product-Gallery. The Product-Publisher offers technical advice on various levels: advice on the user interface. . This customer input can be used to optimize products and can even be deve- loped into a participation in the design process the customer becomes co-designer. Consequently sales can be worldwide.this group chose the Internet for its project.3 # p4 Companiesvirtual?! from: dds 9/95 furniture types to one’s needs and vary them according to one’s taste.
Foto: Erika Sulzer-Kleinemeier. that means they will offer products which are virtual. The idea of the project was therefore mainly to develop furniture types suitable for this kind of production. The production program for the products is already developed in the design studios. they could become real. . Offenbach Design School and initiator of the project group. The second problem is that there are not enough furniture designs which can be produced according to the developed flow chart. and there will be studios which will only deal with and sell information and programs. Gleisweiler e Virtual company. Is this already reality today? The infrastructure has not been expanded sufficiently for this development. That is to say there are not enough producers with the corresponding machines.e. what does it mean for the designer? There will be design studios which will develop into virtual companies. i.3 # p5 Companiesvirtual?! from: dds 9/95 Prof. Jochen Gros.
which could be on-line or via a disc. Techno-Factories which fulfill this standard will be added to a database which will help the customer to find the right partner for the materialization of the design which he has bought. The Techno-Factory is the link between the virtual the real world. software as well as hardware. a company which is able to produce one-off furniture with CNC-technology. the production process starts: The customer chooses a local Techno-Factory. The data transfer to the Techno-Factory also happens on-line or via disc. .3 # p6 Companiesvirtual?! A Techno-Factory could also be a specialized department of an industrial enterprise or a craftsman’s workshop that added CNC-machines to its machinery. This standard includes norms for quality. from: dds 9/95 According to the members of “online. There his individually customized design is materialized. where selected furniture variants are exhibited and where staff is available for personal sales consultation on the computer.produkt“ a Product-Gallery is a place. a furniture store for ex- ample. Therefore long and expensive travel of stock can be avoided. Only after the design is sold. Over a longer period of time a “technofactory“-standard will develop.
which is construction and realization of ideas.3 # p7 Companiesvirtual?! from: dds 9/95 Virtual company . Germany thus be able to concentrate on what he has learnt. Motivation. möbel + design.a horror vision for the cabinet maker? No. as it will be rather advantageous for the joiner in the future when he receives ready-made data by architects and designers and will Klaus Rebholz. Rust. to be prepared for the future as there is no need to fear the death of the joiner’s craft despite new technologies. to new developments and techniques. . master cabinet maker. The cabinet maker needs to be open to new ideas.
The Offenbach Design School and the furniture store Magazin in Stuttgart featured as Product-Galleries. which had been modified.Lab. At both venues interested people could get an insight into the variation of designs on a monitor.. as a basic design. demonstrated by students who took part in the project. The participants of the seminar had chosen the Ulm Stool. The Ulm Stool is a design classic which was produced with traditional jointing techniques. .3 # p8 Companiesvirtual?! from: dds 9/95 FROM VISION TO REALITY In order to avoid talking theoretically about all these visions and ideas. the project group presented an introductory action in which all visitors could participate on the occasion of the exhibition C..
fenbach or from Stuttgart to Harich company in Albstadt. and the cabinet maker’s workshop with the well-equipped machinery will only be called Techno-Factory. Maybe in the future we will buy furniture designs on-line from product publishers or go to product galleries to inspect the newest design variations.3 # p9 Companiesvirtual?! from: dds 9/95 Those customers who wanted their customized Ulm Stool materialized. the individual pieces are put together and the stool is ready. It is imaginable. the students in Offenbach can not tell either. could adapt the basic design on screen to their wishes and then send the data on-line to the Techno-Factories Wissner in Of- Where the development will go from here. The stool can be manufactured in one operation from board material with a CNC-router. B .
Conference in Offenbach from: dds 9/95
“From the good to the virtual form - product design in the digital age“ was the theme of an
event at the Hochschule für Gestaltung in OffenThe announcement of the conference displayed on the shop-windows of the venue, a former furniture store in Of fenbach.
bach (Offenbach Design School), which set new directions. The virtual form was at the center of the debate for two days. In order to avoid that the conference might lose itself in theoretical debates on a hypothetical digital future, the initiator, the C-Lab at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach, had the “CForum“ taking place in a former furniture store in the center of Offenbach. About 15 companies presented different kinds of computer-technologies in the “C-Workshop“. Here the visitor could get detailed and problem-related information on laser cutting, CNC-routers, CAD and visualization systems, data exchange in computer networks and various scanning methods. On the next floor the impact of the exhibited technologies on design was shown in an impressive exhibition, the “MöbelDigitale“ (Digital Furniture), of CNC-compatibly designed furniture and several presentations of student projects at the Offenbach Design School.
from: dds 9/95
A prerequisite for the virtual form is the computer technology, respectively the information or communication technology. At the beginning it was mainly used to rationalize existing processes. Today the linking-up of computer systems of different
About 15 companies presented dif ferent kinds of computer-technologies in the “C-Workshop“.
fields of work in a company or company computer networks with the outside via data highway, opens up new potentials for future products. Certain aspects of these so-called virtual products and their corresponding design in a virtual form are of great All participants agreed that the use of new technologies with the computer in a key role would bring along radical changes in future product generations. Numerous lectures by speakers from the most varied disciplines gave an insight or outlook on possible product strategies, their technological context in the areas of development, production and distribution as well as their design. importance: i.e. participation of the future product user in the design process and immediate and decentralized production. Even though these products are manufactured to suit a specific client, as opposed to those in industrial production, this does not mean that every product has its individual design. On the contrary, the variety produced is based on the generation of innumerable variations.
from: dds 9/95
Friedrich Sulzer, visiting professor for computer technologies at the Of fenbach Design School, gave the introductory lecture.
However, this idea seems to be problematical at the moment, as various contributions to the discussion have shown. Prof. Jochen Gros from the Offenbach Design School presented his ideas on how
The “MöbelDigitale“, an exhibition of CNC-compatible furniture, showed the influence of exhibited technologies on design.
virtual products might look in the future. With the help of his own furniture designs, which were also exhibited as prototypes in the “Möbel Digitale“, he showed possible design characteristics of the virtual form.
from: dds 9/95
With the redesign of the legendary Ulm Stool designed by Max Bill he demonstrated how CNC-compatible wood joints entail their own independent aesthetics. The varied program of the conference was well balanced by a successful mixture of lectures on individual aspects of computer technology, like Virtual Reality, virtual modeling, possibilities of CNC wood
Animated discussions on
what had been seen and heard took place in the “C-Café“.
Photos: Erika Sulzer-Kleinemeier, Gleisweiler dds was also represented with a stand in Of fenbach.
working, and reports from the practice of design, craft trade and industry. It was a program that offered exciting and interesting information for all participants.
“It´s not a trick“
from: dds 9/96
Traditional wood joints radiate magical fascination. Especially when they come from the Far East, from Japan. They are not only an expression of skillful craftsmanship that has been perfected over the course of centuries, but also inherent form-giving elements of traditional furniture and wooden buildings. However, efficient methods of production as well as increasing use of wood materials and semi-finished products during the last centuries have diminished the importance of traditional wood joints in the craft. Not nostalgia, but a look to the future should give its stamp to the student project “Japanese wood joints ... digital“. Prof. Jochen Gros, who was in charge of the project together with Friedrich Sulzer, has described this future as “electronic craft“. A
It`s not a trick
digital wood joints
Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon Loint with Stub Tenons.
Its model is the Japanese Mechigi-Koshikake-Kama-Tsugi.
craft that is characterised by the use of new technologies in the shape of CAD and CNC-routers.
“It´s not a trick“
from: dds 9/96
was to revive the technical and esthetic qualities of traditional wood joints in computer-aided manufacturing. And, quite incidentally, the use of CAD and the college’s own CNC-router should be learnt by way of a concrete project. But first came the analysis of traditional Japanese wood joints: the material used, the technical specifications, the manufacturing process - Harald Welzel, a master joiner “on the Japanese path“, was invited to give a demonstration - as well as their uses in furniture and wood construction. Japanese wood joints were also contrasted to comparative European counterparts. Special attention was given to the way traditional tools were used and the esthetic qualities thus achieved. Over centuries perfected abilities and tradition in the craft find their expression in esthetic harmony and perfection. According to Volker Klag of the project team, “the arising ornamental character of the wood joint is no end in itself, but fun-
The instructed target of this experimental study tivities of the C...Lab at the Offenbach Design School,
project, which was carried out as part of the acModel for the CNC-compatible Dovetailed Cross Halving is the Shi-Ho-Ari-Kuni-Te, the Japanese common halving with offset dovetails. The transfer from traditional craft to CNC-compatible Dovetailed Cross Halving expresses itself in the change from dovetail to CNC dovetail with its rounded corners.
CNC-compatible Dovetailed Cross Halving.
ctionally justified creation of adornment“.
“It´s not a trick“
from: dds 9/96
Symetrical Double Dovetail
Plain scarf with dovetail keys.
Joint. Its model is the Ni-MaiAri-Tsugi, the double dovetail plain scarf
Double dovetails, also called the butterfly joint is used to join boards.
Double Jigsaw Joint. Further development of the Symetrical Dovetail Joint. The contour of the jigsaw tenon is a line drawn on the graphics tablet which is directly and accurately cut into the wood.
Only the expert can guess the skill and dexterity of the craftsman hidden in the interior of the joint. The hidden variant follows the Japanese tradition with its obvious understatement. “master joiner on the Japanese path“ during his demonstration at the Of fenbach Design School . The cross tenon follo- ws up the idea of creating an interlocking joint that can be used for lengthenings as well as for corner joints.3 # p4 “It´s not a trick“ from: dds 9/96 Open and Hidden Cross Tenon. Harald Welzel.
The joint is easily taken apart by removing the wedge. Once acquainted with CAD and the CNC-router. . According to Ren Müller. it was not about “inventing the wood joints Tenon. the project team consisting of five students could start programming the wood joints.3 # p5 “It´s not a trick“ from: dds 9/96 One-sided CNC Dovetail As a second step. anew. saw and chisel were replaced by CAD as well as the CNC-router. but giving the existing a different form of expression“. the scribing of the wooden pieces moved to the computer screen and the joiner’s bench was swapped for the router table. Due to its form and power transmission the wedged dovetail tenon is characterized by a very high stability. Model for the One-sided CNC Dovetail Tenon was the Japanese “Shitage-kama“. the team needed to become familiar with the digital tools: Marking-gauge.
Thus the Fingertip Tenon Joint is born. These changes were acknowledged by adapting the original names of the wood joints. Fingertip Tenon Joint. Still. . the results were not simply a direct transformation of the wood joints into the new production technology: Esthetic changes were apparent.3 # p6 “It´s not a trick“ from: dds 9/96 For the first digital trial runs on screen and at the CNC-router we followed closely our traditional models. The sleek tenons demand for broader corner tenons at the ends which stop the joint from slipping through and thus guarantee a perfect fit.
A time which is able to combine the high tech future visions with qualities and traditions in the craft which have developed over the course of centuries. Friedrich Sulzer All illustrations: C.3 # p7 “It´s not a trick“ from: dds 9/96 The Double Dovetail Scarf.. . developed into the Double CNC-Dovetail Scarf with its rounded corners which are so typical for the CNC-router and in a further step into the Double Jigsaw Joint. The inspiration for the Fingertip Tenon Joint with Key was a Japanese decorative joint.Lab at the HfG Offenbach Fingertip Tenon Joint with Key. New wood joints which are an expression of their time were created.. a double plain scarf which rather reminds of a jigsaw piece and which can not be produced with traditional tools. The Double Jigsaw Joint as well as the other digital wood joints created in the course of the project do not simply represent the new production technology and the esthetic changes coming along with it.. the Japanese “Ryo-menari-tsugi“ for example. Once the tenons are intertwined. they are secured by a keyso that they will not come apart.
“Japanese Wood Joints“ with 4 interesting work situations.3 # p 8 “It´s not a trick“ from: dds 9/96 Illustrations of the Japanese models of the digital wood The German importer of Japanese tools. The video can be ordered at: Dick GmbH.Gegenüberstellung japanischer und europäischer Lösungen“(“wood joints .94523 Metten B . PO Box 1127. Rudolf Dick has published a video on joints are shown in Wolfram Graubners “Holzverbindungen .a comparison of Japanese and European solutions“) published by DVA. D .
More and more craft as well as industrial companies use the same computer-aided production technology. order handling. Computer visualization: Bruno A. computer visualization.3 # p1 Towards a new. . for example construction. digital era! from: BM 12/96 Today one particular development can already be seen clearly. these new concepts are as different to 20th century industrial businesses as the latter were to medieval craft workshops. The interplay of design and computertechnology According to economic experts. there are various approaches following up on the idea of decentralized production concepts. not only in the furniture industry. Added to this new production technology are computer-aided systems in other areas of the enterprise. Spider Shelf from the Nature Sampling series.. and also increasingly in the crafts. change is in the air. Based on linking computer and communication technology. Photo: Meiré & Meiré tion. Going further than the question of choice of locaDigital design permits the graphic visualization of ideas without necessarily including production technology. which at the moment is under heated discussion in the industrial sector. Design: Mike Meirè.
digital era! from: BM 12/96 accounting. The following examples show how “virtual“ production starts to change the product range of the furniture industry.3 # p2 Towards a new. Design: Friedrich Sulzer. marketing as well as internal and external communication. also called “virtual“ production. Manufacturer: Harich Individueller Innenausbau GmbH. A common feature is that in times of stagnating markets. Photo: Kai Loges Fotodesign . This virtual production is being made possible by the use of computer-aided systems for planning and production. ILinking up the individual systems with each other. as well as modern communication technology. customized production of the craft with industry’s technological advantages. furniture can be made according to the customers’ requests. furniture is increasingly produced once it has already been sold. The table was made in the course of the project “Furniture in C“. this new approach to production. The table “Spiralo“ with an evenly increasing spiral could not be produced manually. Just like craft companies work. reconciles the advantages of flexible. The advantage is that furniture is not being produced on stock.
3 # p3 Towards a new. Photo: Waiko its big future potential. it can be produced in any number at one of . it targets at the home office market with used in other programs. The core idea of the concept are desktops. digital era! from: BM 12/96 Digital Catalogue “ProDecor Programm“. Waiko Büromöbel-Vertriebs GmbH. Desk range “Invent your Of fice“. and may be combined with supports and accessories already “Invent your office“. Once the customized outline of the desktop is programmed. The only restriction to the outline of the desktops is two standard formats of the basic material. Hettich Beschläge GmbH & Co. Opening a new dimension to the organization of the office environment. whose outlines can be freely designed by the customer. A processing fee is added for each desktop. They can be produced with various materials and finishes. The price of those customized desktops is 25% higher than for standard tops. a concept by office furniture producer Waiko At the 1996 Orgatec fair in Cologne the office furniture producer Waiko presented for the first time their concept “Invent your office“.
