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FARMING OF TILAPIA
Breeding Plans, Mass Seed Production and Aquaculture Techniques
MSc Aquaculture & Management. Bangladesh iii . Research & Planning Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute Mymensingh 2201.G. Mass Seed Production and Aquaculture Techniques M. Hussain BSc Fisheries (Hons).FARMING OF TILAPIA Breeding Plans. UK) Director. PhD Aquaculture Genetics (Stirling.
Bangladesh Price: Taka 300 (Three Hundred) Outside Bangladesh: US$ 15 iv . mass seed production and aquaculture techniques. M.G. Published by Habiba Akter Hussain 55 Kristawpur. Farming of tilapia: Breeding plans. Hussain 2004 Hussain.G.G. 149 p. Dhaka. Mass Seed Production and Aquaculture Techniques First Edition 2004 M. Hussain Printed by Momin Offset Press. Mymensingh 2200 Bangladesh ISBN 984-32-1839-6 Cover and other photos by M.FARMING OF TILAPIA Breeding Plans. 2004.
especially to his wife Habiba Akter Hussain and sons Sazzad Hussain and Ali Hussain without whose love. patience. kindness and encouragement this book could never have been completed v .Dedication The author dedicates this book to his family.
2 3.3 2.1 3.1 1.2 1.2 2.1 Introduction Importance and potential of tilapia species in aquaculture Tilapia species introduction in Bangladesh Performance and potentials of the GIFT strain of Oreochromis niloticus General and reproductive biology of tilapia Taxonomic classification Generic groups of tilapias General biology of Nile tilapia Breeding and reproductive biology of Nile tilapia x xiv xv xvii 1 1 2 3 9 9 9 10 11 Brood stock replacement and breeding plans for 18 tilapia hatchery stocks Brood stock management to avoid genetic stock deterioration Brood stock replacement techniques Breeding plan and genetic stock improvement of tilapia Maximizing the effective population size (Ne) Ploidy manipulation and production of all sterile.4 Chapter 3 3.3 Chapter 2 2.4 Chapter 4 4.3 3.1 2. female and male population Genomic status and determination of sex vii 18 19 20 30 31 31 .Contents List of figures List of tables Preface Acknowledgements Chapter 1 1.
1 53 56 59 61 63 63 .2 4.2 5.2 6.1 6.2.3 5.4 Chapter 7 7.4 Chapter 6 Production of genetically induced all sterile population 4.4 4.3 4.1 Induction of meiotic gynogenesis 4.5 Chapter 5 5.1 Induction of polyploidy Production of genetically induced all female population 22.214.171.124 6.4.1 5.2 Induction of mitotic gynogenesis Production of genetically induced all male population Protocols for chromosome karyopyting Body colour inheritance and development of purebred strains of red tilapia Inheritance of body colour in commercially available strains Importance and problems associated with the present stocks Mechanisms of progeny testing to develop purebred strains of red tilapia Maintenance of purebred brood stock for seed production in the hatchery Development and operation of mixed sex commercial tilapia seed production systems Mixed sex tilapia seed production in ponds Mixed sex tilapia seed production in concrete tanks Mixed sex tilapia seed production in hapas Mixed sex tilapia seed production in rice fields Development and operation of monosex commercial tilapia seed production systems Sex reversal technique for the production of monosex fish fry viii 32 32 38 38 39 42 42 45 45 46 48 51 53 6.
4 8.1 Hatchery design and operation of monosex seed production systems 7.2 Production of YY males and operation of monosex all male seed production system Development and operation of semi-intensive tilapia culture systems Tilapia culture in seasonal ditches and ponds Tilapia culture in rice fields Polyculture of tilapia with carps Tilapia culture in pens Tilapia culture in ponds under commercial farming management Development and operation of intensive tilapia culture systems The suitability of tilapia for intensive culture Tilapia culture in cages Tilapia culture in tanks and raceways 9.3 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Glossary References Index ix .1 Tilapia culture in tanks 9.1 9.2 Tilapia culture in raceways Diseases and parasites of tilapia and their control measures Marketing of tilapia Strategies and prospects of frontier development of tilapia aquaculture 63 66 78 86 86 87 90 91 93 102 102 103 107 108 110 113 121 126 130 134 144 Chapter 8 8.3.5 Chapter 9 9.2.2 All male monosex seed production through inversion of sexes in tilapia 7.2 8.3 8.1 126.96.36.199.2 9.
where the milt and urine are excreted and the anus. where egg passes through Histological section of an ovary shows various stages of development at peak maturation of female Oreochromis niloticus Histological section of a testis shows various stages of development at peak maturation of male Oreochromis niloticus A simple tilapia egg incubation system having a. for the discharge of fecal waste. Genital papilla of male Oreochromis niloticus having two opening. the anus. the urogenital opening. b. plastic water bottles and b.List of figures 1 2 3 4 5 Mozambique tilapia. the urethra for urine passing and the oviduct. Oreochromis mossambicus Nile tilapia. Genital papilla of female Oreochromis niloticus having three openings. medium type of trays connected to the recirculating system Floy tagging underneath the scale below the dorsal fin and above the lateral line of tilapia Plastic numbered tags with nylon thread PIT tagging into the visceral cavity of tilapia x 4 4 5 5 13 6 16 7 16 8 25 9 10 11 28 28 29 . Oreochromis niloticus Red tilapia strain Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain a.
heat and cold shocks 1 – 1. b. a.12 13 14 15 A schematic diagram of inducing polyploids in O. aneuploid metaphase (hyperhaploid or hypodiploid) Purebred red tilapia Impure blotched type tilapia of red phenotype Tilapia fry holding hapas Low cost tilapia breeding and fry rearing tanks Tilapia egg incubation and hatching system model Typical modern monosex tilapia seed production hatchery system in Thailand Tilapia breeding hapas in pond Gathering tilapia breeders at regular intervals for egg collection purpose in the breeding hapa Plastic vowels placed in a bamboo frame for separating the collected fertilized eggs having different colours (based on different age groups) 33 35 35 38 16 44 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 52 52 57 57 68 68 73 73 74 xi . c. triploid (3n = 66). niloticus using pressure.5 L vessel capacity pressure apparatus Thermostatically regulated 50 L capacity water bath A schematic diagram of inducing two types of gynogenesis (meiotic and mitotic) in Oreochromis niloticus using pressure. diploid (2n = 44). heat and cold shocks Metaphase chromosome of Oreochromis niloticus. d. haploid (n = 22).
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 A series of round bottom plastic jars and flat trays for incubating the fertilized eggs/hatched fry with yolk sac Separate flat trays where hatched larvae are kept until their yolk sac resorption stage is over The protocol for preparation and application of hormone mixed feeds for sex reversal of Nile tilapia fry Automatic hormone feed mixing machine The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in the transitory hapas Manual counting of tilapia fry a. Hapas can be installed in the pond and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles for feeding hormone mixed feeds. b. Hapas can be installed and fixed with RCC frame made over the pond for feeding hormone mixed feeds The protocol for feeding of hormone mixed feeds The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the early fry in the nursery hapas The protocol for sex identification in tilapia fry The protocol of producing all male monosex population through the indirect method of sex reversal The monk in a pond A typical layout of a fish arm View of a commercial fish farm 74 75 75 79 79 80 80 81 81 82 82 85 100 100 101 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 xii .
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51
Simple paddle wheel type of aerators set in the ponds for aeration of water to add more oxygen The floating rafts with net cages for intensive tilapia culture The cemented tanks for intensive tilapia culture Race ways for intensive tilapia culture Abdominal dropsy in tilapia Protozoan parasite Chilodonella sp. Protozoan parasite Trichodina sp. Fish lice Argulas sp. Washing of harvested live tilapias in the holding tank with the inflowing cool water before marketing Tilapias in the retailing fish market for the consumers Tilapia is a fish of the decade Tilapia is a good food fish
101 106 109 111 116 117 118 119 123 123 129 129
List of tables
1 Serum calcium concentration and steroid hormone levels in mature female and male O. niloticus. All values are mean ± SE estimated from an equal number (n=10) of fish in each category Inbreeding resulting from some matings between closely related individuals Correlation between effective population size (Ne) and rate of inbreeding in a hatchery Polyploidy induction in various Oreochromis spp. using pressure, heat and cold shocks Gynogenesis induction in various Oreochromis spp. using pressure and heat shocks Formulated feed for feeding tilapia fry in rearing hapas and nursery ponds Formulated feed for feeding tilapia under semi-intensive system in the grow out ponds Available data on tilapia cage culture in different countries Available data on tilapia culture in tanks in different countries 17
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
19 30 37 41 61 98 107 110 112
10 Available data on tilapia culture in raceways in different countries
In the context of declining trends both in inland and marine capture fisheries, aquaculture is the most promising option for increasing fish production. In addition to earning profits, aquaculture can improve the livelihoods and nutrition of the resource-poor rural people in the region. In fact, promotion of aquaculture of Indian and Chinese major carp and shrimp species has taken place for many years in the developing countries of this part of Asia, like Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Although production was promisingly increased especially for carps through adoption of improved technologies, but these could not be diversified out of freshwater areas. On the other hand, mass involvement of rural people in carp and shrimp culture was found difficult due to their limited water resources and financial incapability in many cases. Like Thailand and Vietnam, recently farming of riverine catfish (Pangasius sutchi) has dramatically increased in Bangladesh. However, feed crisis and low market prices have severely damaged the progress of farming of this fish in the country. On the other hand, improved extensive shrimp culture is in collapse due to disease outbreaks in recent times. Under such conditions, a large number of commercial catfish and shrimp producers are looking for alternative species to culture in their farms to maximize the production. Of the available farmed species, tilapias are among the best candidates to overcome the situation due to their desirable characteristics like ease of seed production, high yield, disease resistance and efficiency of growing well with organic and agricultural wastes and low cost feeds. In spite of the promising future of tilapia farming in Bangladesh, it took a long time to realize the fact, due to some negative attitudes of the respective organization(s) and decision makers. Although the best tilapia farming species like Nile tilapia (Oreochronis niloticus) was introduced in this country in 1974, but it was not clear that the species is highly potential and productive for suitable water bodies until the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI) discovered the truth through introduction of GIFT strain (1994) and subsequently conducted intensive research and developed the super strain of GIFT. Tilapia farming is gaining popularity day by day in Bangladesh and a number of entrepreneurs have already initiated its hatchery development
It has been felt that very little readily available information on farming practices of tilapia is available in Bangladesh and elsewhere in this region. Hussain xvi . special emphasis has been given to simple techniques for design and operation of mixed and monosex mass seed production systems. Chapter 9. I have tried my best to invest my knowledge on the subject in compiling the best information on tilapia farming in this book. progressive farmers. a note on future strategies and prospects of frontier development of tilapia aquaculture is highlighted. Therefore. entrepreneurs. brood stock replacement and development of outbred and genetically improved hatchery stocks of tilapia in the Chapter 1. This book highlights the importance of tilapia species in aquaculture. general and reproductive biology of tilapia. All these chapters are designed for progressive fish farmers and entrepreneurs. the performance of the GIFT strain of Oreochromis niloticus. female and male populations in tilapia and production of purebred red tilapia strains are detailed in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 . which I believe will be useful as a guide to hatchery operators. Detailed development and operation of semi-intensive systems. Finally in Chapter 12. M. stock improvement. In Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. Simple classical biotechnological tools to develop genetically induced all sterile. disease and parasites of tilapia and their control measures and marketing of tilapia are presented respectively in Chapter 8. intensive systems of tilapia culture. an attempt has been made to prepare a comprehensive handbook and publish it initially in English for the national and international readers. Chapter 10 and Chapter 11. researchers and planners developing programs for simple breeding. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3.for commercial mixed and monosex seed production and farming in different parts of the country.G. mass seed production and various aquaculture techniques of the fish in Bangladesh and elsewhere in Asia where tilapias are being used for promotion of aquaculture.
M. Yong Kim Thai. are greatly acknowledged. Thailand guided me to collect information and design of monosex tilapia hatchery from private tilapia hatchery entrepreneurs of several provinces in Thailand. Dr.V. Ponzoni. Dr. R. I am also indebted to Mr.Acknowledgements The author wishes to acknowledge the kindness of all of his good friends and colleagues. She also provided a number of her diagrams and photographs for this document. E. Dr. Prof. Kohinoor and Mr. Karim.M. S. R. Poultry and Dairy Farms Ltd. Dr. Dunham.I. National Aquaculture Genetic Research Institute. M. A. David J. Penman. Dr. B.V. M. R.M. NIRIBILI Group. A. McAndrew.A. xvii . C. Nuanmanee Pongthana. Scotland. These persons are: Dr. Sarder. Managing Director of PKPS Farm Mart. Drs.H. Fish Genetics and Reproduction Research Group. Dr. Malaysia for his kind permission to use some of his farm photographs in this book. Alam. Selangor. Dr.S. Muktagacha Fisheries. materials and photographs for use in this book. Dr. Mair. who provided a wealth of information and critically reviewed and improved the first draft of the manuscript. Shubra Hatchery Group. Dr. Islam. Institute of Aquaculture. Above all my thanks go to Dr.J. G.W. All the assistance and support from the tilapia hatchery and farming entrepreneurs of Bangladesh viz.E. A. Mazid. Pullin. Eknath. J.A. Director General of Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute for his kindness to allow me for using many materials from the institute library and stations including his valuable suggestions and encouragement. Dr. Dr. Hoq assisted and formulated the overall design of the book. who have provided information. Dr. and Riliance Aqua Ltd. the former Director. Dr. R. Stirling University. Gupta.J. M. Dey. M. Bismillah Hatchery Group. Wahab. Janssen. I owe my greatest debt to my lovely wife Habiba Akhter Hussain (Koli) for her continuous support and encouragement until the completion of this book. Special thanks are due to Dr.
647 mt). SE Asia.724 mt). blackchin tilapia (S. In recent years. longfin tilapia (O. commercial farming of several species of tilapia has become a common practice in aquaculture throughout several regions of the world such as China. effective management of reproduction is the primary factor that has been instrumental in the realization of their aquaculture potential in the later half of the 20th century (Shelton 2002). 450 mt) are the major tilapia producing countries in Asia (Guerrero 2002). andersonii). A total of about 70 species of tilapia have been so far listed as native to Africa (Anon 1984). Blue tilapia (O. the major aquaculture industries at present are in Asia. 800 mt in 2000. Only a few species are suitable and popular for farming in ponds and other culture systems.899 mt tilapia were produced in Asia in 1999 of which 62. Africa. Although the important natural tilapia genetic resources are in Africa. 500 mt in 1950 to 1.930 mt) and Sri Lanka (31. After that the tilapia species were spread over most of the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Indonesia (86. Philippines (99. macrochir).Farming of Tilapia 1 1. About 989. aureus). Thailand (151. Other countries like. the total world production of tilapias (wild and aquaculture) has increased from 37. farming of tilapias in ponds was introduced after Second World War. According to FAO.1 Introduction IMPORTANCE AND POTENTIAL OF TILAPIA SPECIES IN AQUACULTURE Tilapias are a group of “Cichlid” fish native to African countries. tilapias were wild fish in the great lakes and rivers of that continent. mossambicus). three spotted tilapia (O. 265. which include Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). While widespread introductions have provided the mechanism for expansion of tilapia culture. In the early days of the 20th century.6% came from China. Mozambique tilapia (O. USA and Latin America/Caribbean (Vannuccini 1998). Galilee tilapia (Sarotherodon galilaeus). In the central African countries. .
In the First International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture (May 1983. Israel) Drs. Above all. Mozambique tilapia. mossambicus (Figure 1) was the first species. There are also some genetically improved strains such as Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). which being grown on commercial farms in 100 countries of the world from extensive to super-intensive. It remains to be seen whether the “food fish of the 21st century” will surpass production of the carps in aquaculture during the new millennium (Fitzsimmons 2000). producers 2 . As a result. red tilapia strains and hybrids. once considered a low value fish. The fish did not flourish and proved to be a pest due to its early maturation and prolific breeding habits in the ponds. Liao and Chen concluded that “Tilapia is no longer an African fish but an International fish. While the former is still used to produce hybrids.2 TILAPIA SPECIES INTRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH Among tilapias. niloticus has been recognized as the prime domesticated species for farming in a wide range of aquaculture systems from simple waste-fed fishponds to intensive culture systems (ICLARM 1991). has in recent times gained wider consumer acceptance and is now considered an attractive menu item in chain restaurants”. Tilapia has also been described as the important aquaculture species of the 21st century. O. It is believed that in the future it may become the most important fin fish in the world”. which was introduced into Bangladesh from Thailand in 1954. he suggested concentrating research efforts on the Blue tilapia and Nile tilapia. Vannuccini (1998) stated “Tilapia. 1. Nazareth.Farming of Tilapia melanotheron) and redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zillii). it has been effectively left behind as the Nile tilapia (O. O. Pullin (1983) compared the attributes of various species with culture potential. niloticus) has taken the lead as the principal species (cited by Shelton 2002). only suitable for the ethnic market.
G. Dewan brought a batch of this red strain of tilapia to Bangladesh from the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT). the synthetic GIFT strain was reported to show on an average 60% faster growth and 50% better survival at harvest than the most commonly farmed strain in the Philippines. O. In 1974. was introduced into Bangladesh from Thailand through UNICEF. a hybrid between albino O. Thailand. Under the Dissemination and Evaluation of Genetically Improved Tilapia in Asia (DEGITA) project of WorldFish Center (Formerly ICLARM). During the 1970’s a renewed interest in tilapia culture developed in some Asian countries including Bangladesh with the introduction of Nile tilapia. a research project was initiated in Bangladesh. niloticus (Figure 2). was developed in Taiwan and introduced into Thailand. Overall performance of Nile tilapia and other fast growing tilapias have proved that they are no longer pests but have come to be known as “aquatic chicken”.Farming of Tilapia and consumers regarded the fish as “nuisance fish”. O. 1993). in 1987. Hussain and S. also from Thailand. Meanwhile. 1. M. Thailand and Vietnam under the auspices of a WorldFish Center's project entitled "Dissemination and Evaluation of 3 . the Chitralada strain of Nile tilapia. niloticus (Eknath et al. formerly FRI) initiated the second introduction of the fish in this country. another promising Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain (Figure 4). a synthetic strain of O. Bangkok. a red mutant tilapia (Figure 3). the 'Israel’ strain (Eknath 1992). was introduced in July 1994 from the Philippines. China. a promising farmed species. For evaluating this strain in other countries of Asia. In on-station trials. In 1988 Drs. niloticus.3 PERFORMANCE AND POTENTIAL OF THE GIFT STRAIN OF OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS The GIFT strain was developed by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) through several generations of selection from a base population involving eight different strains of Nile tilapia. The Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI. niloticus. mossambicus x O. Philippines.
Oreochromis niloticus. 5558)". Asian Development Bank (ADB) Technical Assistant Grant Project: RETA No. 4 . Fig 2 Nile tilapia.Farming of Tilapia the Genetically Improved Tilapia in Asia (DEGITA. Fig. 1 Mozambique tilapia. Oreochromis mossambicus.
5 . 3 Red tilapia strain. Fig. 4 Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain.Farming of Tilapia Fig.
15 to 20% higher yield than that of the Chitralada strain of Thailand. comparative growth and production potential of GIFT and existing Nile tilapia strains (O.05) higher (52%) than that of the existing local strain.966 kg/ha/6 months. in on-station conditions.4±2. and therefore. Trishal.e. Chandina. In on-station ponds.Farming of Tilapia 1. Thailand and Vietnam. the possibility of both natural and artificial selection of local strains to their environments. The growth performance expressed as least square mean (LSM) values of body weight at harvest of individual strains across different environments revealed that GIFT was consistently better performing than the existing strain. hapas. and 18 to 40% higher yield in comparison to the local strains of Vietnam. The average gross production of GIFT and existing strains were estimated at 4.411 and 2. net cages and growout ponds) and six multi-locational sites (i. in on-farm conditions. niloticus) was evaluated both under onstation and on-farm conditions. In multi-locational on-farm trials in ponds. On the other hand. Manikganj. China. where there are longer histories of tilapia farming.e. greater climatic variation. nursery systems. Indonesia. the GIFT strain gave about 15 to 25% higher yield than the other strains like ‘1978’ introduced. the average production of the GIFT strain per unit area in the on-farm conditions was also found to be significantly (P<0. In other DEGETA countries viz. niloticus strains was assessed in five test environments (i. respectively.05) than that of the existing strain. Paikgacha. Total yield of the GIFT was significantly higher (57% more. cisterns. Comparative production performance of GIFT and existing O.1 Growth and production performance In Bangladesh.3±2.4 g. 6 . Jessore Sadar and Mithapukur) respectively under on-station and on-farm conditions (Hussain et al. at harvest. P<0. 2000). ‘1988’ introduced and hybrid strain of China. the GIFT strain appears to be about 10-15% superior to local strains in terms of growth (Dey 1996).3. the mean final weights of GIFT and existing strains were 134.4 g and 85. respectively.
personal communication). 1.9% cumulative weight gain. Subsequently.0 % genetic gain in growth performance was attained by the F1 generation over the non-selected control group. The F2. further stock improvement has also been initiated using selective breeding technique.Farming of Tilapia 1.8%. niloticus is being presently widely used for mono sex seed production in a large number of tilapia hatcheries in Thailand (Dr. Evaluation of growth performance was carried out through comparative trials between selected and non-selected average control (existing stock of GIFT) groups. over three generations. proved to be very suitable fish for aquaculture in Bangladesh and other DEGITA countries.2 The suitability of GIFT strain for seed production and aquaculture The GIFT strain has. F3 and F4 selected generations attained 2. meanwhile.3. The weight gain values of 4th generation of 7 . respectively. Nuanmanee Pongthana.9%. 12. The average gain per generation across four generations of selection for growth performance in weight was estimated 6. The desirable characteristics of this genetically improved strain are as follows: • • • • • • • High yielding Excellent breeder Efficient converter of organic and agricultural wastes in to high quality protein Resistant to disease Very hardy Tolerant to over crowding conditions Able to grow in either fresh or brackish water The GIFT strain of O.5% and 6.3. A 5.3 Further genetic selection and development of superior strain BFRI has been maintaining the gene pool of pure GIFT strain since its introduction and has enhanced the stock by introduction of new generations from the Philippines in 1996.
