STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

prime function is exchange of O
2
and CO
2
other functions,
a. blood reservoir
b. heat exchange
c. metabolism - synthesis & catabolism
d. immunological and mechanical defence
blood/gas barrier to diffusion ~ 50-80 m
2

alveolar walls have two sides,
a. active side → ∼ 0.4 µm
b. service side → ∼ 1-2 µm
(Nunn) ~ 200-600 million alveoli, depending upon height and size
each alveolus ~ 0.2 mm in diameter at FRC, and is actually polyhedral not spherical
blood/gas interface established by ventilation of airways and perfusion
Cell Types in the Respiratory Tract
a. Capillary endothelium - form calveoli
~ 0.1 um thick by 126 m
2
b. Alveolar type I cells - also 0.1 µm thick
- have 1 nm gap junctions
- impermeable to albumin
- allow extravasation of mφ's
- unable to divide
- highly sensitive to hyperoxia
c. Alveolar type II cells - rounded cells at septal junctions
- produce surfactant
- resistant to hyperoxia
d. Alveolar type III cells ? function = "brush" cells
e. Alveolar macrophages - (mφ) present in alveoli & airways
- normal defence & scavenging
f. PMN's - not usually present
- seen in smokers & 2° to NCF
g. Mast Cells
h. Non-ciliated bronchial epithelial, "Clara", cells
i. APUD cells
Respiratory Physiology
AIRWAYS AND FLOW
Main Airway Branches & Zones
trachea R+L main bronchi
conducting zone
generations 1-16
lobar bronchi
segmental bronchi
bronchioles
terminal bronchioles

respiratory bronchioles
respiratory zone
+ primary lobule / or acinus
generations 17-23
alveolar ducts
atria
alveolar sacs
CZ doesn't contribute to gas exchange → anatomical dead space
RZ (including transitional zone) → most of lung volume ~ 3000 ml
air flow → terminal bronchioles by bulk flow
then due to large increase in X-sectional area, flow v decreases and movement is by diffusion
within an acinus distances are short, ≤ 5 mm, and diffusion is rapid, ≤ 1 sec
alveolar stability is maintained by surfactant
air velocity decreases at terminal bronchioles, these are often a site of collection of foreign
matter
a normal tidal breath of ~ 500 ml requires δP ~ 3 cmH
2
O due to high the compliance of lung
tissue and low resistance to gas flow,
gas flow 1.0 l/s → δP ~ 2 cmH
2
O
this equates to a compliance, C ~ 180 ml/cmH
2
O
BLOOD VESSELS AND FLOW
initially arteries, veins and bronchi run together
toward the periphery, veins → outside of primary lobules
bronchi & arteries → center
capillaries ~ 7 µm diameter and are short → large surface area (SA)
the pulmonary bed receives the entire CO, excluding true shunt flow
the mean pulmonary arterial pressure ~ 15 mmHg
RBC's traverse the capillary bed in ~ 0.75 sec and traverse ~ 3 alveoli
the bronchial circulation supplies down to the terminal bronchioles but only a small fraction of
this blood supply drains → pulmonary veins
Respiratory Physiology
2
LUNG VOLUMES
a. primary lung volumes
i. RV Residual Volume
ii. ERV Expiratory Reserve Volume
iii. TV Tidal Volume
iv. IRV Inspiratory Reserve Volume
b. secondary derived capacities
i. TLC Total Lung Capacity
ii. VC Vital Capacity
iii. IC Inspiratory Capacity
iv. FRC Functional Residual Capacity
Def'n: volume refers to one of the 4 primary, non-overlapping subdivisions of TLC,
each capacity includes two or more of the primary lung volumes
Lung Volumes
1
TLC
6.0 l
VC
4.8 l
IC
3.6 l
IRV
3.1 l
TV ~ 0.5 l
FRC
2.4 l
ERV
1.2 l
RV
1.2 l
RV
1.2 l
1
average values for 70 kg male, 20-30 y.o., SA = 1.7 m
2
Respiratory Physiology
3
Measurement of FRC and RV
NB: these volumes cannot be measured by spirometry,
as they contain gas which cannot be expelled from the lungs
Functional Residual Capacity
Def'n: the volume of gas left in the lungs at the end of normal tidal expiration
FRC is the lung volume in which gas exchange is taking place
small fluctuations of alveolar and arterial gas tensions occur with each tidal breath as fresh gas
mixes with alveolar air
FRC therefore acts as a buffer,
1. maintaining relatively constant A & a gas tensions with each breath
2. preventing rapid changes in alveolar gas with changes in ventilation or inspired gas,
eg. during induction or recovery from anaesthesia
3. increasing the average lung volume during quiet breathing,
reducing work of breathing due to shape of compliance curve
Respiratory Physiology
4
methods of measurement,
1. closed circuit helium dilution
2. closed circuit nitrogen washout
3. body plethysmograph
Closed Circuit Helium Dilution
rebreathing takes place from a spirometer of known volume (V
1
) and helium concentration (C
1
)
as He is relatively insoluble in blood, it therefore equilibrates between the lung and spirometer
volumes are calculated by conservation of mass, ie. C
1
× V
1
= C
2
× (V
1
+V
2
), depending upon the
starting point,
i. from end tidal expiration → FRC
ii. from end forced expiration → RV
NB: in some types of pulmonary disease areas of lung are poorly, or unventilated,
therefore will result in underestimation
ie. only communicating volume is measured
Closed Circuit Nitrogen Dilution
using N
2
washout, the patient breaths 100% O
2
if the alveolar N
2
= 80% and the volume of N
2
collected is 4.0 l, then the initial lung volume must
have been 5.0 l
relies upon N
2
being relatively insoluble and moving slowly from blood to alveolar air
Body Plethysmograph
includes both communicating and non-communicating thoracic gas volume
the later includes both non-ventilated lung and extrapulmonary gas
the subject, in an air-tight box, breathes through a mouthpiece which closes at end expiration and
the subject inhales against closed airway
Using Boyle's Law: PV = K at constant T
P
b1
.V
b1
= P
b2
.(V
b1
- δV), where δV applies for the box & lung
P
L1
.V
L1
= P
L2
.(V
L1
+ δV), where V
L1
= FRC
thus,
FRC ·
P
L
2
×δV
|
.
P
L
1
−P
L
2
`
,
Respiratory Physiology
5
an increase in FRC indicates lung hyperinflation and may be due to,
1. loss of lung elastic recoil
2. increased expiratory resistance to breathing
3. PEEP
FRC and RV usually increase together
an increase in RV, without an increase in TLC leads to a reduced VC
the normal ratio RV/TLC ~ 15-30% (1.2/6.0 l)
hyperinflation, in itself, does not produce pulmonary disability
alterations of V/Q are far more important clinically
disadvantages of a high FRC,
1. ↓ rate of alteration of alveolar gas composition - eg. anaesthetic induction
2. mechanical disadvantage for respiratory muscles,
limits ability to increase ventilation on demand
3. ↑ dead space
4. ↑ mean intrathoracic pressure & ↓ venous return
Respiratory Physiology
6
Factors Affecting FRC
1. body size - FRC ∝ height (~ 32-51 ml/inch)
2. sex - females ~ 90% of male FRC (= height)
3. age - work by Nunn → no correlation!
- others have shown small increase
4. diaphragmatic muscle tone
originally, FRC believed to = equilibrium for lung/chest wall system
diaphragmatic tone maintains FRC ~ 400 ml above true relaxed state
→ ↓ FRC with anaesthesia
5. posture - ↓ FRC in the supine position ~ 0.5-1.0 l
6. lung disease
i. loss of lung ER with emphysema → ↑ FRC
ii. increased expiratory resistance with asthma & external apparatus
→ ↑ FRC
7. chest wall - increased abdominal contents → ↓ FRC
8. alveolar-ambient pressure gradient * PEEP increases the FRC
Residual Volume
Def'n: the volume of gas in the lung at the end of maximal expiration
determined by the balance of expiratory muscle activity and the resistance to volume decrease by
the lungs and chest wall
Respiratory Physiology
7
Vital Capacity
Def'n: the maximum volume that can be exhaled following a maximal inspiration
VC = IRV + TV + ERV
VC and its components are measured by spirometry, either bell (Benedict-Roth), or wedge
variations in VC occur with,
1. height, weight and surface area - VC roughly proportional to height
2. age - ↓ VC with increasing age
3. sex - M > F
4. posture - less when supine, cf. sitting or standing
Reductions of Vital Capacity
1. Pulmonary
reductions in the distensibility of lung tissue
reductions in the absolute volume of lung, (obstruction, atelectasis, pneumonia)
2. Non-pulmonary
these may be due to limitation of,
i. respiratory movements - neuromuscular
ii. thoracic expansion - musculoskeletal, position
iii. diaphragmatic descent - pregnancy, obesity, ascites, etc.
iv. expansion of lung - occupying intrathoracic space
a reduction in VC occurs in many diseases, however by itself doesn't signify pulmonary disease,
eg. VC may be normal in emphysema
normal values,
1. IC ~ 75% of VC ( = TV + IRV)
2. ERV ~ 25% of VC
Respiratory Physiology
8
VENTILATION
Def'n: minute volume = V
T
× respiratory frequency
~ 500 ml × 15 bpm
~ 7500 ml/min

the actual volume of gas entering the lung is greater due to effects of R
Alveolar Ventilation
Def'n: volume of fresh gas entering the alveoli per breath,

alveolar ventilation, V
A
= V
T
- V
D
Anat
this is better defined as the volume of fresh gas entering the alveoli and effective
in arterialising mixed venous blood, ie.,
V
A
= V
T
- V
D
Phys
so,
V
T
= V
A
+ V
D
Phys
where V
A
does not = alveolar volume
measurements should be made on the expired volume due to the effects of R, therefore,

V
A
· V
E
− V
D
Phys
Respiratory Physiology
9
Alveolar Gas Tensions
i. P
aO2
~ 101 mmHg
ii. P
aCO2
~ 40 mmHg
assuming P
ICO2
= 0, and since there is no gas exchange in V
D
Phys
, then
V
CO2
= V
A
× F
ACO2
, where F
ACO2
= %CO
2
/ 100 ml
at end-tidal gas approximates alveolar gas, then,
V
A
= V
CO2
/ F
E'CO2
, gaining F
E'CO2
from an IR analyser
as P
CO2
is directly proportional to F
CO2
, so
NB: in normal subjects alveolar and arterial P
CO2
are virtually equal
Anatomical Dead Space V
D
Anat
Def'n: the volume of the conducting airways in which no gas exchange takes place, or
that part of the inspired volume which is expired unchanged at the beginning of
expiration, or
"the volume of gas exhaled before CO
2
reaches the alveolar plateau - according
to Fowler (1948)" (Nunn - now the commonly used definition)
also termed the series dead space and is equal to the boundary between convective gas transport
and diffusion
the two commonly used methods of measurement are,
1. Fowler's method - tracer washout
2. Bohr's method - conservation of mass
P
aCO
2

V
.
CO
2
V
A
Respiratory Physiology
10
Fowler's Method
single breath analysis using an indicator gas (N
2
,CO
2
, O
2
, He) to mark the transition between
dead space and alveolar gas
following inspiration of 100% O
2
, a plot of V
EXP
vs. %[N
2
] → wash-in phase
the mid-point of the wash-in (where area A = area B below) measures the transition from
conducting airways to the transition from dead space to alveolar gas
in patients with non-uniform distribution of ventilation, ie. regions of the lung with different time
constants, a slow "wash-in" is seen and the method is inaccurate
Respiratory Physiology
11
Bohr's Method
NB: based on fact that V
D
doesn't contribute to expired CO
2
,
therefore by the conservation of mass principle
V
T
. F
ECO2
= V
A
. F
ACO2
and as V
A
= V
T
- V
D
by sub'n V
T
. F
ECO2
= (V
T
- V
D
) . F
ACO2

V
T
. F
ECO2
= V
T
. F
ACO2
- V
D
. F
ACO2
so, dividing by V
T
F
ECO2
= F
ACO2
- (V
D
/ V
T
) . F
ACO2
giving,
Bohr Equation (1891)
originally used to measure F
aCO2
, using estimates of V
D
Anat
from autopsy cast specimens
not used to estimate V
D
Anat
until the constancy of alveolar air was established by Haldane and
Priestly (1905)
1. F
aCO2
is estimated from ETCO
2
with a rapid gas analyser
2. the mean expired concentration from a Douglas bag
as for the above, patients with a non-uniform distribution of ventilation, ie. regions of the lung
with different time constants, a horizontal plateau is not seen and F
aCO2
and mean alveolar CO
2
cannot be estimated
V
D
V
T
·
F
ACO
2
−F
ECO
2
F
ACO
2
Respiratory Physiology
12
Factors Affecting Anatomical Dead Space
1. Body Size - ↑ V
D
Anat
with increasing body size
- in ml ~ lean body weight in lb, or ~ 2.2 ml/kg
2. Age - ↑ V
D
Anat
with increasing age (?V
D
/V
T
)
3. Lung Volume - ↑ V
D
Anat
with increasing volume
~ 20 ml/l increase in lung volume from FRC
4. Posture - ↓ V
D
Anat
with supine posture → supine ~ 101 ml
sitting ~ 147 ml (Fowler)
5. Respiratory Flow Pattern
decreased, using Fowler technique, with low V
T
due to the mixing affect of the
heart beat below the carina, and the cone advance of laminar flow, seen at low flow
velocities
6. Hypoxia
§
- bronchoconstriction → ↓ V
D
Anat
7. Drugs and Anaesthetic Gases
§
- bronchodilatation → ↑ V
D
Anat
8. Lung Disease - emphysema → ↑ V
D
Anat

- loss or excision of lung → ↓ V
D
Anat
9. Endotracheal Intubation - ↓ V
D
Anat
~ 50%
- but there is the additional volume of the circuit
10. Position of the Jaw & Neck - increases with jaw protrusion in non-intubated
subjects
NB:
§
minimal effects
Respiratory Physiology
13
Alveolar Dead Space V
D
Alv
Def'n: that part of the inspired gas which passes through the anatomical dead space and
enters alveoli, however is ineffective in arterialising mixed venous blood
also termed parallel dead space
does not represent the actual volume of these alveoli
the cause is failure of adequate perfusion of the alveoli to which gas is distributed,
a. alveoli with no perfusion → V/Q infinite
b. alveoli with reduced perfusion → V/Q > 0.8
the separation of alveoli into these two groups = Riley analysis
normally is minimal in healthy subjects but increases with disease
Factors Affecting Alveolar Dead Space
1. Age - ↑ V
D
Alv
with increasing age
2. Pulmonary Arterial Pressure
a decrease in PA pressure (eg. hypotension) decreases perfusion to the upper parts
of the lung → ↑ zone 1 & ↑ V
D
Alv
3. Posture
V
D
Alv
increases in the upright and lateral positions due to exaggeration of
hydrostatic differences → ↑ zone 1
this is theoretical, no data is available (Nunn)
4. IPPV
increases V
D
Alv
due to exaggeration of hydrostatic failure of perfusion
also decreases total pulmonary blood flow
applied wave-form IPPV with short inspiration (t < 0.5 s), → increases V
D
Alv
due to
maldistribution of ventilation
5. Tidal Volume - as V
T
increases, so V
D
Alv
increases but the ratio remains constant
6. Oxygen - hyperoxic vasodilatation → ↑ V
D
Alv
- hypoxic vasoconstriction → ↓ V
D
Alv
7. Anaesthetic Gases - ↑ V
D
Alv
but not known why!
- ↑ subcarinal V
D
~ 70 ml
8. Lung Disease - ↑ V
D
Alv
increased in multitude of diseases
i. ARDS → microemboli & ventilation of non-vascular air spaces
ii. IPPV & lateral posture → gross V/Q mismatch
Respiratory Physiology
14
Measurement of Alveolar Dead Space
NB: estimated from the arterial - end tidal P
CO2
difference
gas from non-perfused alveoli will contain some CO
2
, since these receive mixed alveolar gas
from anatomical dead space prior to fresh gas
gas from poorly perfused alveoli will contain more CO
2
than from non-perfused alveoli but the
P
CO2
will be less than the mixed alveolar P
CO2
as represented by the arterial P
aCO2
** hence the end-tidal alveolar gas will have a lower P
CO2
than the P
aCO2

this is used in a modification of the Bohr equation to calculate the ratio of V
D
Alv
/V
T
here the equation becomes (P
aCO2
- P
E'CO2
) / P
aCO2
where P
E'CO2
is the end-tidal CO
2
this is as compared with Bohr's original equation, viz.
Bohr Equation (1891)
V
D
Alv
V
T
·
P
aCO
2
−P
E CO
2
P
aCO
2
V
D
V
T
·
F
ACO
2
−F
ECO
2
F
ACO
2
Respiratory Physiology
15
Physiological Dead Space
Def'n: V
D
Phys
= Total Dead Space
= V
D
Alv
+ V
D
Anat
or, that part of the tidal volume which does not participate in gas exchange and
is ineffective in arterialising mixed venous blood, because either,
1. it doesn't reach the alveoli - V
D
Anat
2. it reaches alveoli with no capillary flow, or
3. it reaches alveoli with inadequate flow - V
D
Alv
in normal supine man, V
D
Alv
~ 0, therefore,
V
D
Phys
~ V
D
Anat
~ 150 ml
Measurement of Physiological Dead Space
using the Bohr Equation to measure V
D
, the value for alveolar CO
2
is taken as the ETCO
2
if "ideal" alveolar P
CO2
is taken as arterial P
aCO2
, then the equation yields physiological dead space,
V
D
Anat
/V
T
= (F
ACO2
- F
ECO2
) / F
ACO2
the Bohr Equation
but since P
X
and F
X
are proportional, then

V
D
/V
T
= (P
ACO2
- P
ECO2
) / P
ACO2
where P
A
is end-expired
substituting P
aCO2
as the ideal alveolar value,
Enghoff Modification (1938)
* normally = 0.2 to 0.35
this ratio is more useful as it tends to remain constant, c.f. the actual value for V
D
Phys
which may
vary widely with changing tidal volumes
expired gas is collected in a Douglas bag and the difficulty is getting only expired gas
due to difficulties in the measurement of this, clinically the relationship between P
aCO2
and
ventilation is used, ie.
P
aCO2
∝ V
CO2
/ V
A
V
D
Phys
V
T
·
P
aCO
2
− P
ECO
2
P
aCO
2
Respiratory Physiology
16
DIFFUSION
Def'n: the constant random thermal motion of molecules, in gaseous or liquid phases,
which leads to the net transfer molecules from a region of higher concentration
to a region of lower concentration (thermodynamic activity)
Fick's Law
Def'n: the rate of transfer of a gas through a sheet of tissue is,
a. proportional to the area available for transfer
b. proportional to the gas tension difference
c. inversely proportional to the tissue thickness
NB: where D = the diffusion constant
Determinants of Gas Diffusion
1. Characteristics of the Gas
2. Pressure Gradient
3. Membrane Characteristics
Characteristics of the Gas
a. Molecular Weight V ∝ 1/√MW
Graham's Law: relative rates of diffusion are inversely proportional to the square
root of the gas molecular weight

thus, lighter gases diffuse faster in gaseous media than heavier gases
lighter molecules for given energy have faster velocities
therefore, O
2
diffuses more rapidly than CO
2
in the gas phase (1.17 : 1)
in health, diffusion distances in the alveoli are small (< 100 µm),
however where distances are increased, regional differences in P
O2
can occur
this is only of importance in the gaseous pathway from ambient air to blood
V
.
gas
·
A.D
T
×
(
P
gas
1
− P
gas
2
)
Respiratory Physiology
17
b. Solubility Coefficient
Henry's Law: the amount of a gas which dissolves in unit volume of a liquid,
at a given temperature, is directly proportional to
the partial pressure of the gas in the equilibrium phase
relative solubilities of CO
2
& O
2
in water ~ 24:1
combining this with Graham's Law from above, the relative rates of diffusion
from alveolus to rbc for CO
2
:O
2
~ 20.7 : 1
therefore, diffusion of CO
2
is rarely, if ever, a clinical problem
solubility determines the limitation to the rate of diffusion, gases being either
i. diffusion limited, as for CO, which due to its high solubility in blood does not
reach equilibrium during the passage of blood through the alveoli
ii. perfusion limited, as for N
2
O, which due to its very low solubility reaches
pressure equilibrium very early with perfusing blood
Transmembrane Pressure Gradient
the rate of O
2
diffusion is dependent on the integrated mean P
O2
difference between alveoli and
pulmonary capillary blood, therefore depends upon,
1. the F
I
O
2
2. alveolar ventilation
3. pulmonary capillary blood flow
4. oxygenation of Hb
Hb acts as a "sink" for O
2
, limiting the rise in P
aO2
oxygenation of Hb represents the likely rate limiting factor in O
2
transfer at a P
aO2
of 101 mmHg,
a. equilibrium is reached in ~ 0.3 s
b. transit time for a rbc ~ 0.75 s
Respiratory Physiology
18
with either a lower P
aO2
, or an impairment of diffusion (alveolar-capillary block) equilibrium may
not be reached
this will be exacerbated by conditions of increased CO, where the transit time is reduced
the diffusion path is composed of a number of segments,
a. at FRC, alveolar diameter ~ 200 µm → diffusion ~ 10 ms
b. alveolar + capillary membrane on "active side" ~ 0.5 µm
c. pulmonary capillaries ~ 7 µm (~ rbc)
d. oxygenation of Hb
therefore, the diffusion path within the RBC is greater than across the lung
the oxygenation of Hb is sufficiently slow to be the rate limiting step
Diffusing Capacity (DC)
Def'n: the rate of gas transfer / partial pressure difference for the gas
→ δQ / δP
GAS
the term is comparable with electrical conductance
for oxygen this becomes,
DC
O2
= MRO
2
/ (P
cO2
- P
aO2
)
as it is impossible to measure the mean P
cO2
, an approximation is the Bohr integration procedure,
by assuming,
a. the end P
cO2
- P
aO2
difference
b. the rate of transfer of gas ∝ δPO
2
along the capillary
→ mean value by integration
however, this has been shown to be false, as assumption (b) doesn't hold true
ie. the rate of uptake of O
2
by Hb is a non-linear function of the δPO
2
, depending upon the state
of oxygenation of Hb
factors which will reduce the diffusing capacity are,
a. decreased capillary transit time ∝ ↑ CO
b. decreased capillary blood volume
c. pulmonary congestion
d. alveolar capillary block
NB: V/Q mismatch is indistinguishable from decreased diffusing capacity
Respiratory Physiology
19
Diffusing Capacity for Carbon Monoxide
this is used as a substitute for oxygen, due to the intractable difficulties in measuring DC
O2
it is convenient as the diffusion barrier is the same but the affinity of Hb for CO is so high that the
mean P
cCO
can be ignored, and the equation simplifies to,
DC
CO
= CO uptake / alveolar P
CO
the differences in the solubility and vapour densities of the two gases are such that the diffusion
rate, to the point of entry into the RBC, for O
2
is ~ 1.23 times that of CO
although the affinity of CO for Hb is ~ 250 times that of O
2
, the reaction rate is in fact slower,
and is affected by the F
I
O
2
thus, by altering the F
I
O
2
, the different components of diffusion resistance to CO can be studied
(solving simultaneous equations for below)
the second component, within the RBC, is not really a matter of diffusion but a product of the
pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and the reaction rate with Hb (rate = θ)
thus, the total diffusing capacity, analogous to conductance, is given by,
1/DC
L
= 1/DC
M
+ 1/(Vc.θ)
and, under similar conditions → DC
MO2
~ 1.2 × DC
MCO
methods for the measurement of DC
CO
include,
1. steady state
subject breaths 0.3% CO for 1 minute
alveolar P
CO
is calculated from modified alveolar air equation
uptake is from inspired & expired F
CO
by IR analysis
2. single breath
VC breath of (0.3% CO + 10% He) held for 10 s
no He enters blood, thus ratio F
I
/F
E
gives concentration of CO and the alveolar P
CO
from the F
ECO

3. rebreathing
same mixture as (b) rebreathed from reservoir
Respiratory Physiology
20
BLOOD-FLOW AND METABOLISM
mixed venous blood from RV →
i. main pulmonary artery (PA)
ii. branches of PA with bronchi/bronchioles
iii. central acinar arterioles
iv. pulmonary capillaries
v. small peripheral acinar pulmonary veins
vi. pulmonary vv. with bronchi/bronchioles
vii. 4 main pulmonary vv. to left atrium (LA)
Comparison with Systemic Circuit
mean PA pressure ~ 15 mmHg, (25/8 mmHg)
flow is therefore more pulsatile than in the systemic circuit → S:D ratio of 3:1 vs. 3:2
vessel walls are much thinner with less muscle, ~ 30% c.f. systemic vessels
the circuit is required to accept the entire CO at any given moment and not concerned with
diverting blood flow, except in hypoxia
therefore, PA pressure is consistent with lifting blood to the apex only
the lower pressure thereby reducing RV workload
the resistance drop around pulmonary circuit is relatively constant, c.f. the stepwise reduction in
the systemic circuit
approximately one half of the resistance is in the microcirculation
the pulmonary capillary pressures are hydrostatically dependent → zones 1-4
pericapillary pressure closely approximates alveolar pressure but is slightly less
(Nunn ~ Atm-10mmHg)
Factors Affecting Extra-Alveolar Vessels
the arterial and venous transmural pressures may be significantly reduced by the radial traction of
lung parenchyma on vessel walls, thus reducing perivascular pressure
pressures may fall below the intrapleural pressure → E-A vessel diameters ↑ with
inspiration
vascular resistance = δP / Flow
~ (15-5 mmHg)/5.0 l/min
~ 2.0 mmHg/l/min c.f. systemic = 21.5
~ 160 dyne.sec.cm
-5
however, not all vessels are open at resting CO, increases in flow →
a. recruitment
b. distension
NB: both of which decrease R
V
Respiratory Physiology
21
smooth muscle tone largely determines vessel calibre, therefore,
Factors Affecting Vessel Calibre
Contraction and increase R
V
Dilatation and decrease R
V
noradrenaline isoproterenol
adrenaline (α) aminophylline
dopamine (α) ganglion blockers
PGF

PGE
1
thromboxane A
2
PGI
2
histamine (H
1
) histamine (H
2
)
serotonin acetylcholine
angiotensin II bradykinin

there is a plentiful supply of SNS vasoconstrictor nerves via the cervical ganglia
these may decrease flow ~ 30%
both α & β receptors supply smooth muscle of arteries and veins
effects are seen predominantly in vessels > 30 µm diameter, but the effects are far less than those
seen in the systemic side
central increases in SNS tone do have significant effects on the pulmonary circulation
the effects of alterations in PNS tone are less certain
alveolar hypoxia causes vasoconstriction in a non-linear fashion,
a. resembles the shape of the HbO
2
dissociation curve
b. response curve has a "P
50
" ~ 30 mmHg
c. mediator may be one of the cytochromes, metalloporphyrin
this phenomenon is important in cor pulmonale and sleep apnoea syndrome
Respiratory Physiology
22
Measurement of Pulmonary Blood Flow (CO)
Fick Principle
Def'n: the rate of appearance, or disappearance, of any substance from any organ,
is given by the A-V concentration difference multiplied by the blood flow,
O
2
consumed = A-V [O
2
] difference × blood-flow
therefore pulmonary blood-flow, or CO, is equal to the body MRO
2
divided by the arterial/mixed
venous [O
2
] difference:
where CvO
2
is taken from PA blood
the patient rebreathes O
2
into a Benedict-Roth spirometer through a soda-lime absorber and the
rate of O
2
-uptake is determined from the slope of the tracing
alternatively CO
2
excretion could be used
Indicator Dilution
based on the conservation of mass principal
using indocyanine green, or a radioactive isotope injected into an arm vein
the indicator concentration in serial arterial samples is used to derive the average [I]
art.
after one
circulation through heart, where
Thermodilution
same as (b) but cold saline is injected into RA and the δT measured in the PA using a thermistor
on flow-directed catheter
has the advantages of no recirculation and ability for repeated measurements
however, requires multiple correction factors for heat gain in catheter and speed of injection
Q
.
·
V
.
O
2
CaO
2 −
CvO
2
CO ·
Mass Injected

t
1
[I]
a
.δt
Respiratory Physiology
23
Body Plethysmograph
used to measure instantaneous pulmonary blood flow by measuring N
2
O uptake
a gas mixture of 21%-O
2
+ 79%-N
2
O breathed from a rubber bag inside a plethysmograph
N
2
O is highly soluble (~ 34x N
2
) & is taken-up in series of steps coinciding with the heart rate
as N
2
O uptake is flow limited, instantaneous flow can be calculated
NB: all except the later measure total pulmonary blood flow (including shunt),
whereas plethysmography → pulmonary capillary flow
Radioactive Perfusion Scan
using
133
Xe and a scintillation gamma camera to determine regional differences
Regional Differences
perfusion in the normal upright lung varies from apex to base,
→ basal ~ 12-15x apical perfusion (West - vital capacity breaths)
later work done by Nunn suggests that at FRC this difference in flow is only ~ 3x (fig 7.4, p152)
during exercise regional differences become less due to a greater part of the increase in flow
being directed to the mid & upper zones
lung volume is an important determinant of vessel resistance,
1. alveolar vessels - ↑ V
L
stretches capillaries → ↑ R
V
2. extra-alveolar vessels - ↑ V
L
increases radial traction → ↓ R
V
the increased vessel resistance seen at low volumes for the E-A vessels affects the critical opening
pressure
for any flow to occur, P
a
must be several cmH
2
O > P
v

regional perfusion variations with hydrostatic pressure give 3 hypothetical zones from apex to
base,
1. Zone 1 P
A
> P
a
> P
v
No Flow
2. Zone 2 P
a
> P
A
> P
v
Flow ∝ P
a
-P
A
gradient
3. Zone 3 P
a
> P
v
> P
A
Flow ∝ P
a
-P
v
gradient
zone 2 is unusual in that flow is determined by a-A pressure gradient c.f. the normal a-v gradient
→ Starling resistor or "waterfall effect"
Respiratory Physiology
24
throughout zone 2, P
a
increases causing recruitment of additional vessels
in zone 3 the normal a-v gradient (relatively constant), determines flow and increases in flow
down this zone are predominantly due to distension, as vessel pressure rises but P
A
is constant
at low V
L
, resistance of basal E-A vessels increases due to loss of radial traction and flow again
decreases → zone 4
although passive forces dominate vessel resistance, alveolar hypoxia causes marked
vasoconstriction and regional blood-flow changes
O
2
responses are absent at P
aO2
> 100 mmHg and only become significant when P
aO2
< 70 mmHg
this effect minimises V/Q mismatch, reducing alveolar dead space
high altitude → generalised constriction and ↑ RV workload
this mechanism also functions in utero, where hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV)
maintains the high PA pressure
this diverts blood through the ductus arteriosus, with < 15% perfusing lung
at birth, gasping markedly decreases PA resistance by radial traction and increased P
aO2
decreased pH also → vasoconstriction and increased sensitivity to O
2

Water Balance
Starling's Law
Def'n: Q = net fluid flow
σ = the reflection coefficient of the capillary wall for plasma proteins, and
k = the filtration coefficient
NB: approximate values P
c
~ 10 mmHg
P
i
~ 10 mmHg subatmospheric
π
c
~ 28 mmHg
π
i
~ ?? but 20 mmHg in lung lymph
the net effect is an outward pressure producing a lung lymph flow of ~ 20 ml/hr in a resting adult
male
→ perivascular + peribronchial lymphatics
then the hilar lymph nodes
cf. total body lymph flow ~ 146 ml/hr, or 3.5 l/d
early pulmonary oedema causes engorgement of perivascular lymphatics
seen as Kerley B lines on CXR
Q
.
· k.[(P
c
− P
i
) − σ(π
c
− π
i
)]
Respiratory Physiology
25
VENTILATION - PERFUSION RELATIONSHIPS
the V/Q ratio is the crucial factor in determining alveolar and, therefore, pulmonary capillary P
O2
and P
CO2
,
NB: Alveolar P
O2
is determined by the rate at which O
2
is supplied to the alveolus by
ventilation, relative to its rate of removal by pulmonary capillary blood flow
Alveolar P
CO2
is determined by the rate at which CO
2
is supplied to the alveolus by
pulmonary capillary blood flow, relative to its rate of removal by ventilation
PiO
2
of inspired air = 20.93% of (P
Atm
- P
H2O
)
= 0.2093 . (760-47mmHg)
~ 149 mmHg
as gas exchange occurs the mean P
aO2
falls to ~ 101 mmHg
this varies only by 2-3 mmHg with each breath, FRC helping to maintain the constancy of
alveolar air
the P
aCO2
of mean alveolar air is determined by CO
2
production and alveolar ventilation,
P
aCO2
= K.(V
CO2
/V
A
) K = 0.863 BTPS
ratio of CO
2
excretion to O
2
uptake by the lung = the respiratory exchange ratio (R),
NB: in health R ~ 0.8
N
2
is unaffected by gas exchange and corrects for unequal volumes on inspiration
and expiration
this equation assumes equilibrium of the inert gas species
R ·
F
ECO
2
F
IO
2
.
|
.
F
EN
2
/F
IN
2
`
,
−F
EO
2
Respiratory Physiology
26
Distribution of V/Q Ratios
Physiological
in the "normal" upright lung, from apex to base (West),
1. ↑ ventilation ~ 3x
2. ↑ perfusion ~ 12x
consequently, the V/Q ratio varies from a high value at apex to low value at the base
as most of the blood flow, and a greater amount of ventilation goes to the bases, basal values are
closer to overall mean ~ 0.8
Regional Differences in Upright Lung (West)
V
L
% V
A
l/min
Q
L
l/min
V/Q P
aO2
mmHg
P
aCO2
mmHg
P
N2
mmHg
R pH
Apex
7
8
10
0.24
0.33
0.42
0.07
0.19
0.33
3.3
1.8
1.3
132
121
114
28
34
37
553
558
562
2.0
1.3
1.1
7.51
Mid.
11
12
13
0.52
0.59
0.67
0.50
0.66
0.83
1.0
0.9
0.8
108
102
98
39
40
41
566
571
574
0.92
0.95
0.78
Base
13
13
13
0.72
0.78
0.82
0.98
1.15
1.29
0.73
0.68
0.63
95
92
89
41
42
42
577
579
582
0.73
0.68
0.65
7.39
Total 100 5.09 6 0.85mean
Mixed Alveolar 101 39 572
Mixed Arterial 97 40 575
PA-aO
2
Difference 4 1 3
therefore, in the normal lung, the effects of uneven V/Q ratios are insignificant as shown by the
A-a differences
the efficiency of exchange is about 97-98% of the theoretical maximum
these figures were measured with VC breaths from RV
measurements taken by Nunn, with tidal breaths at FRC, showed far less variation from base to
apex
Respiratory Physiology
27
Pathological
diffuse pulmonary disease may result in a gross scatter of V/Q ratios
this most commonly results in hypoxaemia, CO
2
usually being compensated
1. regions with high V/Q ratios R > 0.8
ventilation in excess of perfusion contributes to alveolar dead space
alveolar gas tensions approach those of inspired air,

→ alveolar O
2
increases and CO
2
decreases,
as do the end pulmonary capillary pressures
2. regions with low V/Q ratios R < 0.8
ventilation below perfusion requirements, contributes to physiological shunt
alveolar gas tensions approach those of mixed venous blood,

→ alveolar O
2
falls and CO
2
increases,
as do the end pulmonary capillary pressures
Effects on Arterial Blood
1. CO
2
regions of high V/Q compensate for regions of low V/Q due to the almost linear
slope of the CO
2
-dissociation curve within the physiological range
therefore, the end capillary C
CO2
differences parallel end capillary P
CO2
differences
the decreased C
CO2
from high V/Q regions compensating for the increased C
CO2
from
underventilated areas
further, if overall alveolar ventilation is normal, an elevation of P
aCO2
leads to an
increase in alveolar ventilation and a return to normal
2. O
2
this does not apply to O
2
transfer, due to the sigmoid shape of the HbO
2
dissociation curve
blood from regions of high V/Q will have increased P
O2
but only a minimally
increased C
O2
due to the "flat" portion of the curve
however, blood from regions with low V/Q will have both a decreased P
O2
and C
O2
due to the "steep" fall of the curve in this region
therefore, mixed alveolar gas will be compensated by high and low P
O2
's but mixed
end capillary blood will be disproportionately desaturated by the low C
O2
from low
V/Q regions
NB: this leads to an overall Alveolar-arterial P
O2
gradient
Respiratory Physiology
28
Physiological Adjustments to Non-Uniform V/Q Ratios
1. low V/Q regions
lead to a fall in P
aO2
, which causes regional pulmonary vasoconstriction and
diversion of blood to better ventilated regions of the lung
reduced regional perfusion therefore approaches reduced ventilation with a return
of R toward normal
2. high V/Q regions
lead to a decrease in P
aCO2
, which causes regional bronchoconstriction and
diversion of ventilation to better perfused regions of the lung
reduced regional ventilation therefore approaches reduced perfusion with a return
of R toward normal
Measurement of Non-Uniformity of V/Q Ratios
1. inhalation of
133
Xe
scintillation counters determine distribution of ventilation
subsequent breath-holding and uptake of
133
Xe indicates regional perfusion
comparison of these → V/Q
2. estimation of alveolar and physiological dead space
using the Enghoff modification of the Bohr equation
3. estimation of venous admixture
using the shunt equation (below) will indicate areas of low V/Q
Respiratory Physiology
29
Regional Variation in V/Q
expressed in terms of the ventilation-perfusion ratio equation:

normally, when plotted against % lung volume the ratio varies from 0.5 to 5 and follows a
log-normal distribution with a mean ~ 0.8 (see below)
gas exchange (air-flow / blood flow), occurs most efficiently at a value of V/Q slightly >1.0
outside of range 0.4 to 4, exchange is severely impaired
lung disease may widen the distribution, or scatter of V/Q ratios, without altering the mean
alternatively, disease may skew the distribution left or right
both of which impair gas exchange, increasing the P
A-aO2
gradient
also conveniently shown on O
2
-CO
2
plot(West 10.4)
V
.
/Q
.
· 0.863 × R ×
|
.
C
aO
2
−C
vO
2
`
,
P
aCO
2
Respiratory Physiology
30
VENOUS ADMIXTURE
Def'n: refers to the degree of admixture of mixed venous blood with arterialised
pulmonary end capillary blood, which would be required to produce the
observed pulmonary end-capillary to arterial P
O2
difference
NB: where P
c'O2
is taken as the "ideal" alveolar P
aO2

venous admixture is therefore a calculated, not an actual amount
Components of Venous Admixture
Anatomical, or Absolute Shunt
1. physiological
coronary blood enters LV via the thesbian veins
some bronchial artery blood enters the pulmonary veins
2. pathological
congenital heart disease with R→L shunt
perfusion of non-ventilated alveoli
pulmonary arterio-venous shunts (haemangioma)
Regions of Low V/Q
1. physiological
normal scatter of V/Q ratios
changes with posture - ie. erect vs. supine, lateral decubitus
2. pathological
abnormal scatter of V/Q ratios
alveolar-capillary block
Respiratory Physiology
31
Measurement of Venous Admixture
NB: by the conservation of mass,
Q
T
. C
aO2
= (Q
T
- Q
S
) . C
cO2
+ (Q
S
. C
vO2
)
Q
T
. C
aO2
= Q
T
. C
cO2
- Q
S
. C
cO2
+ Q
S
. C
vO2
dividing by Q
T
C
aO2
= C
cO2
- (Q
S
/Q
T
) .C
cO2
+ (Q
S
/Q
T
) .C
vO2

so, C
aO2
- C
cO2
= (Q
S
/Q
T
) . (C
vO2
- C
cO2
)
and, Q
S
/Q
T
= (C
aO2
- C
cO2
) / (C
vO2
- C
cO2
)
then by multiplying N & D by -1
The Shunt Equation
NB: normally expressed as a fraction of CO ~ 2-3%

C
aO2
is measured directly by arterial puncture
C
cO2
is taken as the "ideal" alveolar P
O2
from the alveolar air equation (see over)
Q
.
S
Q
.
T
·
C
c O
2
− C
aO
2
C
c O
2
− C
vO
2
Respiratory Physiology
32
Alveolar Air Equation
a. Rossier, Mean (simplest form)
P
AO2
= P
iO2
- (P
aCO2
/ R) R = respiratory exchange ratio
b. Riley
P
AO2
= P
iO2
- (P
aCO2
/R) × (1-F
I
O
2
(1-R))
c. West
P
AO2
= P
iO2
- (P
aCO2
/R) + K K = [F
I
O
2
× P
aCO2
× ((1-R)/R)]
d. Selkurt
P
AO2
= P
iO2
- P
aCO2
× [F
I
O
2
+ (1-F
I
O
2
)/R]
e. Filley, MacIntosh & Wright (1954)*
NB: this equation allows for disequilibria of inert gasses,
therefore may be used during induction / recovery from anaesthesia
the differences between the P
AO2
calculated by (b) & (c) are due only to inert gas exchange
therefore, these may be used to calculate the concentration effect
P
AO
2
· P
iO
2
− P
aCO
2
×
|
.
P
iO
2
−P
EO
2
P
ECO
2
`
,
Respiratory Physiology
33
Shunt vs. V/P Inequality
when breathing 100% O
2
, the equation simplifies as the effects of R become negligible
ie., as O
2
is taken up across the alveoli, only O
2
enters and the alveolar [O
2
] remains
approximately constant, thus,
P
AO2
~ (P
Atm
- 47) - P
aCO2
1. if oxygenation is impaired by shunt the P
aO2
will rise, not to maximum values,
but by an amount always less than the rise in P
iO2
(see iso-shunt diagram, Nunn 7.11)
2. if oxygenation is impaired by abnormal V/Q scatter,
then P
aO2
will rise by approximately the same amount as P
iO2
NB: therefore,
1. the shunt ratio for 100% O
2
→ anatomical shunt
2. the shunt ratio for air → physiological shunt
3. the alveolar-arterial P
N2
difference is a specific method for determining V/Q scatter,
uninfluenced by shunt
Alveolar-Arterial P
O2
Gradient
normal gradient ~ 15 mmHg (2 kPa)
this may be up to 38 mmHg (5 kPa) in the elderly
an increased gradient may be caused by,
1. pulmonary collapse / consolidation
2. neoplasm
3. infection
4. alveolar destruction
5. drugs - vasodilators
- volatile anaesthetics
6. hormones - pregnancy & progesterone
- hepatic failure
7. extrapulmonary shunting
NB: this is the commonest clinical cause of arterial hypoxaemia
Respiratory Physiology
34
Factors Affecting P
A-aO2
Gradient:
1. venous admixture
proportional relationship for small shunts
this relationship is lost for large shunts
all shunted blood is not mixed venous
C
c'O2
is derived from P
c'O2
, which is assumed to equal ideal P
aO2
2. alveolar P
AO2
profound non-linear effect
gradient is greatest when P
AO2
is high
thus for any given fall in P
AO2
, P
aO2
will fall to a lesser degree
the C
c'O2
- C
aO2
difference is not significantly influenced by P
AO2
due to the shape of
Hb-O
2
curve at the P
O2
of alveolar gas
the effect on tension is solely due to the conversion of content to tension
under normal circumstances, P
aO2
~ 5 × F
I
O
2
3. cardiac output
inverse relationship at a constant MRO
2
(refers to content, not tension)
mixed venous blood is more desaturated at a low CO, therefore at a given shunt
ratio increases A-a difference
however, a decrease in CO nearly always decreases Q
S
/Q
T
, so the A-a gradient is
little altered
4. oxygen consumption
determines C
vO2
for a given ventilation
5. Hb concentration
principally affects tension difference, not content
due to position on the flat portion of the curve at alveolar P
O2