At the core of the computer-aided system is a data bank. Delivery time of the customized desks ranges from 4 to 6 weeks.together with local showrooms connected directly to high-tech production centers. calculation as well as production can be stored in the data bank.as opposed to Waiko . The production program offers five different standard Customized furniture of the brand Op Top. kitchen.g. e.3 # p4 Towards a new. an open shelf or a revolving door). Apart from geometrical data of the furniture. digital era! from: BM 12/96 the CNC machining centers. computer-aided design tools are used right from the start.e. on the computer screen by the customer together with the sales consultant.Customized Furniture: at once!“ Producing customized furniture and installing it at the customer’s premises within 72 hours is the program of the Italian furniture maker “Op Top“. Photo: Op Top . all information relevant for construction. It features the outlines of various box furniture. Afterwards the data will be filed and the customer can place an additional order at any time. To achieve this ambitious goal. . which is furnished with traditional sales material as well as design aids.Models of the digital furniture can be assembled and changed in dimension and function (i. “Op Top . Sales advise is offered with every specific trade. which can be specified.
If the client decides on “his“ furniture. the furniture industry invades a terrain which has been the domain of the craft. Due to this high technology content combined with the concept of decentralized production. Industry delivered serial furniture which was only available in certain dimensions and materials at an affordable price. . With the help of the computer-aided design system the customized furniture can be visualized on the computer screen at any moment and its price be calculated. The job distribution between industry and craft seemed clear-cut for a long time. What effects have concepts like customized industrial production on the craft? By replacing serial with individual furniture production. the estimated technology content is 80%. digital era! from: BM 12/96 the immediate manufacture of customized furniture is made possible. which also can be used as a material mix. According to Op Top. due to the industry’s inflexible production structure. And all this at a price which is 20 to 30 percent below the price of comparable furniture out of industrial production. it is sufficient to start the computer-controlled production by pressing a single button on the keyboard. Italy alone has planned 50 to 100 Op Top centers for the next five years. Even though at first sight the customized furniture of the Op Top brand hardly distinguishes itself from those of the competition.3 # p5 Towards a new. which is to produce customized furniture within 72 hours. materials. it was developed from scratch in order to meet the marketing scheme. The strength of the craft was furniture made to measure. This also enables to optimize the computer-controlled production process.
The table “Stand By“ was developed in the course of the project “Furniture out of a board“ by the C. The industry has also seen signals of the time and the market. that a customer would come to the furniture maker with a catalog in hand.. This change of strategy is being supported by the progress made in computer and communication technology.Lab at the Offenbach Design Academy The days seem to be numbered.. ordering the illustrated furniture in a different size or material or finish.3 # p6 Towards a new. particularly in the lucrative market segment of refined furniture. digital era! from: BM 12/96 Side Table “Stand By“ by Dirk Schäfer gets stability from simple slot together joints. Introducing concepts of customized production. .
with a vision going past the every day routine. The Internet. i. This is mainly due to a lack of financial resources and lack of cooperation within small and medium-sized craft firms.e. In the craft today computer-aided tools are mainly used to rationalize existing work processes. meaning data banks of suppliers. digital era! from: BM 12/96 Even if computer-aided tools for planning and production are being introduced to the craft. the prototype of future information and communication systems. are almost unknown. as well as online services. producers of fittings. Photo: Jahn Design . Stuttgart. without making use of the potential of CAD systems. Slot together system table for two table variants. its chances in this new economic constellation are not the same to begin with. Only in few cases buying decisions are made with a view of setting a strategic course for the future. and the same tools as in the industry are being used.3 # p7 Towards a new. Design: Holger Jahn. CNC wood machining centers are usually operated by workshop oriented variation programming.
The precise slot joints are cut with a laser. San Francisco. these concepts also present opportunities and possibilities for the craft industry.3 # p8 Towards a new. The result is. are mostly unknown. Photo: 3D-Interieurs computer and communication technology can effect the way companies are run. digital era! from: BM 12/96 Since training courses were not necessary for previous generations of machines. Photo: Jahn Design . Manufacturer: 3DInterieurs. USA. Concepts like the “virtual company“. Most owners of small craft firms are rather busy with daily matters and therefore have no time to look into the future. However. Design: David Kawecki. on the condition that it jumps on the technological bandwagon and consequently uses the technology for its strategy and aims. which show how the interconnection of Small furniture out of the Puzzle series. only a fraction of the new tools’ potential is being used. most furniture makers think they can also get away without training the computer-aided tools.
3 # p9 Towards a new. sales consultancy. In the course of a one year research project the team presented “Furniture in C“ at the International Furniture Fair 1994 in Cologne.Lab at the Of fenbach Design Academy. “techno-factory“.. which was initiated by Prof.produkt“ was lanced at the C.. and production in a virtual company. Under the guidance of the designer Friedrich Sulzer the project pursued two main goals: to show the current state of computer-aided technology in furniture making and to analyze the design potentials of the new technology. Illustrations: C.. digital era! from: BM 12/96 Digital furniture design research The research project “New Technologies in Furniture Making“.Lab “Product finder“ The illustrations show the visions of the retail trade. Above the “furniture publisher“ . Arno Votteler at the Stuttgart Institute for Interior Design and Furniture Design in 1993. marks the beginning of digital furniture design research.. the project “online.
any size or shape. The aim of the seminar was to open new horizons to the participants concerning the practical use of the new technologies and to discuss connected problems and possibilities using practical examples. it carried out various projects. for example in Davidow and Malone’s book “The virtual corporation“ which appeared in 1992. digital era! from: BM 12/96 It also carried out the 11th “Weissenhof Seminar“ The team was influenced by statements on “the company of the 21st century“ made in economic literature... Since 1994 the C. any place. Taking furniture making as an example. They concentrate on the virtual product as the center piece of the foreseen economic revolution and on the benefits gained by the customer... Projects developing scenarios around virtual companies take turns with projects going into the design of virtual furniture or basic research on CNC-compatible wood joints.any time. The “virtual“ product’s most important characteristic is its availability .3 # p 10 Towards a new.. In 1994 Friedrich Sulzer changed to the Hochschu- le für Gestaltung Offenbach (Offenbach Design School) and with the foundation of the C. the research of the C..Lab has tried to find out how these theoretical approaches can be practically applied.Lab focuses on finding out the fundamentals of CNC-compatible design and the experimental development of virtual products. which was geared towards designers as well as participants from small and medium sized firms in the furniture industry.Lab the center of research activities moved to Offenbach. Based on the experience gained in Stuttgart and on Prof. . Jochen Gros’ work on “electronic craft“.
The team worked out completely new technical and logistical possibilities of organization which will open to companies as well as customers in the near future by means of computer-aided design tools. digital era! from: BM 12/96 “Online product“ Scenarios within the Virtual Company With increasing “virtual production“ as well as sales of products via the data highway.3 # p 11 Towards a new. This “digital“ furniture can be sold via the Internet and thus ordered anywhere in the world. the data file of the furniture will be transmitted to the nearest “techno-factory“ where it will be immediately produced on CNC machines. . product“ discussed changes for producer. Central to the project was the simulation of a “virtual company“. trade and customer. the project “online. Once the customer has made up his furniture as a co-designer. but digital data files. a “product publisher“ for furniture. but also to vary or modify it according to his needs and wishes. As opposed to traditional furniture companies the “product publisher“ does not produce any furniture. A special software called “product finder“ helps the customer not only to select a desired furniture from an immense offer by a “product publisher“. computer-integrated production and worldwide communication through data networks. Those “techno-factories“ might develop from existing craft firms with CNC production machines and an access to the data highway.
like the side table “Stand By“ by Dirk Schaefer. . and of course also many questions concerning the technology as well as the design. digital era! from: BM 12/96 Furniture for the “Virtual“ production While the project “online. Pursuing thoughts that the concept of furniture to be sold world wide in form of digital data files can be produced everywhere using CNC machines. As a result from the projects came interesting furniture designs.. has consequences on the choice of material as well as the design of the furniture.produkt“ mainly discussed models of new organizational forms . Design: Prof.other projects developped so-called “virtual furniture“.Labor trade and on a CNC-machining center. Jochen Gros..where the tenons press into each other and hold without glue. completely without fittings or connectors.. The projects “Furniture out of flat boards“ and “100% C.a homage to Max Bill by Jochen Gros .NC“ aimed at developing furniture that can be produced entirely from flat boards customary in The “Ulm Stool“ . Jochen Gros’ CNC-compatible “Ulm Stool“ .3 # p 12 Towards a new.the scenarios were exemplary demonstrated with the help of Prof. Photo: C..
. i.e... digital wood joints can look. the way they used to be made manually with saw and firmer chisel. concerns CNC-compatible wood joints.3 # p 13 Towards a new. In traditional furniture making vi- The project “Japanese wood joints. circular saw and dowelling machine in industrial furniture production. .Lab is done with the idea of having a computer-aided construction tool for CNC-compatible wood joints at the disposition of carpenters..digital“ shows how CNC-compatible. They were sacrificed during the dictatorship of board material. The continual development or invention of wood joints at the C. the traditional joints cannot simply be transferred to the CNC-router. sible joints had a functional but also a design aspect. for example. furniture makers or architects in the not so far off future. Today with the introduction of CAD and CNC-machines it is again possible to produce joints economically. This led to new types of wood joints under a functional as well as an esthetic aspect. However. Departing from the traditional Japanese models we tried in various steps to design CNC-compatible joints. digital era! from: BM 12/96 “Virtual“ furniture requires CNC-compatible joints One question.
digital“ at the C. the “Shi-hoari-kuni-te“.. digital era! from: BM 12/96 Design Research for Practice Means Dialogue! The Jigsaw Cross Halving was created in the course of the project “Japanese wood joints .. furniture and wood joints we worked on in projects are not supposed to be patent remedies or products ready to be put on the market. Common model of the joints is the Japanese common halving. Apart from presenting the projects to the public...Lab Working on publications as well as carrying out conferences and exhibitions are important activities of the C. but rather an inspiration for thought on the digital future. the purpose of these activities is to create a platform for inter-disciplinary exchange..Lab on top of the project work.3 # p 14 Towards a new. Photo: C. Computer visualisation: Friedrich Sulzer.. It is derived from the Dovetail Cross Halving... The scenarios. .Lab at the Of fenbach Design School.
.. digital era! from: BM 12/96 With the conference “From the good to the virtual form .product design in the digital age“ in 1995. A selection of furniture was shown that was chosen for its CNC-compatible design. i. a design that consequently uses the potentials of computer technology..Labor . CNC-compatible Double Jigsaw .based on the Japanese double dovetail Photos: C. the C.. Parallel to numerous lectures and forums in which experts of the most varied disciplines discussed the effects of the new technology on design.Lab continued the discussion of the theme which started with the “Weissenhof Seminar“ in Stuttgart.e.3 # p 15 Towards a new. the exhibition “Digital furniture“ took place in an The Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon Joint with Stub Tenons is modelled after the Japanese sickle tenon scarf with rabbet empty furniture store.
digital era! from: BM 12/96 The Open Cross Tenon Joint can be used as corner joint or as lengthening joint Computer visualisation of the “El Toro Chair“ by Lumcom GmbH. Sielmingen .3 # p 16 Towards a new.
3 # p 17 Towards a new. Manufacturer: Biesterfeld + Weiss GmbH. was especially designed for CNC-production The The “El-Toro chair“ consists out of few individual parts and distinguishes itself through clever details. digital era! from: BM 12/96 The “El-Toro Chair“ by Thomas Starczewski. Photos: B + W . Ulm.
digital era! from: BM 12/96 In November 1996 the series of events was continued with a conference on “Creativity & Technology“ which was organized by the North Rhine/Westphalia Wood and Syntetic Materials Professional Association in cooperation with the C. The form of the legs results directly from the contour of the tabletop.. Manufacturer: Marco Basso Innenausbau GmbH.Lab. The ef- The “Contorno table“ is made out of a single board.3 # p 18 Towards a new. The idee to the table was developed during the 11th Weißenhof-Seminar in Stuttgart fects of technology on the furniture craft was chosen as its special theme. . Design: Thom Geyer.. Computer visulisation: Thom Geyer.
...Labor . Photo: C. The side board was developed in the course of the project “Furniture out of a Board“ by the C. Photo: C.3 # p 19 Towards a new.Lab at the Of fenbach Design School...Lab Detail of the hinge.. digital era! from: BM 12/96 Side Board by Claudio Möllinger.
technology and innovation management. due to the structure of most craft firms and to their notorious lack of resources. this is only possible through strategic alliances with partners from other fields. or from other trades. but most of all the initiative of individual firms. Friedrich Sulzer B . However. i. To the customer the “virtual“ organization appears to be a unity. it needs to find answers to the new flexibility of industrial furniture production. The model of the “virtual company“ presents itself. However. It consists of a flexible network in which each of the partners can contribute his core competencies.e. to implement such models it needs not only the commitment of specialist associations. At the center of the “virtual“ organization are efficient information and communication systems which are responsible for the distribution and coordination of the tasks to be performed in a decentralized way. Models like the “product publisher“ or the “techno factory“ can only give a taste of how such “virtual“ organizations in the craft might look like. but it does not need institutionalized functions like a central administration. publishers and research institutes.3 # p 20 Towards a new. digital era! from: BM 12/96 Strategic Alliances for the Future If the craft trade wants to keep its market position in furniture making in times of technological change. design. distribution. Every partner who works towards a common business goal keeps his organizational independence.
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dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers Busellato SpA Via Thiene 118 I . 49 I .: +49 8586 2033 oder 2053 Fax: +49 8586 5802 ä .: +39 345 64 111 Fax: +39 345 64 280 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: l http://busellato.it/cms Deutschland / Germany: CMS Deutschland GmbH Pufferholzweg 16 D .3 # p6 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries.it c CMS SpA Via Antonio Locatelli.94051 Hauzenberg Tel.cyberg.it Internet: l http://www.24019 Zogno (Bergamo) Tel.36013 Piovene Rocchette Tel: +39 445 650700 Fax: +39 445 652400 E-Mail: bussellato@gpnet.
4515 Broardmoor Avenue S. Grand Rapids.72636 Frickenhausen Tel. USA Tel.Süd / Strasse 14 .org .E.: +49 7022 9462-0 Fax: +49 7022 9462-20 E-Mail: email@example.com Wiener Neudorf Tel.: +1 616 698 0171 Fax: +1 616 698 9263 e EiMa Maschinenbau GmbH Gutenbergstraße 11 D .M 24 A .: +43 2236 61642 Fax: +43 2236 61642305 Nordamerika / North America: CMS North America. Michigan 49508.3 # p7 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries. Inc. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers CMS # Österreich / Austria: CMS GmbH Industriezentrum NÖ .
: +39 445 381299 Fax: +39 445 369636 Deutschland / Germany: K+K Holzbearbeitungsmaschinen GmbH Daimlerstraße 4 D . dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers Emco Maier GmbH & Co Sudetenstraße 10 D . Illinois 61110. Delle Meccanica.83313 Siegsdorf Tel.36016 Thiene (VI) Tel.: +1 815 968 0961 Fax: +1 815 968 5559 Esseteam Srl. Carlson & Company P.3 # p8 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries. USA Tel.O.71546 Aspach Tel. 3 I .: +49 8662 6660 Fax: +49 8662 12168 Ekstrom.: +49 7191 200-93/94 Fax: +49 7191 200-95 . Box 1611 Rockford.
