FARMING OF TILAPIA
Breeding Plans, Mass Seed Production and Aquaculture Techniques

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Bangladesh iii . PhD Aquaculture Genetics (Stirling. Mass Seed Production and Aquaculture Techniques M.G. MSc Aquaculture & Management. UK) Director.FARMING OF TILAPIA Breeding Plans. Research & Planning Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute Mymensingh 2201. Hussain BSc Fisheries (Hons).

Published by Habiba Akter Hussain 55 Kristawpur. Hussain 2004 Hussain. Farming of tilapia: Breeding plans.G. mass seed production and aquaculture techniques.FARMING OF TILAPIA Breeding Plans. Dhaka. 2004. Mymensingh 2200 Bangladesh ISBN 984-32-1839-6 Cover and other photos by M. Bangladesh Price: Taka 300 (Three Hundred) Outside Bangladesh: US$ 15 iv . 149 p. Hussain Printed by Momin Offset Press.G. Mass Seed Production and Aquaculture Techniques First Edition 2004  M.G. M.

patience.Dedication The author dedicates this book to his family. kindness and encouragement this book could never have been completed v . especially to his wife Habiba Akter Hussain and sons Sazzad Hussain and Ali Hussain without whose love.

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4 Chapter 4 4.2 1.1 Introduction Importance and potential of tilapia species in aquaculture Tilapia species introduction in Bangladesh Performance and potentials of the GIFT strain of Oreochromis niloticus General and reproductive biology of tilapia Taxonomic classification Generic groups of tilapias General biology of Nile tilapia Breeding and reproductive biology of Nile tilapia x xiv xv xvii 1 1 2 3 9 9 9 10 11 Brood stock replacement and breeding plans for 18 tilapia hatchery stocks Brood stock management to avoid genetic stock deterioration Brood stock replacement techniques Breeding plan and genetic stock improvement of tilapia Maximizing the effective population size (Ne) Ploidy manipulation and production of all sterile.3 Chapter 2 2.1 1.4 Chapter 3 3.1 2.2 3.2 2.3 2.3 3. female and male population Genomic status and determination of sex vii 18 19 20 30 31 31 .1 3.Contents List of figures List of tables Preface Acknowledgements Chapter 1 1.

3 5.5 Chapter 5 5.4 Chapter 7 7.2.3 6.2 Induction of mitotic gynogenesis Production of genetically induced all male population Protocols for chromosome karyopyting Body colour inheritance and development of purebred strains of red tilapia Inheritance of body colour in commercially available strains Importance and problems associated with the present stocks Mechanisms of progeny testing to develop purebred strains of red tilapia Maintenance of purebred brood stock for seed production in the hatchery Development and operation of mixed sex commercial tilapia seed production systems Mixed sex tilapia seed production in ponds Mixed sex tilapia seed production in concrete tanks Mixed sex tilapia seed production in hapas Mixed sex tilapia seed production in rice fields Development and operation of monosex commercial tilapia seed production systems Sex reversal technique for the production of monosex fish fry viii 32 32 38 38 39 42 42 45 45 46 48 51 53 6.1 Induction of meiotic gynogenesis 4.1 Induction of polyploidy Production of genetically induced all female population 4.3 4.4.2 5.1 6.2 4.1 5.4 4.2 6.1 53 56 59 61 63 63 .3.4 Chapter 6 Production of genetically induced all sterile population 4.3.

3 8.3.2 All male monosex seed production through inversion of sexes in tilapia 7.1 8.3.3 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Glossary References Index ix .2 8.2.1 Hatchery design and operation of monosex seed production systems 7.1 9.2.1 Tilapia culture in tanks 9.2 Tilapia culture in raceways Diseases and parasites of tilapia and their control measures Marketing of tilapia Strategies and prospects of frontier development of tilapia aquaculture 63 66 78 86 86 87 90 91 93 102 102 103 107 108 110 113 121 126 130 134 144 Chapter 8 8.2 Production of YY males and operation of monosex all male seed production system Development and operation of semi-intensive tilapia culture systems Tilapia culture in seasonal ditches and ponds Tilapia culture in rice fields Polyculture of tilapia with carps Tilapia culture in pens Tilapia culture in ponds under commercial farming management Development and operation of intensive tilapia culture systems The suitability of tilapia for intensive culture Tilapia culture in cages Tilapia culture in tanks and raceways 9.5 Chapter 9 9.7.4 8.2 9.

for the discharge of fecal waste.List of figures 1 2 3 4 5 Mozambique tilapia. b. the urogenital opening. where egg passes through Histological section of an ovary shows various stages of development at peak maturation of female Oreochromis niloticus Histological section of a testis shows various stages of development at peak maturation of male Oreochromis niloticus A simple tilapia egg incubation system having a. Oreochromis niloticus Red tilapia strain Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain a. Oreochromis mossambicus Nile tilapia. the urethra for urine passing and the oviduct. plastic water bottles and b. Genital papilla of female Oreochromis niloticus having three openings. where the milt and urine are excreted and the anus. Genital papilla of male Oreochromis niloticus having two opening. medium type of trays connected to the recirculating system Floy tagging underneath the scale below the dorsal fin and above the lateral line of tilapia Plastic numbered tags with nylon thread PIT tagging into the visceral cavity of tilapia x 4 4 5 5 13 6 16 7 16 8 25 9 10 11 28 28 29 . the anus.

heat and cold shocks Metaphase chromosome of Oreochromis niloticus. triploid (3n = 66). heat and cold shocks 1 – 1. d. b. a. haploid (n = 22).12 13 14 15 A schematic diagram of inducing polyploids in O. diploid (2n = 44). c.5 L vessel capacity pressure apparatus Thermostatically regulated 50 L capacity water bath A schematic diagram of inducing two types of gynogenesis (meiotic and mitotic) in Oreochromis niloticus using pressure. niloticus using pressure. aneuploid metaphase (hyperhaploid or hypodiploid) Purebred red tilapia Impure blotched type tilapia of red phenotype Tilapia fry holding hapas Low cost tilapia breeding and fry rearing tanks Tilapia egg incubation and hatching system model Typical modern monosex tilapia seed production hatchery system in Thailand Tilapia breeding hapas in pond Gathering tilapia breeders at regular intervals for egg collection purpose in the breeding hapa Plastic vowels placed in a bamboo frame for separating the collected fertilized eggs having different colours (based on different age groups) 33 35 35 38 16 44 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 52 52 57 57 68 68 73 73 74 xi .

Hapas can be installed in the pond and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles for feeding hormone mixed feeds. Hapas can be installed and fixed with RCC frame made over the pond for feeding hormone mixed feeds The protocol for feeding of hormone mixed feeds The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the early fry in the nursery hapas The protocol for sex identification in tilapia fry The protocol of producing all male monosex population through the indirect method of sex reversal The monk in a pond A typical layout of a fish arm View of a commercial fish farm 74 75 75 79 79 80 80 81 81 82 82 85 100 100 101 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 xii . b.26 27 28 29 30 31 32 A series of round bottom plastic jars and flat trays for incubating the fertilized eggs/hatched fry with yolk sac Separate flat trays where hatched larvae are kept until their yolk sac resorption stage is over The protocol for preparation and application of hormone mixed feeds for sex reversal of Nile tilapia fry Automatic hormone feed mixing machine The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in the transitory hapas Manual counting of tilapia fry a.

40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

Simple paddle wheel type of aerators set in the ponds for aeration of water to add more oxygen The floating rafts with net cages for intensive tilapia culture The cemented tanks for intensive tilapia culture Race ways for intensive tilapia culture Abdominal dropsy in tilapia Protozoan parasite Chilodonella sp. Protozoan parasite Trichodina sp. Fish lice Argulas sp. Washing of harvested live tilapias in the holding tank with the inflowing cool water before marketing Tilapias in the retailing fish market for the consumers Tilapia is a fish of the decade Tilapia is a good food fish

101 106 109 111 116 117 118 119 123 123 129 129

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List of tables
1 Serum calcium concentration and steroid hormone levels in mature female and male O. niloticus. All values are mean ± SE estimated from an equal number (n=10) of fish in each category Inbreeding resulting from some matings between closely related individuals Correlation between effective population size (Ne) and rate of inbreeding in a hatchery Polyploidy induction in various Oreochromis spp. using pressure, heat and cold shocks Gynogenesis induction in various Oreochromis spp. using pressure and heat shocks Formulated feed for feeding tilapia fry in rearing hapas and nursery ponds Formulated feed for feeding tilapia under semi-intensive system in the grow out ponds Available data on tilapia cage culture in different countries Available data on tilapia culture in tanks in different countries 17

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

19 30 37 41 61 98 107 110 112

10 Available data on tilapia culture in raceways in different countries

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Preface
In the context of declining trends both in inland and marine capture fisheries, aquaculture is the most promising option for increasing fish production. In addition to earning profits, aquaculture can improve the livelihoods and nutrition of the resource-poor rural people in the region. In fact, promotion of aquaculture of Indian and Chinese major carp and shrimp species has taken place for many years in the developing countries of this part of Asia, like Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Although production was promisingly increased especially for carps through adoption of improved technologies, but these could not be diversified out of freshwater areas. On the other hand, mass involvement of rural people in carp and shrimp culture was found difficult due to their limited water resources and financial incapability in many cases. Like Thailand and Vietnam, recently farming of riverine catfish (Pangasius sutchi) has dramatically increased in Bangladesh. However, feed crisis and low market prices have severely damaged the progress of farming of this fish in the country. On the other hand, improved extensive shrimp culture is in collapse due to disease outbreaks in recent times. Under such conditions, a large number of commercial catfish and shrimp producers are looking for alternative species to culture in their farms to maximize the production. Of the available farmed species, tilapias are among the best candidates to overcome the situation due to their desirable characteristics like ease of seed production, high yield, disease resistance and efficiency of growing well with organic and agricultural wastes and low cost feeds. In spite of the promising future of tilapia farming in Bangladesh, it took a long time to realize the fact, due to some negative attitudes of the respective organization(s) and decision makers. Although the best tilapia farming species like Nile tilapia (Oreochronis niloticus) was introduced in this country in 1974, but it was not clear that the species is highly potential and productive for suitable water bodies until the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI) discovered the truth through introduction of GIFT strain (1994) and subsequently conducted intensive research and developed the super strain of GIFT. Tilapia farming is gaining popularity day by day in Bangladesh and a number of entrepreneurs have already initiated its hatchery development
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Simple classical biotechnological tools to develop genetically induced all sterile. an attempt has been made to prepare a comprehensive handbook and publish it initially in English for the national and international readers. I have tried my best to invest my knowledge on the subject in compiling the best information on tilapia farming in this book. Chapter 10 and Chapter 11. Chapter 9. All these chapters are designed for progressive fish farmers and entrepreneurs. In Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. intensive systems of tilapia culture. female and male populations in tilapia and production of purebred red tilapia strains are detailed in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 . entrepreneurs. special emphasis has been given to simple techniques for design and operation of mixed and monosex mass seed production systems. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. M. a note on future strategies and prospects of frontier development of tilapia aquaculture is highlighted. Detailed development and operation of semi-intensive systems. stock improvement. which I believe will be useful as a guide to hatchery operators. researchers and planners developing programs for simple breeding. It has been felt that very little readily available information on farming practices of tilapia is available in Bangladesh and elsewhere in this region. the performance of the GIFT strain of Oreochromis niloticus. progressive farmers. Finally in Chapter 12. Hussain xvi .G. disease and parasites of tilapia and their control measures and marketing of tilapia are presented respectively in Chapter 8. brood stock replacement and development of outbred and genetically improved hatchery stocks of tilapia in the Chapter 1. mass seed production and various aquaculture techniques of the fish in Bangladesh and elsewhere in Asia where tilapias are being used for promotion of aquaculture. general and reproductive biology of tilapia. Therefore.for commercial mixed and monosex seed production and farming in different parts of the country. This book highlights the importance of tilapia species in aquaculture.

who provided a wealth of information and critically reviewed and improved the first draft of the manuscript. R. Hoq assisted and formulated the overall design of the book. C. NIRIBILI Group. Scotland. Managing Director of PKPS Farm Mart. Prof. Special thanks are due to Dr.A. and Riliance Aqua Ltd. M. R. Nuanmanee Pongthana. M. Muktagacha Fisheries.M. Dr.J. Dr. National Aquaculture Genetic Research Institute. Above all my thanks go to Dr. Dr.V. Dr. Dey. Dunham. Yong Kim Thai. xvii .M. Shubra Hatchery Group. McAndrew. Wahab. I owe my greatest debt to my lovely wife Habiba Akhter Hussain (Koli) for her continuous support and encouragement until the completion of this book. M. Drs. Islam. B. Dr. Mazid. A.W. Malaysia for his kind permission to use some of his farm photographs in this book. R. Dr. Dr. All the assistance and support from the tilapia hatchery and farming entrepreneurs of Bangladesh viz.I. Mair. Fish Genetics and Reproduction Research Group. Bismillah Hatchery Group. A. Thailand guided me to collect information and design of monosex tilapia hatchery from private tilapia hatchery entrepreneurs of several provinces in Thailand. Kohinoor and Mr. Institute of Aquaculture. Dr. G. A. These persons are: Dr. Eknath. Dr. Gupta. She also provided a number of her diagrams and photographs for this document. Selangor. materials and photographs for use in this book. I am also indebted to Mr. M.E.V. Sarder. R. Dr. Karim.S. Ponzoni. E. Director General of Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute for his kindness to allow me for using many materials from the institute library and stations including his valuable suggestions and encouragement. J. Janssen. the former Director. Stirling University.J. S. Poultry and Dairy Farms Ltd. M. Pullin. who have provided information. are greatly acknowledged.A. Dr. Dr.H. Alam. Penman. Dr. David J.Acknowledgements The author wishes to acknowledge the kindness of all of his good friends and colleagues.

Galilee tilapia (Sarotherodon galilaeus). Although the important natural tilapia genetic resources are in Africa. 500 mt in 1950 to 1.1 Introduction IMPORTANCE AND POTENTIAL OF TILAPIA SPECIES IN AQUACULTURE Tilapias are a group of “Cichlid” fish native to African countries. About 989. Blue tilapia (O. While widespread introductions have provided the mechanism for expansion of tilapia culture. andersonii). 265. Africa.Farming of Tilapia 1 1. blackchin tilapia (S. Philippines (99. macrochir). tilapias were wild fish in the great lakes and rivers of that continent.6% came from China. In the early days of the 20th century. aureus).724 mt). Other countries like. commercial farming of several species of tilapia has become a common practice in aquaculture throughout several regions of the world such as China. 800 mt in 2000. three spotted tilapia (O.647 mt). longfin tilapia (O. SE Asia. mossambicus). Thailand (151. In the central African countries. Indonesia (86.899 mt tilapia were produced in Asia in 1999 of which 62. 450 mt) are the major tilapia producing countries in Asia (Guerrero 2002). Mozambique tilapia (O. In recent years. the total world production of tilapias (wild and aquaculture) has increased from 37. which include Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). According to FAO. After that the tilapia species were spread over most of the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. the major aquaculture industries at present are in Asia. . A total of about 70 species of tilapia have been so far listed as native to Africa (Anon 1984). Only a few species are suitable and popular for farming in ponds and other culture systems. farming of tilapias in ponds was introduced after Second World War. effective management of reproduction is the primary factor that has been instrumental in the realization of their aquaculture potential in the later half of the 20th century (Shelton 2002). USA and Latin America/Caribbean (Vannuccini 1998).930 mt) and Sri Lanka (31.