6. P
50
of dissociation curve
7. alveolar ventilation
↑ V
A
→ ↑ P
aO2
at a constant MRO
2
↓ P
aCO2
→ ↓ CO and ↑'s the A-a difference at a constant MRO
2
the small ↓ pH has a minimal effect increasing the A-a difference
Respiratory Physiology
35
Compensation for P
A-aO2
Gradient
for patients hypoxaemic breathing room air, the primary aim is to remove the cause of the
hypoxaemia
when this is not immediately possible, relief of hypoxaemia can be achieved by increasing F
I
O
2
broadly, hypoxaemia may be due to one of two causes, or a mixture thereof,
1. hypoventilation
2. venous admixture
if due to hypoventilation, then P
aO2
may be restored with a F
I
O
2
between 21-30%
this is seen with P
aO2
-alveolar ventilation curves
where increasing the F
I
O
2
to 30% increases the P
aO2
~ 64 mmHg at all rates of ventilation
if due to V/Q scatter, then increased F
I
O
2
should readily correct hypoxia
if due to shunt, much higher F
I
O
2
's are required
Shunt % F
I
O
2
to restore normal P
aO2
10% 30%*
20% 57%* *all ~ 3x but doesn't continue
30% 97%*
40% normal P
aO2
cannot be restored
50% increasing F
I
O
2
has almost no effect on P
aO2
NB: therefore, with large shunts,
treatment is better directed toward reducing Q
S
/Q
T
,
rather than increasing F
I
O
2
Respiratory Physiology
36
GAS TRANSPORT - OXYGEN
oxygen is transported in the blood in 2 forms,
i. dissolved in plasma
ii. reversibly bound to Hb
Dissolved Oxygen
Def'n: Henry's Law: the amount of a gas which dissolves in unit volume of a liquid,
at a given temperature, is directly proportional to the partial
pressure of the gas in the equilibrium phase
Ostwald solubility coefficient for O
2
at 37°C = 0.0034 ml/100ml blood/mmHg
therefore a P
O2
of 100 mmHg → dissolved O
2
~ 0.3 ml/100ml blood
normal male breathing 100% O
2
, dissolved O
2
= 2.0 vol%
at 3 Atm. pressure, 100% O
2
= 6 vol% and can sustain life
Oxygen Carriage by Haemoglobin
Haemoglobin-Oxygen Dissociation
Def'n: functional Hb saturation = O
2
combined with Hb × 100
O
2
capacity of Hb
where the O
2
capacity is the maximal amount of O
2
that will combine with Hb at a high P
O2
,
usually ≥ 250 mmHg
this is distinct from the fractional Hb saturation, which includes met-Hb and COHb
O
2
capacity varies with [Hb] → 1 gm pure Hb combines with 1.39 ml O
2
Important Values to Remember
P
O2
mmHg
% Saturation Hb [O
2
] at 15 g Hg/100ml
100 97.5 20 ml.O
2
Arterial
80 94.5
60 89
40 75 15 ml.O
2
Mixed Venous
26.3 50
T = 37°C P
CO2
= 40 mmHg pH = 7.4 Base Excess = 0
1
Ca-vO
2
difference (at CO ~ 5.0 l/min) ~ 5ml.O
2
/100ml
2
the "normal" P
aO2
~ 102-(0.33 × age) mmHg
Respiratory Physiology
37
Factors Affecting Oxy-Hb Dissociation Curve
Def'n: affinity is measured by the P
50
, which is the P
O2
when Hb is 50% saturated,
at pH = 7.4, T = 37°C, and BE = 0,
P
50
= 26.3 mmHg
NB: ↓ affinity of Hb for O
2
→ a shift of the curve to the right and an ↑ P
50
↑ affinity of Hb for O
2
→ a shift of the curve to the left and a ↓ P
50
Physiological Factors
Hydrogen Ion
↑ [H
+
] / ↓ pH → curve shifts to the right,
δpH = 0.1 → δP
50
= 2.5 mmHg
this effectively impairs oxygenation in the lungs but increases the delivery to the tissues
Carbon Dioxide
↑ [CO
2
] produces a pH-independent shift of the curve to the right with ↓ affinity for O
2
→ the Bohr Effect
most of the desaturation occurring at tissue level is due to the lowered P
O2
but an extra 1-2% is
due to the ↑ [CO
2
] and right shift of the curve
at a constant O
2
extraction, the P
vO2
will increase for any decrease in pH or right shift of the curve
therefore, respiratory acidosis frequently raises the tissue P
O2
, especially in brain
further, the CO and CBF frequently increase, further aiding cerebral O
2
delivery
Temperature
↑ T shifts the curve to the right
Respiratory Physiology
38
2,3-Diphosphoglycerate 2,3-DPG
formed in the RBC as an intermediary in the Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic pathway, the
Rapoport-Luebering shunt
synthesised from 1,3-DPG by 2,3-DPG mutase
re-enters the glycolytic pathway by conversion to 3-phosphoglycerate, catalysed by 2,3-DPG
phosphatase
the plasma elimination half-life, t
½
~ 6 hrs
binds to one of the β-chains of Hb favouring deoxygenation, thereby shifting curve to the right
exerts a permissive role for the effects of CO
2
and pH
thus, in stored blood deficient in 2,3-DPG, the Bohr effect is less
increasing the pH increases the activity of the mutase and decreases the activity of the
phosphatase → alkalosis may be associated with a shift of the curve to the right
acidosis inhibits RBC glycolysis and decreases 2,3-DPG formation
thyroid hormones, GH, and androgens increase 2,3-DPG
exercise increases 2,3-DPG within 60 mins, but this effect may not be seen in athletes
high altitude triggers a substantial rise in 2,3-DPG secondary to the respiratory alkalosis
2,3-DPG has a low binding affinity for the gamma-chains of Hb
F
(143
His-Val
)
this results in the higher affinity of Hb
F
for O
2
, thereby enabling placental transfer of greater
amounts of O
2

the effects of DPG are only seen in the P
50
range 15-34 mmHg
Alterations in Health and Disease
1. Exercise
increased T, P
CO2
, and [H
+
] shift curve to the right increasing O
2
availability
effectively increases the δPO
2
driving diffusion for a given O
2
extraction
2. Acid-Base Disturbances
i. acidosis
improves O
2
release for several hours
eventually offset by the decline in RBC production of 2,3-DPG, due to
inhibition of glycolysis
subsequent increases in 2,3-DPG are seen due to enhanced activity of
2,3-DPG mutase and inhibition of the phosphatase
ii. alkalosis
immediate shift of the curve to the left
offset by ↑ 2,3-DPG formation & right shift of curve
Respiratory Physiology
39
3. Altitude
after 24-48 hrs there is a marked shift of the curve to the right due to increased
levels of 2,3-DPG secondary to the respiratory alkalosis
the P
50
increases by ~ 3.8 mmHg
this was not confirmed by Severinghaus et al.
further, an altitude of ~ 4000m → P
aO2
~ 52 mmHg
a shift of the curve under these conditions has only minimal advantage, as the
decrease in P
aO2
means lung oxygenation is impaired to a degree only marginally
outweighed by the increase availability to the tissues
4. Hyperoxia
produces a small shift of curve to the left, due to decreased 2,3-DPG
5. Congestive Cardiac Failure
produces a shift of curve to the right, with increased levels of 2,3-DPG,
proportional to the severity of the CCF
6. Anaemia
produces a right shift, due to proportionately increased levels of 2,3-DPG
7. Right Left Shunt with Hypoxaemia
produces a right shift, with increased levels of 2,3-DPG
8. Hyperthyroidism - shift to the right
Hypothyroidism - shift to the left *due to changes in 2,3-DPG levels
9. Carbon Monoxide & Methaemoglobin
shift of the curve to the left, also decreases 2,3-DPG and available Hb
10. Foetal Hb - greater affinity c.f. Hb
A
as decreased binding 2,3-DPG
→ P
50
~ 19 mmHg
11. Stored Blood Bank
RBC's show a progressive fall in 2,3-DPG levels with increasing affinity for O
2
and
left shift of curve
following transfusion, there is ~ 50% recovery of 2,3-DPG within 4 hrs,
but several days are required for normal values
this only becomes clinically important in massive T
X
in a hypothermic patient
storage in citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) produces less of a decrease than ACD
ACD → almost complete depletion in 3 weeks with a P
50
~ 15 mmHg
NB: 1. in general, research has failed to demonstrate that 2,3-DPG is of major
importance in clinical problems of oxygen delivery
2. changes in the P
50
mediated by changes in 2,3-DPG are of marginal significance
in comparison to changes in P
aO2
and tissue perfusion
3. anaesthetic gases bind significantly to Hb, however, this does not result in any
significant shift of the curve
Respiratory Physiology
40
HAEMOGLOBIN
Hb is carried within RBC's for 2 reasons,
a. provide an optimal chemical environment
b. prevents a large rise in the plasma oncotic pressure
Def'n: haem = iron porphyrin compound, tetrapyrrole ring, joined to protein
globin = 4 polypeptide chains, each of which has a haem moiety
Adult Hb (Hb
A
) 2 alpha chains 141 AA residues Haem → 87
His
2 beta chains 146 AA residues Haem → 92
His
Total MW 64,458.5

Foetal Hb (Hb
F
) 2 alpha chains
2 gamma chains

* increased O
2
affinity due to decreased binding of 2,3-DPG by gamma chains
the reaction Hb + 4O
2
→ oxygenation, not oxidation as Fe
++
stays in the reduced form
the reaction is rapid (≤ 0.01 sec), and results in movement of the peptide chains, with an
associated positional change of the haem moiety,
1. R = relaxed state → ↑ affinity for O
2
2. T = tense state → ↓ affinity for O
2
the conformational changes are due to the formation and breaking of salt bridges
as Hb takes up O
2
, the β-chains move closer together favouring the R-state & ↑ O
2
affinity
↑ affinity during oxygenation → the sigmoid shape of Hb-O
2
dissociation curve
during saturation of the last 25% of reduced Hb, the last reaction will predominate,
k
4
'
Hb
4
O
6
+ O
2
←÷÷→ Hb
4
O
8
the higher forward velocity constant for this reaction, (k
4
'), counteracts the decreased number of
O
2
sites which would otherwise slow the reaction rate by the Law of Mass Action
the net result is that the reaction proceeds at much the same rate until full saturation
for each reaction, the dissociation rate constants are slower than the association constants
the association constant for CO is approximately the same as that for O
2
, but the dissociation
constant is considerably slower
at full saturation 1gm of pure Hb can carry 1.39 ml of O
2
, however in vivo some Hb is in other
forms, eg. met-Hb, and cannot contribute to O
2
uptake
thus, the physiological value ~ 1.34 to 1.37 ml.O
2
/gm.Hb,
15 g.Hb/100 ml.blood → 20.1 to 20.4 ml.O
2
/100 ml.blood
Respiratory Physiology
41
Methaemoglobin
normal adult Hb
A
has iron in the Fe
++
, or ferrous state
this may be oxidised to Fe
+++
forming methaemoglobin, and may be due to either,
a. hereditary - met-Hb reductase deficiency
b. acquired - drugs (nitrites, nitrates, prilocaine)
met-Hb does not participate in O
2
exchange
patients appear clinically cyanosed at levels > 1.5 gm%
in otherwise healthy patients, this has little effect on the oxygen carrying capacity
however, may be corrected by the administration of reducing agents
(methylene blue 1-2 mg/kg IV)

Carboxyhaemoglobin COHb
CO has greater affinity for Hb, ~ 210 times that for O
2
CO-Hb produces a left shift of the Hb-O
2
curve, partly by decreasing 2,3-DPG
also, its formation decreases the remaining amount of useable Hb
A

Haemoglobinopathies
these are usually only minor abnormalities in the AA sequence, or composition of α/β chains
however, may lead to,
a. decreased O
2
affinity
b. increased O
2
affinity
c. unstable haemoglobins
d. aggregating haemoglobins - eg. Hb
S
at low P
O2
Thallassaemias
partial or complete defect in the synthesis of one of the normal Hb peptide chains
ie. the defect is the rate of synthesis of Hb
Sulfhaemoglobin
Hb derivative of unknown composition
irreversible change usually induced by drugs, eg. phenacitin
Respiratory Physiology
42
OXYGEN FLUX
Def'n: the quantity of oxygen transported by the circulation in one minute
= CO × arterial O
2
content
~ 5000 ml/min × (20 ml O
2
/100 ml blood)
~ 1000 ml/min (at rest in a 70 kg man)
as the MRO
2
~ 250 ml/min, so venous blood is ~ 75% saturated
thus, three factors can decrease the O
2
flux,
i. cardiac output → stagnant hypoxia
ii. O
2
saturation → hypoxic hypoxia
iii. [Hb] → anaemic hypoxia
the fourth type of hypoxia is histotoxic, as in CN
-
poisoning, however this is usually associated
with a normal or increased O
2
flux
the minimum O
2
flux compatible with life is ~ 400 ml/min at rest, but this is quite variable
metabolic indicators, eg. lactate production, are more useful than attempts to measure tissue P
O2

Partial Pressure Gradients
Air Lung Blood Tissue Mitochondria
P
O2
mmHg 149 101 95 ~ 30 ~ 1-3
P
CO2
mmHg 0 39 40 46 ??

tissue P
O2
depends upon,
1. the rate of O
2
delivery - capillary blood flow
- capillary CO
2
- position of Hb-O
2
dissociation curve
- capillary/tissue P
O2
gradient
- capillary/tissue diffusion distance
2. rate of tissue usage - basal metabolic rate
- temperature, physical activity, rate of O
2
usage, pH
- hormones (thyroxine, catecholamines)
- drugs (CN
-
)
active tissues have low P
O2
, low pH, high T, and high P
CO2
, all of which dilate arterioles locally,
increasing the number of open capillaries and reducing the intercapillary distance
P
cO2
must be high enough to establish diffusion gradient to cells
C
cO2
must be high enough to supply O
2
requirements of active tissues
increased requirements of the tissues may be met by,
a. increased extraction ratio of O
2
from blood
b. increased tissue blood flow
Respiratory Physiology
43
CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORT
Carriage in Blood
Form Arterial % Venous %
Dissolved 5 10
Bicarbonate 90 60
Carbamino 5 30
of the CO
2
added to the circulation in the tissues and carried to the lung,
a. 65% is carried in plasma
b. 35% is carried in RBC's
NB: however, the proportion carried in the RBC's increases due to the increased basic
nature of deoxy-Hb
Dissolved
obeys Henry's Law, as does O
2
, but CO
2
is ~ 24x more soluble than O
2
5-10% of the CO
2
liberated by the lung comes from the dissolved fraction
the solubility coefficient (α), is temperature dependent (Nunn table 9.1)
i. O
2
solubility is expressed in ml.O
2
/mmHg/100 ml
ii. CO
2
solubility (α) is usually expressed as mmol/l/mmHg
at 37°C, α
CO2
~ 0.0308 mmol/l/mmHg
Bicarbonate
CO
2
+ H
2
O ←÷→ H
2
CO
3
←÷→ H
+
+ HCO
3
-
←÷→ 2H
+
+ CO
3
=

CA
the first forward reaction occurs very slowly in plasma but rapidly in RBC's due to the presence
of carbonic anhydrase (CA - Zn enzyme)
the carbonic acid formed is only a small percentage (~ 1%) and frequently both this and dissolved
CO
2
are referred to as H
2
CO
3
therefore, in the various equations, the term αP
CO2
is preferable
these should really be expressed as thermodynamic activities, rather than concentrations, but for
very dilute solutions the activity coefficient,
AC = activity / []n ~ 1.0
therefore, the equilibrium constants are apparent constants, K'
the second reaction occurs quickly with a pKa' = 6.1
Respiratory Physiology
44
the third reaction occurs with a pKa' > 9.0, therefore is not an issue in the physiological range
the HCO
3
-
formed diffuses from cell due to a large concentration gradient but H
+
cannot follow
due to the relative membrane impermeability
Cl
-
therefore diffuses into the cells → the chloride shift
deoxy-Hb is more basic than oxy-Hb and accepts H
+
ions more readily
therefore, reducing the P
O2
and Hb saturation increases the CO
2
carrying capacity of the blood
→ the Haldane Effect
as the osmolality of RBC's increases with CO
2
uptake, water enters cells with subsequent
swelling, the process being reversed in lung
Carbamino
formed from the combination of CO
2
with terminal amine groups of blood proteins,
Hb-NH
2
+ CO
2
←÷→ Hb-NH-COOH
quantitatively Hb is the most important
the carboxyl and amino groups of peptide linkages have no functional effect
most side chains, such as glutamic acid and lysine, have pK's well outside the physiological range
the imadazole groups of histidine are the only effective protein buffer
the buffering effect of plasma proteins is relatively low and directly proportional to their histidine
content
Hb has 38 histidine residues and is thus quantitatively the most important
deoxy-Hb is more basic than oxy-Hb and accepts H
+
ions more readily
therefore, reducing the P
O2
and Hb saturation increases the CO
2
carrying capacity of the blood,
→ the Haldane Effect
Buffering Capacity of Hb
the titration curves for Hb and HbO
2
are parallel over the physiological range, Hb being more
basic than HbO
2

delivery of O
2
and uptake of CO
2
are therefore mutually helpful in the tissues,
a. the addition of H
+
& CO
2
shifts the HbO
2
curve to the right
→ the Bohr Effect
b. the formation of deoxy-Hb adds buffer, allowing addition of H
+
without a significant
change in pH
this effectively prevents the large decrease in blood pH which would follow CO
2
uptake,
NB: 1mmol of HbO
2
→ Hb, allows 0.7 mmol H
+
addition without a change of pH
these effects are exaggerated in exercise due to greater CO
2
production and the shift of the HbO
2
curve to the right
Respiratory Physiology
45
Carbon Dioxide Dissociation Curve
in the physiological range the curve is almost linear
therefore, changes in P
CO2
are accompanied by corresponding changes in C
CO2
,
→ compensation of regional V/Q imbalance
the position of the dissociation curve is dependent upon HbO
2
saturation,
→ the Haldane effect
the slope of the CO
2
curve is much steeper in the physiological range than that for O
2
Haldane Effect
Def'n: for a given P
CO2
, C
CO2
increases as P
O2
decreases,

ie., shifts the CO
2
-blood curve to the left
this is due to,
a. the greater affinity of deoxy-Hb for H
+
, and
b. the greater ability of deoxy-Hb to form carbamino compounds
NB: the major effect being (b)
Bohr Effect
Def'n: at a given P
O2
, increases in [H
+
], P
CO2
, and temperature decrease the C
O2
,

ie., shift the HbO
2
curve to the right
composite O
2
-CO
2
diagrams are used to obtain HbO
2
saturation when P
CO2
deviates from 40
mmHg
the slopes of the respective concentration lines, isopleths, representing the above two effects
(West 6.7)
Respiratory Physiology
46
Body Stores of CO
2
body fluids contain ~ 50 ml% CO
2
bone contains greater than 100 ml% CO
2
therefore, the mythical 70 kg man contains ~ 35 l of stored CO
2
of this ~ 20 l is readily exchangeable
with complete apnoea, rate of rise of P
aCO2
~ 3 mmHg/min, which is a balance between the rate
of metabolic production and the ability of the tissues to store CO
2
significance to anaesthesia,
a. hypoventilation following prolonged hypocapnia
b. apnoeic oxygenation (mass movement oxygenation)
Important Effects of Carbon Dioxide (G&G 7th Ed.)
Respiration
CO
2
is a potent stimulus to respiration
inhalation of 2% CO
2
produces a marked increase in rate and depth of respiration
10% CO
2
produces minute volumes up to 75 l/min in normal individuals
there are at least two sites where CO
2
acts to increase respiration,
a. the integrating areas in the brain stem in response to stimulation from medullary
chemoreceptors
b. peripheral arterial chemoreceptors
the mechanism by which CO
2
acts at these sites is by reducing local pH
elevated P
aCO2
causes bronchodilatation while hypocarbia produces constriction of airway smooth
muscle, thus, helping match ventilation to local perfusion
Respiratory Physiology
47
Cardiovascular
NB: the circulatory effects of CO
2
are the result of,
1. direct local effects and
2. centrally mediated autonomic effects
the direct effect on the heart results from decreased local pH, reducing contractile force and
slowing the rate of contraction
rhythm is usually unaffected
the direct effect on systemic blood vessels is vasodilatation
the autonomic effects of CO
2
result in widespread activation of the SNS
this results in an increased concentration of catecholamines, angiotensin and other vasoactive
peptides
the results of SNS activation are, in general, opposite to the local effects of CO
2
this results in increased force and rate of cardiac contraction and vasoconstriction of many
vascular beds
the overall effects of hypercarbia in normal man are,
a. an increase in cardiac output and heart rate
b. elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressures
c. an increase in pulse pressure
d. a decrease in TPR (local effects dominating)
e. cerebral vasculature dilates due to minimal SNS supply
f. increased ICP from increased BP plus cerebral vasodilatation
g. renal and splanchnic flow is not significantly altered
in the isolated myocardium, the threshold for catecholamine induced arrhythmias is increased
however, in vivo, this effect is overwhelmed by the release of large amounts of CA's
NB: arrhythmias are likely to occur with a coexisting factor, eg. Halothane
the circulatory effects of hypocarbia include,
a. decreased blood pressure
b. vasoconstriction in skin, brain, renal, cardiac and most vascular beds
c. vasodilatation in skeletal muscle
if hypocarbia results from voluntary hyperventilation, then CO and HR increase due to increased
venous return and the demands of respiratory muscles
in contrast, hypocarbia resulting from mechanical hyperventilation reduces CO and HR, probably
due to increased intrathoracic pressure
Respiratory Physiology
48
CNS
low concentrations of inspired CO
2
→ moderate hypercarbia,
a. decrease neuronal excitability
b. raise the seizure threshold
c. increases the cutaneous pain threshold (central mechanism)
therefore, can cause further depression of the already depressed CNS
still higher concentrations, 25-30%, → increased cortical excitability and convulsions
FiCO
2
~ 50% → marked cortical and subcortical depression
Miscellaneous
increases in the P
aCO2
produce,
a. shifts the HbO
2
curve → right
b. placental vasoconstriction
c. respiratory acidosis
d. hyperkalaemia
e. increased plasma HCO
3
-
by the kidney, enhanced H
+
secretion
f. increases in ionised Ca
++
due to decreased binding
g. alterations in drug solubility, binding, distribution etc.
h. decreased neuronal excitability
NB: Reference range (Nunn): 38.3 ± 7.5 mmHg
Respiratory Physiology
49
Hypocapnia P
aCO2
< 31 mmHg Causes
1. excessive IPPV
2. voluntary hyperventilation
3. hypoxaemia
4. metabolic acidosis
5. mechanical abnormalities of the lung
→ increase drive through vagal stimulation
6. hypotension - may drive respiration directly
- metabolic acidosis is usually more important
7. hysteria
8. head injuries
9. pain
10. pregnancy
Hypercapnia P
aCO2
> 46 mmHg Causes
a. inadequate IPPV
b. depression of the medullary respiratory centre
c. UMN lesions - trauma
d. anterior horn cell lesions - polio
e. LMN lesions - trauma, Guillian-Barre, M-N disease
f. NMJ - myasthenia gravis, botulin toxin
g. muscles - diaphragmatic splinting (obesity, pregnancy, ascites)
- fatigue 2° workload (resistance/compliance)
h. decreased compliance - lung causes (H-R syndrome, fibrosis, ARDS)
- pleura (empyema, haemothorax, mesothelioma, Ca)
- chest wall (kyphoscoliosis)
- skin (extensive burns in children)
- external pressure
i. loss of integrity of chest wall - open pneumothorax
- tension pneumothorax
- flail chest
j. increased airways resistance = the commonest cause
Respiratory Physiology
50
Measurement of P
aCO2
1. Direct Microtonometry
2. Solution of Henderson-Hasselbach Equation
3. Interpolation (micro-Astrup)
4. CO
2
Electrode
5. Rebreathing Method
Measurement of CO
2
in Gas Mixtures
1. Chemical absorption (Haldane)
2. IR absorption analysis - at 4.28 µm wavelength, end-tidal CO
2
3. Raman spectroscopy
4. Photoacoustic spectroscopy
5. Gas chromatography
6. Mass spectrophotometry
Respiratory Physiology
51
ACID-BASE BALANCE
the principal acid product of metabolism is CO
2
, equivalent to potential carbonic acid
the lungs excrete ~ 15,000 mmol of CO
2
per day (R:15-20,000)
fixed acid excreted by the kidney ~ 70 mmol (<100 mmol)
ECF pH is set within the limits 7.35 to 7.45, being equivalent to [H
+
] = 45 to 35 nmol/l
ICF pH is difficult to determine and varies from one organelle to another, a mean value pH ~ 6.9
the normal [CO
2
] in body fluids is fixed at 1.2 mmol/l, P
CO2
= 40 mmHg
the total buffer capacity of body fluids is ~ 15 mEq/kg body weight
because intracellular and extracellular buffers are functionally linked, the isohydric principal,
measurement of the plasma bicarbonate system provides information about total body buffers
from the dissociation of carbonic acid,
H
2
CO
3
←÷→ HCO
3
-
+ H
+
K
A
= [HCO
3
-
] . [H
+
]
[H
2
CO
3
] by the law of mass action
but as K
A
only applies to infinitely dilute solutions with negligible interionic forces, the apparent
dissociation constant, K
A
', is used
this may be rewritten for hydrogen ion, viz.
K
A
' cannot be derived and is determined experimentally by measuring all three variables under a
wide range of physiological conditions
under normal conditions, using mmHg → αK
A
' ~ 24
therefore, the equation may be written,
[H
+
] = 24 . P
CO2

[HCO
3
-
]
so, P
CO2
∝ [HCO
3
-
].[H
+
]
and, as [H
2
CO
3
] is always proportional to [CO
2
], which is proportional to P
aCO2
the equation may
be written,
graphical plot of plasma [HCO
3
-
] vs. pH = Davenport diagram (West 6.8)
also plotted in the log P
CO2
vs. pH format (Siggaard-Andersen)
preferred method is nomogram of [HCO
3
-
]
pl
vs. P
aCO2
(see Harrison's)
[H
+
] ·
K
A
× α.P
CO
2

HCO
3

]
]
pH · 6.1 + log
[HCO
3

]
0.0301×P
aCO
2
Respiratory Physiology
52
Definitions
Acid: a proton, or hydrogen ion donor
Base: a proton, or hydrogen ion receiver
Plasma pH: the negative log
10
of the hydrogen ion activity ~ [H
+
]
Normal pH = 7.4 ± 0.4 ~ [H
+
] ~ 39 nmol/l
Acidosis: an abnormal process or condition which would lead to an acidaemia,
if uncompensated
Alkalosis: an abnormal process or condition which would lead to an alkalaemia,
if uncompensated
Acidaemia: a plasma pH ≤ 7.36
Alkalaemia: a plasma pH ≥ 7.44
Respiratory: a disorder those where the primary disorder is a change in the P
CO2
Metabolic: a disorder where the primary disturbance is in the [HCO
3
-
]
Base Excess: the amount of strong acid required to be added to 1.0 l of fully saturated blood,
at 37°C, at P
CO2
= 40 mmHg, to return the pH to 7.4
Normal BE = 0 ± 2.0 mmol/l
Standard Bicarbonate: the HCO
3
-
concentration in fully saturated blood,
when the P
CO2
= 40 mmHg at 37°C (** a derived variable)
Normal = 24.0 ± 2.0 mmol/l
Plasma Bicarbonate: the actual HCO
3
-
concentration in plasma at that particular point in
time; cannot be measured but is calculated from the
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, when the P
CO2
and pH are known
NB: some laboratories report the plasma bicarbonate as the total CO
2
, where this is
given by,
Total CO
2
= [HCO
3
-
] + [H
2
CO
3
]
~ 24.0 ± 2.0 mmol/l
where, [H
2
CO
3
] ~ 1.2 mmol/l
Anion Gap: = [Na
+
] - ([Cl
-
] + [HCO
3
-
]) ~ 12.0 ± 2.0
or, = ([Na
+
] + [K
+
]) - ([Cl
-
] + [HCO
3
-
]) ~ 16.0 ± 2.0
Respiratory Physiology
53
ACID-BASE BALANCE
the major problem in clinical assessment stems from compensatory processes
multiple experimental observations of all primary acid-base disturbances is used to produce
confidence bands (± 2SD) for assessment of blood gas measurements → nomogram
NB: given P
aCO2
is proportional to the product of [HCO
3
-
].[H
+
], as P
aCO2
increases or
decreases, so the [HCO
3
-
] increases or decreases by dissociation, however,
not to the same degree as it is the product [HCO
3
-
].[H
+
] which is proportional,
therefore, the ratio [HCO
3
-
]/P
aCO2
alters with a resultant change in the pH
Respiratory Acidosis
caused by hypoventilation, V/Q inequality
↑ P
aCO2
→ ↑ [HCO
3
-
] by dissociation, but
ratio of [HCO
3
-
] / P
aCO2
falls → ↓ pH

increased P
aCO2
, and to a lesser extent increased [H
+
]→ ↑ renal tubular H
+
secretion
thus, bicarbonate reabsorption is increased and more H
+
ion is excreted with phosphate and
ammonium
the increased [HCO
3
-
] compensates for the respiratory acidosis but compensation is rarely
complete
the extent of renal compensation is determined by the base excess
Respiratory Alkalosis
caused by hyperventilation, eg. altitude, hysteria, mechanical ventilation
↓ P
aCO2
→ ↓ [HCO
3
-
] by association, but
ratio of [HCO
3
-
] / P
aCO2
rises → ↑ pH
decreased P
aCO2
inhibits renal tubular H
+
secretion
therefore some bicarbonate escapes reabsorption and less H
+
is available for formation of
titratable acid and ammonium, ergo, urine becomes alkaline
decreased plasma [HCO
3
-
] compensates for respiratory alkalosis and may be nearly complete
extent of renal compensation determined by base deficit, or negative base excess
Respiratory Physiology
54
Metabolic Acidosis
↑ [H
+
] or ↓ [HCO
3
-
] → ↓ plasma [HCO
3
-
]
↓ ratio of [HCO
3
-
] / P
aCO2
→ ↓ pH
decreased pH stimulates ventilation, predominantly via peripheral chemoreceptors, decreasing
P
aCO2
and compensating acidosis
the kidney increases excretion of titratable acid despite the decrease in P
aCO2
this occurs as the filtered load of HCO
3
-
decreases to a greater extent than the reduction in distal
tubular H
+
secretion
→ more H
+
is available for titration against NH
3
and HPO
4
=
the decreased plasma [HCO
3
-
] shows as a base deficit
Metabolic Alkalosis
loss of gastric acid from, excess alkali added to, or retained by, the body,
↓ [H
+
] or ↑ [HCO
3
-
] → ↑ plasma [HCO
3
-
]
↑ ratio of [HCO
3
-
] / P
aCO2
→ ↑ pH
increased pH inhibits ventilation, predominantly via the peripheral chemoreceptors, increasing
P
aCO2
and compensating for alkalosis
the excess plasma [HCO
3
-
] shows as a base excess
NB: compensation may be small or absent,
this is the least well compensated acid-base disturbance
Respiratory Physiology
55
NEUROGENESIS OF BREATHING
Medullary Respiratory Centres
these lie within the reticular formation of the brainstem
divisible into two poorly localised groups,
1. dorsal respiratory group (DRG) → inspiration
2. ventral respiratory group (VRG) → expiration ± inspiration
cells within the DRG are thought (West) to posses inherent rhythmicity, generating bursts of
neuronal activity to the diaphragm and respiratory muscles in the absence of any other input
the DRG is under the control of the pneumotaxic centre
→ termination of the inspiratory "ramp" of action potentials
input from the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves via the nearby nucleus of the tractus solitarius
modulates activity in the DRG
the VRG is divided into 2 divisions,
1. cranial division - neurones of the nucleus ambiguus
2. caudal division - neurones of the nucleus retroambiguus
the cranial division innervates muscles of the ipsilateral accessory muscles of respiration,
principally via the vagus
the caudal division provides inspiratory and expiratory drive to the motor neurones of the
intercostal muscles
the neurones of the expiratory VRG are quiescent during tidal respiration, however become
active with forced expiration, exercise, etc.
all impulses activating respiratory muscles synapse in the respiratory centres of the medulla, ie.
CSA, hypothalamus, cortex, RAS
Apneustic Center
situated in the lower pons in the floor of the 4
th
ventricle, near the middle cerebellar peduncle
impulses from these neurones → inspiratory DRG and increased "ramp" AP's
section of the brainstem immediately above this group → apneusis
prolonged inspiratory gasps interrupted by transient expiratory efforts
this is restrained by the pneumotaxic centre and the inflation reflex
Pneumotaxic Centre
located in the upper pons, in the nucleus parabrachialis and the Kolliker Fuse nucleus
acts to limit the activity of the inspiratory DRG
therefore regulating the inspired volume and rate of respiration
acts only as a modulator, as normal respiratory rhythm can exist in its absence
Respiratory Physiology
56
Nunn:
most of the classical studies, based on ablation experiments, are now realised to be rather
unpredictable due to unpredictable tissue destruction and interruption of blood supply
rhythm can be generated in the medulla, in the absence of input from the lungs or elsewhere
there is no doubt of the existence of pontine neurones firing in synchrony with the different
phases of respiration but they are no longer believed to be essential for the generation of the
respiratory rhythm
although the pneumotaxic centre is no longer thought to be the dominant controller of the
respiratory rhythm, the pattern of firing of these neurones suggests a modification and fine control
of the respiratory rhythm
the dorsal respiratory group is probably of paramount importance in driving the inspiratory
muscles
the generation of inherent rhythm is due a "bistable" system, exhibiting reciprocal stimulation /
inhibition
the final integration of respiratory drive occurs in the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord
these receive UMN's from three regions,
a. fibres from the inspiratory & expiration medullary centres
→ ventrolateral tracts of the spinal cord
b. fibres carrying voluntary control (singing etc.)
→ dorso-lateral & ventro-lateral cord
c. fibres carrying involuntary, non-rhythmic control
→ diffuse pathways, but not with (a) or (b)
Respiratory Physiology
57
REGULATION OF PULMONARY VENTILATION
the brain stem respiratory centres are influenced by,
a. carotid & aortic chemoreceptors - decreased P
aO2
- increased P
aCO2
- increased [H
+
]
b. central chemoreceptors - increased P
aCO2
- increased [H
+
]
CSF

c. cerebral blood flow
d. reflexes from lungs, inflation reflex, etc.
e. muscle spindles in respiratory muscles
f. carotid, aortic baroreceptors
g. thoracic chemoreceptors
h. peripheral - temperature receptors
- pain receptors
- mechano-receptors
i. cerebral cortex - emotion, breath holding
j. RAS and higher CNS centres - ANS, special senses (olfaction)
- speaking, swallowing, etc.
k. hormones - progesterone increases ventilation
Respiratory Physiology
58
Carotid & Aortic Chemoreceptors
the carotid bodies are located at the bifurcation of common carotid artery
they send afferents in the carotid sinus nerve to the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
the aortic bodies are located between the arch of aorta and pulmonary artery
afferents ascend in the recurrent laryngeal nerves to the vagus (X)
these are small neuro-vascular organs, whose perfusing blood comes in contact with special
sensory cells, glomus cells (SIF), which have a large content of dopamine
these are actually inhibitory interneurones and impulses are generated in afferent nerve terminals
these tissues have an extremely high blood supply relative to their size and metabolic needs
→ ~ 20 ml/gm/min, therefore a very low O
2
extraction ratio
they are sensitive to a low P
aO2
stimulation results from a decrease in carotid and aortic body tissue P
O2
(tension, not content)
a fall in carotid and aortic body tissue P
O2
will occur with,
1. arterial hypoxia - decreased P
aO2
2. ischaemia - eg. from marked hypotension
they are not stimulated by,
1. anaemia
2. carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning
3. methaemoglobinaemia
these later conditions produce a decrease in C
aO2
not P
aO2
, therefore there is no decrease in carotid
and aortic body tissue P
02
they are also stimulated by,
1. an increased tissue P
CO2
> 10 mmHg
2. decreased tissue pH > 0.1-0.2 units
3. metabolic poisons - eg. cyanide (CN
-
) poisoning
4. drugs - eg. nicotine, lobeline
the effects of chemoreceptor stimulation include,
1. increased respiratory rate and depth
2. bradycardia (carotid body)*
3. tachycardia (aortic bodies)*
4. hypertension, due to peripheral vasoconstriction
5. bronchoconstriction
NB: * the 1° response is bradycardia, increases being 2° to P
CO2
Respiratory Physiology
59
Carotid & Aortic Chemoreceptors
the response time is very fast and cyclic changes occur with the normal respiratory cycle
the peripheral chemoreceptors are responsible for all of the ventilatory response to hypoxia
in their absence, decreased P
aO2
depresses respiration due to direct effects on the brain stem
complete loss of hypoxic drive has been seen in patients with bilateral carotid body resection
peripheral responses to increased P
aCO2
are << those of the CNS
the carotid, but not the aortic, bodies respond to increased [H
+
], both of respiratory and
metabolic origins
the various stimuli exhibit potentiation in their effects
O
2
-Ventilation Response
the O
2
-ventilation response curve describes a rectangular hyperbola, with the point of inflection at
~ 50 mmHg, and the increase in minute ventilation asymptotical to ~ 30 mmHg
some activity begins at P
aO2
~ 500 mmHg, with little response until the P
aO2
< 100 mmHg and a
marked response below 50-60 mmHg
hence, some chemoreceptor cells are tonically active at the normal P
aO2
the response is enhanced by increased P
CO2
, conversely the normal hyperventilatory response to
hypoxia is limited by concurrent hypocapnia and alkalosis
the carotid and aortic bodies account for the increased ventilation and hypertension from acute
hypoxia
if hypoxia is severe or prolonged, additional and probably central mechanisms increase breathing,
ie. a mild cerebral acidosis
thus, ventilation is increased when breathing an, F
I
O
2
< 10-12%
P
aO2
< 40-50 mmHg
TV increases first, then respiratory rate
there is a wide range of individual response
CO
2
-Ventilation Response
a rise in local tissue P
CO2
, due to an increased P
aCO2
, leads to a reflex increase in ventilation
however, a rise of 10-20 mmHg P
CO2
is required
the peripheral chemoreceptors are not required for the sensitive response of increased ventilation
with increased P
aCO2
however, they are important in mediating a rapid respiratory response to a large rise in P
aCO2
Hydrogen Ion - Ventilation Response
increases in [H
+
] in arterial blood increase ventilation
Kussmaul breathing in acidosis → deep, labored ventilation
there is no change in ventilation until pH falls by 0.1 of a unit
a pH decrease of 0.4 → 2-3 fold increase in ventilation
that is, the peripheral chemoreceptors are relatively insensitive
Respiratory Physiology
60
Respiratory Failure
respiration is relatively unresponsive to CO
2
following continued hypercapnia
respiration may then be "driven" by hypoxia, acting via peripheral chemoreceptors
subsequent increases in F
I
O
2
then lead to apnoea and CO
2
narcosis
there is no adaptation to continued hypoxia
peripheral chemoreceptors are therefore responsible for hyperventilation of chronic hypoxia at
high altitude, or from cardio-pulmonary disease
the peripheral chemoreceptors are also responsible for,
a. the hyperpnoea of CN
-
poisoning
b. part of the hyperventilation associated with hypotension
c. the action of lobeline in stimulating breathing in new-born
d. pharmacological effects of lowest effective dose of nicotine
Central Chemosensitive Areas (CSA)
situated near (beneath) the ventral surface of the medulla, near the origins of the vagi and
glossopharyngeal nerves
these are anatomically separate from the respiratory centres, and are bathed in brain ECF, the
composition of which is determined by CSF, blood flow and local metabolism
of these, CSF is the most important due to the effects of the blood-brain barrier
this is impermeable to both H
+
and HCO
3
-
, however CO
2
diffuses readily and decreases pH
CSF
within a few minutes, which subsequently increases ventilation
increased P
aCO2
also causes cerebral vasodilatation which enhances diffusion of CO
2
into the CSF
and brain ECF
NB: normal pH
CSF
~ 7.32
there is decreased buffer capability due to the low [protein], therefore, an increased P
aCO2
causes a
greater decrease in pH
CSF

long term alterations of pH
CSF
→ compensatory changes in bicarbonate transport across BBB
(24-48 Hrs)
these occur more rapidly than alterations in renal acid excretion
thus, patients with chronic lung disease and CO
2
retention may have normal pH
CSF
and no
compensatory hyperventilation
consequently, pH
CSF
is held within narrow limits by ventilatory responses, despite pH changes in
arterial blood
the response is limited however, by the associated fall in P
aCO2
,
a. acute acidosis → immediate increase in ventilation due to peripheral
chemoreceptor stimulation
b. chronic acidosis → further increase in ventilation due to stimulation of central
chemoreceptors (delay imposed by blood/CSF barrier)
NB: the reverse situation occurs on correction of acidosis
Respiratory Physiology
61
CO
2
-Ventilation Response
increasing FiCO
2
→increased TV, respiratory rate & minute ventilation
P
aCO2
is held within 3 mmHg of normal, though, may rise slightly more during sleep
a marked linear increase in minute ventilation occurs over wide range
as for hypoxia, there is individual variation in response,
→ ~ 2.5 l / min / mmHg-δP
CO2
the response curve is usually drawn as respiratory minute volume vs. alveolar or arterial P
CO2
the slope of the curve measures the sensitivity of the respiratory mechanism to CO
2
changes are seen due to,
a. drugs - CNS / respiratory depressants → right shift
b. decreased P
aO2
- left shift & increased slope
c. pH - increasing [H
+
] → left shift
d. temperature
e. plasma adrenaline levels
f. conscious state, ARAS activity
another method of assessing respiratory drive is P
0.1
, the inspiratory driving pressure generated
against a closed airway in the first 0.1 sec
this is largely unaffected by the mechanical properties of the respiratory system, although it may
be influenced by lung volume
a reduction of arterial CO
2
is very effective in reducing the drive to respiration
trained athletes and divers tend to have low sensitivities to CO
2
the ventilatory response to CO
2
is also reduced if the work of breathing is increased
this is seen in normal subjects breathing through narrow tubes, or in patients with CAL
Threshold for CO
2
does not exist in conscious man
apnoea does not follow the decreased P
aCO2
from hyperventilation, possibly due to ARAS activity
apnoea readily occurs with a fall in P
aCO2
in anaesthetised man or animals
Respiratory Physiology
62
Physiological Importance
1. no longer need to assign the medullary centres with dual excitability to both chemical
and neural stimuli
2. respiratory depressant drugs depress CSA rather than medullary respiratory centres,
the later still being responsive to afferent nerve stimuli
3. explains the slow increase in ventilation when breathing a CO
2
mixture,
and the slow return of ventilation to normal when inhalation stopped
4. explains the hyper and hypo-ventilation seen at times when blood gas analysis would
lead to expectation of the opposite response, eg.
i. continued hyperventilation after return to sea level after spending days to weeks
at high altitude, or after continued hyperventilation on a ventilator
ii. explains the relatively small rise in ventilation with non-respiratory acidosis, or
the continued hyperventilation after correction of blood pH with HCO
3
-
after
sustained non-respiratory acidosis, eg. diabetic keto-acidosis
5. explains why chronic hypoxia produces a further increase in ventilation, compared with
acute hypoxia at same P
aO2
Cerebral Blood Flow
decrease in CBF, eg., from severe hypotension or a rise in ICP → ↑ ventilation
increase in CBF, eg., vasopressor drugs → ↓ ventilation
** these are due to effects on local [H
+
] and P
CO2
Reflexes from the Lungs
there are many types of respiratory reflexes from lungs, heart and great vessels
Inflation Reflex Inhibito-Inspiratory Reflex (Hering-Breuer)
pulmonary stretch receptors are situated within smooth muscle of bronchi and bronchioles
these produce sustained discharge on lung inflation (no adaptation)
afferents travel in large myelinated fibres of the vagus to the medulla
central pathways are only partly known,
→ decreased respiratory frequency due to increased expiratory time
the receptors are stimulated by the rate as well as extent of inflation, and are sensitised by
reduced compliance, such as with trilene
stimulation leads to a decrease, or cessation, of inspiratory muscle activity
the physiological role in man is unknown
the reflex is largely inactive at tidal volumes less than 1.0 l
it has been demonstrated that transient bilateral vagal blockade in awake man does not alter the
rate or rhythm of respiration
may possibly be of some importance in the newborn
Respiratory Physiology
63
the reflex is, however, well-developed in animals in which it may be associated with,
a. termination of inspiration
b. tonic inhibition of the respiratory centres throughout the respiratory cycle
eg. in breath holding experiments, the breath may be held longer if lung is inflated than
if deflated
c. regulation of the work of breathing
Paradoxical Reflex of Head
lung inflation produces a paradoxical further increase in inspiration
possibly related to the sigh mechanism
seen with "triggering" of respiration under spontaneous ventilation during anaesthesia
Deflation Reflex
opposite of the Hering-Breuer reflex
lung deflation leads to increased frequency and force of respiratory effort
possibly related to the sigh mechanism
produces an increase in ventilation with a reduction in FRC below normal
J-Receptors
"juxta-capillary" receptors, believed to be the in alveolar walls, close to capillaries
respond very quickly to chemicals injected into the pulmonary circulation
may also possibly respond to chemicals in alveolar air
impulses travel in slow, non-myelinated vagal fibres,
→ rapid, shallow breathing (intense stimulation → apnoea)
some evidence that pulmonary capillary engorgement and interstitial oedema may cause
stimulation
these may be responsible for the hyperpnoea and dyspnoea of CCF and interstitial lung disease
Irritant Receptors
believed to reside between airway epithelial cells
discharge in response to nociception, impulses travel in myelinated vagal fibres,
→ bronchoconstriction and hyperpnoea
these show rapid adaptation and are involved with mechanoreception
Respiratory Physiology
64
Gamma Efferent System Reflexes From Respiratory Muscles
these provide information about the relationship between inspiratory volume change and required
muscle effort
ensure adequate inspiratory muscle activity for given ventilation, allowing stabilisation of
ventilation even in the face of changing mechanical conditions
probably determine the optimal combination of frequency and tidal volume required to achieve
this ventilation with minimal effort (work of breathing)
compared to healthy subjects, patients with restrictive lung disease breathe rapidly with relatively
small tidal volumes, whilst those with obstructive lung disease breathe more slowly with large tidal
volumes ** P/V curves !
Carotid & Aortic Baroreceptors
↑ BP → ↓ ventilation
↓ BP → ↑ ventilation
Atrial & Venous Baroreceptors
↑ CVP → ↑ ventilation
↓ CVP → ↓ ventilation
Thoracic Chemoreflexes
producing bradycardia, hypotension, apnoea
Reflexes From Somatic & Visceral Tissues
ventilation increases with stimulation of
a. temperature- cold water on skin
b. pain - surgical stimuli
c. mechanical - passive movements of joints/exercise
probably acting via RAS, both in anaesthetised & non-anaesthetised subjects
Respiratory Physiology
65
ARAS & Higher CNS Control
higher CNS control is involved in talking, singing, whistling, etc.
a. wakefulness & sleep
during sleep ventilation decreases → P
aCO2
~ 46 mmHg
this may be involved in immediate awakening from sleep with respiratory
obstruction
b. emotions
respiration affected by a variety of emotional states
eg., anticipation of physical activity, crying, anxiety depression
Hormones - Progesterone
probably responsible for the hyperventilation of pregnancy
in late pregnancy the mean P
aCO2
~ 32-34 mmHg
however, the pH is normal due to decreased plasma [HCO
3
-
]
Respiratory Physiology
66
MECHANICS OF RESPIRATION
inspiration occurs when the alveolar pressure < atmospheric pressure, and may be due to,
a. lowering alveolar pressure below atmospheric pressure,
→ negative pressure respiration
b. raising atmospheric pressure above alveolar,
→ positive pressure respiration
expiration occurs when the alveolar pressure > atmospheric
Normal Breathing
commences with active contraction of inspiratory muscles, which,
a. enlarges the thorax
b. lowers intrathoracic and intrapleural pressures
c. enlarges alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi
d. lowers the alveolar pressure below atmospheric pressure
→ air flows from mouth and nose to alveoli
inspiratory muscles provide the force necessary to overcome,
a. elastic recoil of the lungs and chest wall
b. frictional resistance
i. caused by deformation of lung tissue and thoracic cage
= tissue resistance
ii. to air flow in the conducting airways
= airway resistance
Respiratory Physiology
67
Respiratory Muscles Inspiration
Diaphragm
innervated by the phrenic nerve, from cervical segments C
3,4,5
the principal muscle of inspiration → "piston-like" activity, causing,
a. enlargement of the thoracic cavity
b. elevation of ribs, especially when diaphragmatic descent is restricted