8 . fecundity and disease resistance) the new strain can be termed as Super Strain of GIFT (ie. The new super strain is gaining popularity day by day in Bangladesh and a number of entrepreneurs have already initiated its hatchery development for commercial mixed and monosex seed production and farming in several regions of the country. tilapias have yet to be farmed widely in Bangladesh.Farming of Tilapia the selected group showed 27. because interest in tilapia farming is growing due to its success in other Asian countries and increasing consumer acceptance (ADB 2004). Due to excellent performances for growth and other relevant traits (survival. BFRI Super GIFT).3% superiority over the non-selected GIFT control. To date.
Farming of Tilapia 2 General and reproductive biology of tilapia TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATION 2. E.g. e. zillii.2 GENERIC GROUPS OF TILAPIAS The fishery scientists and taxonomists change the generic names of tilapias from time to time on the basis of research on their various characters but mainly by spawning and breeding behaviors. According to Trewavas (1983) the three main distinct generic groups of tilapias are as below: • Genus Tilapia: Includes those species which are substrate spawners and do not keep the eggs in the mouth for incubation. a Senior Tilapia Taxonomist of British Museum (Natural History) made a thorough review of natural history of African cichlid species in her book “Tilapiine Species” and showed the basis for distinguishing Tilapia. Sarotherodon and Oreochromis as genera.1 Tilapias are predominantly freshwater finfishes often some species characterized with nest building and surface or mouth brooding habits. Trewavas. Dr. The taxonomic classification of the Nile tilapia is given below: Phylum: Subphylum: Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Common name: Chordata Vertebrata Osteichthyes Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus Nile tilapia 2. T. 9 .
• 2. usually these scales remain around 31-33. and females come to find spawning partners. mossambicus.Farming of Tilapia • Genus Sarotherodon: Includes those species which are mostly paternal mouth brooders and sometimes eggs and hatched larvae are brooded by both parents. which are available just on the lower part of the first arch. Scales in lateral line series are 30-34. The numbers of gill-rakers are 20 –26. .1 Distinguishing characters Body elongate and deep. the body colour of the males is more attractive than females. Number of dorsal spines are 17.3. niloticus.g. O. which is brighter in male.g. 2. covered with moderately large scales. e. Both sexes at breeding time show red flush on the belly and lower flanks.0. The suitable ranges of water quality parameters under which the fish can survive well are: • • 10 Water temperatures 12 to 35 oC.5 – 8. S. melanotheron. the dorsal and caudal fin margins of the males become bright red. Caudal fin covered with narrow vertical stripes. the upper margin of dorsal fin black or gray. S. O. galilaeus. In particular.2 Tolerance to ecological conditions The Nile tilapia. e. is a very hardy fish and can thrive a wide range of aquatic ecological conditions from purely freshwater to brackish or semi saline waters.3.3 GENERAL BIOLOGY OF NILE TILAPIA 2. pH 6. Genus Oreochromis: Includes those species which are exclusively maternal mouth brooders. O. In this group the males construct and defend a mating territory in an arena with other males in adjacent terrirories. aureus. Unlike other cichlid fish.
2. The young fry are omnivorous.3 Growth In tropical pond waters under semi-intensive culture management. It is reported that the males become 20 – 30% heavier in weight in comparison to the females (Hussain and Kohinoor 2003).0 mg/l.0 – 8. hydracarines and various insects. weights 4-7 kg. the Nile tilapia can grow to 150 – 250 g in 4 to 6 months.Farming of Tilapia • • Dissolve oxygen 2. several scientists (Worthington and Ricardo 1936. both aquatic larvae and terrestrial insects that fall on the water (Trewavas 1983).25 ppt. 11 . In the great lakes of Africa. 500 to 800 g in 10 to 12 months and 2 – 3 kg in 2 years. It grows well on artificial feeds.3. 2. actively pursuing copepods. The males are larger than females. Lowe-McConnell 1958) recorded maximum sizes of 61. Salinity 3 .4. 4 BREEDING AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF NILE TILAPIA 2.1 Breeding habit and natural spawning (a) Sexual dimorphism Sexual dimorphism is common in Nile tilapia.64 cm.4 Food O. niloticus is capable of using a wide range of food materials from tiny plankton (phytoplanton and zooplankton) to macrophytes.3. 2.
(d) Nest building for natural breeding For natural breeding males build nests on the substratum in shallow regions of stagnant water bodies/ ponds to attract the females for spawning. (c) Sexual maturation of brood fish The Nile tilapia sexually matures at the age of 3 months.3 meter in diameter and 0. When a mating partnership is finally settled. (e) Mating and spawning activity In most of the tilapia species. The female spawns in the nest after a short mating ritual. the urogenital opening. it breeds from February to November when water temperatures remain around 22 – 30 oC.Farming of Tilapia (b) Morphology of sexual organs The genital papilla of male is larger than that of the females and has 2 openings (Velasco 2003a). The female has a flatter and shorter papilla with 3 openings. when it attains a body weight of around 40 – 60 g (Hussain 1989). the urethra (for excretion of urine) and the oviduct.1 to 0. the anus. In particularly the males are more active to exhibit their secondary sexual characteristics (i. During the spawning the female shows the movement of touching the bottom of the nest and the 12 . erection of fins and body colour patterns) to attract the females. where eggs pass through (Figure 5b). The nest has a circular shape with a depression from 0. They choose partners of more or less same age group. where the milt and urine are excreted and the anus.e. for the discharge of fecal waste (Figure 5a). the selected female is allowed to enter to the nest. prespawning courtship behavior between males and females is observed. In Bangladesh. It is also recorded that the nest is about twice the length of the male making it (Hussain 1989).3 meter deep.2 to 0.
the urethra for urine passing and the oviduct. for the discharge of fecal waste. Genital papilla of male Oreochromis niloticus having two opening. the urogenital opening. In view of mouth brooding the female picks up the fertilized eggs in to her mouth. where egg passes through.Farming of Tilapia erected conical genital papilla fully descends to deposit the ovulated ova (unfertilized eggs) in batches (30 – 60 eggs/batch). Ova deposition and fertilization activities occur over a period of up to 2 – 3 hours. b a Fig. 5 a. b. Genital papilla of female Oreochromis niloticus having three openings. The male ejects milt over the eggs to effect fertilization immediately after deposition of each batch of eggs by the female (Chen 1976). where the milt and urine are excreted and the anus. It is reported that the females subsequent to ovulation attract the partner males through releasing sexual pheromones (Velasco 2003a). the anus. 13 .
14 . It means that absolute fecundity in this species is inversely correlated with the weight of sexually mature females (Velasco 2003a).3 – 2.) 45-50 hrs.8 mm in length. a.5-3.f. and 2. 12 – 14 days a. which might need another 6–10 days.f.Farming of Tilapia (f) Fecundity The colour of ripe and fertilized eggs is pale yellow orange. It is reported that as the weight of GIFT strain O. (g) Mouth brooding and development of fertilized eggs and embryos The Nile tilapia is maternal mouth brooder. 6-10 days a.f.01g and after this stage they are able to take natural or artificial feeds and move easily in the surrounding waters and do not need any parental care. after fertilization (a.0-2. niloticus embryonic development there are five easily observed developmental stages (Hussain 1992): • • • • • Morula stage: Pigmentation stage: Hatching stage: Yolk sac resorption stage: First feeding stage: 6-8 hrs. so the female immediately takes the fertilized eggs into her mouth for incubation. depending on the size and age of the female.0 mm x 1. they are ovoid in shape and the size ranges between 1. In O. The weight of first feeding tiny fry of Nile tilapia is about 0. the number of eggs decreases.0 mm in diameter. The fecundity fluctuates widely from a few hundred to several thousand eggs.f.f. a. niloticus increases to a range of 180 – 498 g. Hatching of eggs take place after 70–90 hours in the mouth at 28±1oC and the female holds the hatched larvae and gives parental care until the swim up stage. 70-90 hrs.
On the other hand. In the female fish. prominent urogenital papilla etc. The process of sperm development starts in the males with the spermatogonia. high-energy yolk (vitellogenin) deposition occurs in the growing oocytes.3 Endocrine hormone profiles In the process of sexual maturation and gonad development in the fish including tilapia. are also controlled by these sex steroid hormones. Various stages of germ cell development are visible in testicular section at maturation (Figure 7). 17β-oestradiol. Sumpter and Bromage 1987).Farming of Tilapia 2.4. niloticus (Figure 6). The yolk precursor is believed to be synthesized during the vitellogenesis phase of ovarian growth under the influence of oestrogenic control (ie. testosterone. early egg development starts with the oogonia. each of which gives rise to secondary spermatocytes and then to spermatozoa or mature sperm. A histological section of an ovary shows various stages of development at peak maturation of female O. testosterone 15 . spermatogonia develop to primary spermatocytes. then primary oocytes which give rise to secondary oocytes. vitellogenin production is normally stimulated by 17β-oestradiol hormone). Normally in female fish egg yolk is derived from a precursor of lipophosphoprotein-calcium complex called vitellogenin. The secondary oocytes complete such yolk deposition by the process of vitellogenesis and remain as mature oocytes in the ovary for a variable period of time until their final maturation or ovulation. During the pre-ovulatory period.4. released into the blood and finally sequestered by the oocytes by means of a receptor-mediated endocytotic process (Tyler. 11-ketotestosterone etc.2 Process of gonad development In Nile tilapia development of gonadal products (eggs and sperms) is a short process. 2. bluish fins with reddish margins. Development of secondary sexual characteristics such as bright and shiny body colour. the most vital role is played by the endocrine hormones like vitellogenin. which is synthesized by the liver.
Fig. 7 Histological section of a testis shows various stages of development at peak maturation of male Oreochromis niloticus.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 16 . 6 Histological section of an ovary shows various stages of development at peak maturation of female Oreochromis niloticus.
46±0. examining their urogenital papilla can easily differentiate sex. Serum calcium concentration (index of vitellogenin) and sex steroid hormone levels in sexually matured female and male O. vitellogenin and all other sex steroid hormones have interlinked functions to regulate oocyte maturation. Sexes Female Male Serum Ca++level -1 (mg 100 ml ) 34. an alternative aceto-carmine squash technique can be used (see Chapter 7). Similarly in male fish sex steroid hormones also regulate more or less the sexual maturation and development of testicular products (ie.0 37.012.5 17-β-oestradiol (ng ml-1) 0.28±6. 17 .Farming of Tilapia hormone acts as precursor in oestrogen synthesis. In this species the overall sex ratio does not generally differ from the expected 1:1 ratio. Serum calcium concentration and steroid hormone levels in mature female and male O.0 Hussain et al.4. Ultimately.54±2.5 Testosterone (ng ml-1) 39.07±17. niloticus brood stock and fish larger than 20-30 g. 1995) and the data are presented in Table 1.3 16. niloticus have been determined respectively by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry and radioimmunoassay techniques (Hussain et al.45±12. niloticus.3 0.07±7.4 Sex ratio In normal O. All values are mean ± SE estimated from an equal number (n=10) of fish in each category. semen and sperm). In small fish (3-5 g size) where manual sexing is not possible. Table 1.1 82. (1995) 2.2 11-ketotestosterone (ng ml-1) 0.
which ultimately leads the subsequent generations to become stunted and undesirable. poor survival etc. The most detrimental problem associated with the growing population. Therefore. in a small-scale seed production system of tilapia inbreeding will be common because of the mating of close relatives as in most cases female and male breeders are chosen from the finite population. increased incidence of deformities. A short generation time and essentially uncontrolled reproduction make tilapia susceptible to inbreeding. On the other hand. Inbreeding depression makes a stock having the characteristics of reduced growth rate. Inbreeding tends to increase the homozygosity across all loci fixing some alleles while others are lost (Mair 1999).1 As it is an established fact that the main drawback of all the existing commercial tilapia strains is their precocious maturation and short cycle habit of reproduction in pond conditions. 18 . loss of fecundity. a good brood stock management practice in a hatchery or seed production system of tilapia is essential to avoid inbreeding and other related genetic stock deterioration aspects.Farming of Tilapia 3 Brood stock replacement and breeding plans for tilapia hatchery stocks BROOD STOCK MANAGEMENT TO AVOID GENETIC STOCK DETERIORATION 3. Such genetic stock deterioration will undoubtedly be a critical problem for tilapia seed production. Such uncontrolled inbreeding often leads to the loss of genetic variability and other deleterious consequences known as inbreeding depression. as they rapidly become poor genetic material due to inbreeding of stocks for poor brood stock management.
0 12. A tilapia hatchery operator should maintain at least 500 brood fish (more or less equal number of females and males) per generation as a standard population size for breeding. personal communication).5 6.Farming of Tilapia Table 2. A pair of female and male breeders (1:1 ratio) are stocked in each breeding hapa.5 12. 19 . Raul Ponzoni. Mating between breeding stocks Full sibs Parent offspring Half sibs Uncle-niece First cousins Unrelated Inbreeding rate at 1st generation (%) 25. The mating protocol should be devised in such a way that will reduce the chances of declining genetic variation between pairs. For brood stock replacement a simple protocol should be developed and maintained to ensure that each pair of breeders will contribute only once to the next generation.5m x 1 m). The steps of the protocol is furnished below: • • • • Required numbers of founder stock need to be collected from a known source (either from BFRI or from it’s regional stations/sub-stations) and reared in the holding tanks/ponds until maturity.0 3.0 25. Brood stock should be transferred and kept separately by sex in two transitory hapas (size 8 m x 2. Ne)” supported by standard reference stocks/strains will be the main principle of the tilapia breeding plan in a hatchery. Inbreeding resulting from some matings between closely related individuals (Dr. Before stocking at least 80 to 100 breeding hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m) need to be set in a pond.5 0.2 BROOD STOCK REPLACEMENT TECHNIQUES Use of a high ‘effective population size (ie.
chromosome manipulation. cross breeding. first feeding fry stage (in farmer’s condition. Fry need to be grown up to 30 – 40 g size in the same hapa by reducing their numbers 40 – 50 fingerlings/m3. alternatively fry produced in the hapas can be collected at fortnightly interval by scooping them from the inside or lifting up the bottom). the larvae are shifted to a series of trays and kept until their yolk sac resorption stage i. at least 200 fry from each progeny family will be transferred to separate nursery hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m). This will be done to ensure the equal contribution of each breeding pair to brood stock replacement as well as to maximize the effective population size (Ne). In a well-designed 20 . Immediately after hatching. 3.Farming of Tilapia • • • • • • • It is necessary to check the mouth of all the stocked fish in each hapa 10-14 days interval to collect the fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac in view of their artificial incubation. Fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac that have been collected from the mouth of each female fish will be kept separately and incubated family wise in plastic jars. gene transfer and selective breeding. hybridization.e. mouth checking is not necessary. sex reversal (including YY-male technology). a number of advanced genetic techniques are presently available viz. From each progeny group at least 5 females and 5 males should be selected as reference stock by manual sexing and shifted them for brood stock replacement.3 BREEDING PLAN AND GENETIC STOCK IMPROVEMENT OF TILAPIA In view of enhancing productivity of aquaculture species including tilapia. None of these techniques are suitable for continuous improvement of desired traits of a population except selective breeding. in that case. Subsequently. if the egg/larvae incubation system is not available. Selective breeding is a long-term continuous strategy to improve the production performance and quality of tilapia (WorldFish Center 2004).
The base population requires a large effective population size with a large number of breeders. In this way. the rate of selection response. fecundity. genetically superior individuals can be developed per generation. 21 . depends on the additive genetic variation present in the breeding population and the intensity of selection (WorldFish Center 2004). Such superior and outbred stocks may be of benefit to breeding and aquaculture by increasing growth rate. The success of this phenomenon is dependant on the base population. survival and disease resistance of commercially important tilapia species/strains.3.1 Development of the base population It is worthy to mention here that a breeding population has every chance of attaining genetic gain every generation if they are produced through a planned selective breeding. which might need to develop or maintain huge tilapia reference stocks. The rationale of this stock development/maintenance is to form a heterogeneous. heritability and genetic variability of all traits can be increased to a maximum level and inbreeding depression can be kept to a minimum (Hussain and Mazid 2001). then it will be wonderful to improve a stock with desirable traits and high genetic variation. the tilapia hatchery operators have a chance to collect and maintain superior brood stock and mate them accordingly. therefore. If the selective breeding technique can be added with brood stock replacement program. 3. which needs to have high additive genetic variation.Farming of Tilapia selective breeding program the pedigree of brood fish can be monitored to increase the accuracy of selection and to restrict inbreeding. outbred and broad genetic base in the population at the beginning of the selection program. In the process of selective breeding. Through adopting brood stock replacement program as described above.
2%. (2002) reported that in silver barb the average gain per generation across two generations of selection for growth performance in weight was 7.0%) over the non-selected control group. (1996) an assumed heritability for body weight of about 0. the genetic gain in the progeny should be about 15 to 17% per generation compared to the mean of parent generation. any one can be followed for genetic stock improvement. Several authors found this to be a useful selection strategy for genetic improvement of commercially important fish stocks.2% superiority (average genetic gain per generation across four generations of selection was 6. Similar performance was also attained by Super Strain of GIFT (derived from pure GIFT strain through several generations of genetic selection) in Bangladesh. growth.3.3 and assumed coefficient of variation of 30%.Farming of Tilapia 3.g. Hussain et al. Schom and Baily (1986) reported that mass selection of brood stock in subsequent generations improves the chances of genetic gains through the accumulation of favorable alleles/traits with high genetic variability in the population. viz. shape and colour) that are recorded on the living fish. as shown in many fish species. where the weight gain values of fifth generation of the selected group showed 31. Mass selection is normally used to improve phenotypic traits (e. The most important step to be considered by the hatchery operators in mass selection strategy is that in every generation at least 5-10% bestselected breeders should be collected and used for breeding program for 22 . Eknath et al. (b) Family selection and (c) Combined selection.2 The selection methods In tilapia breeding program among three selection methods. (1998) showed about 15% additive genetic gain in the GIFT strain though five generations of selection. According to Bentsen et al. Mass selection as an initial method of choice is described below: (a) Mass selection This is a relatively simple selection strategy where breeding candidates are selected on the basis of individual performance. (a) Mass or individual selection.
and a consequent accumulation of inbreeding.g. If large families are naturally produced or stocked in the test environment. sexing and maintenance of brood stock During the month March/April. The selected breeding candidates can become more related to each other. maternal and age effects) may easily result in a disproportionately high contribution of individuals from just a few parents to the next generation. (b) Setting of breeding hapas and stocking of breeders At least 80 to 100 breeding hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m) are prepared and set in breeding ponds and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles.3 Initiate breeding and testing programs (a) Selection.Farming of Tilapia the production of next generation. Individual selection of the breeders is followed based on empirical assessment of best size and weight. the wide genetic variation and common non-genetic effects (e. 3. In this situation either family selection strategy or combined selection strategy can be followed as described in the manual entitled “Gift technology manual: An aid to tilapia selective breeding” published by WorldFish Center (2004). good growth and healthy appearance (Hussain and Mazid 2001). A pair of female and male breeders (1:1 ratio) is stocked in each breeding 23 . During this transitory period. after several generations the accumulation of inbreeding can be a major problem. the best females and males are chosen (weighing between 100-150 gm each) and kept separately by sex in two transitory hapas (size 8 m x 2. the brood stock are maintained by proper feeding. when the Nile tilapia brood stock derived as base population become sexually mature. Such inbreeding reduces the genetic variation and the potential for further genetic improvement in the breeding population (WorldFish Center 2004). It is also reported that when using a mass selection method.5m x 1 m) set in a pond until they are used for the planned selective breeding program.3.
(d) Development of incubation system and hatching of fertilized eggs/larvae A simple tilapia egg incubation system can be developed using 2. Artificial feeds having 35% crude protein can be fed @ 3 . Rather these eggs should be allowed to hatch and incubate in the mouth of the female(s). (c) Collection of fertilized eggs/larvae The female fish normally holds the fertilized eggs in her mouth for natural incubation. 24 . Note: If there is no facility for artificial hatching and incubation system (s). first feeding fry stage. In that case only first feeding or advanced fry can be collected by using a scoop net for their separate nursing in the other series of hapas. it is necessary to check the mouth of all the stocked females in each hapa twice a week to collect the fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac in view of their artificial incubation. The bottles and trays need to be set over the designed concrete platform and connected to the recirculating system. where fresh water (28±1 oC) comes directly from a header tank by gravity (Figure 8).Farming of Tilapia hapa. Fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac that have been collected from the mouth of each female fish are incubated separately in this system.4% per estimated weight of biomass 2-3 times daily. Immediately after hatching. So. the larvae are shifted to a series of trays and kept separately until their yolk sac resorption stage i.e.0 liter capacity empty plastic coca cola or drinking water bottles and medium type plastic trays (30 x 25 x 8 cm). it is wise not to remove the fertilized eggs from the mouth of the female breeder(s). in that case.
Farming of Tilapia Fig. 8a A simple tilapia egg incubation system having plastic water bottles. 8b A simple tilapia egg incubation system having medium type of trays. Fig. 25 .
