# Cairn Energy India Limited UPHEAVAL BUCKLING CALCULATIONS

JP Kenny CLIENT SUBJECT DOC NO.
Rev 1 2

Cairn Energy India Limited 24" Crude Oil Pipeline 05 2893 - 03 - P - 2 005 CHKD BY CHKD BY

JOB NO. REV NO. GMurdoch 27/04/07 APP'D BY Jt Chohan21/05/07 APP'D BY

52893.03 1 P Doc 05/05/07 P Doc 21/05/07

. .

PRPD BY PDoc 24/04/2007 11.1mm wall PDoc 17/05/2007

1.0 INTRODUCTION The aim of this calculation is to determine the downforce required on the pipeline to prevent upheaval buckling as a result of axial compression. 2.0 METHOD The required downforce is calculated using an equation developed by Ellinas and Palmer (Ref 1). The required downforce is dependant on the axial force which is calculated in the the Thermal Expansion Calc Sheet. An imperfection height of 0.2m is introduced to allow for changes of gradient in the trench. 3.0 INPUT DATA The input data for this calculation has come from: Reference 1: ASME B 31.4 and OISD - STD - 141 Reference 2: Refer to Wall thickness Report 052893-03-P-3-020 and Calcs 002 to 010 Reference 3: API 5L X65 Line Pipe

4.0 CALCULATIONS 4.1 Input Data Max. Operating Pressure Nom. Outside Diameter Pipe Material Specified Min. Yield Strength Wall Thickness Depth of Cover Modulus of Elasticity Density of Steel Density of Soil Density of Contents Uplift Co-efficient Imperfection Height Total Axial Force SMYS = wt h E ρs ρg ρi Uc Hi Fa = = = = = = = P D = = 9.0 0.6096 API 5L X65 448 0.011 1 76,420 14,862 890 0.2 0.2 m (from Longitudinal Stress Calc) from 052893-03-P-2-010 MPa mm m =
3

MPa m

= =

90 24

barg in

=

11.1

mm

= 2.06E+11 Pa N/m N/m3 kg/m3

206,000 MPa 7790 1515 kg/m3 kg/m3

= =

(Ref 1)

= 4,639,987 N

03-P-2-005 Rev 01 - 24 inch Crude Oil Buckling.xls 21/05/2007 Page 1 of 3

Self Check........................... Date...........................

Cairn Energy India Limited UPHEAVAL BUCKLING CALCULATIONS
JP Kenny 4.2 Longitudinal Stress - Restrained Pipeline Axs = pi()/4*(D^2-(D-2*wt)^2) Cross-sectional Area of Steel = Cross-sectional Area of Internals Axi = = Weight of Soil above pipe Wg = = Weight of Steel Ws = = Weight of Contents Wi = = Pipeline Weight Wc = = Moment of inertia I 0.021 m2

pi()*(D-2*wt)^2 4 0.271 ρg*h*D 9,060 ρs*Axs 1,595 ρo*Axi 241 W s+W i 1,836 N/m N/m N/m N/m m2

= pi()*wt*(D/2)^3 = 9.87E-04 m4 4.76*(E*I*W c/Hi)^0.5 Fa = 1.402

Step 1

za

=

Step 2

zb

= (Hi*W/(E*I))^0.5 = 0.001

Required downforce

Lr

= (1.16-za)*Fa*zb = -1,508 N/m

Soil Uplift Resistance

Ur

= ρg*h*D*(1+(Uc*h/D)) = 12,032 Ur+W c 13,869 N/m N/m

Ld

= =

5.0 SUMMARY OF RESULTS The following table summarises the calculation results: Variable Download Required Unit N/m Calculated -1,508

13,869 Total Download (soil + pipe) N/m As the Total download is greater than the Required download, upheaval buckling will not occur. Note we have not included the insulation in this calculation as it would only improve the situation making the area of ground at the buckle greater thus increasing the downward load by having a greater area thus larger soil loads

03-P-2-005 Rev 01 - 24 inch Crude Oil Buckling.xls 21/05/2007 Page 2 of 3

Self Check........................... Date...........................