Mozambique tilapia. It is believed that in the future it may become the most important fin fish in the world”. There are also some genetically improved strains such as Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). O. only suitable for the ethnic market. which being grown on commercial farms in 100 countries of the world from extensive to super-intensive.Farming of Tilapia melanotheron) and redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zillii). Tilapia has also been described as the important aquaculture species of the 21st century. O. producers 2 . red tilapia strains and hybrids. Above all. While the former is still used to produce hybrids. Pullin (1983) compared the attributes of various species with culture potential. It remains to be seen whether the “food fish of the 21st century” will surpass production of the carps in aquaculture during the new millennium (Fitzsimmons 2000). which was introduced into Bangladesh from Thailand in 1954. As a result. it has been effectively left behind as the Nile tilapia (O. In the First International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture (May 1983. mossambicus (Figure 1) was the first species. niloticus has been recognized as the prime domesticated species for farming in a wide range of aquaculture systems from simple waste-fed fishponds to intensive culture systems (ICLARM 1991). 1. niloticus) has taken the lead as the principal species (cited by Shelton 2002). once considered a low value fish. he suggested concentrating research efforts on the Blue tilapia and Nile tilapia.2 TILAPIA SPECIES INTRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH Among tilapias. Israel) Drs. Liao and Chen concluded that “Tilapia is no longer an African fish but an International fish. Vannuccini (1998) stated “Tilapia. has in recent times gained wider consumer acceptance and is now considered an attractive menu item in chain restaurants”. Nazareth. The fish did not flourish and proved to be a pest due to its early maturation and prolific breeding habits in the ponds.

In on-station trials. O. a red mutant tilapia (Figure 3). China. Thailand. Dewan brought a batch of this red strain of tilapia to Bangladesh from the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT). Overall performance of Nile tilapia and other fast growing tilapias have proved that they are no longer pests but have come to be known as “aquatic chicken”. a research project was initiated in Bangladesh. M. niloticus. During the 1970’s a renewed interest in tilapia culture developed in some Asian countries including Bangladesh with the introduction of Nile tilapia. was introduced into Bangladesh from Thailand through UNICEF. niloticus (Eknath et al. In 1974. 1993). The Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI. niloticus.Farming of Tilapia and consumers regarded the fish as “nuisance fish”. the Chitralada strain of Nile tilapia. was introduced in July 1994 from the Philippines. 1. the 'Israel’ strain (Eknath 1992). In 1988 Drs. a hybrid between albino O.3 PERFORMANCE AND POTENTIAL OF THE GIFT STRAIN OF OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS The GIFT strain was developed by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) through several generations of selection from a base population involving eight different strains of Nile tilapia. niloticus (Figure 2). Thailand and Vietnam under the auspices of a WorldFish Center's project entitled "Dissemination and Evaluation of 3 . a synthetic strain of O. For evaluating this strain in other countries of Asia. formerly FRI) initiated the second introduction of the fish in this country. Under the Dissemination and Evaluation of Genetically Improved Tilapia in Asia (DEGITA) project of WorldFish Center (Formerly ICLARM).G. Hussain and S. another promising Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain (Figure 4). the synthetic GIFT strain was reported to show on an average 60% faster growth and 50% better survival at harvest than the most commonly farmed strain in the Philippines. was developed in Taiwan and introduced into Thailand. mossambicus x O. also from Thailand. a promising farmed species. Bangkok. Meanwhile. Philippines. in 1987. O.

4 . Asian Development Bank (ADB) Technical Assistant Grant Project: RETA No. 5558)". Oreochromis niloticus. 1 Mozambique tilapia.Farming of Tilapia the Genetically Improved Tilapia in Asia (DEGITA. Oreochromis mossambicus. Fig 2 Nile tilapia. Fig.

5 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. 3 Red tilapia strain. 4 Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain. Fig.

at harvest. Comparative production performance of GIFT and existing O. China. Paikgacha.4 g and 85. In other DEGETA countries viz.e.4 g. cisterns. the average production of the GIFT strain per unit area in the on-farm conditions was also found to be significantly (P<0. ‘1988’ introduced and hybrid strain of China. Jessore Sadar and Mithapukur) respectively under on-station and on-farm conditions (Hussain et al. niloticus strains was assessed in five test environments (i. and therefore. niloticus) was evaluated both under onstation and on-farm conditions. The average gross production of GIFT and existing strains were estimated at 4. the mean final weights of GIFT and existing strains were 134. 15 to 20% higher yield than that of the Chitralada strain of Thailand. hapas.1 Growth and production performance In Bangladesh. Indonesia.411 and 2. In on-station ponds. On the other hand. in on-station conditions. in on-farm conditions. 6 . Manikganj. nursery systems. Chandina.3. greater climatic variation. the possibility of both natural and artificial selection of local strains to their environments.e.05) higher (52%) than that of the existing local strain. The growth performance expressed as least square mean (LSM) values of body weight at harvest of individual strains across different environments revealed that GIFT was consistently better performing than the existing strain. 2000). Total yield of the GIFT was significantly higher (57% more. Trishal. the GIFT strain appears to be about 10-15% superior to local strains in terms of growth (Dey 1996). and 18 to 40% higher yield in comparison to the local strains of Vietnam.05) than that of the existing strain.Farming of Tilapia 1. respectively. net cages and growout ponds) and six multi-locational sites (i.3±2. the GIFT strain gave about 15 to 25% higher yield than the other strains like ‘1978’ introduced. Thailand and Vietnam. comparative growth and production potential of GIFT and existing Nile tilapia strains (O. P<0. where there are longer histories of tilapia farming. respectively.966 kg/ha/6 months. In multi-locational on-farm trials in ponds.4±2.

proved to be very suitable fish for aquaculture in Bangladesh and other DEGITA countries. niloticus is being presently widely used for mono sex seed production in a large number of tilapia hatcheries in Thailand (Dr.5% and 6.9% cumulative weight gain.Farming of Tilapia 1. further stock improvement has also been initiated using selective breeding technique. F3 and F4 selected generations attained 2.3. The F2. respectively. Subsequently. meanwhile. Evaluation of growth performance was carried out through comparative trials between selected and non-selected average control (existing stock of GIFT) groups. personal communication).0 % genetic gain in growth performance was attained by the F1 generation over the non-selected control group.2 The suitability of GIFT strain for seed production and aquaculture The GIFT strain has. A 5. The average gain per generation across four generations of selection for growth performance in weight was estimated 6. 12. over three generations.3.9%. The weight gain values of 4th generation of 7 .3 Further genetic selection and development of superior strain BFRI has been maintaining the gene pool of pure GIFT strain since its introduction and has enhanced the stock by introduction of new generations from the Philippines in 1996. Nuanmanee Pongthana.8%. The desirable characteristics of this genetically improved strain are as follows: • • • • • • • High yielding Excellent breeder Efficient converter of organic and agricultural wastes in to high quality protein Resistant to disease Very hardy Tolerant to over crowding conditions Able to grow in either fresh or brackish water The GIFT strain of O. 1.

tilapias have yet to be farmed widely in Bangladesh. To date. Due to excellent performances for growth and other relevant traits (survival. fecundity and disease resistance) the new strain can be termed as Super Strain of GIFT (ie.3% superiority over the non-selected GIFT control. The new super strain is gaining popularity day by day in Bangladesh and a number of entrepreneurs have already initiated its hatchery development for commercial mixed and monosex seed production and farming in several regions of the country.Farming of Tilapia the selected group showed 27. BFRI Super GIFT). 8 . because interest in tilapia farming is growing due to its success in other Asian countries and increasing consumer acceptance (ADB 2004).

Farming of Tilapia 2 General and reproductive biology of tilapia TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATION 2. e. Dr. The taxonomic classification of the Nile tilapia is given below: Phylum: Subphylum: Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Common name: Chordata Vertebrata Osteichthyes Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus Nile tilapia 2. a Senior Tilapia Taxonomist of British Museum (Natural History) made a thorough review of natural history of African cichlid species in her book “Tilapiine Species” and showed the basis for distinguishing Tilapia. According to Trewavas (1983) the three main distinct generic groups of tilapias are as below: • Genus Tilapia: Includes those species which are substrate spawners and do not keep the eggs in the mouth for incubation.2 GENERIC GROUPS OF TILAPIAS The fishery scientists and taxonomists change the generic names of tilapias from time to time on the basis of research on their various characters but mainly by spawning and breeding behaviors. T. 9 . zillii.g. Trewavas. Sarotherodon and Oreochromis as genera. E.1 Tilapias are predominantly freshwater finfishes often some species characterized with nest building and surface or mouth brooding habits.

In particular. which is brighter in male. which are available just on the lower part of the first arch. The numbers of gill-rakers are 20 –26. O. S. The suitable ranges of water quality parameters under which the fish can survive well are: • • 10 Water temperatures 12 to 35 oC. In this group the males construct and defend a mating territory in an arena with other males in adjacent terrirories. mossambicus. and females come to find spawning partners. aureus. is a very hardy fish and can thrive a wide range of aquatic ecological conditions from purely freshwater to brackish or semi saline waters. . the upper margin of dorsal fin black or gray.3 GENERAL BIOLOGY OF NILE TILAPIA 2. niloticus. O.3. • 2. the dorsal and caudal fin margins of the males become bright red. Scales in lateral line series are 30-34.g. usually these scales remain around 31-33. covered with moderately large scales. e. Both sexes at breeding time show red flush on the belly and lower flanks.0. e.3. melanotheron. Number of dorsal spines are 17.5 – 8.Farming of Tilapia • Genus Sarotherodon: Includes those species which are mostly paternal mouth brooders and sometimes eggs and hatched larvae are brooded by both parents.g. Unlike other cichlid fish. S.2 Tolerance to ecological conditions The Nile tilapia.1 Distinguishing characters Body elongate and deep. Genus Oreochromis: Includes those species which are exclusively maternal mouth brooders. galilaeus. Caudal fin covered with narrow vertical stripes. O. the body colour of the males is more attractive than females. pH 6. 2.

both aquatic larvae and terrestrial insects that fall on the water (Trewavas 1983). Salinity 3 .4 Food O. It is reported that the males become 20 – 30% heavier in weight in comparison to the females (Hussain and Kohinoor 2003).25 ppt. hydracarines and various insects. 2. niloticus is capable of using a wide range of food materials from tiny plankton (phytoplanton and zooplankton) to macrophytes. 4 BREEDING AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF NILE TILAPIA 2. 500 to 800 g in 10 to 12 months and 2 – 3 kg in 2 years. several scientists (Worthington and Ricardo 1936. 2.1 Breeding habit and natural spawning (a) Sexual dimorphism Sexual dimorphism is common in Nile tilapia.3 Growth In tropical pond waters under semi-intensive culture management. The males are larger than females.0 – 8.64 cm. It grows well on artificial feeds.4. actively pursuing copepods. The young fry are omnivorous.3. 2. In the great lakes of Africa. Lowe-McConnell 1958) recorded maximum sizes of 61.3. the Nile tilapia can grow to 150 – 250 g in 4 to 6 months.Farming of Tilapia • • Dissolve oxygen 2. 11 . weights 4-7 kg.0 mg/l.

When a mating partnership is finally settled. During the spawning the female shows the movement of touching the bottom of the nest and the 12 . It is also recorded that the nest is about twice the length of the male making it (Hussain 1989). The female spawns in the nest after a short mating ritual. The female has a flatter and shorter papilla with 3 openings. the selected female is allowed to enter to the nest. (c) Sexual maturation of brood fish The Nile tilapia sexually matures at the age of 3 months.3 meter in diameter and 0.1 to 0. They choose partners of more or less same age group. for the discharge of fecal waste (Figure 5a). the urogenital opening. (e) Mating and spawning activity In most of the tilapia species. The nest has a circular shape with a depression from 0. (d) Nest building for natural breeding For natural breeding males build nests on the substratum in shallow regions of stagnant water bodies/ ponds to attract the females for spawning. the anus. prespawning courtship behavior between males and females is observed. In Bangladesh. erection of fins and body colour patterns) to attract the females.3 meter deep. where the milt and urine are excreted and the anus. In particularly the males are more active to exhibit their secondary sexual characteristics (i. when it attains a body weight of around 40 – 60 g (Hussain 1989).Farming of Tilapia (b) Morphology of sexual organs The genital papilla of male is larger than that of the females and has 2 openings (Velasco 2003a). it breeds from February to November when water temperatures remain around 22 – 30 oC.e. the urethra (for excretion of urine) and the oviduct.2 to 0. where eggs pass through (Figure 5b).

where the milt and urine are excreted and the anus. Ova deposition and fertilization activities occur over a period of up to 2 – 3 hours. Genital papilla of female Oreochromis niloticus having three openings.Farming of Tilapia erected conical genital papilla fully descends to deposit the ovulated ova (unfertilized eggs) in batches (30 – 60 eggs/batch). It is reported that the females subsequent to ovulation attract the partner males through releasing sexual pheromones (Velasco 2003a). b a Fig. In view of mouth brooding the female picks up the fertilized eggs in to her mouth. the urogenital opening. the anus. 13 . Genital papilla of male Oreochromis niloticus having two opening. 5 a. the urethra for urine passing and the oviduct. The male ejects milt over the eggs to effect fertilization immediately after deposition of each batch of eggs by the female (Chen 1976). for the discharge of fecal waste. b. where egg passes through.

14 . The weight of first feeding tiny fry of Nile tilapia is about 0. 6-10 days a. niloticus increases to a range of 180 – 498 g.01g and after this stage they are able to take natural or artificial feeds and move easily in the surrounding waters and do not need any parental care. It is reported that as the weight of GIFT strain O.0-2.f. they are ovoid in shape and the size ranges between 1. 12 – 14 days a.f. Hatching of eggs take place after 70–90 hours in the mouth at 28±1oC and the female holds the hatched larvae and gives parental care until the swim up stage. a.3 – 2. depending on the size and age of the female. after fertilization (a. so the female immediately takes the fertilized eggs into her mouth for incubation. which might need another 6–10 days. The fecundity fluctuates widely from a few hundred to several thousand eggs.0 mm in diameter. In O.f. 70-90 hrs. a. (g) Mouth brooding and development of fertilized eggs and embryos The Nile tilapia is maternal mouth brooder.0 mm x 1. and 2.f. It means that absolute fecundity in this species is inversely correlated with the weight of sexually mature females (Velasco 2003a).5-3. the number of eggs decreases. niloticus embryonic development there are five easily observed developmental stages (Hussain 1992): • • • • • Morula stage: Pigmentation stage: Hatching stage: Yolk sac resorption stage: First feeding stage: 6-8 hrs.) 45-50 hrs.f.Farming of Tilapia (f) Fecundity The colour of ripe and fertilized eggs is pale yellow orange.8 mm in length.

which is synthesized by the liver. prominent urogenital papilla etc. then primary oocytes which give rise to secondary oocytes. The yolk precursor is believed to be synthesized during the vitellogenesis phase of ovarian growth under the influence of oestrogenic control (ie. vitellogenin production is normally stimulated by 17β-oestradiol hormone). A histological section of an ovary shows various stages of development at peak maturation of female O.4. 17β-oestradiol.Farming of Tilapia 2. During the pre-ovulatory period. bluish fins with reddish margins. testosterone 15 . early egg development starts with the oogonia. On the other hand. Development of secondary sexual characteristics such as bright and shiny body colour.2 Process of gonad development In Nile tilapia development of gonadal products (eggs and sperms) is a short process. are also controlled by these sex steroid hormones. each of which gives rise to secondary spermatocytes and then to spermatozoa or mature sperm. The secondary oocytes complete such yolk deposition by the process of vitellogenesis and remain as mature oocytes in the ovary for a variable period of time until their final maturation or ovulation. 2. released into the blood and finally sequestered by the oocytes by means of a receptor-mediated endocytotic process (Tyler. testosterone. high-energy yolk (vitellogenin) deposition occurs in the growing oocytes. In the female fish. 11-ketotestosterone etc. Sumpter and Bromage 1987). niloticus (Figure 6).4.3 Endocrine hormone profiles In the process of sexual maturation and gonad development in the fish including tilapia. Various stages of germ cell development are visible in testicular section at maturation (Figure 7). spermatogonia develop to primary spermatocytes. the most vital role is played by the endocrine hormones like vitellogenin. The process of sperm development starts in the males with the spermatogonia. Normally in female fish egg yolk is derived from a precursor of lipophosphoprotein-calcium complex called vitellogenin.

