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Spatial Database

Spatial Database

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Published by: King Kumaraswami on Jul 27, 2011
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Spatial database

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that Spatial index be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) A spatial database is a database that is optimized to store and query data that is related to objects in space, including points, lines and polygons. While typical databases can understand various numeric and character types of data, additional functionality needs to be added for databases to process spatial data types. These are typically called geometry or feature. The Open Geospatial Consortium created the Simple Features specification and sets standards for adding spatial functionality to database systems.[1]

Contents
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1 Features of spatial databases 2 Spatial database systems 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

[edit] Features of spatial databases
Database systems use indexes to quickly look up values and the way that most databases index data is not optimal for spatial queries. Instead, spatial databases use a spatial index to speed up database operations. In addition to typical SQL queries such as SELECT statements, spatial databases can perform a wide variety of spatial operations. The following query types and many more are supported by the Open Geospatial Consortium:
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Spatial Measurements: Finds the distance between points, polygon area, etc. Spatial Functions: Modify existing features to create new ones, for example by providing a buffer around them, intersecting features, etc. Spatial Predicates: Allows true/false queries such as 'is there a residence located within a mile of the area we are planning to build the landfill?' Constructor Functions: Creates new features with an SQL query specifying the vertices (points of nodes) which can make up lines. If the first and last vertex of a line are identical the feature can also be of the type polygon (a closed line).

some of which are OpenGIS compliant[3] Boeing's Spatial Query Server (Official Site) spatially enables Sybase ASE. ^ OGC Homepage 2. and utilities. the native GE Smallworld GIS database Spatialite extends Sqlite with spatial datatypes. Quadtree and Hilbert curve directly in the Graph (mathematics) AllegroGraph . Functions that test spatial relationships are limited to working with minimum bounding rectangles rather than the actual geometries. It includes an extension syntax for SPARQL queries [edit] See also • • • • Object-based spatial database Spatial query Spatial analysis Location intelligence [edit] References 1.16 only supported spatial data in MyISAM tables. Smallworld VMDS. functions. MySQL DBMS implements the datatype geometry plus some spatial functions that haven't been implemented according to the OpenGIS specifications. ^ Open Source GIS website [edit] Further reading .• Observer Functions: Queries which return specific information about a feature such as the location of the center of a circle Not all spatial databases support these query types.0.a Graph database provides a novel mechanism for efficient storage and retrieval of two-dimensional geospatial coordinates for Resource Description Framework data.Graph database that can build 1D and 2D indexes as Btree. MySQL versions earlier than 5. InnoDB. BDB. As of MySQL 5. Neo4j . [edit] Spatial database systems • • • • • • • • • • • • All OpenGIS Specifications compliant products[2] Open source spatial databases and APIs. IBM DB2 Spatial Extender can be used to enable any edition of DB2.0. ^ All Registered Products at opengeospatial. NDB. including the free DB2 Express-C.org 3.16. and ARCHIVE also support spatial features. with support for spatial types Oracle Spatial Microsoft SQL Server has support for spatial types since version 2008 PostgreSQL DBMS (database management system) uses the spatial extension PostGIS to implement the standardized datatype geometry and corresponding functions.

Sojan Lal. Prentice Hall. 2002 (ISBN 1-55860-5886) [edit] External links • • • An introduction to PostgreSQL PostGIS PostgreSQL PostGIS as components in a Service Oriented Architecture SOA A Trigger Based Security Alarming Scheme for Moving Objects on Road Networks Sajimon Abraham. The Independent Book Publishers Association. Shashi Shekhar and Sanjay Chawla. ESRI Press titles include Modeling Our World: The ESRI Guide to Geodatabase Design.wikipedia. P.org/wiki/Spatial_database" Categories: Databases | GIS file formats Hidden categories: Articles to be merged from June 2010 | All articles to be merged Personal tools • Log in / create account Namespaces • • Article Discussion Variants Views • • • Actions Search þÿ Read Edit View history Navigation • • Main page Contents .With Application to GIS Philippe Rigaux. Published by Springer Berlin / Heidelberg-2008.• • • Spatial Databases: A Tour. Retrieved from "http://en. 2005 Ben Franklin Award winner. 2003 (ISBN 0-13-017480-7) ESRI Press. Spatial Databases . PMA. and Designing Geodatabases: Case Studies in GIS Data Modeling . Michel Scholl and Agnes Voisard. Morgan-Kauffman Publishers.

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