3 # p9 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries.de .: +39 445 365999 Fax: +39 445 679018 Eumacop e. Johann-Friedrich-Böttger-Straße 21 D .73728 Esslingen Tel.G.63322 Rödermark Tel. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers Essetre SpA.: +49 6074 89170 Fax: +49 6074 891717 f Festo Tooltechnik KG Ulmer Straße 48 D .festo. Via del Lavoro I .: +49 711 3107-1 Fax: +49 711 3107-608 Internet: l http://www.36016 Thiene (VI) Tel.
com . Mishima-Cho 430 Hamamatsu. 5120 Westinghouse Charlotte.: +81 53 441-3311 Fax: +81 53 442-1856 Zentraleuropa / Central Europe: Stenberg Maschinen AG Alte Steinhausgasse 5 CH . North Carolina 28273.holzher.3 # p 10 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries.holzher. JAPAN Tel. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers h Heian International Co.72622 Nürtingen Tel.: +49 7022 702-0 Fax: +49 7022 702-101 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org USA Holz-Her US. USA Tel.: +1 704 587 3400 Fax: +1 704 587 3412 E-mail: email@example.com Internet: l http://www.com Internet: l http://www.6330 Cham Tel. 1418.Ltd.: +41 741 6622 Fax: +41 741 5076 Holz-Her Reich Spezialmaschinen GmbH Plochinger Straße 65 D . Inc.
org/homag USA Holzma US Inc.: +65 4697681 Fax: +65 4672130 Österreich / Austria Homag Austria Vertriebs.: +1 704 861 8239 Fax: +1 704 867 4140 Asien / Asia Homag Asia Pte.com Internet: l http://www. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers Homag Maschinenbau AG Homagstraße 3-5 D .: +43 662 663284 Fax: +43 662 66328422 ä .vdma.e-mail. SINGAPORE Tel.3 # p 11 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries./ Division of Stiles Maschinery Inc. N. 28052.und Service GmbH Mayrwiesenstraße 25 A .5300 Hallwang bei Salzburg Tel. USA Tel. Ltd. Acacia Court Singapore 597626. 2 Pandan Valley #01-205. Tullp Drive 1200 Gastonia.: +49 7443 13-0 Fax: +49 7443 13-300 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Schopfloch Tel.C.
dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers Homag # Kanada / Canada Homag Canada Inc. Allée des Foulons .BP 135 Strasbourg Lingolsheim F . Viale Elvezia. Mac Adam Road CDN .: +33 388 771973 Fax: +33 388 771356 Italien / Italy Homag Italia S. 5580.3 # p 12 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries.Mississauga.A.A. Ontario L4Z 1P1 Tel.67833 Tanneries Cedex Tel.20052 Monza Tel.: +39 39 23621 Fax: +39 39 5049 ä . 35 I .: +1 905 8905055 Fax: +1 905 895266 Homag France S.p. 11.
: +7 95 9113402 oder/or +7 95 9113413 Fax: +7 95 9127462 Homatec Maschinenbau GmbH Beim Brückentor 1 D .: +49 5731 1790-0 Fax: +49 5731 1790-19 .3 # p 13 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries.32547 Bad Oeynhausen Tel. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers Homag # Rußland / Russia Hornberger Industrieanlagen GmbH Malye Kamenschikl 16 109172 Moskau.70839 Gerlingen Tel. Oberbecksener Straße 36 D . RUSSLAND Tel.: +49 7156 22073 Fax: +49 7156 26216 Hüllhorst GmbH & Co.
wood.: +41 41 983044 Fax: +41 41 983048 ä .3 # p 14 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers i IMA Maschinenfabriken Kleesmann GmbH Industriestraße 3 D .de USA IMA European Woodworking Machinery Co.6203 Sempach Station Tel.: +33 338 587380 Fax: +33 338 587381 Schweiz / Switzerland: IMA Wehrmann AG Eichwied 5 CH . Highway 56 East Franklinton NC 27525-0550 .ima.: +1 919 494-5197 Fax: +1 919 494-7788 E-Mail: ima@worldnet.USA Tel.: +49 5741 3310 Fax: +49 5741 4210 Internet: l http://www.32292 Lübbecke Tel.67230 Benfeld / Alsace Tel.net Frankreich / France: IMA France / Zone Artisanale des Nations 10. Rue de Suede F .att.
dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers IMA # Italien / Italy: IMA Italia srl Via Caduti di R. 11 Industrial Boulevard Sauk Rapids. 2 I .: +1 612 252 9887. Emilia. USA Tel. Minnesota 56379.40033 Casalecchio di Reno (BO) Tel.: +39 51 754854 Fax: +39 51 755776 k Komo Machine.komo.3 # p 15 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries. Inc. Tollfree US only: 800 643 5089 Fax: +1 612 656 2471 Internet: l http:// www.com .
825 Petaluma Blvd. 1201 Minters Chapel.: +49 931 2877816 Fax: +49 931 21074 .: +1 817 481 8289 Fax: +1 817 481 5934 Deutschland / Germany: Vogel Systemtechnik GmbH Hertzstraße 6 D . Texas 76051.: +1 707 762 7367 Tollfree US only: 800 553 5825 Fax: +1 707 762 0621 m Machine Automation Technologies.3 # p 16 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries. Petaluma. # 301 Grapevine. USA Tel.97076 Würzburg Tel. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers Kval Inc. California 94952. Bldg. USA Tel. Inc.
3 # p 17 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries.: +39 541 740348 Fax: +39 541 742192 .com Internet: l http://www.: +49 7308 813-275 Fax: +49 7308 813-170 E-Mail: makamayer@aol. Via Romania 18/20 I .89233 Neu-Ulm Tel.47037 Rimini (Forli) Tel.maka.de Masterwood SpA. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers MaKa Max Mayer Maschinenbau GmbH Flurstraße 34 D .
: +49 6464 370 Fax: +49 6464 5499 .com MMB Müller Maschinenbau GmbH Schelde-Lahn-Straße 208 D . dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers MBA Gesellschaft für Informationssysteme mbH Brotackerweg 1 D .: +49 7482 91138 Fax: +49 7482 7049 E-Mail: asschäfer@aol.35719 Angelburg Tel.3 # p 18 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries.72169 Horb-Betra Tel.
Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers
Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries, dealers and agents
Morbidelli SCM Group Autec Division SpA. - Morbidelli Via Fermo, 33 I - 61100 Pesaro Tel.: +39 721 4451 Fax: +39 721 22868 E-Mail: email@example.com Internet: l http://www.woodwork.it
Internationale Vertretungen siehe SCM-Group For international distribution see SCM-Group
Okoma Hemag Okoma GmbH Deutschland Viersenerstraße 3 D - 47929 Grefrath Tel.: +49 2151 912633 Fax: +49 2151 912634
Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers
Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries, dealers and agents
Hemag NV Belgie Hogeschuurstraat 2 B - 8850 Ardooie Tel.: +32 51 746251 Fax: +32 51 744571
C. R. Onsrud Inc. Highway 21 South P.O.Box 419 Troutman, North Carolina 28166-0419, USA Tel.: +1 704 528 0419 Fax: +1 704 528 6170 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: l http://www.cronsrud.com
Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers
Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries, dealers and agents
Pade sas di de Moliner Vinicio & C. Via Bologna 1/3 I - 22060 Cabiate (Como) Tel.: +39 31 766080 Fax: +39 31 768268
Niederlande + Deutschland Nord / The Netherlands + Northern Germany: Gerd Janssen Linksfortweg 54 NL - 5944 Be Arcen Tel.: +31 7747 31728 Fax: +31 7747 31993 Deutschland Süd + Österreich / Southern Germany + Austria: SÜMA GmbH Haupstraße 1E D - 77815 Bühl Tel.: +49 7223 9395-0 Fax: +49 7223 9395-15
Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers
Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries, dealers and agents
Protec Srl. V. della Meccanica S.N. I - 61100 Pesaro Tel.: +39 721 486651 Fax: +39 721 486650
Reichenbacher GmbH Maschinenfabrik Rosenauer Straße 32 D - 96487 Dörfles-Esbach Tel.: +49 9561 599-0 Fax: +49 9561 599-99 E-Mail: email@example.com Internet: l http://www.reichenbacher.de
Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers
Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries, dealers and agents
Routec SCM Group SpA Via Emilia, 77 I - 47037 Rimini Tel.: +39 541 700111 Fax: +39 541 700283 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: l http://www.woodwork.it
Internationale Vertretungen siehe SCM-Group For international distribution see SCM-Group
Rye Machinery Ltd. Lincoln Road GB - High Wycombe Bucks, HP12 3TR Tel.: +44 1494 441211 Fax: +44 1494 440345
Deutschland / Germany: Firma Willy Kammer Stöppacherstraße 15 D - 96253 Untersiemau-Scherneck Tel.: +49 9565 6390 Fax: +49 9565 7721
Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers
Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries, dealers and agents
SAOM Srl. Via V. Emanuele II, 137 I - 35020 Legnaro (Padova) Tel.: +39 49 640458 Fax: +39 49 644750
C.F. Scheer & Cie. GmbH + Co. Ludwigsburger Straße 13 D - 70435 Stuttgart Tel.: +49 711 8781-0 Fax: +49 711 8781-282
SCM Group SpA. Via Emilia, 71 I - 47037 Rimini Tel.: +39 541 700111 Fax: +39 541 700283 E-Mail: scm email@example.com Internet: l http://woodwork.it
Deutschland Süd / Southern Germany: SCM Deutschland In der Au 14 D - 72622 Nürtingen Tel.: +49 7022 34027 Fax: +49 7022 33657 ä
Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers
Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries, dealers and agents
# Novorex GmbH Sattlerstraße 7 D - 72622 Nürtingen Tel.: +49 7022 921515 Fax: +49 7022 921525 Deutschland Nord / Northern Germany: SCM Deutschland Lange Straße 44 D - 31848 Bad Münder Tel.: +49 5042 60600 Fax: +49 5042 60680 Novorex GmbH Büro Nord Alter Rehmer Weg 21 D - 32547 Bad Oeynhausen Tel.: +49 5731 213611 Fax: +49 5731 213619 ä
3 # p 26 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries.69310 Pierre Benite . 61 F .: +44 1159 770044 Fax: +44 1159 770946 ä . dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers SCM # Frankreich / France: SCM France 2/4/6 Rue Marius Chardon B.: +33 472 662323 Fax: +33 472 502590 Großbritannien / Great Britain SCM Great Britain Dabell Avenue Blenheim Industrial Estate Bulwell GB .Lyon Tel.P.NG6 8WA Nottingham Tel.
: +81 54 2544561 Fax: +81 54 2513078 ä . dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers SCM # Benelux SCM Benelux Antillenstraat 1 NL .1521 AT Wormerveer Tel.: +852 25102328 Fax: +852 25667439 Japan: SCM Marunaka Japan Inc.412-01 Shizuoka City Tel.3 # p 27 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries. 5171-1 Marikoshinden J .: +31 75 6282854 Fax: +31 75 6289001 Hong Kong SCM Hong Kong A 10001 Seaview Estate 2 Watson Road North Point .Hong Kong Tel.
: +65 5666455 Fax: +65 5621356 Spanien /Spain SCM Iberica Avenida Raguell 78-80 E .ERMS Building Singapore 2260 Tel.08190 Sant Cugat Del Valles.3 # p 28 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries. Barcelona Tel. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers SCM # Singapur /Singapore Autec Asia PTE Ltd.: +34 3 6755612 Fax: +34 3 6755660 ä . 9 Int. Business Park .
dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers SCM # USA SCMI 2475 Satellite Blvd.com Internet: l http://www.: +1 770-813 8818 Toll-Free (US only): 800 2921850 Fax: +1 770-813 8819 E-Mail: Autec@nav.USA Tel. Via R. Ruffilli. 1 I .it Internet: l http://www.it .com Sei SpA.: +39 35 4376016 Fax: +39 35 463943 E-Mail: sei-spa@sei-spa. Suite B Duluth GA 30136 .3 # p 29 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries.sei-spa.scmi-usa.24035 Curno (Bergamo) Tel.
p. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers Shoda Iron Works Co.: +1 214 337 8600 Fax: +1 214 330 5932 .3 # p 30 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries. 30 I . Inc. 4012 West Illinois Avenue Dallas. Ltd. Texas 75211. 116-6 Ohkaba-Cho Hamamatsu 435. USA Tel.: +81 53 464-1211 Fax: +81 53 464-1210 Sicar S. Japan Tel.: +39 59 643355 Fax: +39 59 690520 Standard Router. Via Lama.A.41012 Carpi (Modena) Tel.
Via Campazzi. Graet Britain Tel.71546 Aspach Tel.: +39 445 380972 Fax: +39 445 381942 Deutschland / Germany: K+K Holzbearbeitungsmaschinen GmbH Daimlerstrasse 4 D . Post Box 8 Durham DH1 1TN.: +49 7191 20093 Fax: +49 7191 20095 Thermwood Corporation P.r.: +44 191 383-2883 Fax: +44 191 383-2884 E-Mail: lock@hhf. Indiana 47523-0436.co.: +1 812 937 4476 Tollfree US only: 800 533 6901 Fax: +1 812 937 2956 E-Mail: dhildenb@psci. USA Tel.Box 436 Dale.uk ä . Unit 10a Belmont Industrial Estate.com Europa / Europe: Thermwood Europe Ltd.3 # p 31 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers t Tekteam s.O. 24 I .l.thermwood.36016 Thiene (VI) Tel.oclacon.net Internet: l http://www.
Austria.07950 Triebes / Thüringen Tel.: +49 36622 292-5 Fax: +49 36622 485 .: +43 1 59999-250 Fax: +43 1 59999-249 TriMa . Schwitzerland Thermwood Niederlassung Wien Mariahilferstrasse 123/3 A . Schweiz / Germany.Triebeser Maschinenbau GmbH Zeulenrodaer Straße 48 D .1060 Wien Tel. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers Thermwood # Deutschland.3 # p 32 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries. Österreich.
Massachusetts 01460.com Internet: l http://www.e-mail.wood.vdma.0 Fax: +49 5245 445 .Clarholz Tel.org/homag Internationale Vertretungen siehe Homag-AG For international distribution see Homag-AG .: +1 508 952 6430 Toolfree US only: 800 836 8983 Fax: +1 508 952 6036 Gustav Weeke Maschinenbau GmbH Brocker Straße 30-32 D .: +49 5245 445 . USA Tel.33442 Herzebrock. 2 Omega Way Littelton. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers v w Vinyl Technologies Inc.3 # p 33 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries.39 E-Mail: homms@dehomag.