in health, the visceral pleura slides easily over the parietal pleura, so descent of the diaphragm
enlarges all lobes of lung
during tidal breathing the diaphragm descends ~ 1.5 cm, and with forced inspiration ~ 10 cm
unilateral paralysis produces little decrease in ventilatory capacity
bilateral paralysis does not cause hypoventilation, but does produce paradoxical upward
movement on inspiration
with hyperinflation, eg. emphysema, the flattened diaphragm acts at a mechanical disadvantage
the diaphragm still works when the abdominal contents are increased, as the diaphragm is
centrally "fixed" under these conditions
External Intercostal Muscles
these slope downwards and forwards → elevation of ribs in upward, outward direction
enlarging the A-P diameter of chest, in a "bucket-handle" fashion
these also tense the intercostal spaces, preventing indrawing during descent of the diaphragm and
enlargement of the thorax
innervated by intercostal nerves from adjacent spinal levels
Accessory Muscles
active only in hyperpnoea or dyspnoea, when the minute volume is ≥ 40-50 l/min
not normally active in tidal breathing
scaleni, sternomastoid, posterior neck, trapezius and back muscles
→ help raise the thoracic cage
muscles of the nose, mouth, and larynx act to reduce upper airway resistance
maximum reduction in intrapleural pressure ~ 60-100 mmHg subatmospheric
Respiratory Physiology
68
Muscles of Expiration
expiration normally occurs due to the elastic recoil of the pulmonary and thoracic tissues
stretched during inspiration
with hyperpnoea or dyspnoea, especially from airways obstruction, expiratory muscles contract
actively (V
M
≥ 40 l/min)
they are also active during coughing, straining, vomiting, etc.
Abdominal Muscles
these are the most important of the expiratory muscles (Nunn)
they act to force the diaphragm upward and depress the lower ribs
Internal Intercostal Muscles
these tense the intercostal spaces during coughing, straining etc.
depress the ribs in downward & inward in direction
NB: the diaphragm is active during in early expiration, allowing a smoother transition
from inspiration to expiration
vigorous contraction of the expiratory muscles can produce intrapleural pressure,
i. sustained rise ~ 100 mmHg
ii. transient rise ~ 300 mmHg
Effects of Anaesthesia
with deep anaesthesia a pattern of "abdominal", or "diaphragmatic" respiration develops
this used to be thought due to intercostal muscle paralysis, however, intercostal muscle activity is
maintained
Nunn talks about the relative loss of intercostal activity being responsible for both,
a. diaphragmatic respiration, and
b. loss of the ventilatory response to CO
2
the later being predominantly mediated by intercostal activity
"abdominal" breathing is usually associated with a short duration of inspiration, in which a sharp
descent of the diaphragm results is a sharp drop in intrathoracic pressure, and the chest wall is
indrawn or fails to expand normally
a similar situation is seen with respiratory obstruction
expiratory muscle activity occurs regularly during anaesthesia, with or without an endotracheal
tube or pharyngeal airway, especially during light anaesthesia
Respiratory Physiology
69
Resistance to Breathing
1. Elastic resistance ~ 65%
2. Non-elastic resistance ~ 35%
i. Airflow ~ 80%
ii. Viscous ~ 20%
Elastic Resistance to Breathing
Elastic Recoil of the Lungs
the tendency of elastic lung tissue to recoil from the chest wall results in a sub-atmospheric
intrapleural pressure
at FRC, the mean intrapleural pressure ~ 4-5 cmH
2
0 sub-atmospheric
the intrapleural pressure is normally estimated by an oesophageal balloon catheter
this is more accurate in measuring changes rather than absolute pressure, due to interference from
the weight of the heart
Compliance
is a measure of the elasticity, or distensibility, of pulmonary or thoracic tissues
for an elastic body, this is given by the relation between the distending force and length
for the lung, this is given by the relationship of pressure and volume
this may be measured under static conditions, ie. zero air flow, or under dynamic conditions
the units of compliance are δV/δP = litres/cmH
2
0
Respiratory Pressures
1. Transrespiratory Pressure P
RS
= P
A
- P
B
2. Transpulmonary Pressure P
L
= P
A
- P
IP
3. Transthoracic Pressure P
CW
= P
IP
- P
B
Respiratory Physiology
70
Static Lung Compliance
the relationship between volume change of lung and the transpulmonary pressure change, i.e.,
airway - intrapleural pressure change, measured under known static conditions (zero airflow)
the normal value for a 70 kg adult ~ 200 ml/cmH
2
0
the value decreases as lung volume increases, due to the limitations of the non-elastic
components of the lung/chest wall system
static P/V curves for the lung → sigmoid curve with varying degrees of hysteresis, with the
volume at any given pressure being greater during deflation (see below)
the P/V curve doesn't reach zero volume due to trapping of gas in small airways
this occurs at a greater volume with increasing age and lung disease
the varying slope of the curve, and the differential intrapleural pressure down the lung is also
partially responsible for the differential ventilation of various lung segments
Respiratory Physiology
71
compliance is directly related to lung volume, a 1.0 cmH
2
0 increase in transpulmonary pressure
will inflate,
a. two lungs by 0.2 l
b. one lung by 0.1 l
the absolute compliance of the lung of a neonate ~ 0.006 l/cmH
2
0
however, the specific compliance ~ 0.067 l/cmH
2
0/l.V
L
the later being identical to an adult
specific compliance is a true measure of the elasticity of lung tissue, defined as,
C
S
= Lung Compliance = (δV/δP)/V
Lung Volume
= Lung Compliance
FRC

a change in posture, from sitting to the supine position, with a decrease in FRC, will reduce the
absolute static compliance but not specific compliance
in comparison, interstitial fibrosis will reduce specific lung compliance
Measurement
the patient takes a breath from a spirometer and holds it until the transpulmonary pressure
difference becomes stable
this is repeated with different tidal volumes to produce a pressure/volume curve, where
Compliance = the slope of the pressure/volume curve
this can also be done with the patient apnoeic using PPV
the patient is inflated with known volumes of gas and the transpulmonary pressure change
determined at equilibrium
this is taken as the mouth - oesophageal balloon gradient
Respiratory Physiology
72
Factors Affecting Static Compliance
a. FRC ↑ FRC → ↑ C
L
age
body size
posture
b. lung volume ↓ V
L
→ ↓ C
L
lobar, lung resection
collapse or consolidation
diffuse atelectasis
c. lung elasticity
increased lung elasticity, eg. emphysema* (see below)
decreased lung elasticity, eg. pulmonary oedema, congestion, fibrosis
NB: Nunn lists 7 factors,
1. lung volume - the bigger the lungs the larger the compliance
2. posture - due to changes in lung volumes
- does not affect specific compliance
3. pulmonary blood volume
pulmonary venous congestion from any cause will decrease the compliance
4. age
many studies have failed to demonstrate any change in compliance when allowing
for changes in lung volumes
this is consistent with the notion that most of the elastic recoil is due to surface
forces
5. restriction of chest expansion
causes only temporary changes in compliance
6. recent ventilatory history
7. disease
emphysema is unique in that static C
L
is increased
destruction of pulmonary tissue and loss of both elastin and surface retraction increases FRC
however, the distribution of inspired gas may be grossly abnormal, therefore the dynamic C
L
is
frequently reduced
in asthma, the P/V curve is simply displaced upwards without a change in C
L
the elastic recoil is reduced at normal transmural pressure, thus the FRC is increased
most other types of pulmonary disease decrease the C
L
, both static & dynamic
Respiratory Physiology
73
Dynamic Lung Compliance
airflow is zero at the point of flow reversal during the normal respiratory cycle
measurements of lung compliance made using these points reflect dynamic compliance
in normal lungs at low and moderate frequencies, dynamic and static lung compliance are about
the same value
however, at higher frequencies in normal lungs, and at normal frequencies in abnormal lungs,
dynamic compliance is less than static compliance
this is due to incomplete filling of alveoli in the time available
true pressure equilibrium between applied pressure and alveolar pressure is not obtained, and the
lung appears to be stiffer than it actually is
the time to fill an alveolus depends on the product of airway resistance and the compliance of
the alveolus = the exponential time constant
the higher the airway resistance, or regional lung compliance, the longer a given alveolus will
take to fill
slow alveoli will not fill in the time available, especially in emphysema
taken from the slope of the transpulmonary pressure/volume loops recorded during tidal
ventilation
using a differential pressure transducer, from an oesophageal balloon to the airway, and a
pneumotachograph
the pneumotachograph measures instantaneous flow, however, this may be electronically
integrated over time to give volume
thus, the pressure difference at the no flow points of the P/V loop can be established
Factors Affecting Dynamic Compliance
decreased dynamic lung compliance is seen especially with increased airways resistance, eg.
asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema
this is principally due to the prolonged time constants
emphysema increases specific lung compliance but, due to its effect on the time constant,
τ (tau) = C
L
× R
A
produces the phenomenon of frequency dependent compliance
dynamic C
L
decreases as the respiratory frequency increases, as slower alveoli fail to fill
numerically, the time constant is the time which would be taken to reach 63% of the final δV
stated another way, the time which would be taken to full volume change, if the initial rate of
change of volume (δV/δt), were maintained
Respiratory Physiology
74
Surface Forces and Lung Recoil
elastic lung recoil is dependent on,
a. surface tension → produces > 50% of normal lung recoil
b. tissue elastic fibres
filling the lung with fluid eliminates the liquid/gas interface and allow assessment of the tissue
factors
the recoil pressure of a saline filled lung is lower, determined only by the elastic recoil of
pulmonary tissue → tissue recoil ~ 20%
surface tension is the force in dynes acting on an imaginary line 1.0 cm long within the liquid
surface (dynes/cm, SI units = N/m)
as the intermolecular forces between liquid molecules are greater within the liquid than at the
liquid/air interface,
fluids → minimum surface area possible
for liquid spheres, using Laplace's Law,
P = 4 × T
s
/rwhere T
s
is surface tension
however, the liquid lined alveoli have only 1 liquid/air interface, therefore,
P = 2T
s
/r

surface active agents exert smaller attracting forces for other molecules
therefore, when concentrated at the surface they dilute the molecules of the liquid and hence
lower its surface tension
NB: Laplace's' Law actually states:P = T(1/r
1
+ 1/r
2
)
Respiratory Physiology
75
Pulmonary Surfactant
all alveoli experience some transpulmonary pressure regardless, of their size
Laplace's law would suggest that small alveoli should tend to empty into large alveoli and
collapse, however, this does not occur!
pulmonary surfactant in the alveolar lining fluid alters the surface tension as alveolar volume
changes
dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC), a phospholipid, is the main component
synthesised in type II alveolar cells, granular pneumocytes
the elimination half life, t½ ~ 14 hrs
ordinary detergents lower the surface tension, but surface tension does not alter with changes in
the area of the surface
with pulmonary surfactant, as the surface area decreases, so surface tension also decreases
conversely, an increase in surface area leads to an increase in surface tension (see West 7.7)
DPPC has hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends, therefore forms a lipid monolayer
as the area of the surface decreases, the [DPPC]
s
increases, and due to repulsive forces between
molecules decreases the surface tension
these curves differ during contraction and expansion of the liquid surface, contributing to the
observed hysteresis of the P/V loops
this is probably the major factor in the hysteresis seen in static P/V loops
alveoli are also held patent by tissue interdependence, due to the expansive forces of
surrounding alveoli
due to the weight of lung tissue, P
IP
is more negative at apices and alveoli are more expanded,
a. apices ~ - 10.0 cmH
2
O
b. bases ~ - 2.5 cmH
2
O
c. mean value ~ - 4.0 to 5.0 cmH
2
O
therefore, different portions of the lung reside on different portions of the P/V curve and have
different compliances
this is the cause of the greater ventilation of the bases during tidal respiration, the apices residing
on the stiffer "shoulder" of curve are less compliant
at very low volumes, the apex may be better ventilated due to decreases in C
L
at low lung
volumes and small airways closure
NB: these theories regarding alveoli and surfactant are attractive,
however, Hills (1982) displayed that alveoli are dry, with surfactant acting as a
"wetting agent", thus contradicting much of the above theory
Respiratory Physiology
76
Physiological Importance of Pulmonary Surfactant
a. reduces T
s
in alveoli
cf. water or plasma, reducing lung recoil and the work of breathing
b. stabilises alveoli of variable size
as surface tension is proportional to surface area
preventing small alveoli tending to "fill" larger ones
c. promotes alveolar dryness
a high T
s
tending to draw fluid into alveoli as well as promoting collapse
NB: Deficiency of Surfactant → decreased compliance
segmental atelectasis
pulmonary oedema
V/Q imbalance
interference with production, or increased inactivation occurs with,
a. IRDS of new-born
b. pulmonary lavage
c. hyperoxia - O
2
toxicity of lung
d. pulmonary oedema, atelectasis, embolism
e. hypoxia, acidosis
f. gross overdistension of alveoli
g. ARDS
other factors preventing collapse of alveoli include,
a. tissue interdependence
b. collateral ventilation
c. the "sigh" mechanism → ~ 2-3 × tidal V
Respiratory Physiology
77
Elastic Recoil of the Thoracic Cage
resting volume for thoracic cage ~ FRC + 600-700 ml
thoracic cage compliance is calculated from total compliance of the thoracic cage + the lungs,
and from pulmonary compliance when measured simultaneously, where,
1/C
TOT
= 1/C
L
+ 1/C
CW
Normal Values
1. Total thoracic compliance C
TOT
~ 0.1 l/cmH
2
0
(δP = P
A
- P
B
) ~ 85 ml/cmH
2
O*
2. Compliance of lung C
L
~ 0.2 l/cmH
2
0
(δP = P
A
- P
IP
) ~ 150 ml/cmH
2
O*
3. Compliance of chest wall C
CW
~ 0.2 l/cmH
2
0
~ 200 ml/cmH
2
O*
NB: * figures are from Nunn, anaesthetised patient, supine, IPPV
total thoracic compliance is calculated from the volume change in relation to the transrespiratory
pressure change → δP
R
= P
A
- P
B
compliance of the thoracic cage may be measured directly using the transmural pressure change
→ δP
CW
= P
IP
- P
B

thoracic cage compliance is decreased in,
a. kyphoscoliosis
b. scleroderma
c. muscle spasticity
d. abdominal distension, obesity - especially when supine
chest wall elastic recoil is outward at FRC, FRC being the equilibrium point of the recoil forces
of both systems, therefore,
1. V
L
> FRC → expiration passive
2. V
L
< FRC → inspiration passive
this is not quite true, as FRC is 400-500 ml above the equilibrium point due to the tonic activity
of the diaphragm
since the pressure, at any given volume, is inversely proportional to the compliance, so the total
compliance of the lung and chest wall must be the sum of the reciprocals of each system measured
separately,
1/C
T
= 1/C
L
+ 1/C
CW
(C ∝ 1/R)
Respiratory Physiology
78
Non-Elastic Resistance to Breathing
this is composed of,
a. airway flow resistance ~ 80%
b. pulmonary tissue resistance, or viscous resistance ~ 20%
Resistance to Air Flow
the work of breathing during tidal respiration,
a. elastic recoil of lungs and thorax ~ 65%
b. airway and tissue resistance ~ 35%
the work to overcome non-elastic resistance increases markedly with rapid respiration, or
narrowing of the airways
during airflow, the pressure to produce a unit increase in lung volume is greater than when there
is no flow (see below)
the pressure required to produce a given airflow depends upon whether the flow is laminar, or
turbulent
Respiratory Cycle Pressures
If airway resistance were zero;
there would be no
mouth-to-alveolar gradient and
alveolar pressure would remain
zero
intrapleural pressure would be
determined by elastic resistance
alone, and would follow the line
ABC; the shaded area representing
the added pressure to overcome
airflow resistance
Note the diagram in West (7.13) is
slightly inaccurate, as it indicates
that for a given tidal volume, peak
intrapleural pressure would be the
same with or without added airflow
resistance.
Respiratory Physiology
79
Laminar Flow
where r = radius of a tube
l = length of the tube
(P
1
-P
2
) = the pressure gradient (δP)
η = gas viscosity
since resistance, R = δP/V, by rearrangement,
therefore, if the radius is halved, resistance to flow increases ~ 16 times!
laminar flow → velocity profile, where the velocity at the center ~ twice the average velocity
other factors remaining constant, flow rate is directly proportional to the driving pressure,
δP = K
1
× V
Q
.
·
πr
4
.δP
8ηl
R ·
8ηl
πr
4
Respiratory Physiology
80
Turbulent Flow
the likelihood of flow becoming turbulent is predicted by the,
Reynold's Number (Re) = ρvd
η

the gas viscosity (η-eta) becomes relatively less important, c.f. density (ρ-rho) which decreases
flow proportionately
the viscosities of respirable gasses do not vary greatly, however their densities may vary
considerably
when Re > 2000, turbulent flow becomes increasingly more likely, and the driving pressure
becomes proportional to the square of the flow rate,
δP = K
2
× V
2
the constant K
2
incorporating gas density
theoretically, the required driving pressure becomes inversely proportional to the fifth power of
the tube radius (Fanning equation)
Nunn states when Re < 1000 flow is laminar and when Re > 1500 flow is almost entirely
turbulent
with both laminar and turbulent flow, the driving pressure becomes proportional to both the rate
of flow and to its square
quantification represents only an approximate statement for airway resistance
methods of approximation of airway resistance include,
1. the two constants method δP = K1.V+ K
2
.V
2
~ 2.4 × V + 0.3 × V
2
2. the exponent n, where (1 < n < 2) δP = K.V
n
~ 2.4 × V
1.3
cmH
2
O
another approach is the graphical method, where δP is plotted against log V, and the slope of the
line indicates the value of "n" above
Respiratory Physiology
81
Turbulent Flow
the conditions of flow at the entrance to tube are also important, eddies being carried distally
branching points with different airway impedances also disrupts laminar flow, due to reflection
of the pressure wavefront
airways are not smooth, cylindrical, rigid tubes
the upper airway has two irregular nasal passages in parallel, followed by the pharynx, larynx and
trachea in series
the net effect is such that flow probably only becomes laminar in the small terminal bronchioles,
where Re ~ 1
for the majority of the bronchial tree, flow → transitional
as airways become smaller, the total resistance would rise tremendously except for bronchiolar
subdivision,
a. as each bronchiole divides into two the subdivisions have only a slightly smaller radius
than the parent airway, and are also shorter in length
b. the gas flow rate decreases with each subdivision
gas flow is largely laminar during quiet breathing
increased flow rates readily produce turbulence in the larynx, trachea, pharynx and major bronchi
Respiratory Physiology
82
Measurement of Airway Resistance
normal value for a healthy adult ~ 0.5-1.5 cmH
2
0/l/s
- body plethysmograph
- at 0.5 l/s flow rate (quiet breathing)
another source → 1.0-3.0 cmH
2
O/l/s
50 to 75% of this is in the nose (less resistance through mouth)
most of the remaining resistance in larynx and bronchial tree
Airway Resistance
as R = δP/δV, simultaneously measure the rate of air flow and the alveolar-to-mouth pressure
gradient,
R
AW
= mouth - alveolar pressure
flow (δV)
alveolar pressure is measured in a body plethysmograph
making use of Boyle's Law relating pressure and volume of gases to measure alveolar pressure
directly during inspiration and expiration
in normal tidal breathing δP ~ 1.0 cmH
2
O but may be much higher in patients with obstructive
airways disease
thus, during tidal breathing,
i. δP ~ 1.0 cmH
2
O
ii. δV/δt ~ 0.5 l/s
iii. R
AW
~ 2.0 cmH
2
O/l/s
Non-Elastic Resistance
R
NE
= mouth - intrapleural pressure
flow (δV)
effectively, (P
M
-P
IP
) = (P
M
-P
A
) + (P
A
-P
IP
), where (P
A
-P
IP
) is represented by the shaded portion
of fig. 7.13
a differential pressure transducer instantaneously measures P
M
-P
IP
gradient
a pneumotachograph measures the instantaneous flow rate, which may be integrated to give
respired volumes
at points of zero flow, the pressure gradient is opposed only by elastic forces
it is then possible to construct the dotted line in the pressure trace, representing the pressure
gradient to overcome elastic forces alone
the difference between this and the observed pressure gradient (shaded zone) is the flow
resistance component (Nunn fig. 3.15)
the total non-elastic resistance = airway resistance + tissue resistance, where,
i. airway resistance ~ 80%
ii. pulmonary tissue resistance ~ 20%
Respiratory Physiology
83
Factors Affecting Airway Resistance
Aetiology of Small Airway Obstruction
a. constriction of bronchiolar smooth muscle
b. mucosal congestion, inflammation
c. oedema of bronchiolar tissues
d. plugging of the lumen by mucus, oedema fluid, exudate, or foreign bodies
e. cohesion of mucosal surfaces by surface tension forces
f. infiltration, compression, or fibrosis of bronchioles
g. collapse, or kinking of bronchioles due to loss of normal traction by alveolar elastic
fibres, or to loss of structural, supporting tissues (cartilage) of bronchi
NB: physical, nervous and chemical factors influence airway size and therefore
resistance,
Physical Factors
1. lung volume
2. closing volume
3. respiratory cycle - inspiration versus expiration
4. forced expiration
5. coughing
6. fixed obstructive lesions
Nervous Factors
1. cholinergic
2. adrenergic
3. non-cholinergic - nonadrenergic
Chemical Factors
a. endogenous - CA's, histamine, 5HT, bradykinin
b. exogenous - sympathomimetics, anticholinergics, steroids
- irritant chemicals, particulates
Respiratory Physiology
84
Physical Factors
airway resistance decreases as lung volume is increased
increased stretch of elastic fibres causes distension of the small airways, widening their lumen
a decrease in lung volume narrows airways, increasing airways resistance
this effect is maximal in the dependent parts of lung due to the weight of supported lung tissue
small airway closure and V/Q imbalance may follow
Def'n: closing volume is that volume in which closure of dependent airways begins, or
the volume in which dependent lung units cease to contribute to expired gas,
ie.,the beginning of phase IV of the washout curve to RV
normal values ~ 15-20% of VC, ie. a part of the VC manoeuvre
this is distinct from closing capacity, which is the difference between the onset
of phase IV and zero lung volume = CV + RV, expressed at a % of TLC
measured by either a bolus or resident gas technique
1. bolus technique
originally xenon or argon, usually now helium
inspiration from RV to TLC creating differential tracer gas composition
as dependent portions of lung have "closed units", the inspired tracer is
preferentially distributed to the apical segments
→ apical areas contain more tracer gas cf. bases
during slow controlled expiration, as dependent units again start to close, the
expired concentration of tracer gas rises abruptly (see above)
Respiratory Physiology
85
2. resident gas technique
as for the above, depends upon a pre-expiration concentration gradient
however there is normally little difference in [N
2
] between apex & base at TLC
therefore, inspiration of 100% O
2
is used to dilute the already present N
2
→ apex to base concentration difference ~ 2x
the [N
2
]
Exp.
is then plotted against expired volume, and with the onset of dependent
lung closure, the [N
2
]
Exp.
decreases (Anthonisen et al. 1969)
NB: may result in smaller values cf. the bolus technique in the presence of asthma or
bronchoconstriction, probably due to air trapping (??)
as CV represents a portion of the VC manoeuvre, it is usually expressed as a percentage of such
expiration must be performed slowly to prevent dynamic airways collapse, ~ 0.5 l/sec
changes in CV may represent small airways disease, or loss of elastic recoil and parenchymal
supportive tissue
with advancing age there is an increased tendency toward airway closure, with an increase in
closing volume, Nunn
a. at ~ 65 years → CV ~ FRC erect
b. at ~ 45 years → CV ~ FRC supine
presumably this is due to a progressive decrease in lung elastic recoil
this contributes to the decrease in P
aO2
with advancing age (maximal in supine position)
young children similarly have decreased elastic recoil & relatively increased CC's
→ minimal values for CV/CC are seen in late the late second decade
CV is a sensitive marker of early dysfunction, but difficulty defining normal limits
respiratory cycle → resistance is less during inspiration than during expiration
airways widen and lengthen during inspiration / narrow and shorten during expiration
changes in diameter are of greater significance, cf. changes in length
however, these changes are not significant with quiet breathing
forced expiration results in flaccid
airways collapse when the pressure
outside their walls exceeds the
intraluminal pressure
intrapleural pressure is applied to
alveoli, bronchioles and bronchi
the air pressure in bronchioles is
less than that in alveoli, due to the
pressure drop along the airway
secondary to flow resistance
Respiratory Physiology
86
when this pressure drop is great, due to increased airways resistance or forced expiration, and
when there is reduced elastic recoil, as with age/emphysema, the extramural pressure can exceed
intraluminal pressure and airway collapse occurs
greater effort cannot increase flow under these conditions, the greater pressure gradient simply
shifting the point of collapse closer to the alveoli
thus, flow-volume curves →
an envelope which cannot be exceeded
irrespective of driving pressure (opposite)
within limits the PEFR is dependent upon
effort, but the later portions of the curve
approach an identical effort-independent
part
isovolume pressure flow curves show effort
independent flow at low and mid lung
volumes (see West 7.17)
under these conditions driving pressure
becomes (P
A
- P
IP
), not (P
A
- P
B
), similar to
the Starling resistor mechanism limiting
blood flow in Zone 2
as P
IP
is increased, the driving pressure is unaltered, the point of airway collapse merely moves
closer to alveoli
bronchioles are, in general, the most collapsible as,
a. their size depends upon elastic fibres of the lung radially distending their walls, and
b. they have no cartilaginous support
in chronic bronchitis large bronchi may lose cartilage and collapse readily during forced
expiration
once collapsed additional force is needed to open airways
flow limitation is increased by,
a. low lung volumes → decreased (P
A
- P
IP
)
b. increased lung compliance → decreased (P
A
- P
IP
)
eg. emphysema
c. increased airways resistance → increased δP
Respiratory Physiology
87
Coughing
forced expiratory effort against a closed glottis
the glottis then opens suddenly with rapid expulsion of gas producing very high expiratory flow
this is coupled with tracheal narrowing and inversion of the non-cartilaginous part of
intrathoracic trachea
Nervous Factors
the parasympathetic nervous system is of major importance in the control of bronchomotor tone
afferents arise from receptors under the tight junctions of the bronchial epithelium and pass
centrally in the vagus
these respond to a wide variety of noxious stimuli
histamine sensitises these endings, in addition to its direct effects
efferent fibres run in the vagus and terminate on ganglia located in the walls of the small bronchi
short postganglionic fibres release ACh, which acts on muscarinic receptors on smooth muscle
smooth muscle is present in the trachea, bronchi, and alveolar ducts
some degree of resting tone is usually present
airways constrict reflexly with,
a. inhalation of smoke, dust, chemical irritants
b. arterial hypercapnia - cf. alveolar hypocapnia ?CNS/PNS
c. cold
d. pulmonary emboli
airways dilated reflexly,
a. during inspiration
b. arterial hypertension - carotid sinus reflex
the sympathetic nervous system is poorly represented in the lung and its functional significance
questioned
bronchial smooth muscle has β
2
receptors on which NA has little effect
NB: β-blockers cause minimal constriction in normal subjects,
however may cause marked bronchospasm in asthmatics
in addition, there is a non-adrenergic non-cholinergic system also running in the vagus nerve
the neurotransmitter is probably VIP (28 AA)
stimulation of these fibres, or the administration of VIP results in prolonged dilatation but the
significance is uncertain
other neurotransmitters present include,
a. PHI - peptide histidine isoleucine (27 AA)
b. substance P - (11 AA)
c. CGRP - calcitonin gene related peptide
Respiratory Physiology
88
Chemical Factors
isoprenaline, adrenaline, salbutamol, and other β
2
-adrenergic agonists cause bronchodilatation
β
2
adrenergic antagonists, acetylcholine, and anticholinesterases cause bronchoconstriction
histamine (H
1
) constricts bronchioles and alveolar duct sphincters
alveolar hypocapnia causes regional bronchoconstriction, thereby tending to correct V/Q
imbalance resulting from regional decreases in perfusion
Effects of Increased Airways Resistance
1. lung hyper-inflation → increased FRC and residual volume
2. dyspnoea
3. decrease in respiratory rate
4. mechanical disadvantage of respiratory muscles
5. prolongation of the time constant → V/Q mismatch
the differential diagnosis of types of increased airway resistance,
a. increased airway resistance in expiration only → airway collapse
b. airway obstruction rapidly reversed by therapy → bronchoconstriction, ±
i. mucosal congestion, oedema
ii. mucus, exudate, etc., in the lumen
Pulmonary Tissue Viscous Resistance
due mainly to the movement of pleural layers between lobes, and between the lungs and chest
wall during inspiration & expiration
accounts for < 20% of the total non-elastic resistance in health
increased in pulmonary fibrosis, carcinomatosis, etc., but rarely to significant or limiting values
measurements of thoracic cage viscous resistance, rib cage & abdominal contents, is difficult
there is also the inertia of lung/thorax system and the air mass, however, this is very small
Respiratory Physiology
89
WORK OF BREATHING
Def'n: mechanical work of breathing = F × s (Force × distance)
= P × V (Pressure × Volume)
thus, the work of breathing = the cumulative product of pressure × volume of
air moved each instant,
= δP.δV/δt
this is required to overcome,
1. elastic resistance ~ 65%
2. non-elastic resistance ~ 35% → 80% airflow
20% viscous
frequently expressed in Watts, which is in fact work/time, hence the correct term should be the
power of breathing, viz.
~ 0.5 l × 3.0 cmH
2
O
~ 0.5 l × 0.3 kPa
~ 150 mJ
West (fig. 7.20) describes the total work
required to move the lung as OABCGO
with the work to overcome elastic
resistance given by the trapezoid OAECGO
the difference between these representing
the non-elastic resistance, given by the
shaded area ABCEA
NB: this is not the work of "breathing", as
some work is performed by the stored elastic
potential energy of the thoracic cage,
(see Ganong fig. 34-9 and below)
the true work of inspiration is given by
ABCDA, with the elastic component being
AECDA
as airway resistance, or inspiratory flow
rate is increased, so would δP
IP
, effectively
sloping the curve to right, increasing total
and viscous work
on expiration, the work to overcome
non-elastic forces (AECFA), falls within
work trapezoid and can be accomplished with
the stored energy in elastic structures
the difference between AECDA - AECFA represents the energy expenditure with which no external work
is done → heat
Work ·

0
t
δV.δPdt
Respiratory Physiology
90
Ventilatory Pattern
a. as respiratory frequency increases,
→ flow rates increase and the non-elastic area ABCEA increases
b. as tidal volume increases,
→ the elastic work area OAECGO increases
NB: therefore, patients with stiff lungs → small shallow breaths
patients with airways obstruction → long deep breaths
as both of these patterns tend to decrease the work of breathing
NB: The total elastic work required for inspiration is the area ABCA.
The elastic work to inflate the lungs alone is ABDEA; however, part of this work is
performed by the elastic energy stored in the thoracic cage AFGBA. The elastic energy
gained by the lungs (AEDCA) is equal to that lost by the thoracic cage (AFGBA)
Respiratory Physiology
91
Metabolic Work of Breathing (Oxygen cost of breathing)
usually expressed as ml.O
2
(additional O
2
consumption)/l ventilation
this is low during quiet breathing, but increases with increasing ventilation, especially in the
presence of pulmonary disease
in severe cases of obstructive lung disease, the O
2
cost of additional ventilation may exceed the
additional O
2
provided by that increased effort
O
2
cost of quiet breathing ~ 0.5 to 1.0 ml.O
2
/l ventilation
~ 1-2% of basal MRO
2
(250 ml/min)
mechanical efficiency of respiratory muscles, E,
E = useful work x 100 ~ 5 - 10%
total energy expended (O
2
used)
Hyperpnoea of Exercise
the aetiology is largely unknown, but multiple factors are involved
a fit young male may increase V
M
to 120 l/min, with a MRO
2
~ 4.0 l/min
in steady state, exercise ventilation correlates closely with the increase in metabolic rate
NB: that is there is no appreciable change in P
aO2
or P
aCO2
however, there is an abrupt increase in ventilation at the onset of exercise, and an abrupt decrease
toward resting values at the end of exercise
possible factors involved,
a. P
aCO2
& P
aO2
- unchanged with exercise unless extreme
- therefore are not a major factor
b. arterial pH - falls only with very severe exercise
c. unknown chemical stimulus - oscillations in P
aO2
or P
aCO2
- the additional CO
2
load presented to lungs
d. temperature- rises only slowly with exercise
- may produce a delayed increase in ventilation
- but there is no temperature sensitive mechanism in muscle for
the stimulation of ventilation
e. mechano receptors in muscles & joints
f. impulses from the motor cortex
g. psychogenic factors - increased ventilation in anticipation of exercise
Respiratory Physiology
92
Abnormal Breathing Patterns
Cheyne-Stokes Breathing
periodic breathing, characterised by periods of apnoea lasting 15-20 secs, alternating with
crescendo-decrescendo pattern of ventilation of approximately equal duration
usually seen in patients with severe hypoxaemia,
a. brain damage
b. overdose of respiratory depressant drugs
c. increased circulation time, e.g., cardiac failure
d. occasionally seen in healthy individuals and infants, during sleep
e. frequently seen at high altitude, especially during sleep
can be induced in experimental animals by lengthening the lung/brain circulation time
Respiration at High Altitude
normal barometric pressure is halved at 18,000 ft (5500 m), thus
1. P
I
O
2
= (380-47) × 0.2093 ~ 70 mmHg
2. P
a
O
2
~ 40 mmHg
> 15 million people reside at altitudes over 10,000 ft.
there are permanent residents in the Andes at over 16,000 ft.
Hyperventilation
typically residence at over 15,000 ft. → P
aCO2
~ 33 mmHg
driven by hypoxic stimulation of the peripheral chemoreceptors
the resulting alkalosis and hypocapnia work against this increase
after a day or so the pH
CSF
is returned to normal by removal of HCO
3
-
from the CSF
after several days the arterial pH is returned to near normal by renal excretion of bicarbonate
these two restrictions on ventilation are then removed and the minute volume increases further
people born at high altitudes have a diminished response to hypoxia, which is only slowly
corrected on descent to sea level
in contrast, lowlanders ascending to altitude retain the high respiratory drive for an extended
period
Respiratory Physiology
93
Polycythemia
hypoxia stimulates release of erythropoietin from the kidney which stimulates RBC synthesis by
the bone marrow with a subsequent rise in the haematocrit
→ although P
aO2
& O
2
saturation are decreased, CaO
2
may actually be increased
similarly, polycythaemia is seen in patients with chronic hypoxia from lung or heart disease
a detrimental effect of increased haematocrit is raised blood viscosity
other factors compensating for hypoxia include,
a. hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction → decreased V/Q mismatch
b. ↑ CO & regional blood flow, especially brain
c. ↑ anaerobic metabolism
d. ↑ 2,3-DPG and right shift HbO
2
curve
e. ↑ SNS outflow
Other Features of Acclimatisation
HbO
2
dissociation curve is shifted to the right, resulting in increased tissue availability of O
2
this is caused by a rise in the [2,3-DPG] which is the result of the alkalosis and hypoxia
some argue that the right shift is deleterious due to reduced loading of O
2
in the lungs and that a
shift to the left would be more advantageous
the number of capillaries increases, reducing the intercapillary diffusion distance
also, there are changes in the oxidative enzymes inside the mitochondria
the maximum breathing capacity MBC is increased due to the lower density of air and the
minute ventilation may reach 200 l/min with exercise
however, the VO
2
max
is dramatically reduced at elevations > 15,000 ft.
alveolar hypoxia → pulmonary vasoconstriction with subsequent increased right atrial
pressure, stroke work and hypertrophy
the pulmonary hypertension is occasionally associated with oedema, even in the absence of
elevated pulmonary venous pressure ?? mechanism
ascent to altitude frequently → headache, dizziness, nausea, palpitations and insomnia
→ acute mountain sickness, and is attributable to the hypoxaemia and alkalosis
NB: the theoretical maximum achievable altitude is ~ 69,000 ft.,
at which the atmospheric pressure equals the vapour pressure of water and body
fluids boil
Respiratory Physiology
94
OXYGEN TOXICITY
in the course of evolution of the earth, the atmospheric [O
2
] has increased and organisms have
had to develop defence mechanisms against oxidative damage
these consist of,
a. enzymes - eg. superoxide dismutases
b. reducing agents - eg. glutathione and ascorbate
c. scavenger compounds - which combine with free radicals
these normal defenses become overwhelmed when high a [O
2
] is inspired
at high O
2
tensions, highly reactive forms of oxygen are present in abnormal concentrations,
a. free radicals - .OH, .O
-
b. activated molecular oxygen - H
2
O
2
some workers believe the effects are due partly to O
2
itself, possessing 2 pairs of unpaired
electrons
damage at the cellular level includes,
a. enzyme inhibition - flavoproteins and oxidative-phosphorylation
b. membrane lipid damage
c. destruction of nucleic and thioamino acids
d. ? chromosomal damage in long term
peculiar effects seen in neonates are retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia
the later being determined by the pattern of IPPV
Central Nervous System
F
I
O
2
= 100% > 2 bar → mood changes, nausea, vertigo, muscular twitching,
convulsions and loss of consciousness
this syndrome is related to both the duration and PiO
2
but is rarely seen at < 2 bar
possibly due to inactivation of certain enzymes, particularly dehydrogenases containing sulfhydryl
groups
following a period of post-ictal depression, recovery of normal function is complete and relatively
rapid
Respiratory Physiology
95
Respiratory System
the first pathological changes are seen in pulmonary endothelial and type I alveolar cells
clinically seen in patients breathing F
I
O
2
> 80% for longer than 12 hours
the symptom complex begins with substernal discomfort, nasal stuffiness, coughing and
diminished vital capacity (500-800 ml) → ↑ RR
continued exposure results in tracheobronchitis, pulmonary congestion with transudation and
exudation, finally atelectasis (predominantly in areas with low V/Q)
oxygen also depresses the mucociliary transport mechanism after several hours of increased
concentration
pulmonary toxicity is not seen in subjects breathing F
I
O
2
< 50%, nor those breathing 100% O
2
at
0.5 bar pressure for periods of 24 hours or more
NB: thus, it is the PiO
2
which is the determining factor
Absorption Atelectasis
when breathing 100% O
2
, if the airway is obstructed for any reason, the absence of a high [N
2
] to
effectively "splint" the alveoli leads to absorption of the alveolar gases and atelectasis
even breathing 100% O
2
the PvO
2
remains fairly low, providing a large gradient for the diffusion
of oxygen
absorption still occurs breathing air, however the process is much slower, the rate of collapse
being determined by the rate of absorption of N
2
this is particularly likely to occur at the bases of the lung, where the parenchyma is less well
expanded
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
useful in some clinical situations,
a. carbon monoxide poisoning
b. rarely in anaemic crisis
c. gas gangrene
d. ? MS
Respiratory Physiology
96
NON-RESPIRATORY LUNG FUNCTION
such functions include,
1. blood reservoir and filter
2. immunological and mechanical defence
3. heat exchanger
4. metabolism
5. substrate synthesis
6. substrate modification
Blood Reservoir and Filter
acts as a reservoir for blood, holding ~ 20% of the blood volume, or 1000 ml of which < 100 ml
is in capillary bed
acts as a particulate filter for blood-borne particles ≥ 10 µm
the capillary diameter being ~ 7 µm
however, some particles ≤ 500 µm may traverse the lung
Immunological & Mechanical Defence
1. secretory IgA
2. macrophages < 2 µm
3. mucociliary escalator ~ 2-10 µm
4. mucous lining airways > 10 µm
5. cough and sneeze reflexes
Heat Exchanger
acts as a source for considerable heat exchange and results in the insensible loss of water
especially for neonates and small children
Metabolism
uses 1-2% of the basal O
2
consumption
however this may be dramatically increased in ARDS/IRDS
Respiratory Physiology
97
Substrate Synthesis
1. surfactant
2. prostaglandins
3. histamine and heparin from mast cells
4. VIP, CCK*
5. somatostatin* *from APUD cells
6. endorphins*
7. kallikrien
8. mucopolysaccharides from CHO
Substrate Modification
1. activation - angiotensin I → angiotensin II
- ACE / calveoli
2. inactivation
i. bradykinin ~ 80% by ACE
ii. serotonin ~ 98% → MAO
iii. PGE
2
, PGF