7 Histological section of a testis shows various stages of development at peak maturation of male Oreochromis niloticus.Farming of Tilapia Fig. Fig. 16 . 6 Histological section of an ovary shows various stages of development at peak maturation of female Oreochromis niloticus.

17 .Farming of Tilapia hormone acts as precursor in oestrogen synthesis. Similarly in male fish sex steroid hormones also regulate more or less the sexual maturation and development of testicular products (ie.1 82. 1995) and the data are presented in Table 1.0 37. niloticus have been determined respectively by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry and radioimmunoassay techniques (Hussain et al.4 Sex ratio In normal O. semen and sperm). In small fish (3-5 g size) where manual sexing is not possible.45±12.4.07±7.3 0. niloticus.5 Testosterone (ng ml-1) 39.46±0.012. Serum calcium concentration (index of vitellogenin) and sex steroid hormone levels in sexually matured female and male O.0 Hussain et al.28±6.54±2.5 17-β-oestradiol (ng ml-1) 0. examining their urogenital papilla can easily differentiate sex. Sexes Female Male Serum Ca++level -1 (mg 100 ml ) 34. In this species the overall sex ratio does not generally differ from the expected 1:1 ratio. All values are mean ± SE estimated from an equal number (n=10) of fish in each category.3 16.2 11-ketotestosterone (ng ml-1) 0. vitellogenin and all other sex steroid hormones have interlinked functions to regulate oocyte maturation. (1995) 2. Serum calcium concentration and steroid hormone levels in mature female and male O. an alternative aceto-carmine squash technique can be used (see Chapter 7). Ultimately. niloticus brood stock and fish larger than 20-30 g. Table 1.07±17.

Inbreeding depression makes a stock having the characteristics of reduced growth rate. Such genetic stock deterioration will undoubtedly be a critical problem for tilapia seed production. in a small-scale seed production system of tilapia inbreeding will be common because of the mating of close relatives as in most cases female and male breeders are chosen from the finite population. poor survival etc. a good brood stock management practice in a hatchery or seed production system of tilapia is essential to avoid inbreeding and other related genetic stock deterioration aspects. Therefore. The most detrimental problem associated with the growing population. 18 . increased incidence of deformities.1 As it is an established fact that the main drawback of all the existing commercial tilapia strains is their precocious maturation and short cycle habit of reproduction in pond conditions.Farming of Tilapia 3 Brood stock replacement and breeding plans for tilapia hatchery stocks BROOD STOCK MANAGEMENT TO AVOID GENETIC STOCK DETERIORATION 3. loss of fecundity. Inbreeding tends to increase the homozygosity across all loci fixing some alleles while others are lost (Mair 1999). as they rapidly become poor genetic material due to inbreeding of stocks for poor brood stock management. A short generation time and essentially uncontrolled reproduction make tilapia susceptible to inbreeding. On the other hand. which ultimately leads the subsequent generations to become stunted and undesirable. Such uncontrolled inbreeding often leads to the loss of genetic variability and other deleterious consequences known as inbreeding depression.

Ne)” supported by standard reference stocks/strains will be the main principle of the tilapia breeding plan in a hatchery. personal communication).5 0. The mating protocol should be devised in such a way that will reduce the chances of declining genetic variation between pairs.Farming of Tilapia Table 2.0 12. The steps of the protocol is furnished below: • • • • Required numbers of founder stock need to be collected from a known source (either from BFRI or from it’s regional stations/sub-stations) and reared in the holding tanks/ponds until maturity. Raul Ponzoni. Inbreeding resulting from some matings between closely related individuals (Dr.5m x 1 m). A pair of female and male breeders (1:1 ratio) are stocked in each breeding hapa. Before stocking at least 80 to 100 breeding hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m) need to be set in a pond. Brood stock should be transferred and kept separately by sex in two transitory hapas (size 8 m x 2.2 BROOD STOCK REPLACEMENT TECHNIQUES Use of a high ‘effective population size (ie. Mating between breeding stocks Full sibs Parent offspring Half sibs Uncle-niece First cousins Unrelated Inbreeding rate at 1st generation (%) 25.0 25.5 6. For brood stock replacement a simple protocol should be developed and maintained to ensure that each pair of breeders will contribute only once to the next generation. A tilapia hatchery operator should maintain at least 500 brood fish (more or less equal number of females and males) per generation as a standard population size for breeding.0 3.5 12. 19 .

In a well-designed 20 .Farming of Tilapia • • • • • • • It is necessary to check the mouth of all the stocked fish in each hapa 10-14 days interval to collect the fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac in view of their artificial incubation. mouth checking is not necessary. Subsequently. From each progeny group at least 5 females and 5 males should be selected as reference stock by manual sexing and shifted them for brood stock replacement. 3. chromosome manipulation. None of these techniques are suitable for continuous improvement of desired traits of a population except selective breeding. alternatively fry produced in the hapas can be collected at fortnightly interval by scooping them from the inside or lifting up the bottom).3 BREEDING PLAN AND GENETIC STOCK IMPROVEMENT OF TILAPIA In view of enhancing productivity of aquaculture species including tilapia. in that case. gene transfer and selective breeding. sex reversal (including YY-male technology). if the egg/larvae incubation system is not available. Selective breeding is a long-term continuous strategy to improve the production performance and quality of tilapia (WorldFish Center 2004). first feeding fry stage (in farmer’s condition. Fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac that have been collected from the mouth of each female fish will be kept separately and incubated family wise in plastic jars.e. Fry need to be grown up to 30 – 40 g size in the same hapa by reducing their numbers 40 – 50 fingerlings/m3. Immediately after hatching. at least 200 fry from each progeny family will be transferred to separate nursery hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m). This will be done to ensure the equal contribution of each breeding pair to brood stock replacement as well as to maximize the effective population size (Ne). a number of advanced genetic techniques are presently available viz. the larvae are shifted to a series of trays and kept until their yolk sac resorption stage i. cross breeding. hybridization.

depends on the additive genetic variation present in the breeding population and the intensity of selection (WorldFish Center 2004). which might need to develop or maintain huge tilapia reference stocks.3. survival and disease resistance of commercially important tilapia species/strains. The rationale of this stock development/maintenance is to form a heterogeneous. the tilapia hatchery operators have a chance to collect and maintain superior brood stock and mate them accordingly. The success of this phenomenon is dependant on the base population. In this way. outbred and broad genetic base in the population at the beginning of the selection program. If the selective breeding technique can be added with brood stock replacement program.Farming of Tilapia selective breeding program the pedigree of brood fish can be monitored to increase the accuracy of selection and to restrict inbreeding. genetically superior individuals can be developed per generation. which needs to have high additive genetic variation.1 Development of the base population It is worthy to mention here that a breeding population has every chance of attaining genetic gain every generation if they are produced through a planned selective breeding. the rate of selection response. therefore. fecundity. Through adopting brood stock replacement program as described above. Such superior and outbred stocks may be of benefit to breeding and aquaculture by increasing growth rate. then it will be wonderful to improve a stock with desirable traits and high genetic variation. 3. In the process of selective breeding. heritability and genetic variability of all traits can be increased to a maximum level and inbreeding depression can be kept to a minimum (Hussain and Mazid 2001). 21 . The base population requires a large effective population size with a large number of breeders.

g. (b) Family selection and (c) Combined selection. (1996) an assumed heritability for body weight of about 0. shape and colour) that are recorded on the living fish. as shown in many fish species. (2002) reported that in silver barb the average gain per generation across two generations of selection for growth performance in weight was 7. Mass selection as an initial method of choice is described below: (a) Mass selection This is a relatively simple selection strategy where breeding candidates are selected on the basis of individual performance. any one can be followed for genetic stock improvement.2 The selection methods In tilapia breeding program among three selection methods. growth. Hussain et al. where the weight gain values of fifth generation of the selected group showed 31.2% superiority (average genetic gain per generation across four generations of selection was 6. Mass selection is normally used to improve phenotypic traits (e.2%.Farming of Tilapia 3. Eknath et al. The most important step to be considered by the hatchery operators in mass selection strategy is that in every generation at least 5-10% bestselected breeders should be collected and used for breeding program for 22 . Similar performance was also attained by Super Strain of GIFT (derived from pure GIFT strain through several generations of genetic selection) in Bangladesh. (a) Mass or individual selection.0%) over the non-selected control group. According to Bentsen et al. Several authors found this to be a useful selection strategy for genetic improvement of commercially important fish stocks. the genetic gain in the progeny should be about 15 to 17% per generation compared to the mean of parent generation. Schom and Baily (1986) reported that mass selection of brood stock in subsequent generations improves the chances of genetic gains through the accumulation of favorable alleles/traits with high genetic variability in the population.3 and assumed coefficient of variation of 30%. viz. (1998) showed about 15% additive genetic gain in the GIFT strain though five generations of selection.3.

A pair of female and male breeders (1:1 ratio) is stocked in each breeding 23 . when the Nile tilapia brood stock derived as base population become sexually mature.g. (b) Setting of breeding hapas and stocking of breeders At least 80 to 100 breeding hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m) are prepared and set in breeding ponds and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles. sexing and maintenance of brood stock During the month March/April. 3. the brood stock are maintained by proper feeding.3. and a consequent accumulation of inbreeding. Individual selection of the breeders is followed based on empirical assessment of best size and weight. maternal and age effects) may easily result in a disproportionately high contribution of individuals from just a few parents to the next generation. During this transitory period.5m x 1 m) set in a pond until they are used for the planned selective breeding program. the best females and males are chosen (weighing between 100-150 gm each) and kept separately by sex in two transitory hapas (size 8 m x 2. after several generations the accumulation of inbreeding can be a major problem. good growth and healthy appearance (Hussain and Mazid 2001).3 Initiate breeding and testing programs (a) Selection.Farming of Tilapia the production of next generation. Such inbreeding reduces the genetic variation and the potential for further genetic improvement in the breeding population (WorldFish Center 2004). It is also reported that when using a mass selection method. If large families are naturally produced or stocked in the test environment. the wide genetic variation and common non-genetic effects (e. The selected breeding candidates can become more related to each other. In this situation either family selection strategy or combined selection strategy can be followed as described in the manual entitled “Gift technology manual: An aid to tilapia selective breeding” published by WorldFish Center (2004).

it is necessary to check the mouth of all the stocked females in each hapa twice a week to collect the fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac in view of their artificial incubation. In that case only first feeding or advanced fry can be collected by using a scoop net for their separate nursing in the other series of hapas. 24 . The bottles and trays need to be set over the designed concrete platform and connected to the recirculating system.4% per estimated weight of biomass 2-3 times daily. (d) Development of incubation system and hatching of fertilized eggs/larvae A simple tilapia egg incubation system can be developed using 2. So. it is wise not to remove the fertilized eggs from the mouth of the female breeder(s).e. Artificial feeds having 35% crude protein can be fed @ 3 . in that case. Rather these eggs should be allowed to hatch and incubate in the mouth of the female(s). (c) Collection of fertilized eggs/larvae The female fish normally holds the fertilized eggs in her mouth for natural incubation. Immediately after hatching.Farming of Tilapia hapa. where fresh water (28±1 oC) comes directly from a header tank by gravity (Figure 8). Note: If there is no facility for artificial hatching and incubation system (s). the larvae are shifted to a series of trays and kept separately until their yolk sac resorption stage i. first feeding fry stage. Fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac that have been collected from the mouth of each female fish are incubated separately in this system.0 liter capacity empty plastic coca cola or drinking water bottles and medium type plastic trays (30 x 25 x 8 cm).

8a A simple tilapia egg incubation system having plastic water bottles. 25 . 8b A simple tilapia egg incubation system having medium type of trays. Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig.

(g) Tagging of fingerlings . (f) Record keeping/data collection The tilapia hatchery manager/operator must maintain a record book and keep all the necessary family wise data of the hapa breeding and fry/fingerling rearing.Farming of Tilapia (e) Nursing and rearing of fry/fingerlings At least 200 fry from each progeny family will be transferred to a series of separate nursery hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m) for rearing for 21 – 24 days. which are fixed through its thread 26 . he should record the number of eggs/larvae per jar/tray and their survival. Floy fingerling tags with different colours have been found to be convenient for external tagging to uniquely identify each one of the large numbers of experimental fish (WorldFish Center 2004). Fry need to be grown up to 8 – 10 g (taggable size) in the same hapas or another series of similar size of hapas by reducing their numbers to 80 – 100 individuals/m3 and reared for another 40 . For producing sufficient number of fingerlings and standardizing the rearing conditions of all full-sib families such records are essential.60 days. He should note the body weight and length data of individual male and female stocked in each hapa including the date of eggs/larvae collection. and the fingerlings shifted to rearing hapas should also be recorded. To reduce environmental differences between families. the number of fry stocked in each nursery hapa. all nursery hapas should be installed in the same pond. During incubation. Several types of tagging materials are available in the market presently but not all are found suitable. During fry/fingerling rearing. Before stocking tilapia fingerlings for any desired communal testing. tagging with suitable materials is essential. The Floy tag having two plastic protection discs.

sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. which provide a safe. cemented tanks. cages and rice fields as common farm environments should be made ready for communal stocking of all full-sib groups. Before stocking. Every 30 days. 27 . Stocking density needs to be calculated as per recommended numbers for each test environments. Throughout the entire grow-out period. A few equal numbers of tagged fingerlings per full-sib group can be stocked in the selected environments for a full grow-out period (3 – 5 months). (h) Testing in common farm environments Communal testing of fish in common farm environment might be essential for evaluation of growth and other performance traits as well as estimating the breeding values for any desired selection strategy(s) in each generation. comparatively longer shaped plastic numbered tags with nylon thread (Figure10) can be used by fixing them at the dorsal fin or tail region of the tilapia fingerlings. The capsulated PIT tags are implanted within the visceral cavity of the fish. secured and permanent identification of experimental fish (both for fingerlings and breeders). the body weight. After tagging all the representative number of fingerlings from each family should be shifted to a holding tank or hapa. standard length and tag number of the fingerlings should be recorded.Farming of Tilapia either side with the needle carefully inserted underneath the scale below the dorsal fin and above the lateral line (Figure 9). For tilapia the most convenient is digital tagging by Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags (Figure 11). Another type of flat. The earthen ponds. the fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight. An electronic scanner is used to read out the digital number at the time of sampling and harvesting. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily.

28 . 9 Floy tagging underneath the scale below the dorsal fin and above the lateral line of tilapia.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 10 Plastic numbered tag with nylon thread. Fig.

Farming of Tilapia Fig. uncle-nice and cousins) mating should always be avoided to prevent inbreeding depression in further genetic improvement program of tilapia. sex.4 Continue selection program(s) to produce next generation(s) For the production of the next generation. full-sibs. 29 . should be recorded.e. Closely related individuals (i. 3. sexual maturation condition. body depth etc. standard length. 11 PIT tagging into the visceral cavity of tilapia. Fish can be harvested when they attain the weight about 100 – 150 g. the very best individuals in terms of individual weight for mass selection/breeding values for other selection strategies should be used.3. parent-offspring. body width. But a compromise needs to be maintained between selection intensity and effective population size (WorldFish Center 2004). All the test fish should be captured as carefully as possible and the individual tag numbers. body weight. halfsibs.