Before stocking tilapia fingerlings for any desired communal testing. which are fixed through its thread 26 . all nursery hapas should be installed in the same pond.60 days. tagging with suitable materials is essential. During fry/fingerling rearing. he should record the number of eggs/larvae per jar/tray and their survival. the number of fry stocked in each nursery hapa. (g) Tagging of fingerlings . Floy fingerling tags with different colours have been found to be convenient for external tagging to uniquely identify each one of the large numbers of experimental fish (WorldFish Center 2004). For producing sufficient number of fingerlings and standardizing the rearing conditions of all full-sib families such records are essential. Fry need to be grown up to 8 – 10 g (taggable size) in the same hapas or another series of similar size of hapas by reducing their numbers to 80 – 100 individuals/m3 and reared for another 40 . The Floy tag having two plastic protection discs. During incubation. (f) Record keeping/data collection The tilapia hatchery manager/operator must maintain a record book and keep all the necessary family wise data of the hapa breeding and fry/fingerling rearing. and the fingerlings shifted to rearing hapas should also be recorded. To reduce environmental differences between families. He should note the body weight and length data of individual male and female stocked in each hapa including the date of eggs/larvae collection. Several types of tagging materials are available in the market presently but not all are found suitable.Farming of Tilapia (e) Nursing and rearing of fry/fingerlings At least 200 fry from each progeny family will be transferred to a series of separate nursery hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m) for rearing for 21 – 24 days.
For tilapia the most convenient is digital tagging by Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags (Figure 11). Stocking density needs to be calculated as per recommended numbers for each test environments. The capsulated PIT tags are implanted within the visceral cavity of the fish. the body weight. 27 . secured and permanent identification of experimental fish (both for fingerlings and breeders). After tagging all the representative number of fingerlings from each family should be shifted to a holding tank or hapa.Farming of Tilapia either side with the needle carefully inserted underneath the scale below the dorsal fin and above the lateral line (Figure 9). which provide a safe. sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. cages and rice fields as common farm environments should be made ready for communal stocking of all full-sib groups. The earthen ponds. An electronic scanner is used to read out the digital number at the time of sampling and harvesting. Before stocking. Every 30 days. cemented tanks. standard length and tag number of the fingerlings should be recorded. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. comparatively longer shaped plastic numbered tags with nylon thread (Figure10) can be used by fixing them at the dorsal fin or tail region of the tilapia fingerlings. Another type of flat. A few equal numbers of tagged fingerlings per full-sib group can be stocked in the selected environments for a full grow-out period (3 – 5 months). Throughout the entire grow-out period. (h) Testing in common farm environments Communal testing of fish in common farm environment might be essential for evaluation of growth and other performance traits as well as estimating the breeding values for any desired selection strategy(s) in each generation. the fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight.
Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 9 Floy tagging underneath the scale below the dorsal fin and above the lateral line of tilapia. 28 . 10 Plastic numbered tag with nylon thread.
4 Continue selection program(s) to produce next generation(s) For the production of the next generation. standard length. should be recorded. Fish can be harvested when they attain the weight about 100 – 150 g. body width. 29 . body weight.e. All the test fish should be captured as carefully as possible and the individual tag numbers. sex. Closely related individuals (i. full-sibs. sexual maturation condition. body depth etc. 3. halfsibs.Farming of Tilapia Fig. the very best individuals in terms of individual weight for mass selection/breeding values for other selection strategies should be used. parent-offspring.3. 11 PIT tagging into the visceral cavity of tilapia. uncle-nice and cousins) mating should always be avoided to prevent inbreeding depression in further genetic improvement program of tilapia. But a compromise needs to be maintained between selection intensity and effective population size (WorldFish Center 2004).
Farming of Tilapia 3. In a well planned breeding program.5% 0. Correlation between effective population size (Ne) and rate of inbreeding in a hatchery. “Ne” can be calculated by using the following formula: Ne = 4 x F x M / (F + M) where F = number of female & M = number of males Effective population size is inversely related to the rate of inbreeding (F). In a well designed breeding program. which is shown as: F = 1/2Ne It is worthy to mention here that the rate of inbreeding depends on the skewed sex ratio.05% 30 .1% 0. “Ne” will be made by collecting very few but equal numbers of individuals from each progeny group (ie. individuals produced by each pair of breeders) from maximum number of broodstock and maintaining a 1:1 sex ratio (Mair 1999). The rate of inbreeding per generation in the range of effective population size (Ne) 50 to 1000 using the above formula is furnished in Table 3. In a breeding population where random mating is done.2% 0. Table 3. Effective population size (Ne) (Sex ratio 1:1) 50 100 250 500 750 1000 Rate of inbreeding (F value) per generation 1% 0.07% 0.4 MAXIMIZING THE EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZE (NE) “Ne” should be maximized to minimize the loss of genetic variation and inbreeding. the effective population size (Ne) should be maintained >50 up to 1000 to keep the estimated level of inbreeding less than 1% per generation.
e. the gametes (i. In this case. having a haploid set of chromosomes). Here. such as physical shocks (temperature and hydrostatic pressure). At fertilization of mature egg and sperm. O. each haploid set of chromosomes in the egg contains a single X sex chromosome and in the sperm it contains either an X or a Y sex chromosome. endomitotics) and anesthetics (i. chemicals (i. Ploidy or chromosome manipulation has become popular research in this fish since 1980s for the generation of genetically induced sterile and mono-sex (either all female or all male) populations. niloticus has an XX/XY sex determining system. the offspring that are produced from the fertilized eggs having XX (homogametic) set of sex chromosomes become females. As the mechanism of sex determination is known in Nile tilapia. 31 . female and male population GENOMIC STATUS AND DETERMINATION OF SEX 4. the two haploid genomes or gametes form a zygote and this complement is termed as diploid.e. nitrous oxide and freon). A single gamete can be termed as genome (i. while those are produced having XY (heterogametic) set of sex chromosomes become males. sperms and eggs) are produced by the male and female O. As a result.Farming of Tilapia 4 Ploidy manipulation and production of all sterile.1 Like other finfish. Various techniques have been developed so far to interfere with normal functioning of the metaphase spindle apparatus during cell division in eggs using several causal agents. a zygote has a diploid genomic status having a total of 44 chromosomes. therefore.e.e. Each genome in this species of tilapia contains 22 chromosomes. niloticus. the methods of controlling sex have become easier.
where control of reproduction and population is desirable.Farming of Tilapia individuals with differing genomic status can be produced in a population as below: • • • Polyploids (triploid and tetraploid) Gynogenetics (both meiotic and mitotic gynogenetics) Androgenetics (embryonic development with chromosomes) paternal 4. i) triploids and ii) tetraploids. Triploid individuals are expected to be functionally and endocrinologically sterile due to their meiotic inhibition of gametogenesis and lack of essential steroid hormone levels to support gonadal growth (Hussain 1998).2. But until now no viable tetraploids in tilapia have produced except the 32 .2 PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY INDUCED ALL STERILE POPULATION Genetically induced sterile populations can be produced by the induction of polyploidy (triploidy and tetraploidy) in the developing eggs of Nile tilapia. Triploids are produced directly by blocking of second polar body extrusion during second meiotic division shortly after fertilization of fish eggs using various physical shocks and chemical treatments. 4. because of promising future of large-scale production of genetically induced sterile fish from mating of normal diploid and viable tetraploid individuals. Tetraploid individuals are generated by the disruption of the first mitotic division shortly prior to formation of cleavage furrow of developing fertilized eggs using several agents both physical and chemical. The production of tetraploids might have tremendous impact.1 Induction of polyploidy There are two types of polyploids. Such sterility in both female and male fish can be of benefit to aquaculture.
Fig. niloticus brood stock including improved GIFT strain are to be collected from a known source and attention to be given for their special maintenance in ponds or tanks and feeding with protein rich artificial feeds.Farming of Tilapia embryos. A single male and female are accommodated in each aquarium but are kept separate by a sheet of Perspex. For artificial breeding in view of chromosome manipulation works. heat and cold shocks is shown in Figure 12. sexually mature fish are maintained under at least 12-h photoperiod and transferred into a series of 120 L glass aquaria provided a recirculated. aerated and temperature controlled (28±1 oC) water supply in a wet laboratory. In these aquaria the fish need to be fed with commercial pellets (at least 40% protein) at the rate of 2-3% body weight per day. niloticus using pressure. A schematic diagram of inducing polyploids in O. niloticus using pressure. 12 A schematic diagram of inducing polyploids in O. Methods for triploidy and tetraploidy induction (a) Collection and maintenance of brood stock Sufficient numbers (>100 pairs) of purebred O. 33 . heat and cold shocks (Hussain 1996).
she can be held in a scope net for up to 2 hrs.5 L vessel capacity pressure apparatus (Figure 13) and thermostatically regulated 50 L capacity water bath (Figure 14) are used. Milt contaminated with urine or water is always eliminated. niloticus spawn at approximately 14-20 day intervals. 100-200 eggs) followed by the addition of 10-20 ml of 28±1 o C water. To avoid the female prematurely releasing her eggs. motility of sperm is always examined under microscope. The ripe female is removed from the aquarium and the ovulated eggs are obtained by manual stripping. The eggs are collected in a clean and sterile Petri dish. The stripping is done by applying gentle downward pressure with the thumb and index fingers from just below the pectoral fins up to the genital opening of the fish. Fertilization is carried out in vitro by mixing 0. heat and cold shocks) to induce both triploidy and tetraploidy. Readiness of females to spawn is ascertained by examining the degree of swelling of the urogenital papilla and by the pre-spawning behaviour of the fish. for water hardening before using for further treatments or transfer to the incubation system. niloticus is collected by manual stripping.Farming of Tilapia (b) Collection and preservation of sperm Milt of sexually mature male O. For short storage undiluted milt is held at 4 oC in a refrigerator can be used to fertilize eggs until 3-4 days.1-0. 34 . After that fertilized eggs are left in the Petri dish for 2-3 min. (c) Egg collection and artificial fertilization Under experimental conditions sexually mature female O. both 1 – 1. The urine is first ejected and the genital papilla dried with a paper towel and the milt is sucked into a micro-pipette by capillary attraction when it is placed at the opening of the urethra.2 ml pre-collected dry sperm per batch of eggs (ca. while the experiment is being prepared. (d) Application of shock treatments For applying physical shock treatments (pressure. Before any milt is used for fertilization.
5 L vessel capacity pressure apparatus. Fig. 35 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. 13 1 – 1. 14 Thermostatically regulated 50 L capacity water bath.
000 – 9. range 0 to 100 oC capable of maintaining ±0.000 psi typically in the region of 30 sec with the passage from 8000 10.). Cold shock: 9 oC. after the vessel is sealed and purged of air.5 duration to be applied 27. pressure was applied gradually by a manually operated hydraulic pump.1 oC) needs to be filled with clean water and allowed to heat the water up to required temperature. 1993) can be used for the induction of tetraploidy are as below: • • Pressure shock: 9000 psi.5-30 min a.. After the pressure treatment.Farming of Tilapia For pressure shocking the fertilised eggs. 30 min duration to be applied 7 min a.5 min duration to be applied 5 min a. 2 min duration to be applied 40-50 min a.000 – 0 psi). The induction of triploidy and tetraploidy has already been carried out in various Oreochromis spp. is shown in Table 4. 1991) are as follows: • • • Pressure shock: 8000 psi. 2 min duration to be applied 9 min after fertilization (a.f. The optimal pressure and heat shock parameters to suppress the first cleavage or mitotic events of cell division in the fertilized eggs in the Nile tilapia (Hussain et al. Pressure is released by gradually opening the valve and so the pressure dropped typically over 30 sec (9. Eggs are held in individual uncapped vials and. The optimal pressure.f.f. The time is taken to raise the pressure level from ambient to 8. Heat shock: 41 oC. the pressure release valve is closed. For thermal (heat and cold) shocking the fertilized eggs. Heat shock: : 41 oC.f. the vessel and hydraulic pump reservoir are first filled with 28±1 oC clean water.000 psi taking a further 10 sec. niloticus (Hussain et al. 36 . the eggs are removed from the vials and transferred directly to incubating jars. 3. heat and cold shock parameters for the induction of triploidy in O.f. the water bath (temp. 3.
Additionally.f. 5 min a.5 C o 11 C for 60 min o o Induction widow 9 min a. 15 min a. 7 min a. treated and controlled eggs are identically incubated in a series of round bottom plastic jars (750 – 1500 ml capacity) connected to the warm water (28±1 oC ) recirculating system. 62.f.f. Species Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis aureus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis aureus Causal agents PS HS CS CS PS + CS CS Intensity level 8000 psi for 3. For detailed protocol of chromosome karyotyping see section 4.2. Ploidy status Triploidy Triploidy Triploidy Triploidy Tetraploidy Tetraploidy Authors Hussain et al.f. The survival rate in treated and control groups is checked at three development stages.3). 1986). 37 . (1991)) Valenti (1975)) Myers (1986) Don & Avatalion (1988) (f) Determination of ploidy status The ploidy status of all treatment and control groups can be determined by chromosome preparation of sub-samples of new hatched or 1 day old larvae (Hussain and McAndrew 1994). (1991)) Hussain et al. heat and cold shocks.5 min o 41 C for 3. 57-60 a.f. niloticus are composed of three (3n=66 chromosomes) and four (4n=88 chromosomes) sets of genomes respectively. pigmentation and hatching stages (see section 2.5 of this chapter. Table 4.000 µWsec/cm2) and there should be a provision so as to ensure gentle movement of the developing eggs at all times (Rana.f. Polyploidy induction in various Oreochromis spp. The numbers of normal and deformed fry at hatch are also need to be recorded.5 min 9 C for 30 min 11 C for 60 min 7000 psi for 7 min + o 7. (1991)) Hussain et al. namely: morula. using pressure.Farming of Tilapia (e) Incubation of eggs Fertilized. 92 min a. the water is sterilized through a UV sterilization unit (ca. The triploid and teraploid metaphases in O.
heat and cold shocks is shown in Figure 15. which suppress the anaphase stages of second meiotic division by disruption of metaphase spindles.1 Induction of meiotic gynogenesis In the process of meiotic gynogenesis.3 PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY INDUCED ALL FEMALE POPULATION Genetically induced all female populations in fish can be produced by artificial diploidization of the maternal chromosome complement either by retention of the second polar body or inhibition of first cleavage using physical and chemical treatments. As a result. heat and cold shocks (Hussain 1996). A schematic diagram of inducing two types of gynogenesis (meiotic and mitotic) in O.3. 15 A schematic diagram of inducing two types of gynogenesis (meiotic and mitotic) in O. eggs are fertilized with UV irradiated sperm and then are exposed to a variety of physical shock or chemical treatments. Fig. niloticus using pressure. 4. So two types of gynogenetic individuals can thus be generated through the induction of meiotic or mitotic events of fertilized eggs.Farming of Tilapia 4. niloticus using pressure. embryonic development proceeds with the inheritance of only maternal 38 .
39 . which will be homozygous at every gene locus (Chourrout 1984. Thorgaard and Allen 1987. The main rationale of mitotic gynogenesis induction in fish has been its potential for generating rapidly inbred lines. 1995). 1994). even when reproduction is repeated for several generations would never produce homozygous inbred lines. 1981. It has commonly suggested that meiotic gynogentic induction coupled with sex inversion such that functional XX males could be produced (Nagy 1987. induction of diploid gynogenesis by inhibition of first cleavage at mitotic division of a zygote might be more promising method for producing inbred lines.Farming of Tilapia chromosome set(s). Therefore. Despite the first generation of mitotic gynogenetics have limitations to use them directly for culture but they are potential and valuable as completely homozygous brood stock to produce second generation of clonal lines in fish including tilapia (Hussain et al. Such sex-reversed males are thought to be useful in cross breeding experiments to produce all outbred monosex female population. Streisinger et al. (1991) suggested that using meiotic gynogenetic diploids.2 Induction of mitotic gynogenesis In this process. Hussain et al. At present there are few direct applications of meiotic gynogens in aquaculture because the fish partly or mostly are inbred and have reduced variability compared to normal diploids. 4.3. where the growth rate of females is superior to males. Pongathana et al. putative gynogenetic progeny derive by the artificial diploidization of the maternal chromosome complement due to prevention of mitotic cleavage. Han et al. 1998).
4 – 0.). After fertilization. when not being submitted for shock treatments. their maintenance. All treatment batches of eggs except the UV control are exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat shocks. (b) Ultraviolet irradiation of sperm Milt samples required for UV treatment are checked for motility and irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp set using a radiometer (Ultra-Violet Products Inc. All the treatment batches of eggs are fertilized by mixing 0. eggs are at all times incubated at 28±1 oC. 1991) can be applied for the induction of meiotic gynogenesis as follows: 40 .5 ml diluted (with modified Cortland’s solution) UV irradiated sperm. niloticus brood stock collection.1 of this chapter. their maintenance. sperm/egg collection and fertilization The true breeding O. un-irradiated sperm from the same pool is used to fertilize a portion of eggs as a control. 2.1. stripping of sperm/egg collection and fertilization protocols are described in section 3.05 ml of modified Cortland’s solution (Hussain et al. (c) Application of shock treatments The same protocols for the application of both pressure and thermal shocks treatments can be followed as described in the section 4.1.Farming of Tilapia Methods for induction of meiotic and mitotic gynogenesis (a) Source of brood stock. Irradiation is carried out in a 5 cm diameter Petri dish at 4 o C to give a dose of 300-310 µW/cm2 for 2 min with a sperm concentration of 2. The optimal second polar body retaining pressure and heat shock parameters (Hussain et al.5x107 ml-1. 1993).2.
1. using pressure and heat shocks. Determination of ploidy status can be performed as explained in the protocols in section 4. (1991) Mair (1988). and 3.5 min duration to be applied 5 min a. 3. Heat shock: 41 oC.f.5 min o o Induction widow 9 min a.2.). 32-54 min a. Egg incubation and checking of survival rates of embryos at various developmental stages can be done as described in the protocols in section 2. 27. (1993) Mair (1988) 41 . (1991) Varadaraj & Pandian (1990) Hussain et al. 2 min duration to be applied 40-50 min a.f.Farming of Tilapia • • Pressure shock: 8000 psi.7 C for 3 min 9000 psi for 2 min o 41 C for 3. Species Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis mossambicus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Causal agents PS HS HS PS HS HS Intensity level 8000 psi for 3.5-30 min a.f.f. 2 min duration to be applied 9 min after fertilization (a. 1993) can be used as below: • • Pressure shock: 9000 psi. Hussain et al. 5 min a.5.5-30 min a. 3.f. Ploidy status Meiotic gynogenetic Meiotic gynogenetic Meiotic gynogenetic Mitotic gynogenetic Mitotic gynogenetic Mitotic gynogenetic Authors Hussain et al.5 min 41. Table 5. (1993) Hussain et al. Heat shock: 41 oC.f.5 min 41 C for 3. Gynogenesis induction in various Oreochromis spp. 40-50 min a. 25-35 min a. Table 5 shows a brief review of suppression of meiotic and mitotic events of cell division in the fertilised eggs to produce meiotic and mitotic gynogenetics in various Oreochromis spp.1.f.5 min duration to be applied 27.f. To interfere with the first mitosis for the induction of mitotic gynogenesis the recommended optimal parameters of pressure and heat shocks (Hussain et al.5 min o 41 C for 3.3.f.f.
the reverse to gynogenesis.Farming of Tilapia 4.4 PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY INDUCED ALL MALE POPULATION The induction of androgenesis is the alternative method of producing genetically induced all male population in tilapia and other selected fish species to replace hormonal sex reversal.10 ml of 0. 4. Thorgaard et al. The resulting embryo develops with entirely paternal chromosomal inheritance without any contribution from the maternal chromosomes. • For each group (ca 100) 15 . Myers personal communication).M. 42 . 1988.5 PROTOCOLS FOR CHROMOSOME KARYOPYTING Hussain and McAndrew (1994) developed an improved technique for chromosome karyrotyping from embryonic and soft tissues of tilapia.002 . The eggs can be inactivated successfully by gamma or x-rays including UV irradiation. Androgenesis is a genome manipulation technique. For the commercial production and application of genetically induced males need further research. which is important as egg and embryo cryopreservation has not yet been succeeded. The protocol for chromosome preparation from embryonic tissues is as follows: • Embryonic tissues need to be collected from newly hatched or 1 dayold larvae of treatment groups.6 hrs at 28oC).005% colchicine solution (freshly prepared or stored for 4 .0.20 embryos are placed in a small Petri dish containing 8 . which involves a genetically inactivated egg fertilised with normal sperm. The first androgenetic diploids were produced by the suppression of first cleavage of inactivated eggs in salmonids (Parsons and Thorgaard. Another possible application of genetically induced males lies in recovering genotypes from cryopreserved sperm. 1990) and later in Nile tilapia (J. 1985. May et al.
43 . After two changes the tissues are stored in the fixative for 30 . Metaphase spreads of chromosomes are to be checked and chromosome number noted by observing the slides under x400 and x1000 (oil immersion) magnifications. respectively.40 cm onto a clean glass slide on a warmed hot plate (44 .02% colchicine solution. the tissues are removed from the fixative and.01-0. • The are placed overnight (10-12 hours) in a plastic container with aerated 0. The protocol for chromosome preparation from soft tissues is as follows: • Soft tissues like gill epithelia and the soft edges of the caudal fin are collected from 25-30 day old (after hatching) fry. • Tissues are collected with fine scissors and forceps then transferred immediately to distilled water for 10-20 min before being fixed in 4:1 methanol-acetic acid (two changes) and stored at 4 oC up to 30 days. air dried and mounted with DPX after 10 min.acetic acid at 4oC.Farming of Tilapia • • • • • • Tissues are obtained from the embryos in chilled 0. After 15 .90 days.12 min. The temperature of the solution is maintained 28±1 oC.20 min. placed in the cavity of a Perspex slide with two to three drops 60% glacial acetic acid and minced for 1 min. The slides are rinsed in distilled water.48oC) and withdrawn within 8 . later blotting out the excess fixative. Slides are air dried and stained with freshly prepared 10% Giemsa stain (prepared in 0.01M phosphate buffer pH 7. The tissues are then immersed in a fixative of 4:1 methanol . three to four drops of cell suspension are dropped from a height of 30 .. with a compound microscope. To prepare the slides. • Slides are prepared according to the same technique described for chromosome karyotyping from embryonic tissues. with a glass rod to allow sufficient dissociation of epithelial cells.0) for 15 . of Xylene wash.75% saline solution under a dissecting microscope by removing their heads and yolk sacs and putting these in distilled water (hypotonic solution) for 8 .20 min.12 seconds leaving a fine and clean ring of cells using a single micro-hematocrit dropper.