- not PGA
iv. noradrenaline ~ 30% uptake
1
v. fibrinolysis
vi. acetylcholine
vii. tricyclic antidepressants
viii. drugs
2
- fentanyl, propofol, propranolol, lignocaine
- imipramine, nortryptyline
3. unaffected - ADH
- Adrenaline, Dopamine, Isoproterenol
- PGA
2
- angiotensin II, ?III
- histamine
NB: 1. uptake and removal is not inhibited by MAOI's
2. mostly basic drugs, as acids → plasma proteins
Respiratory Physiology
98
RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF ANAESTHESIA
Control of Breathing
PCO2 - Ventilation Response Curve
deepening anaesthesia is associated with decreasing ventilation and an increasing P
aCO2
progressive increases in the alveolar concentration of all of the inhalational agents is associated
with a decrease in the slope of the curve
at deep levels there may be no response at all
as opposed to the awake subject, apnoea supervenes if the P
aCO2
is lowered below the apnoeic
threshold
this appears to be in part attributable to the effects on respiratory muscle activity (see below)
the halogenated agents differ little, but ether is exceptional in having little effect ≤ 1 MAC
thereafter, depression occurs progressively until at 2.5 MAC the depression is comparable to the
halogenated agents
this may be related to increased levels of circulating catecholamines with ether
surgical stimulation antagonises this effect
the level of depression is relatively greater in patients with chronic airways obstruction
barbiturates have little effect in sedative or light sleep dosage, however are similar to the
inhalational agents at anaesthetic doses
ketamine has little effect, and this again may be related to circulating NA
opiates are well known respiratory depressants
small doses may simply displace the curve to the right, but larger doses also decrease the slope
PO2-Ventilation Response Curve
long believed that this reflex was the ultima moriens and relatively unaffected by anaesthesia
however, observed by Gordh (1945) that ether abolished the response to O
2
while the response to
CO
2
was still intact
the hypoxic response is actually extremely sensitive to the inhalational anaesthetics, being
markedly attenuated at 0.1 MAC
this is also seen with N
2
O and would clearly persist well into the recovery period
it appears that the effect is due to action on the carotid chemoreceptors
partial reversal can be attained with almitrine
there are 4 important aspects of this effect,
1. the patient will lose their hyperventilatory response to hypoxia
2. CO
2
retainers may cease breathing on induction
3. anaesthesia may be dangerous at high altitude, where survival depends on (a)
4. the effect is still present after apparent "recovery"
Metabolic Acidaemia - Ventilation Response Curve
this response is also obtunded at subanaesthetic levels of anaesthesia
the degree of suppression is comparable to that seen with hypoxia
Respiratory Physiology
99
Response to Increased Resistance
anaesthetised patients retain a remarkable ability to compensate for increases in airflow resistance
following increases in inspiratory resistance, there is an instantaneous augmentation of the force
of contraction of the diaphragm
this is consistent with muscle spindle activity
there is a delayed response which displays "overshoot" when the resistance is withdrawn
the time course for this response is such that P
aCO2
appears to be the likely mediator
in combination these allow the anaesthetised patient to compensate for inspiratory loading of the
order of ~ 8.0 cmH
2
O
there is even greater ability to compensate for increases in expiratory resistance
up to 10 cmH
2
O there is no activation of the expiratory muscles, awake or anaesthetised
the additional work is performed by the inspiratory muscles, shifting the tidal loop further up the
compliance curve, allowing the increased elastic recoil to overcome the increased resistance
Pattern of Contraction of the Respiratory Muscles
Inspiratory Muscles
realised as early as John Snow (1858) that deepening anaesthesia was associated with decreased
thoracic excursion and that abdominal excursion was well maintained
this is due to progressive failure of the intercostal muscles with preservation of diaphragm
in contrast, there is an increase in the thoracic component during IPPV in the anaesthetised
paralysed patient
Bryan & Froese (1977) demonstrated that most of the ventilatory response to hypercapnia was
due to the rib cage, rather than the abdominal component of total respiratory excursion
this is the basis of the statement that the reduction in the CO
2
response is due to inhibition of
intercostal muscle activity
this loss of intercostal activity may be detrimental in patients with compromised abdominal
excursion, or with hyperinflated lungs and flattened diaphragms
the other major change is the loss of the tonic activity of the diaphragm, with the resultant
decrease in the FRC
Expiratory and Other Muscles
GA results in phasic activity of the expiratory group which are normally silent during the
respiratory cycle
this appears to serve no useful purpose and is unrelated to the decrease in FRC
this increases abdominal muscle tone in the absence of paralysis
the genioglossus normally rhythmically contracts with respiration
loss of tone to this may result in upper airway obstruction
Respiratory Physiology
100
Alterations to Lung & Trunk Volumes
Function Residual Capacity
the following points are relevant,
a. ↓ FRC ~ 16-20% (R: +19 to -50)
b. the decrease occurs early, within minutes, then FRC stabilises
c. a high F
I
O
2
is not a factor
d. the reduction is the same paralysed or not
e. the reduction has a weak correlation with age
f. expiratory muscle activity does not play a part
g. anaesthesia does not alter FRC in the sitting position
demonstrated by Froese & Bryan with lateral radiographs that the diaphragm ascends ~ 2 cm into
the thorax during anaesthesia, with or without paralysis
this is complicated by,
a. a decrease in the thoracic volume of ~ 250 ml
b. redistribution of blood volume from the thorax to the abdomen
→ ~ 300 ml increase
c. elevation of the diaphragm ~ 500 ml
→ ↓ FRC ~ 450 ml
Consequences of the Decrease in FRC
in the supine position, the ERV is only ~ 1.0 l for males and ~ 600 ml for females
thus, the reduction in FRC will reduce this reserve further
closing capacity decreases in parallel with the reduction in FRC, possibly due to the
bronchodilatation caused by inhalational agents
thus, the tendency to airway closure is not increased during anaesthesia
this was thought to be a cause for the increase in V/Q mismatch and impaired gaseous exchange
other factors being equal, as lung volume decreases, airways resistance increases
the shape of this curve is hyperbolic, and FRC resides on the steep part of the curve
therefore, the decrease in FRC would be expected to increase airways resistance
however, this is also largely offset by the bronchodilator effect of the GA's
there are, however, other causes for increased airways resistance, relating to breathing circuits,
valves, connectors and tracheal tubes etc.
Respiratory Physiology
101
compliance is significantly decreased, with little difference with or without paralysis
the majority of the change occurs in the lung, there being little alteration of chest wall compliance
pressures ≤ 30 cmH
2
O inflate the lung to only 70% of the preoperative total lung capacity
this reduction occurs early in anaesthesia and is not progressive
there is no general agreement on a direct effect of anaesthetics on pulmonary surfactant, some
studies have shown a decreased activity
alternative explanations include,
a. breathing at a reduced lung volume
b. pulmonary collapse in the dependent regions*
c. the reduced compliance is a cause of the decreased FRC
NB: *the later is unlikely given volume changes and the second has definitely now been
shown to occur
Metabolic Rate
the MRO
2
is reduced by ~ 15% during anaesthesia
there are major reductions in the cerebral and cardiac oxygen consumptions
Gas Exchange
except in the very young, anaesthesia produces abnormalities in gas exchange
the major adverse changes being,
1. reduced minute volume of ventilation
2. increased dead space
3. increased shunt
Minute Volume
during spontaneous respiration the minute volume may remain normal but is usually decreased
this results from decrease in the MRO
2
and depression of the chemical control of breathing
some workers with closed circuit halothane anaesthesia have reported P
aCO2
≤ 150 mmHg !
multiple studies of this insult have failed to shown any adverse long term effect
many anaesthetists believe transient hypercapnia is without consequence in a healthy patient
with artificial ventilation there is a natural tendency to hyperventilate the patient
studies have recorded P
aCO2
values down to 18 mmHg
similarly no specific adverse effects have been demonstrated
most anaesthetists tend to avoid extreme hypocapnia due to the adverse effects on cerebral blood
flow, aiming for values ~ 34 mmHg
hypothermia, intentional or accidental, may result in severe hypocapnia unless the ventilation is
reduced to match the decrease in MRO
2
Respiratory Physiology
102
Physiological Dead Space
the V
D
/V
T
ratio, from the carina downwards, is ~ 32% during anaesthesia with both spontaneous
and artificial ventilation
this corresponds closely to the ratio for the normal conscious subject, including the mouth,
pharynx and trachea which are ~ 70 ml
therefore, subcarinal V
D
must increase by ~ 70 ml during anaesthesia, and this occurs in the
alveolar component
anatomical V
D
is always less than physiological, reaching a maximum of ~ 70 ml at tidal volumes
above 350 ml
this value corresponds to the expected geometric volume of the lower respiratory tract
at smaller tidal volumes anatomical V
D
is less than the expected geometric volume, due to,
1. the mixing effect of the heart beat
2. axial streaming in laminar flow
apparatus V
D
increases the V
D
/V
T
ratio to ~ 50%
if the patient is not intubated and a facemask is being used this increases further to ~ 70%
under these conditions an apparent ventilation of 6 l/min will only achieve an alveolar ventilation
of 2 l/min
however, this is usually compensated for by the decreased MRO
2
and high ventilation rates
there is no evidence that pulmonary hypotension results in the development of "zone 1" ????
Shunt
in the conscious healthy subject shunt ~ 1-2% of the CO
the P
A-a
O
2
gradient is ~ 7.5 mmHg but increases with age
during anaesthesia the shunt increases to ~ 10%
referring to an iso-shunt diagram → required F
I
O
2
~ 30-40%
the cause of the venous admixture is due to,
1. pulmonary collapse in the dependent regions
2. impairment of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction
3. distortion of the pattern of ventilation-perfusion ratios
there is only minimal change in the degree of shunt and the P
A-a
O
2
gradient in young adults
progressively larger changes occur as age increases and this is possibly related to the increase in
closing capacity
PEEP does little to improve the P
aO2
during anaesthesia
although the shunt may be reduced, the decrease in CO reduces the mean PvO
2
traversing the
remaining shunt with little change in the P
aO2
this contrasts the effect seen in ITU, where the stiff lungs of most of these patients "protects"
them from increases in intrathoracic pressure and subsequent reductions in CO
Respiratory Physiology
103
Summary:
1. changes in the P
A-a
O
2
gradient are markedly affected by age
2. the increase in the P
A-a
O
2
gradient is due partly to an increase in the true pulmonary
shunt and partly to an increased distribution of perfusion to areas of low (but not zero)
V/Q ratios
3. the increase in alveolar V
D
is due to ventilation of areas of high (but usually not
infinite) V/Q ratios
4. the major difference is between the awake and anaesthetised states, paralysis and
artificial ventilation having little effect on gas exchange parameters, despite the quite
different spatial distribution of ventilation
5. PEEP reduces the level of shunt, but the beneficial effect is offset by the decrease in
CO and mean PvO
2
Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction
HPV is an important mechanism for reducing the perfusion of inadequately ventilated lung
multiple studies with some conflicting results due to failure to account for the reduction in CO
seen with anaesthesia
inhalational agents depress HPV provided that allowance is made for concomitant changes in CO
the decrease in CO reduces the mean PvO
2
with ensuing generalised pulmonary vasoconstriction
intravenous agents have been clearly demonstrated not to affect HPV
The Lateral Position
there is a preferential distribution of inspired gas flow to the lower lung and this accords
approximately with the distribution of blood flow
this favourable distribution of gas flow is disturbed by anaesthesia, with or without artificial
ventilation
the dependent lung volume is much reduced and often below closing capacity
Haemorrhagic Hypotension
physiological V
D
is increased by haemorrhagic hypotension, or with induced hypotension
this is most easily explained by the development of "zone 1"
shunt, however, is not increased due to the direct relationship between shunt and CO
Respiratory Physiology
104
VENTILATORY FAILURE
Def'n: a pathological reduction in alveolar ventilation below the level required for the
maintenance of "normal" arterial blood gas tensions
as the normal P
aO2
varies considerably with age, F
I
O
2
and pulmonary shunt, the adequacy of
ventilation is best defined by the P
aCO2
~ 38.3 ± 7.5 mmHg
the survival limit, while breathing air, is reached at a P
aO2
~ 20 mmHg and a P
aCO2
~ 83 mmHg
the limiting factor is not CO
2
but O
2
, as further rise is not possible unless the F
I
O
2
is increased
in general, the P
aO2
indicates the severity of failure, while the P
aCO2
differentiates between
ventilatory failure and shunt
these may of course coexist (see Nunn fig. 20.1)
The oblique broken line represents
the changes in alveolar gasses which
would result from pure ventilatory
failure.
The two large arrows represent the
directional changes seen in pure
chronic respiratory failure and
shunting, in a patient breathing room
air.
In COAD, the arterial P
aO2
is always
less than that expected due to pure
ventilatory failure alone
Time Course of Changes in Arterial Blood Gases
body stores of O
2
are small, being ~ 1550 ml on air, which corresponds to only 6 mins
consumption at a basal MRO
2
thus, with changes in V
A
the P
aO2
rapidly assumes its new value, the half time of change ~ 30s
in contrast the body stores of CO
2
are large, being ~ 120 l, or 600 mins of the basal output
the time course of change for P
aCO2
is slower for a reduction of V
A
than for an increase
the half time of rise for P
aCO2
~ 16 mins
thus, during the acute phase of hypoventilation, the P
aO2
may be low while the P
aCO2
is still within
the normal range
during acute hypoventilation, the respiratory exchange ratio may fall far below the respiratory
quotient, which it equals at steady state, as CO
2
production is partly diverted to the body stores
Respiratory Physiology
105
Causes of Ventilatory Failure
Respiratory Centres of the Medulla
a. hypoxia
b. marked hypercapnia - probably ≥ 300 mmHg healthy subject
c. drugs - barbiturates
- opiates
- all anaesthetic agents
d. impaired medullary blood flow - pressure, trauma
- neoplasia
- vascular catastrophe
reduction of P
aCO2
below the "apnoeic threshold" results in apnoea in the unconscious or
anaesthetised patient, but not in the conscious subject
a loss of sensitivity to P
aCO2
is seen in various types of chronic ventilatory failure, particularly
chronic bronchitis and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
Upper Motor Neurones
a. fracture/dislocations above C
3-4
- affect the phrenic nerve → total apnoea
b. fracture/dislocations below C
3-4
- loss of intercostal muscle activity
c. tumours
d. demyelination syndromes
e. occasionally syringomyelia
Anterior Horn Cells
a. poliomyelitis - though, this is now rare
b. tetanus - undamped function may result in ventilatory failure
Lower Motor Neurones
a. traumatic interruption
b. inappropriately placed local anaesthetic
interscalene brachial plexus blockade
stellate ganglion blockade
c. motor neurone disease
d. Guillain-Barré
Respiratory Physiology
106
Neuromuscular Junction
a. myasthenia gravis
b. botulism
c. neuromuscular blocking drugs - anaesthetic agents
- organophosphorus insecticides
- nerve gases
d. procaine (inhibits synthesis of ACh)
Respiratory Muscles
a. diaphragmatic splinting - obesity
- pregnancy
- ascites
- intestinal obstruction & distension
- tension pneumothorax/haemothorax
b. muscle fatigue - increased work of breathing/impedance
- endotoxin
- hypoperfusion/shock
- malnutrition, wasting diseases
- myopathic diseases
Decreased Compliance - Lung/Chest Wall
a. intrapulmonary disorders - pulmonary fibrosis, Hamman-Rich syndrome
- neoplastic infiltration
- ARDS
- pulmonary oedema
b. intrapleural disorders - empyema with fibrosis
- carcinomatosis
- mesothelioma
- tension pneumothorax/haemothorax
c. chest wall disorders - kyphoscoliosis
- extensive burns in children
- external compression
Integrity of Chest Wall
a. closed disorders - flail chest
b. open disorders - open pneumothorax
Respiratory Physiology
107
Airway Resistance
a. upper airway - foreign body
- epiglottitis/croup
- laryngospasm
- tumour
- anaesthetic apparatus
b. intraluminal - foreign body
- sputum retention
- severe pulmonary oedema
c. bronchial wall - hyperreactivity
- noxious stimuli
- tumour
- drugs
d. extraluminal - dynamic airway obstruction
- tumour
Ventilatory Capacity vs. Ventilatory Failure
a reduction in ventilatory capacity does necessarily imply ventilatory failure
data from Nunn shows no correlation between P
aCO2
and FEV1.0 over the range 0.3 to 1.0 l
COAD patients tend toward one of two groups, either retaining or losing their respiratory centre
sensitivity to CO
2
the later group, relying on hypoxic drive to respiration, often appear less distressed than the
former, however decompensate more readily
asthmatic patients behave similarly to the former group, tending to maintain a normal, or even
subnormal P
aCO2
until they are no longer able to compensate for the increased work of breathing
in chronic ventilatory insufficiency, the onset of acute failure is dependent upon the MRO
2
thus these patients tend to self limit their exercise and automatically "tune" their ventilatory
pattern to minimise their work of breathing
as respiratory insufficiency progresses, the maximum ventilatory capacity decreases and the
minute ventilation for any given MRO
2
increases
this is the result of,
a. an increase in dead space ventilation
b. an increased oxygen cost of breathing → decreased efficiency
thus the patient is caught between a decreased MBC and increasing work of breathing
the untrained individual can sustain a minute volume of ~ 30% of MBC before dyspnoea occurs
initially these two result in a decrease in ventilatory reserve and exercise tolerance
eventually, the work requirement at rest represents > 30% MBC and the patient become
progressively dyspnoeic
Respiratory Physiology
108
Breathlessness
Def'n: "an undue awareness of breathing, or awareness of difficulty in breathing",
Campbell & Guz (1981)
both hypoxia and hypercapnia may force the patient to breath more deeply, however, neither per
se is responsible for the sensation of dyspnoea
this arises from the ventilatory response rather than the stimulus itself
thus, dyspnoea is usually more prominent in the "pink puffer" group, who retain their
responsiveness to CO
2
, than in those who have reduced CO
2
response curves
though, the later usually have more profound hypoxia and hypercapnia
Campbell and Howell (1963) suggested that a major factor in dyspnoea was an
"inappropriateness" between respiratory muscle tension and fibre shortening
similarly, breath holding is not limited but is affected by arterial gas tensions
the sensation terminating breath holding can be relieved by ventilation without an alteration in
ABG's
though, P
aO2
has a more profound effect than P
aCO2
diaphragmatic afferent traffic appears to be more important than that from the intercostal group
Management of Ventilatory Failure
many patients survive with P
aCO2
values ~ 60 mmHg
above this there is significant impairment of cerebral function, mainly due to the mandatory
reduction in P
aO2
which accompanies any further increase whilst breathing air
treatment of chronic insufficiency may be roughly divided into two areas
Improvement of PAO2
an increase in F
I
O
2
usually does little to improve ventilation or reduce the P
aCO2
, which may in fact
rise further
thus it is important to ensure that relief of hypoxaemia, important though this is, does not result
in significant hypercapnia
other factors remaining constant, an increase in F
I
O
2
will result in an equal rise in P
aO2
therefore, only small increases in F
I
O
2
are required to treat hypoxaemia due to hypoventilation
hypoventilation sufficient to result in a P
aCO2
~ 100 mmHg only requires an F
I
O
2
= 0.3 to attain a
normal P
aO2
(see Nunn fig. 20.6)
at this level of hypercapnia, active intervention to increase alveolar ventilation is required
an F
I
O
2
= 0.3 may therefore be regarded as the upper limit of palliative oxygen therapy
Respiratory Physiology
109
Improvement of Alveolar Ventilation
this is the only means of decreasing the P
aCO2
the first line of therapy includes,
i. bronchodilatation
ii. control of infection and secretions
iii. relief of pain
iv. stabilisation of the chest wall
v. correction of gross pathology, eg. open/closed pneumothorax
vi. optimisation of O
2
therapy
vii. avoidance of respiratory depressant drugs
the second line includes chemical stimulation of breathing, agents available including,
i. theophylline
ii. doxapram
iii. medroxyprogesterone
iv. acetazolamide (indirect action via pH)
the third line includes,
i. endotracheal intubation |
ii. tracheostomy | ↓ V
D
and better control of secretions
iii. artificial ventilation
there are no absolute criteria for artificial ventilation and many factors need to be considered
even so, a P
aCO2
≥ 75 mmHg, which cannot be reduced by other means, in a patient who is
deemed recoverable is generally considered a firm indication
artificial ventilation may be required at much lower P
aCO2
's if there is significant muscle fatigue
secondary to the increased work of breathing
this is frequently difficult to predict
with intense activity the respiratory muscles suffer low frequency fatigue, as is the case for other
skeletal muscles
NB: muscle response to high frequency stimulation is unaltered, however, the CNS is
unable to maintain high frequency output for extended periods (? why)
discoordinated breathing, with thoracic and diaphragmatic movements out of phase is as early
indicator of impending failure
Respiratory Physiology
110
ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION
Def'n: the provision of the minute volume of respiration by external forces,
when there is impaired function of the patient's respiratory muscles
Resuscitation
Mechanical Artificial Ventilation
until about 1960 most methods involved rescuer manipulation of the arms or trunk of the victim
these are classified into those with,
a. active expiratory phase
b. active inspiratory phase
c. both, or push-pull
active expiratory phase ventilation may be attained by direct pressure to either the trunk or
abdomen
inspiration then results from the elastic stored energy of the lung and chest wall
such ventilation is below FRC, and as such cannot be relied upon to guarantee adequate minute
ventilation, even in the absence of respiratory obstruction
tidal exchange takes place in the ERV, which is considerable reduced in the supine position
active inspiratory phase ventilation involves techniques to expand the chest by traction on the
arms or hips
like the above, it cannot be relied upon to maintain an adequate minute ventilation
push-pull ventilation is clearly more effective than either of the above
due to the effects of posture, a rocking stretcher using phasic tilting 40° either side of the
horizontal can achieve a satisfactory minute volume
virtually all unconscious patients will have some degree of airway obstruction
most of the above techniques require the use of both hands of the rescuer and studies have
confirmed that these techniques can only be guaranteed when the trachea is intubated
even if minute volume is satisfactory, there is no guarantee P
aO2
will be maintained with
ventilation below FRC, due to small airways closure and appreciable shunting
Respiratory Physiology
111
Expired Air Resuscitation
some references in the Bible, though, the first clear account appeared in 1796 (Herholdt & Rafn)
relies on the rescuer doubling his own minute ventilation
the effectiveness is improved by the rescuer's dead space
if V
D
is artificially increased by apparatus dead space, this will improve the composition of
"expired air", and help prevent hypocapnia in the rescuer
this method has virtually completely replaced manual methods, and its success depends upon,
a. adequate ventilation for long periods with little fatigue
b. the hands of the rescuer are free to control the airway
c. the rescuer can visually monitor chest expansion
d. the method is extremely adaptable
e. requires minimal expertise and is easily taught
the essential features of the technique include,
a. the airway must be cleared
b. the rescuer should ~ double his minute volume
c. the first few breaths should be given rapidly
d. alternative variants should be taught (mouth-nose)
e. ancillary apparatus are not essential - though desirable
Respiratory Physiology
112
Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV)
Inspiration
mouth pressure is transiently raised above ambient pressure and the lung is inflated in accordance
with its compliance and resistance
if inspiration is slow then the distribution is governed solely by regional compliance
if fast, then the regional time constants become the major factor
the distribution differs from spontaneous ventilation, in that there is a relatively greater expansion
of the rib cage
Expiration
expiration is passive and differs from spontaneous ventilation only by the absence of residual
diaphragmatic tone
this may be retarded by the application of positive end-expiratory pressure, PEEP, or by the
addition of external resistance to gas flow
expiration may be accelerated by the application of a subatmospheric airway pressure = NEEP
if the inflation pressure is constant and applied for several seconds, then the tidal volume will be
given by,
V
T
= P
mouth
× C
T
eg. 500 ml = 1.0 kPa × 0.5 l/kPa
Time Course of Inflation & Deflation
equilibration in the above equation will usually take several seconds
the rise of mouth pressure is opposed by two forms of impedance,
a. elastic resistance of the lungs and chest wall
where, P = δV × C
T
b. resistance to airflow
where, P = Q
instantaneous airflow
× R
airway
at any instant the inflation pressure equals the sum of the pressures required to overcome these
two forms of impedance
resistance to airflow assumes laminar flow and a constant airways resistance
with a constant inflation pressure (square wave), the two components vary during inspiration,
while their sum remains constant (Nunn 21.1- over page)
with normal respiratory mechanics in an unconscious patient, inspiration should be 95% complete
in ~ 1.5 s
the increase in lung volume following an exponential wash-in curve, where the time constant is
described by,
τ (tau) = resistance × compliance
~ 1 kPa/l/s × 0.5 l/kPa
~ 10 cmH
2
O/l/s × 0.05 l/cmH
2
O
~ 0.5 s
Respiratory Physiology
113
this equates to the time taken to reach 63% of the final volume change
may use the half time = 0.69 × time constant
NB: clearly, it is unusual for equilibrium of lung volume to occur during IPPV, and it is
common for inspiration to be terminated after 1-2 s, when the lung volume will still
be increasing
Respiratory Physiology
114
Effects of Inflation Pressure, Resistance and Compliance
these are most easily studied in relation to the effects on a constant pressure curve (Nunn 21.2)
the changes in volume per time constant are as follows,
1. time constant → 63%
2. time constants → 86.5%
3. time constants → 95%
4. time constants → 98%
5. time constants → 99%
changes in the inflation pressure do not alter the time constant
thus, the half time will be unaltered, only the final volume change will alter, in direct proportion
to the change in pressure
changes in compliance result in directly proportional changes in both final volume change and
the time constant
thus, if the compliance is doubled, so the final volume change will also double, but the time taken
to equilibration will also double
changes in resistance do not affect the final volume change, but have direct effects on the time
constant
changes either directly increase, or decrease the time to equilibrium without altering the final
volume change
NB: these effect apply not only to the lung as a whole, but to regional ventilation
increasing inflation pressure has a considerable effect on the time taken to achieve a given δV
above FRC
this effect is used in the application of an overpressure, to increase the inspiratory flow rate and
permit a shorter duration of inspiration
Deviations from the True Exponential Function
airflow is normally partly turbulent, therefore resistance does not remain constant but varies with
flow rate
furthermore, as expiration proceeds the calibre of the airways decreases and there is also a
transition from turbulent to more laminar flow as the flow rate decreases
approximation to a single exponential function is usually adequate for practical purposes
Respiratory Physiology
115
Patterns of Inflation Pressure
there is no convincing evidence of the superiority of any one method, except that the distribution
of the inspired gas is improved if there is prolongation of the period during which the applied
pressure is maximal
this allows better ventilation of "slower" alveoli but is relatively unimportant in healthy lungs
the normal means of achieving this is by the addition of an inspiratory pause
the two other forms commonly seen are,
a. constant flow generators - usually electrical
b. sine wave generators - usually mechanical
Control of Inspiration
this may be achieved by one of three methods,
1. time cycling
2. volume cycling
3. pressure cycling
limitations on the inspiratory duration are usually a safety precaution
the usual insp./expiration ratio varies from 1:1-4, with respiratory frequencies from 12-20 bpm
it has been demonstrated that there is a substantial increase in the V
D
/V
T
ratio if the duration of
inspiration is reduced below 1.0 s
there is no evidence that there is any appreciable effect on the P
A-aO2
gradient with inspiration in
the range 0.5-3.0 seconds
Methods of Ventilatory Support
1. controlled mechanical ventilation CMV
2. assisted mechanical ventilation AMV
3. inverse ratio ventilation IRV
4. intermittent mandatory ventilation IMV/SIMV
5. pressure support ventilation PSV
6. proportional assist ventilation PAV
7. airway pressure release ventilation APRV
Respiratory Physiology
116
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP)
a great number of pathological conditions, and anaesthesia, result in a reduction in FRC with
concomitant disturbance of gas exchange
increasing the FRC by the administration of PEEP was first described by Hill et al. in 1965
similar effect are obtained by continuous positive airways pressure CPAP, though, this is
technically more difficult to achieve
the simplest technique is to exhale through a preset depth of water, but more convenient
techniques involve spring loaded valves, or pressure loaded diaphragms
Respiratory Effects
1. lung volumes
the end-expiratory alveolar pressure will equal the applied PEEP, and the FRC will
be reset in accordance with the total system compliance
in many patients this will shift the tidal range above the closing capacity
due to the inverse relationship to lung volume, airways resistance will be reduced
the alteration in the relative compliances of the upper and lower regions of the lung
may result in a reduction in V/Q mismatch
2. dead space
acute application of PEEP does not alter the V
D
/V
T
ratio
long term application may increase V
D
due to bronchiolar dilatation
3. arterial P
O2
it is unlikely that PEEP improves arterial oxygenation in patients with healthy lungs
in abnormal lungs, the reduction in pulmonary shunting which is observed in a large
number of conditions is clearly beneficial,
i. pulmonary oedema
ii. pulmonary collapse
iii. ARDS
some researchers have suggested that the reduction in shunt seen with ARDS
is secondary to the reduction in CO resulting from the PEEP
4. lung water
there is now good evidence that there is no reduction in lung water
the improvement in P
aO2
is more likely to be due to,
i. opening of closed alveoli
ii. movement of water into the interstitial compartment / service side of the alveoli
iii. the reduction in CO and pulmonary shunt
Respiratory Physiology
117
5. intrapleural pressure
P
IP
is effectively shielded from the applied PEEP by the transmural pressure gradient
of the lungs
where transmural pressure = transpulmonary = P
IP
- P
A
patients with diseased lungs tend to have higher transmural gradients and are
therefore better protected against the adverse cardiovascular effects of PEEP
6. permeability
PEEP increases the permeability of the lung to DTPA, a tracer normally unable to
traverse the alveolar-capillary membrane
this is probably related to volume changes, rather than membrane damage
7. barotrauma
the commonest forms attributable to PEEP include,
i. subcutaneous emphysema
ii. pneumomediastinum
iii. pneumothorax
modest levels of PEEP result in a negligible increase in the incidence of barotrauma
the incidence rises substantially at PEEP ≥ 20 cmH
2
O
during anaesthesia, the application of PEEP to healthy patients is of little value, though the level
of shunt is reduced
the concomitant fall in cardiac output, with reduction in the Pv'O
2
offsets the reduction in shunt
Cardiovascular Effects
1. cardiac output
modest levels of PEEP result in a negligible decrease in CO
in patients with diseased lungs there is similarly little decrease up to the level of
"best PEEP", ie. that level which maximises the O
2
flux
higher levels of PEEP result in substantial reductions of CO
the predominant cause being a reduction in right atrial filling, due to the rise in
intrathoracic pressure
other contributing factors include,
i. increased pulmonary capillary resistance (RV afterload)
ii. decreased left ventricular compliance
iii. decreased myocardial contractility
plasma from patients receiving PEEP will decrease the contractility of isolated
myocardial preparations, suggesting the release of some negative inotrope
2. oxygen flux
initially PEEP improves the P
aO2
but as the CO falls, so O
2
flux also falls
the maximum point in the O
2
flux curve = best PEEP
this point may be extended by enhancement of CO with fluid replacement or
positive inotropes
Respiratory Physiology
118
3. arterial blood pressure
in a number of studies, the compensatory response of the peripheral vascular bed
has been found to be only about a half of that required to maintain the BP
some suggest that this failure of compensation is the result of inhibition of the
cardiac regulatory centres in the midbrain (?? how)
4. interpretation of vascular pressures
atrial pressures are normally read relative to ambient pressure, and these will be
increased by PEEP
however, relative to intrathoracic pressure they are reduced at higher levels of
PEEP, and it is the transmural pressure which determines atrial filling
a further problem arises when the tip of the Swan-Ganz catheter lies in the upper
regions of the lung
the application of PEEP increases zone 1 and the absence of blood flow results is
artefactual readings
Renal Effects
patients undergoing IPPV frequently become oedematous
among other factors, PEEP itself may reduce glomerular filtration
this may result from the reduction in arterial and increase in central venous pressures
alternatively the reduction in atrial transmural pressure may decrease ANF release
?? PEEP does result in an increased secretion of ADH
Respiratory Physiology
119
PULMONARY OEDEMA
Def'n: an increase in pulmonary extravascular water, which occurs when transudation
or exudation exceeds the capacity of lymphatic drainage
Anatomical Aspects
the pulmonary capillary endothelial cells abut one another in a fairly loose fashion
gap junctions are ~ 5 nm wide, and permit the passage of moderately large protein molecules
consequently, the pulmonary interstitial lymph [albumin] ~ 50-70% of plasma
the alveolar epithelial cells meet at tight junctions ~ 1 nm wide, and are virtually impermeable to
protein (values from DeFouw, 1983)
the lungs have a well developed lymphatic system
lymphatics cannot be defined at an alveolar level, but are first seen in relation to bronchioles
until generation 11, these lie in the potential space around air passages and vessels, separating
them from the lung parenchyma
at the hilum these drain into several groups of tracheobronchial lymph nodes
virtually all of the drainage from the left, and a significant proportion of that from the right enters
the thoracic duct
the remainder from the right lung enters the right lymphatic duct
the pulmonary lymphatics often cross the midline and pass independently into the junctions of the
IJ & SC veins
the normal lymphatic drainage from human lungs is ~ 10 ml/hr
Stages of Pulmonary Oedema
irrespective of the aetiology of pulmonary oedema, it is possible to recognise four stages
with gradual onset these may be identifiable clinically, however, with fulminate disease
progression may be obscured
there is usually prodromal stage in which lymphatic drainage is increased, though there is no
detectable increase in lung water
Interstitial Pulmonary Oedema
interstitial lung water is increased but there is no passage of fluid into the alveoli
microscopically this is detected as cuffing of distended lymphatics around branches of the bronchi
and larger pulmonary vessels
this produces the "butterfly" shadow on CXR
EM shows fluid accumulation in the alveolar septa, but this is confined the "service" side of the
capillary, leaving the "active" geometry unchanged
consequently gaseous exchange is better preserved than might be expected from the increase in
lung water
physical signs are generally absent and the PA-aO
2
gradient small
diagnosis is by PAOP (?? how this is done, stated in Nunn) and CXR
Respiratory Physiology
120
Crescentic Alveolar Filling
interstitial oedema increases and there is passage of fluid into the alveoli
this first appears as crescents in the angles between adjacent septa
the centre of the alveoli and most of the alveolar walls remain clear
gas exchange remains little affected and the PA-aO
2
gradient remains small
Alveolar Flooding
in the third stage there is quantal alveolar flooding
some alveoli are totally flooded, while others, frequently adjacent show only crescentic filling
fluid enters the alveoli in a crescentic fashion until a critical radius of curvature is reached
surface tension then rises sharply and further fluid is drawn into the alveolus as the transudation
pressure gradient rises exponentially
this phenomenon is believed responsible for the "all-or-none" filling of individual alveoli
clearly no gas exchange can occur in flooded alveoli, blood flow to these regions adding to
venous admixture
NB: quantitatively there is no requirement to consider altered diffusing capacity,
the entire PA-aO
2
gradient can be attributed to shunt
clinically rales are heard, the CXR shows a butterfly pattern with interstitial markings and overall
opacity
alveolar flooding tends to occur in the dependent regions of the lung
Airway Flooding
this follows extreme alveolar flooding, effectively blocks air passages preventing any meaningful
gas exchange and is rapidly fatal unless treated
Respiratory Physiology
121
Mechanism of Pulmonary Oedema
transudation of intravascular fluid must be considered in two stages
first from the microcirculation into the interstitial space, then into the alveoli
the values for Starling's equation for the lung are difficult to measure and there are a wide range
of reported values
Transudation Across the Vascular Endothelium
under normal circumstances the pulmonary lymph flow Q
L
~ 10 ml/hr
the protein content is ~ ½ plasma
the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure, P
pc
~ 0-15 mmHg, depending upon the vertical
height within the lung field
further there is a progressive decrease in P
pc
from the arterial to the venous end, as approximately
½ of the pulmonary vascular resistance lies with the microvascular circulation
the above interstitial pressures are those from the dog, with the lung held at an inflation pressure
of 5 cmH
2
O
there is a gradient from the lung interstitium to the hilum
however, there was no vertical gradient within the lung field
the interstitial space and lymphatics can accommodate an increase in water of ~ 500 ml with an
increase of pressure of only ~ 1.5 mmHg
the interstitial space compliance increases with larger lung volumes
this is considered to be one of the mechanisms by which PEEP or CPAP improve gas exchange
in pulmonary oedema, as they do not decrease the total amount of lung water
the reflection coefficient for healthy lung, σ σ ~ 0.5
the capillary to interstitium osmotic pressure gradient, π π
pc
-π π
i
~ 11.5 mmHg
thus, there is a small balance favouring transudation
this is greater in the dependent regions of the lung, and the safety margin for the formation of
oedema is considerably less
Respiratory Physiology
122
Transudation Across the Alveolar Epithelium
the alveoli are freely permeable to gases, water and hydrophobic substances
they are virtually impermeable to albumin and small solutes
there are considerable uncertainties about the osmotic pressure of the alveolar lining fluid
it has been suggested by Hills (1982) that the alveolar lining is largely dry
thus analysis of transudation in terms of a Starling equation is meaningless
however, it does appear that transudation across this membrane is essentially zero, unless
a. the integrity of the barrier is in someway damaged
b. interstitial pressure exceeds some critical value
Pathophysiology
the most important physiological abnormality is venous admixture or shunt
this results in an increased PA-aO
2
gradient and arterial hypoxaemia
hypercapnia is seldom a problem
in mild to moderate oedema P
aCO2
may be normal or subnormal due to increased respiratory drive
from hypoxia and J-receptor stimulation
if patients with severe oedema are treated with a high F
I
O
2
, hypercapnia may result from
interference with gas exchange
Aetiology of Pulmonary Oedema
Increased Capillary Pressure (Haemodynamic Pulmonary Oedema)
a. absolute hypervolaemia - overtransfusion
- decreased H
2
O clearance
b. relative pulmonary hypervolaemia - postural
- vasopressors
c. raised pulmonary venous pressure - LV failure (any)
- dysrhythmias
- MV disease
- atrial myxoma
- drugs (histamine)
- endotoxin
d. increased pulmonary blood flow - left/right shunt
- anaemia
- rarely exercise
e. subatmospheric airway pressure
NB: in this group the oedema fluid has a protein content which is less than the normal
pulmonary lymph (Staub, 1984)
Respiratory Physiology
123
Increased Alveolar/Capillary Permeability
a. direct injury
b. indirect injury
NB: in this group the oedema fluid has a protein content which is approaches that of
plasma (Staub, 1984) *see notes on ARDS
Decreased Plasma Oncotic Pressure
this is seldom the primary cause of oedema
however, is common in seriously ill patients and may contribute significantly to their degree of
oedema
Lymphatic Obstruction
a. infection
b. tumour
c. transplantation / surgical
Miscellaneous
a. 'neurogenic' - head injuries, cerebral lesions
b. re-expansion - probably results from increased permeability
c. high altitude
d. diamorphine overdosage
Treatment
NB: the single highest priority is to restore the P
aO2
a. oxygen
b. posture - if feasibly, sitting the patient reduces central blood volume
c. morphine - reduces anxiety and causes vasodilatation
d. vasodilators- nitrates, ACE inhibitors, (frusemide)
e. diuretics - loop agents, thiazides generally useless
f. positive inotropic agents - AD, DB, DA
g. CPAP ± mechanical ventilation with PEEP
h. ventricular assist devices
Respiratory Physiology
124
Clinical Measurement
the most useful clinical measurements are the,
a. P
A-a
O
2
gradient
b. serial CXR's
c. PAOP by Swan-Ganz catheter
d. cardiac hemodynamics via Swan-Ganz catheter
e. loss of gamma-emitter from lung to circulation -
99m
TcDPTA
the normal half life of removal for
99m
TcDPTA is 40-100 minutes in the healthy non-smoker
this is reduced below 40 mins in a variety of insults, however, it is within the range 10-40 mins in
apparently healthy smokers
measurement of lung water during life is difficult
the only practical method is the double indicator method, which measures pulmonary, or central
blood volume
one indicator is chosen to remain within the circulation, while the other (usually "coolth"),
diffuses freely into the interstitium
extravascular lung water is then estimated as the difference between these volumes
there is still widespread agreement that the method is difficult, due to the high level of accuracy
required to measure small changes in lung water
thoracic electrical impedance is an alternative approach
Respiratory Physiology
125
ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME
Definition
Ashbaugh et al. (1967) described a condition in adults which was similar to the respiratory
distress syndrome of infants
the term ARDS was coined by Petty & Ashbaugh in 1971
there is no universal agreement upon the diagnostic criteria
actually represents a subset of acute lung injury
the essential features include,
1. respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation
2. severe hypoxaemia with a high P
A-aO2
gradient
1
3. bilateral diffuse infiltration on CXR
2
4. stiff lungs with C
T
≤ 50 ml/cmH
2
O
5. pulmonary oedema should not be cardiogenic in origin
3
the PCWP should not be elevated, definitions → PCWP ≤ 12-18 mmHg
6. presence of a known predisposing condition - sepsis
- trauma
- aspiration
NB:
1
there is no agreement on the precise degree of hypoxaemia, values ranging from
50-75 mmHg with a F
I
O
2
from 0.5 to 1.0; alternatively, the critical level of
hypoxaemia has been defined as 20% of the PiO
2
2
early in the disease course either lung may be predominantly affected
3
Lloyd, Newman and Brigham (1984) objected to this as it precluded the diagnosis
in patients with pre-existing conditions which raised LAP
the histology is usually diagnostic, however lung biopsy is seldom indicated or advisable
there are no diagnostic laboratory tests and the diagnosis is in part by exclusion
differences in diagnostic criteria have greatly complicated data on morbidity, mortality and
therapeutic efficacy
Respiratory Physiology
126
Diagnostic Criteria Petty
1. clinical setting:
i. catastrophic event - pulmonary
- non-pulmonary
ii. exclusions - chronic respiratory disease
- LV dysfunction
iii. respiratory distress - RR > 20 bpm
- laboured breathing
2. CXR: * diffuse pulmonary infiltrates
i. interstitial - early
ii. alveolar - late
3. physiology:
i. P
aO2
≤ 50 mmHg * with a F
I
O
2
≥ 0.6
ii. C
T
≤ 50 ml/cmH
2
O - usually 20-30 ml/cmH
2
O
iii. Q
S
/Q
T
increased
§
iv. V
D
/V
T
increased
§ §
increased V/Q anomaly
4. pathology:
i. heavy lungs - usually ≥ 1000 g
ii. congestive atelectasis
iii. hyaline membranes
iv. fibrosis
Respiratory Physiology
127
Clinical Course
there are four recognisable clinical phases;
1. the patient is dyspnoeic & tachypnoeic
CXR & P
aO2
normal
usually lasts ~ 24/24
2. arterial hypoxaemia develops
P
aCO2
remains normal, or subnormal
there are only minor abnormalities on CXR
the is an increase in lung water & Q
T
usually lasts ~ 24-48/24
3. * the above diagnostic criteria are present
severe arterial hypoxaemia & a large P
A-aO2
gradient develops
P
aCO2
becomes slightly elevated
CXR shows characteristic bilateral infiltrates
CT decreases, the lungs are stiff and PAWP increases
artificial ventilation is usually instituted if not already present
4. usually terminal
massive bilateral consolidation with unremitting hypoxaemia
P
aO2
is usually ≤ 50 mmHg with a F
I
O
2
= 1.0
V
D
increases and normocapnia can only be maintained by a large V
M
,
often 10-20 l/min
not all patients progress through all of these stages and the disease may resolve at any stage
serial observations of the CXR and P
A-aO2
gradient are the best indicators
Predisposing Conditions
Direct injury Indirect injury
Pulmonary contusion Septicaemia
Gastric / other aspiration Shock / prolonged hypotension
Near-drowning Non-thoracic major trauma
Toxic gas / vapour inhalation Cardiopulmonary bypass
Certain infections Head injury
Fat embolus Pancreatitis
Amniotic fluid embolus Diabetic coma
Radiation Massive blood transfusion
Bleomycin DIC
Nunn 3
rd
Ed.
Respiratory Physiology
128
Predisposing Conditions
Pepe's group found the highest single risk factor was sepsis syndrome,
1. 38% of patients in this group developing ARDS
2. 25% of patients with a single risk factor developed ARDS
3. 42% with 2 risk factors
4. 85% with 3 risk factors
Fowler's group found the highest incidence in,
1. aspiration ~ 35.6%
2. DIC ~ 22.2%
3. pneumonia ~ 11.9%
the major predisposing factors are now agreed to be;
1. septicaemia - particularly gram (-)'ve
2. aspiration of gastric contents
3. DIC
4. multiple trauma - particularly with pulmonary contusion
5. massive transfusion
it is extremely difficult, if not impossible to separate the toxic effects of high F
I
O
2
's from the
pathological conditions requiring their use
however, it is unlikely that O
2
plays a significant role in pathogenesis
there is considerable difference in the reported incidence, probably reflecting the different
diagnostic criteria in different studies
T.Oh: the true incidence is unknown and may only be ~ 7% of "at risk" patients
there is, however, good agreement on the overall mortality ≤ 50%
this tends to be higher in cases which follow septicaemia, being reported as
a. 81% by Fein et al. (1983), and
b. 78% by Fowler et al. (1983)
Respiratory Physiology
129
Histopathology
NB: three stages described
The Acute Stage Infiltration
this is characterised by damage to the integrity of the blood-gas barrier
the changes are not visible by light microscopy
EM shows extensive damage to type I alveolar epithelial cells, which may be totally destroyed
the BM is usually preserved and the epithelial cells form a continuous layer, with cell junctions
seemingly intact
endothelial permeability is nevertheless increased
interstitial oedema is found predominantly on the "service" side of the capillary, sparing the
"active" side
this pattern is similar to that observed with cardiogenic oedema
protein containing fluid leaks into the alveoli, together with rbc's and leucocytes bound in an
amorphous material containing fibrous strands
this exudate may form sheets lining alveoli → hyaline membrane formation
intravascular coagulation is common at this stage
in patients with septicaemia, capillaries may be completely plugged with leucocytes and the
underlying endothelium damaged
The Sub-Acute or Chronic Stage Proliferation
attempted repair and proliferation predominate at this stage
there is thickening of the endothelium, epithelium and interstitial space
type I epithelial cells are destroyed and replaced by type II epithelial cells which proliferate but do
not differentiate to type I cells
the later are end-cells and cannot divide
they remain cuboidal and ~ 10x the thickness of the type I cells
this appears to be a non-specific response, as it also occurs in oxygen toxicity
fibrosis commences after about a week and ultimately fibrocytes predominate
extensive fibrosis is seen in resolving cases
within the alveoli, the protein rich exudate may organise to produce the characteristic 'hyaline
membrane', which effectively destroys alveoli
Resolution
there is a reduction in the inflammatory infiltrate, alveolar duct and respiratory bronchiole fibrosis
Respiratory Physiology
130
Pathophysiology
lung compliance C
L
is greatly reduced and is adequately explained by histology
it is also likely that there is impaired production of surfactant (Fein et al. 1982)
Petty (1979) using BAL showed abnormally aggregated and inactive surfactant
FRC is reduced by collapse, tissue proliferation and increased elastic recoil
alveolar/capillary permeability is increased as demonstrated by studies of transit times with inert
tracer molecules
the concept of "non-cardiogenic" capillary leak is oversimplified, possibilities being,
i. C' activation
ii. fibrinolysis and platelet activation
Dankzer et al. (1979) found a bimodal distribution of perfusion; one fraction to areas of near
normal V/Q ratio, and the other to areas of near zero V/Q
this was sufficient to explain the P
A-aO2
gradient without the need to evoke changes in the diffusing
capacity DO
2
physiological shunt, Q
S
is usually so large (≤ 40%) that a near normal P
aO2
cannot be achieved
even with a F
I
O
2
= 1.0
the increase in V
D
, which may exceed 70%, requires large minute volumes in an attempt to
preserve near normocapnia
it may be argued that attempting normocapnia in these patients is inappropriate management
gaseous exchange is further impaired, in that MRO
2
is usually increased, despite the patient being
paralysed and artificially ventilated (Sibbald & Dredger, 1983)
Changes in Respiratory Mechanics (Start In Phase 1)
1. decreased total pulmonary compliance
2. increased airways resistance
3. increased work of breathing
4. decreased FRC
5. increased respiratory rate & decreased V
T
Changes in Haemodynamics (Sibbald, 1983)
1. increased PAP - increased RV afterload
- increased RVEDV & RVEDP
- decreased RVEF ∝ 1/(mean PAP)
- depression of RV contractility
2. normal LV function
3. elevation of PCWP - without increased in LVEDV
? ventricular interdependence
? decrease in LV compliance
4. LV dysfunction in later stages
Respiratory Physiology
131
Mechanisms of Causation
due to the diversity of causes of the condition, it appears there may be several mechanisms of
causation, at least in the early stages
in all cases, initiation seems to occur following damage to the alveolar/capillary membrane with
transudation often increased by pulmonary venoconstriction
thereafter the condition is accelerated by a number of positive feedback mechanisms
the initial insult may be either direct or indirect (see table above)
much of the interest is in the indirect causes, which may be mediated either by cellular or humoral
elements
cell types capable of damaging the membrane include,
a. neutrophils
b. basophils
c. macrophages
d. platelets - through arachidonic acid derivatives
humoral agents include,
a. bacterial endotoxin
b. tumour necrosis factor
c. platelet activating factor (PAF)
d. histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, and arachidonic acid metabolites
e. O
2
free radicals
f. proteases
g. thrombin, fibrin and FDP's
various chemotactic agents, especially C
5a
, play a major role in the direction of formed elements
onto the pulmonary endothelium
Malik, Selig and Burhop (1985) drew attention to the fact that many of the humoral agents are
capable of producing pulmonary venoconstriction
this facilitates transudation caused from increased permeability
Seeger et al. noted that a number of proteins, including albumin but particularly fibrin monomer,
antagonise the effects of surfactant
T.Oh: two possible mechanisms of causation,
1. C' activation
2. fibrinolysis and platelet activation
NB: however, both suffer from sparse clinical evidence,
C' activation has nonpredictive value and is non-specific
FDP-D 'antigen' identified in patients with ARDS and may be a marker of mediator
injury (represents thrombosis preceding fibrinolysis)
Respiratory Physiology
132
Neutrophil Mediated Injury
the postulated sequence begins with activation of C
5a
, which results in margination of
neutrophils on vascular endothelium
this is known to be activated in sepsis and during cardiopulmonary bypass
significant margination is seen in many cases of ARDS
however, margination can occur without significant lung injury, as occurs during haemodialysis
with a cellophane membrane
the postulate is that the neutrophils are somehow primed prior to margination
this may occur with endotoxin, which results in firm adherence of neutrophils to the endothelium
C
5a
results in temporary adherence but more importantly triggers inappropriate release of
lysosomal contents to the cell exterior, cf. into phagocytic vesicles
four groups of substances released in this way may potentially damage the endothelium;
1. O
2
derived free radicals → lipid peroxidation
inactivate α
1
-antitrypsin
2. proteolytic enzymes → direct endothelial damage
(esp. elastase) monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis
(elastin fragments)
3. arachidonic acid metabolites → vasoconstriction
increased permeability
neutrophil chemotaxis
4. platelet activating factors → intravascular coagulation
direct tissue damage
the role of neutrophils has been studied in depleted animals with conflicting results
ARDS does seem less severe in neutropaenic patients, however it still may develop
while they possess the capability for tissue damage, it seems unlikely they are the sole agent
Macrophages & Basophils
these have been studied to a far lesser extent
they contain a similar array of potentially tissue destructive factors and are already present within
the alveoli
there numbers are greatly increased in patients with ARDS
Platelets
these are also present in large numbers in the capillaries of patients with ARDS
aggregation at that site is associated with an increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure, possibly
due to a release of arachidonic acid metabolites
they may also play a role in the normal integrity of the capillary endothelium (Malik, Selig &
Burhop, 1985)
Respiratory Physiology
133
Mediators
a. prostaglandins - TBXA
2
- PGI
2
b. leukotrienes - chemotaxis
- vasoconstriction
- bronchoconstriction
c. lymphokines
i. IL-1 & TNF - widespread immune stimulation
- activation of inflammatory response
- septic syndrome, fever
- vasodilatation
- hyperdynamic circulation
- systemic catabolism, hepatic anabolism
- acute phase response
ii. IL-1 & 2 - T-cell stimulation/activation
iii. IL-3 & CSF's - marrow & specific colony stimulation
iv. IL-4 & 6 - B-cell stimulation
v. interferons - antiviral activity
- T & NK cell stimulation
IL-1, or endogenous pyrogen, acts on the pre-optic area of the hypothalamus with
subsequent heat production
d. complement - chemotaxis
- vasodilatation
- increased capillary permeability
e. tumour necrosis factor
f. endotoxin
g. others
i. histamine
ii. serotonin
iii. FDP's
Respiratory Physiology
134
Principals of Management
NB: treatment of primary pathology,
other management is essentially supportive
no specific therapeutic measure has been shown to significantly reduce the development /
progression of the disease
there are four main objectives of management (Nunn),
1. maintenance of an adequate P
aO2
2. minimise pulmonary transudation
3. prevent complications, particularly - sepsis
- barotrauma
4. maintenance of an adequate circulation
T.E. Oh
1. ventilation - pressure controlled ventilation
2. fluid management
3. cardiac support
4. nutrition
5. physiotherapy
6. other therapies
i. steroids - short burst therapy, methylprednisolone 1-2g
? long-term, see below
ii. CPAP
iii. antibiotics * only by M,C&S, not prophylactic
iv. heparinisation - not useful for ARDS
v. ECMO
vi. ultrafiltration - patients unresponsive to diuretics with H
2
O retention
? clearance of mediators of sepsis, medium MW
Ventilation
aim to maintain adequate oxygenation and reduce peak and mean airway pressure
PEEP is almost universally required to maintain an adequate P
aO2
it is of no prophylactic benefit but improves survival
benefits of PEEP are,
1. reduction in F
I
O
2
2. improved DO
2
3. increased compliance
4. reduction in atelectasis
Respiratory Physiology
135
Ventilation
hazards of PEEP include,
a. increase in total lung water
b. destruction of surfactant
c. may produce a fall in CO and DO
2
normocapnia becomes a lower priority as barotrauma becomes likely
HFJV & HFPPV provide no advantage over traditional ventilation, they result in a decrease in
mean P
IP
, but there is no improvement in mortality
ECMO has shown no proven benefit, mortality remains the same (except in children)
however, partial ECMO (ECCO
2
R) may reduce the mortality in the severe group
T.Oh: the optimal mode of ventilation is unknown
the level of optimal PEEP is described using various end-points,
a. lowest Q
S
< 20%
b. maximal DO
2
c. P
aO2
> 60 mmHg * with lowest F
I
O
2
≥ 30%
d. maximal improvement in C
L
Pharmacotherapy
fluid balance should be adjusted to lessen the formation of oedema
Fein et al. recommend values of PCWP ~ 5-10 mmHg
formation may be further reduced with the administration of NSA-C, as the plasma albumin is
frequently reduced
some early work suggested the administration of massive doses of steroids may halt the
development of the disease, Sibbald et al. 1981
subsequent work has shown no benefit, or an increased incidence of sepsis and a higher
mortality, thus the administration of steroids is not recommended
other pharmacotherapy includes,
a. PG inhibitors
b. anti-TNF
c. anti-LPS Ab
d. antioxidants
e. PG's
NB: these are only of prophylactic benefit in animal studies
Ibuprofen improves early haemodynamic stability but not mortality
Respiratory Physiology
136
Outcome
a. mortality ~ 50-70%
- unchanged over the last decade
b. poor prognosis - severe disease
- uncontrolled 1° cause
- high PVR
- RV dysfunction
- impaired DO
2
c. associated problems - 70% nosocomial pneumonia
- high incidence of sepsis syndrome
- MOSF
Respiratory Physiology
137