2% 0. In a well designed breeding program. Correlation between effective population size (Ne) and rate of inbreeding in a hatchery.05% 30 . individuals produced by each pair of breeders) from maximum number of broodstock and maintaining a 1:1 sex ratio (Mair 1999).5% 0. Table 3. Effective population size (Ne) (Sex ratio 1:1) 50 100 250 500 750 1000 Rate of inbreeding (F value) per generation 1% 0.07% 0. “Ne” will be made by collecting very few but equal numbers of individuals from each progeny group (ie. which is shown as: F = 1/2Ne It is worthy to mention here that the rate of inbreeding depends on the skewed sex ratio. The rate of inbreeding per generation in the range of effective population size (Ne) 50 to 1000 using the above formula is furnished in Table 3. the effective population size (Ne) should be maintained >50 up to 1000 to keep the estimated level of inbreeding less than 1% per generation.4 MAXIMIZING THE EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZE (NE) “Ne” should be maximized to minimize the loss of genetic variation and inbreeding. “Ne” can be calculated by using the following formula: Ne = 4 x F x M / (F + M) where F = number of female & M = number of males Effective population size is inversely related to the rate of inbreeding (F).1% 0. In a well planned breeding program.Farming of Tilapia 3. In a breeding population where random mating is done.

the methods of controlling sex have become easier. Each genome in this species of tilapia contains 22 chromosomes. while those are produced having XY (heterogametic) set of sex chromosomes become males. 31 . a zygote has a diploid genomic status having a total of 44 chromosomes. the two haploid genomes or gametes form a zygote and this complement is termed as diploid. female and male population GENOMIC STATUS AND DETERMINATION OF SEX 4. At fertilization of mature egg and sperm. In this case.1 Like other finfish. As the mechanism of sex determination is known in Nile tilapia. A single gamete can be termed as genome (i. having a haploid set of chromosomes). sperms and eggs) are produced by the male and female O.e. niloticus has an XX/XY sex determining system. niloticus.e. chemicals (i. nitrous oxide and freon).e. endomitotics) and anesthetics (i. therefore. such as physical shocks (temperature and hydrostatic pressure). the offspring that are produced from the fertilized eggs having XX (homogametic) set of sex chromosomes become females. the gametes (i. Various techniques have been developed so far to interfere with normal functioning of the metaphase spindle apparatus during cell division in eggs using several causal agents. As a result. Here.Farming of Tilapia 4 Ploidy manipulation and production of all sterile. Ploidy or chromosome manipulation has become popular research in this fish since 1980s for the generation of genetically induced sterile and mono-sex (either all female or all male) populations. O.e. each haploid set of chromosomes in the egg contains a single X sex chromosome and in the sperm it contains either an X or a Y sex chromosome.

2. where control of reproduction and population is desirable. because of promising future of large-scale production of genetically induced sterile fish from mating of normal diploid and viable tetraploid individuals. Triploid individuals are expected to be functionally and endocrinologically sterile due to their meiotic inhibition of gametogenesis and lack of essential steroid hormone levels to support gonadal growth (Hussain 1998).1 Induction of polyploidy There are two types of polyploids.Farming of Tilapia individuals with differing genomic status can be produced in a population as below: • • • Polyploids (triploid and tetraploid) Gynogenetics (both meiotic and mitotic gynogenetics) Androgenetics (embryonic development with chromosomes) paternal 4. But until now no viable tetraploids in tilapia have produced except the 32 .2 PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY INDUCED ALL STERILE POPULATION Genetically induced sterile populations can be produced by the induction of polyploidy (triploidy and tetraploidy) in the developing eggs of Nile tilapia. The production of tetraploids might have tremendous impact. Tetraploid individuals are generated by the disruption of the first mitotic division shortly prior to formation of cleavage furrow of developing fertilized eggs using several agents both physical and chemical. 4. Such sterility in both female and male fish can be of benefit to aquaculture. Triploids are produced directly by blocking of second polar body extrusion during second meiotic division shortly after fertilization of fish eggs using various physical shocks and chemical treatments. i) triploids and ii) tetraploids.

aerated and temperature controlled (28±1 oC) water supply in a wet laboratory. For artificial breeding in view of chromosome manipulation works. niloticus brood stock including improved GIFT strain are to be collected from a known source and attention to be given for their special maintenance in ponds or tanks and feeding with protein rich artificial feeds. sexually mature fish are maintained under at least 12-h photoperiod and transferred into a series of 120 L glass aquaria provided a recirculated. In these aquaria the fish need to be fed with commercial pellets (at least 40% protein) at the rate of 2-3% body weight per day.Farming of Tilapia embryos. Fig. 33 . 12 A schematic diagram of inducing polyploids in O. Methods for triploidy and tetraploidy induction (a) Collection and maintenance of brood stock Sufficient numbers (>100 pairs) of purebred O. A single male and female are accommodated in each aquarium but are kept separate by a sheet of Perspex. heat and cold shocks (Hussain 1996). heat and cold shocks is shown in Figure 12. niloticus using pressure. A schematic diagram of inducing polyploids in O. niloticus using pressure.

Milt contaminated with urine or water is always eliminated.1-0. Readiness of females to spawn is ascertained by examining the degree of swelling of the urogenital papilla and by the pre-spawning behaviour of the fish. The urine is first ejected and the genital papilla dried with a paper towel and the milt is sucked into a micro-pipette by capillary attraction when it is placed at the opening of the urethra. heat and cold shocks) to induce both triploidy and tetraploidy. (c) Egg collection and artificial fertilization Under experimental conditions sexually mature female O. Fertilization is carried out in vitro by mixing 0. while the experiment is being prepared. 34 . The stripping is done by applying gentle downward pressure with the thumb and index fingers from just below the pectoral fins up to the genital opening of the fish.Farming of Tilapia (b) Collection and preservation of sperm Milt of sexually mature male O. niloticus spawn at approximately 14-20 day intervals. After that fertilized eggs are left in the Petri dish for 2-3 min. 100-200 eggs) followed by the addition of 10-20 ml of 28±1 o C water.2 ml pre-collected dry sperm per batch of eggs (ca. Before any milt is used for fertilization. The eggs are collected in a clean and sterile Petri dish.5 L vessel capacity pressure apparatus (Figure 13) and thermostatically regulated 50 L capacity water bath (Figure 14) are used. for water hardening before using for further treatments or transfer to the incubation system. The ripe female is removed from the aquarium and the ovulated eggs are obtained by manual stripping. To avoid the female prematurely releasing her eggs. For short storage undiluted milt is held at 4 oC in a refrigerator can be used to fertilize eggs until 3-4 days. she can be held in a scope net for up to 2 hrs. both 1 – 1. (d) Application of shock treatments For applying physical shock treatments (pressure. motility of sperm is always examined under microscope. niloticus is collected by manual stripping.

13 1 – 1. Fig. 14 Thermostatically regulated 50 L capacity water bath.5 L vessel capacity pressure apparatus.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 35 .

Pressure is released by gradually opening the valve and so the pressure dropped typically over 30 sec (9.f. the pressure release valve is closed.f. 36 .5 min duration to be applied 5 min a. Heat shock: : 41 oC. The optimal pressure.000 psi typically in the region of 30 sec with the passage from 8000 10. heat and cold shock parameters for the induction of triploidy in O. niloticus (Hussain et al. 2 min duration to be applied 9 min after fertilization (a.f. Cold shock: 9 oC.Farming of Tilapia For pressure shocking the fertilised eggs. 1991) are as follows: • • • Pressure shock: 8000 psi.). Eggs are held in individual uncapped vials and.1 oC) needs to be filled with clean water and allowed to heat the water up to required temperature. The time is taken to raise the pressure level from ambient to 8. Heat shock: 41 oC. is shown in Table 4. After the pressure treatment. 3.000 – 9. For thermal (heat and cold) shocking the fertilized eggs. 2 min duration to be applied 40-50 min a.f.f. the eggs are removed from the vials and transferred directly to incubating jars.5 duration to be applied 27. 3. 30 min duration to be applied 7 min a.5-30 min a. pressure was applied gradually by a manually operated hydraulic pump. The induction of triploidy and tetraploidy has already been carried out in various Oreochromis spp.. The optimal pressure and heat shock parameters to suppress the first cleavage or mitotic events of cell division in the fertilized eggs in the Nile tilapia (Hussain et al. after the vessel is sealed and purged of air.000 psi taking a further 10 sec. range 0 to 100 oC capable of maintaining ±0. 1993) can be used for the induction of tetraploidy are as below: • • Pressure shock: 9000 psi. the water bath (temp.000 – 0 psi). the vessel and hydraulic pump reservoir are first filled with 28±1 oC clean water.

5 C o 11 C for 60 min o o Induction widow 9 min a. heat and cold shocks. niloticus are composed of three (3n=66 chromosomes) and four (4n=88 chromosomes) sets of genomes respectively. The triploid and teraploid metaphases in O. 5 min a. (1991)) Hussain et al.f.2. Table 4. 15 min a.5 min 9 C for 30 min 11 C for 60 min 7000 psi for 7 min + o 7. The survival rate in treated and control groups is checked at three development stages. Additionally. treated and controlled eggs are identically incubated in a series of round bottom plastic jars (750 – 1500 ml capacity) connected to the warm water (28±1 oC ) recirculating system. 7 min a.3).5 of this chapter. 92 min a.f.5 min o 41 C for 3.Farming of Tilapia (e) Incubation of eggs Fertilized. 1986). 62. namely: morula. Ploidy status Triploidy Triploidy Triploidy Triploidy Tetraploidy Tetraploidy Authors Hussain et al. For detailed protocol of chromosome karyotyping see section 4. Polyploidy induction in various Oreochromis spp.f. Species Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis aureus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis aureus Causal agents PS HS CS CS PS + CS CS Intensity level 8000 psi for 3. (1991)) Hussain et al.f. the water is sterilized through a UV sterilization unit (ca. 57-60 a. (1991)) Valenti (1975)) Myers (1986) Don & Avatalion (1988) (f) Determination of ploidy status The ploidy status of all treatment and control groups can be determined by chromosome preparation of sub-samples of new hatched or 1 day old larvae (Hussain and McAndrew 1994).000 µWsec/cm2) and there should be a provision so as to ensure gentle movement of the developing eggs at all times (Rana.f.f. using pressure. The numbers of normal and deformed fry at hatch are also need to be recorded. pigmentation and hatching stages (see section 2. 37 .

embryonic development proceeds with the inheritance of only maternal 38 . Fig.3. eggs are fertilized with UV irradiated sperm and then are exposed to a variety of physical shock or chemical treatments.1 Induction of meiotic gynogenesis In the process of meiotic gynogenesis. heat and cold shocks is shown in Figure 15. heat and cold shocks (Hussain 1996). As a result.3 PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY INDUCED ALL FEMALE POPULATION Genetically induced all female populations in fish can be produced by artificial diploidization of the maternal chromosome complement either by retention of the second polar body or inhibition of first cleavage using physical and chemical treatments. 4. niloticus using pressure. 15 A schematic diagram of inducing two types of gynogenesis (meiotic and mitotic) in O. So two types of gynogenetic individuals can thus be generated through the induction of meiotic or mitotic events of fertilized eggs. which suppress the anaphase stages of second meiotic division by disruption of metaphase spindles. A schematic diagram of inducing two types of gynogenesis (meiotic and mitotic) in O. niloticus using pressure.Farming of Tilapia 4.

which will be homozygous at every gene locus (Chourrout 1984. The main rationale of mitotic gynogenesis induction in fish has been its potential for generating rapidly inbred lines. even when reproduction is repeated for several generations would never produce homozygous inbred lines. Pongathana et al. Streisinger et al. At present there are few direct applications of meiotic gynogens in aquaculture because the fish partly or mostly are inbred and have reduced variability compared to normal diploids. 1998). Such sex-reversed males are thought to be useful in cross breeding experiments to produce all outbred monosex female population. 1995). Therefore. Despite the first generation of mitotic gynogenetics have limitations to use them directly for culture but they are potential and valuable as completely homozygous brood stock to produce second generation of clonal lines in fish including tilapia (Hussain et al. 4. 1981. (1991) suggested that using meiotic gynogenetic diploids. Hussain et al. where the growth rate of females is superior to males. Thorgaard and Allen 1987. putative gynogenetic progeny derive by the artificial diploidization of the maternal chromosome complement due to prevention of mitotic cleavage.3. It has commonly suggested that meiotic gynogentic induction coupled with sex inversion such that functional XX males could be produced (Nagy 1987. 1994). induction of diploid gynogenesis by inhibition of first cleavage at mitotic division of a zygote might be more promising method for producing inbred lines.2 Induction of mitotic gynogenesis In this process. 39 . Han et al.Farming of Tilapia chromosome set(s).

5x107 ml-1.05 ml of modified Cortland’s solution (Hussain et al. The optimal second polar body retaining pressure and heat shock parameters (Hussain et al. All the treatment batches of eggs are fertilized by mixing 0. niloticus brood stock collection.). 1993). sperm/egg collection and fertilization The true breeding O.1 of this chapter.1. their maintenance. their maintenance. After fertilization.4 – 0.5 ml diluted (with modified Cortland’s solution) UV irradiated sperm.Farming of Tilapia Methods for induction of meiotic and mitotic gynogenesis (a) Source of brood stock. (b) Ultraviolet irradiation of sperm Milt samples required for UV treatment are checked for motility and irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp set using a radiometer (Ultra-Violet Products Inc. (c) Application of shock treatments The same protocols for the application of both pressure and thermal shocks treatments can be followed as described in the section 4. All treatment batches of eggs except the UV control are exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat shocks. eggs are at all times incubated at 28±1 oC. un-irradiated sperm from the same pool is used to fertilize a portion of eggs as a control. 1991) can be applied for the induction of meiotic gynogenesis as follows: 40 .1. when not being submitted for shock treatments. Irradiation is carried out in a 5 cm diameter Petri dish at 4 o C to give a dose of 300-310 µW/cm2 for 2 min with a sperm concentration of 2. 2. stripping of sperm/egg collection and fertilization protocols are described in section 3.2.

1993) can be used as below: • • Pressure shock: 9000 psi. Determination of ploidy status can be performed as explained in the protocols in section 4. using pressure and heat shocks.f.). Gynogenesis induction in various Oreochromis spp. 3.f. (1991) Varadaraj & Pandian (1990) Hussain et al. 25-35 min a. Table 5 shows a brief review of suppression of meiotic and mitotic events of cell division in the fertilised eggs to produce meiotic and mitotic gynogenetics in various Oreochromis spp. Table 5. Heat shock: 41 oC.5 min o 41 C for 3. Ploidy status Meiotic gynogenetic Meiotic gynogenetic Meiotic gynogenetic Mitotic gynogenetic Mitotic gynogenetic Mitotic gynogenetic Authors Hussain et al. Egg incubation and checking of survival rates of embryos at various developmental stages can be done as described in the protocols in section 2.f.7 C for 3 min 9000 psi for 2 min o 41 C for 3.f.3. To interfere with the first mitosis for the induction of mitotic gynogenesis the recommended optimal parameters of pressure and heat shocks (Hussain et al. 5 min a. (1991) Mair (1988). Hussain et al. Heat shock: 41 oC. (1993) Hussain et al. and 3.5 min 41. 32-54 min a.f.f.5 min 41 C for 3. (1993) Mair (1988) 41 .5-30 min a. 2 min duration to be applied 40-50 min a.f. 27.5. Species Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis mossambicus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Causal agents PS HS HS PS HS HS Intensity level 8000 psi for 3.f.Farming of Tilapia • • Pressure shock: 8000 psi.f.1.1. 2 min duration to be applied 9 min after fertilization (a. 3.5 min o o Induction widow 9 min a.5 min duration to be applied 5 min a.5 min duration to be applied 27.2. 40-50 min a.5-30 min a.f.