USA Tel. dealers and agents CNC Manufacturers Wisconsin Automated Machinery Corp.Box 3008 (54903 3008) Oshkosh.3 # p 34 Hersteller von CNC-Holzbearbeitungszentren Producers of CNC-Routers Werksvertretungen und Händler Subsidiaries. Wisconsin 54903. 123 Jackson Street P.: +1 414 231 4100 Fax: +1 414 231 8166 B .O.
the product is developed according to the wishes and ideas of the customer and only once it is sold. The model of virtual production. To be consistent with this definition. Davidow and Michael S. B . it will be produced. Just like the steam engine became the symbol for the first industrial revolution. These radical changes also have consequences on corporations and the way they function.3 # p1 The Model of Virtual Production The rapid development of data processing at the end of this century has changed our society at a The key element of virtual production is a new kind of product: the virtual product. Malone describe the virtual product as a product that can be made available anywhere. the microprocessor is the driving force behind the dynamic changes of our days. at any time and in any shape or size. is a vision of how corporations will develop in the 21st century. as various economists propagate it.the customer as co-producer“ which was published in 1993. Computers with ever increasing power put their stamp on today’s life. breathtaking speed. the American economists William H. In their book “The virtual corporation .
It could therefore be defined as “neo-craft“ as well as “post-industrial“. The virtual production is more in line with the work pattern of the craft trade than with industrial production. as well as music CDs. As this unique pair of glasses does not yet exist. A certain numbre of products. The optician is supported by a computer system when advising the customer. This expert system aims at making suggestions about the shape of the glasses. following a dialog between optician and customer. the glasses are created on the screen. Based on a portrait of the customer that is taken with a digital camera. customized shoes by Custom Foot Inc. among others. the customer can get an idea on the screen as to whether this virtual pair of glasses suits him or not. adapted anywhere and at any time according to the wishes of the customer and then immediately produced on CNC-machines. The Japanese optician Paris Miki offers to customers in their worldwide branches the possibility of making glasses according to their wishes and ideas. books or magazines which are put together according to the customer’s wishes. in the USA. the customized jeans for women “Personal Pair“ offered by Levis Co. which are solely based on the details given by the customer.3 # p2 The Model of Virtual Production Further examples are. B .. even though it uses elements of computer-controlled manufacturing that originate in the industry. show that this is no utopia. which are already marketed. All these products have in common that their designs already exist as digital data files. which can be transferred via computer networks or the Internet.
Lab at the Hochschule für Gestaltung. by promoting independent firms and the ecological idea of decentralised production. This is certainly the case where furniture construction is concerned. is the fact that the various economic fields do not progress at the same speed. Even though the above mentioned examples are mainly employed by large corporations in order to broaden their product range. The virtual production can thus also be understood as “electronic craft trade“.. according to the expert Horst Gräber. Some fields.first as a vision. and then also as a guideline for basic studies. an attempt was made at transferring the general model of virtual production to the special conditions of furniture construction .. however.3 # p3 The Model of Virtual Production At the l C. design experiments and pilot projects like l NEWCRAFT. Offenbach. B . have not even begun to make use of the potentials of the new technology. the virtual production opens up opportunities to the craft trade by making their production of consumer goods competitive again. One problem of this new form of production. l Recommended literature on topics around the virtual corporation. to begin with.
The Quaterly Design Magazine 149.New technologies: e Forerunners of a new Aesthetics Bernhard E. Martin Krauter. dds . Lab .Lab l C. form . dds .Conference in Offenbach l Digital furniture construction .das magazin für möbel und ausbau 9/96 l Towards a new.digital wood joints Friedrich Sulzer.f Publications of the e ö Infothek 9 C..der deutsche schreiner und tischler 9/95 New tools could bring the craft trade out of the defensive Jochen Gros. 1-1995 l With “online. / Feb. form .der deutsche schreiner und tischler 9/95 l It`s not a trick ... Jan. Politische Ökologie. ‘97 l Help . digital era! The possibilities of the “virtual production“ are being tested.The Quaterly Design Magazine 151. BM 12/96 l CD-ROM as a sample book Product design in the digital age dds .produkt“ in the Internet. 3-1995 l Companies-virtual?! The interplay of design and computertechnology Friedrich Sulzer. Sonderheft 9. Bürdek..
f e ö Infothek 9 CAD/CAM e Producers e l CAD/CAM-Systems for wood processing l PC-based CAD/CAM-Systems l Help .
l Help .f e ö Infothek 9 reading l Virtual companies l Practical examples e further l Wood joints l CAD/CAM for wood processing Articles on this CD-ROM do not appear on the reading list.
which aesthetically favored a shift from pomp to unpretentious forms. At the same time the local production of customized consumer goods has been pushed back extensively. “Joy at one’s Work“. The craft trade then usually gets into the field of vision of the ecologists.3 # p1 CD-ROM as a sample book from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 The role of the craft trade defines itself today above all by contrasting itself to the industry. In the course of the Arts & Crafts Movement. Over one hundred years ago William Morris led the probably most well-known battle of retreat for the classical craftsman’s production. How can one develop this way of production more effectively than it has been done? How can one go beyond the mere attempt of reanimating the classical craft trade? Modern computer-technology and CNC-machines present new directions. New tools could bring the craft trade out of the defensive by Jochen Gros The decentralized one-off or small-series production is one of the essential goals of ecological politics. It is true that there had always been resistant movements in the craftsman’s or neo-craftsman’s trade. . Only the economic reality stood against it. he phrased many good arguments: “Beauty of the Products“. “Harmony with Nature“ and so on. but none could stand up against industrial productivity. The decline of the craft trade was not to be stopped in this way.
the “middle technologyî concept was given up. was welded together out of steel tubes just like at the locksmith’s and sold without any coat of lacquer. Nevertheless. Furniture. and copying up to certain degree an industrial recipe for success: the construction of jigs and fixtures. skew and individual. The so-called “new design“ of the 80’s developed in the direction of art. But the ecological cons- cience as well proved a buying motive only for some time in a limited setting and the “middle technology“ concept was formulated in theory. It was supposed to look more cool and bring the prices down. with the end of the alternative movement. and was therefore forced to accept a manual production. that mass production was hardly worthwhile. The designs were so shrill. the artistically inspired furniture craft still proved too expensive and in the end did not even correspond with the Zeitgeist any more. to give an example. The goal was a “new trade“ that comes to an arrangement with parts of the industrial production. In spite of that. using industrially created materials and semi-finished products. its realization got stuck at the very beginning. Jigs and fixtures and special product templates were used in order to make at least small series payable again. However. ecology and “middle technology“.3 # p2 CD-ROM as a sample book from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 In the 70’s the alternative craft trade nevertheless brought two new components into play. .
new formulas are needed upon which to base new hopes for the craft trade. However. but so are “new tools“. qualitatively new tools. to play this card it is essential to have a closer look at the characteristics of those new production tools. the industrial and the computer-controlled production? . Where actually lies the central difference between the craftsman’s. then the question is: What opportunities do new technologies open up for the craft trade or for a renewed decentralization of our production and life style? Will the computer-aided technology be the first step towards a more lasting way of production? The new digital or computer-aided production certainly starts to move the old balance or rather the current imbalance of craft trade and industry. And it looks like the craft trade gets a special joker. In the interplay of forces between various forms of production the cards are being shuffled again.3 # p3 CD-ROM as a sample book from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 New Tools This kind of experience causes skepticism. Political standards are conceivable. Therefore. If we consider only the second possibility.
raises.and can therefore be considered as typical for the craft . i. Other tools like the circular saw and the planer have been electrified and optimized. but on the construction with jigs and fixtures. but transformed into software.3 # p4 CD-ROM as a sample book from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 For years now a company called “Dick“ has increased its turnover with the tools of Japanese joiners and carpenters. Since Henry Ford they are the embodiment of industrial special tools and naturally make sense only with big series. only to a high degree independent of lot size. Today those tools look almost the way they did 1000 years ago. Surely they are not mechanically built and added to form assembly lines. When we put in a disc with special product data . When we talk of the production technology in the craft now as well as before. Assembly lines constitute only the logical sequence of the various devices. The productive advantages of the industry at any rate are on another level. bending devices and so on. water torch and raise) consists of universal devices again . is to combine in a completely new way the basic principles of craft trade and industry.the software offers the same advantage as industrial templates and devices. For every product a special utensil is built. contour templates. The main characteristic of computer controlled tools.in a way an electronic device or digital template . They are not based upon superior tools.e. While the hardware (for example CNC-router. we mean the decentralized one-off production with a universal tool.the hardware and software jointly work like an industrial special device. but those are only gradual improvements. .
that in a joiner’s and cabinet maker’s workshop there are now exactly the same computer-controlled machine tools as in a factory. No particular term has yet been named for this new production pattern. At first the new computer-controlled tools are only used within the old structures and nearly only to rationalize existing products.3 # p5 CD-ROM as a sample book from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 Equal Opportunities for Craft Trade and Industry Let us look at the development taking wood working as an example. it costs considerably more to newly furnish a joiner’s workshop with sawing machines and wide belt sanders) at their disposal. One needs to consciously remind oneself.000. and about 15% of the joiner’s and cabinet maker’s workshops in Germany have one computer controlled router (installation cost of at least DM 130. and it comes up to us stealthily today in the form of a technological revolution. an appeal already made by the ecologist Herbert Gruhl in 1975. It almost looks like “overcoming industrial production in the fastest possible way“. . By now the furniture industry produces 60-70% of its products with the new technology. Still it is already conside- red definitely to be “post-industrial“ and “neocraft“ (1).
(2) le of production surely also requires a new product style and finally a lifestyle that responds to both. the new styThe new craft trade gains equal opportunities at least concerning the production technology. the new production technology constitutes only a necessary but insufficient condition for the development and reformation of the Double Jigsaw Joint craftsman’s production. It is only the basis for a possible structural change. To be precise. Therefore. something the classical craft trade never had compared with the industry. structural changes announce themselves. Corresponding cues are for example “electronic craft trade“ or “techno-factory“. changes which will lead to a convergence of craft trade and industry. .3 # p6 CD-ROM as a sample book from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 As a matter of fact.
. But. but also as a precedent that shows that new forms of pro- Shouldered Dovetail Halving duction demand new product forms and vice versa. Since then this chair design is not only regarded as the prototype for production-compatible industrial design. This central design problem is maybe best shown in a review of the history of design. Let us simply take the example of the Thonet chairs. as it is well known. the industrialization of the furniture industry only started to really get going after Michael Thonet had developed a chair which broke off radically from the craftsman’s techniques and made deliberate use of the industrial construction of jigs and fixtures.3 # p7 CD-ROM as a sample book from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 The interaction between production style and product style are clear to the designer to start with. rustic cupboards and flowery ornaments with special devices. At the beginning of the industrialization companies tried to mass-produce Biedermeier tables.
Thonet chairs for example could never be and still can not be produced with decentralized one-off production. . the computer-controlled production also needs its production-compatible products. if we only tried to take our current product mix over to computer-controlled production. The project of local customized furniture production would have to fail. In the same way that industrial production could only develop with production-compatible industrial design.3 # p8 CD-ROM as a sample book from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 From the view-point of production-compatible decraftsman’s products nor the classics of industrial sign it becomes obvious why neither the classical design are suitable for the computer controlled Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon Joint with Stub Tenons technology.
e. i. if we succeed to produce such complex wood joints in payable one-off production with CNC-technology. Only then can the advantages of the new tool be fully used. Embracing 100% CNC-production is decisive for the structural change.3 # p9 CD-ROM as a sample book The C. Therefore. The goal is a CD-ROM which allows for example to input board measurements whereupon it automatically calculates the corresponding routing program. then changes in the measurements become difficult. the products must be exclusively produced with CNC-technology. a serially produced injection mold piece. If a furniture still contains industrial parts.Lab at the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Offenbach (Offenbach Design School) was founded in 1994 and currently tries to develop programs for the practical use of CNC-technology.. if not impossible. .. (3) However. there should be basically no problem with most other joints. These highly developed joining elements have been manufactured in nearly the same form and with the same tools for a thousand years. from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 What is CNC-technology capable of? The classic Japanese wood joints are for several reasons a suitable touchstone for the thesis that the computer-controlled machines are a new tool. Until today these joints cannot be industrially produced. The entire industrial progress could not produce a better tool. We can not tell yet though which products can actually be designed under these conditions and whether the customer gets used to their form. The decentralized production does not make sense.
The shelf is stable even without a back due to an inclined track of holes in the floor shelves.3 # p 10 CD-ROM as a sample book A joint project of the C. The customer who orders a customized piece of furniture in the showroom will get it within 72 hours . It consists of a “showroom“ in the city center and a production site on the outskirts equipped with CNC-controlled machines.allegedly 20% cheaper than comparable industrial furniture. The construction is based on tenons joints that penetrate each other. stools. . To start with ten prototypes of tables. Tenon-Shelf System. the Technology Center for the Wood Manufacturing Industry in Lemgo and the North Rhine/Westphalia Wood and Synthetic Materials Professional Association has been started to explore this possibility. This company has developed a franchising model for the decentralized furniture production based on its own design catalogue. shelves and beds are supposed to be developed.Lab. from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 Virtual products out of the computer: The Italian furniture brand “Op Top“ has already gone further.. This seems credible even when the higher costs of customized one-off production are taken into account..
The customized craft trade can therefore produce more expensively and sell more cheaply and still have lower retail prices. if they are only equipped with the same tools as the joinery around the corner? . Trying to develop a straight slot together system was in the foreground. caused by storage costs. an industrial mass production of decentralized “craftsman’s workshops“ and furniture stores. transport and trade margins. model has proved itself in Milan. Now that the “Op Top“ And why a special showroom when there are enough furniture stores next door who will soon get into the same difficulties travel agents and book shops are in. If you want.3 # p 11 CD-ROM as a sample book from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 The retail price of industrial furniture. What is left is the biggest advantage of “Op Top“: Their own design collection. No individual joiner can afford this. not salable end-of-line items. not even when he cooperates with a furniture store. it is supposed to be realized in 50 Italian cities and the exported all across Europe. is generally about four times as much as the production costs. advertising. The Rib-Bed. But the example “Op Top“ also raises questions: Why are new production centers for the decentralized furniture production necessary.
After the first concrete steps. the more the structure of the crafts according to material will lose its foundation.3 # p 12 CD-ROM as a sample book New Prospects While the new tools open up a realistic chance to the craft trade of reviving the local customized furniture production. The difference will then probably only be comparable to McDonaldís and a restaurant. highly interesting possibilities are developing. As wood. metal and stone can be worked in a similar fashion with the CNC-technology. there will probably develop material-overlapping “techno-factories“ due to the new technologies. the furniture industry will also try to conquer this market. other scenarios appear: • The more clearly the computer-controlled universal tools are present. however. from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 For design studios. Supposing there are already a sufficient number of specialists who can develop CNC-compatible products and offer corresponding production programs in the Internet or on sample-CDs. Could not then any alliance of jcabinet maker and furniture store put together their own design collection from an “electronic sample book“? Would not the craft trade even have an advantage due to its historically grown and flexible structure? .