The karyotypes of O. haploid (n = 22). In fact only one pair large marker chromosomes are recognizable and remaining 21 being similar in size and acrocentric morphologically. niloticus consisting of 22 pairs with no morphologically distinct sex chromosomes. two (2n=44 including two large marker chromosomes) and three (3n=66 including three large marker chromosomes) sets of chromosomes are shown in Figure 16 a-c. 16 Metaphase chromosome of Oreochromis niloticus. d. diploid and triploid metaphases. triploid (3n = 66). aneuploid metaphase (hyperhaploid or hypodiploid) (Hussain 1995). b. The haploid. c. diploid (2n = 44). 44 . which are composed of respectively one (n=22 including one large marker chromosome). a.Farming of Tilapia Counting the chromosomes of as many karyotypes as possible per slide carries out the karyological examination. Fig. Aneuploid metaphase (hyperhaploid or hypodiploid) is composed of more than 22 and less than 44 chromosomes in this species (Figure 16 d).
brown and wild type: colour segregations occurred in all crosses. 1988). many geneticists working with various plants and animals have since conducted an immense number of experimental works. the proportion of red phenotypic fry was increased from 30% in 1969 to 80% in 1974. These crosses were made between phenotypic individuals such as red.1 After the discovery of Mendel’s theory of heredity or inheritance. but after several years of continued selection and hybridization trials using F1 progeny. 1988) and Liao and Chang (1983). The red strain in the Philippines was introduced from Singapore in 1978 and the breeding characteristics of various crosses of different phenotypes 45 . niloticus are predominant (McAndrew et al. Later further genetic improvement of such red tilapia was made through cross breeding (Kuo and Tsay 1988). The Taiwanese red tilapia has been reported as a hybrid between albino O. niloticus by Kuo (1969. the red heterozygous and the wild type homozygous recessive. Initially the founder hybrid strain did not produce a high frequency of red fry. Meanwhile. mossambicus and O. Commercially available red tilapia strains are mostly hybrids and products of cross breeding involving as many as four different species in which O.Farming of Tilapia 5 Body colour inheritance and development of purebred strains of red tilapia INHERITANCE OF BODY COLOUR IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE STRAINS 5. studies have also been made particularly to determine the genetics of body colour inheritance in a limited number of commercial and experimental populations of fishes including tilapias. The pink phenotype was homozygous dominant. white. mossambicus and O.
S. O. mossambicus has been determined and it was revealed that the mutant phenotype was inherited as a Mendelian recessive (Wohlfarth et al. Malaysia. gold fish were homozygous recessive and bronze fish were heterozygotes. Guam. In an Egyptian strain of O.Farming of Tilapia (ie. His results demonstrated that red body colour in these two mutant strains is controlled by a single autosomal dominant “R” gene. Brazil. niloticus. hornorum and O. Thailand. 1990).2 IMPORTANCE AND PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESENT STOCKS Red tilapia strains have become increasingly popular to fish farmers and entrepreneurs for their characteristic body colour. aureus. 1988). mossambicus (Sipe 1979) and the second strain a red-gold colour mutant hybrid between O. the Philippines. 5. the red body colour was inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in presence of wild type (McAndrew et al. These strains are commercially cultured in many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world such as Taiwan. 1982). Among U. Israel. tasty flesh and high demand in the market. Hussain (1994) also observed similar pattern of colour inheritance both in Egyptian and Thai red strains. extensive farming practice of this fish has not yet 46 . the first one derived from cross breeding involving O. Observing several generations. In Israel. hornorum and red O. pink. Tave et al (1989) demonstrated that black body coloured fish were homozygous dominant. 1988). the red/gold body colour of O. the authors stated that red-gold colouration was dominant and controlled by two or three gene pairs in this strain. pink and albinos. Greece. the pink phenotype seemed to be homozygous dominant. The frequency of blotchy pattern in these strains further indicated that blotched phenotype are heterozygotes (Rr). grey. Jamaica and USA. black spotted and albino) were subsequently investigated (Galman et al. strains of hybrid red tilapias. Although the Thai red strain was introduced into Bangladesh in 1988. Indonesia. mossambicus (Behrends et al. fast growth. which might be epistatic to the “R” gene and expressed only in its presence. Among all red.
where O. this fish was assumed to be a hybrid between O. Another problem associated with the appearance of varying proportions of blotched types (presence of black spots on the skin) of fish in each generation. which are not as valuable to the consumers as the pure red individuals. It will be difficult to maintain or improve the quality and development of pure breeding red populations of the present stocks until the mode of body colour inheritance is well understood by tilapia hatchery workers and researchers.2. Electrophoretic analysis of Thai red tilapia samples showed that both O. Despite the commercial importance and development of several red tilapia strains in many regions of the world. including Thai red strain. pers. niloticus. An Official of Thai Government informed the meeting that red tilapia was found in a pond in northern Thailand. McAndrew and Dr. communication). one major problem of these mutant strains is that the majority of them do not breed true. Thus. Sodsuk. P. progeny testing is a valuable method for maintaining the production of all pure red progenies of Thai and other mutant strains. Prof. mossmabicus and O. niloticus alleles were present (Pullin 1988.Farming of Tilapia flourished. and heterozygous “Rr” individuals that do not (Hussain 1994). mossambicus and O. Thailand in 1987. B. 5. mossambicus was introduced from Malaysia in 1949. It has been experimentally proved that the existing stocks of Thai red strain are a mixture of both homozygous “RR” that breed true. the red strain will also take a place in aquaculture soon due to its commercial importance and high demand in the international markets.1 Genetic status of Thai red strain The origin of the Thai red strain is less certain and its origins were discussed for the first time in a workshop on “Tilapia Genetic Resources for Aquaculture” held in Bangkok. In this case.J. Red mutant brooders can be made as true breeders when they will be fixed 47 . It is expected that like the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia.
egg fertilization and incubation protocols to be used for progeny production will be similar to section 4. During all the phases of growing period of brood stocks. . stripping.2 Fish breeding. 5.3 MECHANISMS OF PROGENY TESTING TO DEVELOP PUREBRED STRAINS OF RED TILAPIA 5. The brood stocks of these strains need to be maintained separately initially in the earthen ponds and subsequently in a recirculated water system ie. the fish should be fed with formulated or commercial feeds having at least 30% crude protein at recommended rates.Farming of Tilapia as all homozygous at the “R” allele. fertilization and incubation of eggs Fish breeding. 5.3. in mini tanks or glass aquaria.1. stripping. niloticus stocks should be collected from a known source or from a tilapia reference collection maintained at the research institute(s). 5.1 Collection of red and wild brood stock Both red and wild type pure O.3 Parental cross breeding (a) Red x Red parental cross • • • 48 A number of red females can be used to cross with red males. No females in these crosses are used more than once and males can be used several times with different females. Stripped eggs of each red female need to be fertilized with freshly collected milt of red males and incubated separately.2. to allow the undesirable “r” allele to be selected out.3.3.
Stripped eggs of each female (red or wild) need to be fertilized with freshly collected milt of corresponding males (red or wild) and incubated separately.Farming of Tilapia • • • • F1 progenies produced in these crosses need to be reared for few weeks in the nursery hapas until the fry develop distinguishable body colour. From this test crosses. F1 progenies produced in these crosses need to be reared for few weeks in the nursery hapas until the fry develop distinguishable body colour. It is expected that body colour segregation of F1 progenies of all these crosses will be either 100% red or 50% red plus 50% wild type. • 49 . 100% red progeny producing parental stocks (RR genotype) can be isolated to develop purebred red strains (Figure 17) for commercial breeding purpose. No females in these crosses are used more than once and males can be used several times with different females. (b) Red x Wild type parental cross • • • • • • A number of red females or males can be used to cross with wild type males or females. In these crosses it will be difficult to identity the true breeding parental stocks to develop purebred red strains for breeding purpose until the F1 progenies are used for sib crosses. It is expected that body colour segregation of progenies of all these crosses will be all red. Thus it can be presumed that the parental red stocks will be either “RR” or “Rr” genotypes or combination of both. Thus it can be presumed that the parental red stocks will be either “RR” (where F1 progenies are 100% red) or “Rr” (where F1 progenies are expected 1 red:1 wild) genotypes or combination of both. .
Farming of Tilapia 5.3. It is expected that body colour segregation of F2 progenies of all these crosses will be either all red or 75% red plus 25% wild type. of progeny of a given phenotype / Total no. No females in these crosses are used more than once and males can be used several times with different females.5 Scoring of progeny phenotypes Progeny phenotypes in all the crosses can be categorized as “red” (including blotched type) and “wild” type (those normally pigmented and completely different from those of red phenotype) of the same strains.4 Sib cross breeding • • • • • • A number of F1 red females can be used to cross with F1 red males. the proportion of progeny phenotypes are calculated as: (No. Only F1 or F2 progenies can be categorized into full red (approximately <10% body surface with melanophores) and blotched types (approximately >10% body surface with melanophores).3. although both types together are designated as “red” (McAndrew et al. F2 progenies produced in these crosses need to be reared for few weeks in the nursery hapas until the fry develop distinguishable body colour. • 5. of survivors) x 100 50 . Stripped eggs of each red female need to be fertilized with freshly collected milt of red males and incubated separately. 1988). To determine the observed ratio of colour segregation. Thus it can be presumed that the parental red stocks will be either “RR” (where F2 progenies are 100% red) or “Rr” (where F2 progenies are expected 3 red:1 wild) genotypes or combination of both. 100% red progeny producing F1 stocks (RR genotype) can be isolated to develop purebred red strains for commercial breeding purpose. From this test crosses.
Farming of Tilapia
MAINTENANCE OF PUREBRED BROOD STOCK FOR SEED PRODUCTION IN THE HATCHERY
For purebred red brood stock development, fingerlings (20 – 30 g in weight) of “RR” genotypes could be produced or collected and stocked at the rate of 3-4 fish/m2 in the small and medium type brood stock rearing earthen ponds ranging from 1000 – 1500 m2 with the depth of 1.0 to 1.5 m. During all the phases of growing period of brood stocks, the fish should be fed with formulated or commercial feeds having at least 30% crude protein @ 3-10% body weight. During 1st and 2nd week of rearing the fish can be fed @ 10%, during 3rd and 4th week @ 5% and during 5th and 6th week onwards @ 3% body weight. Care should be taken not to contaminate with wild type or impure red blotched type Rr genotypes (Figure 18) in the rearing ponds. Brood stock replacement and stock improvement protocols and monosex production techniques for red strains will be the same as described respectively in Chapter 3 and Chapter 7.
Farming of Tilapia
Fig. 17 Purebred red tilapia strain.
Fig. 18 Impure blotched type tilapia of red phenotype.
Farming of Tilapia
Development and operation of mixed sex commercial tilapia seed production systems
MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN PONDS
Mixed sex seed production through controlled natural spawning in small and medium earthen ponds is a common practice for tilapia breeders. This system consists of three basic components as follows: i) ii) iii) Brood stock collection and maintenance. Fry production through natural spawning. Rearing of fry in nursery ponds.
6.1.1 Brood stock collection and maintenance
For seed production, the brood stock should be collected from the regional stations and sub-stations of BFRI or any other reliable known sources, who are maintaining outbred and improved stocks of O. niloticus. For brood stock development, fingerlings (20 – 30 g in weight) could be collected and stocked at the rate of 3-4 fish/m2 in the small and medium type brood stock rearing earthen ponds ranging from 1000 – 1500 m2 with the depth of 1.0 to 1.5 m. During all the phases of growing period of brood stocks, the fish should be fed with formulated or commercial feeds having at least 30% crude protein @ 3-10% body weight. During 1st and 2nd week of rearing the fish can be fed @ 10%, during 3rd and 4th week @ 5% and during 5th and 6th week onwards @ 3% body weight. If formulated feeds are not available
• • (b) Stocking of brood fish • Sexually matured breeders weighing 80 to 100 g each should be stocked @ 2-3 fish/m2 with a sex ratio of 1 male to 3 females.Farming of Tilapia alternatively a mixture of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake can be given at 5 -10 % biomass 2 times a day.. If this is not possible. 54 . then ponds need to be poisoned by using rotenone @ 10 – 12 kg/ha.P (25 + 25 kg/ha).0 meter need to be selected for the purpose of natural spawning. 6. Feeding of brood fish during low temperature and rainy days should be avoided to minimize the loss of resources.2 Fry production through natural spawning (a) Pond selection and preparation • • One or two ponds having an area of 400 – 800 m2 with inside slope about 1:3 and average water depth of 1. (c) Feeding • Supplementary feeds with a mixture of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake or 75% rice barn or 25% fish meal can be given at 3-5% biomass 2 times a day. Ponds should be limed @ 250 – 300 kg CaO /ha. All the predatory fish and animals are to be completely eradicated by dewatering and drying of ponds before stocking of fish. Seven days after liming.S.1. manuring and fertilization of each pond should be made respectively with cattle dung @ 800 – 1000 kg/ha and Urea plus T.
1. when early fry are found schooling near the shore of spawning ponds. At this stage. the first feeding fry can be stocked @ 500 – 600 per m2. Early fry can be fed with powdered feeds as a mixture of rice bran and mustard oilcake (1:1 ratio) at the rate of 12 – 15% initial body weight 3 –4 times per day. Rearing of tilapia fry to stockable size can be made following the two stages technique as follows: (a) Primary stage • • • • In well prepared nursery ponds. (b) Secondary stage • In view of producing better stockable size.3 Rearing of fry in nursery ponds The size and preparation of nursery ponds should be more or less the same as brood stock ponds described above.Farming of Tilapia (d) Collection of early fry • Three to four weeks after stocking of brood stock. the available fry should be collected regularly in the early morning with a fine-mesh seine net and transferred to holding hapas (Figure 19) set in the ponds prior to stocking in the nursery ponds. 55 . advanced fry can be reared further by stocking @ 100 – 200 m2 in a series of well prepared nursery ponds for 40 – 60 days. 6.. the available fry can be sold directly to the buyers or reared in another series of nurseries by reducing their stocking densities. The growing fry need to be reared for 21 days in these ponds to attain an average weight about 1 g each.
rectangular or oval Rectangular tanks are suitable and the size of individual tank may vary from 2. 56 . Shape of the tanks can be either circular.Farming of Tilapia • • Fry can be fed formulated feeds (Table 6) and feeding rate can be reduced to 8 –10% biomass 2 – 4 times per day. Low cost breeding and fry rearing tanks might not have access to water flowing or recirculation system but can be facilitated for irregular water flashing for cleaning the tanks once a week (Figure 20).0 m wide with a depth of 0. 4-6 m diameter circular tank is also most economic size and self cleaning for tilapia seed production.0 m long. Tanks can be constructed at any places including the towns and cities. 6.2 MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN CONCRETE TANKS Concrete tanks are often useful for tilapia seed production. square. The fingerlings are expected to attain the average body weight about 8 – 10 g each.0 m. 6.1 Tilapia breeding in the tanks (c) Design of the tanks • • • • • Tilapia breeding tanks are generally simple and smaller in comparison to the fattening tanks normally used for intensive culture systems.0 – 4.2.0 – 10.8 – 1. which do not need much surface land area. 2.
Farming of Tilapia Fig. 19 Tilapia fry holding hapas. 57 . 20 Low cost tilapia breeding and fry rearing tanks. Fig.
(d) Early fry collection • • • At the 12th to 15th day from stocking of the breeders. using a fine meshed dip net the first schooling fry should be collected.2. 58 . After a week.2 Fry/fingerling rearing of in the nursery tanks • • For one week.Farming of Tilapia (b) Stocking of brood fish • • Sexually matured breeders weighing 80 to 100 g each should be stocked in the breeding tanks @ 3-4 fish/m2 with a sex ratio of 1 male to 3 females. the density should be reduced to 500 – 600 per m2 and feeding rates will be 12-15% of biomass. 6. In this case. counted and stocked in a series of nursery tanks. (c) Feeding • • Supplementary feeds with a mixture of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake or 75% rice barn or 25% fish meal can be given at 3-5% biomass 2 times a day. Breeders need to be replaced when they attain an average weight of 250 g or more. The females while mouth brooding. Fry collected from the breeding tanks need to be graded. reducing the feed may lessen water quality deterioration in the tanks. Every alternative week the fry collection needs to be repeated. the stocking of fry will be 1000 – 1200 per m2 and feeding will be made with high protein powder feed (at least 35% crude protein) @ 15-20% of biomass 4-6 times per day. they do not actively take artificial feeds.
The marginal or small-scale farmers with one or two earthen ponds having an area of 1500 – 2000 m2 each can follow a simple and efficient method. The fry/fingerlings can be harvested in the tanks by netting or draining the water.6 . Fry will be ready to sell when they will be >1 g each. Advanced fry can be reared further by stocking 100 – 150 2 individuals/m by feeding formulated feeds (Table 6) for 40 – 60 days. 6. the density will be 300-400 per m2 and feeding rates will be 10-12% of biomass. For healthy growth of fry/fingerings.Farming of Tilapia • • • • After second week.8 meter.3 MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN HAPAS A commercial mixed sex seed production system in fine meshed hapas (net cages) can be operated easily for large-scale production of tilapia seed for aquaculture where monosex tilapia culture is not preferred. Water depth of the nursery tanks can be kept 0.2. Partial water change in nursery tanks can be done depending on the water quality. water in the tanks should not be too green or foul in odor.0. 6. 59 .3 Overall maintenance of tilapia breeding and nursery tanks • • • • Breeding tanks should be cleaned manually or by water flashing fortnightly.
About 10 – 15 days after stocking of breeders. (b) Stocking of brood fish • • • Sexually matured breeders weighing 80 to 100 g each should be stocked @ 2-3 fish/m2 with a sex ratio of 1 male to 3 females. The feeds can be given at 3-5% biomass 2 times a day. the stocking of fry will be 1000 – 1500 per m2 and feeding will be made with high protein powder feed (at least 35% crude protein) @ 15-20% of biomass 4-6 times per day. At least 0.2 Fry/fingerling rearing of in the nursery hapas • • • • • 60 Prior to capture and transfer of fry from breeding hapas another series of nursery hapas having the size of 8 m x 2.5m x 0.Farming of Tilapia 6. During the second week.3.5 m can be set in the pond(s) by fixing them to bamboo poles by nylon thread. schooling of tiny fry will be visible in each hapa. . their density should be reduced to 500 – 700 per m2 and feeding rates will be 12-15% of biomass.3. 6.25 m of top side of the hapas should above the waterline.8 m need to be set in the same pond(s) or other pond(s). During the first week. Breeders weighing more than 250 g should always be replaced with new batches.1 Tilapia breeding in the hapas (a) Setting of breeding hapas • A series of breeding hapas having the size of 2 m x 1 m to 12 m x 3 m with depths of 1. The hapas can be covered with fine meshed nets or kept uncovered. Fry can be collected by using dip or push net or by lifting the hapas and transferred to nursery hapas. The breeders need to be fed with supplementary feed consisting of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake or 75% rice barn or 25% fish meal.
5m x 0.00 Rice polish 37. Table 6.00 Total 100 Cost per kg feed: US$ 0. mixed sex tilapia fry weighing 1 – 2 g can be stocked @ 0. • • • • • Land can be prepared by using lime CaO @ 250 – 300 kg /ha.00 Wheat bran 10. Formulated feed for feeding tilapia fry in rearing hapas and nursery ponds (Hoq et al.00 6. Fry can be fed rice polish and feeding rate should be 5 –8% per estimated body weight of biomass for 2 . Seven days after liming.4 MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN RICE FIELDS Rice fields are the ideal place for rearing tilapia fry either at the time of rice cultivation or after rice harvesting.P (25 + 25 kg/ha). Immediately after sowing rice seedlings. Fry will be ready to sell when they will be >1 g each.00 Mustard oilcake 20.50 1.3 times per day. 2003) . Proportion (%) Fish meal 28.25 (Taka 15).8 m) by feeding formulated feeds (Table 6) for 40 – 60 days.50 30. FCR: 2.Farming of Tilapia • • • During third week.80 7. 61 . advanced fry can be 2 reared further by stocking 100 – 200 individuals/m in nylon hapas (8 m x 2.20 4.S.0 Feed ingredients Crude protein (%) 16.2 million/ha for 30 – 40 days. Water depth in the rice plot should be at least 20 – 25 cm during fry rearing period. manuring and fertilization of rice plot should be made respectively with cattle dung @ 800 – 1000 kg/ha and Urea plus T.1 – 0. the density will be 300-400 per m2 and feeding rates will be 10-12% of biomass.00 Molasses 5. In view of producing better stockable size.
Farming of Tilapia • • The fingerlings are expected to attain the average body weight about 8 – 10 g each at end of rearing period. Enough care should be taken to protect any incidental escaping of fry/fingerlings from the rice fields to the surrounding canals/water bodies. 62 .