Androgenesis is a genome manipulation technique. • For each group (ca 100) 15 .Farming of Tilapia 4.6 hrs at 28oC). May et al. The eggs can be inactivated successfully by gamma or x-rays including UV irradiation. 1990) and later in Nile tilapia (J. The resulting embryo develops with entirely paternal chromosomal inheritance without any contribution from the maternal chromosomes. The first androgenetic diploids were produced by the suppression of first cleavage of inactivated eggs in salmonids (Parsons and Thorgaard. Thorgaard et al. For the commercial production and application of genetically induced males need further research. 42 . 1988.5 PROTOCOLS FOR CHROMOSOME KARYOPYTING Hussain and McAndrew (1994) developed an improved technique for chromosome karyrotyping from embryonic and soft tissues of tilapia.M. Myers personal communication). The protocol for chromosome preparation from embryonic tissues is as follows: • Embryonic tissues need to be collected from newly hatched or 1 dayold larvae of treatment groups. 4. which involves a genetically inactivated egg fertilised with normal sperm.20 embryos are placed in a small Petri dish containing 8 . the reverse to gynogenesis. 1985. which is important as egg and embryo cryopreservation has not yet been succeeded.0.10 ml of 0. Another possible application of genetically induced males lies in recovering genotypes from cryopreserved sperm.002 .005% colchicine solution (freshly prepared or stored for 4 .4 PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY INDUCED ALL MALE POPULATION The induction of androgenesis is the alternative method of producing genetically induced all male population in tilapia and other selected fish species to replace hormonal sex reversal.

with a compound microscope. three to four drops of cell suspension are dropped from a height of 30 .Farming of Tilapia • • • • • • Tissues are obtained from the embryos in chilled 0.acetic acid at 4oC. air dried and mounted with DPX after 10 min. Slides are air dried and stained with freshly prepared 10% Giemsa stain (prepared in 0. After 15 .01M phosphate buffer pH 7.. To prepare the slides. The slides are rinsed in distilled water.12 min. placed in the cavity of a Perspex slide with two to three drops 60% glacial acetic acid and minced for 1 min. • Tissues are collected with fine scissors and forceps then transferred immediately to distilled water for 10-20 min before being fixed in 4:1 methanol-acetic acid (two changes) and stored at 4 oC up to 30 days. The protocol for chromosome preparation from soft tissues is as follows: • Soft tissues like gill epithelia and the soft edges of the caudal fin are collected from 25-30 day old (after hatching) fry. • Slides are prepared according to the same technique described for chromosome karyotyping from embryonic tissues. Metaphase spreads of chromosomes are to be checked and chromosome number noted by observing the slides under x400 and x1000 (oil immersion) magnifications.20 min.02% colchicine solution. later blotting out the excess fixative. respectively.90 days. 43 . the tissues are removed from the fixative and.75% saline solution under a dissecting microscope by removing their heads and yolk sacs and putting these in distilled water (hypotonic solution) for 8 . The temperature of the solution is maintained 28±1 oC. The tissues are then immersed in a fixative of 4:1 methanol . • The are placed overnight (10-12 hours) in a plastic container with aerated 0.48oC) and withdrawn within 8 . After two changes the tissues are stored in the fixative for 30 .01-0.20 min.0) for 15 .40 cm onto a clean glass slide on a warmed hot plate (44 .12 seconds leaving a fine and clean ring of cells using a single micro-hematocrit dropper. of Xylene wash. with a glass rod to allow sufficient dissociation of epithelial cells.

Aneuploid metaphase (hyperhaploid or hypodiploid) is composed of more than 22 and less than 44 chromosomes in this species (Figure 16 d). Fig. d. In fact only one pair large marker chromosomes are recognizable and remaining 21 being similar in size and acrocentric morphologically. which are composed of respectively one (n=22 including one large marker chromosome). The karyotypes of O. diploid (2n = 44). c. niloticus consisting of 22 pairs with no morphologically distinct sex chromosomes. two (2n=44 including two large marker chromosomes) and three (3n=66 including three large marker chromosomes) sets of chromosomes are shown in Figure 16 a-c. diploid and triploid metaphases. The haploid. 44 . a. haploid (n = 22). 16 Metaphase chromosome of Oreochromis niloticus. triploid (3n = 66). b.Farming of Tilapia Counting the chromosomes of as many karyotypes as possible per slide carries out the karyological examination. aneuploid metaphase (hyperhaploid or hypodiploid) (Hussain 1995).

niloticus are predominant (McAndrew et al. Later further genetic improvement of such red tilapia was made through cross breeding (Kuo and Tsay 1988). studies have also been made particularly to determine the genetics of body colour inheritance in a limited number of commercial and experimental populations of fishes including tilapias. many geneticists working with various plants and animals have since conducted an immense number of experimental works.Farming of Tilapia 5 Body colour inheritance and development of purebred strains of red tilapia INHERITANCE OF BODY COLOUR IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE STRAINS 5. niloticus by Kuo (1969. mossambicus and O. brown and wild type: colour segregations occurred in all crosses. The Taiwanese red tilapia has been reported as a hybrid between albino O. white.1 After the discovery of Mendel’s theory of heredity or inheritance. 1988) and Liao and Chang (1983). Commercially available red tilapia strains are mostly hybrids and products of cross breeding involving as many as four different species in which O. 1988). The pink phenotype was homozygous dominant. The red strain in the Philippines was introduced from Singapore in 1978 and the breeding characteristics of various crosses of different phenotypes 45 . Initially the founder hybrid strain did not produce a high frequency of red fry. These crosses were made between phenotypic individuals such as red. the red heterozygous and the wild type homozygous recessive. but after several years of continued selection and hybridization trials using F1 progeny. mossambicus and O. the proportion of red phenotypic fry was increased from 30% in 1969 to 80% in 1974. Meanwhile.

mossambicus (Sipe 1979) and the second strain a red-gold colour mutant hybrid between O. 1990). pink. the first one derived from cross breeding involving O. fast growth. Greece. 1982). The frequency of blotchy pattern in these strains further indicated that blotched phenotype are heterozygotes (Rr). which might be epistatic to the “R” gene and expressed only in its presence. black spotted and albino) were subsequently investigated (Galman et al. Observing several generations. extensive farming practice of this fish has not yet 46 . Indonesia.2 IMPORTANCE AND PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESENT STOCKS Red tilapia strains have become increasingly popular to fish farmers and entrepreneurs for their characteristic body colour. Among U. In an Egyptian strain of O. mossambicus has been determined and it was revealed that the mutant phenotype was inherited as a Mendelian recessive (Wohlfarth et al. 5. Among all red. Tave et al (1989) demonstrated that black body coloured fish were homozygous dominant. His results demonstrated that red body colour in these two mutant strains is controlled by a single autosomal dominant “R” gene. the authors stated that red-gold colouration was dominant and controlled by two or three gene pairs in this strain. the red body colour was inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in presence of wild type (McAndrew et al. 1988).Farming of Tilapia (ie. hornorum and red O. pink and albinos. Guam. grey. the Philippines. In Israel. the red/gold body colour of O. Israel. the pink phenotype seemed to be homozygous dominant. mossambicus (Behrends et al. Malaysia. hornorum and O. tasty flesh and high demand in the market. Thailand. aureus. strains of hybrid red tilapias.S. 1988). gold fish were homozygous recessive and bronze fish were heterozygotes. Brazil. Although the Thai red strain was introduced into Bangladesh in 1988. These strains are commercially cultured in many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world such as Taiwan. niloticus. Jamaica and USA. O. Hussain (1994) also observed similar pattern of colour inheritance both in Egyptian and Thai red strains.

J. It will be difficult to maintain or improve the quality and development of pure breeding red populations of the present stocks until the mode of body colour inheritance is well understood by tilapia hatchery workers and researchers. communication). An Official of Thai Government informed the meeting that red tilapia was found in a pond in northern Thailand. Despite the commercial importance and development of several red tilapia strains in many regions of the world. including Thai red strain. Thailand in 1987. Red mutant brooders can be made as true breeders when they will be fixed 47 . pers.Farming of Tilapia flourished. Another problem associated with the appearance of varying proportions of blotched types (presence of black spots on the skin) of fish in each generation. the red strain will also take a place in aquaculture soon due to its commercial importance and high demand in the international markets. progeny testing is a valuable method for maintaining the production of all pure red progenies of Thai and other mutant strains. and heterozygous “Rr” individuals that do not (Hussain 1994). Sodsuk. mossambicus and O. Thus. McAndrew and Dr. niloticus. P. this fish was assumed to be a hybrid between O. mossambicus was introduced from Malaysia in 1949. It has been experimentally proved that the existing stocks of Thai red strain are a mixture of both homozygous “RR” that breed true. It is expected that like the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia. In this case. Electrophoretic analysis of Thai red tilapia samples showed that both O. 5.2. Prof. B. which are not as valuable to the consumers as the pure red individuals. where O.1 Genetic status of Thai red strain The origin of the Thai red strain is less certain and its origins were discussed for the first time in a workshop on “Tilapia Genetic Resources for Aquaculture” held in Bangkok. niloticus alleles were present (Pullin 1988. mossmabicus and O. one major problem of these mutant strains is that the majority of them do not breed true.

2.3.3. stripping. in mini tanks or glass aquaria. 5. . During all the phases of growing period of brood stocks.3 MECHANISMS OF PROGENY TESTING TO DEVELOP PUREBRED STRAINS OF RED TILAPIA 5. 5. niloticus stocks should be collected from a known source or from a tilapia reference collection maintained at the research institute(s). 5. No females in these crosses are used more than once and males can be used several times with different females. to allow the undesirable “r” allele to be selected out.3. egg fertilization and incubation protocols to be used for progeny production will be similar to section 4. The brood stocks of these strains need to be maintained separately initially in the earthen ponds and subsequently in a recirculated water system ie. fertilization and incubation of eggs Fish breeding.Farming of Tilapia as all homozygous at the “R” allele.2 Fish breeding.1.3 Parental cross breeding (a) Red x Red parental cross • • • 48 A number of red females can be used to cross with red males. the fish should be fed with formulated or commercial feeds having at least 30% crude protein at recommended rates. Stripped eggs of each red female need to be fertilized with freshly collected milt of red males and incubated separately.1 Collection of red and wild brood stock Both red and wild type pure O. stripping.

It is expected that body colour segregation of F1 progenies of all these crosses will be either 100% red or 50% red plus 50% wild type. Thus it can be presumed that the parental red stocks will be either “RR” or “Rr” genotypes or combination of both. From this test crosses. . It is expected that body colour segregation of progenies of all these crosses will be all red. 100% red progeny producing parental stocks (RR genotype) can be isolated to develop purebred red strains (Figure 17) for commercial breeding purpose. Thus it can be presumed that the parental red stocks will be either “RR” (where F1 progenies are 100% red) or “Rr” (where F1 progenies are expected 1 red:1 wild) genotypes or combination of both. (b) Red x Wild type parental cross • • • • • • A number of red females or males can be used to cross with wild type males or females. No females in these crosses are used more than once and males can be used several times with different females. Stripped eggs of each female (red or wild) need to be fertilized with freshly collected milt of corresponding males (red or wild) and incubated separately. In these crosses it will be difficult to identity the true breeding parental stocks to develop purebred red strains for breeding purpose until the F1 progenies are used for sib crosses. F1 progenies produced in these crosses need to be reared for few weeks in the nursery hapas until the fry develop distinguishable body colour.Farming of Tilapia • • • • F1 progenies produced in these crosses need to be reared for few weeks in the nursery hapas until the fry develop distinguishable body colour. • 49 .

1988). Thus it can be presumed that the parental red stocks will be either “RR” (where F2 progenies are 100% red) or “Rr” (where F2 progenies are expected 3 red:1 wild) genotypes or combination of both.3. Only F1 or F2 progenies can be categorized into full red (approximately <10% body surface with melanophores) and blotched types (approximately >10% body surface with melanophores). • 5.3. 100% red progeny producing F1 stocks (RR genotype) can be isolated to develop purebred red strains for commercial breeding purpose. From this test crosses. of survivors) x 100 50 . To determine the observed ratio of colour segregation. of progeny of a given phenotype / Total no.5 Scoring of progeny phenotypes Progeny phenotypes in all the crosses can be categorized as “red” (including blotched type) and “wild” type (those normally pigmented and completely different from those of red phenotype) of the same strains. No females in these crosses are used more than once and males can be used several times with different females. although both types together are designated as “red” (McAndrew et al.Farming of Tilapia 5. It is expected that body colour segregation of F2 progenies of all these crosses will be either all red or 75% red plus 25% wild type. Stripped eggs of each red female need to be fertilized with freshly collected milt of red males and incubated separately.4 Sib cross breeding • • • • • • A number of F1 red females can be used to cross with F1 red males. F2 progenies produced in these crosses need to be reared for few weeks in the nursery hapas until the fry develop distinguishable body colour. the proportion of progeny phenotypes are calculated as: (No.

Farming of Tilapia

5.4

MAINTENANCE OF PUREBRED BROOD STOCK FOR SEED PRODUCTION IN THE HATCHERY

For purebred red brood stock development, fingerlings (20 – 30 g in weight) of “RR” genotypes could be produced or collected and stocked at the rate of 3-4 fish/m2 in the small and medium type brood stock rearing earthen ponds ranging from 1000 – 1500 m2 with the depth of 1.0 to 1.5 m. During all the phases of growing period of brood stocks, the fish should be fed with formulated or commercial feeds having at least 30% crude protein @ 3-10% body weight. During 1st and 2nd week of rearing the fish can be fed @ 10%, during 3rd and 4th week @ 5% and during 5th and 6th week onwards @ 3% body weight. Care should be taken not to contaminate with wild type or impure red blotched type Rr genotypes (Figure 18) in the rearing ponds. Brood stock replacement and stock improvement protocols and monosex production techniques for red strains will be the same as described respectively in Chapter 3 and Chapter 7.

51

Farming of Tilapia

Fig. 17 Purebred red tilapia strain.

Fig. 18 Impure blotched type tilapia of red phenotype.

52

Farming of Tilapia

6

Development and operation of mixed sex commercial tilapia seed production systems
MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN PONDS

6.1

Mixed sex seed production through controlled natural spawning in small and medium earthen ponds is a common practice for tilapia breeders. This system consists of three basic components as follows: i) ii) iii) Brood stock collection and maintenance. Fry production through natural spawning. Rearing of fry in nursery ponds.

6.1.1 Brood stock collection and maintenance
For seed production, the brood stock should be collected from the regional stations and sub-stations of BFRI or any other reliable known sources, who are maintaining outbred and improved stocks of O. niloticus. For brood stock development, fingerlings (20 – 30 g in weight) could be collected and stocked at the rate of 3-4 fish/m2 in the small and medium type brood stock rearing earthen ponds ranging from 1000 – 1500 m2 with the depth of 1.0 to 1.5 m. During all the phases of growing period of brood stocks, the fish should be fed with formulated or commercial feeds having at least 30% crude protein @ 3-10% body weight. During 1st and 2nd week of rearing the fish can be fed @ 10%, during 3rd and 4th week @ 5% and during 5th and 6th week onwards @ 3% body weight. If formulated feeds are not available
53

6. 54 . manuring and fertilization of each pond should be made respectively with cattle dung @ 800 – 1000 kg/ha and Urea plus T. • • (b) Stocking of brood fish • Sexually matured breeders weighing 80 to 100 g each should be stocked @ 2-3 fish/m2 with a sex ratio of 1 male to 3 females.Farming of Tilapia alternatively a mixture of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake can be given at 5 -10 % biomass 2 times a day.P (25 + 25 kg/ha).S. Seven days after liming. If this is not possible..2 Fry production through natural spawning (a) Pond selection and preparation • • One or two ponds having an area of 400 – 800 m2 with inside slope about 1:3 and average water depth of 1.0 meter need to be selected for the purpose of natural spawning. All the predatory fish and animals are to be completely eradicated by dewatering and drying of ponds before stocking of fish. Ponds should be limed @ 250 – 300 kg CaO /ha. (c) Feeding • Supplementary feeds with a mixture of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake or 75% rice barn or 25% fish meal can be given at 3-5% biomass 2 times a day. then ponds need to be poisoned by using rotenone @ 10 – 12 kg/ha. Feeding of brood fish during low temperature and rainy days should be avoided to minimize the loss of resources.1.