• While industrially produced parts would look like alien elements in the computer-controlled production. This prospect is called “new arts and crafts“.3 # p 13 CD-ROM as a sample book from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 • Sooner or later the awareness will develop. that a key term will become fashionable again during the transition from Greek Key Pattern Shelf: Both shelf sides are cut in one go. intarsia. . that the new tools not only make the one-off payable. But only “partly handcrafted“ due to costs. reliefs and so on. the craftsman’s form to industrial design in the context of the new tools. the ornament. but are also perfectly capable of producing individual engravings. Then it would not be accidental. classic arts and crafts could be combined with it without problems.
after all.Digitale Holz verbindungen (digital wood joints) in. the prospect of new qualities. dds . There is satisfaction.But at the same time there is the nostalgic feeling. Gießen 1995 3 Friedrich Sulzer: It’s not a trick . even when mourning for the old ones. Beyond the furniture trade the view onto a “new construction trade“ opens up. parts of the facade with the CNC-router and so forth. that many of its traditional qualities will get lost in the perspective of a new craft trade. Davidow and Michael S. editor Dagmar Steffen. inlay work in stone with the water torch. in: Welche Dinge braucht der Mensch (What things does man need). New York 1992 2 Jochen Gros: Virtuelle Alternativkultur (Virtual alternative culture). Harper Collins. it will be possible in the end to produce iron balcony gratings or garden gates with a computer-controlled laser beam. is not to be despised. Notes 1 William H. Mallone: The Virtual Corporation-Structuring and Revitalization the Corporation for the 21st Century. Anabas-Verlag. as the supporters of the craftsman’s production style and its ecological advantages can not be put down so easily with by pointing out their obsolete technology and lack of competitiveness. from: POe Sonderheft 9/97 • In the same way that the furniture production turns individual and decentralized.der deutsche schreiner und tischler. 9/96 B .3 # p 14 CD-ROM as a sample book The only comfort then is that those traditional qualities are already very rare today in the existing craft trade and that. Finally those prospects cannot and must not hide a basic ambivalence.
.Lab at the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Offenbach on the basis of the l model tual production has been transferred to the field of of virtual production. The vision of virtual furniture construction rests upon four pillars: l Virtual Design l Product Publisher Virtual Design Product Publisher Techno-factory Product Gallery l Techno-Factory l Product Gallery B ..3 # p1 The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction The vision of virtual furniture construction was de- veloped at the C. The economic model of virfurniture construction and adapted to its particularities in seminars and projects by professors and students.
or they do not make full use of its potential. in form of data files. as well as the program for the manufacturing process. B . These data files contain the product idea with its technical and aesthetic definition. While blueprints and models are the embodiment of the industrial design process.3 # p2 The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction • Virtual Design Industrial design impedes the post-industrial production. but also reflect a CNC-friendly aesthetic. it is still not suitable for the model of virtual production. as manufacturing data can not be transferred via the Internet in their entirety. etc. nor can variants be created by the simple use of parameter-controlled software. We therefore need a design that is adapted to the new production technology from the very start. Even if a design can be partly produced with the help of the new technology. the model making of a virtual design is already identical with its production. The virtual design needs not only to optimize the CNCcompatible manufacturing of the products. The virtual design results in virtual products. This is logical: Products that are designed for industrial manufacturing (or for manufacturing in workshops of the traditional craft trade) can either not be produced with the use of CNC-technology.
Virtual products will thus be published. B . While industrial design needs a manufacturer. There are many advantages to a collective body with quality control: the product publisher. this entails considerable problems: How to find the product in the cyber space. and what happens when a design does not work.3 # p3 The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction • Product Publisher Theoretically. every designer could market his designs via his personal homepage. like printed or other media. which means that the manufacturer simply wastes his material. the virtual design turns to a product publisher. This has not been customary for design .unless we care to remember the role of the sample books for the production of the craft trade of the 18th century. However.
B . virtual furniture into real pieces of furniture with the help of computer-controlled technology.3 # p4 The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction • Techno-Factory It is easy to imagine firms that materialise the “virtual product“. Techno-factories are medium-sized companies that use the latest technology. for example. but have a work pattern that is similar to the traditional craft trade. that transform.
to start with.in the end. furniture made out of wood.at the price of comparable industrial products. these cabinet-maker’s and joiner’s workshops could download virtual designs from the Internet and manufacture a customized product to order . e.3 # p5 The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction These techno-factories can develop from existing The prospects for techno-factories are even much broader. B . the virtual design needs to approach by concentrating on. mastery of CAD/CAM-technology will be in the foreground. In principle. the electronic craft trade could thus store more products on their hard disk than IKEA in their shelves. In the future. The circumstances in this field are particularly favorable as many cabinet-maker’s and joiner’s workshops are already equipped with CNC-machining centres. and thus already form part of the “electronic craft trade“. As those firms mostly work one type of material. rather then working a certain material. The processing of various materials will again multiply the possibilities open to virtual design .g. business structures.
as the customer wants to touch and try out chairs. However. This is also the case for virtual furniture construction. etc. just like craftsmen did in the past.3 # p6 The Vision of Virtual Furniture Construction The product gallery will meet these requirements. but only partly so. tables and cupboards before purchasing them. • Product Gallery Strictly speaking. It looks more like a showroom than a furniture store. material samples. It could be situated in the city center and recommend suitable techno-factories to the customers. B . as the system of virtual production stipulates that products are only made to order. color charts. the exhibittion consist of product samples. The product gallery could also be part of a techno-factory. Purchasing decisions are not based on the exhibited products. It is not impossible. but on information about the designs that still need to be produced. that various forms of the electronic trade will get together in the end. settling in one street or in one part of town. and thus offer all the benefits that make buying directly from the manufacturer attractive. there is no need for the intermediate trade in the model for virtual production.
3 # s1 Holzverbindungen Woodjoints Further reading Mechanical Connections in Wood Structures American Society Of Civil Engineers. 1992 ISBN 3-7643-2647-6 (Basel) ISBN 0-8176-2647-6 (Boston) . Q. Stephenson Birkhäuser Verlag. Basel. Boston. 1995 ISBN 07-8440-1101 Fügen und Verbinden / joint and connection Werner Blaser Einführung von / Introduction by Charles von Büren Mit Essays von / Essays by Wolfgang Bessenich und / and Lucius Burckhardt Übersetzung / Translation into English by D. Berlin.
. Incorporated. D .94523 Metten Encyclopedia of Wood Joints Wolfgang Graubner The Taunton Press. Newtown 1992 ISBN 156158004X ..3 # s2 Holzverbindungen Woodjoints Further reading Joining Wood Techniques for Better Woodworking Nick Engler Rodale Press. Newtown 1985 ISBN 0-918804-25-6 in Germany to be ordered from Dick GmbH. Inc. 1992 ISBN 0-8759-6121-5 Fine Woodworking on Joinery Fine Woodworking Magazine The Taunton Press. Inc.
. 1995 ISBN 1558704086 . 1992 ISBN 1852234423 Good Wood Joints Albert Jackson.3 # s3 Holzverbindungen Woodjoints Further reading Holzverbindungen Gegenüberstellungen japanischer und europäischer Lösungen Wolfgang Graubner Deutsche Verlags . Stuttgart 1986 ISBN 3-421-02850-8 Wood Joints Stepbystep Techniques Anthony Hontoir Trafalgar Square Publishers. David Day F & W Publishing Inc.Anstalt GmbH.
94523 Metten Das Holz und seine Verbindungen Traditionelle Bautechniken in Europa und Japan Klaus Zwerger Birkhäuser Verlag. Berlin. 1997 ISBN 3-7643-5482-8 oder / or Wood and Wood Joints Building Traditions of Europe and Japan Klaus Zwerger Birkhäuser Verlag. Boston 1997 ISBN 0-8176-5483-6 The Art of Japanese Joinery Kiyosi Seike Weatherhill.3 # s4 Holzverbindungen Woodjoints Further reading Handbuch der Konstruktion: Möbel und Einbauschränke Wolfgang Nutsch Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt GmbH. Basel. Boston. Stuttgart 1971 14. New York 1977 ISBN 0-8348-1516-8 B . Berlin. D . Basel. Auflage 1994 ISBN 3-421-02275-5 in Germany to be ordered from Dick GmbH.
CAM in der Holzverarbeitung CAD .CAM in the woodworking industry Software-Parade Hg. Stuttgart 1997 to be ordered from l dds media service .CAM in der Holzverarbeitung CAD .3 # # p1 CAD .CAM in the woodworking industry Further reading CAD . dds .das magazin für möbel und ausbau Sonderdruck 1996/97 dds.
CAM in der Holzverarbeitung CAD .3 # p2 CAD . Stuttgart 1994 to be ordered from l dds media service . Fertigung DGfH Fachtagung 17. de Lucchi. Dresden Hg. Juni 1996. J. Sulzer und A.Anstalt GmbH. Institut für Innnenarchitektur und Möbeldesign Stuttgart Mit Beiträgen von H. Eigenverlag. Votteler Edition dds/ Deutsche Verlags . Gros. E. und 18. Management. F. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Holzforschung e.V. Dehlinger.CAM in the woodworking industry Further reading Industrielle Möbelfertigung Innovation. M. München 1996 Digitaler Möbelbau Chancen und Probleme moderner Technologien in der Holzverarbeitung Hg.
CAM in the woodworking industry Further reading Leitfaden CNC-Bearbeitungszentren im holz. Marutzky.H. Fraunhofer-Arbeitsgruppe für Holzforschung Braunschweig Eigenverlag.3 # p3 CAD . R.CAM in der Holzverarbeitung CAD .Klauditz. 25 Braunschweig 1991 . Technologie-Zentrum Holzwirtschaft GmbH.Institut. M. Dortmund Neue Technologien für die Möbelindustrie Ein europäisches Verbundprojekt Hg.Lemgo 1995 zu beziehen über den Fachverband Holz + Kunststoff NRW. Kessel Wilhelm . Eigenverlag. WKI-Bericht Nr.und kunststoffverarbeitenden Handwerk Reiner Janz Hg.
Holztechnisches Kolloquium Braunschweig. Essen 1991 ISBN 3-8027-8604-1 .3 # p4 CAD . numeri / craftsmen. TU Braunschweig Vulkan Verlag.CAM in der Holzverarbeitung CAD . models. Milano bottega virtuale / virtual workshop Felice Ragazzo stileindustria no. 1991 Hg. 6. modelli. E. 06/97 EditorialeDomus. numbers Felice Ragazzo stileindustria no. Milano Flexibel . 09/97 EditorialeDomus.CAM in the woodworking industry Further reading artigiani. umweltbewußt und produktiv Neue Produktionskonzepte für die Holzindustrie heute und morgen 8. 7. Westkämper Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Werkzeugmaschinen.
G. F. NC . Ulm Mit Beiträgen von A. B. W. 8.Innovation . Hoppe.V. Ulm 1995 CNC. Oktober 1995. Hahn. H. Ulm Mit Beiträgen von F.Holztechnik .. Grüner. H. Paderborn Hg. Sulzer. Kreidel. Bußmann Eigenverlag. F.Mai 1992. und 9.. U.Gesellschaft e. NC. Möller und J. Ulm 1992 B . Visser Eigenverlag. T.Gesellschaft e.CAM in der Holzverarbeitung CAD .Gesellschaft e. und 13.V.Wirtschaftlichkeit Fachtagung der NC. K. Kempkensteffen.3 # p5 CAD . M. Wiethase und W. Gehr.CAM in the woodworking industry Further reading CNC-Fräsen: Holz Fachtagung der NC-Gesellschaft 12. Kleemann.V. Laika. Richter. Windmann. Gütersloh Hg. R. Saueressig.
Seite / page 29 . Seite / page 134 Schuster bleib bei deinen Leisten Ein neues technisches Verfahren soll das Schuhmacherhandwerk wieder beleben Christine Ax in Sonderheft 9 . 07/97. Castelli Interni .Handwerk als Schlüssel für eine zukunftsfähige Wirtschaft Politische Ökologie.3 # s1 Praxisbeispiele Casestudies Further reading Transfer virtuosi / Virtuoso transfers Clino T. 15.Werkstatt für Nachhaltigkeit . Januar/ Februar 1997. Nº 471. Jahrgang.La Rivista Dell’Arredamento.
Seite / page 142 L’ebenista informatico / Computerized woodworking Daniela Falsitta Interni . 19.8.3 # s2 Praxisbeispiele Casestudies Further reading Sakko in Echtzeit Berliner Techniker haben einen elektronischen Maßschneider entwickelt Der Spiegel. Nº 471.1996 . 19.1996.9. Seite / page 130 Mit neuer Technik machen Arbeitnehmer Druck in der Textilbranche Gegen den Abwanderungstrend gründen entlassene Fachkräfte eigene Firma in Mönchengladbach Computer schafft Jobs Christine Kostrzewa Frankfurter Rundschau. 07/97.La Rivista Dell’Arredamento.
das magazin für möbel und ausbau 1/97. 23. datengestützte Produktionsmethode die Fabriken Isidor F. Seite / page 69 .1995 Seite / page 124 /125 Nach Mass? . 13.Bau und Möbelschreiner 8/97.Sofort! Die Revolution im Möbelbau aus Turin Friedrich Sulzer dds . Seite / page 22 Nur auf Bestellung In den USA revolutioniert eine neue. Stein Wirtschaftswoche Nr.3 # s3 Praxisbeispiele Casestudies Further reading Maßgeschneiderte Möbel .Sofort! Das OpTop-Projekt oder die Realisierung einer faszinierenden Idee Manfred Maier BM .3.
Seite / page 40 ff B .3 # s4 Praxisbeispiele Casestudies Further reading Massgeschneidert Ein Schreibtisch in nur 7 Minuten Friedrich Sulzer dds .das magazin für möbel und ausbau 9/97.
Arnold.3 # s1 Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte virtual corporation / virtual products Further reading Virtuelle Unternehmen: Begriffsbildung und -diskussion O. M.html Losgröße eins und virtuelle Produkte Computertechnik und neue Fertigungsweisen verändern Anforderungen und Möglichkeiten des Designs Bernhard E.1996. Bürdek in Blick durch die Wirtschaft der FAZ1. Arbeitsbericht Nr. 146 . Dr. Jahrgang 38 / Nr.de/wifa/oki/VU-Abs. Härtling Hg.uni-leipzig. 9 Leipzig 1995 oder / or online im Internet / online on the web: http://www. Dieter Ehrensberg Institut für WirtschaftsinformatikUniversität Leipzig Eigenverlag.8. Prof.
New York 1992 Reprint Edition. New York 1993 ISBN 3-593-34947-7 . Harperbusiness. Anderson. David. B. Malone aus dem Englischen von Hasso Rost Campus Verlag. 1996 ISBN 3-540-60263-1 Agile Product Development for Mass Customization M. Joseph Pine Irwin Professional Publishing. Frankfurt / Main. P.) Springer Verlag GmbH & Co KG Berlin. Davidow und Michael S. Heidelberg.3 # s2 Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte virtual corporation / virtual products Further reading Neue Organisationsformen im Unternehmen Ein Handbuch für das moderne Management Hans-Jörg Bullinger. 1993 ISBN 08-8730-6578 oder / or Das virtuelle Unternehmen Der Kunde als Co-Produzent William H. Malone Harper Collins. New York. Hans Jürgen Warnecke (Hg. 1996 ISBN 07-8631-1754 The Virtual Corporation Structuring and Revitalization the Corporation for the 21st Century William H. Davidow und Michael S.E.