Respiratory Physiology
AIRWAYS AND FLOW Main Airway Branches & Zones
trachea R+L main bronchi lobar bronchi segmental bronchi bronchioles terminal bronchioles respiratory bronchioles alveolar ducts atria alveolar sacs respiratory zone + primary lobule / or acinus generations 17-23 conducting zone generations 1-16

CZ doesn't contribute to gas exchange → anatomical dead space RZ (including transitional zone) → most of lung volume ~ 3000 ml air flow → terminal bronchioles by bulk flow then due to large increase in X-sectional area, flow v decreases and movement is by diffusion within an acinus distances are short, ≤5 mm, and diffusion is rapid, ≤1 sec alveolar stability is maintained by surfactant air velocity decreases at terminal bronchioles, these are often a site of collection of foreign matter a normal tidal breath of ~ 500 ml requires δ ~ 3 cmH2O due to high the compliance of lung P tissue and low resistance to gas flow, gas flow 1.0 l/s → δ ~ 2 cmH2O P

this equates to a compliance, C ~ 180 ml/cmH2O

BLOOD VESSELS AND FLOW
initially arteries, veins and bronchi run together toward the periphery, veins → bronchi & arteries → outside of primary lobules center

capillaries ~ 7 µm diameter and are short → large surface area (SA) the pulmonary bed receives the entire CO, excluding true shunt flow the mean pulmonary arterial pressure ~ 15 mmHg RBC's traverse the capillary bed in ~ 0.75 sec and traverse ~ 3 alveoli the bronchial circulation supplies down to the terminal bronchioles but only a small fraction of this blood supply drains → pulmonary veins

2

Respiratory Physiology
LUNG VOLUMES
a. primary lung volumes i. RV Residual Volume ii. ERV Expiratory Reserve Volume iii. TV Tidal Volume iv. IRV Inspiratory Reserve Volume secondary derived capacities i. TLC Total Lung Capacity ii. VC Vital Capacity iii. IC Inspiratory Capacity iv. FRC Functional Residual Capacity

b.

Def'n: volume refers to one of the 4 primary, non-overlapping subdivisions of TLC, each capacity includes two or more of the primary lung volumes

Lung Volumes1

TLC 6.0 l

VC 4.8 l

IC 3.6 l

IRV 3.1 l

TV ~ 0.5 l FRC 2.4 l RV 1.2 l
1

ERV 1.2 l RV 1.2 l

average values for 70 kg male, 20-30 y.o., SA = 1.7 m2

3

as they contain gas which cannot be expelled from the lungs Functional Residual Capacity Def'n: the volume of gas left in the lungs at the end of normal tidal expiration FRC is the lung volume in which gas exchange is taking place small fluctuations of alveolar and arterial gas tensions occur with each tidal breath as fresh gas mixes with alveolar air FRC therefore acts as a buffer. during induction or recovery from anaesthesia increasing the average lung volume during quiet breathing. reducing work of breathing due to shape of compliance curve 4 . maintaining relatively constant A & a gas tensions with each breath preventing rapid changes in alveolar gas with changes in ventilation or inspired gas.Respiratory Physiology Measurement of FRC and RV NB: these volumes cannot be measured by spirometry. eg. 2. 3. 1.

ie. i. FRC = P L 2 ×δ V P − P   L1 L2  5 . 2. from end tidal expiration → FRC ii. then the initial lung volume must have been 5. therefore will result in underestimation ie.0 l. or unventilated. thus. in an air-tight box.δ V).Vb1 PL1. closed circuit helium dilution closed circuit nitrogen washout body plethysmograph Closed Circuit Helium Dilution rebreathing takes place from a spirometer of known volume (V1) and helium concentration (C1) as He is relatively insoluble in blood.VL1 PV = K at constant T where δ applies for the box & lung V where VL1 = FRC = Pb2.(VL1 + δ V). = PL2. it therefore equilibrates between the lung and spirometer volumes are calculated by conservation of mass.Respiratory Physiology methods of measurement. the patient breaths 100% O2 if the alveolar N2 = 80% and the volume of N2 collected is 4. depending upon the starting point. 3.0 l relies upon N2 being relatively insoluble and moving slowly from blood to alveolar air Body Plethysmograph includes both communicating and non-communicating thoracic gas volume the later includes both non-ventilated lung and extrapulmonary gas the subject. 1. C1 × V1 = C2 × (V1+V2). only communicating volume is measured Closed Circuit Nitrogen Dilution using N2 washout.(Vb1 . from end forced expiration → RV NB: in some types of pulmonary disease areas of lung are poorly. breathes through a mouthpiece which closes at end expiration and the subject inhales against closed airway Using Boyle's Law: Pb1.

2. 4. 3. 2.Respiratory Physiology an increase in FRC indicates lung hyperinflation and may be due to.0 l) hyperinflation. does not produce pulmonary disability alterations of V/Q are far more important clinically disadvantages of a high FRC. loss of lung elastic recoil increased expiratory resistance to breathing PEEP FRC and RV usually increase together an increase in RV. ↓ rate of alteration of alveolar gas composition . 1. without an increase in TLC leads to a reduced VC the normal ratio RV/TLC ~ 15-30% (1. limits ability to increase ventilation on demand ↑ dead space ↑ mean intrathoracic pressure & ↓ venous return 6 .2/6. anaesthetic induction mechanical disadvantage for respiratory muscles.eg. in itself. 1. 3.

Residual Volume Def'n: the volume of gas in the lung at the end of maximal expiration determined by the balance of expiratory muscle activity and the resistance to volume decrease by the lungs and chest wall 7 .↓ FRC in the supine position ~ 0. 7.work by Nunn → no correlation! . 2.increased abdominal contents → ↓ FRC alveolar-ambient pressure gradient * PEEP increases the FRC 5. increased expiratory resistance with asthma & external apparatus → ↑ FRC chest wall . 3.5-1. 8.FRC ∝ height (~ 32-51 ml/inch) .others have shown small increase diaphragmatic muscle tone originally. body size sex age . 4. 6.females ~ 90% of male FRC (= height) . FRC believed to = equilibrium for lung/chest wall system diaphragmatic tone maintains FRC ~ 400 ml above true relaxed state → ↓ FRC with anaesthesia posture .Respiratory Physiology Factors Affecting FRC 1. loss of lung ER with emphysema → ↑ FRC ii.0 l lung disease i.

less when supine. eg.Respiratory Physiology Vital Capacity Def'n: the maximum volume that can be exhaled following a maximal inspiration VC = IRV + TV + ERV VC and its components are measured by spirometry. weight and surface area age sex posture . 3.↓ VC with increasing age -M>F . expansion of lung . (obstruction. iv. IC ~ 75% of VC ( = TV + IRV) ERV ~ 25% of VC 8 . or wedge variations in VC occur with.VC roughly proportional to height . 1. i. 4. respiratory movements . etc. 2. VC may be normal in emphysema normal values.neuromuscular ii. 2. sitting or standing Reductions of Vital Capacity 1. thoracic expansion . a reduction in VC occurs in many diseases. atelectasis. obesity. either bell (Benedict-Roth). position iii. pneumonia) Non-pulmonary these may be due to limitation of.pregnancy. cf. Pulmonary reductions in the distensibility of lung tissue reductions in the absolute volume of lung. ascites. 1.occupying intrathoracic space 2. however by itself doesn't signify pulmonary disease. height.musculoskeletal. diaphragmatic descent .

. VA = VE − VD Phys 9 . VA = VT . alveolar ventilation. VA = VT .VDAnat this is better defined as the volume of fresh gas entering the alveoli and effective in arterialising mixed venous blood.VDPhys so. ie.Respiratory Physiology VENTILATION Def'n: minute volume = VT × respiratory frequency ~ 500 ml × 15 bpm ~ 7500 ml/min the actual volume of gas entering the lung is greater due to effects of R Alveolar Ventilation Def'n: volume of fresh gas entering the alveoli per breath. therefore. where VA does not = alveolar volume VT = VA + VDPhys measurements should be made on the expired volume due to the effects of R.

PaO2 ~ 101 mmHg PaCO2 ~ 40 mmHg assuming PICO2 = 0.conservation of mass 10 . where FACO2 = %CO2 / 100 ml at end-tidal gas approximates alveolar gas. ii. Fowler's method Bohr's method . 1. VA = VCO2 / FE'CO2 .Respiratory Physiology Alveolar Gas Tensions i. and since there is no gas exchange in VDPhys . 2. or that part of the inspired volume which is expired unchanged at the beginning of expiration.tracer washout .according to Fowler (1948)" (Nunn . then VCO2 = VA × FACO2 . V CO 2 VA NB: in normal subjects alveolar and arterial PCO2 are virtually equal Anatomical Dead Space VDAnat Def'n: the volume of the conducting airways in which no gas exchange takes place. so P aCO2 ∝ . gaining FE'CO2 from an IR analyser as PCO2 is directly proportional to FCO2 . or "the volume of gas exhaled before CO2 reaches the alveolar plateau . then.now the commonly used definition) also termed the series dead space and is equal to the boundary between convective gas transport and diffusion the two commonly used methods of measurement are.

regions of the lung with different time constants. %[N2] → wash-in phase the mid-point of the wash-in (where area A = area B below) measures the transition from conducting airways to the transition from dead space to alveolar gas in patients with non-uniform distribution of ventilation. He) to mark the transition between dead space and alveolar gas following inspiration of 100% O2 . a plot of VEXP vs. O2 . a slow "wash-in" is seen and the method is inaccurate 11 . ie.Respiratory Physiology Fowler's Method single breath analysis using an indicator gas (N2 .CO2 .

(VD / VT ) . ie. a horizontal plateau is not seen and FaCO2 and mean alveolar CO2 cannot be estimated 12 . FACO2 . dividing by VT giving.Respiratory Physiology Bohr's Method NB: based on fact that VD doesn't contribute to expired CO2 . regions of the lung with different time constants. FECO2 = (VT .VD . patients with a non-uniform distribution of ventilation. FECO2 = FACO2 . FACO2 VD VT = F ACO 2 − F ECO F ACO 2 2 Bohr Equation (1891) originally used to measure FaCO2 . FECO2 = VT . therefore by the conservation of mass principle VT . 2. FACO2 and as by sub'n VA = VT .VD VT . FACO2 so. FECO2 = VA . using estimates of VDAnat from autopsy cast specimens not used to estimate VDAnat until the constancy of alveolar air was established by Haldane and Priestly (1905) 1.VD) . FACO2 VT . FaCO2 is estimated from ETCO2 with a rapid gas analyser the mean expired concentration from a Douglas bag as for the above.

but there is the additional volume of the circuit . using Fowler technique. .loss or excision of lung → → → → ↓ VDAnat ↑ VDAnat ↑ VDAnat ↓ VDAnat 6.↑ VDAnat with increasing age (?VD/VT) .increases with jaw protrusion in non-intubated subjects NB: §minimal effects 13 . 10. Body Size Age Lung Volume Posture . 4.↑ VDAnat with increasing body size . 2.bronchoconstriction . and the cone advance of laminar flow.2 ml/kg . or ~ 2. 9. seen at low flow velocities Hypoxia§ Drugs and Anaesthetic Gases§ Lung Disease Endotracheal Intubation Position of the Jaw & Neck . 8. 3. 7.↓ VDAnat with supine posture → supine ~ 101 ml sitting ~ 147 ml (Fowler) Respiratory Flow Pattern decreased.in ml ~ lean body weight in lb.↓ VDAnat ~ 50% .↑ VDAnat with increasing volume ~ 20 ml/l increase in lung volume from FRC .bronchodilatation .Respiratory Physiology Factors Affecting Anatomical Dead Space 1. 5.emphysema . with low VT due to the mixing affect of the heart beat below the carina.

↑ VDAlv but not known why! . 7. ARDS → microemboli & ventilation of non-vascular air spaces ii. Anaesthetic Gases .↑ subcarinal VD ~ 70 ml . b. alveoli with no perfusion alveoli with reduced perfusion → → V/Q infinite V/Q > 0. IPPV & lateral posture → gross V/Q mismatch 14 . → increases VDAlv due to maldistribution of ventilation Tidal Volume Oxygen . 8. 2. Age . however is ineffective in arterialising mixed venous blood also termed parallel dead space does not represent the actual volume of these alveoli the cause is failure of adequate perfusion of the alveoli to which gas is distributed.8 the separation of alveoli into these two groups = Riley analysis normally is minimal in healthy subjects but increases with disease Factors Affecting Alveolar Dead Space 1.hypoxic vasoconstriction → → ↑ VDAlv ↓ VDAlv 3. so VDAlv increases but the ratio remains constant .as VT increases.↑ VDAlv increased in multitude of diseases Lung Disease i.↑ VDAlv with increasing age Pulmonary Arterial Pressure a decrease in PA pressure (eg.Respiratory Physiology Alveolar Dead Space VDAlv Def'n: that part of the inspired gas which passes through the anatomical dead space and enters alveoli. 5. a. hypotension) decreases perfusion to the upper parts of the lung → ↑ zone 1 & ↑ VDAlv Posture VDAlv increases in the upright and lateral positions due to exaggeration of hydrostatic differences → ↑ zone 1 this is theoretical. no data is available (Nunn) IPPV increases VDAlv due to exaggeration of hydrostatic failure of perfusion also decreases total pulmonary blood flow applied wave-form IPPV with short inspiration (t < 0. 4.hyperoxic vasodilatation . 6.5 s).

PE'CO2) / PaCO2 where PE'CO2 is the end-tidal CO2 V Alv D VT = P aCO 2 − P E P aCO 2 CO 2 this is as compared with Bohr's original equation. since these receive mixed alveolar gas from anatomical dead space prior to fresh gas gas from poorly perfused alveoli will contain more CO2 than from non-perfused alveoli but the PCO2 will be less than the mixed alveolar PCO2 as represented by the arterial PaCO2 ** hence the end-tidal alveolar gas will have a lower PCO2 than the PaCO2 this is used in a modification of the Bohr equation to calculate the ratio of VDAlv/VT here the equation becomes (PaCO2 .end tidal PCO2 difference gas from non-perfused alveoli will contain some CO2. viz.Respiratory Physiology Measurement of Alveolar Dead Space NB: estimated from the arterial . VD VT = F ACO 2 − F ECO F ACO 2 2 Bohr Equation (1891) 15 .

therefore.2 to 0. the value for alveolar CO2 is taken as the ETCO2 if "ideal" alveolar PCO2 is taken as arterial PaCO2.Respiratory Physiology Physiological Dead Space Def'n: VDPhys = Total Dead Space = VDAlv + VDAnat or. 2. that part of the tidal volume which does not participate in gas exchange and is ineffective in arterialising mixed venous blood. the actual value for VDPhys which may vary widely with changing tidal volumes expired gas is collected in a Douglas bag and the difficulty is getting only expired gas due to difficulties in the measurement of this. c. or it reaches alveoli with inadequate flow . PaCO2 ∝ VCO2 / VA 16 . 1.PECO2 ) / PACO2 substituting PaCO2 as the ideal alveolar value. then VD/VT = (PACO2 . Phys the Bohr Equation where PA is end-expired VD VT = P aCO 2 − P ECO P aCO 2 2 Enghoff Modification (1938) * normally = 0. 3. it doesn't reach the alveoli . ie. VDPhys ~ VDAnat ~ 150 ml Measurement of Physiological Dead Space using the Bohr Equation to measure VD. VDAlv ~ 0.35 this ratio is more useful as it tends to remain constant. because either. VDAnat/VT = (FACO2 . then the equation yields physiological dead space.FECO2 ) / F ACO2 but since PX and FX are proportional.VDAnat it reaches alveoli with no capillary flow.VDAlv in normal supine man.f. clinically the relationship between PaCO2 and ventilation is used.

proportional to the area available for transfer proportional to the gas tension difference inversely proportional to the tissue thickness . c. Molecular Weight V ∝ 1/√MW Graham's Law: relative rates of diffusion are inversely proportional to the square root of the gas molecular weight thus. a. in gaseous or liquid phases.D T ×(P gas 1 − P gas 2 ) NB: where D = the diffusion constant Determinants of Gas Diffusion 1. Characteristics of the Gas Pressure Gradient Membrane Characteristics Characteristics of the Gas a.Respiratory Physiology DIFFUSION Def'n: the constant random thermal motion of molecules. 3. O2 diffuses more rapidly than CO2 in the gas phase (1.17 : 1) in health. lighter gases diffuse faster in gaseous media than heavier gases lighter molecules for given energy have faster velocities therefore. regional differences in PO2 can occur this is only of importance in the gaseous pathway from ambient air to blood 17 . however where distances are increased. V gas = A. 2. b. diffusion distances in the alveoli are small (< 100 µm). which leads to the net transfer molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration (thermodynamic activity) Fick's Law Def'n: the rate of transfer of a gas through a sheet of tissue is.

1. therefore depends upon. a clinical problem solubility determines the limitation to the rate of diffusion.75 s 18 . as for N2O. at a given temperature. b. diffusion limited. 3. diffusion of CO2 is rarely.3 s ~ 0. which due to its high solubility in blood does not reach equilibrium during the passage of blood through the alveoli perfusion limited. is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in the equilibrium phase relative solubilities of CO2 & O2 in water ~ 24:1 combining this with Graham's Law from above. as for CO. equilibrium is reached in transit time for a rbc ~ 0. ii. Solubility Coefficient Henry's Law: the amount of a gas which dissolves in unit volume of a liquid. 4. limiting the rise in PaO2 oxygenation of Hb represents the likely rate limiting factor in O2 transfer at a PaO2 of 101 mmHg. if ever. the FIO2 alveolar ventilation pulmonary capillary blood flow oxygenation of Hb Hb acts as a "sink" for O2.Respiratory Physiology b. the relative rates of diffusion from alveolus to rbc for CO2:O2 ~ 20. which due to its very low solubility reaches pressure equilibrium very early with perfusing blood Transmembrane Pressure Gradient the rate of O2 diffusion is dependent on the integrated mean PO2 difference between alveoli and pulmonary capillary blood. 2. gases being either i.7 : 1 therefore. a.

depending upon the state PO of oxygenation of Hb factors which will reduce the diffusing capacity are. a.PaO2 difference the rate of transfer of gas ∝ δ 2 along the capillary PO → mean value by integration however. as assumption (b) doesn't hold true ie.PaO2) as it is impossible to measure the mean PcO2. b. a. c. c.Respiratory Physiology with either a lower PaO2 . b. alveolar diameter ~ 200 µm → diffusion ~ 10 ms ~ 7 µm (~ rbc) alveolar + capillary membrane on "active side" ~ 0. where the transit time is reduced the diffusion path is composed of a number of segments. an approximation is the Bohr integration procedure. d. decreased capillary transit time decreased capillary blood volume pulmonary congestion alveolar capillary block ∝ ↑ CO NB: V/Q mismatch is indistinguishable from decreased diffusing capacity 19 . b. a. the end PcO2 . the rate of uptake of O2 by Hb is a non-linear function of the δ 2 . d. the diffusion path within the RBC is greater than across the lung the oxygenation of Hb is sufficiently slow to be the rate limiting step Diffusing Capacity (DC) Def'n: the rate of gas transfer / partial pressure difference for the gas → δ / δ GAS Q P the term is comparable with electrical conductance for oxygen this becomes. at FRC. this has been shown to be false.5 µm pulmonary capillaries oxygenation of Hb therefore. by assuming. or an impairment of diffusion (alveolar-capillary block) equilibrium may not be reached this will be exacerbated by conditions of increased CO. DCO2 = MRO2 / (PcO2 .

Respiratory Physiology Diffusing Capacity for Carbon Monoxide this is used as a substitute for oxygen. for O2 is ~ 1.3% CO + 10% He) held for 10 s no He enters blood. 3. and the equation simplifies to. 20 .3% CO for 1 minute alveolar PCO is calculated from modified alveolar air equation uptake is from inspired & expired FCO by IR analysis single breath VC breath of (0. the reaction rate is in fact slower. 1/DCL = 1/DCM + 1/(Vc. the different components of diffusion resistance to CO can be studied (solving simultaneous equations for below) the second component. is given by. the total diffusing capacity.2 × DCMCO methods for the measurement of DCCO include. DCCO = CO uptake / alveolar PCO the differences in the solubility and vapour densities of the two gases are such that the diffusion rate. due to the intractable difficulties in measuring DCO2 it is convenient as the diffusion barrier is the same but the affinity of Hb for CO is so high that the mean PcCO can be ignored. by altering the FIO2. analogous to conductance.θ) → and. and is affected by the FIO2 thus. to the point of entry into the RBC. within the RBC. steady state subject breaths 0. is not really a matter of diffusion but a product of the pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and the reaction rate with Hb (rate = θ) thus.23 times that of CO although the affinity of CO for Hb is ~ 250 times that of O2. 1. thus ratio FI /FE gives concentration of CO and the alveolar PCO from the FECO rebreathing same mixture as (b) rebreathed from reservoir 2. under similar conditions DCMO2 ~ 1.

to left atrium (LA) Comparison with Systemic Circuit mean PA pressure ~ 15 mmHg. pulmonary vv. 4 main pulmonary vv. small peripheral acinar pulmonary veins vi. 3:2 vessel walls are much thinner with less muscle.f. systemic vessels the circuit is required to accept the entire CO at any given moment and not concerned with diverting blood flow. with bronchi/bronchioles vii.cm-5 however. recruitment distension NB: both of which decrease RV 21 . not all vessels are open at resting CO. except in hypoxia therefore. main pulmonary artery (PA) ii.0 l/min ~ 2. branches of PA with bronchi/bronchioles iii. PA pressure is consistent with lifting blood to the apex only the lower pressure thereby reducing RV workload the resistance drop around pulmonary circuit is relatively constant.0 mmHg/l/min c. systemic = 21. thus reducing perivascular pressure pressures may fall below the intrapleural pressure → E-A vessel diameters ↑ with inspiration vascular resistance = δ / Flow P ~ (15-5 mmHg)/5. b. pulmonary capillaries v.sec. (25/8 mmHg) flow is therefore more pulsatile than in the systemic circuit → S:D ratio of 3:1 vs. central acinar arterioles iv. ~ 30% c.5 ~ 160 dyne.f.f. c. increases in flow → a. the stepwise reduction in the systemic circuit approximately one half of the resistance is in the microcirculation the pulmonary capillary pressures are hydrostatically dependent → zones 1-4 pericapillary pressure closely approximates alveolar pressure but is slightly less (Nunn ~ Atm-10mmHg) Factors Affecting Extra-Alveolar Vessels the arterial and venous transmural pressures may be significantly reduced by the radial traction of lung parenchyma on vessel walls.Respiratory Physiology BLOOD-FLOW AND METABOLISM mixed venous blood from RV → i.

metalloporphyrin this phenomenon is important in cor pulmonale and sleep apnoea syndrome 22 . therefore. a. Factors Affecting Vessel Calibre Contraction and increase RV noradrenaline adrenaline dopamine PGF2α thromboxane A2 histamine serotonin angiotensin II (H1) (α) (α) Dilatation and decrease RV isoproterenol aminophylline ganglion blockers PGE1 PGI2 histamine acetylcholine bradykinin (H 2) there is a plentiful supply of SNS vasoconstrictor nerves via the cervical ganglia these may decrease flow ~ 30% both α & β receptors supply smooth muscle of arteries and veins effects are seen predominantly in vessels > 30 µm diameter. b. but the effects are far less than those seen in the systemic side central increases in SNS tone do have significant effects on the pulmonary circulation the effects of alterations in PNS tone are less certain alveolar hypoxia causes vasoconstriction in a non-linear fashion. c.Respiratory Physiology smooth muscle tone largely determines vessel calibre. resembles the shape of the HbO2 dissociation curve response curve has a "P50" ~ 30 mmHg mediator may be one of the cytochromes.

where CO = Mass Injected t1 [ a . or CO. or a radioactive isotope injected into an arm vein the indicator concentration in serial arterial samples is used to derive the average [I]art. is equal to the body MRO2 divided by the arterial/mixed venous [O2] difference: . after one circulation through heart. is given by the A-V concentration difference multiplied by the blood flow. O2 consumed = A-V [O2] difference × blood-flow therefore pulmonary blood-flow. Q = . VO 2 CaO 2 − CvO 2 where CvO2 is taken from PA blood the patient rebreathes O2 into a Benedict-Roth spirometer through a soda-lime absorber and the rate of O2-uptake is determined from the slope of the tracing alternatively CO2 excretion could be used Indicator Dilution based on the conservation of mass principal using indocyanine green. of any substance from any organ. or disappearance.Respiratory Physiology Measurement of Pulmonary Blood Flow (CO) Fick Principle Def'n: the rate of appearance.δ I] t ∫ Thermodilution same as (b) but cold saline is injected into RA and the δ measured in the PA using a thermistor T on flow-directed catheter has the advantages of no recirculation and ability for repeated measurements however. requires multiple correction factors for heat gain in catheter and speed of injection 23 .

vital capacity breaths) later work done by Nunn suggests that at FRC this difference in flow is only ~ 3x (fig 7. the normal a-v gradient → Starling resistor or "waterfall effect" 24 . Pa must be several cmH2O > Pv regional perfusion variations with hydrostatic pressure give 3 hypothetical zones from apex to base.Respiratory Physiology Body Plethysmograph used to measure instantaneous pulmonary blood flow by measuring N2O uptake a gas mixture of 21%-O2 + 79%-N2O breathed from a rubber bag inside a plethysmograph N2O is highly soluble (~ 34x N2) & is taken-up in series of steps coinciding with the heart rate as N2O uptake is flow limited.↑ VL increases radial traction → → ↑ RV ↓ RV the increased vessel resistance seen at low volumes for the E-A vessels affects the critical opening pressure for any flow to occur.4.f. Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 PA > Pa > Pv Pa > PA > Pv P a > Pv > PA No Flow Flow ∝ Pa-PA gradient Flow ∝ Pa-Pv gradient zone 2 is unusual in that flow is determined by a-A pressure gradient c. 1.↑ VL stretches capillaries . 2. → basal ~ 12-15x apical perfusion (West . instantaneous flow can be calculated NB: all except the later measure total pulmonary blood flow (including shunt). p152) during exercise regional differences become less due to a greater part of the increase in flow being directed to the mid & upper zones lung volume is an important determinant of vessel resistance. whereas plethysmography → pulmonary capillary flow Radioactive Perfusion Scan using 133Xe and a scintillation gamma camera to determine regional differences Regional Differences perfusion in the normal upright lung varies from apex to base. 1. alveolar vessels extra-alveolar vessels . 3. 2.

total body lymph flow ~ 146 ml/hr.[P c − P i ) − σ(πc − πi )] Def'n: Q = net fluid flow σ = the reflection coefficient of the capillary wall for plasma proteins. resistance of basal E-A vessels increases due to loss of radial traction and flow again decreases → zone 4 although passive forces dominate vessel resistance. gasping markedly decreases PA resistance by radial traction and increased PaO2 decreased pH also → vasoconstriction and increased sensitivity to O2 Water Balance Starling's Law . determines flow and increases in flow down this zone are predominantly due to distension. or 3. with < 15% perfusing lung at birth. ( Q = k. alveolar hypoxia causes marked vasoconstriction and regional blood-flow changes O2 responses are absent at PaO2 > 100 mmHg and only become significant when PaO2 < 70 mmHg this effect minimises V/Q mismatch.5 l/d early pulmonary oedema causes engorgement of perivascular lymphatics seen as Kerley B lines on CXR 25 . as vessel pressure rises but PA is constant at low VL. Pa increases causing recruitment of additional vessels in zone 3 the normal a-v gradient (relatively constant). reducing alveolar dead space high altitude → generalised constriction and ↑ RV workload this mechanism also functions in utero. where hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) maintains the high PA pressure this diverts blood through the ductus arteriosus.Respiratory Physiology throughout zone 2. and k = the filtration coefficient NB: approximate values Pc Pi πc πi ~ ~ ~ ~ 10 mmHg 10 mmHg 28 mmHg ?? subatmospheric but 20 mmHg in lung lymph the net effect is an outward pressure producing a lung lymph flow of ~ 20 ml/hr in a resting adult male → perivascular + peribronchial lymphatics then the hilar lymph nodes cf.

863 BTPS ratio of CO2 excretion to O2 uptake by the lung = the respiratory exchange ratio (R). PaCO2 = K. FRC helping to maintain the constancy of alveolar air the PaCO2 of mean alveolar air is determined by CO2 production and alveolar ventilation.2093 .PH2O) 0.93% of (P Atm .8 F ECO 2 F IO 2 . NB: Alveolar PO2 is determined by the rate at which O2 is supplied to the alveolus by ventilation. relative to its rate of removal by ventilation PiO2 of inspired air = = ~ 20.(VCO2/VA) K = 0. (760-47mmHg) 149 mmHg as gas exchange occurs the mean PaO2 falls to ~ 101 mmHg this varies only by 2-3 mmHg with each breath. therefore.PERFUSION RELATIONSHIPS the V/Q ratio is the crucial factor in determining alveolar and. pulmonary capillary PO2 and PCO2.Respiratory Physiology VENTILATION . F EN 2 /F IN 2 − F EO 2   N2 is unaffected by gas exchange and corrects for unequal volumes on inspiration and expiration this equation assumes equilibrium of the inert gas species 26 . R= NB: in health R ~ 0. relative to its rate of removal by pulmonary capillary blood flow Alveolar PCO2 is determined by the rate at which CO2 is supplied to the alveolus by pulmonary capillary blood flow.

1 0.78 0.67 0.72 0.83 0.82 5. Base Total 7.9 0.8 0.07 0.24 0.0 0. 1.15 1. 2. the effects of uneven V/Q ratios are insignificant as shown by the A-a differences the efficiency of exchange is about 97-98% of the theoretical maximum these figures were measured with VC breaths from RV measurements taken by Nunn.0 1.3 1.19 0.66 0. and a greater amount of ventilation goes to the bases.09 0.78 0.98 1.33 0.50 0.92 0. ↑ ventilation ↑ perfusion ~ 3x ~ 12x consequently.95 0.3 1.33 0.65 pH Apex 0.68 0.8 Regional Differences in Upright Lung (West) VL % 7 8 10 11 12 13 13 13 13 100 VA l/min QL l/min V/Q 3.29 6 132 121 114 108 102 98 95 92 89 28 34 37 39 40 41 41 42 42 553 558 562 566 571 574 577 579 582 7.59 0.68 0.52 0.3 1.42 0. basal values are closer to overall mean ~ 0.Respiratory Physiology Distribution of V/Q Ratios Physiological in the "normal" upright lung.73 0.51 Mid.73 0. the V/Q ratio varies from a high value at apex to low value at the base as most of the blood flow.63 PaO2 mmHg PaCO2 mmHg PN2 mmHg R 2. in the normal lung. showed far less variation from base to apex 27 . from apex to base (West).85mean 101 97 4 39 40 1 572 575 3 Mixed Alveolar Mixed Arterial PA-aO2 Difference therefore.39 0. with tidal breaths at FRC.8 1.

as do the end pulmonary capillary pressures Effects on Arterial Blood 1. blood from regions with low V/Q will have both a decreased PO2 and CO2 due to the "steep" fall of the curve in this region therefore. an elevation of PaCO2 leads to an increase in alveolar ventilation and a return to normal O2 this does not apply to O2 transfer. if overall alveolar ventilation is normal. CO2 regions of high V/Q compensate for regions of low V/Q due to the almost linear slope of the CO2-dissociation curve within the physiological range therefore.8 ventilation below perfusion requirements. CO2 usually being compensated 1. regions with high V/Q ratios R > 0. → alveolar O2 falls and CO2 increases.8 ventilation in excess of perfusion contributes to alveolar dead space alveolar gas tensions approach those of inspired air. as do the end pulmonary capillary pressures regions with low V/Q ratios R < 0. contributes to physiological shunt alveolar gas tensions approach those of mixed venous blood. 28 .Respiratory Physiology Pathological diffuse pulmonary disease may result in a gross scatter of V/Q ratios this most commonly results in hypoxaemia. → 2. the end capillary CCO2 differences parallel end capillary PCO2 differences the decreased CCO2 from high V/Q regions compensating for the increased CCO2 from underventilated areas further. mixed alveolar gas will be compensated by high and low PO2's but mixed end capillary blood will be disproportionately desaturated by the low CO2 from low V/Q regions NB: this leads to an overall Alveolar-arterial PO2 gradient 2. due to the sigmoid shape of the HbO2 dissociation curve blood from regions of high V/Q will have increased PO2 but only a minimally increased CO2 due to the "flat" portion of the curve however. alveolar O2 increases and CO2 decreases.

Respiratory Physiology Physiological Adjustments to Non-Uniform V/Q Ratios 1. Measurement of Non-Uniformity of V/Q Ratios 1. low V/Q regions lead to a fall in PaO2. inhalation of 133Xe scintillation counters determine distribution of ventilation subsequent breath-holding and uptake of 133Xe indicates regional perfusion comparison of these → V/Q estimation of alveolar and physiological dead space using the Enghoff modification of the Bohr equation estimation of venous admixture using the shunt equation (below) will indicate areas of low V/Q 2. which causes regional pulmonary vasoconstriction and diversion of blood to better ventilated regions of the lung reduced regional perfusion therefore approaches reduced ventilation with a return of R toward normal high V/Q regions lead to a decrease in PaCO2. 29 . which causes regional bronchoconstriction and diversion of ventilation to better perfused regions of the lung reduced regional ventilation therefore approaches reduced perfusion with a return of R toward normal 2. 3.

4) 30 . increasing the PA-aO2 gradient also conveniently shown on O2-CO2 plot (West 10.8 (see below) gas exchange (air-flow / blood flow).0 outside of range 0. . or scatter of V/Q ratios. exchange is severely impaired lung disease may widen the distribution.5 to 5 and follows a log-normal distribution with a mean ~ 0. occurs most efficiently at a value of V/Q slightly >1.863 ×R × P aCO 2 normally. without altering the mean alternatively. when plotted against % lung volume the ratio varies from 0.  aO 2 − C vO 2  V/Q = 0.4 to 4.Respiratory Physiology Regional Variation in V/Q expressed in terms of the ventilation-perfusion ratio equation: C  . disease may skew the distribution left or right both of which impair gas exchange.

not an actual amount Components of Venous Admixture Anatomical. erect vs. supine. physiological coronary blood enters LV via the thesbian veins some bronchial artery blood enters the pulmonary veins pathological congenital heart disease with R→ L shunt perfusion of non-ventilated alveoli pulmonary arterio-venous shunts (haemangioma) 2.ie.Respiratory Physiology VENOUS ADMIXTURE Def'n: refers to the degree of admixture of mixed venous blood with arterialised pulmonary end capillary blood. physiological normal scatter of V/Q ratios changes with posture pathological abnormal scatter of V/Q ratios alveolar-capillary block . which would be required to produce the observed pulmonary end-capillary to arterial PO2 difference NB: where Pc'O2 is taken as the "ideal" alveolar PaO2 venous admixture is therefore a calculated. lateral decubitus 2. Regions of Low V/Q 1. or Absolute Shunt 1. 31 .

and.CvO2 (QS/QT ) .(QS/QT ) .QS .CcO2 = QS/QT = then by multiplying N & D by -1 . QT . CaO2 QT . CaO2 dividing by QT CaO2 so.CcO2) = = (QT .CcO2 + (QS/QT) .CcO2 ) / (CvO2 . QS . = CcO2 . CcO2 + QS .QS) . CvO2 CaO2 .Respiratory Physiology Measurement of Venous Admixture NB: by the conservation of mass. (CvO2 . QT = Cc Cc O2 O2 − C aO 2 − C vO 2 The Shunt Equation NB: normally expressed as a fraction of CO ~ 2-3% CaO2 is measured directly by arterial puncture CcO2 is taken as the "ideal" alveolar PO2 from the alveolar air equation (see over) 32 . CcO2 + (QS . CvO2 ) QT . CcO2 .CcO2) (CaO2 .

Rossier. Mean PAO2 = b.(PaCO2 / R) Filley.PaCO2 × [FIO2 + (1-FIO2)/R] PiO2 . these may be used to calculate the concentration effect 33 . PiO2 . Riley PAO2 = c.Respiratory Physiology Alveolar Air Equation a. Selkurt PAO2 = e.(PaCO2 /R) × (1-FIO2(1-R)) (simplest form) R = respiratory exchange ratio PiO2 . West PAO2 = d.(PaCO2/R) + K K = [FIO2 × PaCO2 × ((1-R)/R)] PiO2 . MacIntosh & Wright (1954)* P AO 2 = P iO 2 − P aCO 2 PiO 2 − PEO 2  × P  ECO2  NB: this equation allows for disequilibria of inert gasses. therefore may be used during induction / recovery from anaesthesia the differences between the PAO2 calculated by (b) & (c) are due only to inert gas exchange therefore.

but by an amount always less than the rise in PiO2 (see iso-shunt diagram. 6. the shunt ratio for 100% O2 → the shunt ratio for air → anatomical shunt physiological shunt the alveolar-arterial PN2 difference is a specific method for determining V/Q scatter.Respiratory Physiology Shunt vs. PAO2 ~ 1.volatile anaesthetics hormones . 5. thus.. as O2 is taken up across the alveoli. NB: therefore. the equation simplifies as the effects of R become negligible ie. 7. (PAtm . not to maximum values. then PaO2 will rise by approximately the same amount as PiO2 2. only O2 enters and the alveolar [O2] remains approximately constant.pregnancy & progesterone . pulmonary collapse / consolidation neoplasm infection alveolar destruction drugs .11) if oxygenation is impaired by abnormal V/Q scatter. 3. Nunn 7.hepatic failure extrapulmonary shunting NB: this is the commonest clinical cause of arterial hypoxaemia 34 . V/P Inequality when breathing 100% O2.PaCO2 if oxygenation is impaired by shunt the PaO2 will rise. 2. 2. uninfluenced by shunt Alveolar-Arterial PO2 Gradient normal gradient ~ 15 mmHg (2 kPa) this may be up to 38 mmHg (5 kPa) in the elderly an increased gradient may be caused by.vasodilators . 3. 1. 4.47) . 1.