1978. which develops testes and male sexual characteristics at maturity and on the other hand. treatment with female hormones or oestrogens (17βoestradiol) produces individuals with ovaries and female characteristics in fish. masculinization using androgen hormones (Shelton et al.2 ALL MALE MONOSEX SEED PRODUCTION THROUGH INVERSION OF SEXES IN TILAPIA Despite the popularity of tilapia species in worldwide aquaculture. The use of monosex populations also eliminates reproduction during grow out in the case of tilapias. where females grow faster than males. Guerrero and Guerrero 1988) and in case of salmonids and cyprinids. 7. Guerrero 1979.Farming of Tilapia 7 Development and operation of monosex commercial tilapia seed production systems SEX REVERSAL TECHNIQUE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MONOSEX FISH FRY 7. Bye and Lincoln 1986) have become a popular practice. the first feeding fry are treated with male hormones or androgens (ie. 17α-methyl testosterone). feminization using oestrogen hormones (Shelton 1987.1 Sex reversal is a technique of changing of sexes from one sex to another in fish by administering synthetic steroid hormones before and/or during the period of sexual differentiation. in tilapia males grow faster than females. For instance. the main drawback of all the existing commercial strains is their precocious 63 . In this technique. The choice of conversion of sexes (either all males or all females) depends on growth performance characteristics of individual sexes of fish species.
However. After that many others also came forward to initiate similar interspecific hybridization between more supposedly homogametic species involving crosses of O. The results of Majumdar and McAndrew (1983) indicate that the mechanism responsible for sex determination in hybrids is indeed variable and complicated and that a number of different alleles of different strength are operating in the tilapias as a whole. This leads to prolific breeding and over-crowding in grow-out systems. resulting in undesirable stunting and low yields of harvestable size fish. aureus (Pruginin et al. mossambicus x O. using female O. 1983). As interspecific hybridization and genetically induced all male seed production in tilapia have proved difficult in practice. genetic impurity of existing tilapia strains and careless maintenance of brood stocks in poor farming conditions made more problematic the method of hybridization for mass seed production of all male tilapia population. Hand or manual sexing of tilapia by examining urogenital papilla is a simple technique but it is time consuming. niloticus x O. niloticus (Kuo 1969. Majumdar and McAndrew 1983). 1975. laborious. mossambicus and male O. The main goal of all these methods was to produce monosex populations of tilapias by manual separation of sexes. In many countries.Farming of Tilapia maturation in tropical and sub-tropical climatic conditions. hornorum. wasteful and sometimes unreliable at the small fish (<10 g). many of these crosses did not produce the predicted 100% male offspring. Interspecific hybridization of tilapias to produce all male hybrids was demonstrated first by Hickling (1960). O. On the other hand. interspecific hybridization and masculinization using hormones and genetic manipulation techniques. In order to overcome this serious problem. Hulata et al. since 1960 several methods have been proposed and developed to reduce and eliminate uncontrolled reproduction in grow-out systems. direct masculinization of tilapias using hormones is the most common method 64 . where the acceptable market is 150 g or more and tilapias are normally grown in mixed sex culture this has become a critical problem (Guerrero 1982).
Ensures high production and high net profit. niloticus (Velasco 2003b). Monosexing has been the key that has facilitated the development of tilapia culture in the global food fish arena (Shelton 2002). sex-reversed male tilapia using hormones) might be harmful for human health. But there is no evidence for any human health hazard (Green and Teichert-Coddington 2000). Recent studies have demonstrated that exogenous steroids are rapidly cleared from tissue after the end of treatment: no residual can be detected within one month of the termination of monosexing treatment (Rothbard et al. 65 . Guerrero and Guerrero 1988). producing individuals that grow and function reproductively as males. Advantages of all male seed production through sex-reversal • • • • • • Technique is simple and economic. male steroids is administered to first feeding tilapia fry so that the undifferentiated gonadal tissue of genetic females develops into testicular tissue. Some concern has been raised that consumption of steroid-treated tilapia (ie. 1990. Philippines and Thailand are the two leading countries where commercial mass seed production of all male Nile tilapia using androgen hormones is a popular practice. In this process. Generally the primal gonadal tissue starts to differentiate into ovarian tissue with 3–4 weeks after hatching in O. It does not need sophisticated laboratory and equipment. The results of these authors suggest that functional sex-reversal using hormones can lead to the production of all male monosex population in tilapia for aquaculture. A technician or an experienced farmer can run monosex seed production hatchery and nursery systems. Green and TeichertCoddington 2000). Reliability of 98 – 100% male seed production. Overall input costs are not very high.Farming of Tilapia for monosex male production (Shelton et al. In Asia. 1978. Guerrero 1979.
Feed preparation and store room. Overhead water tank of 10. Recirculating water system. Recommended soil type for necessary pond construction. Market access of products.000 – 20. Cemented hatchery floor. Water supply lines (internal and external). canals or reservoirs. Stable electricity. Road access for all weather for supply of products and services. Egg incubating jars and trays with stands.Farming of Tilapia 7.000 liter capacity. (a) Design and construction of a hatchery complex Major components and requirements of a tilapia hatchery to facilitate egg incubation. Aeration systems. hatching and larvae nursing are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • Hatchery shed should be made by iron angles covered with CI sheets. Enough water supply source either from underground or other surface water source like rivers. Water pump (submersible pump). 66 .1 Hatchery design and operation of monosex seed production systems Before initiating the construction of commercial monosex tilapia seed production systems.2. Nursery ponds for hormone treatment. Transitory nursing tanks. the following factors need to be considered for site selection: • • • • • • Site should be flood free and nearby tilapia grow out farms.
Nursing trays to hold and nurse the newly hatched larvae. vii. Header tank to hold enough fresh water to supply the required quantity to incubation jars and trays.25 m2 (11. Bioball chamber through which incoming water is passed from filter for purification. (c) Hatchery shed and cemented floor construction For constructing a medium size tilapia hatchery. Beams and column. ii. MS angle truss. CI sheet roofing. (d) Setting of incubation jars and trays The incubation jars and trays with the following capacities and numbers need to be set with plastic containers and holding stands properly inside the hatchery (Figure 22): 67 . the following components are essential: • • • • • Hatchery shed structure: 86. vi. iii. Filter chamber where used waters from incubation jars and trays are drained and filtered. Incubation jars to hold and hatch the fertilized eggs. Cemented floor: 77 m2 (11 m x 7 m). iv. v. Storage tank to hold purified water and back to the head tank through the submersible water pump.5 m x 7 m).Farming of Tilapia (b) Model of tilapia egg incubation system Tilapia egg incubation and hatching system model is shown in Figure 21 and essential components are listed below: i. Oyster shells chamber has the similar function to further purify water passing from other chambers (filter and bioball).
Fig. Nuanmane Pongthana). 22 Typical modern monosex tilapia seed production hatchery system in Thailand. 21 Tilapia egg incubation and hatching system model (Courtesy: Dr. 68 .Farming of Tilapia Fig.
5 – 2 m. The average water depth of each pond should be around 1. Hapas need to be set 0.Farming of Tilapia • • • • Number of 2 liter capacity jars: 30. Hapas can be set by using bamboo/wooden or steel bar poles by tying the top and bottom corners into the poles staked into the pond bottom.5 – 1m apart to allow water circulation. Number of plastic container for holding the trays. 28 x 43 x 10 cm each: 60 (50% for jars plus 50% to use as nursing trays). The top edge of the hapas should be 50 – 60 cm above the water surface.5 m. (f) Making and setting of breeding hapas Polyetheline or fine meshed nylon netting materials need to be procured from local market and rectangular size (40 m x 3 m with depths of 1. (e) Construction of breeding ponds At least 3 breeding ponds having an area of o.4 ha each can be constructed following a well-planned engineering design with the depth of 1.5 m) hapas are to be made by a tailor. 69 . Ponds should be rectangular size with two bypasses for water supply and evacuation. About 8 – 10 hapas are installed in each pond (Figure 23) in the following ways: • • • • Hapas should be checked carefully before installation whether any hole is reaming or not. Number of trays. 30 x 120 x 20 cm: 30. Steel/iron/wooden stands: 15 (50% for jars plus 50% for nursing trays). It is necessary to stretch the hapas as much as possible to prevent the folding by winds and perform the well setting.
Sex ratio should be maintained 1:3 (i. 1 male to 3 females). it is necessary to check the mouth of all the stocked females in each hapa twice or at least once a week to collect the eggs as described below: • The breeders are checked by gathering them at a place in the hapa using a 4 m long bamboo pole transversely run at the level of water surface from anterior end to other end to concentrate the brood fish at the posterior end of hapa. The female fish holds the fertilized eggs in her mouth for natural incubation.1.e. If the size of male is not comparable to female. which will minimize the biting occurrence leading to skin lesions that can cause stress and even mortality of females. (Figure 24).5 years old and >300 g in weight should be replaced by the new batches. Each brood fish is taken by using scoop net and checked carefully to see if her mouth is holding fertilized eggs or yolk sac fry. (h) Collection of fertilized eggs from the fish mouth Each sexually mature female normally liberates ovulated eggs on average at 2-3 week intervals under tropical pond conditions and subsequently the male partner in the breeding hapa fertilizes the eggs. Super Strain of GIFT) weighing 100 – 150 g each either collected from known sources or already reared in separate ponds in the hatchery (section 4. Breeders >1-1.Farming of Tilapia (g) Selection and stocking of brood stock in the breeding hapas Stocking density of breeders varies with the size of hapas. For grading the different age groups of fertilized eggs or near to hatch larvae or yolk sac fry that are collected from mouth of the • • • 70 . Recommended densities ranges from 4 – 6 fish/m2. Breeders should be almost the same size at stocking.1) can be stocked. Formulated or commercial feeds having 30% crude protein can be fed @ 3-4% per estimated weight of biomass 2 times daily. For lifting the hapa and collection of fertilized eggs/near to hatch larvae or yolk sac fry at least 2-3 persons are needed. 2003b). So. clipping the premaxilla of the male needs to be done (Velasco. True breeding and improved strain(s) of Nile tilapia (eg.
iron or bamboo frame (Figure 25). Estimated number of hatched fry per tray: 24. that have been collected from the mouth of female breeders.000 x 3 batches). Collected products can be disinfected with 5-7 ppt solution of saline water for 8-10 minutes at ambient temperature. the larvae are deposited at the basement of the attached tray and they are transferred to the series of separate trays (Figure 27) and kept until their yolk sac resorption stage is over i.Farming of Tilapia • • females are separated by their different colors (4 colors are normally identified viz. Fertilized eggs/hatched larvae can be stocked for incubation in each jar/tray by keeping the numbers given below: • • • • • Estimated number of eggs in each jar: 25. Estimated total first feeding fry per batch: 7. first feeding fry stage. At least 3 batches of first feeding fry per month can be produced at water temperatures between 27 . deep yellow and reddish tiny fry with yolk sac) and can be kept in separate plastic bowls placed in a steel. Immediately after hatching. where fresh water (28±1 oC) come directly from header tank by gravity. are incubated in a series of round bottom plastic jars and flat trays connected to the recirculating system (Figure 26). After that the eggs/larvae/yolk sac fry are shifted to the hatchery for incubation. 2.2 million (7.000 x 30 trays). Estimated total first feeding fry production per month: Approx.20.30 oC. Hatching period: 65 – 72 hours.000 (24.e. pale yellow.000. Whitish.20.000. 71 . (i) Incubation of collected eggs and larvae in the jars/trays Fertilized eggs/hatched fry with yolk sac. Each batch of fertilized eggs needs on an average about 10 –12 days to complete the cycle of development (both embryonic and larval stages).
1 kg of finely sieved feeds (formulated feed as mentioned in Table 6) is placed in a clean dry mixing bowl. 72 . The treated feed is left to dry. Hormone mixed dry feeds are stored at room temperature or fridge at 4oC for maximum 7 days Preparation of hormone mixed feeds using stock solution Alternatively a stock solution can be prepared for 100 kg feeds and stored in refrigerator for few weeks for subsequent use (Velasco. Excess hormone mixed feeds can be stored at 4oC for a week.Farming of Tilapia (j) Preparation. The solution is gradually poured into the feeds and mixed for 10 to 15 minutes. 10 ml is further diluted to 100 ml of ethanol and shaken well. storage and application of androgen hormone mixed feeds The protocol for preparation and application of hormone mixed feeds for sex reversal of Nile tilapia fry is shown as flow diagram in Figure 28 and briefly explained below: Direct feed preparation of hormone mixed feeds • • • • Hormone dose: 50 mg of 17-α Methyl testosterone (MT) is dissolved in 100 ml Ethyl Alcohol (95%). 2003b): • • • • • • 5 g of 17-α Methyl testosterone (MT) is dissolved in 1 liter Ethyl Alcohol (95%). MT solution is mixed with 1 kg powdered feed (mixture of 50% normal feed plus 50% fish meal) for 10 to 15 minutes. The treated feed is left to dry. From prepared stock solution.
73 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. 23 Tilapia breeding hapas in pond. 24 Gathering tilapia breeders at regular intervals for egg collection purpose in the breeding hapa. Fig.
Farming of Tilapia Fig. 74 . Fig. 26 A series of round bottom plastic jars and flat trays for incubating the fertilized eggs/hatched fry with yolk sac. 25 Plastic vowels placed in a bamboo frame for separating the collected fertilized eggs having different colours (based on different age groups).
Nuanmane Pongthana). 28 The protocol for preparation and application of hormone mixed feeds for sex reversal of Nile tilapia fry (Courtesy: Dr. Fig. 75 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. 27 Separate flat trays where hatched larvae are kept until their yolk sac resorption stage is over.
Hapa size: 8 m x 2. Ponds should be rectangular size with two bypasses for water supply and evacuation.4 ha can be constructed following a well-planned engineering design for setting the nursery hapas.5 m x 0. Feeding of hormone mixed feeds to the early fry in nursery hapas At least one pond having an area of 0.2 m. At the end of transitory period fry are shifted to nursery feeding hapas by estimating their numbers (Figure 31). Water level in the tank: 60 cm. For the safety of the workers involved in hormone feed preparation should use hand gloves and face mask. Feeding rate: At satiation level. Number of fry in each hapa: 1. Duration of feeding: 3 days. Covered with fine meshed netting materials.50. Number of required hapas in each tank: 2.6 m.Farming of Tilapia For commercial operation automatic feed mixing machine can be used (Figure 29). Number of tanks: 4. Water quality of the tanks need to be maintained by regular exchange of fresh cool water (temperature 24 – 27oC).5 .75 m. Feeding hormone treated feed is initiated in these hapas. Feeding intensity: 4-6 times daily. Feeding of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in transitory tanks The system for feeding of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in transitory tanks (Figure 30) is briefly explained below: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Size of tank: 17 m x 3 m x 0. The depth of pond should be 1. Hapas can be installed in the pond and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles like 76 .000.
75 m Number of required hapas: 25 hapas Stocking density of fry in each hapa: 100. 77 . 000 Total number of stocked fry : Apprx. The protocol for feeding of hormone mixed feeds is shown in a flow diagram (Figure 33) and technique of application of feeds to the early fry in the nursery hapas is shown in Figure 34.8 m. At this stage the fry will be reared by feeding normal feeds (Table 6) until selling in separate nursery hapas in an earthen pond and their maintenance will be as below: • • • • • Hapa size: 8 m x 2. Storing: Monosex fry of 21 – 24 days old.5 m x 0.98% will be sex reversed male.5 million Feeding rate: 15-30% per estimated body weight Feeding intensity: 4-6 times daily Duration of feeding hormone mixed feeds: 18 -21 days Monosex all male fry production: Apprx.Farming of Tilapia breeding hapas or well designed hapa holding frame can be made over the pond using RCC construction as shown in Figure 32a and 32b. Nursery feeding rate: 8 . 3 Stocking density: 400 – 600 individuals/m . 2 million per month Water quality of the nursery hapa holding ponds need to be maintained by regular exchange of fresh cool water (temperature 24 – 27oC) Monosex fry storage and rearing for sale It is expected that after 21-24 days of feeding hormone mixed feeds to the fry 95 .5 m x 0. 2.2 weeks. The well designed fry feeding system for the production of all male monosex fry is summarized below: • • • • • • • • • Hapa size: 8 x 2. Rearing period: 1.10 % per estimated body weight.
the male gonad is composed of fine granular like structure of spermatogonia and the female is characterized with the structure of circular oogonia. YY males) by combining both sex-reversal and/or genetic manipulation of the sex determining system will once be the alternative choice of the commercial seed producers.5 g. 100 ml. 78 . The gonad is lightly squashed with a cover slip. sex can easily be identified manually by examining their urogenital papilla. The technique of aceto-carmine stain preparation is as follows: • • • Carmine (granular stain): 45% Acetic acid: Boil for 2 – 4 minutes.Farming of Tilapia (k) Sex identification technique in tilapia fry In tilapia fry/fingerlings larger than 20 –30 g.2. A protocol for sex identification in tilapia fry is shown in a flow diagram (Figure 35).2 Production of YY males and operation of monosex all male seed production system Direct hormonal masculinization might not appear to be a viable technique in tilapia and might have adverse environmental impacts or consumer reaction in near future. 7. Then the gonads are examined under the microscope. where the manual sexing is not useful. • • • • A sub-sample of fry are killed and dissected using a sharp pointed surgical scissor. But in case of early fry smaller than 2 g. The collected gonad is placed in a glass slide and a drop of acetocarmine stain is added on the gonad. The tiny thread-like gonad that lies along the anterodorsal abdominal cavity is removed using fine forceps. 0. in that case the indirect method of producing monosex all males (ie. an aceto-carmine squash technique is used as described by Guerrero and Shelton (1974). cool and filter.
29 Automatic hormone feed mixing machine. Fig. 79 . 30 The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in the transitory hapas.Farming of Tilapia Fig.
Farming of Tilapia Fig. 80 . 32a Hapas can be installed in the pond and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles for feeding hormone mixed feeds. 31 Manual counting of tilapia fry. Fig.
81 . Fig. Nuanmane Pongthana).Farming of Tilapia Fig. 32b Hapas can be installed and fixed with RCC frame made over the pond for feeding hormone mixed feeds. 33 The protocol for feeding of hormone mixed feeds (Courtesy: Dr.
34 The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the early fry in the nursery hapas. 82 . Fig. 35 The protocol for sex identification in tilapia fry (Courtesy: Dr. Nuanmane Pongthana).Farming of Tilapia Fig.
incubation and hatching of fertilized eggs are same as described in the section 5. storage and application of estrogen hormone mixed feeds The protocols for preparation. Hormone solution is mixed with 1 kg powdered feed (mixture of 50% normal feed plus 50% fish meal).Farming of Tilapia (a) Breeding and fry production for hormone treatment The protocols for breeding. Feed preparation technique is summarized below: • • • Hormone dose: 50-100 mg of 17β-oestrodiol is dissolve in 95% Ethyl Alcohol. Hormone mixed dry feeds are stored at room temperature or fridge at 4oC for maximum 7 days. (b) Preparation. (c) Protocols for production of all male monosex population using YY males It needs to go up to at least three generations to produce all male monosex population through this indirect method of sex reversal (Figure 36). egg collection. storage and application of estrogen hormone mixed feeds are more or less the same as the protocol of androgen hormone.2.1 of this chapter. The essential steps of the protocol are as follows: Production of F1 generation The first feeding fry are fed with estrogen hormone mixed feeds at the rate of 15-30% body weight 4 – 6 times daily for at least 21 days in a series of nursery hapas. It is expected that the sex reversed progeny will be about 83 . In this case 17β-oestrodiol hormone is used.
All male monosex fry rearing and sale About 100% monosex male fry produced by using YY males can be reared in the nursery hapas with normal feeding as per recommended rates for 25 – 30 days.Farming of Tilapia 100% female having XX and XY genotypes. The XY genotypic females can be termed as neofemales and need to be identified by progeny testing. precautions must be taken for breeding. 84 . YY genotypic males need to be identified by further progeny testing at their maturity. Fry will be ready to sell when they will be >1-2 g each. Production of F2 generation Sexually matured neofemales (XY genotype) can be crossed with normal female (XX genotype) to produce F2 generation of progeny. progeny testing and identifying carefully the YY genotypic males and preserved them separately in the system. In this case. The genotype ration of the produced generation are expected to be 1XX females: 2 XY males: 1 YY males (75% males and 25% females). Commercial production system of all male monosex population using YY males can be established and operated same as monosex seed production using androgen hormones. Production of F3 generation YY genotypic males can be crossed with normal females (XX genotype) to produce F3 generation of all males (XY genotypes). Among males. True breeding tilapia strains and highly experienced technician(s) are prerequisite for running such system for commercial seed production.
85 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. 36 The protocol of producing all male monosex population through the indirect method of sex reversal.
hilly creeks.04 – 0. Pond fertilization with urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) @ 50 kg in 1:1 ratio can be used before stocking of tilapia fingerlings. borrow pits. where average water depth remains 80 – 100 cm.08 ha (ie. backyard impoundments and ponds. dead river lagoons. 8.1 Because of the seasonal river flow and monsoon rains. The country has millions of small ponds. Ponds need to be filled with fresh water and water level can be remained at optimum. 34% of the country is considered to be wetlands that remain under water for at least 6 months of the year. Dykes should be repaired and free of unwanted vegetation. shallow marshy wetlands.8 – 1.1.1 Pond selection and preparation • • • • • • • 86 Seasonal pond is preferred having an area 0.25 m. The seasonal closed water areas particularly in the form of small natural depressions. 10 – 20 decimal) with average depth of 0. seasonal water fieldditches. Cattle dung or poultry manure can be applied on the bottom @ 2000 – 3000 kg per ha. Selected ponds should be dried.Farming of Tilapia 8 Development and operation of semi-intensive tilapia culture systems TILAPIA CULTURE IN SEASONAL DITCHES AND PONDS 8. Liming of pond bottom with 250 – 300 kg CaO or CaCo3 per ha. road side ditches. flooded paddy fields etc. are highly suitable for mixed or monosex farming of improved strain (s) of tilapia. . that all have potential for producing increased yields of fish through managed aquaculture practices.