3. anders leben .3 # s3 Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte virtual corporation / virtual products Further reading Anders arbeiten.andere Gesellschaft? Edgar Einemann in Verlagsbeilage „CeBIT’97“ der Frankfurter Rundschau. Dagmar Steffen Anabas-Verlag Günter Kämpf KG. Gießen 1995 ISBN 3-87038-275-9 .1997 Virtuelle Alternativen? Jochen Gros in: Welche Dinge braucht der Mensch? Hintergründe. Folgen und Perspektiven der heutigen Alltagskultur Hg. 13.
1. 1996 Online im Internet / online on the web: http://www-iwi. 24. gewinnt Verhängnisvolles Schielen auf den Erfolg von gestern Ulrich Klotz Teil 1 der Serie: „Lehren aus der Computerindustrie“ in Blick durch die Wirtschaft der FAZ. Hochschule St. Gallen.htlm Wer sich ändert.unisg.1995 .3 # s4 Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte virtual corporation / virtual products Further reading Virtuelle Organisation Informations.und kommunikationstechnische Infrastrukturen ermöglichen neue Formen der Zusammenarbeit Stefan Klein Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik.ch/iwipub/internet.
3 # s5 Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte virtual corporation / virtual products Further reading Abschied vom Dienstweg Die Arbeit in der Informationsgesellschaft Ulrich Klotz Teil 2 der Serie: „Lehren aus der Computerindustrie“ in Blick durch die Wirtschaft der FAZ.1995 Vom Massenmarkt zum virtuellen Produkt Ulrich Klotz Teil I der Serie „ZukunftsArbeit“ in Computer 1/96. Köln 1996 Vom Fließband zur Firma Morgana Ulrich Klotz Teil II der Serie „ZukunftsArbeit“ in Computer 2/96. 25. Bund Verlag. Bund Verlag.1. Köln 1996 .
Sander. Saarbrücken 1995 Being Digital The Road Map for the Survival on the Information Highway Nicholas Negroponte Hodder & Stoughton. München 1995 ISBN 3-570-12201-8 . Universität Saarbrücken Eigenverlag. J. Scheer Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik. Heft 120.-W. M. London 1995 ISBN 0 340 64525 3 oder / or Total Digital Die Welt zwischen 0 und 1 oder Die Zukunft der Kommunikation Nicholas Negroponte Aus dem Amerikanischen von Franca Fritz und Heinrich Koop C. Kocian. A. Bertelsmann Verlag GmbH. Nüttgens. F. Milius.3 # s6 Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte virtual corporation / virtual products Further reading Kooperationsmodelle für vernetzte KMU-Strukturen C.
Joseph Pine Harvard Business School Press. Wiesbaden 1996 ISBN 3-409-18929-7 . Gabler. New York 1996 ISBN 0-07-062200-0 oder / or Die digitale Revolution Verheißung einer vernetzten Welt die Folgen für Wirtschaft. Wien 1994 ISBN 3-901260-66-8 Digital Economy Promise and Peril in the age of networked intelligence Don Tapscott McGraw Hill. Management und Gesellschaft Don Tapscott Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Boston 1993 ISBN 08-7584-3727 oder / or Massgeschneiderte Massenfertigung Neue Dimensionen im Wettbewerb B. Th.3 # s7 Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte virtual corporation / virtual products Further reading Mass Customization The New Frontiers in Business Competition B. Joseph Pine aus dem Amerikanischen von Hannelore Fischer Wirschaftsverlag Carl Ueberreuther.
Williamson in: European Management Journal. P.3 # s8 Virtuelles Unternehmen / Virtuelle Produkte virtual corporation / virtual products Further reading Revolution der Unternehmenskultur Das Fraktale Unternehmen Hans Jürgen Warnecke Springer Verlag GmbH & Co KG Berlin. 11. New York 1993. Heidelberg. 1993 B . 2. Auflage ISBN 3-540-57196-5 Mass Customization: Japan’s New Frontier R. 38-45. 1 pp. Vol. Westbrook. No.
The maximum distance between the two contours is defined by the ratio of the tenon to the width of the frame. l to the data files . which is a joint solely designed to resist tension. lengthenings with dovetail tenons were used wherever frame woods need to be secured against longitudinal extension.p1 7 # name of file: T_004 Shouldered Dovetail Traditionally. the Shouldered Dovetail Joint also keeps the frame wood onto which the dovetail tenons are worked on from slipping through. The shoulder is generated by a parallel shift of the contour of the tenon. In contrast to the through dovetail tenon.
p2 7 # name of file: T_002 Shouldered Triple Dovetail While the Shouldered Dovetail is particularly suited for the lengthening of narrow framing timbers. The interplay between single and double tenons and top and undersides also adds interest to the joint from a design viewpoint. l to the data files . The two lateral tenons and the opposing tenon prevent the framing timbers from twisting and improve at the same time the absorption of the lateral forces. the here presented Shouldered Triple Dovetail with the lateral dovetail tenons has been primarily developed for broarder frames.
There are various versions of the Double Dovetail Joint possible. l to the data files . The reasons for this lie in the costly manual making and are thus no longer valid for the production on a CNC-router. Unlike the Symmetrical Double Dovetail. and are secured against perpendicular shift by the scarf.p3 7 # name of file: T_001 Double Dovetail The Double Dovetail Joint combines the advantages of the dovetail tenon with those of scarf joints. resist shearing stress due to the size of the fitting lateral surfaces. They resist longitudinal tensile forces. the Double Dovetail with both dovetails pointing in the same direction is very little used in traditional furniture and wood construction.
Dovetail scarfs fit in with the group of the scarf joints as well as with the group of the table joints.p4 7 # name of file: T_003 Triple Dovetail The Triple Dovetail is a variant of the Double Dovetail Joint and is particularly suited for the lengthening of wide framing timbers. On the top side of the closed joint only one big dovetail tenon is visible. l to the data files . on the underside there are two smaller ones. which can occasionally lead to misunderstandings. They prevent the framing timbers from twisting and strengthen the joint as they shorten the length of the flattened surface.
l to the data files .p5 7 # name of file: T_005 Symmetrical Double Dovetail Model for the Symmetrical Double Dovetail is the Japanese “Ryo-men-ari-tsugi“. which meant that a lot of time could be saved when joints were traditionally scribed. is not decisive any more. For symmetrical joints. Its widespread use in Japanese wood construction is due to its simple and efficient making. both parts are scribed and worked upon together. Joints that were formerly a lot more costly to make can now be manufactured just as efficiently as symmetrical joints. In the age of the CNC-router this advantage.
p6 7 # name of file: P_003 Double Jigsaw The Double Jigsaw is a further development of the Symmetrical Double Dovetail Joint. For example. the ability of the CNCrouter to cut so-called free shape contours. which being employed as a constructive detail becomes a design characteristic of the furniture piece. taking into account the possibilities that come along with CNCproduction. The condition being. The contours can be designed on a graphics tablet and revised in a CAD-system. that the contour can be processed with the chosen tool. l to the data files . The Double Jigsaw is a very decorative joint.
p7 7 # name of file: T_006 Plain Scarf with Dovetail Keys Loose connectors. like dovetail keys. l to the data files . As the loose connentor is only inlaid. the joint will show more or less. If the connectors are made out of wood. Depending on the choice of material for framing timbers and connectors. The loose connectors can take a multitude of shapes and be made out of different materials. or where it is not possible to loose length due to just dimensions. are used wherever joints need to be opened occasionally. the scarf needs to be supported in order to prevent it from slipping through. they should be made out of well dired hardwood.
While the simple hammer-head tenon is very susceptible to torsion.p8 7 # name of file: G_001 Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon Joint with Stub Tenons The gooseneck or hammer-head tenon is widely used in Japan for the executionof lengthenings with tensile resistance. The joint is characterised by the long tenon with a head at the end that is shaped like a reversed dovetail. the here presented gooseneck is very stable in this respect due to the two rabbets and the stub tenon. l to the data files . The Japanese “Mechigai-koshikake-kama-tsugi“ is the model for the Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon Joint with Stub Tenons. it is a very costly and difficult joint. From a production point of view.
l to the data files .p9 7 # name of file: G_003 Ginkgo Scarf with Stub Tenons The Ginkgo Scarf with Stub Tenons is a consistent further development of the Gooseneck Mortis and Tenon Joint with Stub Tenons. a new and very decorative lengthening joint was created. that through the use of CNC-routers. it is possible to give wood joints a new. Without changing the technical qualities. taking into account the possibilities opened up through CNC-production. The tenon in the shape of a Gingko leaf can not be produced with traditional tools. The here presented joint exemplarily shows. individual and so far unimagined shape while keeping their function.
10 – 2D l DXF.0 l Velum 2. lDXF.7 l Velum 4.10 – 2D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.0 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 ö Shouldered Triple Dovetail ö Double Dovetail T_002 l Iges 5 T_001 l Iges 5 ö Triple Dovetail T_003 l Iges 5 ö Symmetrical Double Dovetail T_005 l Iges 5 ä .0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l Velum 2. just press the name of the appropriate folder (e.10).0 l Velum 2.10 – 2D l DXF. Name of file: in folder: Name of the joint: ö Shouldered Dovetail T_004 l DXF.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l Velum 2.7 # p1 digital wood joints Survey FrameJ Joints Lengthenings To open a file of the kind you need.12 – 3D l DXF.7 l Velum 4.12 – 3D l DXF.7 l Velum 4.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.12 – 3D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D l DXF.12 – 3D l MicroStation l Minicad 7. g.7 l Velum 4.
10 – 2D l DXF.0 l Velum 2.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l Velum 2.7 # p2 digital wood joints Survey FrameJ Joints Lengthenings ö Double Jigsaw ö Plain Scarf with Dovetail Keys ö Gooseneck Mortise and Tenon Joint with Stub Tenons ö Ginkgo Scarf with Stub Tenons P_003 T_006 l DXF.7 l Velum 4.7 l Velum 4.0 l Iges 5 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 G_001 l Iges 5 G_003 l Iges 5 B .0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.12 – 3D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D l DXF.7 l Velum 4.7 l Velum 4.0 l Velum 2.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.10 – 2D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D l DXF.0 l Velum 2.12 – 3D l MicroStation l Minicad 7.
While traditional scarf joints are considered to be not very durable. The geometry of the asymmetrical dovetail is decisive for the tensile strength. However. it is exactly this asymmetry of the dovetail that frequently seems to render the use of this joint problematic from a design viewpoint. The halved dovetail corner is a corner joint that resists tensile forces. the technical qualities of CNC-compatible joinnts have been decidedly improved.p1 7 # name of file: T_009 Halved Dovetail Corner Scarf joints are next to tenon joints among the most frequently used joints in wood and furniture construction. Example of application l Upright furniture l to the data files .
. The dovetails of the dovetail key take on the tensile stress and the mortised tenon on the underside of the key guarantees the exactness of the angle. The thickness of the key should be at most half the thickness of the framing timbers. The joint does not have to be right-angled. the dovetail key. the corner key will show more or less. Example of application l C..Frame and Panel l to the data files . the framing timbers are joint with a shaped part.p2 7 # name of file: T_007 Dovetail Key Corner For the Dovetail Key Corner. acrylic glass or aluminium. Depending on the choice of material. this type of corner joint can be used for any angle. Suitable materials for the corner key are multiplex plywood.
even though they have been used extensively in Europe as well in Japan as the “Chi-giri-iri-o-dome-tsugi“. Like the traditional models. tenons or dowels that are suitable for machine processing. the Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key is held together by the dovetail key. The dovetail keys have been completely forgotten. The framing timbers are tightly wedged together.p3 7 # name of file: T_011 Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key Today. The dovetail key can be specially emphasised by the use of different woods or materials. Example of application l Side-Table l to the data files . frame corners are mostly joined with tongues.
Example of application l Frame-Shelf l to the data files . The geometry of the two opposing shaped tenons. From a technical viewpoint. whose lines run parallel either to the frame or to the mitre. Like the dovetail corner scarf. the traditional mitred frame joints count among the “weak“ wood joints. the Jigsaw Mitre Joint distinguishes itself through its good technical qualities. guarantees tensile strength and at the same time the harmony of the joint. however.p4 7 # name of file: P_001 Jigsaw Mitre Joint Corner joints with mitred framing timbers are considered to be particularly harmonious from a design viewpoint.
Example of application l C. the main direction of shrinkage of the wood must not correspond with the width of the framing timber. An open or a blind version can be chosen for the tenon. To avoid an opening of the joint.p5 7 # name of file: X_003 Halving with Elliptical Tenon. the correct choice of the framing timber is of vital importance for the quality of the joint. Like with all frame joints.. To avoid shearing of the tenon. can be added to a common halving to improve its tensile strength. A shaped tenon. its geometry needs to be chosen so that it uses the maximum fibre length possible.Frame and Panel l to the data files .. here in the shape of an ellipse.
or floral depending on to where it is applied. organic. Like for all frame joints. geometric. The hook at the cross bar also secures the joint against shifting sideways.p6 7 # name of file: P_005 Double Jigsaw-Hook Corner The Double Jigsaw-Hook Corner is a decorative corner joint with tensile strength. The jigsaw tenon can take on a multitude of shapes. it is important that the width of the framing timbers does not surpass 10 cm. l to the data files . The hook that is fitted to the cross bar needs to be equipped with sufficient projecting wood to enable it to withstand the tensile stress.
10 – 2D l DXF.0 l Velum 2.12 – 3D l MicroStation l Minicad 7.12 – 3D l DXF. just press the name of the appropriate folder (e.0 l Velum 2.0 l Velum 2.10 – 2D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF. g.10).7 l Velum 4.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.7 # p1 digital wood joints Survey FrameJ Joints Frame Corner Joints To open a file of the kind you need.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l Iges 5 ä .12 – 3D l DXF.7 l Velum 4.7 l Velum 4.0 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 3 l MBA_SIM Part 3 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 3 l MBA_SIM Part 3 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 ö Dovetail Key Corner T_007 l Iges 5 ö Mitre Joint with Dovetail Key T_011 l Iges 5 ö Jigsaw Mitre Joint P_001 l DXF.0 l Velum 2. Name of file: in folder: Name of the joint: ö Halved Dovetail Corner T_009 l DXF.7 l Velum 4. lDXF.
0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.12 – 3D l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l Velum 2.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.7 # p2 digital wood joints Survey FrameJ Joints Frame Corner Joints ö Halving with Elliptical Tenon ö Double Jigsaw-Hook Corner X_003 l DXF.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.0 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 P_005 l Iges 5 B .7 l Velum 4.
The Oval Shouldered Halving is not only a decorative joint. The oval shouldered surfaces. The increased fitting surface prevents a torsion of the two timbers.p1 7 # name of file: K_003 Oval Shouldered Halving Common halvings are used wherever two timbers are supposed to cross in one plane. are also a sign for a CNC-compatible joint. that can not be produced with traditional tools. They are let into each other so that the top and undersides are on one level. but also one that is very stable and with an exact fit when compared with the common halving. l to the data files .
or the cross halving with shouldered dovetails. The shouldered dovetails give the joint a decorative effect. For example the mitred cross halving. It was the model for the Dovetailed Cross Halving. which is very costly.p2 7 # name of file: K_001 Dovetailed Cross Halving Cross halvings are traditionally produced in a multitude of variants. the dovetailed cross halving can be produced on the CNC-router without any problems. as well as adding to its stability. l to the data files . As opposed to the traditional execution of the joint. the Japanese “Shiho-ari-kumi-te“. the tabled cross halving.