CaO2 difference is not significantly influenced by PAO2 due to the shape of Hb-O2 curve at the PO2 of alveolar gas the effect on tension is solely due to the conversion of content to tension under normal circumstances. 3. so the A-a gradient is little altered oxygen consumption determines CvO2 for a given ventilation Hb concentration principally affects tension difference.Respiratory Physiology Factors Affecting PA-aO2 Gradient: 1. 7. 35 . a decrease in CO nearly always decreases QS/QT. which is assumed to equal ideal PaO2 alveolar PAO2 profound non-linear effect gradient is greatest when PAO2 is high thus for any given fall in PAO2 . 4. PaO2 ~ 5 × FIO2 cardiac output inverse relationship at a constant MRO2 (refers to content. not content due to position on the flat portion of the curve at alveolar PO2 P50 of dissociation curve alveolar ventilation ↑ VA → ↑ PaO2 at a constant MRO2 ↓ PaCO2 → ↓ CO and ↑'s the A-a difference at a constant MRO2 the small ↓ pH has a minimal effect increasing the A-a difference 2. venous admixture proportional relationship for small shunts this relationship is lost for large shunts all shunted blood is not mixed venous Cc'O2 is derived from Pc'O2 . PaO2 will fall to a lesser degree the Cc'O2 . therefore at a given shunt ratio increases A-a difference however. 6. 5. not tension) mixed venous blood is more desaturated at a low CO.

then increased FIO2 should readily correct hypoxia if due to shunt. hypoxaemia may be due to one of two causes. the primary aim is to remove the cause of the hypoxaemia when this is not immediately possible. treatment is better directed toward reducing QS/QT . rather than increasing FIO2 36 . hypoventilation venous admixture if due to hypoventilation.Respiratory Physiology Compensation for PA-aO2 Gradient for patients hypoxaemic breathing room air. with large shunts. or a mixture thereof. relief of hypoxaemia can be achieved by increasing FIO2 broadly. 2. much higher FIO2's are required Shunt % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% FIO2 to restore normal PaO2 30%* 57%* *all ~ 3x but doesn't continue 97%* normal PaO2 cannot be restored increasing FIO2 has almost no effect on PaO2 NB: therefore. 1. then PaO2 may be restored with a FIO2 between 21-30% this is seen with PaO2-alveolar ventilation curves where increasing the FIO2 to 30% increases the PaO2 ~ 64 mmHg at all rates of ventilation if due to V/Q scatter.

i.0 l/min) ~ 5ml. which includes met-Hb and COHb O2 capacity varies with [Hb] → 1 gm pure Hb combines with 1.4 Base Excess = 0 20 ml.O2/100ml the "normal" PaO2 ~ 102-(0.39 ml O2 Important Values to Remember PO2 mmHg 100 80 60 40 26.5 89 75 50 PCO2 = 40 mmHg pH = 7.0034 ml/100ml blood/mmHg therefore a PO2 of 100 mmHg → dissolved O2 ~ 0.3 ml/100ml blood normal male breathing 100% O2.33 × age) mmHg 37 . at a given temperature.3 T = 37°C 1 2 % Saturation Hb [O2] at 15 g Hg/100ml 97.0 vol% at 3 Atm. is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in the equilibrium phase Ostwald solubility coefficient for O2 at 37°C = 0.O2 Mixed Venous Ca-vO2 difference (at CO ~ 5.Respiratory Physiology GAS TRANSPORT .5 94. dissolved in plasma ii. dissolved O2 = 2.O2 Arterial 15 ml. pressure.OXYGEN oxygen is transported in the blood in 2 forms. reversibly bound to Hb Dissolved Oxygen Def'n: Henry's Law: the amount of a gas which dissolves in unit volume of a liquid. 100% O2 = 6 vol% and can sustain life Oxygen Carriage by Haemoglobin Haemoglobin-Oxygen Dissociation Def'n: functional Hb saturation = O2 combined with Hb × 100 O2 capacity of Hb where the O2 capacity is the maximal amount of O2 that will combine with Hb at a high PO2 . usually ≥ 250 mmHg this is distinct from the fractional Hb saturation.

which is the PO2 when Hb is 50% saturated. δ 50 = 2. T = 37°C.3 mmHg NB: ↓ affinity of Hb for O2 → ↑ affinity of Hb for O2 → a shift of the curve to the right and an ↑ P50 a shift of the curve to the left and a ↓ P50 Physiological Factors Hydrogen Ion ↑ [H+] / ↓ pH → curve shifts to the right. P50 = 26. and BE = 0. the CO and CBF frequently increase. at pH = 7. especially in brain further. respiratory acidosis frequently raises the tissue PO2.5 mmHg P δ = 0.4.Respiratory Physiology Factors Affecting Oxy-Hb Dissociation Curve Def'n: affinity is measured by the P50 .1 → pH this effectively impairs oxygenation in the lungs but increases the delivery to the tissues Carbon Dioxide ↑ [CO2] produces a pH-independent shift of the curve to the right with ↓ affinity for O2 → the Bohr Effect most of the desaturation occurring at tissue level is due to the lowered PO2 but an extra 1-2% is due to the ↑ [CO2] and right shift of the curve at a constant O2 extraction. the PvO2 will increase for any decrease in pH or right shift of the curve therefore. further aiding cerebral O2 delivery Temperature ↑ T shifts the curve to the right 38 .

3-DPG. GH.3-DPG within 60 mins. in stored blood deficient in 2.3-DPG secondary to the respiratory alkalosis 2. t½ ~ 6 hrs binds to one of the β-chains of Hb favouring deoxygenation. thereby shifting curve to the right exerts a permissive role for the effects of CO2 and pH thus. acidosis improves O2 release for several hours eventually offset by the decline in RBC production of 2. PCO2 .3-Diphosphoglycerate 2. but this effect may not be seen in athletes high altitude triggers a substantial rise in 2.3-DPG formed in the RBC as an intermediary in the Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic pathway.3-DPG has a low binding affinity for the gamma-chains of HbF (143His-Val) this results in the higher affinity of HbF for O2.3-DPG are seen due to enhanced activity of 2.3-DPG.3-DPG mutase and inhibition of the phosphatase ii. Exercise increased T.Respiratory Physiology 2. thereby enabling placental transfer of greater amounts of O2 the effects of DPG are only seen in the P50 range 15-34 mmHg Alterations in Health and Disease 1.3-DPG exercise increases 2.3-DPG by 2.3-DPG formation & right shift of curve 2. 39 . the Bohr effect is less increasing the pH increases the activity of the mutase and decreases the activity of the phosphatase → alkalosis may be associated with a shift of the curve to the right acidosis inhibits RBC glycolysis and decreases 2.3-DPG mutase re-enters the glycolytic pathway by conversion to 3-phosphoglycerate.3-DPG phosphatase the plasma elimination half-life. the Rapoport-Luebering shunt synthesised from 1.3-DPG formation thyroid hormones. due to inhibition of glycolysis subsequent increases in 2. and androgens increase 2. catalysed by 2. and [H+] shift curve to the right increasing O2 availability effectively increases the δ 2 driving diffusion for a given O2 extraction PO Acid-Base Disturbances i. alkalosis immediate shift of the curve to the left offset by ↑ 2.

5. this does not result in any significant shift of the curve 40 . Altitude after 24-48 hrs there is a marked shift of the curve to the right due to increased levels of 2. with increased levels of 2.f.3-DPG Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism .3-DPG within 4 hrs.3-DPG Congestive Cardiac Failure produces a shift of curve to the right.shift to the left *due to changes in 2.3-DPG and available Hb Foetal Hb . however.3-DPG → P50 ~ 19 mmHg Stored Blood Bank RBC's show a progressive fall in 2.greater affinity c.8 mmHg this was not confirmed by Severinghaus et al.3-DPG secondary to the respiratory alkalosis the P50 increases by ~ 3. with increased levels of 2.3-DPG is of major importance in clinical problems of oxygen delivery 2. an altitude of ~ 4000m → PaO2 ~ 52 mmHg a shift of the curve under these conditions has only minimal advantage. anaesthetic gases bind significantly to Hb. 9. research has failed to demonstrate that 2. also decreases 2. changes in the P50 mediated by changes in 2. 7. as the decrease in PaO2 means lung oxygenation is impaired to a degree only marginally outweighed by the increase availability to the tissues Hyperoxia produces a small shift of curve to the left. due to decreased 2. HbA as decreased binding 2.Respiratory Physiology 3. but several days are required for normal values this only becomes clinically important in massive TX in a hypothermic patient storage in citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) produces less of a decrease than ACD ACD → almost complete depletion in 3 weeks with a P50 ~ 15 mmHg NB: 1. Carbon Monoxide & Methaemoglobin shift of the curve to the left. proportional to the severity of the CCF Anaemia produces a right shift.3-DPG levels 4. 10. due to proportionately increased levels of 2.3-DPG are of marginal significance in comparison to changes in PaO2 and tissue perfusion 3. there is ~ 50% recovery of 2.3-DPG levels with increasing affinity for O2 and left shift of curve following transfusion.shift to the right . 6.3-DPG Right Left Shunt with Hypoxaemia produces a right shift.3-DPG. in general. 8. 11. further.

blood 41 .O2/100 ml.458. provide an optimal chemical environment prevents a large rise in the plasma oncotic pressure Def'n: haem = iron porphyrin compound. with an associated positional change of the haem moiety.Hb/100 ml. and cannot contribute to O2 uptake thus. but the dissociation constant is considerably slower at full saturation 1gm of pure Hb can carry 1. eg.1 to 20. (k4'). the dissociation rate constants are slower than the association constants the association constant for CO is approximately the same as that for O2. joined to protein globin = 4 polypeptide chains. each of which has a haem moiety Adult Hb (HbA) 2 alpha chains 141 AA residues 2 beta chains 146 AA residues Total MW 64. counteracts the decreased number of O2 sites which would otherwise slow the reaction rate by the Law of Mass Action the net result is that the reaction proceeds at much the same rate until full saturation for each reaction.4 ml. a. Hb4O6 + O2 k 4' ←  → Hb4O8 the higher forward velocity constant for this reaction. 2. however in vivo some Hb is in other forms.Respiratory Physiology HAEMOGLOBIN Hb is carried within RBC's for 2 reasons.5 2 alpha chains 2 gamma chains Haem → 87His Haem → 92His Foetal Hb (HbF) * increased O2 affinity due to decreased binding of 2.39 ml of O2. b. the β-chains move closer together favouring the R-state & ↑ O2 affinity ↑ affinity during oxygenation → the sigmoid shape of Hb-O2 dissociation curve during saturation of the last 25% of reduced Hb. the physiological value ~ 1. not oxidation as Fe++ stays in the reduced form the reaction is rapid (≤0.34 to 1. R = relaxed state T = tense state → ↑ affinity for O2 → ↓ affinity for O2 the conformational changes are due to the formation and breaking of salt bridges as Hb takes up O2. 1.Hb.3-DPG by gamma chains the reaction Hb + 4O2 → oxygenation.37 ml.blood → 20. 15 g.O2/gm. met-Hb. tetrapyrrole ring. the last reaction will predominate. and results in movement of the peptide chains.01 sec).

Respiratory Physiology
Methaemoglobin normal adult HbA has iron in the Fe++, or ferrous state this may be oxidised to Fe +++ forming methaemoglobin, and may be due to either, a. b. hereditary - met-Hb reductase deficiency acquired - drugs (nitrites, nitrates, prilocaine)

met-Hb does not participate in O2 exchange patients appear clinically cyanosed at levels > 1.5 gm% in otherwise healthy patients, this has little effect on the oxygen carrying capacity however, may be corrected by the administration of reducing agents (methylene blue 1-2 mg/kg IV) Carboxyhaemoglobin COHb

CO has greater affinity for Hb, ~ 210 times that for O2 CO-Hb produces a left shift of the Hb-O2 curve, partly by decreasing 2,3-DPG also, its formation decreases the remaining amount of useable HbA Haemoglobinopathies these are usually only minor abnormalities in the AA sequence, or composition of α/β chains however, may lead to, a. b. c. d. decreased O2 affinity increased O2 affinity unstable haemoglobins aggregating haemoglobins - eg. HbS at low PO2

Thallassaemias partial or complete defect in the synthesis of one of the normal Hb peptide chains ie. the defect is the rate of synthesis of Hb Sulfhaemoglobin Hb derivative of unknown composition irreversible change usually induced by drugs, eg. phenacitin

42

Respiratory Physiology
OXYGEN FLUX
Def'n: the quantity of oxygen transported by the circulation in one minute = CO × arterial O2 content ~ 5000 ml/min × (20 ml O2/100 ml blood) ~ 1000 ml/min (at rest in a 70 kg man) as the MRO2 ~ 250 ml/min, so venous blood is ~ 75% saturated thus, three factors can decrease the O2 flux, i. cardiac output → stagnant hypoxia ii. O2 saturation → hypoxic hypoxia iii. [Hb] → anaemic hypoxia the fourth type of hypoxia is histotoxic, as in CN- poisoning, however this is usually associated with a normal or increased O2 flux the minimum O2 flux compatible with life is ~ 400 ml/min at rest, but this is quite variable metabolic indicators, eg. lactate production, are more useful than attempts to measure tissue PO2

Partial Pressure Gradients
Air PO2 mmHg PCO2 mmHg 149 0 Lung 101 39 Blood 95 40 Tissue ~ 30 46 Mitochondria ~ 1-3 ??

tissue PO2 depends upon, 1. the rate of O2 delivery - capillary blood flow - capillary CO2 - position of Hb-O2 dissociation curve - capillary/tissue PO2 gradient - capillary/tissue diffusion distance rate of tissue usage - basal metabolic rate - temperature, physical activity, rate of O2 usage, pH - hormones (thyroxine, catecholamines) - drugs (CN-)

2.

active tissues have low PO2 , low pH, high T, and high PCO2 , all of which dilate arterioles locally, increasing the number of open capillaries and reducing the intercapillary distance PcO2 must be high enough to establish diffusion gradient to cells CcO2 must be high enough to supply O2 requirements of active tissues increased requirements of the tissues may be met by, a. b. increased extraction ratio of O2 from blood increased tissue blood flow

43

Respiratory Physiology
CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORT Carriage in Blood
Form Dissolved Bicarbonate Carbamino Arterial % 5 90 5 Venous % 10 60 30

of the CO2 added to the circulation in the tissues and carried to the lung, a. b. 65% is carried in plasma 35% is carried in RBC's

NB: however, the proportion carried in the RBC's increases due to the increased basic nature of deoxy-Hb Dissolved obeys Henry's Law, as does O2, but CO2 is ~ 24x more soluble than O2 5-10% of the CO2 liberated by the lung comes from the dissolved fraction the solubility coefficient (α), is temperature dependent (Nunn table 9.1) i. O2 solubility is expressed in ml.O2/mmHg/100 ml ii. CO2 solubility (α) is usually expressed as mmol/l/mmHg at 37°C, Bicarbonate CO2 + H2O ←  →
CA

α CO2 ~ 0.0308 mmol/l/mmHg

H2CO3 ←  →

H+ + HCO3- ←  →

2H+ + CO3=

the first forward reaction occurs very slowly in plasma but rapidly in RBC's due to the presence of carbonic anhydrase (CA - Zn enzyme) the carbonic acid formed is only a small percentage (~ 1%) and frequently both this and dissolved CO2 are referred to as H2CO3 therefore, in the various equations, the term αPCO2 is preferable these should really be expressed as thermodynamic activities, rather than concentrations, but for very dilute solutions the activity coefficient, AC = activity / []n ~ 1.0 therefore, the equilibrium constants are apparent constants, K' the second reaction occurs quickly with a pKa' = 6.1

44

reducing the PO2 and Hb saturation increases the CO2 carrying capacity of the blood. allowing addition of H+ without a significant change in pH this effectively prevents the large decrease in blood pH which would follow CO2 uptake. have pK's well outside the physiological range the imadazole groups of histidine are the only effective protein buffer the buffering effect of plasma proteins is relatively low and directly proportional to their histidine content Hb has 38 histidine residues and is thus quantitatively the most important deoxy-Hb is more basic than oxy-Hb and accepts H+ ions more readily therefore. the addition of H+ & CO2 shifts the HbO2 curve to the right → the Bohr Effect the formation of deoxy-Hb adds buffer. b.therefore diffuses into the cells → the chloride shift deoxy-Hb is more basic than oxy-Hb and accepts H+ ions more readily therefore. reducing the PO2 and Hb saturation increases the CO2 carrying capacity of the blood → the Haldane Effect as the osmolality of RBC's increases with CO2 uptake. the process being reversed in lung Carbamino formed from the combination of CO2 with terminal amine groups of blood proteins. therefore is not an issue in the physiological range the HCO3.formed diffuses from cell due to a large concentration gradient but H+ cannot follow due to the relative membrane impermeability Cl.0. Hb-NH2 + CO2 ← → Hb-NH-COOH quantitatively Hb is the most important the carboxyl and amino groups of peptide linkages have no functional effect most side chains. NB: 1mmol of HbO2 → Hb.7 mmol H+ addition without a change of pH these effects are exaggerated in exercise due to greater CO2 production and the shift of the HbO2 curve to the right 45 . → the Haldane Effect Buffering Capacity of Hb the titration curves for Hb and HbO2 are parallel over the physiological range. Hb being more basic than HbO2 delivery of O2 and uptake of CO2 are therefore mutually helpful in the tissues. water enters cells with subsequent swelling.Respiratory Physiology the third reaction occurs with a pKa' > 9. allows 0. a. such as glutamic acid and lysine.

→ compensation of regional V/Q imbalance the position of the dissociation curve is dependent upon HbO2 saturation. shift the HbO2 curve to the right composite O2-CO2 diagrams are used to obtain HbO2 saturation when PCO2 deviates from 40 mmHg the slopes of the respective concentration lines.. the greater affinity of deoxy-Hb for H+.7) 46 . and the greater ability of deoxy-Hb to form carbamino compounds NB: the major effect being (b) Bohr Effect Def'n: at a given PO2 .. a. representing the above two effects (West 6. PCO2 . isopleths. → the Haldane effect the slope of the CO2 curve is much steeper in the physiological range than that for O2 Haldane Effect Def'n: for a given PCO2 . ie. and temperature decrease the CO2 .Respiratory Physiology Carbon Dioxide Dissociation Curve in the physiological range the curve is almost linear therefore. CCO2 increases as PO2 decreases. changes in PCO2 are accompanied by corresponding changes in CCO2. b. ie. shifts the CO2-blood curve to the left this is due to. increases in [H+].

thus. hypoventilation following prolonged hypocapnia apnoeic oxygenation (mass movement oxygenation) Important Effects of Carbon Dioxide Respiration (G&G 7th Ed. the mythical 70 kg man contains ~ 35 l of stored CO2 of this ~ 20 l is readily exchangeable with complete apnoea. b. a. which is a balance between the rate of metabolic production and the ability of the tissues to store CO2 significance to anaesthesia.Respiratory Physiology Body Stores of CO2 body fluids contain ~ 50 ml% CO2 bone contains greater than 100 ml% CO2 therefore. a. the integrating areas in the brain stem in response to stimulation from medullary chemoreceptors peripheral arterial chemoreceptors the mechanism by which CO2 acts at these sites is by reducing local pH elevated PaCO2 causes bronchodilatation while hypocarbia produces constriction of airway smooth muscle. b. helping match ventilation to local perfusion 47 .) CO2 is a potent stimulus to respiration inhalation of 2% CO2 produces a marked increase in rate and depth of respiration 10% CO2 produces minute volumes up to 75 l/min in normal individuals there are at least two sites where CO2 acts to increase respiration. rate of rise of PaCO2 ~ 3 mmHg/min.

direct local effects and centrally mediated autonomic effects the direct effect on the heart results from decreased local pH. Halothane the circulatory effects of hypocarbia include. in general. the threshold for catecholamine induced arrhythmias is increased however. 1. renal. then CO and HR increase due to increased venous return and the demands of respiratory muscles in contrast. 2. reducing contractile force and slowing the rate of contraction rhythm is usually unaffected the direct effect on systemic blood vessels is vasodilatation the autonomic effects of CO2 result in widespread activation of the SNS this results in an increased concentration of catecholamines. probably due to increased intrathoracic pressure 48 . this effect is overwhelmed by the release of large amounts of CA's NB: arrhythmias are likely to occur with a coexisting factor. c. hypocarbia resulting from mechanical hyperventilation reduces CO and HR. b. g. f. cardiac and most vascular beds vasodilatation in skeletal muscle if hypocarbia results from voluntary hyperventilation. a. brain. decreased blood pressure vasoconstriction in skin. d. e. c. angiotensin and other vasoactive peptides the results of SNS activation are. eg. b.Respiratory Physiology Cardiovascular NB: the circulatory effects of CO2 are the result of. opposite to the local effects of CO2 this results in increased force and rate of cardiac contraction and vasoconstriction of many vascular beds the overall effects of hypercarbia in normal man are. an increase in cardiac output and heart rate elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressures an increase in pulse pressure a decrease in TPR (local effects dominating) cerebral vasculature dilates due to minimal SNS supply increased ICP from increased BP plus cerebral vasodilatation renal and splanchnic flow is not significantly altered in the isolated myocardium. in vivo. a.

can cause further depression of the already depressed CNS still higher concentrations.Respiratory Physiology CNS low concentrations of inspired CO2 → moderate hypercarbia. → increased cortical excitability and convulsions FiCO2 ~ 50% → marked cortical and subcortical depression Miscellaneous increases in the PaCO2 produce. e. a.by the kidney. distribution etc. b. binding. h. f. g. c.3 ± 7. c. a. decreased neuronal excitability 38. 25-30%. d. shifts the HbO2 curve → placental vasoconstriction respiratory acidosis hyperkalaemia increased plasma HCO3. b. decrease neuronal excitability raise the seizure threshold increases the cutaneous pain threshold (central mechanism) therefore.5 mmHg right NB: Reference range (Nunn): 49 . enhanced H+ secretion increases in ionised Ca++ due to decreased binding alterations in drug solubility.

Respiratory Physiology Hypocapnia PaCO2 < 31 mmHg 1. 9. Guillian-Barre. loss of integrity of chest wall .myasthenia gravis. 8. e. Ca) .pleura (empyema.may drive respiration directly .chest wall (kyphoscoliosis) . 3. 6. 50 .trauma. mesothelioma.flail chest increased airways resistance = the commonest cause j.open pneumothorax . 7.lung causes (H-R syndrome.diaphragmatic splinting (obesity. ascites) . 2. 4. haemothorax. fibrosis. pregnancy. M-N disease . excessive IPPV voluntary hyperventilation hypoxaemia metabolic acidosis mechanical abnormalities of the lung → increase drive through vagal stimulation hypotension hysteria head injuries pain pregnancy . c.trauma . ARDS) .metabolic acidosis is usually more important Causes Hypercapnia PaCO2 > 46 mmHg a. b. 5. h.polio . botulin toxin . f.fatigue 2° workload (resistance/compliance) . d. inadequate IPPV Causes depression of the medullary respiratory centre UMN lesions anterior horn cell lesions LMN lesions NMJ muscles decreased compliance . 10.external pressure i. g.skin (extensive burns in children) .tension pneumothorax .

Respiratory Physiology Measurement of PaCO2 1. 5. 6. end-tidal CO2 Raman spectroscopy Photoacoustic spectroscopy Gas chromatography Mass spectrophotometry 51 . Chemical absorption (Haldane) IR absorption analysis . Direct Microtonometry Solution of Henderson-Hasselbach Equation Interpolation (micro-Astrup) CO2 Electrode Rebreathing Method Measurement of CO2 in Gas Mixtures 1. 5. 3. 2. 2. 4.at 4. 4.28 µm wavelength. 3.

P CO 2 HCO −3    KA' cannot be derived and is determined experimentally by measuring all three variables under a wide range of physiological conditions under normal conditions.+ H+ by the law of mass action [HCO3-] .8) also plotted in the log PCO2 vs.Respiratory Physiology ACID-BASE BALANCE the principal acid product of metabolism is CO2. which is proportional to PaCO2 the equation may be written. the isohydric principal.2 mmol/l. PCO2 ∝ [HCO3-]. H [ + ]= K A ×α.9 the normal [CO2] in body fluids is fixed at 1. pH = Davenport diagram (West 6. the equation may be written. KA'. using mmHg → αKA' ~ 24 therefore. measurement of the plasma bicarbonate system provides information about total body buffers from the dissociation of carbonic acid.000 mmol of CO2 per day (R:15-20. equivalent to potential carbonic acid the lungs excrete ~ 15. pH format (Siggaard-Andersen) preferred method is nomogram of [HCO3-]pl vs.000) fixed acid excreted by the kidney ~ 70 mmol (<100 mmol) ECF pH is set within the limits 7. pH = 6. [H+] [H2CO3] but as KA only applies to infinitely dilute solutions with negligible interionic forces. PaCO2 (see Harrison's) 52 . being equivalent to [H+] = 45 to 35 nmol/l ICF pH is difficult to determine and varies from one organelle to another.0301×P aCO 2 graphical plot of plasma [HCO3-] vs.35 to 7. H2CO3 ←  → KA = HCO3. PCO2 [HCO3-] so.45. as [H2CO3] is always proportional to [CO2]. a mean value pH ~ 6. [H+] = 24 . PCO2 = 40 mmHg the total buffer capacity of body fluids is ~ 15 mEq/kg body weight because intracellular and extracellular buffers are functionally linked.[H+] and. viz.1 + [ HCO −3 ] log 0. the apparent dissociation constant. is used this may be rewritten for hydrogen ion.

at PCO2 = 40 mmHg. Anion Gap: or.0 ~ 16. where this is given by. when the PCO2 and pH are known NB: some laboratories report the plasma bicarbonate as the total CO2. when the PCO2 = 40 mmHg at 37°C (** a derived variable) Normal = 24.0 l of fully saturated blood.36 a plasma pH ≥ 7.4 Normal BE = 0 ± 2.([Cl-] + [HCO3-]) 53 .Respiratory Physiology Definitions Acid: Base: Plasma pH: a proton.concentration in fully saturated blood. if uncompensated a plasma pH ≤ 7.4 ~ Acidosis: [H+] ~ 39 nmol/l an abnormal process or condition which would lead to an acidaemia.0 mmol/l Plasma Bicarbonate: the actual HCO3. to return the pH to 7.2 mmol/l ~ 12.0 ± 2. or hydrogen ion donor a proton.concentration in plasma at that particular point in time.44 a disorder those where the primary disorder is a change in the PCO2 a disorder where the primary disturbance is in the [HCO3-] the amount of strong acid required to be added to 1.0 mmol/l where.0 ± 2.4 ± 0. cannot be measured but is calculated from the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.([Cl-] + [HCO3-]) = ([Na+] + [K+]) .0 ± 2.0 = [Na+] . at 37°C. Total CO2 = [HCO3-] + [H2CO3] ~ 24.0 ± 2. [H2CO3] ~ 1. if uncompensated an abnormal process or condition which would lead to an alkalaemia.0 mmol/l Alkalosis: Acidaemia: Alkalaemia: Respiratory: Metabolic: Base Excess: Standard Bicarbonate: the HCO3. or hydrogen ion receiver the negative log10 of the hydrogen ion activity ~ [H +] Normal pH = 7.

the ratio [HCO3-]/PaCO2 alters with a resultant change in the pH Respiratory Acidosis caused by hypoventilation. as PaCO2 increases or decreases. altitude.[H+] which is proportional.Respiratory Physiology ACID-BASE BALANCE the major problem in clinical assessment stems from compensatory processes multiple experimental observations of all primary acid-base disturbances is used to produce confidence bands (± 2SD) for assessment of blood gas measurements → nomogram NB: given PaCO2 is proportional to the product of [HCO3-]. but ↑ pH ratio of [HCO3-] / PaCO2 rises → decreased PaCO2 inhibits renal tubular H+ secretion therefore some bicarbonate escapes reabsorption and less H+ is available for formation of titratable acid and ammonium. eg. however. V/Q inequality ↑ PaCO2 → ↑ [HCO3-] by dissociation. but ↓ pH ratio of [HCO3-] / PaCO2 falls → increased PaCO2 . not to the same degree as it is the product [HCO3-]. bicarbonate reabsorption is increased and more H ion is excreted with phosphate and ammonium the increased [HCO3-] compensates for the respiratory acidosis but compensation is rarely complete the extent of renal compensation is determined by the base excess Respiratory Alkalosis caused by hyperventilation. ergo. and to a lesser extent increased [H+]→ ↑ renal tubular H+ secretion + thus. or negative base excess 54 . mechanical ventilation ↓ PaCO2 → ↓ [HCO3-] by association.[H+]. so the [HCO3-] increases or decreases by dissociation. therefore. urine becomes alkaline decreased plasma [HCO3-] compensates for respiratory alkalosis and may be nearly complete extent of renal compensation determined by base deficit. hysteria.

the body. decreasing PaCO2 and compensating acidosis the kidney increases excretion of titratable acid despite the decrease in PaCO2 this occurs as the filtered load of HCO3. ↓ [H+] or ↑ [HCO3-] ↑ ratio of [HCO3-] / PaCO2 → → ↑ plasma [HCO3-] ↑ pH increased pH inhibits ventilation. predominantly via peripheral chemoreceptors. this is the least well compensated acid-base disturbance 55 . or retained by. excess alkali added to. predominantly via the peripheral chemoreceptors. increasing PaCO2 and compensating for alkalosis the excess plasma [HCO3-] shows as a base excess NB: compensation may be small or absent.decreases to a greater extent than the reduction in distal tubular H+ secretion → more H + is available for titration against NH3 and HPO4= the decreased plasma [HCO3-] shows as a base deficit Metabolic Alkalosis loss of gastric acid from.Respiratory Physiology Metabolic Acidosis ↑ [H+] or ↓ [HCO3-] ↓ ratio of [HCO3-] / PaCO2 → → ↓ plasma [HCO3-] ↓ pH decreased pH stimulates ventilation.

hypothalamus. exercise. ie. principally via the vagus the caudal division provides inspiratory and expiratory drive to the motor neurones of the intercostal muscles the neurones of the expiratory VRG are quiescent during tidal respiration.neurones of the nucleus ambiguus . in the nucleus parabrachialis and the Kolliker Fuse nucleus acts to limit the activity of the inspiratory DRG therefore regulating the inspired volume and rate of respiration acts only as a modulator.Respiratory Physiology NEUROGENESIS OF BREATHING Medullary Respiratory Centres these lie within the reticular formation of the brainstem divisible into two poorly localised groups. cranial division caudal division .neurones of the nucleus retroambiguus the cranial division innervates muscles of the ipsilateral accessory muscles of respiration. 1. 2. etc. RAS Apneustic Center situated in the lower pons in the floor of the 4th ventricle. all impulses activating respiratory muscles synapse in the respiratory centres of the medulla. cortex. however become active with forced expiration. near the middle cerebellar peduncle impulses from these neurones → inspiratory DRG and increased "ramp" AP's section of the brainstem immediately above this group → apneusis prolonged inspiratory gasps interrupted by transient expiratory efforts this is restrained by the pneumotaxic centre and the inflation reflex Pneumotaxic Centre located in the upper pons. generating bursts of neuronal activity to the diaphragm and respiratory muscles in the absence of any other input the DRG is under the control of the pneumotaxic centre → termination of the inspiratory "ramp" of action potentials input from the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves via the nearby nucleus of the tractus solitarius modulates activity in the DRG the VRG is divided into 2 divisions. 2. 1. dorsal respiratory group (DRG) ventral respiratory group (VRG) → → inspiration expiration ± inspiration cells within the DRG are thought (West) to posses inherent rhythmicity. as normal respiratory rhythm can exist in its absence 56 . CSA.

in the absence of input from the lungs or elsewhere there is no doubt of the existence of pontine neurones firing in synchrony with the different phases of respiration but they are no longer believed to be essential for the generation of the respiratory rhythm although the pneumotaxic centre is no longer thought to be the dominant controller of the respiratory rhythm. the pattern of firing of these neurones suggests a modification and fine control of the respiratory rhythm the dorsal respiratory group is probably of paramount importance in driving the inspiratory muscles the generation of inherent rhythm is due a "bistable" system. b. c. a.) → dorso-lateral & ventro-lateral cord fibres carrying involuntary. are now realised to be rather unpredictable due to unpredictable tissue destruction and interruption of blood supply rhythm can be generated in the medulla.Respiratory Physiology Nunn: most of the classical studies. fibres from the inspiratory & expiration medullary centres → ventrolateral tracts of the spinal cord fibres carrying voluntary control (singing etc. exhibiting reciprocal stimulation / inhibition the final integration of respiratory drive occurs in the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord these receive UMN's from three regions. non-rhythmic control → diffuse pathways. based on ablation experiments. but not with (a) or (b) 57 .

swallowing. e. h. carotid & aortic chemoreceptors . . muscle spindles in respiratory muscles carotid. breath holding . k. cerebral cortex RAS and higher CNS centres hormones 58 . aortic baroreceptors thoracic chemoreceptors peripheral . a. d. central chemoreceptors cerebral blood flow reflexes from lungs. etc.Respiratory Physiology REGULATION OF PULMONARY VENTILATION the brain stem respiratory centres are influenced by.mechano-receptors .progesterone increases ventilation i. inflation reflex. c. j. special senses (olfaction) . g.increased [H+] .pain receptors .emotion.increased [H+]CSF b. f.ANS. etc.temperature receptors .decreased PaO2 .increased PaCO2 .increased PaCO2 .speaking.

eg. anaemia carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning methaemoglobinaemia these later conditions produce a decrease in CaO2 not PaO2 . 3.eg. 2. increased respiratory rate and depth bradycardia (carotid body)* tachycardia (aortic bodies)* hypertension. 1. 1. arterial hypoxia ischaemia . 5. from marked hypotension they are not stimulated by. therefore there is no decrease in carotid and aortic body tissue P02 they are also stimulated by. lobeline the effects of chemoreceptor stimulation include. 3. therefore a very low O2 extraction ratio they are sensitive to a low PaO2 stimulation results from a decrease in carotid and aortic body tissue PO2 (tension. cyanide (CN-) poisoning . an increased tissue PCO2 decreased tissue pH metabolic poisons drugs > 10 mmHg > 0. not content) a fall in carotid and aortic body tissue PO2 will occur with. glomus cells (SIF). 4. 2.1-0. which have a large content of dopamine these are actually inhibitory interneurones and impulses are generated in afferent nerve terminals these tissues have an extremely high blood supply relative to their size and metabolic needs → ~ 20 ml/gm/min. due to peripheral vasoconstriction bronchoconstriction NB: * the 1° response is bradycardia. 3. whose perfusing blood comes in contact with special sensory cells. 1. 2.decreased PaO2 . nicotine.2 units .Respiratory Physiology Carotid & Aortic Chemoreceptors the carotid bodies are located at the bifurcation of common carotid artery they send afferents in the carotid sinus nerve to the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) the aortic bodies are located between the arch of aorta and pulmonary artery afferents ascend in the recurrent laryngeal nerves to the vagus (X) these are small neuro-vascular organs. 2.eg. 4. 1. increases being 2° to PCO2 59 .

conversely the normal hyperventilatory response to hypoxia is limited by concurrent hypocapnia and alkalosis the carotid and aortic bodies account for the increased ventilation and hypertension from acute hypoxia if hypoxia is severe or prolonged. ventilation is increased when breathing an. they are important in mediating a rapid respiratory response to a large rise in PaCO2 Hydrogen Ion . and the increase in minute ventilation asymptotical to ~ 30 mmHg some activity begins at PaO2 ~ 500 mmHg.Ventilation Response increases in [H+] in arterial blood increase ventilation Kussmaul breathing in acidosis → deep. but not the aortic.1 of a unit a pH decrease of 0. a rise of 10-20 mmHg PCO2 is required the peripheral chemoreceptors are not required for the sensitive response of increased ventilation with increased PaCO2 however. TV increases first.Respiratory Physiology Carotid & Aortic Chemoreceptors the response time is very fast and cyclic changes occur with the normal respiratory cycle the peripheral chemoreceptors are responsible for all of the ventilatory response to hypoxia in their absence. due to an increased PaCO2 .4 → 2-3 fold increase in ventilation that is. a mild cerebral acidosis thus. some chemoreceptor cells are tonically active at the normal PaO2 the response is enhanced by increased PCO2. both of respiratory and metabolic origins the various stimuli exhibit potentiation in their effects O2-Ventilation Response the O2-ventilation response curve describes a rectangular hyperbola. with little response until the PaO2 < 100 mmHg and a marked response below 50-60 mmHg hence. decreased PaO2 depresses respiration due to direct effects on the brain stem complete loss of hypoxic drive has been seen in patients with bilateral carotid body resection peripheral responses to increased PaCO2 are << those of the CNS the carotid. then respiratory rate there is a wide range of individual response FIO2 < 10-12% PaO2 < 40-50 mmHg CO2-Ventilation Response a rise in local tissue PCO2 . the peripheral chemoreceptors are relatively insensitive 60 . with the point of inflection at ~ 50 mmHg. ie. labored ventilation there is no change in ventilation until pH falls by 0. bodies respond to increased [H+]. additional and probably central mechanisms increase breathing. leads to a reflex increase in ventilation however.

a. an increased PaCO2 causes a greater decrease in pHCSF long term alterations of pHCSF → compensatory changes in bicarbonate transport across BBB (24-48 Hrs) these occur more rapidly than alterations in renal acid excretion thus. patients with chronic lung disease and CO2 retention may have normal pHCSF and no compensatory hyperventilation consequently. b. and are bathed in brain ECF.Respiratory Physiology Respiratory Failure respiration is relatively unresponsive to CO2 following continued hypercapnia respiration may then be "driven" by hypoxia. a. by the associated fall in PaCO2 . therefore. acting via peripheral chemoreceptors subsequent increases in FIO2 then lead to apnoea and CO2 narcosis there is no adaptation to continued hypoxia peripheral chemoreceptors are therefore responsible for hyperventilation of chronic hypoxia at high altitude. which subsequently increases ventilation increased PaCO2 also causes cerebral vasodilatation which enhances diffusion of CO2 into the CSF and brain ECF NB: normal pHCSF ~ 7. acute acidosis → immediate increase in ventilation due to peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation further increase in ventilation due to stimulation of central chemoreceptors (delay imposed by blood/CSF barrier) chronic acidosis → NB: the reverse situation occurs on correction of acidosis 61 . the hyperpnoea of CN.32 there is decreased buffer capability due to the low [protein]. blood flow and local metabolism of these. pHCSF is held within narrow limits by ventilatory responses.poisoning part of the hyperventilation associated with hypotension the action of lobeline in stimulating breathing in new-born pharmacological effects of lowest effective dose of nicotine Central Chemosensitive Areas (CSA) situated near (beneath) the ventral surface of the medulla. near the origins of the vagi and glossopharyngeal nerves these are anatomically separate from the respiratory centres. CSF is the most important due to the effects of the blood-brain barrier this is impermeable to both H+ and HCO3-. however CO2 diffuses readily and decreases pHCSF within a few minutes. or from cardio-pulmonary disease the peripheral chemoreceptors are also responsible for. despite pH changes in arterial blood the response is limited however. b. the composition of which is determined by CSF. c. d.

left shift & increased slope . ARAS activity . although it may be influenced by lung volume a reduction of arterial CO2 is very effective in reducing the drive to respiration trained athletes and divers tend to have low sensitivities to CO2 the ventilatory response to CO2 is also reduced if the work of breathing is increased this is seen in normal subjects breathing through narrow tubes. c. or in patients with CAL Threshold for CO2 does not exist in conscious man apnoea does not follow the decreased PaCO2 from hyperventilation. the inspiratory driving pressure generated against a closed airway in the first 0.Respiratory Physiology CO2-Ventilation Response increasing FiCO2 → increased TV. f.increasing [H+] → left shift → right shift another method of assessing respiratory drive is P0. a. d. alveolar or arterial PCO2 the slope of the curve measures the sensitivity of the respiratory mechanism to CO2 changes are seen due to. though.CNS / respiratory depressants . drugs decreased PaO2 pH temperature plasma adrenaline levels conscious state. e. b. respiratory rate & minute ventilation PaCO2 is held within 3 mmHg of normal. may rise slightly more during sleep a marked linear increase in minute ventilation occurs over wide range as for hypoxia.1 . there is individual variation in response.1 sec this is largely unaffected by the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. → ~ 2. possibly due to ARAS activity apnoea readily occurs with a fall in PaCO2 in anaesthetised man or animals 62 .5 l / min / mmHg-δ CO2 P the response curve is usually drawn as respiratory minute volume vs.

or the continued hyperventilation after correction of blood pH with HCO3. continued hyperventilation after return to sea level after spending days to weeks at high altitude. 2. Cerebral Blood Flow decrease in CBF.Respiratory Physiology Physiological Importance 1.. from severe hypotension or a rise in ICP → increase in CBF. → decreased respiratory frequency due to increased expiratory time the receptors are stimulated by the rate as well as extent of inflation. no longer need to assign the medullary centres with dual excitability to both chemical and neural stimuli respiratory depressant drugs depress CSA rather than medullary respiratory centres. such as with trilene stimulation leads to a decrease. heart and great vessels Inflation Reflex Inhibito-Inspiratory Reflex (Hering-Breuer) pulmonary stretch receptors are situated within smooth muscle of bronchi and bronchioles these produce sustained discharge on lung inflation (no adaptation) afferents travel in large myelinated fibres of the vagus to the medulla central pathways are only partly known. eg. i. 3. or after continued hyperventilation on a ventilator ii. the later still being responsive to afferent nerve stimuli explains the slow increase in ventilation when breathing a CO2 mixture. compared with acute hypoxia at same PaO2 5. eg. explains the relatively small rise in ventilation with non-respiratory acidosis. vasopressor drugs → + ** these are due to effects on local [H ] and PCO2 ↑ ventilation ↓ ventilation Reflexes from the Lungs there are many types of respiratory reflexes from lungs. 4.. and are sensitised by reduced compliance. and the slow return of ventilation to normal when inhalation stopped explains the hyper and hypo-ventilation seen at times when blood gas analysis would lead to expectation of the opposite response. or cessation.after sustained non-respiratory acidosis.0 l it has been demonstrated that transient bilateral vagal blockade in awake man does not alter the rate or rhythm of respiration may possibly be of some importance in the newborn 63 . eg. eg. diabetic keto-acidosis explains why chronic hypoxia produces a further increase in ventilation. of inspiratory muscle activity the physiological role in man is unknown the reflex is largely inactive at tidal volumes less than 1.

the breath may be held longer if lung is inflated than if deflated regulation of the work of breathing c. a. believed to be the in alveolar walls. non-myelinated vagal fibres. termination of inspiration tonic inhibition of the respiratory centres throughout the respiratory cycle eg. Paradoxical Reflex of Head lung inflation produces a paradoxical further increase in inspiration possibly related to the sigh mechanism seen with "triggering" of respiration under spontaneous ventilation during anaesthesia Deflation Reflex opposite of the Hering-Breuer reflex lung deflation leads to increased frequency and force of respiratory effort possibly related to the sigh mechanism produces an increase in ventilation with a reduction in FRC below normal J-Receptors "juxta-capillary" receptors. well-developed in animals in which it may be associated with. b. shallow breathing (intense stimulation → apnoea) some evidence that pulmonary capillary engorgement and interstitial oedema may cause stimulation these may be responsible for the hyperpnoea and dyspnoea of CCF and interstitial lung disease Irritant Receptors believed to reside between airway epithelial cells discharge in response to nociception. close to capillaries respond very quickly to chemicals injected into the pulmonary circulation may also possibly respond to chemicals in alveolar air impulses travel in slow. in breath holding experiments.Respiratory Physiology the reflex is. impulses travel in myelinated vagal fibres. however. → rapid. → bronchoconstriction and hyperpnoea these show rapid adaptation and are involved with mechanoreception 64 .

both in anaesthetised & non-anaesthetised subjects 65 . allowing stabilisation of ventilation even in the face of changing mechanical conditions probably determine the optimal combination of frequency and tidal volume required to achieve this ventilation with minimal effort (work of breathing) compared to healthy subjects. temperature. c.surgical stimuli .passive movements of joints/exercise probably acting via RAS.Respiratory Physiology Gamma Efferent System Reflexes From Respiratory Muscles these provide information about the relationship between inspiratory volume change and required muscle effort ensure adequate inspiratory muscle activity for given ventilation. b. hypotension.cold water on skin pain mechanical . whilst those with obstructive lung disease breathe more slowly with large tidal volumes ** P/V curves ! Carotid & Aortic Baroreceptors ↑ BP ↓ BP → → ↓ ventilation ↑ ventilation Atrial & Venous Baroreceptors ↑ CVP ↓ CVP → → ↑ ventilation ↓ ventilation Thoracic Chemoreflexes producing bradycardia. patients with restrictive lung disease breathe rapidly with relatively small tidal volumes. apnoea Reflexes From Somatic & Visceral Tissues ventilation increases with stimulation of a.