Farming of Tilapia (d) Collection of early fry • Three to four weeks after stocking of brood stock. the available fry should be collected regularly in the early morning with a fine-mesh seine net and transferred to holding hapas (Figure 19) set in the ponds prior to stocking in the nursery ponds. the first feeding fry can be stocked @ 500 – 600 per m2.3 Rearing of fry in nursery ponds The size and preparation of nursery ponds should be more or less the same as brood stock ponds described above. the available fry can be sold directly to the buyers or reared in another series of nurseries by reducing their stocking densities. 6.1. advanced fry can be reared further by stocking @ 100 – 200 m2 in a series of well prepared nursery ponds for 40 – 60 days. 55 . when early fry are found schooling near the shore of spawning ponds. At this stage.. Rearing of tilapia fry to stockable size can be made following the two stages technique as follows: (a) Primary stage • • • • In well prepared nursery ponds. (b) Secondary stage • In view of producing better stockable size. Early fry can be fed with powdered feeds as a mixture of rice bran and mustard oilcake (1:1 ratio) at the rate of 12 – 15% initial body weight 3 –4 times per day. The growing fry need to be reared for 21 days in these ponds to attain an average weight about 1 g each.

Shape of the tanks can be either circular. rectangular or oval Rectangular tanks are suitable and the size of individual tank may vary from 2. Tanks can be constructed at any places including the towns and cities. Low cost breeding and fry rearing tanks might not have access to water flowing or recirculation system but can be facilitated for irregular water flashing for cleaning the tanks once a week (Figure 20).0 m long. The fingerlings are expected to attain the average body weight about 8 – 10 g each.0 – 10.0 m. 4-6 m diameter circular tank is also most economic size and self cleaning for tilapia seed production.2 MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN CONCRETE TANKS Concrete tanks are often useful for tilapia seed production.0 – 4. 6.Farming of Tilapia • • Fry can be fed formulated feeds (Table 6) and feeding rate can be reduced to 8 –10% biomass 2 – 4 times per day.2.1 Tilapia breeding in the tanks (c) Design of the tanks • • • • • Tilapia breeding tanks are generally simple and smaller in comparison to the fattening tanks normally used for intensive culture systems. 2. which do not need much surface land area. square.8 – 1. 6. 56 .0 m wide with a depth of 0.

Farming of Tilapia Fig. Fig. 57 . 19 Tilapia fry holding hapas. 20 Low cost tilapia breeding and fry rearing tanks.

using a fine meshed dip net the first schooling fry should be collected. The females while mouth brooding.2.Farming of Tilapia (b) Stocking of brood fish • • Sexually matured breeders weighing 80 to 100 g each should be stocked in the breeding tanks @ 3-4 fish/m2 with a sex ratio of 1 male to 3 females. (c) Feeding • • Supplementary feeds with a mixture of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake or 75% rice barn or 25% fish meal can be given at 3-5% biomass 2 times a day. counted and stocked in a series of nursery tanks. they do not actively take artificial feeds. Fry collected from the breeding tanks need to be graded. Every alternative week the fry collection needs to be repeated. the stocking of fry will be 1000 – 1200 per m2 and feeding will be made with high protein powder feed (at least 35% crude protein) @ 15-20% of biomass 4-6 times per day. 58 . the density should be reduced to 500 – 600 per m2 and feeding rates will be 12-15% of biomass.2 Fry/fingerling rearing of in the nursery tanks • • For one week. (d) Early fry collection • • • At the 12th to 15th day from stocking of the breeders. reducing the feed may lessen water quality deterioration in the tanks. In this case. Breeders need to be replaced when they attain an average weight of 250 g or more. 6. After a week.

Water depth of the nursery tanks can be kept 0.2. The fry/fingerlings can be harvested in the tanks by netting or draining the water. 59 .3 Overall maintenance of tilapia breeding and nursery tanks • • • • Breeding tanks should be cleaned manually or by water flashing fortnightly.Farming of Tilapia • • • • After second week. Partial water change in nursery tanks can be done depending on the water quality. 6. Fry will be ready to sell when they will be >1 g each. the density will be 300-400 per m2 and feeding rates will be 10-12% of biomass.0.6 . Advanced fry can be reared further by stocking 100 – 150 2 individuals/m by feeding formulated feeds (Table 6) for 40 – 60 days. For healthy growth of fry/fingerings.3 MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN HAPAS A commercial mixed sex seed production system in fine meshed hapas (net cages) can be operated easily for large-scale production of tilapia seed for aquaculture where monosex tilapia culture is not preferred. 6.8 meter. water in the tanks should not be too green or foul in odor. The marginal or small-scale farmers with one or two earthen ponds having an area of 1500 – 2000 m2 each can follow a simple and efficient method.

6. About 10 – 15 days after stocking of breeders. the stocking of fry will be 1000 – 1500 per m2 and feeding will be made with high protein powder feed (at least 35% crude protein) @ 15-20% of biomass 4-6 times per day.8 m need to be set in the same pond(s) or other pond(s). . schooling of tiny fry will be visible in each hapa.3. During the first week.5m x 0. Fry can be collected by using dip or push net or by lifting the hapas and transferred to nursery hapas.1 Tilapia breeding in the hapas (a) Setting of breeding hapas • A series of breeding hapas having the size of 2 m x 1 m to 12 m x 3 m with depths of 1. At least 0. During the second week.3. (b) Stocking of brood fish • • • Sexually matured breeders weighing 80 to 100 g each should be stocked @ 2-3 fish/m2 with a sex ratio of 1 male to 3 females. The hapas can be covered with fine meshed nets or kept uncovered.25 m of top side of the hapas should above the waterline.5 m can be set in the pond(s) by fixing them to bamboo poles by nylon thread. The feeds can be given at 3-5% biomass 2 times a day. their density should be reduced to 500 – 700 per m2 and feeding rates will be 12-15% of biomass. Breeders weighing more than 250 g should always be replaced with new batches. The breeders need to be fed with supplementary feed consisting of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake or 75% rice barn or 25% fish meal.Farming of Tilapia 6.2 Fry/fingerling rearing of in the nursery hapas • • • • • 60 Prior to capture and transfer of fry from breeding hapas another series of nursery hapas having the size of 8 m x 2.

00 Wheat bran 10. Formulated feed for feeding tilapia fry in rearing hapas and nursery ponds (Hoq et al.3 times per day.5m x 0.S.0 Feed ingredients Crude protein (%) 16.1 – 0.00 Mustard oilcake 20. Fry can be fed rice polish and feeding rate should be 5 –8% per estimated body weight of biomass for 2 . 61 . FCR: 2. 2003) . Proportion (%) Fish meal 28. Water depth in the rice plot should be at least 20 – 25 cm during fry rearing period.00 Molasses 5.00 Rice polish 37.25 (Taka 15).8 m) by feeding formulated feeds (Table 6) for 40 – 60 days. Seven days after liming.50 1.00 6.50 30. Table 6. advanced fry can be 2 reared further by stocking 100 – 200 individuals/m in nylon hapas (8 m x 2. In view of producing better stockable size.P (25 + 25 kg/ha).Farming of Tilapia • • • During third week.2 million/ha for 30 – 40 days.20 4. mixed sex tilapia fry weighing 1 – 2 g can be stocked @ 0. Fry will be ready to sell when they will be >1 g each.4 MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN RICE FIELDS Rice fields are the ideal place for rearing tilapia fry either at the time of rice cultivation or after rice harvesting. the density will be 300-400 per m2 and feeding rates will be 10-12% of biomass.80 7. Immediately after sowing rice seedlings.00 Total 100 Cost per kg feed: US$ 0. • • • • • Land can be prepared by using lime CaO @ 250 – 300 kg /ha. manuring and fertilization of rice plot should be made respectively with cattle dung @ 800 – 1000 kg/ha and Urea plus T.

62 . Enough care should be taken to protect any incidental escaping of fry/fingerlings from the rice fields to the surrounding canals/water bodies.Farming of Tilapia • • The fingerlings are expected to attain the average body weight about 8 – 10 g each at end of rearing period.

The use of monosex populations also eliminates reproduction during grow out in the case of tilapias. Guerrero 1979. where females grow faster than males. 17α-methyl testosterone). treatment with female hormones or oestrogens (17βoestradiol) produces individuals with ovaries and female characteristics in fish. masculinization using androgen hormones (Shelton et al. For instance. the first feeding fry are treated with male hormones or androgens (ie. in tilapia males grow faster than females. 1978. which develops testes and male sexual characteristics at maturity and on the other hand. Guerrero and Guerrero 1988) and in case of salmonids and cyprinids.2 ALL MALE MONOSEX SEED PRODUCTION THROUGH INVERSION OF SEXES IN TILAPIA Despite the popularity of tilapia species in worldwide aquaculture. Bye and Lincoln 1986) have become a popular practice. the main drawback of all the existing commercial strains is their precocious 63 . In this technique. The choice of conversion of sexes (either all males or all females) depends on growth performance characteristics of individual sexes of fish species.1 Sex reversal is a technique of changing of sexes from one sex to another in fish by administering synthetic steroid hormones before and/or during the period of sexual differentiation.Farming of Tilapia 7 Development and operation of monosex commercial tilapia seed production systems SEX REVERSAL TECHNIQUE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MONOSEX FISH FRY 7. feminization using oestrogen hormones (Shelton 1987. 7.

However. The results of Majumdar and McAndrew (1983) indicate that the mechanism responsible for sex determination in hybrids is indeed variable and complicated and that a number of different alleles of different strength are operating in the tilapias as a whole. In order to overcome this serious problem. Majumdar and McAndrew 1983). niloticus (Kuo 1969. direct masculinization of tilapias using hormones is the most common method 64 .Farming of Tilapia maturation in tropical and sub-tropical climatic conditions. As interspecific hybridization and genetically induced all male seed production in tilapia have proved difficult in practice. interspecific hybridization and masculinization using hormones and genetic manipulation techniques. wasteful and sometimes unreliable at the small fish (<10 g). where the acceptable market is 150 g or more and tilapias are normally grown in mixed sex culture this has become a critical problem (Guerrero 1982). niloticus x O. The main goal of all these methods was to produce monosex populations of tilapias by manual separation of sexes. hornorum. many of these crosses did not produce the predicted 100% male offspring. aureus (Pruginin et al. In many countries. After that many others also came forward to initiate similar interspecific hybridization between more supposedly homogametic species involving crosses of O. using female O. 1975. O. 1983). genetic impurity of existing tilapia strains and careless maintenance of brood stocks in poor farming conditions made more problematic the method of hybridization for mass seed production of all male tilapia population. This leads to prolific breeding and over-crowding in grow-out systems. Interspecific hybridization of tilapias to produce all male hybrids was demonstrated first by Hickling (1960). mossambicus and male O. laborious. mossambicus x O. resulting in undesirable stunting and low yields of harvestable size fish. Hand or manual sexing of tilapia by examining urogenital papilla is a simple technique but it is time consuming. Hulata et al. On the other hand. since 1960 several methods have been proposed and developed to reduce and eliminate uncontrolled reproduction in grow-out systems.

Some concern has been raised that consumption of steroid-treated tilapia (ie. 65 . In this process. Overall input costs are not very high. Guerrero 1979. In Asia. Reliability of 98 – 100% male seed production. Guerrero and Guerrero 1988). The results of these authors suggest that functional sex-reversal using hormones can lead to the production of all male monosex population in tilapia for aquaculture. 1978. Green and TeichertCoddington 2000). Ensures high production and high net profit. Philippines and Thailand are the two leading countries where commercial mass seed production of all male Nile tilapia using androgen hormones is a popular practice. A technician or an experienced farmer can run monosex seed production hatchery and nursery systems. male steroids is administered to first feeding tilapia fry so that the undifferentiated gonadal tissue of genetic females develops into testicular tissue. niloticus (Velasco 2003b).Farming of Tilapia for monosex male production (Shelton et al. Recent studies have demonstrated that exogenous steroids are rapidly cleared from tissue after the end of treatment: no residual can be detected within one month of the termination of monosexing treatment (Rothbard et al. Generally the primal gonadal tissue starts to differentiate into ovarian tissue with 3–4 weeks after hatching in O. producing individuals that grow and function reproductively as males. sex-reversed male tilapia using hormones) might be harmful for human health. Advantages of all male seed production through sex-reversal • • • • • • Technique is simple and economic. 1990. Monosexing has been the key that has facilitated the development of tilapia culture in the global food fish arena (Shelton 2002). It does not need sophisticated laboratory and equipment. But there is no evidence for any human health hazard (Green and Teichert-Coddington 2000).

Water supply lines (internal and external).2. Recirculating water system. Cemented hatchery floor. Stable electricity. Nursery ponds for hormone treatment. Feed preparation and store room. hatching and larvae nursing are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • Hatchery shed should be made by iron angles covered with CI sheets. Egg incubating jars and trays with stands. Market access of products.000 liter capacity. Overhead water tank of 10. Transitory nursing tanks. canals or reservoirs. Recommended soil type for necessary pond construction. (a) Design and construction of a hatchery complex Major components and requirements of a tilapia hatchery to facilitate egg incubation.000 – 20. Road access for all weather for supply of products and services. Water pump (submersible pump).Farming of Tilapia 7. Enough water supply source either from underground or other surface water source like rivers.1 Hatchery design and operation of monosex seed production systems Before initiating the construction of commercial monosex tilapia seed production systems. Aeration systems. 66 . the following factors need to be considered for site selection: • • • • • • Site should be flood free and nearby tilapia grow out farms.

v. Nursing trays to hold and nurse the newly hatched larvae. MS angle truss. Header tank to hold enough fresh water to supply the required quantity to incubation jars and trays.5 m x 7 m).Farming of Tilapia (b) Model of tilapia egg incubation system Tilapia egg incubation and hatching system model is shown in Figure 21 and essential components are listed below: i. (c) Hatchery shed and cemented floor construction For constructing a medium size tilapia hatchery. (d) Setting of incubation jars and trays The incubation jars and trays with the following capacities and numbers need to be set with plastic containers and holding stands properly inside the hatchery (Figure 22): 67 . iv. Filter chamber where used waters from incubation jars and trays are drained and filtered. the following components are essential: • • • • • Hatchery shed structure: 86.25 m2 (11. Cemented floor: 77 m2 (11 m x 7 m). Bioball chamber through which incoming water is passed from filter for purification. ii. Storage tank to hold purified water and back to the head tank through the submersible water pump. Oyster shells chamber has the similar function to further purify water passing from other chambers (filter and bioball). vi. CI sheet roofing. Beams and column. vii. iii. Incubation jars to hold and hatch the fertilized eggs.

Fig. 22 Typical modern monosex tilapia seed production hatchery system in Thailand.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 68 . 21 Tilapia egg incubation and hatching system model (Courtesy: Dr. Nuanmane Pongthana).