It exemplarily shows that. a multitude of variants can be developed which have each in its own right an individual design expression. a joint with good or not so good technical qualities is created. The jigsaw tenon of the cross halving points without any doubt to a manufacturing of the joint with a CNC-router. while keeping the construction principle.p3 7 # name of file: K_002 Jigsaw Cross Halving The Jigsaw Cross Halving has been developed from the Dovetailed Cross Halving. l to the data files . size and arrangement of the jigsaw tenon. as it can not be made with traditional tools. Depending on the shape.
the jigsaw key of the here presented joint becomes a decorative element. but also for lengthenings. multiplex plywood. for example. It joins the individual framing timbers and gives the joint a good resistance to tensile forces. Jigsaw keys can not only be used for cross halvings. and wherever a certain numbre of framing woods need to be joined in one point. T-shaped joints. like. As there is a lot of strain on the key. it should be made out of an appropriate material.p4 7 # name of file: K_004 Cross Mitre Joint with Jigsaw Key While connectors like tongues and dowels are normally hidden in the joint. l to the data files .
10 – 2D l DXF.10).0 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 K_001 l Iges 5 ö Jigsaw Cross Halving K_002 l DXF.7 l Velum 4.0 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 ö Cross Mitre Joint with Jigsaw Key K_004 l Iges 5 B .7 l Velum 4.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4.7 # p 1 digital wood joints Survey FrameJ Joints Cross Joints To open a file of the kind you need.0 l Velum 2.10 – 2D l DXF.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.10 – 2D l DXF.7 l Velum 4. lDXF.12 – 3D l DXF. Name of file: in folder: Name of the joint: ö Oval Shouldered Halving ö Dovetailed Cross Halving K_003 l DXF.12 – 3D l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7. just press the name of the appropriate folder (e. g.12 – 3D l DXF.0 l Velum 2.0 l Velum 2.10 – 2D l DXF.12 – 3D l MicroStation l Minicad 7.
The length of the scarf should not surpass half the width of the framing timber. The Japanese “Ari-kake“ is the model for the Shouldered Dovetail Halving. l to the data files . This is above all achieved by the shoulder which prevents the cross bar from twisting and relieves the load from the dovetail. and where a whole scarf would weaken them too much. It is a joint that resists strain in all directions.p1 7 # name of file: T_008 Shouldered Dovetail Halving Halved joints are used wherever cross bars are joined to framing timbers forming a T-shape.
demands which the framing woods themselves cannot fulfil. To prevent the cross bar from slipping through. or where there is not enough wood to execute a joint. acrylic glass or various hardwoods. For the Stop Lap with Jigsaw Key. the two framing woods are joined with a jigsaw-shaped key. l to the data files .p2 7 # name of file: P_004 Stop Lap with Jigsaw Key Keys are generally used where special demands are placed upon the connector. The key can be made out of multiplex plywood. An appropriate choice of material and colour enhances the decorative quality of the joint. the joint can also be made with a shoulder.
however. The Hooked Jigsaw Halving is a very decorative stop lap. A precondition is. a sufficient length of the surpassing wood of the table. The jigsaw table that juts out beyond the outer contour of the framing timber is responsible for the aesthetic quality of the joint. at the same time. but also against torsion and shearing of the cross bar. l to the data files . it restricts its use. The circular table secures the joint not only against tension. but.p3 7 # name of file: P_006 Hooked Jigsaw Halving Table cross joints make it possible to secure connected scarf joints against tension.
10 – 2D l DXF.10 – 2D l DXF.0 l Velum 2. lDXF.0 l Velum 2.12 – 3D l DXF.0 l Iges 5 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 l MBA_CAD Part 3 l MBA_SIM Part 3 l MBA_CAD Part 1 l MBA_SIM Part 1 l MBA_CAD Part 2 l MBA_SIM Part 2 P_004 l Iges 5 P_006 l Iges 5 B .10).10 – 2D l DXF. Name of file: in folder: Name of the joint: ö Shouldered Dovetail Halving ö Stop Lap with Jigsaw Key ö Hooked Jigsaw Halving T_008 l DXF.12 – 3D l MicroStation l Minicad 7.7 # p 1 digital wood joints Survey FrameJ Joints Stop Labs To open a file of the kind you need. just press the name of the appropriate folder (e.7 l Velum 4.12 – 3D l DXF.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.7 l Velum 4.0 l MicroStation l Minicad 7.0 l Velum 2.7 l Velum 4. g.
H ö Start l Wood Joints l Infothek l About this CD l Help HH l Examples H H lFrom the CAD data file to the router H l Data formats on this CD-ROM H H H D ß D H H D H D the Tutorial H H .
.C C ö Start 0 About this CD-ROM C C C l Tutorial l Set-up of this CD-ROM l List of Authors l Informations about the C .Lab l Informations about dds l Imprint l Infothek l Examples l Help C C l Wood Joints C ..
In addition to the functions and tools provided by the Acrobat Reader .they will be briefly described on the following pages .e. browse and print documents in the PDF format (Portable Document Format).com. With the Acrobat Reader the user can view. has been created for the CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“. definable hyperlinks. The Acrobat Reader Software runs on various operating systems and can be passed on free of charge by the producers of electronic documents or downloaded by the user from the Adobe Homepage l www. which in some cases also uses tools provided by the Acrobat Reader.Acrobat enable the producer of electronic documents to create their own navigational layer with so-called links. B . i. A specific navigational layer.0.adobe. one of the leading electronic publishing systems.p1 0 # Set-up of this CD-ROM The CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“ was created with Adobe Acrobat 3.
back one page 5. CD-ROM The most important functions of the Acrobat Reader 1. Hand Tool 2. 6. next link forward B . Zoom Tool 3. back to beginning 4. 8. back to previous view 8. forward to end 7. 4. 3. 7. forward one page 6. 2.p2 0 # Set-up of this 1. 5.
When the hand is passed over a link. a file or a Website. B . it changes to an index finger or an arrow. enabling the user to launch another page.p3 0 # Set-up of this CD-ROM The hand is probably the most important tool for browsing in an electronic document.
The user reaches a desired chapter via a series of linked overview pages.p4 0 # Set-up of this The navigational principles of the CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“ The content of the CD-ROM “Digital Wood Joints“ is organised in chapters and sub-chapters. From each chapter he can go back to an overview page or launch another chapter via a link in the text. When the user passes the hand over a link. it turns into an index finger. Links to other chapters. or to Websites which give access to up-to-date information from the Internet are marked with a preceding arrow. One mouse click is sufficient to activate the link. CD-ROM LLL B .
p5 0 # Set-up of this Within a chapter pages can be flipped forwards “back to overview“ CD-ROM and backwards with the scroll bar. B . The link on the end symbol of every chapter also gets you back to the next overview page. the user can Page end symbol get back to the next overview page any time via a link in the upper left corner. In addition the tool bar also provides the functions “back to beginning/forward to end“. you can return to the latter via the function “back to previous view“ in the tool bar. from which there is no link back to the previous page. the cursor keys up/down on the keyboard or with the functions “back one page/forward one page“ in the tool bar. which permit a jump to the beginning or the end of the chapter. From every single page of a chapter. If you reach a page.
p6 0 # Set-up of this Webjumps The Webjumps integrated in the texts and directories are links. like Netscape Communicator or Microsoft Internet Explorer on your computer and that you have access to the Internet through a modem or ISDN. In the Weblink PrefeWith a Webjump in a directory the Website of the corresponding supplier is launched CD-ROM rences. which launch Websites in the Internet. you can set up the interaction of Acrobat Reader with your Internet Browser. A precondition for executing a Webjump is that you have installed a Web Browser. B . which you find in the menu Preferences.
You will find the files of the “digital wood joints“ in the directory/folder 3D-Data. You can also open each file of the “digital wood joints“ directly out of your CAD-program. in which the digital wood joints are provided in the l various data formats. CD-ROM Opening a file out of the Acrobat Reader B . If a particular file can not be allocated to an application. a dialog box will open up and you will be asked to select an application to open the file. can be opened in the corresponding applications from the overview page that is annexed to the description of each wood joint. Again the precondition is that you have installed the corresponding applications on your computer.p7 0 # Set-up of this Opening of CAD-files out of the Acrobat Reader Apart from Webjumps the Acrobat Reader gives the user the option of opening files directly in other applications. which is the case of the neutral data exchange formats dxf and IGES. All files.
B .g. these demo-versions should enable you to test the various programs and thus get a first idea of the different spectra of performance of each application. dds has published CAD-courses for MiniCad and Vellum for cabinet-makers and joiners. They can be ordered from l dds media service. experts explain the various aspects of CAD. CAD/CAM or 3-D CAD. Further information on the two courses can be obtained from l dds-editorial staff. e. Thomas Hausberg. In case you do not dispose of a CAD-program. on the basis of the above mentioned CAD-programs.p8 0 # Set-up of this CD-ROM Demo-versions of CAD-programs The corresponding software companies put the demo-versions of the CAD-programs MicroStation. MiniCad and Vellum at your disposal. Mr. In these courses.
Bernhard E. ecology and new technologies. He currently focuses his work on “product language“. He was a member of the Des-In group. which he has since been directing. In 1994 he was co-founder of the C.. He studied mechanical engineering. product planning and interface-design at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach. Bürdek is professor for design-methodology. psychology and design and did freelance work for projects of the Siemens “Trendforschung“ (trend research). which developed alternative design and manufacturing concepts in the 70s.. He also works as a freelance designer and journalist. C C 0 # List of p1 authors C . Jochen Gros has been professor for design theory at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach since 1974.Lab at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach.
He had already started publishing articles during his studies. In 1994 he was appointed visiting professor at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach. From 1993 until 1994 he was in charge of the research project “New Technologies in Wood Processing“ at the Institute for Interior Design and Furniture Design at the Kunstakademie Stuttgart. where he has been lecturer for C-Technology since 1996.. In addition he works as freelance designer and journalist. C C 0 # List of p2 authors C B . for which he has been working since.Martin Krauter graduated as designer from the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach in 1996. Friedrich Sulzer is a master cabinet-maker and industrial designer with a diploma from the Ecole Nationale Superieure de Création / Les Ateliers in Paris. Since 1997 he has been working for Erco.Lab.. In 1994 he was co-founder of the C.
dva.Labor an der Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach Fachbereich Produktgestaltung Schloßstraße 31 D .70190 Stuttgart eMail: dds@dva..de .de l http://www..uni-frankfurt.63065 Offenbach am Main eMail: C-Labor@em.0 # p1 Imprint C C C C C C C C Editor C.de Edition dds Deutsche Verlagsanstalt Neckarstraße 121 D .
Thomas Hausberg.0 # # p2 C C C C C C C the Imprint Project idea Jochen Gros. Martin Kunz and Friedrich Sulzer Project manager CAD-Conversion Design concept Multimedia-Consulting Multimedia-Conversion Texts Translations Furniture selection Photos and illustrations Friedrich Sulzer Friedrich Sulzer l Kai Bergmann Lars Ohlerich Kai Bergmann and Jörg Mühle unless stated otherwise: Friedrich Sulzer Ilga Gröschel Jochen Gros and Friedrich Sulzer unless stated otherwise: C..Labor an der HfG Offenbach ..
D-57462 Olpe C ..and IGES MBA-CAD and -SIM MicroStation Minicad Vellum Editorial Staff Friedrich Sulzer MBA GmbH Friedrich Sulzer theta-group VSA Software GmbH Thomas Hausberg Jochen Gros Martin Kunz Gudrun Steinle-Sauer Friedrich Sulzer Sabina Heimerdinger General co-ordination Production Manufacturing Martin Kunz C .0 # # p3 C C C C C C the Imprint Compiling of the data files for the wood joints DXF..Labor an der HfG Offenbach B&B Datadesign GmbH.
0 # # p4 C C C C C the Imprint The digital wood joints presented on this CD-Rom are based on the results of the experimental study “Japanese Wood Joints . that are presented on this CD-Rom. nor the publishing house are liable for any possible damage due to mistakes and defects of the wood joints and their data. digital“ at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach in the winter term 1995/96 C Tutors Participants Jochen Gros and Friedrich Sulzer Alexander Bosnjak..Labor an der Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach and Edition dds / Deutsche Verlagsanstalt Stuttgart... swap and/or circumventing transactions only with the permission of the editor. All rights reserved. public presentation. René Müller and Rainer Strauss © 1998 C. Violations will be prosecuted. hire and rent. Neither the author. nor the editor. Volker Klag.. Copying. B .
70 F +49 69 70 79 45 .74 KAIBERGM@STUD. UNI-FRANKFURT.KAI BERGMANN SCHLOSSSTRASSE 63 60486 FRANKFURT/M l T +49 69 70 79 45 .DE .
.machining centers. tool changer and console table .a multitude of CNC-machines BIMA-machining center . The following text primarily deals with CNC-machining centers.3 NC-axes.for a complete processing of workpieces Photo IMA AG has been developed for the craft trades and industry. Air Force installed the first NC-milling machine in their workshops .ß # p1 CNC-maschines in wood processing In the course of the last forty years .S. The most common CNC-machines in the field of furniture construction and interior fitting are CNC. CNC-machines with more then 3 axes and CNC-panel saws.in 1957 the U.
we distinguish: CNC-training machine 3 NC-axes . • gantry machines with fixed or mobile bridges. saw and router units and allow to completely machine a workpiece on its topside and edges.ß # p2 CNC-maschines in CNC-machining centers have developed from CNCdrill centers and CNC-routers. while the machine table can be turned and swung due to additional axes. According to the construction of the machines. where the X. Y and Z-movements are executed by the tools. . and the Z-movements by the tools. They combine drill.put to use Photo MBA GmbH wood processing • moving table machines. • fixed table machines. where the X and Y-movements are executed by the machine table. At least 3 mobile NC-axes are standard today for CNCmachining centers.
The digital wood joints presented on this CD-ROM are developed in such a way. B . the range offered by manufacturers starts with simple training machines and CNC-machining centers for craftsmen’s workshops. For training purposes on the CNC-trainig machineFBZ 40/30 of the MBA GmbH. CNC-machining centers are primarily suited for processing flat workpieces.ß # p3 CNC-maschines in Tool changer and clamping devices are further components of CNC-machining centers. and ends with machines that take over routing and drilling operations in Schematic illustration of a 3 axe gantry CNC-machining center wood processing flexible production lines of the furniture industry. that they can be machined on all common CNC-machining centers without having to change the position of the workpiece. the digital wood joints are provided on this CD-ROM in the CAD-format. Depending on the use. which can be directly opened in the FBZ CAD/CAM software. Due to their 3 NC-axes and a limited Z-axis lift.
like DXF or IGES. CAD/CAM link-ups do very rarely function straight away. and instructions concerning material and manufacturing. they can be used to generate technical drawings with dimensioning. They require purposeful testing of the various adjustment options of the export and import filters in both programs.ß # p1 Data transfer Once the geometric data of a workpiece are created. They also form the basis for NC-programming. . The transfer of geometric data from a CAD-system to a CAM-program is usually accomplished with neutral data exchange formats. various things need to be considered already at the time the workpiece is generated in CAD. In order to successfully transfer the geometric data of the workpiece to a CAM-system.
or geometric leftovers that were not trimmed or deleted. B . also cause problems generating the NC-contour.ß # p2 Data transfer All geometric data need to be geometrically perfect. and hatchings are considered to be geometric elements by the CAM-system. Geometric parts that exist twice. and should therefore not be passed on in the first place. between a straight line and a circle. but also the generation of the NC-process in the CAM-program.g. Working consequently with different levels in the CAD-system not only facilitates the data transfer. Even the smallest deviation of transitions. means that the straight line is not accepted as a tangent. e. Lines used to help with constructing or dimensioning.