Due to application of adequate 87 .20000 per ha. 8. In that case as many as possible of the fry must be removed by repeated netting (using fine mesh seine net) at 15 days intervals to avoid the problem of overpopulation. which can be used for tilapia fry rearing and culture.3 Fish harvesting and estimation of production • • After 4 – 6 months of grow out when the fish have the average weight of 150 -200 g.2 TILAPIA CULTURE IN RICE FIELDS Rice fields either irrigated or rain fed is the suitable plot. yields of 2500 – 3000 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop.2 Stocking of fry and pond management • • • • • Mixed or monosex tilapia fry of 10 – 15 g weight can be stocked in the prepared ditches or ponds @ 15000 . harvesting of fish can be made by repeated netting or drying out the ponds.Farming of Tilapia 8. Every month sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. regular fertilization can be made at 15 days intervals with cattle dung or poultry manure @ 800 – 1000 kg per hectare. Stocked fish need to be fed with rice polish @ 3 – 5% per estimated weight of biomass. To enhance the status of natural food in pond water. Under semi-intensive culture system.1.1. • 8. undesirable populations of tiny fry will be seen within 3 months of stocking. If the ponds are stocked with mixed sex tilapia. In well-managed ponds fish can be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7.
8.1 Selection of land • • • • Land should not be flood prone. 8. when water depth of the plot remains around 20 cm. Soil texture should be clay-loamy.Farming of Tilapia quantity of fertilizers and manures in the rice fields. Manures and fertilizers can be used as per recommended doses of rice plot preparation.3 Stocking of fish • • • 88 15 days after transplantation of rice seedlings.2. . in most cases supplementary feeding to growing fry and fish is not a prerequisite. The ditch size should be 3 – 4% of the rice plots.2. Super strain of GIFT) should be considered for stocking in the rice fields for better production. Improved strain of Nile tilapia (eg.15 g each can be stocked per hectare. About 4000 – 5000 tilapia fry (either mixed or monosex) having a weight of 10 . So. 8.2. the plot will be ready to stock tilapia fry. A small ditch (1 m deep) needs to be constructed at the lower part of the land. the available aquatic condition become rich enough in natural food to support fish growth.2 Preparation of land • • • • • Dyke around the land should be constructed at the height of 25 – 30 cm. Land should have irrigation facility. High land should always be avoided. Water depth in the rice plot should be at least 20 – 25 cm during culture period.
Normally feeding of fish is not required in the rice plots. It is recorded that about 300 – 350 kg of tilapia can be produced along with rice per ha of land per crop (Hussain and Koohinoor 2003).Farming of Tilapia 8. Dykes should be protected from rat and crab nesting. water hyacinth can be spread over the ditches to protect the growing fish.2.4 Overall management • • • • • • • • • • Optimum level of water in the rice plots should always be kept during culture period. Care should be taken to protect the incoming source of pesticide mixed water from nearby plots. During culture period rice plots can be fertilized with chemical fertilizers at recommended doses.5 Fish harvesting and estimation of production • Fish can only be harvested after sawing the rice from the plots. If necessary irrigation should be made at regular basis. Bamboo screens can be used at some places of the dykes to reduce the excess water level during heavy rainy season. Either netting or complete dewatering the rice plots. all the fish can be captured and yield can be estimated. 8. Special care should be taken that growing tilapia or naturally produced fry (in case of mixed sex stocking) cannot escape from the rice plots to nearby water bodies. Use of pesticides is prohibited in the rice plots during fish culture. but farmer can apply rice polish @ 2 – 3% per estimated weight of fish 5 days a week in the ditch area. 89 .2. During extreme hot weather.
1 Pond selection and preparation In this case. To enhance the status of natural food in pond water. polyculture of carp species in homestead perennial ponds is a traditional practice but the available small or medium seasonal water bodies also hold tremendous potential for culturing improved tilapia strain(s) along with various desirable carp species. Such kind of fish farming operation cannot only increase intake of animal protein for rural people but can also generate income and employment opportunities (Hussain et al. • • • 90 .2 Stocking of fish and pond management • • Mixed or monosex tilapia fry/fingerlings along with short cycle carp species viz. The species combination should be genetically improved tilapia strain 60%.3. silver barb.Farming of Tilapia 8. To initiate polyculture of tilapia with carp species in seasonal ponds and such type of water bodies the steps as mentioned below can be followed: 8. common/mirror carp 10% and silver carp 10%.3 POLYCULTURE OF TILAPIA WITH CARPS In a Southeast Asian country like Bangladesh.1.1. regular fertilization can be made at 15 days intervals with cattle dung or poultry manure @ 800 – 1000 kg per hectare. silver barb 20%. common/mirror carp 10% and silver carp 10% or improved tilapia strain 20%. pond selection and preparation procedures will also be same as section 8.3. The fish can be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7. silver barb 60%. common/mirror carp and silver carp can be stocked in the prepared ponds. 2000). 8. 2000). involving low inputs in terms of labour and costs and ensuring high production within a short period (4-6 months) of time (Hussain et al. The average weight of fry/fingerlings should be 10 – 15 g each and stocking density should be maintained 20000 fish per ha.
3. 8. it can be termed as a pen. 8. harvesting of fish can be made by repeated netting or drying out the ponds.4. • 8. Selected water bodies can be encircled or screened either by bamboo fencing or net made by knotless polyethylene net materials with a mesh between 10 – 15 mm.1 Site selection and setting the pens • • Large or small open water bodies which are not being used for fish culture can be selected. hilly creeks etc. is encircled or blocked by using bamboo screens or nylon nets.4 TILAPIA CULTURE IN PENS When a part of open water bodies like dead river basins. small streams. 91 . a yield of 3000 – 3500 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop. in that case as many as possible of the fry must be removed by repeated netting (using fine mesh seine net) at 15 days intervals to avoid the problem of over population. canals. Every month sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. common/mirror carp and silver carp attain the average weight of 500 – 600 g. Under semi-intensive culture system.3 Fish harvesting and estimation of production • Within 4 – 6 months of farming when the tilapia and silver barb will attain the average weight of 200 g. Tilapia can be cultured in these types of suitable pens comparatively keeping moderate or high density with or without feeding.Farming of Tilapia • • If the ponds are stocked with mixed sex tilapia. undesirable populations of tiny fry will be marked within 3 months of stocking.
It is roughly estimated that under a good management averagely 5-8 kg/ m3 can be harvested.2 Stocking of fish • • • All monosex tilapia fingerlings (10 – 15 g size) need to be stocked to avoid the risk of contamination and undesirable reproduction in the water bodies. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. 92 .Farming of Tilapia • The pen fencing should be fixed with strong bamboo or wooden poles having the enough height above the level of water to withstand wind pressure and water current. if any.4. 8.4. in that fish might not need artificial feeding. 8. If the stocking density remains >30 fish/ m3 and the water bodies seem to be productive.4. 8. Stocking density can be maintained @ 30 – 50 fish/m3. which might take 4-5 months. Water depth of the pens should be 1 – 3 m.3 Feeding • • • Fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight. Every 30 days sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.4 Harvesting and estimation of production • • Fish can be harvested when they attain the weight about 150 – 250 g. Fingerlings should be collected from a known source or a hatchery where pure breeds of Nile tilapia or its improved strain(s) are maintained.
5 cm (about 1 inch) per day. soils containing gravel or sand layers or rock strata formations should be avoided. A slightly depression type of land is ideal where simple dykes can be constructed easily and economically to hold adequate water depth. • • • 93 . which might require an inflow of water at least 3 liters per second/ha (Huet 1979).Farming of Tilapia 8. A neutral pH (6. Water source might be from rivers.5) of soil is desirable and acid sulphate soil needs to be avoided.1 Construction of Commercial Tilapia Farms (a) Site Selection For site selection of tilapia farms.5 – 7. Water: Any aquaculture operation generally needs a good quantity and good quality of water. underground). It is roughly estimated that evaporation of water can reach on an average 2. irrigation canals. the important factors to be considered are as below: • Soils: Soils with more than 20% clay are essential to reduce the loss of water by seepage.5. herbicides.5 TILAPIA CULTURE IN PONDS UNDER COMMERCIAL FARMING MANAGEMENT 8. Any sort of water that will be used for fish farms must not be contaminated with toxic chemicals such pesticides. Water loss in a pond through evaporation is a common fact in both tropical and sub-tropical climates. heavy metals and organic matter. reservoirs and shallow or deep tube wells (ie. Topography: Pond construction lay out should be made on the basis of favorable topographical conditions.
Rearing pond for advanced fry/fingerlings: c. In such case. (b) Pond Design After finalization of site selection. ponds can be made both with outlet and inlet by pass facilities for supply and evacuation of water. average depth for tilapia farm might be as below: a. mechanical excavators etc. 94 . can be used for digging ponds and transporting soils for constructing dikes. Nursery pond for early fry: b. The slope for outside angle of the dike should be 1:1 to 1:1. Manual laborers.25 1.5 to 2. The dike must be some 30-40 cm above the surface of water for small ponds and 50-60 cm for large ponds.5 and on the inside slope about 1:2. The following principles can be followed to construct an ideal dike: Width of the dike at the top should be equal to its height but should be never less than 1 m wide. For small pond it can be reduced to 1:1.0 m to 1.Farming of Tilapia If the ground is completely flat type. which include: • Pond depth: Depth of a pond should be kept on the basis of type of fishes as well as pattern of culture systems. bulldozers. Grow-out ponds: • 08 to 1. A well-designed farm might consist various types of ponds having all essential components. completely new ponds need to be constructed. Generally. the farm area should be marked as per engineering design.0 m 1.0 m The dike construction: Building a solid and seepage protected earthen wall or dike is one of the most important task of pond construction to keep enough water for planned fish production.
and also a vertical branch or so called monk. which regulates the required level of water as well as draining of water at the time of urgency and harvesting period of fish in a pond (Figure 37). (c) Arrangement of ponds and layout of a farm Most ideal arrangement of ponds of a farm should include one or two or multiple series of parallel ponds having two bypasses. Two or three parallel groves are made using “U” shaped iron rod or cutting the concrete for making the placing of screen and wooden boards (20-30 cm high and 4-6 cm thick).Farming of Tilapia When dike construction is complete. The emptying device consists of a horizontal channel or drainage pipe running the full length of the foot of the dike.5.2 Operation and Management of Commercial Tilapia Farms (a) Area of farms Area of commercial tilapia farms can vary from 3 to 25 ha. 8. • Draining installation (the monk): In a pond the monk is a part of dike. Each pond should have its own independent supply and evacuation facilities (Figure 38). (Figure 39). it can be covered with the topsoil and turf or soft grasses. which depends on production target and management system. quadrangular in shape 40-60 cm wide (also depends on the area of the pond) open on one side of front. Typical farm areas might be as follows: • • • Small farm: Medium farm: Large farm: 3 – 5 ha 7 – 10 ha 15 – 25 ha 95 . The monk is normally built in concrete and should reach at least 30-40 cm above the level of water.
Cattle dung or poultry manure can be applied on the bottom @ 2000 – 3000 kg per ha. 96 . undesirable populations of tiny fry will be marked within 3 months of stocking. • (d) Water quality monitoring Water quality in tilapia farm should be monitored every week using HACH kit or other electronic equipments. Every month sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. (c) Stocking of fry and post stocking management • • • • • Mixed or monosex tilapia fry of 10 – 15 g weight can be stocked in the well prepared ponds @ 25000 – 30000 per ha. regular fertilization can be made at 15 days intervals with cattle dung or poultry manure @ 800 – 1000 kg per hectare. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. Pond fertilization with urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) @ 50 kg in 1:1 ratio can be used before stocking of tilapia fingerlings. Fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight. Ponds need to be filled with fresh water and water level can be remained at optimum. If the ponds are stocked with mixed sex tilapia. In that case as many fry as possible must be removed by repeated netting (using fine mesh seine net) at 15 days intervals to avoid the problem of over population.Farming of Tilapia (b) Grow out pond preparation: liming and fertilization • • • • Liming of pond bottom should be with 250 – 300 kg CaO or CaCo3 per ha. To enhance the status of natural food in pond water.
5. (g) Fish harvesting and estimation of production • • Within 4 – 6 months of farming when the fish having the average weight of 200 g. harvesting of fish can be made by repeated netting or drying out the ponds. yield of 4000 – 6000 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop. desirable water quality parameters are: • • • • • • • pH: Dissolved Oxygen: Free Carbon Dioxide: Total Alkalinity: Total Hardness: Temperature: Salinity: 6.0 3.0 to 12 mg/L 10. 8.00 ppt (e) Water supply and aeration A regular water supply (twice a week) needs to be available in the grow out ponds just to fill up the level.Farming of Tilapia For good fish growth of tilapias.0 to 100. to compensate for evaporation. Under such type of semi-intensive culture system.0 mg/L 25.0 mg/L 50.5 to 9.0 oC 1.3 Option for commercial tilapia farming in ponds under the management of high stoking density In commercial farms tilapia can be cultured even under high stocking density provided simple paddle wheel type of aerators are set in the ponds 97 .0 to 15.0 to 30.0 mg/L 5.0 to 8.0 to 250. (f) Culture period • 120 – 180 days.
under semiintensive culture management. Proportion (%) Fish meal 20.000 – 20.00 5. 8. Farm areas close to the sea and exposed to strong waves should be avoided.5.00 98 . In that case input cost will be high due to running aerators (the cost the machine and electric bills) but production of marketable size fish can reach up to 15.000 kg per ha per crop.000 per ha. Under such type of farming management. Stocking density of advanced fry/fingerlings should be maintained @ 80.Farming of Tilapia (at least two aerators in 1 ha pond) for aeration of water to add more oxygen (Figure 40). A range of at least 0.90 25. Formulated feed for feeding tilapia under semi-intensive system in the grow out ponds (Hoq et al.00 Rice polish 40. a yield of 3000 – 4000 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop.6 meter between mean high tide and mean low tide is necessary to ensure adequate tidal water flow (Guerrero 1997).00 Wheat bran 20. In brackish water farms.00 Total 100 Cost per kg feed: US$ 0.000 – 100.40 4.0 Feed ingredients Crude protein (%) 12. Table 7. liming and fertilization procedure will be same as above. Brackish water enclosures are extremely suitable for tilapia culture either by extensive or semi-intensive type of management.00 Molasses 5. so the fish can nicely be cultured in brackish water ponds with a salinity range of 10 – 15 ppt without any stress. 2003).90 2. the grow out pond preparation.21 (Taka 13).00 Mustard oilcake 15. FCR: 2. Alternate cropping of tilapia in shrimp farms has recently been introduced in the coastal belt of Bangladesh as a means of reducing the risk of shrimp disease outbreak.4 Option for commercial tilapia farming in brackish water ponds As tilapia can tolerate salinities up to 25 ppt with gradual acclimation.
they should be kept for few days in a series of tanks or small ponds for prophylactic treatment. partial harvesting of grow out fish (about 150 g weight each) can be followed to reduce the load of biomass per unit area of ponds. The main inputs needed are good water.5.5 Overall management of commercial tilapia farms Like aquaculture of other commercially important fish species. fry should be grown up to a suitable size (at least 10 – 15 g).Farming of Tilapia 8. • 99 . feeds and fertilizers. where regular maintenance of the ponds and farms requires various types of manpower but mostly labor. If the fry are taken from other sources. The operation of such types of farming is also labor intensive. commercial tilapia farming is capital intensive. quality seeds. good capital investment is a prerequisite for obtaining maximum profits from commercial fish farming and the overall management options as below can be considered: • • A commercial farm should have the opportunity to produce the required quantity of quality fry (both mixed and monosex) in the available nursery ponds or procure such fry from reliable hatcheries Before stocking. In high density stocking ponds. Therefore.
Farming of Tilapia Fig. 100 . 37 The monk in a pond Fig. 1992). 38 A typical layout of a fish farm (Bromage et al.
101 . Fig. Alam). M. 40 Simple paddle wheel type of aerators set in the ponds for aeration of water to add more oxygen. 39 View of a commercial fish farm (Courtesy: Dr.J.Farming of Tilapia Fig.
tolerance to wide range of environmental conditions. which make them feasible for farming under various culture systems. Bangladesh has more water resources per capita than most other countries of the world and demand of fish for consumption and export is very high. The time is not very far off when intensive farming of commercially important fish species particularly tilapias will take the place in aquaculture due to limited land and other resources. tilapias are the most suitable candidates for intensive culture in cages and raceways due to their amenability to intensification. resistance to infectious diseases and poor water quality. viz. tanks and raceways. In view of that an attempt has been made to narrate briefly the available techniques of tilapia culture in the cages. Among the desirable cultivable finfishes. for the international and domestic markets. tilapia has tremendous prospects to be considered as a number one protein food item. therefore. 102 . Many entrepreneurs might come forward in near future to initiate developing the high input and high cost systems for tilapia farming in this country. Because.1 It is mentioned in the first chapter of this book that commercially important tilapia species or strains have some special characteristics. ease of seed production.Farming of Tilapia 9 Development and operation of intensive tilapia culture systems THE SUITABILITY OF TILAPIA FOR INTENSIVE CULTURE 9. the aquaculture industry is booming day by day. efficiency to convert organic and agricultural wastes in to high quality protein and ability to grow well at high stocking and overcrowding situations.
Farming of Tilapia
TILAPIA CULTURE IN CAGES
Among intensive culture methods, cage culture is one by which the farmer can stock a large number of fish, control over feeding, minimize unwanted reproduction, harvest easily and obtain maximum profit from per unit area. It permits the more intensive exploitation of a water system with a low capital expenditure. The method can be utilized minimal infrastructural requirements and the ease of management lends the system to intensification (Balarin and Haller 1982). Various materials viz. simple bamboo poles and nylon nets, plastic and steel materials etc., can be used to construct cages for tilapia culture. Very large operations have been developed in the Philippines and Indonesia based on cage culture of respectively tilapias and common carps that provide jobs for thousands as members of cooperatives or employees of companies and food for local consumption and for international trade (Fitzsimmons, 1997). Cage culture of tilapia has also been attempted commercially or experimentally in other countries viz. Brazil, China, Cote d’Ivoire, El Salvador, Guatemala, Israel, Indonesia, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Niger, Sri Lanka and USA. In Bangladesh, Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation (BFDC) was the pioneer to initiate experimental cage culture of Nile tilapia in Kaptai Lake, Ragamati some time during 80’s but no production data is available. Subsequently CARE, Bangladesh conducted grow-out trials of GIFT strain in cages at Meghna river lagoon area near Munshiganj during 90’s (Hussain et al. 2000). Even, meanwhile, CARE implemented a CAGES project for more than 5 years with limited success as potential livelihood option in different places of Bangladesh. Recently a number of private entrepreneurs have initiated tilapia cage culture at Meghna river canals near Chandpur. As public water bodies like reservoirs, river lagoons, lakes, irrigation canals, deep borrow pits, estuaries, coastal bays including perennial natural depressions, and village ponds etc. are suitable for cage culture, therefore, small or large scale operation of tilapia culture in cages in these or other selected suitable water bodies has a bright future to play an important role in aquaculture.
Farming of Tilapia
9.2.1 Site selection
• • • • Dead rivers, lagoons, deepwater lakes, protected irrigation canals, creeks, deep ponds, borrow pits, closed coastal bays can be selected. Optimum water depth of a water body should be 4 – 10 m. The site should be free from remains of trees and other debris. The sites should be out of the reach of heavy flood, high tides and cyclones etc.
9.2.2 Construction and setting of net cages (a) Essential materials for constructing a floating net cage
• • • • • • • Bamboo pieces Styrofoam blocks Empty Drums Nylon nets with a mesh size of 15 – 25 mm Wood pieces Plastic ropes Iron nails
(b) Construction of the raft
• Bamboo pieces need to be arranged to make a square raft and drums should be fixed and set underneath of the raft so that drums can float the raft.
(c) Making the net cage
Net materials (mesh size 15 – 25 mm) should be cut and fixed by sewing the ends with plastic ropes to form a square net. Various sizes of net can be considered viz. 1 x 1 x1 m; 2 x 2 x 2.0 m; 4 x 4 x 2.5 m; 6 x 6 x 2.5 m; 8 x 8 x 2.5 m.
Farming of Tilapia
(d) Setting the net cage with the raft
• • • • • The net can be attached to the floating raft by binding the net to bamboo poles fixed at equal distances to the raft. Weights (2 kg) need to be fixed and hung around the bottom of the net to stretch the net into a square. The floating rafts with net cages can be set in one or two series to form a battery of cages for large-scale operation (Figure 41). A wooden or bamboo platform can be constructed along the series of rafts to allow feeding trolleys, sampling equipment/buckets and harvesting nets etc. to be carried. The rafts with net cages finally need to be anchored strongly to the shore or bottom.
(e) Stocking of fish
• • Mixed or monosex tilapia fingerlings weighing 20 – 30 g can be procured for stocking in the net cages. Stocking density can be maintained at 200 – 400 individuals/m3.
(f) Feeds and feeding
• • • Fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. Every 2 weeks sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.
(g) Culture duration
• Duration of tilapia culture in cages should range between 90 – 150 days.
Dead and sick fish should always be removed from the cages.Farming of Tilapia (h) Harvesting of fish and expected production • • Fish weighing on an average about 200 g can be harvested by using dip or push net or by lifting the cages and transferred to bamboo baskets or plastic buckets. Nuanmane Pongthana).. Fig.3 Overall management of tilapia culture in floating cages • • 106 Water quality and fish health in the cages needs to be monitored regularly.2. Under such intensive system of cage culture expected tilapia production will be 30 – 70 kg/m3 (averagely 50 kg/m3). 9. . The tilapia cage culture information and production data of different countries are summarized in Table 8. 41 The floating rafts with net cages for intensive tilapia culture (Courtesy: Dr.