Number of trays. 69 . The top edge of the hapas should be 50 – 60 cm above the water surface.5 – 2 m. 28 x 43 x 10 cm each: 60 (50% for jars plus 50% to use as nursing trays). Steel/iron/wooden stands: 15 (50% for jars plus 50% for nursing trays). 30 x 120 x 20 cm: 30.5 m. Number of plastic container for holding the trays. (f) Making and setting of breeding hapas Polyetheline or fine meshed nylon netting materials need to be procured from local market and rectangular size (40 m x 3 m with depths of 1.Farming of Tilapia • • • • Number of 2 liter capacity jars: 30.5 – 1m apart to allow water circulation. Ponds should be rectangular size with two bypasses for water supply and evacuation. Hapas can be set by using bamboo/wooden or steel bar poles by tying the top and bottom corners into the poles staked into the pond bottom. (e) Construction of breeding ponds At least 3 breeding ponds having an area of o. The average water depth of each pond should be around 1.5 m) hapas are to be made by a tailor. About 8 – 10 hapas are installed in each pond (Figure 23) in the following ways: • • • • Hapas should be checked carefully before installation whether any hole is reaming or not. It is necessary to stretch the hapas as much as possible to prevent the folding by winds and perform the well setting.4 ha each can be constructed following a well-planned engineering design with the depth of 1. Hapas need to be set 0.

e. (Figure 24).1) can be stocked. For lifting the hapa and collection of fertilized eggs/near to hatch larvae or yolk sac fry at least 2-3 persons are needed. Sex ratio should be maintained 1:3 (i.Farming of Tilapia (g) Selection and stocking of brood stock in the breeding hapas Stocking density of breeders varies with the size of hapas.1. 1 male to 3 females). (h) Collection of fertilized eggs from the fish mouth Each sexually mature female normally liberates ovulated eggs on average at 2-3 week intervals under tropical pond conditions and subsequently the male partner in the breeding hapa fertilizes the eggs. Breeders should be almost the same size at stocking. it is necessary to check the mouth of all the stocked females in each hapa twice or at least once a week to collect the eggs as described below: • The breeders are checked by gathering them at a place in the hapa using a 4 m long bamboo pole transversely run at the level of water surface from anterior end to other end to concentrate the brood fish at the posterior end of hapa. Formulated or commercial feeds having 30% crude protein can be fed @ 3-4% per estimated weight of biomass 2 times daily. So. 2003b). clipping the premaxilla of the male needs to be done (Velasco. The female fish holds the fertilized eggs in her mouth for natural incubation. Recommended densities ranges from 4 – 6 fish/m2. For grading the different age groups of fertilized eggs or near to hatch larvae or yolk sac fry that are collected from mouth of the • • • 70 . If the size of male is not comparable to female. Super Strain of GIFT) weighing 100 – 150 g each either collected from known sources or already reared in separate ponds in the hatchery (section 4. Breeders >1-1. Each brood fish is taken by using scoop net and checked carefully to see if her mouth is holding fertilized eggs or yolk sac fry. True breeding and improved strain(s) of Nile tilapia (eg. which will minimize the biting occurrence leading to skin lesions that can cause stress and even mortality of females.5 years old and >300 g in weight should be replaced by the new batches.

Farming of Tilapia • • females are separated by their different colors (4 colors are normally identified viz.e.000 (24. 2.20.000 x 3 batches). are incubated in a series of round bottom plastic jars and flat trays connected to the recirculating system (Figure 26). (i) Incubation of collected eggs and larvae in the jars/trays Fertilized eggs/hatched fry with yolk sac. pale yellow. Immediately after hatching. Each batch of fertilized eggs needs on an average about 10 –12 days to complete the cycle of development (both embryonic and larval stages). the larvae are deposited at the basement of the attached tray and they are transferred to the series of separate trays (Figure 27) and kept until their yolk sac resorption stage is over i.000 x 30 trays).20. Estimated total first feeding fry production per month: Approx. iron or bamboo frame (Figure 25). 71 . Whitish.000. where fresh water (28±1 oC) come directly from header tank by gravity. After that the eggs/larvae/yolk sac fry are shifted to the hatchery for incubation.2 million (7. first feeding fry stage. deep yellow and reddish tiny fry with yolk sac) and can be kept in separate plastic bowls placed in a steel. Collected products can be disinfected with 5-7 ppt solution of saline water for 8-10 minutes at ambient temperature. At least 3 batches of first feeding fry per month can be produced at water temperatures between 27 . Estimated number of hatched fry per tray: 24.000.30 oC. that have been collected from the mouth of female breeders. Hatching period: 65 – 72 hours. Estimated total first feeding fry per batch: 7. Fertilized eggs/hatched larvae can be stocked for incubation in each jar/tray by keeping the numbers given below: • • • • • Estimated number of eggs in each jar: 25.

storage and application of androgen hormone mixed feeds The protocol for preparation and application of hormone mixed feeds for sex reversal of Nile tilapia fry is shown as flow diagram in Figure 28 and briefly explained below: Direct feed preparation of hormone mixed feeds • • • • Hormone dose: 50 mg of 17-α Methyl testosterone (MT) is dissolved in 100 ml Ethyl Alcohol (95%). The solution is gradually poured into the feeds and mixed for 10 to 15 minutes. Hormone mixed dry feeds are stored at room temperature or fridge at 4oC for maximum 7 days Preparation of hormone mixed feeds using stock solution Alternatively a stock solution can be prepared for 100 kg feeds and stored in refrigerator for few weeks for subsequent use (Velasco. From prepared stock solution. 1 kg of finely sieved feeds (formulated feed as mentioned in Table 6) is placed in a clean dry mixing bowl. 72 . The treated feed is left to dry. The treated feed is left to dry. 10 ml is further diluted to 100 ml of ethanol and shaken well. 2003b): • • • • • • 5 g of 17-α Methyl testosterone (MT) is dissolved in 1 liter Ethyl Alcohol (95%).Farming of Tilapia (j) Preparation. MT solution is mixed with 1 kg powdered feed (mixture of 50% normal feed plus 50% fish meal) for 10 to 15 minutes. Excess hormone mixed feeds can be stored at 4oC for a week.

73 . Fig. 23 Tilapia breeding hapas in pond. 24 Gathering tilapia breeders at regular intervals for egg collection purpose in the breeding hapa.Farming of Tilapia Fig.

74 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. 26 A series of round bottom plastic jars and flat trays for incubating the fertilized eggs/hatched fry with yolk sac. 25 Plastic vowels placed in a bamboo frame for separating the collected fertilized eggs having different colours (based on different age groups). Fig.

75 . 27 Separate flat trays where hatched larvae are kept until their yolk sac resorption stage is over. 28 The protocol for preparation and application of hormone mixed feeds for sex reversal of Nile tilapia fry (Courtesy: Dr.Farming of Tilapia Fig. Fig. Nuanmane Pongthana).

Feeding rate: At satiation level. At the end of transitory period fry are shifted to nursery feeding hapas by estimating their numbers (Figure 31). Water quality of the tanks need to be maintained by regular exchange of fresh cool water (temperature 24 – 27oC). Number of tanks: 4. Feeding hormone treated feed is initiated in these hapas. Ponds should be rectangular size with two bypasses for water supply and evacuation. For the safety of the workers involved in hormone feed preparation should use hand gloves and face mask.000.5 .2 m. Water level in the tank: 60 cm.5 m x 0. Duration of feeding: 3 days. Number of required hapas in each tank: 2. Feeding of hormone mixed feeds to the early fry in nursery hapas At least one pond having an area of 0.50. Number of fry in each hapa: 1.6 m. Covered with fine meshed netting materials. The depth of pond should be 1.Farming of Tilapia For commercial operation automatic feed mixing machine can be used (Figure 29).4 ha can be constructed following a well-planned engineering design for setting the nursery hapas.75 m. Feeding intensity: 4-6 times daily. Hapas can be installed in the pond and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles like 76 . Feeding of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in transitory tanks The system for feeding of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in transitory tanks (Figure 30) is briefly explained below: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Size of tank: 17 m x 3 m x 0. Hapa size: 8 m x 2.

5 million Feeding rate: 15-30% per estimated body weight Feeding intensity: 4-6 times daily Duration of feeding hormone mixed feeds: 18 -21 days Monosex all male fry production: Apprx. Rearing period: 1. Nursery feeding rate: 8 . 3 Stocking density: 400 – 600 individuals/m .75 m Number of required hapas: 25 hapas Stocking density of fry in each hapa: 100. At this stage the fry will be reared by feeding normal feeds (Table 6) until selling in separate nursery hapas in an earthen pond and their maintenance will be as below: • • • • • Hapa size: 8 m x 2. The protocol for feeding of hormone mixed feeds is shown in a flow diagram (Figure 33) and technique of application of feeds to the early fry in the nursery hapas is shown in Figure 34.2 weeks. 2. 000 Total number of stocked fry : Apprx.5 m x 0.98% will be sex reversed male.5 m x 0. 77 . The well designed fry feeding system for the production of all male monosex fry is summarized below: • • • • • • • • • Hapa size: 8 x 2. 2 million per month Water quality of the nursery hapa holding ponds need to be maintained by regular exchange of fresh cool water (temperature 24 – 27oC) Monosex fry storage and rearing for sale It is expected that after 21-24 days of feeding hormone mixed feeds to the fry 95 . Storing: Monosex fry of 21 – 24 days old.8 m.10 % per estimated body weight.Farming of Tilapia breeding hapas or well designed hapa holding frame can be made over the pond using RCC construction as shown in Figure 32a and 32b.

cool and filter. The collected gonad is placed in a glass slide and a drop of acetocarmine stain is added on the gonad. The tiny thread-like gonad that lies along the anterodorsal abdominal cavity is removed using fine forceps. Then the gonads are examined under the microscope. The gonad is lightly squashed with a cover slip. The technique of aceto-carmine stain preparation is as follows: • • • Carmine (granular stain): 45% Acetic acid: Boil for 2 – 4 minutes. But in case of early fry smaller than 2 g.2 Production of YY males and operation of monosex all male seed production system Direct hormonal masculinization might not appear to be a viable technique in tilapia and might have adverse environmental impacts or consumer reaction in near future. in that case the indirect method of producing monosex all males (ie. A protocol for sex identification in tilapia fry is shown in a flow diagram (Figure 35). YY males) by combining both sex-reversal and/or genetic manipulation of the sex determining system will once be the alternative choice of the commercial seed producers.5 g. 0. 7.Farming of Tilapia (k) Sex identification technique in tilapia fry In tilapia fry/fingerlings larger than 20 –30 g.2. 78 . the male gonad is composed of fine granular like structure of spermatogonia and the female is characterized with the structure of circular oogonia. where the manual sexing is not useful. sex can easily be identified manually by examining their urogenital papilla. an aceto-carmine squash technique is used as described by Guerrero and Shelton (1974). 100 ml. • • • • A sub-sample of fry are killed and dissected using a sharp pointed surgical scissor.

30 The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in the transitory hapas.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 29 Automatic hormone feed mixing machine. Fig. 79 .

31 Manual counting of tilapia fry. 80 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. Fig. 32a Hapas can be installed in the pond and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles for feeding hormone mixed feeds.

81 . 32b Hapas can be installed and fixed with RCC frame made over the pond for feeding hormone mixed feeds. Fig. Nuanmane Pongthana). 33 The protocol for feeding of hormone mixed feeds (Courtesy: Dr.Farming of Tilapia Fig.

34 The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the early fry in the nursery hapas. Nuanmane Pongthana). Fig. 35 The protocol for sex identification in tilapia fry (Courtesy: Dr.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 82 .

2. It is expected that the sex reversed progeny will be about 83 . incubation and hatching of fertilized eggs are same as described in the section 5. storage and application of estrogen hormone mixed feeds The protocols for preparation. (c) Protocols for production of all male monosex population using YY males It needs to go up to at least three generations to produce all male monosex population through this indirect method of sex reversal (Figure 36). storage and application of estrogen hormone mixed feeds are more or less the same as the protocol of androgen hormone.Farming of Tilapia (a) Breeding and fry production for hormone treatment The protocols for breeding. (b) Preparation. egg collection.1 of this chapter. Hormone solution is mixed with 1 kg powdered feed (mixture of 50% normal feed plus 50% fish meal). Hormone mixed dry feeds are stored at room temperature or fridge at 4oC for maximum 7 days. In this case 17β-oestrodiol hormone is used. Feed preparation technique is summarized below: • • • Hormone dose: 50-100 mg of 17β-oestrodiol is dissolve in 95% Ethyl Alcohol. The essential steps of the protocol are as follows: Production of F1 generation The first feeding fry are fed with estrogen hormone mixed feeds at the rate of 15-30% body weight 4 – 6 times daily for at least 21 days in a series of nursery hapas.

Among males. Production of F3 generation YY genotypic males can be crossed with normal females (XX genotype) to produce F3 generation of all males (XY genotypes). All male monosex fry rearing and sale About 100% monosex male fry produced by using YY males can be reared in the nursery hapas with normal feeding as per recommended rates for 25 – 30 days. progeny testing and identifying carefully the YY genotypic males and preserved them separately in the system. YY genotypic males need to be identified by further progeny testing at their maturity. Commercial production system of all male monosex population using YY males can be established and operated same as monosex seed production using androgen hormones.Farming of Tilapia 100% female having XX and XY genotypes. The XY genotypic females can be termed as neofemales and need to be identified by progeny testing. True breeding tilapia strains and highly experienced technician(s) are prerequisite for running such system for commercial seed production. precautions must be taken for breeding. 84 . In this case. The genotype ration of the produced generation are expected to be 1XX females: 2 XY males: 1 YY males (75% males and 25% females). Fry will be ready to sell when they will be >1-2 g each. Production of F2 generation Sexually matured neofemales (XY genotype) can be crossed with normal female (XX genotype) to produce F2 generation of progeny.

36 The protocol of producing all male monosex population through the indirect method of sex reversal.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 85 .

that all have potential for producing increased yields of fish through managed aquaculture practices. The country has millions of small ponds. The seasonal closed water areas particularly in the form of small natural depressions. flooded paddy fields etc. borrow pits. dead river lagoons. Liming of pond bottom with 250 – 300 kg CaO or CaCo3 per ha. 10 – 20 decimal) with average depth of 0. seasonal water fieldditches. Ponds need to be filled with fresh water and water level can be remained at optimum. backyard impoundments and ponds.Farming of Tilapia 8 Development and operation of semi-intensive tilapia culture systems TILAPIA CULTURE IN SEASONAL DITCHES AND PONDS 8. 8.08 ha (ie. Cattle dung or poultry manure can be applied on the bottom @ 2000 – 3000 kg per ha. Selected ponds should be dried. hilly creeks.8 – 1. where average water depth remains 80 – 100 cm.1 Pond selection and preparation • • • • • • • 86 Seasonal pond is preferred having an area 0.04 – 0. are highly suitable for mixed or monosex farming of improved strain (s) of tilapia. . shallow marshy wetlands. road side ditches. 34% of the country is considered to be wetlands that remain under water for at least 6 months of the year. Dykes should be repaired and free of unwanted vegetation.1. Pond fertilization with urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) @ 50 kg in 1:1 ratio can be used before stocking of tilapia fingerlings.25 m.1 Because of the seasonal river flow and monsoon rains.

8. regular fertilization can be made at 15 days intervals with cattle dung or poultry manure @ 800 – 1000 kg per hectare. If the ponds are stocked with mixed sex tilapia.1. In that case as many as possible of the fry must be removed by repeated netting (using fine mesh seine net) at 15 days intervals to avoid the problem of overpopulation. Stocked fish need to be fed with rice polish @ 3 – 5% per estimated weight of biomass. Under semi-intensive culture system. which can be used for tilapia fry rearing and culture.2 Stocking of fry and pond management • • • • • Mixed or monosex tilapia fry of 10 – 15 g weight can be stocked in the prepared ditches or ponds @ 15000 .2 TILAPIA CULTURE IN RICE FIELDS Rice fields either irrigated or rain fed is the suitable plot. • 8. To enhance the status of natural food in pond water.1. harvesting of fish can be made by repeated netting or drying out the ponds. undesirable populations of tiny fry will be seen within 3 months of stocking.Farming of Tilapia 8. yields of 2500 – 3000 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop.20000 per ha.3 Fish harvesting and estimation of production • • After 4 – 6 months of grow out when the fish have the average weight of 150 -200 g. Due to application of adequate 87 . In well-managed ponds fish can be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7. Every month sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.