Respiratory Physiology ARAS & Higher CNS Control higher CNS control is involved in talking. the pH is normal due to decreased plasma [HCO3-] 66 .Progesterone probably responsible for the hyperventilation of pregnancy in late pregnancy the mean PaCO2 ~ 32-34 mmHg however. Hormones .. anticipation of physical activity. whistling. anxiety depression b. crying. singing. a. etc. wakefulness & sleep during sleep ventilation decreases → PaCO2 ~ 46 mmHg this may be involved in immediate awakening from sleep with respiratory obstruction emotions respiration affected by a variety of emotional states eg.

elastic recoil of the lungs and chest wall frictional resistance i. b. to air flow in the conducting airways = airway resistance 67 . bronchi lowers the alveolar pressure below atmospheric pressure → air flows from mouth and nose to alveoli inspiratory muscles provide the force necessary to overcome. bronchioles. → positive pressure respiration expiration occurs when the alveolar pressure > atmospheric Normal Breathing commences with active contraction of inspiratory muscles. a. caused by deformation of lung tissue and thoracic cage = tissue resistance ii. enlarges the thorax lowers intrathoracic and intrapleural pressures enlarges alveoli. and may be due to. c. a. b. → negative pressure respiration raising atmospheric pressure above alveolar.Respiratory Physiology MECHANICS OF RESPIRATION inspiration occurs when the alveolar pressure < atmospheric pressure. b. a. lowering alveolar pressure below atmospheric pressure. d. which.

as the diaphragm is centrally "fixed" under these conditions External Intercostal Muscles these slope downwards and forwards → elevation of ribs in upward. and with forced inspiration ~ 10 cm unilateral paralysis produces little decrease in ventilatory capacity bilateral paralysis does not cause hypoventilation. so descent of the diaphragm enlarges all lobes of lung during tidal breathing the diaphragm descends ~ 1. b. but does produce paradoxical upward movement on inspiration with hyperinflation.5 the principal muscle of inspiration → "piston-like" activity.Respiratory Physiology Respiratory Muscles Diaphragm innervated by the phrenic nerve. from cervical segments C3. emphysema. preventing indrawing during descent of the diaphragm and enlargement of the thorax innervated by intercostal nerves from adjacent spinal levels Accessory Muscles active only in hyperpnoea or dyspnoea. the visceral pleura slides easily over the parietal pleura. and larynx act to reduce upper airway resistance maximum reduction in intrapleural pressure ~ 60-100 mmHg subatmospheric 68 . mouth. a. outward direction enlarging the A-P diameter of chest. trapezius and back muscles → help raise the thoracic cage muscles of the nose. especially when diaphragmatic descent is restricted Inspiration in health. the flattened diaphragm acts at a mechanical disadvantage the diaphragm still works when the abdominal contents are increased. causing.5 cm. posterior neck. in a "bucket-handle" fashion these also tense the intercostal spaces. enlargement of the thoracic cavity elevation of ribs. eg. sternomastoid.4. when the minute volume is ≥ 40-50 l/min not normally active in tidal breathing scaleni.

depress the ribs in downward & inward in direction NB: the diaphragm is active during in early expiration. however. expiratory muscles contract actively (VM ≥ 40 l/min) they are also active during coughing. straining. intercostal muscle activity is maintained Nunn talks about the relative loss of intercostal activity being responsible for both. sustained rise ~ 100 mmHg ii. a. vomiting. especially from airways obstruction. allowing a smoother transition from inspiration to expiration vigorous contraction of the expiratory muscles can produce intrapleural pressure. etc. and loss of the ventilatory response to CO2 the later being predominantly mediated by intercostal activity "abdominal" breathing is usually associated with a short duration of inspiration. or "diaphragmatic" respiration develops this used to be thought due to intercostal muscle paralysis. in which a sharp descent of the diaphragm results is a sharp drop in intrathoracic pressure. especially during light anaesthesia 69 . i. b. transient rise ~ 300 mmHg Effects of Anaesthesia with deep anaesthesia a pattern of "abdominal". with or without an endotracheal tube or pharyngeal airway. and the chest wall is indrawn or fails to expand normally a similar situation is seen with respiratory obstruction expiratory muscle activity occurs regularly during anaesthesia. diaphragmatic respiration. Abdominal Muscles these are the most important of the expiratory muscles (Nunn) they act to force the diaphragm upward and depress the lower ribs Internal Intercostal Muscles these tense the intercostal spaces during coughing.Respiratory Physiology Muscles of Expiration expiration normally occurs due to the elastic recoil of the pulmonary and thoracic tissues stretched during inspiration with hyperpnoea or dyspnoea. straining etc.

2. ie. 2. of pulmonary or thoracic tissues for an elastic body. Airflow ~ 80% ii. the mean intrapleural pressure ~ 4-5 cmH20 sub-atmospheric the intrapleural pressure is normally estimated by an oesophageal balloon catheter this is more accurate in measuring changes rather than absolute pressure. Transrespiratory Pressure Transpulmonary Pressure Transthoracic Pressure PRS = PA . this is given by the relationship of pressure and volume this may be measured under static conditions. or distensibility. due to interference from the weight of the heart Compliance is a measure of the elasticity. Elastic resistance ~ 65% Non-elastic resistance ~ 35% i. Viscous ~ 20% Elastic Resistance to Breathing Elastic Recoil of the Lungs the tendency of elastic lung tissue to recoil from the chest wall results in a sub-atmospheric intrapleural pressure at FRC.PB 70 .PB PL = PA .PIP PCW = PIP . 3. zero air flow.Respiratory Physiology Resistance to Breathing 1. this is given by the relation between the distending force and length for the lung. or under dynamic conditions the units of compliance are δ P = litres/cmH20 V/δ Respiratory Pressures 1.

measured under known static conditions (zero airflow) the normal value for a 70 kg adult ~ 200 ml/cmH20 the value decreases as lung volume increases. with the volume at any given pressure being greater during deflation (see below) the P/V curve doesn't reach zero volume due to trapping of gas in small airways this occurs at a greater volume with increasing age and lung disease the varying slope of the curve.Respiratory Physiology Static Lung Compliance the relationship between volume change of lung and the transpulmonary pressure change. airway . due to the limitations of the non-elastic components of the lung/chest wall system static P/V curves for the lung → sigmoid curve with varying degrees of hysteresis.e.. and the differential intrapleural pressure down the lung is also partially responsible for the differential ventilation of various lung segments 71 .intrapleural pressure change. i.

VL the later being identical to an adult specific compliance is a true measure of the elasticity of lung tissue. from sitting to the supine position.Respiratory Physiology compliance is directly related to lung volume. a.067 l/cmH20/l. will reduce the absolute static compliance but not specific compliance in comparison. b. defined as. a 1. interstitial fibrosis will reduce specific lung compliance Measurement the patient takes a breath from a spirometer and holds it until the transpulmonary pressure difference becomes stable this is repeated with different tidal volumes to produce a pressure/volume curve. with a decrease in FRC.006 l/cmH20 however.2 l one lung by 0.oesophageal balloon gradient 72 .0 cmH20 increase in transpulmonary pressure will inflate.1 l the absolute compliance of the lung of a neonate ~ 0. two lungs by 0. the specific compliance ~ 0. where Compliance = the slope of the pressure/volume curve this can also be done with the patient apnoeic using PPV the patient is inflated with known volumes of gas and the transpulmonary pressure change determined at equilibrium this is taken as the mouth . CS = Lung Compliance = (δ P)/V V/δ Lung Volume Lung Compliance FRC = a change in posture.

2. emphysema is unique in that static CL is increased destruction of pulmonary tissue and loss of both elastin and surface retraction increases FRC however.due to changes in lung volumes . 3. lung resection collapse or consolidation diffuse atelectasis ↓ CL c. the distribution of inspired gas may be grossly abnormal. therefore the dynamic CL is frequently reduced in asthma. fibrosis NB: Nunn lists 7 factors.Respiratory Physiology Factors Affecting Static Compliance a. 4. congestion. lung volume ↓ VL → lobar. eg. eg.the bigger the lungs the larger the compliance . lung volume posture . both static & dynamic 73 . thus the FRC is increased most other types of pulmonary disease decrease the CL.does not affect specific compliance pulmonary blood volume pulmonary venous congestion from any cause will decrease the compliance age many studies have failed to demonstrate any change in compliance when allowing for changes in lung volumes this is consistent with the notion that most of the elastic recoil is due to surface forces restriction of chest expansion causes only temporary changes in compliance recent ventilatory history disease 5. emphysema* (see below) decreased lung elasticity. the P/V curve is simply displaced upwards without a change in CL the elastic recoil is reduced at normal transmural pressure. 6. 7. lung elasticity increased lung elasticity. pulmonary oedema. 1. FRC age body size posture ↑ FRC → ↑ CL b.

Respiratory Physiology Dynamic Lung Compliance airflow is zero at the point of flow reversal during the normal respiratory cycle measurements of lung compliance made using these points reflect dynamic compliance in normal lungs at low and moderate frequencies. chronic bronchitis and emphysema this is principally due to the prolonged time constants emphysema increases specific lung compliance but. and at normal frequencies in abnormal lungs. and a pneumotachograph the pneumotachograph measures instantaneous flow. the pressure difference at the no flow points of the P/V loop can be established Factors Affecting Dynamic Compliance decreased dynamic lung compliance is seen especially with increased airways resistance. this may be electronically integrated over time to give volume thus. the time which would be taken to full volume change. if the initial rate of change of volume (δ t). were maintained V/δ 74 . dynamic compliance is less than static compliance this is due to incomplete filling of alveoli in the time available true pressure equilibrium between applied pressure and alveolar pressure is not obtained. the time constant is the time which would be taken to reach 63% of the final δ V stated another way. τ (tau) = CL × RA produces the phenomenon of frequency dependent compliance dynamic CL decreases as the respiratory frequency increases. asthma. or regional lung compliance. dynamic and static lung compliance are about the same value however. the longer a given alveolus will take to fill slow alveoli will not fill in the time available. eg. especially in emphysema taken from the slope of the transpulmonary pressure/volume loops recorded during tidal ventilation using a differential pressure transducer. and the lung appears to be stiffer than it actually is the time to fill an alveolus depends on the product of airway resistance and the compliance of the alveolus = the exponential time constant the higher the airway resistance. as slower alveoli fail to fill numerically. however. from an oesophageal balloon to the airway. due to its effect on the time constant. at higher frequencies in normal lungs.

surface tension → tissue elastic fibres produces > 50% of normal lung recoil filling the lung with fluid eliminates the liquid/gas interface and allow assessment of the tissue factors the recoil pressure of a saline filled lung is lower. P = 4 × Ts/rwhere Ts is surface tension however. P = 2Ts/r surface active agents exert smaller attracting forces for other molecules therefore.0 cm long within the liquid surface (dynes/cm. when concentrated at the surface they dilute the molecules of the liquid and hence lower its surface tension NB: Laplace's' Law actually states:P = T(1/r1 + 1/r2) 75 . SI units = N/m) as the intermolecular forces between liquid molecules are greater within the liquid than at the liquid/air interface. therefore. the liquid lined alveoli have only 1 liquid/air interface. b. fluids → minimum surface area possible for liquid spheres. determined only by the elastic recoil of pulmonary tissue → tissue recoil ~ 20% surface tension is the force in dynes acting on an imaginary line 1.Respiratory Physiology Surface Forces and Lung Recoil elastic lung recoil is dependent on. using Laplace's Law. a.

different portions of the lung reside on different portions of the P/V curve and have different compliances this is the cause of the greater ventilation of the bases during tidal respiration. granular pneumocytes the elimination half life. this does not occur! pulmonary surfactant in the alveolar lining fluid alters the surface tension as alveolar volume changes dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC). of their size Laplace's law would suggest that small alveoli should tend to empty into large alveoli and collapse.0 to 5.2. PIP is more negative at apices and alveoli are more expanded.5 cmH2O cmH2O mean value ~ .0 cmH2O therefore.Respiratory Physiology Pulmonary Surfactant all alveoli experience some transpulmonary pressure regardless. therefore forms a lipid monolayer as the area of the surface decreases.10. the apex may be better ventilated due to decreases in CL at low lung volumes and small airways closure NB: these theories regarding alveoli and surfactant are attractive.4. due to the expansive forces of surrounding alveoli due to the weight of lung tissue. contributing to the observed hysteresis of the P/V loops this is probably the major factor in the hysteresis seen in static P/V loops alveoli are also held patent by tissue interdependence. a. thus contradicting much of the above theory 76 .0 . b. however. a phospholipid. the [DPPC]s increases. with surfactant acting as a "wetting agent". but surface tension does not alter with changes in the area of the surface with pulmonary surfactant. apices bases ~ ~ . and due to repulsive forces between molecules decreases the surface tension these curves differ during contraction and expansion of the liquid surface. t½ ~ 14 hrs ordinary detergents lower the surface tension. c. an increase in surface area leads to an increase in surface tension (see West 7. is the main component synthesised in type II alveolar cells.7) DPPC has hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends. the apices residing on the stiffer "shoulder" of curve are less compliant at very low volumes. however. Hills (1982) displayed that alveoli are dry. as the surface area decreases. so surface tension also decreases conversely.

c. embolism hypoxia. c. water or plasma. NB: Deficiency of Surfactant interference with production. IRDS of new-born pulmonary lavage hyperoxia . a. b. d. e. reduces Ts in alveoli cf. f. g. tissue interdependence collateral ventilation the "sigh" mechanism → ~ 2-3 × tidal V 77 .O2 toxicity of lung pulmonary oedema. b. atelectasis. reducing lung recoil and the work of breathing stabilises alveoli of variable size as surface tension is proportional to surface area preventing small alveoli tending to "fill" larger ones promotes alveolar dryness a high Ts tending to draw fluid into alveoli as well as promoting collapse → decreased compliance segmental atelectasis pulmonary oedema V/Q imbalance c.Respiratory Physiology Physiological Importance of Pulmonary Surfactant a. a. acidosis gross overdistension of alveoli ARDS other factors preventing collapse of alveoli include. or increased inactivation occurs with. b.

P IP) P ~ 0. 2. a. 2. as FRC is 400-500 ml above the equilibrium point due to the tonic activity of the diaphragm since the pressure. b.PB P compliance of the thoracic cage may be measured directly using the transmural pressure change → δ CW = PIP . c. 1. so the total compliance of the lung and chest wall must be the sum of the reciprocals of each system measured separately.2 l/cmH20 ~ 200 ml/cmH2O* NB: * figures are from Nunn. IPPV total thoracic compliance is calculated from the volume change in relation to the transrespiratory pressure change → δ R = P A .especially when supine chest wall elastic recoil is outward at FRC.2 l/cmH20 ~ 150 ml/cmH2O* Compliance of chest wall CCW ~ 0.PB P thoracic cage compliance is decreased in. FRC being the equilibrium point of the recoil forces of both systems.1 l/cmH20 (δ = PA . supine. where. 3. 1/CTOT = 1/CL + 1/CCW Normal Values 1.Respiratory Physiology Elastic Recoil of the Thoracic Cage resting volume for thoracic cage ~ FRC + 600-700 ml thoracic cage compliance is calculated from total compliance of the thoracic cage + the lungs. VL > FRC → VL < FRC → expiration passive inspiration passive this is not quite true. at any given volume. 1/CT = 1/CL + 1/CCW (C ∝ 1/R) 78 . is inversely proportional to the compliance. d. therefore. anaesthetised patient.P B) P ~ 85 ml/cmH2O* Compliance of lung CL (δ = PA . obesity . and from pulmonary compliance when measured simultaneously. Total thoracic compliance CTOT ~ 0. kyphoscoliosis scleroderma muscle spasticity abdominal distension.

Respiratory Physiology
Non-Elastic Resistance to Breathing
this is composed of, a. b. airway flow resistance pulmonary tissue resistance, or viscous resistance ~ 80% ~ 20%

Resistance to Air Flow the work of breathing during tidal respiration, a. b. elastic recoil of lungs and thorax airway and tissue resistance ~ 65% ~ 35%

the work to overcome non-elastic resistance increases markedly with rapid respiration, or narrowing of the airways during airflow, the pressure to produce a unit increase in lung volume is greater than when there is no flow (see below) the pressure required to produce a given airflow depends upon whether the flow is laminar, or turbulent

Respiratory Cycle Pressures
If airway resistance were zero; there would be no mouth-to-alveolar gradient and alveolar pressure would remain zero intrapleural pressure would be determined by elastic resistance alone, and would follow the line ABC; the shaded area representing the added pressure to overcome airflow resistance

Note the diagram in West (7.13) is slightly inaccurate, as it indicates that for a given tidal volume, peak intrapleural pressure would be the same with or without added airflow resistance.

79

Respiratory Physiology
Laminar Flow

. πr 4 .δ Q = 8ηl P
where r l (P1-P2) η = = = = radius of a tube length of the tube the pressure gradient (δ P) gas viscosity

since resistance, R = δ P/V, by rearrangement,

R=

8ηl π4 r

therefore, if the radius is halved, resistance to flow increases ~ 16 times! laminar flow → velocity profile, where the velocity at the center ~ twice the average velocity other factors remaining constant, flow rate is directly proportional to the driving pressure,

δ = K1 × V P

80

Respiratory Physiology
Turbulent Flow the likelihood of flow becoming turbulent is predicted by the, Reynold's Number

(Re) = ρvd η

the gas viscosity (η-eta) becomes relatively less important, c.f. density (ρ-rho) which decreases flow proportionately the viscosities of respirable gasses do not vary greatly, however their densities may vary considerably when Re > 2000, turbulent flow becomes increasingly more likely, and the driving pressure becomes proportional to the square of the flow rate,

δ = K2 × V2 P

the constant K2 incorporating gas density

theoretically, the required driving pressure becomes inversely proportional to the fifth power of the tube radius (Fanning equation) Nunn states when Re < 1000 flow is laminar and when Re > 1500 flow is almost entirely turbulent with both laminar and turbulent flow, the driving pressure becomes proportional to both the rate of flow and to its square quantification represents only an approximate statement for airway resistance methods of approximation of airway resistance include, 1. 2. the two constants method the exponent n, where (1 < n < 2) δ P δ P = K1.V+ K2.V2 ~ 2.4 × V + 0.3 × V2 = K.Vn ~ 2.4 × V1.3 cmH2O

another approach is the graphical method, where δ is plotted against log V, and the slope of the P line indicates the value of "n" above

81

Respiratory Physiology
Turbulent Flow the conditions of flow at the entrance to tube are also important, eddies being carried distally branching points with different airway impedances also disrupts laminar flow, due to reflection of the pressure wavefront airways are not smooth, cylindrical, rigid tubes the upper airway has two irregular nasal passages in parallel, followed by the pharynx, larynx and trachea in series the net effect is such that flow probably only becomes laminar in the small terminal bronchioles, where Re ~ 1 for the majority of the bronchial tree, flow → transitional as airways become smaller, the total resistance would rise tremendously except for bronchiolar subdivision, a. b. as each bronchiole divides into two the subdivisions have only a slightly smaller radius than the parent airway, and are also shorter in length the gas flow rate decreases with each subdivision

gas flow is largely laminar during quiet breathing increased flow rates readily produce turbulence in the larynx, trachea, pharynx and major bronchi

82

Respiratory Physiology
Measurement of Airway Resistance
normal value for a healthy adult ~ 0.5-1.5 cmH20/l/s - body plethysmograph - at 0.5 l/s flow rate (quiet breathing) another source → 1.0-3.0 cmH2O/l/s 50 to 75% of this is in the nose (less resistance through mouth) most of the remaining resistance in larynx and bronchial tree Airway Resistance as R = δ V, simultaneously measure the rate of air flow and the alveolar-to-mouth pressure P/δ gradient, RAW = mouth - alveolar pressure flow (δ V)

alveolar pressure is measured in a body plethysmograph making use of Boyle's Law relating pressure and volume of gases to measure alveolar pressure directly during inspiration and expiration in normal tidal breathing δ ~ 1.0 cmH2O but may be much higher in patients with obstructive P airways disease thus, during tidal breathing, i. δ P ~ 1.0 cmH2O ii. δ t V/δ ~ 0.5 l/s iii. RAW ~ 2.0 cmH2O/l/s Non-Elastic Resistance RNE = mouth - intrapleural pressure flow (δ V)

effectively, (PM-PIP) = (PM-PA) + (PA-PIP), where (PA-PIP) is represented by the shaded portion of fig. 7.13 a differential pressure transducer instantaneously measures PM-PIP gradient a pneumotachograph measures the instantaneous flow rate, which may be integrated to give respired volumes at points of zero flow, the pressure gradient is opposed only by elastic forces it is then possible to construct the dotted line in the pressure trace, representing the pressure gradient to overcome elastic forces alone the difference between this and the observed pressure gradient (shaded zone) is the flow resistance component (Nunn fig. 3.15) the total non-elastic resistance = airway resistance + tissue resistance, where, i. airway resistance ~ 80% ii. pulmonary tissue resistance ~ 20%

83

4. 5HT. 5. or foreign bodies cohesion of mucosal surfaces by surface tension forces infiltration. bradykinin . c.Respiratory Physiology Factors Affecting Airway Resistance Aetiology of Small Airway Obstruction a. 3. 2. b. or fibrosis of bronchioles collapse. inflammation oedema of bronchiolar tissues plugging of the lumen by mucus.irritant chemicals. supporting tissues (cartilage) of bronchi NB: physical. particulates 84 . Physical Factors 1. endogenous exogenous .sympathomimetics.nonadrenergic Chemical Factors a. constriction of bronchiolar smooth muscle mucosal congestion. histamine. lung volume closing volume respiratory cycle forced expiration coughing fixed obstructive lesions . 3.inspiration versus expiration Nervous Factors 1. or to loss of structural. exudate. steroids . compression. b. f. or kinking of bronchioles due to loss of normal traction by alveolar elastic fibres. oedema fluid. e. anticholinergics. nervous and chemical factors influence airway size and therefore resistance. 6. 2. d. cholinergic adrenergic non-cholinergic .CA's. g.

ie. a part of the VC manoeuvre this is distinct from closing capacity.the beginning of phase IV of the washout curve to RV normal values ~ 15-20% of VC. the expired concentration of tracer gas rises abruptly (see above) 85 . widening their lumen a decrease in lung volume narrows airways. bolus technique originally xenon or argon.Respiratory Physiology Physical Factors airway resistance decreases as lung volume is increased increased stretch of elastic fibres causes distension of the small airways. or the volume in which dependent lung units cease to contribute to expired gas. the inspired tracer is preferentially distributed to the apical segments → apical areas contain more tracer gas cf. bases during slow controlled expiration. ie. expressed at a % of TLC measured by either a bolus or resident gas technique 1. as dependent units again start to close. usually now helium inspiration from RV to TLC creating differential tracer gas composition as dependent portions of lung have "closed units".. increasing airways resistance this effect is maximal in the dependent parts of lung due to the weight of supported lung tissue small airway closure and V/Q imbalance may follow Def'n: closing volume is that volume in which closure of dependent airways begins. which is the difference between the onset of phase IV and zero lung volume = CV + RV.

probably due to air trapping (??) as CV represents a portion of the VC manoeuvre. resident gas technique as for the above. due to the pressure drop along the airway secondary to flow resistance 86 . with an increase in closing volume. 1969) NB: may result in smaller values cf. at ~ 65 years at ~ 45 years → → CV ~ FRC erect CV ~ FRC supine presumably this is due to a progressive decrease in lung elastic recoil this contributes to the decrease in PaO2 with advancing age (maximal in supine position) young children similarly have decreased elastic recoil & relatively increased CC's → minimal values for CV/CC are seen in late the late second decade CV is a sensitive marker of early dysfunction. b. and with the onset of dependent lung closure. the [N2]Exp. changes in length however.5 l/sec changes in CV may represent small airways disease.Respiratory Physiology 2. bronchioles and bronchi the air pressure in bronchioles is less than that in alveoli. these changes are not significant with quiet breathing forced expiration results in flaccid airways collapse when the pressure outside their walls exceeds the intraluminal pressure intrapleural pressure is applied to alveoli. ~ 0. but difficulty defining normal limits respiratory cycle → resistance is less during inspiration than during expiration airways widen and lengthen during inspiration / narrow and shorten during expiration changes in diameter are of greater significance. Nunn a. inspiration of 100% O2 is used to dilute the already present N2 → apex to base concentration difference ~ 2x the [N2]Exp. cf. depends upon a pre-expiration concentration gradient however there is normally little difference in [N2] between apex & base at TLC therefore. the bolus technique in the presence of asthma or bronchoconstriction. or loss of elastic recoil and parenchymal supportive tissue with advancing age there is an increased tendency toward airway closure. is then plotted against expired volume. decreases (Anthonisen et al. it is usually expressed as a percentage of such expiration must be performed slowly to prevent dynamic airways collapse.

PIP) increased δ P increased airways resistance → 87 . the most collapsible as. the extramural pressure can exceed intraluminal pressure and airway collapse occurs greater effort cannot increase flow under these conditions. their size depends upon elastic fibres of the lung radially distending their walls. similar to the Starling resistor mechanism limiting blood flow in Zone 2 as PIP is increased. due to increased airways resistance or forced expiration. low lung volumes increased lung compliance eg. b. as with age/emphysema. and they have no cartilaginous support in chronic bronchitis large bronchi may lose cartilage and collapse readily during forced expiration once collapsed additional force is needed to open airways flow limitation is increased by. a. c. in general. and when there is reduced elastic recoil. not (PA .Respiratory Physiology when this pressure drop is great.17) under these conditions driving pressure becomes (PA . but the later portions of the curve approach an identical effort-independent part isovolume pressure flow curves show effort independent flow at low and mid lung volumes (see West 7. the driving pressure is unaltered. b. the point of airway collapse merely moves closer to alveoli bronchioles are. a.PB). flow-volume curves → an envelope which cannot be exceeded irrespective of driving pressure (opposite) within limits the PEFR is dependent upon effort.P IP).PIP) decreased (PA . the greater pressure gradient simply shifting the point of collapse closer to the alveoli thus. emphysema → → decreased (PA .

chemical irritants arterial hypercapnia cold pulmonary emboli . there is a non-adrenergic non-cholinergic system also running in the vagus nerve the neurotransmitter is probably VIP (28 AA) stimulation of these fibres. or the administration of VIP results in prolonged dilatation but the significance is uncertain other neurotransmitters present include. inhalation of smoke.peptide histidine isoleucine (27 AA) . alveolar hypocapnia ?CNS/PNS airways dilated reflexly. dust. d. c. however may cause marked bronchospasm in asthmatics in addition. a.cf. a. in addition to its direct effects efferent fibres run in the vagus and terminate on ganglia located in the walls of the small bronchi short postganglionic fibres release ACh.carotid sinus reflex the sympathetic nervous system is poorly represented in the lung and its functional significance questioned bronchial smooth muscle has β2 receptors on which NA has little effect NB: β-blockers cause minimal constriction in normal subjects. c.(11 AA) . during inspiration arterial hypertension .calcitonin gene related peptide 88 . and alveolar ducts some degree of resting tone is usually present airways constrict reflexly with. PHI substance P CGRP . a. b.Respiratory Physiology Coughing forced expiratory effort against a closed glottis the glottis then opens suddenly with rapid expulsion of gas producing very high expiratory flow this is coupled with tracheal narrowing and inversion of the non-cartilaginous part of intrathoracic trachea Nervous Factors the parasympathetic nervous system is of major importance in the control of bronchomotor tone afferents arise from receptors under the tight junctions of the bronchial epithelium and pass centrally in the vagus these respond to a wide variety of noxious stimuli histamine sensitises these endings. which acts on muscarinic receptors on smooth muscle smooth muscle is present in the trachea. b. bronchi. b.

a. is difficult there is also the inertia of lung/thorax system and the air mass.. mucus. mucosal congestion. exudate. this is very small 89 . ± airway obstruction rapidly reversed by therapy → i. rib cage & abdominal contents. salbutamol. increased airway resistance in expiration only → airway collapse bronchoconstriction. b. etc. in the lumen Pulmonary Tissue Viscous Resistance due mainly to the movement of pleural layers between lobes.. etc. 2. carcinomatosis. and other β2-adrenergic agonists cause bronchodilatation β2 adrenergic antagonists.Respiratory Physiology Chemical Factors isoprenaline. adrenaline. thereby tending to correct V/Q imbalance resulting from regional decreases in perfusion Effects of Increased Airways Resistance 1. acetylcholine. and anticholinesterases cause bronchoconstriction histamine (H1) constricts bronchioles and alveolar duct sphincters alveolar hypocapnia causes regional bronchoconstriction. 5. 3. lung hyper-inflation dyspnoea decrease in respiratory rate mechanical disadvantage of respiratory muscles prolongation of the time constant → V/Q mismatch → increased FRC and residual volume the differential diagnosis of types of increased airway resistance. oedema ii. 4. and between the lungs and chest wall during inspiration & expiration accounts for < 20% of the total non-elastic resistance in health increased in pulmonary fibrosis. however. but rarely to significant or limiting values measurements of thoracic cage viscous resistance.

with the elastic component being AECDA as airway resistance.AECFA represents the energy expenditure with which no external work is done → heat 90 .δ t this is required to overcome. given by the shaded area ABCEA NB: this is not the work of "breathing". or inspiratory flow rate is increased. so would δ IP. 1. falls within work trapezoid and can be accomplished with the stored energy in elastic structures the difference between AECDA . 2. the work to overcome non-elastic forces (AECFA). (see Ganong fig.Respiratory Physiology WORK OF BREATHING Def'n: mechanical work of breathing = F×s = P×V (Force × distance) (Pressure × Volume) thus. as some work is performed by the stored elastic potential energy of the thoracic cage.5 l × 0.δ t ~ 0. 7. viz. = δ V/δ P. 34-9 and below) the true work of inspiration is given by ABCDA. elastic resistance ~ 65% → 80% airflow 20% viscous non-elastic resistance ~ 35% frequently expressed in Watts. the work of breathing = the cumulative product of pressure × volume of air moved each instant. increasing total and viscous work on expiration. hence the correct term should be the power of breathing.5 l × 3.0 cmH2O ~ 0.3 kPa ~ 150 mJ West (fig. effectively P sloping the curve to right. which is in fact work/time.20) describes the total work required to move the lung as OABCGO with the work to overcome elastic resistance given by the trapezoid OAECGO the difference between these representing the non-elastic resistance. Work = ∫ δ P dt 0 V.

→ the elastic work area OAECGO increases → → small shallow breaths long deep breaths NB: therefore. b. The elastic work to inflate the lungs alone is ABDEA.Respiratory Physiology Ventilatory Pattern a. as respiratory frequency increases. however. → flow rates increase and the non-elastic area ABCEA increases as tidal volume increases. part of this work is performed by the elastic energy stored in the thoracic cage AFGBA. patients with stiff lungs patients with airways obstruction as both of these patterns tend to decrease the work of breathing NB: The total elastic work required for inspiration is the area ABCA. The elastic energy gained by the lungs (AEDCA) is equal to that lost by the thoracic cage (AFGBA) 91 .

f. b. PaCO2 & PaO2 arterial pH .unchanged with exercise unless extreme . a.increased ventilation in anticipation of exercise e. 92 .0 l/min in steady state.rises only slowly with exercise . E = useful work total energy expended (O2 used) x 100 ~ 5 . with a MRO2 ~ 4.oscillations in PaO2 or PaCO2 .10% Hyperpnoea of Exercise the aetiology is largely unknown. c. exercise ventilation correlates closely with the increase in metabolic rate NB: that is there is no appreciable change in PaO2 or PaCO2 however.O2 (additional O2 consumption)/l ventilation this is low during quiet breathing.Respiratory Physiology Metabolic Work of Breathing (Oxygen cost of breathing) usually expressed as ml. g.may produce a delayed increase in ventilation . especially in the presence of pulmonary disease in severe cases of obstructive lung disease. d.falls only with very severe exercise unknown chemical stimulus . E. but increases with increasing ventilation.therefore are not a major factor .O2/l ventilation ~ 1-2% of basal MRO2 (250 ml/min) mechanical efficiency of respiratory muscles. and an abrupt decrease toward resting values at the end of exercise possible factors involved.the additional CO2 load presented to lungs temperature.0 ml. but multiple factors are involved a fit young male may increase VM to 120 l/min.but there is no temperature sensitive mechanism in muscle for the stimulation of ventilation mechano receptors in muscles & joints impulses from the motor cortex psychogenic factors . the O2 cost of additional ventilation may exceed the additional O2 provided by that increased effort O2 cost of quiet breathing ~ 0. there is an abrupt increase in ventilation at the onset of exercise.5 to 1.

there are permanent residents in the Andes at over 16. → PaCO2 ~ 33 mmHg driven by hypoxic stimulation of the peripheral chemoreceptors the resulting alkalosis and hypocapnia work against this increase after a day or so the pHCSF is returned to normal by removal of HCO3. especially during sleep can be induced in experimental animals by lengthening the lung/brain circulation time Respiration at High Altitude normal barometric pressure is halved at 18.000 ft. during sleep frequently seen at high altitude. brain damage overdose of respiratory depressant drugs increased circulation time.000 ft. which is only slowly corrected on descent to sea level in contrast.000 ft. e. PIO2 = (380-47) × 0. c.from the CSF after several days the arterial pH is returned to near normal by renal excretion of bicarbonate these two restrictions on ventilation are then removed and the minute volume increases further people born at high altitudes have a diminished response to hypoxia. a. thus 1. d. b. Hyperventilation typically residence at over 15.. 2.000 ft (5500 m). characterised by periods of apnoea lasting 15-20 secs. e.g.2093 ~ 70 mmHg PaO2 ~ 40 mmHg > 15 million people reside at altitudes over 10. cardiac failure occasionally seen in healthy individuals and infants. alternating with crescendo-decrescendo pattern of ventilation of approximately equal duration usually seen in patients with severe hypoxaemia. lowlanders ascending to altitude retain the high respiratory drive for an extended period 93 .Respiratory Physiology Abnormal Breathing Patterns Cheyne-Stokes Breathing periodic breathing.

reducing the intercapillary diffusion distance also. even in the absence of elevated pulmonary venous pressure ?? mechanism ascent to altitude frequently → headache. CaO2 may actually be increased similarly. there are changes in the oxidative enzymes inside the mitochondria the maximum breathing capacity MBC is increased due to the lower density of air and the minute ventilation may reach 200 l/min with exercise however. palpitations and insomnia → acute mountain sickness. a. d. stroke work and hypertrophy the pulmonary hypertension is occasionally associated with oedema. at which the atmospheric pressure equals the vapour pressure of water and body fluids boil 94 . hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction → decreased V/Q mismatch ↑ CO & regional blood flow. polycythaemia is seen in patients with chronic hypoxia from lung or heart disease a detrimental effect of increased haematocrit is raised blood viscosity other factors compensating for hypoxia include. e.Respiratory Physiology Polycythemia hypoxia stimulates release of erythropoietin from the kidney which stimulates RBC synthesis by the bone marrow with a subsequent rise in the haematocrit → although PaO2 & O2 saturation are decreased. resulting in increased tissue availability of O2 this is caused by a rise in the [2.000 ft. the VO2max is dramatically reduced at elevations > 15. alveolar hypoxia → pulmonary vasoconstriction with subsequent increased right atrial pressure. dizziness. c. nausea. and is attributable to the hypoxaemia and alkalosis NB: the theoretical maximum achievable altitude is ~ 69..3-DPG] which is the result of the alkalosis and hypoxia some argue that the right shift is deleterious due to reduced loading of O2 in the lungs and that a shift to the left would be more advantageous the number of capillaries increases. especially brain ↑ anaerobic metabolism ↑ 2.3-DPG and right shift HbO2 curve ↑ SNS outflow Other Features of Acclimatisation HbO2 dissociation curve is shifted to the right.000 ft. b.

OH. convulsions and loss of consciousness this syndrome is related to both the duration and PiO2 but is rarely seen at < 2 bar possibly due to inactivation of certain enzymes. nausea.. b. a.eg.flavoproteins and oxidative-phosphorylation peculiar effects seen in neonates are retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia the later being determined by the pattern of IPPV Central Nervous System FIO2 = 100% > 2 bar → mood changes.which combine with free radicals these normal defenses become overwhelmed when high a [O2] is inspired at high O2 tensions. superoxide dismutases . muscular twitching. b. vertigo. glutathione and ascorbate scavenger compounds .O. the atmospheric [O2] has increased and organisms have had to develop defence mechanisms against oxidative damage these consist of. b. enzymes reducing agents . .eg. particularly dehydrogenases containing sulfhydryl groups following a period of post-ictal depression. possessing 2 pairs of unpaired electrons damage at the cellular level includes. a. d. free radicals activated molecular oxygen . a. enzyme inhibition membrane lipid damage destruction of nucleic and thioamino acids ? chromosomal damage in long term . recovery of normal function is complete and relatively rapid 95 .Respiratory Physiology OXYGEN TOXICITY in the course of evolution of the earth.H 2 O2 some workers believe the effects are due partly to O2 itself. c. c. highly reactive forms of oxygen are present in abnormal concentrations.

d. nor those breathing 100% O2 at 0. c. a. the rate of collapse being determined by the rate of absorption of N2 this is particularly likely to occur at the bases of the lung. the absence of a high [N2] to effectively "splint" the alveoli leads to absorption of the alveolar gases and atelectasis even breathing 100% O2 the PvO2 remains fairly low. nasal stuffiness.Respiratory Physiology Respiratory System the first pathological changes are seen in pulmonary endothelial and type I alveolar cells clinically seen in patients breathing FIO2 > 80% for longer than 12 hours the symptom complex begins with substernal discomfort. carbon monoxide poisoning rarely in anaemic crisis gas gangrene ? MS 96 . if the airway is obstructed for any reason. finally atelectasis (predominantly in areas with low V/Q) oxygen also depresses the mucociliary transport mechanism after several hours of increased concentration pulmonary toxicity is not seen in subjects breathing FIO2 < 50%. providing a large gradient for the diffusion of oxygen absorption still occurs breathing air. however the process is much slower.5 bar pressure for periods of 24 hours or more NB: thus. where the parenchyma is less well expanded Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy useful in some clinical situations. pulmonary congestion with transudation and exudation. it is the PiO2 which is the determining factor Absorption Atelectasis when breathing 100% O2. b. coughing and diminished vital capacity (500-800 ml) → ↑ RR continued exposure results in tracheobronchitis.

some particles ≤500 µm may traverse the lung Immunological & Mechanical Defence 1. secretory IgA macrophages mucociliary escalator < 2 µm ~ 2-10 µm mucous lining airways > 10 µm cough and sneeze reflexes Heat Exchanger acts as a source for considerable heat exchange and results in the insensible loss of water especially for neonates and small children Metabolism uses 1-2% of the basal O2 consumption however this may be dramatically increased in ARDS/IRDS 97 . 5. 4. or 1000 ml of which < 100 ml is in capillary bed acts as a particulate filter for blood-borne particles ≥ 10 µm the capillary diameter being ~ 7 µm however. holding ~ 20% of the blood volume. 4. blood reservoir and filter immunological and mechanical defence heat exchanger metabolism substrate synthesis substrate modification Blood Reservoir and Filter acts as a reservoir for blood. 3. 6. 2. 2. 3.Respiratory Physiology NON-RESPIRATORY LUNG FUNCTION such functions include. 1. 5.

5. acetylcholine vii.ADH .angiotensin II. propofol.PGA2 . 2.Adrenaline. uptake and removal is not inhibited by MAOI's 2. 2. Isoproterenol . 8. nortryptyline unaffected . as acids → plasma proteins 98 . noradrenaline ~ 30% uptake1 v. 7. PGF2α . CCK* somatostatin* endorphins* kallikrien mucopolysaccharides from CHO *from APUD cells Substrate Modification 1. 6.histamine 3.imipramine. mostly basic drugs. propranolol.not PGA iv. 3. fibrinolysis vi. tricyclic antidepressants viii. 4.fentanyl. NB: 1. serotonin ~ 98% → MAO iii. surfactant prostaglandins histamine and heparin from mast cells VIP. ?III . activation . drugs2 . PGE 2. bradykinin ~ 80% by ACE ii. Dopamine.angiotensin I → angiotensin II .ACE / calveoli inactivation i.Respiratory Physiology Substrate Synthesis 1. lignocaine .

apnoea supervenes if the PaCO2 is lowered below the apnoeic threshold this appears to be in part attributable to the effects on respiratory muscle activity (see below) the halogenated agents differ little. and this again may be related to circulating NA opiates are well known respiratory depressants small doses may simply displace the curve to the right. but ether is exceptional in having little effect ≤1 MAC thereafter. however are similar to the inhalational agents at anaesthetic doses ketamine has little effect.1 MAC this is also seen with N2O and would clearly persist well into the recovery period it appears that the effect is due to action on the carotid chemoreceptors partial reversal can be attained with almitrine there are 4 important aspects of this effect. depression occurs progressively until at 2. 2. but larger doses also decrease the slope PO2-Ventilation Response Curve long believed that this reflex was the ultima moriens and relatively unaffected by anaesthesia however. 1.Ventilation Response Curve this response is also obtunded at subanaesthetic levels of anaesthesia the degree of suppression is comparable to that seen with hypoxia 99 . the patient will lose their hyperventilatory response to hypoxia CO2 retainers may cease breathing on induction anaesthesia may be dangerous at high altitude.Respiratory Physiology RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF ANAESTHESIA Control of Breathing PCO2 . observed by Gordh (1945) that ether abolished the response to O2 while the response to CO2 was still intact the hypoxic response is actually extremely sensitive to the inhalational anaesthetics.5 MAC the depression is comparable to the halogenated agents this may be related to increased levels of circulating catecholamines with ether surgical stimulation antagonises this effect the level of depression is relatively greater in patients with chronic airways obstruction barbiturates have little effect in sedative or light sleep dosage.Ventilation Response Curve deepening anaesthesia is associated with decreasing ventilation and an increasing PaCO2 progressive increases in the alveolar concentration of all of the inhalational agents is associated with a decrease in the slope of the curve at deep levels there may be no response at all as opposed to the awake subject. where survival depends on (a) the effect is still present after apparent "recovery" Metabolic Acidaemia . 3. being markedly attenuated at 0. 4.

rather than the abdominal component of total respiratory excursion this is the basis of the statement that the reduction in the CO2 response is due to inhibition of intercostal muscle activity this loss of intercostal activity may be detrimental in patients with compromised abdominal excursion. or with hyperinflated lungs and flattened diaphragms the other major change is the loss of the tonic activity of the diaphragm. awake or anaesthetised the additional work is performed by the inspiratory muscles. shifting the tidal loop further up the compliance curve. allowing the increased elastic recoil to overcome the increased resistance Pattern of Contraction of the Respiratory Muscles Inspiratory Muscles realised as early as John Snow (1858) that deepening anaesthesia was associated with decreased thoracic excursion and that abdominal excursion was well maintained this is due to progressive failure of the intercostal muscles with preservation of diaphragm in contrast. there is an increase in the thoracic component during IPPV in the anaesthetised paralysed patient Bryan & Froese (1977) demonstrated that most of the ventilatory response to hypercapnia was due to the rib cage.Respiratory Physiology Response to Increased Resistance anaesthetised patients retain a remarkable ability to compensate for increases in airflow resistance following increases in inspiratory resistance.0 cmH2O there is even greater ability to compensate for increases in expiratory resistance up to 10 cmH2O there is no activation of the expiratory muscles. there is an instantaneous augmentation of the force of contraction of the diaphragm this is consistent with muscle spindle activity there is a delayed response which displays "overshoot" when the resistance is withdrawn the time course for this response is such that PaCO2 appears to be the likely mediator in combination these allow the anaesthetised patient to compensate for inspiratory loading of the order of ~ 8. with the resultant decrease in the FRC Expiratory and Other Muscles GA results in phasic activity of the expiratory group which are normally silent during the respiratory cycle this appears to serve no useful purpose and is unrelated to the decrease in FRC this increases abdominal muscle tone in the absence of paralysis the genioglossus normally rhythmically contracts with respiration loss of tone to this may result in upper airway obstruction 100 .

c. within minutes. with or without paralysis this is complicated by. e.Respiratory Physiology Alterations to Lung & Trunk Volumes Function Residual Capacity the following points are relevant.0 l for males and ~ 600 ml for females thus. b. a. the decrease in FRC would be expected to increase airways resistance however. the tendency to airway closure is not increased during anaesthesia this was thought to be a cause for the increase in V/Q mismatch and impaired gaseous exchange other factors being equal. g. however. b. the reduction in FRC will reduce this reserve further closing capacity decreases in parallel with the reduction in FRC. then FRC stabilises a high FI O2 is not a factor the reduction is the same paralysed or not the reduction has a weak correlation with age expiratory muscle activity does not play a part anaesthesia does not alter FRC in the sitting position demonstrated by Froese & Bryan with lateral radiographs that the diaphragm ascends ~ 2 cm into the thorax during anaesthesia. other causes for increased airways resistance. as lung volume decreases. 101 . a. possibly due to the bronchodilatation caused by inhalational agents thus. airways resistance increases the shape of this curve is hyperbolic. valves. a decrease in the thoracic volume of ~ 250 ml redistribution of blood volume from the thorax to the abdomen → → ~ 300 ml increase ↓ FRC ~ 450 ml elevation of the diaphragm ~ 500 ml Consequences of the Decrease in FRC in the supine position. f. and FRC resides on the steep part of the curve therefore. this is also largely offset by the bronchodilator effect of the GA's there are. c. relating to breathing circuits. the ERV is only ~ 1. connectors and tracheal tubes etc. ↓ FRC ~ 16-20% (R: +19 to -50) the decrease occurs early. d.

reduced minute volume of ventilation increased dead space increased shunt Minute Volume during spontaneous respiration the minute volume may remain normal but is usually decreased this results from decrease in the MRO2 and depression of the chemical control of breathing some workers with closed circuit halothane anaesthesia have reported PaCO2 ≤150 mmHg ! multiple studies of this insult have failed to shown any adverse long term effect many anaesthetists believe transient hypercapnia is without consequence in a healthy patient with artificial ventilation there is a natural tendency to hyperventilate the patient studies have recorded PaCO2 values down to 18 mmHg similarly no specific adverse effects have been demonstrated most anaesthetists tend to avoid extreme hypocapnia due to the adverse effects on cerebral blood flow.Respiratory Physiology compliance is significantly decreased. a. with little difference with or without paralysis the majority of the change occurs in the lung. 2. 3. c. there being little alteration of chest wall compliance pressures ≤30 cmH2O inflate the lung to only 70% of the preoperative total lung capacity this reduction occurs early in anaesthesia and is not progressive there is no general agreement on a direct effect of anaesthetics on pulmonary surfactant. aiming for values ~ 34 mmHg hypothermia. may result in severe hypocapnia unless the ventilation is reduced to match the decrease in MRO2 102 . b. intentional or accidental. breathing at a reduced lung volume pulmonary collapse in the dependent regions* the reduced compliance is a cause of the decreased FRC NB: *the later is unlikely given volume changes and the second has definitely now been shown to occur Metabolic Rate the MRO2 is reduced by ~ 15% during anaesthesia there are major reductions in the cerebral and cardiac oxygen consumptions Gas Exchange except in the very young. some studies have shown a decreased activity alternative explanations include. 1. anaesthesia produces abnormalities in gas exchange the major adverse changes being.