(1997) Ita (1976) Jordan & Pagan (1973) Pagan (1970) Suwanasart (1971) 9.24:1 Reference Hussain et al.6 63. it is better to stop feeding until the next day.68 100.9 2. Available data on tilapia cage culture in different countries (Revised after Balarin and Haller 1982) Countries Bangladesh China Philippines Cote d’Ivoire Niger Nigeria Puerto Rico USA USA Species O.7:1 2.niloticus O.64 17.niloticus) O.7:1 2.3 TILAPIA CULTURE IN TANKS AND RACEWAYS Intensive culture of tilapias like salmonids in the recirculating or flow through tanks/raceways is one of the preferred techniques for large-scale commercial production.9 1.63.aureus O. mossambicus x O. At every harvest. Security of the cages needs to be ensured to avoid poaching and escapement of fish during windy or stormy weather as well as during monsoon months.353.2:1 1.niloticus Hybrid (O.21. If the stocked fish show any attempt of jumping out.galilaeus O.. High water exchange is 107 . Table 8.niloticus S.aureus no.niloticus O.zillii 0.30 66. the nets need to taken out from the raft to remove the algae scum and sun dried before using further.0 35-76 68.63:1 12.4:1 1.5-85 FCR 1. Important processes in such systems are the removal of solids and dissolved metabolites.Farming of Tilapia • • • • If the growing fish do not take feed particularly in rainy or cloudy days. These practices ensure high yield per unit area and/or unit volume of water.aureus O. (2000) Guerrero (1997) Guerrero (1997) Coche (1975) Mikolasek et al.niloticus T./m 350 300400 200 215488 264 256 300500 286857 487 3 Duration (days) 120 96 103 92 210 171 70 156 87 Production 3 kg/m 30.43 17-23 35-94. in that case lids made of fine mesh nets can be used over each net cage.
9. 8. These systems are especially attractive in areas that can recover the effluent water from these farm operations to use for field crop irrigation and can be used as good source of fertilizers (Fitzsimmons 1997).0 – 20. generally wider than raceways (Figure 42). intensive tank and raceway culture requires water treatment and recirculation (Cole et al.0 – 50. In water-limited areas.0 m. Experimental or active rearing of tilapia in tanks has been reported from a number of countries (Table 9) and use of raceways reported from a few countries (Table 10) of the world. • Stable electricity. In tanks and raceways tilapias are cultured under crowded conditions. Shape of the tanks can be circular. Rectangular size of individual tank may vary from 10. • Enough water supply source either from underground or other surface water source like rivers. • Road access for all weather for supply of products and services.0 m wide with a depth of 0. 10 m diameter circular tank (10 t unit) is considered as the most economic size and self-cleaning for tilapia production 108 .3. square.1 Tilapia culture in tanks (a) Site selection Before initiating the construction of rearing or growing tanks for commercial tilapia production systems.8 – 1. 1997).0 m long. • Market access of products. (b) Design and characteristics of the tanks • • • • Cemented tanks are suitable for intensive tilapia culture. canals or reservoirs. the following factors need to be considered for site selection: • Site should be flood free and nearby tilapia hatcheries. rectangular or oval.Farming of Tilapia needed for this purpose.
Tanks should be adaptable to fry rearing. K. 109 . (d) Feeds and feeding • • Fish in the grow out tanks can be fed with formulated feeds (Table 7) @ 3% per estimated body weight 3 . maximize the requirement of oxygen of growing fish and provide rapid expulsion of solid wastes and faecal materials through the central drain (Balarin and Haller 1982). 42 The cemented tanks for intensive tilapia culture (Courtesy: Mr.Farming of Tilapia • • • An intensive tilapia culture tank is required to have a demand feeder. Y. Fig. on growing and fattening of desired numbers of fish. so that water can be made useful to maintain a high water quality. The cost and construction complexity of tanks should be low and the system should have access to water recirculation and aeration. (c) Stocking of fish • For fattening tilapia fingerlings weighing 25 -50 g can be stocked @ 200 – 250 fish/m3 in the tanks in order to achieve the enhanced individual growth to produce larger fish. Thai). Every 2 weeks.4 times daily. a low flow to velocity ratio. sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.
Countries Beligium Kenya Malaysia Scotland Taiwan USA Species O. niloticus O. enough water supplies either from underground or other surface water source should be ensured.3.aureus no. (f) Harvesting of fish and expected production • • Fish weighing 200 – 250 g can be harvested by using dip or push net or by dewatering the tanks.9 1. Available data on tilapia culture in tanks in different countries (Revised after Balarin and Haller 1982).aureus hybrid O.5 3 Duration (days) 170-200 150 120 150 150 125 Production 3 kg/m >30 50 30 32.2 Tilapia culture in raceways (a) Site selection • Site selection criteria for commercial tilapia culture in raceways under intensive system are similar like tank culture.Farming of Tilapia Table 9./m 100800 200250 23 90 200250 12. niloticus x O. 110 .5:1 Reference Melard & Philippart (1980) Balarin & Haller (1979) Guerrero 1989 McAndrew (cited by Balarin & Haller 1982) Sports (1983) Lauenstein (1978) (e) Duration of culture • Fattening of large fish: 120 – 150 days.4 112 16-24 FCR 2:1 2:1 1. In both cases. niloticus x O. Expected production will be around 50 kg/m3. niloticus Male red tilapia O. 9.aureus O.
Raceways can be used both for fry rearing and fattening large fish. Recirculation system to reuse the available water can minimize the input costs of raceway operation without harming the production of tilapia. Continuous flow of water supply need to be ensured for each series of raceways and excess water should be out through the outlet drains fitted with fish protecting screens. 43 The raceways for intensive tilapia culture.0 m.75 – 1.Farming of Tilapia (b) Design and characteristics of the raceways • • • • • • • • • Raceways are rectangular in shape having both inlet and outlet facilities. 2. Fig. Most ideal arrangement of raceways should include single or double or multiple series of parallel ponds.0 m wide with a depth of 0. Size of individual raceway may vary from 15 – 30 m long. Construction can be made either by concrete or earth.5 – 3. Each raceway should have its own independent supply and evacuation facilities (Figure 43). Although the capital expenditure will be greater than in some other installations but the maintenance costs will be lower (Stevenson 1980). 111 . in most cases cemented raceways are used for fry/fingerling rearing and fattening of large fish. In many ways raceways are easier to manage and maintain than tanks.
niloticus O.6 16-64 35-150 FCR 1. niloticus O. Every 2 weeks.Farming of Tilapia (c) Stocking of fish • Tilapia fingerlings weighing 25 -30 g can be stocked @ 150 – 300 fish/m3 in the raceways for fattening purpose.5:1 Reference Uchida & King (1962) Balarin & Haller (1979) Balarin & Haller (1979) Lauenstein (1978) Lauenstein (1978) 112 . Available data on tilapia culture in raceways in different countries (Revised after Balarin and Haller 1982) Countries Hawaii Kenya Kenya USA USA Species O. fish weighing 200 – 250 g can be harvested. sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. Table 10. mossambicus O. aureus no. (f) Harvesting of fish and expected production • • By using dip or push net or by dewatering the raceways. (e) Feeds and feeding • • Fish in the grow out tanks can be fed with formulated feeds (Table 7) @ 3% per estimated body weight 3 .5 35. (d) Duration of culture • Fattening of large fish: 120 – 150 days./m 10002800 1650 1000 6502500 100400 3 Duration (daya 90 40-50 40-50 60 150 Production 3 kg/m 5.60 kg/m3. aureus O.6 9. Expected production will be 40 .4 times daily.
fish diseases may occur frequently. So. but when water quality is good and supplementing of artificial feed is adequate. proper management and care of fishponds are a must. it become less probability to develop sickness and diseases. marked by heavy losses in fish population. there should be doubt about diseases. which are expressed by some symptoms as follows. etc. The presence of parasites may cause the fish to try dislodging them on vegetation. In intensive fish farming practice. erratically swimming. even sufficient to kill the entire crop.1.1 Changes in behavior Fish in good health is only seen during the time of feeding or playing but when the fish is found always gasping together at the surface or near the incoming water supply.Farming of Tilapia 10 Diseases and parasites of tilapia and their control measures 10. 113 . Observing their abnormal physiological conditions. discomfort. High production levels and population densities in fish farming ponds might have a chance of increasing the probability of a variety of diseases. In this regard for preventing unnecessary death and losses of fish population occurred by epidemic infectious diseases.1 OCCURRENCE OF DISEASES IN FISH AND THEIR COMMON SYMPTOMS Diseases and parasites often become problematic when animals are crowded or reared closely in confined places. can easily identify infected fish in ponds: 10. These diseases can be acute. Infected fish also shows other symptoms. such as loss of balance. precaution is the better way of disease control.
etc. Treatment must be effective in controlling the suspected parasites and diseases in fish farming ponds.3 Failure to feed Under good water quality. Many of the diseases affecting fish have similar symptoms. bulging and blind eyes. 10. healthy fish normally feed when food is provided in water. inflamed abdomen. Otherwise.Farming of Tilapia 10. After that before beginning any treatment some other essential steps are to be considered like a) knowing the exact volume of water. body and fins. some abnormal physical sign ultimately develop. swollen and pale gills. a long thin body is the sign that the fish have not been feeding well. But when they become sick.2 Abnormal physical signs Fish without any infection become physically clean and fresh. hemorrhagic areas on the head. But sickness in fish may cause to stop feeding themselves. which is the first step towards control. it is necessary to identify these diseases accurately.excessive mucus over the skin. Certain parasitic infections act slowly and may cause emaciation long before death. c) knowing about the content of toxicity of the chemicals in relation to fish species. cysts in the skin. Because susceptibility of fish to chemicals varies with the species and age of the fish and with the volume of water. for instance. A gaunt belly. The above information should be known before the chemicals are applied. Using any drug or chemical without following the suggested levels is worthless and in some cases become dangerous to fish health.1. 114 . So. muscles or internal organs and lesions on the several part of the body. a tight skin over the head.1. valuable energy and a large number of fish might be unnecessarily lost. it will usually mean that during this time a lot of money. b) knowing about the life history of fishes.
0 ppm) or Malachite green (0. Treatment: Several types of chemicals can be used for the treatment of fin rot infection of fish in ponds. Fish are infected by the disease in a pond. tilapia and other susceptible species of fishes (Figure 44).1 Bacterial Diseases (a) Myxobacterial infections Among the diseases caused by bacteria. The rot starts first at the dorsal or caudal fins. such as Copper sulphate (0.1 ppm) or Formalin (25 ppm). then spreads over the body surface.Farming of Tilapia 10. listlessness and fatigue. It is also believed that the disease might be caused primarily by the bacterium Aeromonas punctata and secondarily by 115 . Dip or Bath treatment: The infected fish are treated by dipping them in the solution of Copper sulphate (250 ppm) for one minute or Formalin (250 ppm) for one hour. Fish show discomfort. The abdominal dropsy in fish probably arises from the action of both bacteria and viruses.2 THE MOST COMMON DISEASES OF TILAPIA AND THEIR TREATMENT The most common diseases and parasites of tilapia and their possible treatments are briefly described below: 10.2.05 to 0. the most common myxobacterial infection is “fin rot”. transferred or become wounded or they are reared in crowded conditions. Any one of the chemicals should be applied at every alternative day for 3-4 times to control the disease. which becomes necrotic and sloughs off gradually. when they are roughly handled. (b) Abdominal dropsy The disease is caused by accumulation of dropsy fluid in the abdominal cavity of carp.5 to 1.
erratically swimming and discomfortness. mostly attached to the gills and skin of the fish. becoming dangerous by growing in number within a very short period and sufficient to kill even plenty of large fish.2 Parasitic Diseases (a) Chilodonella sp. the fluid of the abdomen can be taken out by a hypodermic needle with syringe. a tendency to stay 116 . Fig. Attachment of the parasite is associated with body lesions. Among the surgical treatment. The best preventive measure against the dropsy is to liming and drying out the ponds at every alternative year before stocking. discomfort. the infected fish generally start to die.Farming of Tilapia viruses. This is a protozoan parasite. At high water temperature. Treatment: The infected fish can be treated by applying antibiotic Oxytetracycline or Streptomycin or Chlorampheniocol at the rate of 1 mg per 100 g of fish. The body of the parasite is dorsoventrally flattened. erratic swimming. 44 Abdominal dropsy in tilapia.2. belonging to the genus Chilodonella. Diseased fish exhibit extreme inflammation of abdomen. pale colour of the gills. 10. the dorsal side is swollen and the ventral side is partially ciliated (Figure 45). heart shaped.
Farming of Tilapia
near the incoming water supply and occurrence of a higher rate of fish mortality. Chilodonella sp. is generally active to cause disease in tilapia fry fingerlings at the temperature below 20 OC. Chilodonelliasis is a common parasitic disease in tilapia fry and fingerlings during the cold season (Hussain 1988).
Fig. 45 Protozoan parasite Chilodonella sp. (Sarig 1971).
Treatment: The pond should be treated by Potassium permanganate (3-5 ppm), Formalin (25 ppm), Methylene blue (3 ppm), Malachite green (0.10.15 ppm). Any one of these chemicals should be applied every alternative day for 2-3 times. Dip or Bath treatment: The infected fish may be treated by dipping them in solution of Potassium permanganate (10 ppm) for one hour. For prevention of the disease, every alternative year ponds should be disinfected by liming just before releasing the fish.
Farming of Tilapia
(b) Trichodina sp.
This protozoan parasite belongs to the genus Trichodina (Figure 46). The infections caused by this type of parasite occur at the site of gills and skin, sometimes dangerous to breakdown the normal physiological conditions of the pond fishes, causing a serious anemia to fry and fingerling fish, finally leading to death. The infected fish exhibit irregular white patches, frayed fins, become sluggish and fail to feed. Trichodiniasis is also a common parasitic disease in tilapia fry and fingerlings during the winter season (Hussain 1988).
Fig. 46 Protozoan parasite Trichodina sp. (Hoffman and Meyer 1974).
Treatment: Treatment in ponds can be carried out by applying Malachite green (0.1-0.15 ppm), Formalin (25 ppm) or Sodium Chloride (200 ppm) for only one time. Dip or Bath treatment: The diseased fish can be bathed by Malachite green (1.25-5.0 ppm) or Formalin (250 ppm) for half an hour.
Farming of Tilapia
(c) Myxobolus sp.
These protozoan parasites belong to the genus Myxobolus, which cause infections in gills of susceptible species of fishes. White cysts are appeared in the muscles and below the tissues. Diseased fish develop a thickened epithelium and excessive mucus on the gill regions. Treatment: No treatment is yet been carried out by the chemicals to control the disease. Necessary precautions can be taken for disinfections by liming and drying of ponds.
(d) Argulus sp.
The argulus or fish lice are copepods, and adhere to the body of the fish by means of its suckers and extremities. The parasite has a flattened, often pinkish or reddish disc like body, but lives on the surface of the fish or in the mouth of gill cavity (Figure 47). Infected fish show discomfort, erratic swimming and in the case of a serious infection the fish may stop feeding.
Fig. 47 Fish lice Argulas sp. (Sarig 1971)
Any one of these chemicals may be applied once a week for at least 4 weeks. The lernaea or anchor parasite is sometime dangerous to fry and fingerling fish and can cause their early death by leading to an anemic physiological condition.5-1. The parasite cannot be easily removed because of the anchor.25 ppm). grass stems. The parasite resembles a shaft of a small barb inserted into the flesh of the fish. Dip or Batch treatment: The infected fish can be treated by dipping in the solution of Potassium permanganate (10 ppm) or Sodium chloride (5%) for half an hour. Malathion (0.25 ppm once in a week for at least 4 weeks. The infected fish show discomfort. Dip or Bath treatment: The infected fish may be bathed in the solution of Potassium permanganate (10 ppm) or Sodium chloride (5%).0 ppm) or Sodium chloride (1. (e) Lernaea sp.Farming of Tilapia Treatment: For pond treatment Mesoten or Dylox may be applied at the rate of 0. which lead to secondary fungus and bacterial infections. Potassium permanganate (3-5 ppm). Treatment: The pond should be treated by Mesoten or Dylox (0. etc.15-0. Their attachment is associated with hemorrhagic reactions in all surfaces of the body. often rubbing their body surface against the bottoms. 120 . A preventive measure is to dry out ponds at every alternative year.5%).
fish are kept with ice (ice to fish ratio 1:3) in bamboo baskets having inner 121 . 11. they are bound to purchase tilapias and Chinese carp species. In this part of the world. Live tilapias can also be shifted in plastic bags with oxygenated water like fish fry/fingerling transportation.Farming of Tilapia 11 Marketing of tilapia 11. It is obvious that rich people always prefer large size and poor people due to their financial incapability go for medium and smaller size for the cheaper price. tilapias are marketed fresh or frozen. who might prefer different size grade tilapia. The harvested fish need to be kept alive for washing in the holding tanks with the inflowing cold water before their shifting and processing for the market (Figure 48). catfish and other small species as food fish but due to their unavailability and extremely high price in the domestic market. Crushed ice is used for processing fresh tilapias for market.1. Many consumers prefer live tilapia like catfish. So. there are multi various purchasers of different income levels. Consumers of this country normally used to like indigenous carps. Pick up vans having fiberglass tanks can be used for live fish transportation. shrimp. In this case.1 DEMAND OF TILAPIA IN THE DOMESTIC MARKETS Tilapias are becoming popular fish recently among the traders due to their suitability for selling any size (fingerling to adult) in the domestic market of Bangladesh and other South-east Asian countries.1 Post harvest handling of tilapia In many developing countries of South-east Asia. it is essential to handle the fish carefully at harvest to ascertain their freshness and quality for good market price.
11. in Bangladesh tilapias are sold in the domestic markets following the distribution channel of fish trade as below: • • • • Primary Market: Rural market. Higher Secondary Market: Market at the towns and cities also operated by commission agents and fish are sold to second distributors. Thana Headquarters) operated by the commission agents and fish are sold and packet for shifting to urban markets.1. Secondary Market: Market nearby the administrative unit headquarters (ie. Ministry of Local Government through its municipalities controls only the wholesale and retail markets in most of the cities and towns. no adequate drainage and cleaning facilities.Farming of Tilapia side rapped with polythene sheet or Styrofoam boxes for transportation to local markets or distant places. Final Consumers Market: The second distributors sell the fish to retailers to make them available in the retailing markets for the consumers (Figure 49). Conditions of municipal markets are not also at the mark for controlling hygienic aspects of fish. 11. These centers are unhygienic and poor. 122 .2 Domestic marketing systems Like other fishes. Private fish traders are the dominant groups who control the major landing centers in the rural and urban areas. there is no particular auction and packing sheds.1. where the brokers are engaged to sell the fish to the small and medium traders by collecting them from the village ponds/farms.3 Present status of domestic wholesale and retail market conditions The overall fish landing facilities and wholesale markets are not well established all over Bangladesh.
K. 48 Washing of harvested live tilapias in the holding tank with the inflowing cool water before marketing (Courtesy: Mr. Tilapias in the retailing fish market for the consumers (Courtesy: Mr. 49. Thai). Y. Y. 123 . Thai). K. Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig.
In developed countries. These have become third preferred fish like channel catfish after shrimp and salmon in the United States. Colombia.5 times higher than normal colored tilapias. Jamaica. Singapore. for market diversification both in the country and abroad the following points need to be considered: • • 124 Tilapia farming should be expanded and bank credits need to be provided to the interested farmers/entrepreneurs. Accurate data on global trade for tilapia are not readily available. There is a growing demand of tilapia fillets produced from large sized fish (0. USA and Canada. Israel and Taiwan are the two countries from where majority of tilapias are being exported in the global markets. Israel alone exports more than 60% of total supply to the markets of USA. Venezuela and Ecuador. . Particularly in Japan. tilapia fillet might be the choice of consumers. therefore. only suitable for ethnic markets and their traditional markets have been in Africa and Asia for a long time. Bangladesh could be in the same line to export tilapias like shrimp to the world markets. Thailand.6 to 1 kg) in Japan. Price of colored tilapia is 1. tilapias are recently considered as attractive menu items. farmers get less price at the farm gate. Israel. As the fish producers ie. Many entrepreneurs are coming forward to Bangladesh to initiate commercial tilapia farming and invest money for filleting tilapias for export. Indonesia. so they are not getting enough profit from tilapia culture. But recently tilapias have also obtained consumer recognition in the USA and to some extend in Europe and around the world (Vannuccini 1998). Philippines.Farming of Tilapia 11. It is reported that the major exporting countries are Taiwan. 2 DEMAND OF TILAPIA IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKETS In most of the chain restaurants. Large or medium sized red or blue (Nile tilapia) strains can either be filleted or packet in icebox freshly for export marketing. In view of this. which were once accepted as low value fish. the fillets of the Nile and red tilapias are used for raw fish gourmet dishes as sashimi and excellent substitutes for the high priced red sea bream (Guerrero 1997). Costa Rica.
125 . in particularly filleting. washing. Appropriate policies and strategies need to be formulated and adopted by the Government for commercial farming of tilapias and their export. concrete sheds. ice packing and canning industries should be encouraged and supported. Ancillary market facilities like road networks. It is obvious that international regulations need to be strictly followed for processing of tilapias for export. packing and preservation facilities. Tilapia processing industries. holding tanks for keeping live fish and nice display facilities need to be created.Farming of Tilapia • • • Government should fix the farm gate price of the fish like rice and other food grains.