• corrective calls.1982 Even though modern CAM-systems and workshop orientated programming systems automatically generate NC-programs. revolutions per minute and feed. etc…). it is an advantage to have some basic knowledge of the structure of a NC-program. entry move. that define tools. change tools. like compensation of the contour cutter line or the cutter radius. and • calling up subprograms and cycles for work pro cesses that are always repetitive. • switchboard instructions. The following instructions can be distinguished: • geometric instructions.ß # p1 Structure of a NCprogram according to DIN 66025 / ISO 6983/1 . like spindle on/running direction right. or shifting of the workpiece origin. • motion instructions. so that hardly anybody still programs directly using machine code. • technological instructions. that define the type of movement (direction. that control the relative movements between workpiece and tool through space coordinates. . which the CNC-machine works one by one in order to process a workpiece. NC-programs consist of a series of instructions in address format. or clamp workpiece.
56 Z+0056.00 (Z-ACHSE SICHERN) ROHTEIL X+0000.00 V-0190. while the manufacturer can freely define others.05 N0100 G01 X+0052. the various NC-programs can not directly be run on CNC-machining centers of different manufacturers. that only one part of the available instructions is standardized.00 Y-0169.05 Z-0032. which are serially numbered.00 X+0245.00 N0090 G00 X+0052.00 Y+0000.00 U+0050. Beginning of the NC-program of the digital wood joint G_003 REFERENZ WERKZEUG H+0045.and the semantic meaning of the individual words according to DIN 66025.00 Y-0169.00 Y-0169. Numerical values that determine the position to be reached are entered in decimal notation.05 N0130 G01 X+0051.00 Y-0169.rules of a programming language according to DIN 66025. N0050 (B1 BOHRZYKLUS) N0060 G00 X+0053.00 Y-0169.72 Y+0099. page 2.50 N0080 G00 Z+0004. The content of the program consists of a multitude of so-called blocks.00 S+0008. page 1 .05 Z-0032.00 % (START) N0010 F800 (EINSCHALTZUSTAND) N0020 M03 (SPINDEL EIN) N0030 G90 (ABSOLUTE KOORDINATEN) N0040 G00 Z+0004. and which each consists of one or several words.00 Z+0000.00 according to DIN 66025 / ISO 6983/1 .00 N0120 G00 X+0051.00 W-0032.00 Y-0169.05 N0070 G01 X+0053.50 N0110 G00 Z+0004.ß # p2 Structure of a NC-program The structure of a NC-program is determined by the syntax .05 Z-0032.00 L+0035.00 B .1982 Even though the structure of NC-programs is standardized by DIN 66025. This is due to the fact.50 N0140 G00 Z+0004.00 T01 E+0008.
B . By means of a postprocessor. the choice of tools with rate of feed and spindle revolutions per minute. which needs to be adapted to each paticular machine. the fixing of the workpiece origin. geometric data are required as well as data concerning the production.ß # p 1 Completing the geometrical data with technological data In order to manufacture a workpiece on a CNC-machine. which can then be worked by the corresponding CNC-machine. the geometric and technological data are generated into a NC-program. instructions about tool changes. like the particular machine that has been selected. the definition of the machining operations. etc.
cupboard sides. Appropriate CAD databases can be used to directly access standard parts. so that it can be adapted for different uses with the input of parameters that change dimensions and form. we distinguish three different presentation models: . In principle. e.g.ß # p1 Generating the workpiece model in CAD Generating the workpiece geometry on a CAD-system is a prerequisite for processing a workpiece on a CNC-machine. or self-created repetitive elements. can be filed in the database as a program of variants. as well as with routines like drawing. like screws or fittings. dimensioning or inscribing. The CAD-program assists the designer with creating and modifying the workpiece. The description of the workpiece geometry inside the computer depends on the efficiency of the CAD-system. These repetitive elements. hatching.
Wire frame. which describes the two or three-dimensional workpiece only by means of its contours. 3D solid model of the wood joint G_001 2. like sphere. . it is possible to generate volumes with surfaces.ß # p2 Generating the workpiece 1. Complex objects are presented by combining individual solid parts. like lines and arcs. The surface model. cylinder. or torso. 3D wire frame of the wood joint G_001 model in CAD 3. This is the simplest computer presentation. The solid model. cuboid. The workpiece is described by individual surfaces that are not connected with each other. In addition. These complex objects are generated by means of Boolean functions.
ß # p3 Generating the workpiece Today’s trend goes towards CAD-systems with a volume-oriented presentation. For these applications wire frames and surface models lack important information in the computer presentation of the data. This enables us to illustrate all generated objects as realistic as possible on the screen. Solid models also offer other advantages. which go beyond generating a drawing. model in CAD B . The data of the solid model can also be used for further geometric applications. as well as the automatic generation of sections. the fading out of hidden lines. like the problemless penetration and sectioning of geometric objects.
Due to the cutter line compensation in the FBZ CAD/CAM 2D software. it is necessary to choose a smaller router for some wood joints. The digital wood joints are designed so that they can be processed with an 8mm router bit. Hard-tipped router bits with a positive spiral should be used. the following points need to be paid attention to when machining the digital wood joints on a CNC-training machine FBZ 40-30 of the MBA GmbH (formerly Bosch GmbH): . Due to their construction.ß # p1 The milling on the CNC-training machine FBZ 40-30 1. They allow for optimal chip ejection and guarantee a good cutting quality as well as little wear and tear.
To avoid a splintering of the material. It should therefore be processed with a cutting depth of 1mm per machining cycle. in the SIM-file headder of the corresponding digital wood joint. The workpieces that are going to be processed are positioned and held down by means of a wooden template or a clamping device. 5. the feed can be fixed between 600 and 800 mm/min. If the cutting depth is too deep when machining solid wood. This has already been taken into account in the CAD-files and SIM-files. Please look up the dimensions of the stock part.ß # p2 The milling on the CNC-training machine FBZ 40-30 2. it should be clamped together with appropriate cauls. as well as the diameter of the router bit. 4. Depending on the kind of wood. 3. B . the Z-axis of the FBZ 40/30 will be pushed away from the edge of the material.
which are defined by the machine operator or the programmer. material to be processed. engine performance. It depends on the tool diameter and the spindle revolutions per minute.ß # p1 Machining of woodbased materials and solid woods The surface quality of the processed workpiece depends on the correct choice of tools.g. The rate of feed. The technological data need to be defined in accordance with the material that is machined. depends on the following factors: chip thickness. special attention needs to be paid to the cutting direction. as well as on the technological data. and grain direction. and to high cutting speeds . rate of feed or spindle revolutions per minute. however. tools. The cutting speed equals the tip speed of the cutter blade.between 50 and 90 m/s depending on the kind of materials. to the v c = cutting speed in m/s d = tool diameter in mm n = revolutions in l/min There are guidelines for the cutting speed when machiningdifferent materials. e. and is calculated according to the formula: sequence of the machining operations. milling direction. d*π*n vc = ––––––––– 1000 * 60 . When processing solid woods.
Polycrystalline diamond tipped tools are used in particular for material that is difficult to chip or heavily abrasive. especially with tools that have a small tool diameter.g.80 m/s 40 . acrylic glass the workpiece must not be heated too much during the machining process.80 m/s 60 . as this would lead to a smearing of the cutting edge. The tool manufacturers offer a multitude of tools for the various types of processing or materials. materials and solid woods B . Hard-tipped or polycrystalline diamond tipped tools are commonly used today when processing solid woods or wood-based materials. with a range from straight router bits to profile cutter heads.90 m/s 50 .80 m/s 60 .60 m/s When processing thermoplastic synthetic materials. A heating of the material can be avoided by reducing the spindle revolutions. Cutting speed guidelines Material Softwood Hardwood Chipboard Coreboard MDF Cutting speed 60 . e. The lower wear and tear makes up easily for the higher purchase costs.ß # p2 Machining of wood-based As the spindle revolutions can not be increased at will. the optimal cutting speed can often not be achieved.
starting point for NC-machining l Generating the workpiece model in CAD l Data transfer solid woods l Machining of the digital wood joints on the From CAD data file to the NC-program l Completing the geometrical data with CNC-training machine FBZ 40-30 technological data l Various ways of NC-programming l Structure of a NC-program according to DIN 66025 / ISO 6983/1 .ö Tutorial Hthe router to The machining of the workpiece l CNC-machines in wood processing l Clamping of the workpiece l Machining of wood based materials and From the CAD data file H The CAD data file.1982 l Postprocessor l Help H H H H D ßH D D .
revolutions per minute and compensation data in the correct block sequence. without being translated by a postprocessor into the machine syntax of the particular machine that is going to process the workpiece. The CLDATA-file can not be run on a machine.ß # p 1 Postprocessor The postprocessor is the linkbetween the CLDATA / cutting location data that have been generated in the CAM-program. Postprocessors are not easily exchangeable. and the CNC-machine on which the workpiece is going to be processed. The structure of a CLDATA-file is defined in the standards ISO 3592/4343 and DIN 66215. tool changes. as well as the NC-instructions that can be freely defined by the manufacturer. The technological data are contained in CLDATA2. as they take into account specific machine characteristics. Some systems issue them together. maximal movements. like number of NC-axes. The postprocessor automatically generates the machine-specific NCprogram with all its instructions. B . The CLDATA-file essentially contains the calculated location of the contour cutter line (CLDATA1). kinematics (feed and spindle revolutions per minute). feeds.
that the force of friction between workpiece and clamping device needs to be bigger than the cutting force caused by the machining process. that the workpiece is held down properly. that the workpiece needs to be positioned in a way that it can not be shifted. This applies in particular to one-off pieces and small series. The more time is needed to prepare for the processing of a workpiece. but also the efficient use of CNC-machining centers. the higher the costs per unit. however.ß # p1 The clamping of the workpiece It is important for processing a workpiece on a CNC-machining center. its optimal positioning or safety at work. The demands on a clamping system depend on the workpiece geometry and the type of processing. It can generally be said. or use vacuum. The use of the correct clamping system not only determines the stability of the workpiece rest. Common clamping systems in wood processing are either pneumatic or mechanical. . This means.
as well as suppliers of auxiliary equipement. where consoles and clamping elements are positioned automatically. . grid tables and console tables. Consoles and seals can be positioned manually or automatically. offer various clamping systems. Photo: HOMAG AG p2 The clamping of the workpiece Machine manufacturers.ß # Console tables with hoseless seals are frequently used to hold down workpieces with a large surface. The range for CNC-machining centers includes smooth machine tables with vacuum seals. depending on how the machine is equiped.
The use of vacuum templates is recommended for small parts. a groove is cut into a particle board parallel to the workpiece contour and slightly to the inside. not be sufficient. they can be clamped with vacuum from below. sticking on sandpaper strips can increase it. Photo: INNOSPANN The clamping of sizable flat workpieces is generally straightforward. created by the vacuum. This allows processing the workpiece on its topside as well as on all its edges. the workpiece is held down on their topsides. Should the frictional force. Ideally. Using vacuum seals close to the edges. . A rubber string is then inserted into this groove. The modules are sucked against the table on their undersides.ß # p3 The clamping of the workpiece The clamping of sizable flat workpieces Block of four seals with two separate vacuum circuits for smooth machine tables. or parts with free form contours. also allows processing the workpiece from underneath with special tools. This is not possible when clamping the workpiece on a grid table. For this purpose.
Photo: IMA . it takes several machining operations to process the part from all sides. Pneumatic power clamp for carcass parts. Mechanical and pneumatic power clamps come into use here. it is important to make sure that they are as close as possible to where the cutting process is going to take place without impeding the chosen cutter line. can generally not be held down using vacuum. e.g. or from the top. in such a way that the remaining surfaces can be processed. together with stops for the workpiece. The simplest type of power clamp is the manually operated clamp. When positioning the power clamp. As power clamps do not fix the workpiece in a certain position from below. which in turn is vacuum-clamped to the machine table. carcass parts. The position of the power clamps needs to be changed after every machining operation. onto a particle board.ß # p4 The clamping of the workpiece The clamping of small workpieces Small workpieces. This type of power clamp is screwed. but from one or several sides.
Within this contour. Solutions are developed with systems. or which. automatically placed and fasten the vacuum seals in a collisionfree position. the clamping elements are automatically placed in a collisionfree position. When such systems are not at your disposal. Photo: SCM The position of clamping devices depends on the workpiece geometry.ß # p5 The clamping of the workpiece Useful devices for positioning the clamping elements On screen visulisation of the SCM-auto positioning system “AutoSet“. The amount of time needed for positioning depends on the workpiece. you can. Based on the workpiece contour. the seals can now be positioned in a way to avoid collisions. in case of smooth machine tables. the type of processing and the machine equipment. which project the positions of clamping elements with lasers onto the machine table. directly through the NC-program. draw the workpiece contour on the machine table with chalk by running the NC-program. B .
In addition. as well as tool changes are also defined. complex workpiece geometries can not be created without problems by manual programming in DIN-oriented cycles. . Today this is done more and more with graphically supported CAM-programs.ß # p1 Various ways of NC-programming NC programming. Contours are transformed into cutter lines and the required tools are chosen. the generation of controlling information for the machining of a workpiece on CNC-machines. i. was formerly manually executed in block format according to DIN 66025. Only machine programming in CAM-programs allows further use of complex CAD data models. This does not only avoid longwinded trial runs and program changes.e. it also increases work safety records in manufacturing. CAM-systems aim at producing workable and to a large extent flawless NC-programs without going through the trial and error process. The final NC-program is then automatically written by the machine’s postprocessor. or generated directly in the geometry-creation module of the CAMprogram. and then processed for NC-machining in the machine module. the sequence of the various machining operations. The various steps in the program can be simulated in real time on the screen for controlling purposes. The geometric data of a workpiece is imported from a CAD-program. In case of complex parts.
obtain data needed by the machine in a dialogue with the user. but distinguish themselves through their degree of user-friendliness and in details. subprograms for certain router operations. This facilitates and shortens programming.e. Their graphic user surface and various Macros. are available as a program for variants. They are generally based on the same programming structure. that need to be produced frequently. Workshop orientated programming systems are machine-dependent and are usually offered by the manufacturers of CNC-machining centers.ß # p2 Various ways of Next to machine independent CAM-systems. workshop orientated programming systems have evolved the manuasl programming at the CNC-machine. especially when parts. NC-programming B . i.
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