Respiratory Physiology Physiological Dead Space the VD/VT ratio. pharynx and trachea which are ~ 70 ml therefore. including the mouth. the decrease in CO reduces the mean PvO2 traversing the remaining shunt with little change in the PaO2 this contrasts the effect seen in ITU. due to. from the carina downwards. pulmonary collapse in the dependent regions impairment of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction distortion of the pattern of ventilation-perfusion ratios there is only minimal change in the degree of shunt and the PA-aO2 gradient in young adults progressively larger changes occur as age increases and this is possibly related to the increase in closing capacity PEEP does little to improve the PaO2 during anaesthesia although the shunt may be reduced. 2.5 mmHg but increases with age during anaesthesia the shunt increases to ~ 10% referring to an iso-shunt diagram → required FIO2 ~ 30-40% the cause of the venous admixture is due to. this is usually compensated for by the decreased MRO2 and high ventilation rates there is no evidence that pulmonary hypotension results in the development of "zone 1" ???? Shunt in the conscious healthy subject shunt ~ 1-2% of the CO the PA-aO2 gradient is ~ 7. reaching a maximum of ~ 70 ml at tidal volumes above 350 ml this value corresponds to the expected geometric volume of the lower respiratory tract at smaller tidal volumes anatomical VD is less than the expected geometric volume. subcarinal VD must increase by ~ 70 ml during anaesthesia. the mixing effect of the heart beat axial streaming in laminar flow apparatus VD increases the VD/VT ratio to ~ 50% if the patient is not intubated and a facemask is being used this increases further to ~ 70% under these conditions an apparent ventilation of 6 l/min will only achieve an alveolar ventilation of 2 l/min however. 2. 1. where the stiff lungs of most of these patients "protects" them from increases in intrathoracic pressure and subsequent reductions in CO 103 . 3. is ~ 32% during anaesthesia with both spontaneous and artificial ventilation this corresponds closely to the ratio for the normal conscious subject. and this occurs in the alveolar component anatomical VD is always less than physiological. 1.

or with induced hypotension this is most easily explained by the development of "zone 1" shunt. changes in the PA-aO2 gradient are markedly affected by age the increase in the PA-aO2 gradient is due partly to an increase in the true pulmonary shunt and partly to an increased distribution of perfusion to areas of low (but not zero) V/Q ratios the increase in alveolar VD is due to ventilation of areas of high (but usually not infinite) V/Q ratios the major difference is between the awake and anaesthetised states. but the beneficial effect is offset by the decrease in CO and mean PvO2 3. Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction HPV is an important mechanism for reducing the perfusion of inadequately ventilated lung multiple studies with some conflicting results due to failure to account for the reduction in CO seen with anaesthesia inhalational agents depress HPV provided that allowance is made for concomitant changes in CO the decrease in CO reduces the mean PvO2 with ensuing generalised pulmonary vasoconstriction intravenous agents have been clearly demonstrated not to affect HPV The Lateral Position there is a preferential distribution of inspired gas flow to the lower lung and this accords approximately with the distribution of blood flow this favourable distribution of gas flow is disturbed by anaesthesia. 4. with or without artificial ventilation the dependent lung volume is much reduced and often below closing capacity Haemorrhagic Hypotension physiological VD is increased by haemorrhagic hypotension.Respiratory Physiology Summary: 1. 2. however. 5. paralysis and artificial ventilation having little effect on gas exchange parameters. is not increased due to the direct relationship between shunt and CO 104 . despite the quite different spatial distribution of ventilation PEEP reduces the level of shunt.

Respiratory Physiology VENTILATORY FAILURE Def'n: a pathological reduction in alveolar ventilation below the level required for the maintenance of "normal" arterial blood gas tensions as the normal PaO2 varies considerably with age.5 mmHg the survival limit.3 ± 7. The two large arrows represent the directional changes seen in pure chronic respiratory failure and shunting. the adequacy of ventilation is best defined by the PaCO2 ~ 38. the arterial PaO2 is always less than that expected due to pure ventilatory failure alone Time Course of Changes in Arterial Blood Gases body stores of O2 are small. during the acute phase of hypoventilation. In COAD. in a patient breathing room air. while breathing air. the PaO2 indicates the severity of failure. being ~ 1550 ml on air. the PaO2 may be low while the PaCO2 is still within the normal range during acute hypoventilation. which corresponds to only 6 mins consumption at a basal MRO2 thus. is reached at a PaO2 ~ 20 mmHg and a PaCO2 ~ 83 mmHg the limiting factor is not CO2 but O2. the half time of change ~ 30s in contrast the body stores of CO2 are large. while the PaCO2 differentiates between ventilatory failure and shunt these may of course coexist (see Nunn fig. which it equals at steady state. with changes in VA the PaO2 rapidly assumes its new value. 20. as CO2 production is partly diverted to the body stores 105 . the respiratory exchange ratio may fall far below the respiratory quotient. FIO2 and pulmonary shunt. or 600 mins of the basal output the time course of change for PaCO2 is slower for a reduction of VA than for an increase the half time of rise for PaCO2 ~ 16 mins thus. as further rise is not possible unless the FIO2 is increased in general.1) The oblique broken line represents the changes in alveolar gasses which would result from pure ventilatory failure. being ~ 120 l.

undamped function may result in ventilatory failure Lower Motor Neurones a. poliomyelitis tetanus .affect the phrenic nerve → total apnoea .neoplasia . 106 .vascular catastrophe d. c. c.opiates .all anaesthetic agents .pressure. e. fracture/dislocations above C3-4 fracture/dislocations below C3-4 tumours demyelination syndromes occasionally syringomyelia . b.Respiratory Physiology Causes of Ventilatory Failure Respiratory Centres of the Medulla a. b. this is now rare . trauma .probably ≥ 300 mmHg healthy subject . traumatic interruption inappropriately placed local anaesthetic interscalene brachial plexus blockade stellate ganglion blockade motor neurone disease Guillain-Barré c. d.loss of intercostal muscle activity Anterior Horn Cells a. d. b. impaired medullary blood flow reduction of PaCO2 below the "apnoeic threshold" results in apnoea in the unconscious or anaesthetised patient. but not in the conscious subject a loss of sensitivity to PaCO2 is seen in various types of chronic ventilatory failure. particularly chronic bronchitis and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome Upper Motor Neurones a.though.barbiturates . b. hypoxia marked hypercapnia drugs .

b.open pneumothorax 107 .pulmonary oedema . chest wall disorders Integrity of Chest Wall a. procaine (inhibits synthesis of ACh) Respiratory Muscles a.endotoxin .external compression b.carcinomatosis .kyphoscoliosis .neoplastic infiltration . myasthenia gravis botulism neuromuscular blocking drugs .hypoperfusion/shock .malnutrition.tension pneumothorax/haemothorax . intrapleural disorders c. closed disorders open disorders .Respiratory Physiology Neuromuscular Junction a. Hamman-Rich syndrome .ARDS . c.ascites .intestinal obstruction & distension .organophosphorus insecticides .mesothelioma .increased work of breathing/impedance . wasting diseases .pregnancy . b.obesity .nerve gases d.flail chest .pulmonary fibrosis.extensive burns in children . intrapulmonary disorders . muscle fatigue Decreased Compliance .Lung/Chest Wall a. diaphragmatic splinting .empyema with fibrosis .myopathic diseases b.anaesthetic agents .tension pneumothorax/haemothorax .

anaesthetic apparatus . bronchial wall d.0 l COAD patients tend toward one of two groups. b. extraluminal Ventilatory Capacity vs. tending to maintain a normal. Ventilatory Failure a reduction in ventilatory capacity does necessarily imply ventilatory failure data from Nunn shows no correlation between PaCO2 and FEV1.Respiratory Physiology Airway Resistance a. intraluminal c.dynamic airway obstruction . either retaining or losing their respiratory centre sensitivity to CO2 the later group. an increase in dead space ventilation an increased oxygen cost of breathing → decreased efficiency thus the patient is caught between a decreased MBC and increasing work of breathing the untrained individual can sustain a minute volume of ~ 30% of MBC before dyspnoea occurs initially these two result in a decrease in ventilatory reserve and exercise tolerance eventually.0 over the range 0.hyperreactivity .tumour b.noxious stimuli .severe pulmonary oedema .tumour . a. however decompensate more readily asthmatic patients behave similarly to the former group. or even subnormal PaCO2 until they are no longer able to compensate for the increased work of breathing in chronic ventilatory insufficiency. the maximum ventilatory capacity decreases and the minute ventilation for any given MRO2 increases this is the result of. upper airway .foreign body . the work requirement at rest represents > 30% MBC and the patient become progressively dyspnoeic 108 .laryngospasm .tumour . the onset of acute failure is dependent upon the MRO2 thus these patients tend to self limit their exercise and automatically "tune" their ventilatory pattern to minimise their work of breathing as respiratory insufficiency progresses. often appear less distressed than the former.foreign body .drugs .3 to 1.epiglottitis/croup . relying on hypoxic drive to respiration.sputum retention .

only small increases in FIO2 are required to treat hypoxaemia due to hypoventilation hypoventilation sufficient to result in a PaCO2 ~ 100 mmHg only requires an FIO2 = 0.3 may therefore be regarded as the upper limit of palliative oxygen therapy 109 . dyspnoea is usually more prominent in the "pink puffer" group. than in those who have reduced CO2 response curves though. does not result in significant hypercapnia other factors remaining constant. important though this is. or awareness of difficulty in breathing". neither per se is responsible for the sensation of dyspnoea this arises from the ventilatory response rather than the stimulus itself thus.Respiratory Physiology Breathlessness Def'n: "an undue awareness of breathing.3 to attain a normal PaO2 (see Nunn fig. 20. PaO2 has a more profound effect than PaCO2 diaphragmatic afferent traffic appears to be more important than that from the intercostal group Management of Ventilatory Failure many patients survive with PaCO2 values ~ 60 mmHg above this there is significant impairment of cerebral function. which may in fact rise further thus it is important to ensure that relief of hypoxaemia. mainly due to the mandatory reduction in PaO2 which accompanies any further increase whilst breathing air treatment of chronic insufficiency may be roughly divided into two areas Improvement of PAO2 an increase in FIO2 usually does little to improve ventilation or reduce the PaCO2. who retain their responsiveness to CO2. breath holding is not limited but is affected by arterial gas tensions the sensation terminating breath holding can be relieved by ventilation without an alteration in ABG's though.6) at this level of hypercapnia. the later usually have more profound hypoxia and hypercapnia Campbell and Howell (1963) suggested that a major factor in dyspnoea was an "inappropriateness" between respiratory muscle tension and fibre shortening similarly. however. an increase in FIO2 will result in an equal rise in PaO2 therefore. Campbell & Guz (1981) both hypoxia and hypercapnia may force the patient to breath more deeply. active intervention to increase alveolar ventilation is required an FIO2 = 0.

control of infection and secretions iii. doxapram iii. open/closed pneumothorax vi. correction of gross pathology. stabilisation of the chest wall v. eg. agents available including. bronchodilatation ii. as is the case for other skeletal muscles NB: muscle response to high frequency stimulation is unaltered. which cannot be reduced by other means. optimisation of O2 therapy vii. endotracheal intubation ii. relief of pain iv. i.Respiratory Physiology Improvement of Alveolar Ventilation this is the only means of decreasing the PaCO2 the first line of therapy includes. a PaCO2 ≥ 75 mmHg. theophylline ii. tracheostomy iii. however. the CNS is unable to maintain high frequency output for extended periods (? why) discoordinated breathing. i. acetazolamide (indirect action via pH) the third line includes. medroxyprogesterone iv. avoidance of respiratory depressant drugs the second line includes chemical stimulation of breathing. i. in a patient who is deemed recoverable is generally considered a firm indication artificial ventilation may be required at much lower PaCO2's if there is significant muscle fatigue secondary to the increased work of breathing this is frequently difficult to predict with intense activity the respiratory muscles suffer low frequency fatigue. artificial ventilation | | ↓ VD and better control of secretions there are no absolute criteria for artificial ventilation and many factors need to be considered even so. with thoracic and diaphragmatic movements out of phase is as early indicator of impending failure 110 .

or push-pull active expiratory phase ventilation may be attained by direct pressure to either the trunk or abdomen inspiration then results from the elastic stored energy of the lung and chest wall such ventilation is below FRC. c. it cannot be relied upon to maintain an adequate minute ventilation push-pull ventilation is clearly more effective than either of the above due to the effects of posture. a. and as such cannot be relied upon to guarantee adequate minute ventilation. due to small airways closure and appreciable shunting 111 . b.Respiratory Physiology ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION Def'n: the provision of the minute volume of respiration by external forces. even in the absence of respiratory obstruction tidal exchange takes place in the ERV. a rocking stretcher using phasic tilting 40° either side of the horizontal can achieve a satisfactory minute volume virtually all unconscious patients will have some degree of airway obstruction most of the above techniques require the use of both hands of the rescuer and studies have confirmed that these techniques can only be guaranteed when the trachea is intubated even if minute volume is satisfactory. active expiratory phase active inspiratory phase both. which is considerable reduced in the supine position active inspiratory phase ventilation involves techniques to expand the chest by traction on the arms or hips like the above. when there is impaired function of the patient's respiratory muscles Resuscitation Mechanical Artificial Ventilation until about 1960 most methods involved rescuer manipulation of the arms or trunk of the victim these are classified into those with. there is no guarantee PaO2 will be maintained with ventilation below FRC.

the first clear account appeared in 1796 (Herholdt & Rafn) relies on the rescuer doubling his own minute ventilation the effectiveness is improved by the rescuer's dead space if VD is artificially increased by apparatus dead space. e. and its success depends upon. b.Respiratory Physiology Expired Air Resuscitation some references in the Bible. a. and help prevent hypocapnia in the rescuer this method has virtually completely replaced manual methods. c. b. d. this will improve the composition of "expired air". d. a. though. adequate ventilation for long periods with little fatigue the hands of the rescuer are free to control the airway the rescuer can visually monitor chest expansion the method is extremely adaptable requires minimal expertise and is easily taught the essential features of the technique include.though desirable 112 . the airway must be cleared the rescuer should ~ double his minute volume the first few breaths should be given rapidly alternative variants should be taught (mouth-nose) ancillary apparatus are not essential . c. e.

(IPPV) VT = Pmouth × CT eg.0 kPa × 0. a.5 l/kPa Time Course of Inflation & Deflation equilibration in the above equation will usually take several seconds the rise of mouth pressure is opposed by two forms of impedance.5 s 113 .1. where the time constant is described by. then the regional time constants become the major factor the distribution differs from spontaneous ventilation. b.Respiratory Physiology Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation Inspiration mouth pressure is transiently raised above ambient pressure and the lung is inflated in accordance with its compliance and resistance if inspiration is slow then the distribution is governed solely by regional compliance if fast. τ (tau) = resistance × compliance ~ 1 kPa/l/s × 0. P = δ × CT V resistance to airflow where. in that there is a relatively greater expansion of the rib cage Expiration expiration is passive and differs from spontaneous ventilation only by the absence of residual diaphragmatic tone this may be retarded by the application of positive end-expiratory pressure. PEEP.over page) with normal respiratory mechanics in an unconscious patient. inspiration should be 95% complete in ~ 1.05 l/cmH2O ~ 0. P = Qinstantaneous airflow × Rairway at any instant the inflation pressure equals the sum of the pressures required to overcome these two forms of impedance resistance to airflow assumes laminar flow and a constant airways resistance with a constant inflation pressure (square wave). elastic resistance of the lungs and chest wall where. then the tidal volume will be given by. or by the addition of external resistance to gas flow expiration may be accelerated by the application of a subatmospheric airway pressure = NEEP if the inflation pressure is constant and applied for several seconds. while their sum remains constant (Nunn 21.5 s the increase in lung volume following an exponential wash-in curve.5 l/kPa ~ 10 cmH2O/l/s × 0. 500 ml = 1. the two components vary during inspiration.

it is unusual for equilibrium of lung volume to occur during IPPV.Respiratory Physiology this equates to the time taken to reach 63% of the final volume change may use the half time = 0. and it is common for inspiration to be terminated after 1-2 s.69 × time constant NB: clearly. when the lung volume will still be increasing 114 .

5. 1. but to regional ventilation increasing inflation pressure has a considerable effect on the time taken to achieve a given δ V above FRC this effect is used in the application of an overpressure.5% 95% 98% 99% changes in the inflation pressure do not alter the time constant thus. therefore resistance does not remain constant but varies with flow rate furthermore.2) the changes in volume per time constant are as follows. 3. 2. but the time taken to equilibration will also double changes in resistance do not affect the final volume change. if the compliance is doubled. to increase the inspiratory flow rate and permit a shorter duration of inspiration Deviations from the True Exponential Function airflow is normally partly turbulent. in direct proportion to the change in pressure changes in compliance result in directly proportional changes in both final volume change and the time constant thus. but have direct effects on the time constant changes either directly increase. the half time will be unaltered. Resistance and Compliance these are most easily studied in relation to the effects on a constant pressure curve (Nunn 21. only the final volume change will alter. time constant time constants time constants time constants time constants → → → → → 63% 86. 4. as expiration proceeds the calibre of the airways decreases and there is also a transition from turbulent to more laminar flow as the flow rate decreases approximation to a single exponential function is usually adequate for practical purposes 115 .Respiratory Physiology Effects of Inflation Pressure. so the final volume change will also double. or decrease the time to equilibrium without altering the final volume change NB: these effect apply not only to the lung as a whole.

3.0 seconds Methods of Ventilatory Support 1.usually electrical . with respiratory frequencies from 12-20 bpm it has been demonstrated that there is a substantial increase in the VD/VT ratio if the duration of inspiration is reduced below 1.Respiratory Physiology Patterns of Inflation Pressure there is no convincing evidence of the superiority of any one method. 7. except that the distribution of the inspired gas is improved if there is prolongation of the period during which the applied pressure is maximal this allows better ventilation of "slower" alveoli but is relatively unimportant in healthy lungs the normal means of achieving this is by the addition of an inspiratory pause the two other forms commonly seen are. a. 6.5-3. controlled mechanical ventilation assisted mechanical ventilation inverse ratio ventilation intermittent mandatory ventilation pressure support ventilation proportional assist ventilation airway pressure release ventilation CMV AMV IRV IMV/SIMV PSV PAV APRV 116 . b. time cycling volume cycling pressure cycling limitations on the inspiratory duration are usually a safety precaution the usual insp. 2.0 s there is no evidence that there is any appreciable effect on the PA-aO2 gradient with inspiration in the range 0. 1./expiration ratio varies from 1:1-4.usually mechanical Control of Inspiration this may be achieved by one of three methods. constant flow generators sine wave generators . 5. 2. 4. 3.

i. this is technically more difficult to achieve the simplest technique is to exhale through a preset depth of water. but more convenient techniques involve spring loaded valves. and the FRC will be reset in accordance with the total system compliance in many patients this will shift the tidal range above the closing capacity due to the inverse relationship to lung volume. though. opening of closed alveoli ii. i. in 1965 similar effect are obtained by continuous positive airways pressure CPAP. ARDS some researchers have suggested that the reduction in shunt seen with ARDS is secondary to the reduction in CO resulting from the PEEP lung water there is now good evidence that there is no reduction in lung water the improvement in PaO2 is more likely to be due to. 117 . pulmonary collapse iii. pulmonary oedema ii. lung volumes the end-expiratory alveolar pressure will equal the applied PEEP. and anaesthesia. 4. 3. the reduction in pulmonary shunting which is observed in a large number of conditions is clearly beneficial. or pressure loaded diaphragms Respiratory Effects 1. airways resistance will be reduced the alteration in the relative compliances of the upper and lower regions of the lung may result in a reduction in V/Q mismatch dead space acute application of PEEP does not alter the VD/VT ratio long term application may increase VD due to bronchiolar dilatation arterial PO2 it is unlikely that PEEP improves arterial oxygenation in patients with healthy lungs in abnormal lungs. movement of water into the interstitial compartment / service side of the alveoli iii.Respiratory Physiology Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) a great number of pathological conditions. the reduction in CO and pulmonary shunt 2. result in a reduction in FRC with concomitant disturbance of gas exchange increasing the FRC by the administration of PEEP was first described by Hill et al.

P A patients with diseased lungs tend to have higher transmural gradients and are therefore better protected against the adverse cardiovascular effects of PEEP permeability PEEP increases the permeability of the lung to DTPA. increased pulmonary capillary resistance (RV afterload) ii. pneumothorax modest levels of PEEP result in a negligible increase in the incidence of barotrauma the incidence rises substantially at PEEP ≥ 20 cmH2O 6. suggesting the release of some negative inotrope oxygen flux initially PEEP improves the PaO2 but as the CO falls. decreased left ventricular compliance iii. subcutaneous emphysema ii. cardiac output modest levels of PEEP result in a negligible decrease in CO in patients with diseased lungs there is similarly little decrease up to the level of "best PEEP".Respiratory Physiology 5. a tracer normally unable to traverse the alveolar-capillary membrane this is probably related to volume changes. due to the rise in intrathoracic pressure other contributing factors include. decreased myocardial contractility plasma from patients receiving PEEP will decrease the contractility of isolated myocardial preparations. 118 . pneumomediastinum iii. rather than membrane damage barotrauma the commonest forms attributable to PEEP include. though the level of shunt is reduced the concomitant fall in cardiac output. ie. i. intrapleural pressure PIP is effectively shielded from the applied PEEP by the transmural pressure gradient of the lungs where transmural pressure = transpulmonary = PIP . during anaesthesia. that level which maximises the O2 flux higher levels of PEEP result in substantial reductions of CO the predominant cause being a reduction in right atrial filling. i. so O2 flux also falls the maximum point in the O2 flux curve = best PEEP this point may be extended by enhancement of CO with fluid replacement or positive inotropes 2. the application of PEEP to healthy patients is of little value. with reduction in the Pv'O2 offsets the reduction in shunt Cardiovascular Effects 1. 7.

the compensatory response of the peripheral vascular bed has been found to be only about a half of that required to maintain the BP some suggest that this failure of compensation is the result of inhibition of the cardiac regulatory centres in the midbrain (?? how) interpretation of vascular pressures atrial pressures are normally read relative to ambient pressure.Respiratory Physiology 3. and it is the transmural pressure which determines atrial filling a further problem arises when the tip of the Swan-Ganz catheter lies in the upper regions of the lung the application of PEEP increases zone 1 and the absence of blood flow results is artefactual readings 4. PEEP itself may reduce glomerular filtration this may result from the reduction in arterial and increase in central venous pressures alternatively the reduction in atrial transmural pressure may decrease ANF release ?? PEEP does result in an increased secretion of ADH 119 . arterial blood pressure in a number of studies. relative to intrathoracic pressure they are reduced at higher levels of PEEP. and these will be increased by PEEP however. Renal Effects patients undergoing IPPV frequently become oedematous among other factors.

stated in Nunn) and CXR 120 . the pulmonary interstitial lymph [albumin] ~ 50-70% of plasma the alveolar epithelial cells meet at tight junctions ~ 1 nm wide. but this is confined the "service" side of the capillary. however. and permit the passage of moderately large protein molecules consequently.Respiratory Physiology PULMONARY OEDEMA Def'n: an increase in pulmonary extravascular water. these lie in the potential space around air passages and vessels. though there is no detectable increase in lung water Interstitial Pulmonary Oedema interstitial lung water is increased but there is no passage of fluid into the alveoli microscopically this is detected as cuffing of distended lymphatics around branches of the bronchi and larger pulmonary vessels this produces the "butterfly" shadow on CXR EM shows fluid accumulation in the alveolar septa. and are virtually impermeable to protein (values from DeFouw. leaving the "active" geometry unchanged consequently gaseous exchange is better preserved than might be expected from the increase in lung water physical signs are generally absent and the PA-aO2 gradient small diagnosis is by PAOP (?? how this is done. 1983) the lungs have a well developed lymphatic system lymphatics cannot be defined at an alveolar level. separating them from the lung parenchyma at the hilum these drain into several groups of tracheobronchial lymph nodes virtually all of the drainage from the left. it is possible to recognise four stages with gradual onset these may be identifiable clinically. which occurs when transudation or exudation exceeds the capacity of lymphatic drainage Anatomical Aspects the pulmonary capillary endothelial cells abut one another in a fairly loose fashion gap junctions are ~ 5 nm wide. but are first seen in relation to bronchioles until generation 11. with fulminate disease progression may be obscured there is usually prodromal stage in which lymphatic drainage is increased. and a significant proportion of that from the right enters the thoracic duct the remainder from the right lung enters the right lymphatic duct the pulmonary lymphatics often cross the midline and pass independently into the junctions of the IJ & SC veins the normal lymphatic drainage from human lungs is ~ 10 ml/hr Stages of Pulmonary Oedema irrespective of the aetiology of pulmonary oedema.

the CXR shows a butterfly pattern with interstitial markings and overall opacity alveolar flooding tends to occur in the dependent regions of the lung Airway Flooding this follows extreme alveolar flooding.Respiratory Physiology Crescentic Alveolar Filling interstitial oedema increases and there is passage of fluid into the alveoli this first appears as crescents in the angles between adjacent septa the centre of the alveoli and most of the alveolar walls remain clear gas exchange remains little affected and the PA-aO2 gradient remains small Alveolar Flooding in the third stage there is quantal alveolar flooding some alveoli are totally flooded. the entire PA-aO2 gradient can be attributed to shunt clinically rales are heard. frequently adjacent show only crescentic filling fluid enters the alveoli in a crescentic fashion until a critical radius of curvature is reached surface tension then rises sharply and further fluid is drawn into the alveolus as the transudation pressure gradient rises exponentially this phenomenon is believed responsible for the "all-or-none" filling of individual alveoli clearly no gas exchange can occur in flooded alveoli. blood flow to these regions adding to venous admixture NB: quantitatively there is no requirement to consider altered diffusing capacity. effectively blocks air passages preventing any meaningful gas exchange and is rapidly fatal unless treated 121 . while others.

depending upon the vertical height within the lung field further there is a progressive decrease in P pc from the arterial to the venous end. then into the alveoli the values for Starling's equation for the lung are difficult to measure and there are a wide range of reported values Transudation Across the Vascular Endothelium under normal circumstances the pulmonary lymph flow QL ~ 10 ml/hr the protein content is ~ ½ plasma the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure.5 mmHg π thus. as they do not decrease the total amount of lung water the reflection coefficient for healthy lung. there was no vertical gradient within the lung field the interstitial space and lymphatics can accommodate an increase in water of ~ 500 ml with an increase of pressure of only ~ 1.5 the capillary to interstitium osmotic pressure gradient. and the safety margin for the formation of oedema is considerably less 122 . πpc-πi ~ 11. Ppc ~ 0-15 mmHg.Respiratory Physiology Mechanism of Pulmonary Oedema transudation of intravascular fluid must be considered in two stages first from the microcirculation into the interstitial space. σ ~ 0. there is a small balance favouring transudation this is greater in the dependent regions of the lung. as approximately ½ of the pulmonary vascular resistance lies with the microvascular circulation the above interstitial pressures are those from the dog.5 mmHg the interstitial space compliance increases with larger lung volumes this is considered to be one of the mechanisms by which PEEP or CPAP improve gas exchange in pulmonary oedema. with the lung held at an inflation pressure of 5 cmH 2O there is a gradient from the lung interstitium to the hilum however.

subatmospheric airway pressure NB: in this group the oedema fluid has a protein content which is less than the normal pulmonary lymph (Staub.decreased H2O clearance b. it does appear that transudation across this membrane is essentially zero.vasopressors raised pulmonary venous pressure .anaemia .overtransfusion . e.endotoxin increased pulmonary blood flow . relative pulmonary hypervolaemia . water and hydrophobic substances they are virtually impermeable to albumin and small solutes there are considerable uncertainties about the osmotic pressure of the alveolar lining fluid it has been suggested by Hills (1982) that the alveolar lining is largely dry thus analysis of transudation in terms of a Starling equation is meaningless however.left/right shunt . hypercapnia may result from interference with gas exchange Aetiology of Pulmonary Oedema Increased Capillary Pressure a.atrial myxoma .postural .MV disease .drugs (histamine) . unless a.LV failure (any) . d.dysrhythmias . b. the integrity of the barrier is in someway damaged interstitial pressure exceeds some critical value Pathophysiology the most important physiological abnormality is venous admixture or shunt this results in an increased PA-aO2 gradient and arterial hypoxaemia hypercapnia is seldom a problem in mild to moderate oedema PaCO2 may be normal or subnormal due to increased respiratory drive from hypoxia and J-receptor stimulation if patients with severe oedema are treated with a high FIO2. 1984) 123 . absolute hypervolaemia (Haemodynamic Pulmonary Oedema) .Respiratory Physiology Transudation Across the Alveolar Epithelium the alveoli are freely permeable to gases.rarely exercise c.

reduces anxiety and causes vasodilatation . d. f. is common in seriously ill patients and may contribute significantly to their degree of oedema Lymphatic Obstruction a. b. sitting the patient reduces central blood volume . g. thiazides generally useless ± mechanical ventilation with PEEP vasodilators. direct injury indirect injury NB: in this group the oedema fluid has a protein content which is approaches that of plasma (Staub.Respiratory Physiology Increased Alveolar/Capillary Permeability a.loop agents. oxygen posture morphine diuretics CPAP . DB. b. d. 'neurogenic' re-expansion high altitude diamorphine overdosage .nitrates. infection tumour transplantation / surgical Miscellaneous a. b. b. c. (frusemide) positive inotropic agents . ACE inhibitors.if feasibly.probably results from increased permeability Treatment NB: the single highest priority is to restore the PaO2 a.head injuries. h. c. e.AD. DA ventricular assist devices 124 . c. 1984) *see notes on ARDS Decreased Plasma Oncotic Pressure this is seldom the primary cause of oedema however. cerebral lesions .

which measures pulmonary.99mTcDPTA the normal half life of removal for 99mTcDPTA is 40-100 minutes in the healthy non-smoker this is reduced below 40 mins in a variety of insults. d. PA-aO2 gradient serial CXR's PAOP by Swan-Ganz catheter cardiac hemodynamics via Swan-Ganz catheter loss of gamma-emitter from lung to circulation . e. a. diffuses freely into the interstitium extravascular lung water is then estimated as the difference between these volumes there is still widespread agreement that the method is difficult. b. or central blood volume one indicator is chosen to remain within the circulation. however. due to the high level of accuracy required to measure small changes in lung water thoracic electrical impedance is an alternative approach 125 . it is within the range 10-40 mins in apparently healthy smokers measurement of lung water during life is difficult the only practical method is the double indicator method. c. while the other (usually "coolth").Respiratory Physiology Clinical Measurement the most useful clinical measurements are the.

definitions → presence of a known predisposing condition . 1.trauma . respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation severe hypoxaemia with a high PA-aO2 gradient1 bilateral diffuse infiltration on CXR2 stiff lungs with CT ≤50 ml/cmH2O pulmonary oedema should not be cardiogenic in origin3 the PCWP should not be elevated. however lung biopsy is seldom indicated or advisable there are no diagnostic laboratory tests and the diagnosis is in part by exclusion differences in diagnostic criteria have greatly complicated data on morbidity. 5. mortality and therapeutic efficacy 126 .5 to 1. 4. 6.sepsis NB: there is no agreement on the precise degree of hypoxaemia.0. values ranging from 50-75 mmHg with a FIO2 from 0. (1967) described a condition in adults which was similar to the respiratory distress syndrome of infants the term ARDS was coined by Petty & Ashbaugh in 1971 there is no universal agreement upon the diagnostic criteria actually represents a subset of acute lung injury the essential features include. 2.aspiration 1 PCWP ≤12-18 mmHg . the critical level of hypoxaemia has been defined as 20% of the PiO2 2 early in the disease course either lung may be predominantly affected 3 Lloyd. 3. alternatively.Respiratory Physiology ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME Definition Ashbaugh et al. Newman and Brigham (1984) objected to this as it precluded the diagnosis in patients with pre-existing conditions which raised LAP the histology is usually diagnostic.

CT ≤ 50 ml/cmH2O iii. . * with a FIO2 ≥ 0.pulmonary . VD/VT increased§ pathology: i.laboured breathing 2.usually ≥ 1000 g 127 . exclusions respiratory distress . PaO2 ≤ 50 mmHg ii.late physiology: i. interstitial . fibrosis 3. QS/QT increased§ iv. clinical setting: i. catastrophic event ii.usually 20-30 ml/cmH2O § increased V/Q anomaly 4. * diffuse pulmonary infiltrates CXR: i.non-pulmonary . heavy lungs ii. hyaline membranes iv. congestive atelectasis iii. alveolar .early ii.6 . iii.chronic respiratory disease .Respiratory Physiology Diagnostic Criteria Petty 1.RR > 20 bpm .LV dysfunction .

Pulmonary contusion Gastric / other aspiration Near-drowning Toxic gas / vapour inhalation Certain infections Fat embolus Amniotic fluid embolus Radiation Bleomycin 128 .0 VD increases and normocapnia can only be maintained by a large VM.Respiratory Physiology Clinical Course there are four recognisable clinical phases. 1. the patient is dyspnoeic & tachypnoeic CXR & PaO2 normal usually lasts ~ 24/24 arterial hypoxaemia develops PaCO2 remains normal. the lungs are stiff and PAWP increases artificial ventilation is usually instituted if not already present usually terminal massive bilateral consolidation with unremitting hypoxaemia PaO2 is usually ≤50 mmHg with a FIO2 = 1. 3. 4. not all patients progress through all of these stages and the disease may resolve at any stage serial observations of the CXR and PA-aO2 gradient are the best indicators Direct injury Predisposing Conditions Indirect injury Septicaemia Shock / prolonged hypotension Non-thoracic major trauma Cardiopulmonary bypass Head injury Pancreatitis Diabetic coma Massive blood transfusion DIC Nunn 3rd Ed. or subnormal there are only minor abnormalities on CXR the is an increase in lung water & QT usually lasts ~ 24-48/24 * the above diagnostic criteria are present severe arterial hypoxaemia & a large PA-aO2 gradient develops PaCO2 becomes slightly elevated CXR shows characteristic bilateral infiltrates CT decreases. often 10-20 l/min 2.

3. 1. 3.particularly gram (-)'ve aspiration of gastric contents it is extremely difficult. probably reflecting the different diagnostic criteria in different studies T. 2. being reported as a. 81% by Fein et al. it is unlikely that O2 plays a significant role in pathogenesis there is considerable difference in the reported incidence. b. 4. (1983).9% the major predisposing factors are now agreed to be. and 78% by Fowler et al.particularly with pulmonary contusion massive transfusion .Respiratory Physiology Predisposing Conditions Pepe's group found the highest single risk factor was sepsis syndrome. if not impossible to separate the toxic effects of high FIO2's from the pathological conditions requiring their use however. 5. good agreement on the overall mortality ≤ 50% this tends to be higher in cases which follow septicaemia.2% ~ 11. 1.6% ~ 22. 4. 2. 2. 1. aspiration DIC pneumonia ~ 35. 38% of patients in this group developing ARDS 25% of patients with a single risk factor developed ARDS 42% with 2 risk factors 85% with 3 risk factors Fowler's group found the highest incidence in.Oh: the true incidence is unknown and may only be ~ 7% of "at risk" patients there is. septicaemia DIC multiple trauma . (1983) 129 . 3. however.

Respiratory Physiology Histopathology NB: three stages described The Acute Stage Infiltration this is characterised by damage to the integrity of the blood-gas barrier the changes are not visible by light microscopy EM shows extensive damage to type I alveolar epithelial cells. capillaries may be completely plugged with leucocytes and the underlying endothelium damaged The Sub-Acute or Chronic Stage Proliferation attempted repair and proliferation predominate at this stage there is thickening of the endothelium. together with rbc's and leucocytes bound in an amorphous material containing fibrous strands this exudate may form sheets lining alveoli → hyaline membrane formation intravascular coagulation is common at this stage in patients with septicaemia. alveolar duct and respiratory bronchiole fibrosis 130 . sparing the "active" side this pattern is similar to that observed with cardiogenic oedema protein containing fluid leaks into the alveoli. which effectively destroys alveoli Resolution there is a reduction in the inflammatory infiltrate. the protein rich exudate may organise to produce the characteristic 'hyaline membrane'. with cell junctions seemingly intact endothelial permeability is nevertheless increased interstitial oedema is found predominantly on the "service" side of the capillary. as it also occurs in oxygen toxicity fibrosis commences after about a week and ultimately fibrocytes predominate extensive fibrosis is seen in resolving cases within the alveoli. epithelium and interstitial space type I epithelial cells are destroyed and replaced by type II epithelial cells which proliferate but do not differentiate to type I cells the later are end-cells and cannot divide they remain cuboidal and ~ 10x the thickness of the type I cells this appears to be a non-specific response. which may be totally destroyed the BM is usually preserved and the epithelial cells form a continuous layer.

depression of RV contractility .Respiratory Physiology Pathophysiology lung compliance CL is greatly reduced and is adequately explained by histology it is also likely that there is impaired production of surfactant (Fein et al. 1982) Petty (1979) using BAL showed abnormally aggregated and inactive surfactant FRC is reduced by collapse. LV dysfunction in later stages 131 . tissue proliferation and increased elastic recoil alveolar/capillary permeability is increased as demonstrated by studies of transit times with inert tracer molecules the concept of "non-cardiogenic" capillary leak is oversimplified.increased RV afterload . 1983) . possibilities being. 3. in that MRO2 is usually increased. i. QS is usually so large (≤40%) that a near normal PaO2 cannot be achieved even with a FIO2 = 1. 2. normal LV function elevation of PCWP 4. increased PAP 2. despite the patient being paralysed and artificially ventilated (Sibbald & Dredger. which may exceed 70%.increased RVEDV & RVEDP . C' activation ii.0 the increase in VD . (Start In Phase 1) decreased total pulmonary compliance increased airways resistance increased work of breathing decreased FRC increased respiratory rate & decreased VT (Sibbald.without increased in LVEDV ? ventricular interdependence ? decrease in LV compliance Changes in Haemodynamics 1. fibrinolysis and platelet activation Dankzer et al. 3. 1983) Changes in Respiratory Mechanics 1. 5. and the other to areas of near zero V/Q this was sufficient to explain the PA-aO2 gradient without the need to evoke changes in the diffusing capacity DO2 physiological shunt. 4. one fraction to areas of near normal V/Q ratio. requires large minute volumes in an attempt to preserve near normocapnia it may be argued that attempting normocapnia in these patients is inappropriate management gaseous exchange is further impaired.decreased RVEF ∝ 1/(mean PAP) . (1979) found a bimodal distribution of perfusion.

antagonise the effects of surfactant T. C' activation fibrinolysis and platelet activation NB: however. d. at least in the early stages in all cases.Oh: two possible mechanisms of causation. including albumin but particularly fibrin monomer. a. bacterial endotoxin tumour necrosis factor platelet activating factor (PAF) histamine. both suffer from sparse clinical evidence. a. especially C5a . 1. serotonin.through arachidonic acid derivatives humoral agents include. initiation seems to occur following damage to the alveolar/capillary membrane with transudation often increased by pulmonary venoconstriction thereafter the condition is accelerated by a number of positive feedback mechanisms the initial insult may be either direct or indirect (see table above) much of the interest is in the indirect causes. neutrophils basophils macrophages platelets . 2. e. bradykinin. fibrin and FDP's various chemotactic agents. c. b. Selig and Burhop (1985) drew attention to the fact that many of the humoral agents are capable of producing pulmonary venoconstriction this facilitates transudation caused from increased permeability Seeger et al. and arachidonic acid metabolites O2 free radicals proteases thrombin. noted that a number of proteins.Respiratory Physiology Mechanisms of Causation due to the diversity of causes of the condition. which may be mediated either by cellular or humoral elements cell types capable of damaging the membrane include. C' activation has nonpredictive value and is non-specific FDP-D 'antigen' identified in patients with ARDS and may be a marker of mediator injury (represents thrombosis preceding fibrinolysis) 132 . g. it appears there may be several mechanisms of causation. b. c. f. d. play a major role in the direction of formed elements onto the pulmonary endothelium Malik.

which results in firm adherence of neutrophils to the endothelium C5a results in temporary adherence but more importantly triggers inappropriate release of lysosomal contents to the cell exterior. 2.Respiratory Physiology Neutrophil Mediated Injury the postulated sequence begins with activation of C5a . cf. as occurs during haemodialysis with a cellophane membrane the postulate is that the neutrophils are somehow primed prior to margination this may occur with endotoxin. which results in margination of neutrophils on vascular endothelium this is known to be activated in sepsis and during cardiopulmonary bypass significant margination is seen in many cases of ARDS however. into phagocytic vesicles four groups of substances released in this way may potentially damage the endothelium. O2 derived free radicals proteolytic enzymes (esp. possibly due to a release of arachidonic acid metabolites they may also play a role in the normal integrity of the capillary endothelium (Malik. it seems unlikely they are the sole agent Macrophages & Basophils these have been studied to a far lesser extent they contain a similar array of potentially tissue destructive factors and are already present within the alveoli there numbers are greatly increased in patients with ARDS Platelets these are also present in large numbers in the capillaries of patients with ARDS aggregation at that site is associated with an increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure. margination can occur without significant lung injury. 1985) 133 . elastase) → → lipid peroxidation inactivate α1-antitrypsin direct endothelial damage monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis (elastin fragments) vasoconstriction increased permeability neutrophil chemotaxis intravascular coagulation direct tissue damage 3. platelet activating factors → the role of neutrophils has been studied in depleted animals with conflicting results ARDS does seem less severe in neutropaenic patients. 1. however it still may develop while they possess the capability for tissue damage. Selig & Burhop. arachidonic acid metabolites → 4.

hepatic anabolism . or endogenous pyrogen.PGI2 . fever .T-cell stimulation/activation iii.widespread immune stimulation .antiviral activity . complement .acute phase response ii. serotonin iii. f.T & NK cell stimulation IL-1.septic syndrome. tumour necrosis factor endotoxin others i.marrow & specific colony stimulation iv. IL-1 & TNF .systemic catabolism.hyperdynamic circulation . g.increased capillary permeability e.bronchoconstriction c.vasodilatation .chemotaxis . lymphokines i. interferons .activation of inflammatory response . acts on the pre-optic area of the hypothalamus with subsequent heat production d.B-cell stimulation v.TBXA2 .vasoconstriction . histamine ii.vasodilatation .Respiratory Physiology Mediators a. FDP's 134 . IL-1 & 2 . IL-4 & 6 . prostaglandins leukotrienes . b. IL-3 & CSF's .chemotaxis .

iii. Ventilation aim to maintain adequate oxygenation and reduce peak and mean airway pressure PEEP is almost universally required to maintain an adequate PaO2 it is of no prophylactic benefit but improves survival benefits of PEEP are. Oh 1. iv. 4. T.E. 2. ventilation fluid management cardiac support nutrition physiotherapy other therapies i.not useful for ARDS . 1. methylprednisolone 1-2g ? long-term.patients unresponsive to diuretics with H2O retention ? clearance of mediators of sepsis. 2.C&S. medium MW .pressure controlled ventilation maintenance of an adequate PaO2 minimise pulmonary transudation prevent complications.Respiratory Physiology Principals of Management NB: treatment of primary pathology. 4. 3. 6. see below * only by M. steroids ii. not prophylactic . particularly maintenance of an adequate circulation . reduction in FIO2 improved DO2 increased compliance reduction in atelectasis CPAP antibiotics heparinisation ECMO ultrafiltration . 2.barotrauma 135 . 3. vi. 3. v.sepsis . 5.short burst therapy. 4. other management is essentially supportive no specific therapeutic measure has been shown to significantly reduce the development / progression of the disease there are four main objectives of management (Nunn). 1.

e. recommend values of PCWP ~ 5-10 mmHg formation may be further reduced with the administration of NSA-C. as the plasma albumin is frequently reduced some early work suggested the administration of massive doses of steroids may halt the development of the disease. partial ECMO (ECCO2R) may reduce the mortality in the severe group T. b. Sibbald et al. PG inhibitors anti-TNF anti-LPS Ab antioxidants PG's NB: these are only of prophylactic benefit in animal studies Ibuprofen improves early haemodynamic stability but not mortality 136 . increase in total lung water destruction of surfactant may produce a fall in CO and DO2 normocapnia becomes a lower priority as barotrauma becomes likely HFJV & HFPPV provide no advantage over traditional ventilation.Respiratory Physiology Ventilation hazards of PEEP include. 1981 subsequent work has shown no benefit. lowest QS maximal DO2 PaO2 > 60 mmHg * with lowest FIO2 ≥ 30% maximal improvement in CL < 20% Pharmacotherapy fluid balance should be adjusted to lessen the formation of oedema Fein et al. a. c. or an increased incidence of sepsis and a higher mortality. c. d. c. but there is no improvement in mortality ECMO has shown no proven benefit. d. thus the administration of steroids is not recommended other pharmacotherapy includes. b. b.Oh: the optimal mode of ventilation is unknown the level of optimal PEEP is described using various end-points. a. mortality remains the same (except in children) however. they result in a decrease in mean PIP. a.

Respiratory Physiology Outcome a.70% nosocomial pneumonia .MOSF c. b. associated problems 137 . mortality poor prognosis ~ 50-70% .high PVR .RV dysfunction .unchanged over the last decade .uncontrolled 1° cause .impaired DO2 .high incidence of sepsis syndrome .severe disease .

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