12. the Philippines government selected tilapia for development because of its potential to benefit resource poor farmers as well as commercial growers. The Philippines has recently become one of the largest producers of tilapia in the Asia (Guerrero 1994). Indonesia.1 LEARNING FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF OTHER TILAPIA PRODUCING COUNTRIES Tilapia farming has become an important source of additional income and a cheap source of protein for rural communities in the Philippines (Fermin 1985). A number of Asian countries like Thailand. 1985). Researchers developed the technology and overcame the marketing constraints. According to Guerrero (1994). In view of taking tilapia as one of the important and potential fish species. grow-out farmers.Farming of Tilapia 12 Strategies and prospects of frontier development of tilapia aquaculture 12.2 STRATEGIES FOR TILAPIA AQUCULTURE Tilapia has great potential in Bangladesh as an alternative and additional species of farmed fish. Bangladesh and other countries of this region with appropriate water resources could learn from Philippine and Asian tilapia-producing countries experience and promote tilapia production. the following developmental areas and strategies are identified for necessary consideration: 126 . Tilapia technology was successfully adapted and extended to small-scale farmers and large commercial producers. cage operators and merchants (Smith et al. The steady expansion of tilapia industry has benefited small-scale hatchery operators. and Taiwan are presently in the line of developing tilapia aquaculture industry.
these water bodies have tremendous potential for aquaculture of fish species with short life cycle and characteristics of faster growth rate and require low input support (Hussain et al. a large number of commercial catfish producers have found tilapia as an alternative species to culture in their farms to maximize the production. which retain water for 4-6 months.) farming in the country. where carp species can not be cultured.1 m ha) in the form of ditches. adequate feed crisis and low market price severely damaged the exotic riverine catfish (Panagsius sp. commercial farming of tilapia will be an alternative. therefore. Commercial seed production activities both in public and private hatcheries will enable to create additional employment opportunities for a large group of unemployed people. where improve extensive shrimp culture is in collapse due to disease outbreak. development and operation of commercial tilapia hatcheries will be essential throughout the country. In Kaptai reservoir (0. 127 • • • • . shallow ponds. In such cases. 2000). Bangladesh in particular abounds with hundreds and thousands of seasonal water bodies (>0. Success of such attempts will encourage the entrepreneurs to come forward for initiating commercial tilapia farming in freshwater ponds and other suitable water bodies. Recently. road side canals.14 m ha) of the country. In brackish water ponds (0. In that case.07 m ha) and other similar water bodies’ commercial cage culture of monosex tilapia could flourish to boost fish production. No doubt.87 m ha). barrow pits etc. so there will be an extreme need for huge number of quality seeds (both mixed sex and monosex). It is presumed that tilapia farming will largely be expanded both in small and commercial scales. Similar aquaculture activities can further be expanded in the suitable brackish water polders and enclosures (0. tilapia can be a promising candidate for aquaculture in the suitable seasonal water bodies.Farming of Tilapia • Among the South East Asian countries.
Therefore. Thus aquaculture is seen as the most promising option of filling the pending void in the aquatic food supply.3 DIVERSIFIED AND FRONTIER DEVELOPMENT OF TILAPIA AQUACULTURE In the recent past all over the Asia. the inland and marine capture fisheries have registered a gradual decline due to deterioration of aquatic environments and over fishing. the tilapias are among the best candidates for culture because of their desirable qualities (Guerrero 2002). Although per unit area of production was promisingly increased especially for carps through adoption of improved technologies these could not be diversified except into freshwater ponds or related water bodies. In spite of bright and promising future of tilapia farming in the developing countries of this part of Asia like Bangladesh. it can confidently be presumed today that tilapia is a novel and excellent species (Figure 50) for future aquaculture in all the suitable aquatic ecosystems in Bangladesh and elsewhere in South East Asia. Nepal. 128 . Broadly it can be said “Tilapia is a good food fish (Figure 51) for you and all others. it is a good cash crop for all the stake holders mainly the poor farmers living in Asia and other developing countries of the world”. Since many years enormous efforts and investments have been made to promote aquaculture of Indian and Chinese major carp and shrimp species particularly in Bangladesh and India. India. Diversified and frontier aquaculture development with short cycled fish species like tilapias can overcome all the above-mentioned situations and have access to all existing aquatic ecosystems. which will certainly benefit the nation like ours in providing income for small-scale farmers and large producers and helping the country to alleviate shortfalls in fish production.Farming of Tilapia 12. until recently the Governments of these nations have not yet taken it seriously. Among the available farmed fish species. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. mass involvement of rural people in carp and shrimp culture was found difficult due to their limited water resources and financial incapability in many cases. On the other hand.
Thai). 129 . 51 Tilapia is a good food fish (Courtesy: Mr.Farming of Tilapia Fig. K. 50 Tilapia is a fish of the decade Fig. Y.
Breed: Group of animals having a common origin and identifying characters that distinguish them as belonging to a breeding group. strains or lines.Farming of Tilapia Glossary Additive genetic variance: The proportion of the total phenotypic variance that depends on the additive effects of the genes. strains or lines is combined. which carry the heredity material. which involves fertilization of eggs with inactivated maternal nucleus. Crossbreeding: Mating systems in which hereditary material from two or more pure breeds. Chromosome set: A group of chromosomes representing a genome. Alleles: Members of a pair of different hereditary factors that may occupy a given locus on a specific chromosome and that segregate in formation of gametes. Crossbred individuals are from intraspecific matings. Broodstock: Parent (Female and Male) fish cultivated to provide eggs/milt or fry. in terms of its or their ability to transmit certain distinguished features that separate them from other such group. and thereby achieve a greater selection response. 130 . consisting of one representative from each of the pairs characteristic of the somatic cells in a diploid species. Breeding value: The genetic value of a fish or a population. and prevents any contribution of the female genome to the embryo. Combined selection: Combination of both within-family and betweenfamily selection to increase the accuracy of the estimates of breeding values. As a result. Chromosomes: Darkly staining bodies in cell nuclei. Crossbred: An animal produced by crossing two or more pure breeds. Breeding population: A group fish to be used for planned breeding. Alternative form of gene. They occur in pairs in somatic cells with the number of pairs and morphology being characteristic of the species. Androgenesis: Opposite to gynogenesis. embryonic development proceeds with the inheritance of only paternal chromosome sets.
Gene: The classical term of the basic unit of heredity. Effective population size (Ne): The ideal population size is infinitely large. such type of selection based on deviations from average family performance. the mating system employed. The complete genetic make up is also referred to as the genome. Gynogenesis: Gynogenesis involves fertilization of eggs with inactivated sperm. generally termed as ovary in female or testis in male. Heritability: The proportionate amount of additive genetic variance: h2 = VA/Vp Inbreeding: A system of mating in which mates are more closely related than average individuals of the population to which they belong. 131 .Farming of Tilapia Diploid: Cells with two members of each pair of chromosomes. sometimes expressed as number per fish. Hapa: Fine meshed rectangular or square structure on which fertilized eggs or larvae are deposited after artificial spawning and hatching. embryonic development proceeds with the inheritance of only maternal chromosome sets. As a result. Haploid: Having one complete set of chromosomes (see also Diploid). that portion which is inherited. This is termed the 2n condition and is characteristic of most fish species. most gametes are haploid so that when fertilization occurs the diploid condition is restored. and the variance of family size in the production of fish that are used to produce the next generation. Family selection: Selection of the best male and best female fish from a family. Genotype: Genetic makeup of a fish. and prevents any contribution of the male genome to the embryo. ensuring no loss of genetic variation which is a function of the total number of breeding individuals. the sex ratio. Fecundity: Number of eggs produced. sometimes per kg of fish. Gonad: Fish organ in which either eggs or sperm are produced.
The term is often used for photomicrographs of the metaphase chromosomes arranged in a standard sequence. Monosex population: Production of only female or male fish through genetic manipulation or sex inversion. Polyploidy: A state where a cell or an individual contains three or more sets of chromosomes: e. Meiotic gynogenesis: Gynogenetic diploids poduced by the suppression of the second meiotic cell division of fertilized eggs. Triploidy: Individuals having 3 sets of chromosomes (4n). Phenotypic variance: The variance that is observed or measured for a particular aspect of the phenotype in a population. Tetraploidy: Individuals having 4 sets of chromosomes (4n). Sexual maturation: Condition of female and male individuals having ripe gonadal materials (eggs and sperm). Pedigree: A fish’s family tree. Morula: An embryo that consists of a cluster of cleaving blastomeres. Progeny: Offspring of any generation. Karyotype: The somatic chromosomal complement of an individual or species. survival.g. Mass selection: Individual selection or empirical selection of the best male and female individuals from a population. triploid (3n) or tetraploid (4n). Selection: A breeding program in which the breeder chooses which fish will be the next generation’s broodstock. and an increased percentage of deformed/abnormal fish that occur due to inbreeding. Vitellogenesis: The formation of yolk in the developing oocyte.Farming of Tilapia Inbreeding depression: Decreased performance in growth rate. etc. Mitotic gynogenesis: Gynogenetic diploids produced by the inhibition of the first mitotic cell division of fertilized eggs. fecundity. Sex reversal: Modification of sex using hormonal manipulation. 132 . Phenotype: Physical appearance or characteristics of an organism. based on some predetermined criteria.
produces in tilapia a male. 133 . XX chromosome: Homozygous pair of sex chromosomes.Farming of Tilapia Vitellogenin: A protein synthesized in the liver of sexually maturing females and incorporated into the yolk spheres of the developing oocyte. produces in tilapia a female. YY male production: Indirect method of producing monosex all males (having YY genomic status) by combining both sex-reversal and/or genetic manipulation technique of the sex determining system in tilapia. XY chromosome: Heterozygous pair of sex chromosomes.
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31. 103. 27. 42 Cold shock. 11 Argulas sp. 14.. 9-10. 95 Common carp. 10. 27 Communal testing. 1. 1 Bamboo pole.. 40. 6 Chlorampheniocol. 84 Androgenesis. 3 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 24 Asian countries. 98. 23. 42. 12 Aquatic chicken. 18 Brood stock replacement. 58-60. 7. 115 Allele. 119 Artificial feed. 44 Anus. 22 Additive genetic variation. 76 Average genetic gain. 70 Blotched type. 50 Blue tilapia. 29 Brood stock. 116 Chromosome. 37 Chromosome karyotyping. 1 Body colour inheritance. 29. 21. 14 Aceto-carmine squash technique. 53 Brood stock management. 115 Absolute fecundity. 7 Copepod. 3 Aquatic larvae. 30 Breeding tank. 42-43 Chromosome manipulation. 23 Biomass. 22 Combined selection strategy. 56. Chilodonella sp. 69 Breeding population. 33. 31. 58-59 Breeding value. 107 Cattle dung. 45. 60. 108 Clonal line. 10 Chichlid. 103. 22 Blackchin tilapia. 60. 76. 27. 83. 23 Breeding hapa. 19. 48 All male monosex population. 33 Circular tank. 127 144 Breeding behaviour. 105 Base population. 21. 17. 77 Breeding pond. 23. 23. 11. 22 Colchicine solution. 113 Artificial hatching system. 11 Courtship behavior. 92. 97 Aeromonas punctata. 27. 65. 78 Additive genetic gain. 26-27 Control group. 20. 96 Caudal fin. 20 Artificial incubation system. 103 Common farm environment. 54. 9 Breeding candidate. 21 Aerator. 86. 42 Aneuploid metaphase. 56 Brackish water. 18-21 Cage. 19. 17 Automatic feed mixing machine. 29 Coefficient of variation. 18. 37. 8 Asian Development Bank (ADB). 24. 12 . 23 Commercial tilapia farm. 36 Combined selection. 24 Artificial incubation. 117 Chitralada strain. 21. 47 Body weight.Farming of Tilapia Index Abdominal dropsy. 39 Closely related individual.
56. 26. 29-30 Egg. 24. 22 Grow-out period. 21-22 Genetic variation. 34 Giemsa stain. 31. 26-27. 112 Founder stock. 27. 6 Demand feeder. 105. 109 Dike construction. 14 Hatching stage. 58 First cleavage. 98. 13. 40 Egg incubation system. 10. 56. 23 Fecundity. 31 Fry. 20. 18 Freshwater. 21-22 Genetic improvement. 59. 20. 15 Endomitotic. 72. 6 Family selection. 38. 22. 95 Diploid. 20 Genome. 30 Genital papilla. 12. 37 Generic names.23. 22 Family selection strategy. 37 145 . 59 Fingerling. 83 Existing strain. 44 Disease resistance. 96. 31 Haploid metaphase. 21 Feeding intensity. 3-32 Diploid metaphase. 53. 55. 31. 48. 31. 14. 53. 7 DEGITA countries. 14. 27. 14. 59. 27 Gynogenesis Half-sib. 22-23. 127 Freon. 20. 36. 105 Fertilization. 26 Galilee tilapia. 18 Fish meal. 18 Genetic selection. 22 Genetic variability. 27. 103 Gill-raker. 58 Cryopreservation. 48 Gonad development.Farming of Tilapia Cross breeding. 111 Finite population. 15 Growth performance. 32 Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). 31 Ethyl alcohol. 71 First mitotic division. 11 Dorsal fin. 109. 117 Formulated feed. 21 Dissolve oxygen. 10. 9 Genetic gain. 44 Hatching. 56. 19. 42 Cumulative weight gain. 53. 26 Formalin. 45 Crude protein. 24. 77 Effective population size (Ne). 1 Gametogenesis. 109. 105 Floy tag. 58-60. 43 GIFT strain. 39 First feeding fry. 20. 36. 20. 18. 87. 43 Glass aquaria. 27. 29 Hapa. 21. 54. 112 Feeding trolley. 18. 24 Haploid. 105 Feeding rate. 105. 66 Egyptian red strain Endocrine hormone. 3-7. 96. 10 Glacial acetic acid. 26 Earthen pond. 29 Genetic stock deterioration. 20. 111 Full-sib family. 34 Fertilized egg. 32 Floating raft. 1921. 33. 70 Fine meshed hapa. 2 Gene transfer. 13.
89 Modified Cortland’s solution. 20. 34 Milt. 44 Methanol-acetic acid. 31. 23 Nursery hapa. 64. 20. 60 Myxobacterial infection. 6. 120 Larvae. 77. 3 Larnaea sp. 11 On-farm. 22 Maternal effect. 45-47 Heterogeneous. 55.Farming of Tilapia Heat shock. 77 Hybridization. 103. 9. 1 Malachite green. 83 Oestrogen. 10. 21 Histological section. 6 . 31 Nest building. 1-3. 64 Hybrid strain. 6 On-station. 1o3 In vitro. 13 Mozambique tilapia. 38 Melanophores. 12 Nile tilapia. 15.. 117 Malathion. 36. 115 Myxobolus sp. 21 Intensive culture. 40-41 Heritability. 58. 64 Homozygosity. 30 Inbreeding depression. 37 Mouth brooding. 6 Hydracarine. 22. 78 Mass selection. 44 Masculinization. 9-12. 13 Mixed sex. 14-15. 94 Lipophosphoprotein-calcium. 20 Lateral line. 29 146 Mass selection strategy. 10. 119 Natural breeding. 50 Metaphase chromosome. 14. 12 Meiotic gynogenesis. 21-22 Heterogametic. 63-64 Monosex tilapia seed production system. 34. 7 Non-genetic effect. 58 Oestradiol-17β. 78 Micro-pipette. 34 Israel strain. 56. 63. 29 Incubation system. 92 Nitrous oxide. 72 Microscope. 15 Livelihood. 2 Mustard oilcake. 22-23 Intensity of selection. 31 Heterozygous. 19 Homogametic. 47. 21. 36 Inbreeding. 103 Local strain. 120 Manual stripping. 23. 9 None selected control group.. 43 Methylene blue. 23 Maternal mouth brooder. 66 Morula stage. 14 Mating. 17 Oestrogenic control. 31. 26. 15 Omnivorous. 27 Liming. 18. 1. 18. 40 Monosex population. 11 Hydrolic pump. 34 Individual selection. 15 Holding tank. 63. 70. 34 Marker chromosome. 117 Methyl testosterone-17α. 6 Longfin tilapia. 20. 45-48 Hormone mixed feed. 18 Homozygous. 83 Nursery tank.
10. 1-3. 90 Perspex. 95 Parasite. 71 Ploidy manipulation. 32 Second polar body. 2 Red tilapia strain. 10 Phenotype. 122 Salinity. 65. 17 Receptor-mediated endocytotic process. 37. 99 Purebred red strain. 18 Reference stock. 24. 58 Rotenone. 112 Oreochromis machrochir. 12. 33 pH. 78 Oocyte maturation. 53. 27 Paternal mouth brooder. 40 Radioimmunoassay. 15 Secondary oocyte. 14. 20-21 Retailing market. 34 Pedigree. 33 Physiological condition. 38. 102. 14. 18. 86 Secondary sexual characteristic. 1. 86. 15 Secondary spermatocyte. 40 Seed production. 107. 18 147 . 107. 110-112 Radiometer. 1 Oreochromis aureus. 54-55. 45-46. 37 Plastic tray. 84 Prophylactic treatment. 45. 13 Oxytetracycline. 120 Poultry manure. 1. 98 Sarotherodon galilaeus. 37. 12 Ovulation. 107-108. 45. 112 Outbred stock. 1 Oreochromis mossambicus. 64. 15 Progeny testing. 32. 37. 110. 36. 49-50 Raceway. 18 Potassium permanganate. 40-41. 1. 96 Precocious maturation. 97 Parallel pond. 15 Recirculation system. 41. 47. 33. 113 Phytoplankton. 17 Oogonia. 15. 45 Phosphate buffer. 124 Seasonal pond. 56. 63 Pressure shock. 110. 31 Polyculture. 15 Pectoral fin. 111 Redbelly tilapia. 40 Primary spermatocyte. 21 Perennial pond. 21 Ovary. 31. 15 Oreochromis andersonii. 10 Peak maturation. 14 Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag. 10. 90 Polyetheline. 17. 11 Pigmentation stage. 90. 47 Reduced growth rate. 11. 113 Parental care. 15 Oviduct. 15 Primary oocyte. 43 Photoperiod. 91 Polyploidy. 116 Paddle wheel. 15 Second meiotic division. 9-11. 32 Pond construction. 69. 7.Farming of Tilapia Oocyte. 112 Oreochromis niloticus. 93 Pond fertilization. 24. 122 Rice bran. 10. 86-87 Poor genetic material.4. 2. 107 Sarotherodon melanotheron. 54 Rural market. 10 Sashimi.
17 Sexual dimorphism. 77. 32. 15 Vitellogenin. 78 Sex steroid hormone. 27. 78 Spermatozoa. 97 Serum calcium concentration. 26 Tank. 49 Silver barb. 17 Semi-intensive culture. 1 Tilapia zillii. 37 Vitellogenesis. 93-94 Small-scale farmer. 44 True breeder. 102. 65 Unfertilized egg.. 34. 11 Sexual maturation. 32 Sodium Chloride. 124 Yolk. 118 Triploidy. 37 Triploid metaphase. 34 Water quality. 39 . 17. 27 Standard population size. 63. 107 Tilapia farming. 118 Solid waste. 12. 19 Standard reference stock. 55. 29 Semen. 20. 20. 11. 34. 48. 97. 70 Undifferentiated gonadal tissue. 91. 17 Water bath. 40 Spermatogonia. 64 UV sterilization.Farming of Tilapia Selective breeding. 78. 15 Yolk sac resorption stage. 12 Urethra. 34. 22 Site selection. 46-47 Three spotted tilapia. 107 Taxonomic classification. 15. 15. 116 Substrate spawner. 19 Trichodina sp. 15. 15 Spindle apparatus. 96. 8. 15. 23 Selection intensity. 92. 31 Standard length. 10 Wild type. 13 Sib cross. 14 YY male. 7. 54. 9 Super Strain of GIFT. 70 Supplementary feed. 50 World market. 12 Urogenital papilla. 105 Stock solution. 48. 72 Streptomycin. 15. 58. 59 Spawning. 17 Sexual pheromones. 98-99. 60 Tagging. 17 Sex chromosome. 9 Terrestrial insect. 11 Zygote. 15. 2. 106 Water tempertaure. 44 Sex determination. 54. 109 Stocking density. 9. 66 Transitory hapa. 22. 17. 87. 70 Sex reversal. 19 Steroid hormone. 8. 34 Urogenital opening. 12 Sperm. 11 Tetraploidy. 30. 32. 37 148 Thai red strain. 27. 20. 31 Sex ratio. 126-128 Tilapia hatchery. 84 Zooplankton.
Farming of Tilapia About the author Dr. Geneva posted in Syria (1981-1986). operation and promotion of tilapia aquaculture. 149 . Hussain was born in Mymensingh. Dr. He has also co-authored several books. He earned his Ph. he is presently involved with some international and national fish genetic research programs. he has been conferred the prestigious National Fish Fortnight 2003 Gold Medal Award.D. Hussain is currently the Director. As the Team Leader of Fish Breeding and Genetic Research Group of Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI). Scotland. The two most recent outstanding contributions of Dr. Dr. He has been internationally reputed as “tilapia geneticist” due to his pioneer works on suppression of mitotic cleavage and production of genetic clones in Nile tilapia and genetic inheritance study leading to gene mapping in red tilapia strains. M. Bangladesh (1978-1981). and Finance of BFRI. UNV Fisheries/Aquaculture Specialist under UNDP. Hussain has published more than 100 peer reviewed journal papers and co-edited several proceedings of seminars and workshops. in Aquaculture Genetics from the University of Stirling. UK. Admin. Bangladesh on February 1954. In recognition of such contributions. the recent one is entitled “Genetic improvement and conservation of carp species in Bangladesh”.G. Research and Planning under BFRI (2001-2004). He has served as Scientific Officer under Department of Fisheries. Principal Scientific Officer and Chief Scientific Officer under BFRI (1986-2000). He is instrumental in developing tilapia farming in Bangladesh particularly tilapia hatchery and monosex seed production system designing. Director. Hussain are: the development of a genetically improved strain of silver barb (Barbods gonionotus) and further improvement of GIFT strain through several generations of genetic selection.
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