2. .3 Stocking of fish • • • 88 15 days after transplantation of rice seedlings. when water depth of the plot remains around 20 cm.Farming of Tilapia quantity of fertilizers and manures in the rice fields. the plot will be ready to stock tilapia fry. Super strain of GIFT) should be considered for stocking in the rice fields for better production. A small ditch (1 m deep) needs to be constructed at the lower part of the land. 8. the available aquatic condition become rich enough in natural food to support fish growth.2 Preparation of land • • • • • Dyke around the land should be constructed at the height of 25 – 30 cm.2. Improved strain of Nile tilapia (eg.2. High land should always be avoided. Water depth in the rice plot should be at least 20 – 25 cm during culture period. 8. in most cases supplementary feeding to growing fry and fish is not a prerequisite. So. Manures and fertilizers can be used as per recommended doses of rice plot preparation. The ditch size should be 3 – 4% of the rice plots. Land should have irrigation facility. About 4000 – 5000 tilapia fry (either mixed or monosex) having a weight of 10 . Soil texture should be clay-loamy. 8.15 g each can be stocked per hectare.1 Selection of land • • • • Land should not be flood prone.

Special care should be taken that growing tilapia or naturally produced fry (in case of mixed sex stocking) cannot escape from the rice plots to nearby water bodies.4 Overall management • • • • • • • • • • Optimum level of water in the rice plots should always be kept during culture period. Bamboo screens can be used at some places of the dykes to reduce the excess water level during heavy rainy season. Dykes should be protected from rat and crab nesting. Normally feeding of fish is not required in the rice plots.Farming of Tilapia 8. If necessary irrigation should be made at regular basis. It is recorded that about 300 – 350 kg of tilapia can be produced along with rice per ha of land per crop (Hussain and Koohinoor 2003). 89 . During culture period rice plots can be fertilized with chemical fertilizers at recommended doses. 8. Either netting or complete dewatering the rice plots. Care should be taken to protect the incoming source of pesticide mixed water from nearby plots. all the fish can be captured and yield can be estimated. water hyacinth can be spread over the ditches to protect the growing fish. Use of pesticides is prohibited in the rice plots during fish culture. but farmer can apply rice polish @ 2 – 3% per estimated weight of fish 5 days a week in the ditch area.2. During extreme hot weather.2.5 Fish harvesting and estimation of production • Fish can only be harvested after sawing the rice from the plots.

silver barb 20%. 8.1 Pond selection and preparation In this case. • • • 90 .1. polyculture of carp species in homestead perennial ponds is a traditional practice but the available small or medium seasonal water bodies also hold tremendous potential for culturing improved tilapia strain(s) along with various desirable carp species. Such kind of fish farming operation cannot only increase intake of animal protein for rural people but can also generate income and employment opportunities (Hussain et al. 2000).Farming of Tilapia 8. silver barb. involving low inputs in terms of labour and costs and ensuring high production within a short period (4-6 months) of time (Hussain et al.3. regular fertilization can be made at 15 days intervals with cattle dung or poultry manure @ 800 – 1000 kg per hectare. pond selection and preparation procedures will also be same as section 8. silver barb 60%. common/mirror carp and silver carp can be stocked in the prepared ponds.1. To enhance the status of natural food in pond water. 2000).3. The fish can be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7.2 Stocking of fish and pond management • • Mixed or monosex tilapia fry/fingerlings along with short cycle carp species viz. common/mirror carp 10% and silver carp 10%. The average weight of fry/fingerlings should be 10 – 15 g each and stocking density should be maintained 20000 fish per ha. The species combination should be genetically improved tilapia strain 60%. To initiate polyculture of tilapia with carp species in seasonal ponds and such type of water bodies the steps as mentioned below can be followed: 8. common/mirror carp 10% and silver carp 10% or improved tilapia strain 20%.3 POLYCULTURE OF TILAPIA WITH CARPS In a Southeast Asian country like Bangladesh.

1 Site selection and setting the pens • • Large or small open water bodies which are not being used for fish culture can be selected. common/mirror carp and silver carp attain the average weight of 500 – 600 g. hilly creeks etc.4.Farming of Tilapia • • If the ponds are stocked with mixed sex tilapia. harvesting of fish can be made by repeated netting or drying out the ponds. is encircled or blocked by using bamboo screens or nylon nets.4 TILAPIA CULTURE IN PENS When a part of open water bodies like dead river basins. in that case as many as possible of the fry must be removed by repeated netting (using fine mesh seine net) at 15 days intervals to avoid the problem of over population. undesirable populations of tiny fry will be marked within 3 months of stocking. it can be termed as a pen. small streams. 8. Selected water bodies can be encircled or screened either by bamboo fencing or net made by knotless polyethylene net materials with a mesh between 10 – 15 mm. Every month sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. Under semi-intensive culture system. 91 .3. a yield of 3000 – 3500 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop.3 Fish harvesting and estimation of production • Within 4 – 6 months of farming when the tilapia and silver barb will attain the average weight of 200 g. • 8. 8. canals. Tilapia can be cultured in these types of suitable pens comparatively keeping moderate or high density with or without feeding.

Water depth of the pens should be 1 – 3 m.2 Stocking of fish • • • All monosex tilapia fingerlings (10 – 15 g size) need to be stocked to avoid the risk of contamination and undesirable reproduction in the water bodies. if any. in that fish might not need artificial feeding.4 Harvesting and estimation of production • • Fish can be harvested when they attain the weight about 150 – 250 g. 92 .3 Feeding • • • Fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight.4.Farming of Tilapia • The pen fencing should be fixed with strong bamboo or wooden poles having the enough height above the level of water to withstand wind pressure and water current. 8.4. which might take 4-5 months. Fingerlings should be collected from a known source or a hatchery where pure breeds of Nile tilapia or its improved strain(s) are maintained. 8. 8. It is roughly estimated that under a good management averagely 5-8 kg/ m3 can be harvested. If the stocking density remains >30 fish/ m3 and the water bodies seem to be productive. Stocking density can be maintained @ 30 – 50 fish/m3.4. Every 30 days sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily.

Any sort of water that will be used for fish farms must not be contaminated with toxic chemicals such pesticides. irrigation canals.Farming of Tilapia 8. herbicides. which might require an inflow of water at least 3 liters per second/ha (Huet 1979).5 cm (about 1 inch) per day. Water: Any aquaculture operation generally needs a good quantity and good quality of water. Water source might be from rivers.5 TILAPIA CULTURE IN PONDS UNDER COMMERCIAL FARMING MANAGEMENT 8.1 Construction of Commercial Tilapia Farms (a) Site Selection For site selection of tilapia farms. It is roughly estimated that evaporation of water can reach on an average 2.5 – 7. underground). A neutral pH (6. A slightly depression type of land is ideal where simple dykes can be constructed easily and economically to hold adequate water depth. reservoirs and shallow or deep tube wells (ie. heavy metals and organic matter. Water loss in a pond through evaporation is a common fact in both tropical and sub-tropical climates. the important factors to be considered are as below: • Soils: Soils with more than 20% clay are essential to reduce the loss of water by seepage.5) of soil is desirable and acid sulphate soil needs to be avoided. Topography: Pond construction lay out should be made on the basis of favorable topographical conditions.5. • • • 93 . soils containing gravel or sand layers or rock strata formations should be avoided.

bulldozers. (b) Pond Design After finalization of site selection.25 1. ponds can be made both with outlet and inlet by pass facilities for supply and evacuation of water. 94 . mechanical excavators etc.5 to 2. In such case.5 and on the inside slope about 1:2.0 m 1. Rearing pond for advanced fry/fingerlings: c. can be used for digging ponds and transporting soils for constructing dikes. the farm area should be marked as per engineering design.Farming of Tilapia If the ground is completely flat type. Manual laborers. Grow-out ponds: • 08 to 1. The following principles can be followed to construct an ideal dike: Width of the dike at the top should be equal to its height but should be never less than 1 m wide. which include: • Pond depth: Depth of a pond should be kept on the basis of type of fishes as well as pattern of culture systems. Generally. completely new ponds need to be constructed. For small pond it can be reduced to 1:1. The dike must be some 30-40 cm above the surface of water for small ponds and 50-60 cm for large ponds. average depth for tilapia farm might be as below: a.0 m The dike construction: Building a solid and seepage protected earthen wall or dike is one of the most important task of pond construction to keep enough water for planned fish production. A well-designed farm might consist various types of ponds having all essential components. Nursery pond for early fry: b. The slope for outside angle of the dike should be 1:1 to 1:1.0 m to 1.

• Draining installation (the monk): In a pond the monk is a part of dike. and also a vertical branch or so called monk. 8. Typical farm areas might be as follows: • • • Small farm: Medium farm: Large farm: 3 – 5 ha 7 – 10 ha 15 – 25 ha 95 . Two or three parallel groves are made using “U” shaped iron rod or cutting the concrete for making the placing of screen and wooden boards (20-30 cm high and 4-6 cm thick).Farming of Tilapia When dike construction is complete. which regulates the required level of water as well as draining of water at the time of urgency and harvesting period of fish in a pond (Figure 37). The monk is normally built in concrete and should reach at least 30-40 cm above the level of water. The emptying device consists of a horizontal channel or drainage pipe running the full length of the foot of the dike. quadrangular in shape 40-60 cm wide (also depends on the area of the pond) open on one side of front. which depends on production target and management system. (Figure 39). it can be covered with the topsoil and turf or soft grasses. Each pond should have its own independent supply and evacuation facilities (Figure 38).5.2 Operation and Management of Commercial Tilapia Farms (a) Area of farms Area of commercial tilapia farms can vary from 3 to 25 ha. (c) Arrangement of ponds and layout of a farm Most ideal arrangement of ponds of a farm should include one or two or multiple series of parallel ponds having two bypasses.

96 . Pond fertilization with urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) @ 50 kg in 1:1 ratio can be used before stocking of tilapia fingerlings. (c) Stocking of fry and post stocking management • • • • • Mixed or monosex tilapia fry of 10 – 15 g weight can be stocked in the well prepared ponds @ 25000 – 30000 per ha. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. Every month sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. regular fertilization can be made at 15 days intervals with cattle dung or poultry manure @ 800 – 1000 kg per hectare.Farming of Tilapia (b) Grow out pond preparation: liming and fertilization • • • • Liming of pond bottom should be with 250 – 300 kg CaO or CaCo3 per ha. In that case as many fry as possible must be removed by repeated netting (using fine mesh seine net) at 15 days intervals to avoid the problem of over population. undesirable populations of tiny fry will be marked within 3 months of stocking. • (d) Water quality monitoring Water quality in tilapia farm should be monitored every week using HACH kit or other electronic equipments. To enhance the status of natural food in pond water. Fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight. Ponds need to be filled with fresh water and water level can be remained at optimum. Cattle dung or poultry manure can be applied on the bottom @ 2000 – 3000 kg per ha. If the ponds are stocked with mixed sex tilapia.

yield of 4000 – 6000 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop.3 Option for commercial tilapia farming in ponds under the management of high stoking density In commercial farms tilapia can be cultured even under high stocking density provided simple paddle wheel type of aerators are set in the ponds 97 .5.0 3.5 to 9.0 to 250.Farming of Tilapia For good fish growth of tilapias.0 mg/L 50. 8.0 to 100. harvesting of fish can be made by repeated netting or drying out the ponds.0 to 8. (g) Fish harvesting and estimation of production • • Within 4 – 6 months of farming when the fish having the average weight of 200 g.0 mg/L 5.0 to 12 mg/L 10. Under such type of semi-intensive culture system.0 mg/L 25.0 to 15.0 oC 1. to compensate for evaporation.00 ppt (e) Water supply and aeration A regular water supply (twice a week) needs to be available in the grow out ponds just to fill up the level.0 to 30. (f) Culture period • 120 – 180 days. desirable water quality parameters are: • • • • • • • pH: Dissolved Oxygen: Free Carbon Dioxide: Total Alkalinity: Total Hardness: Temperature: Salinity: 6.

the grow out pond preparation. A range of at least 0. Alternate cropping of tilapia in shrimp farms has recently been introduced in the coastal belt of Bangladesh as a means of reducing the risk of shrimp disease outbreak. Formulated feed for feeding tilapia under semi-intensive system in the grow out ponds (Hoq et al. 2003). Proportion (%) Fish meal 20.00 Total 100 Cost per kg feed: US$ 0.00 Wheat bran 20. Brackish water enclosures are extremely suitable for tilapia culture either by extensive or semi-intensive type of management. In brackish water farms.00 5. under semiintensive culture management. Table 7.000 kg per ha per crop.21 (Taka 13).00 Mustard oilcake 15. Farm areas close to the sea and exposed to strong waves should be avoided.Farming of Tilapia (at least two aerators in 1 ha pond) for aeration of water to add more oxygen (Figure 40). liming and fertilization procedure will be same as above. Under such type of farming management. In that case input cost will be high due to running aerators (the cost the machine and electric bills) but production of marketable size fish can reach up to 15.4 Option for commercial tilapia farming in brackish water ponds As tilapia can tolerate salinities up to 25 ppt with gradual acclimation. a yield of 3000 – 4000 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop.6 meter between mean high tide and mean low tide is necessary to ensure adequate tidal water flow (Guerrero 1997).000 – 100. Stocking density of advanced fry/fingerlings should be maintained @ 80. so the fish can nicely be cultured in brackish water ponds with a salinity range of 10 – 15 ppt without any stress. 8. FCR: 2.00 98 .000 per ha.0 Feed ingredients Crude protein (%) 12.00 Molasses 5.90 2.40 4.5.90 25.000 – 20.00 Rice polish 40.

In high density stocking ponds.Farming of Tilapia 8. partial harvesting of grow out fish (about 150 g weight each) can be followed to reduce the load of biomass per unit area of ponds. commercial tilapia farming is capital intensive. The operation of such types of farming is also labor intensive. The main inputs needed are good water. If the fry are taken from other sources. Therefore. good capital investment is a prerequisite for obtaining maximum profits from commercial fish farming and the overall management options as below can be considered: • • A commercial farm should have the opportunity to produce the required quantity of quality fry (both mixed and monosex) in the available nursery ponds or procure such fry from reliable hatcheries Before stocking. feeds and fertilizers. quality seeds. fry should be grown up to a suitable size (at least 10 – 15 g).5. • 99 . where regular maintenance of the ponds and farms requires various types of manpower but mostly labor. they should be kept for few days in a series of tanks or small ponds for prophylactic treatment.5 Overall management of commercial tilapia farms Like aquaculture of other commercially important fish species.

100 . 38 A typical layout of a fish farm (Bromage et al. 37 The monk in a pond Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 1992).

Farming of Tilapia Fig. 40 Simple paddle wheel type of aerators set in the ponds for aeration of water to add more oxygen. Alam). 39 View of a commercial fish farm (Courtesy: Dr. Fig. M.J. 101 .

the aquaculture industry is booming day by day.1 It is mentioned in the first chapter of this book that commercially important tilapia species or strains have some special characteristics. viz. which make them feasible for farming under various culture systems. ease of seed production. for the international and domestic markets.Farming of Tilapia 9 Development and operation of intensive tilapia culture systems THE SUITABILITY OF TILAPIA FOR INTENSIVE CULTURE 9. Bangladesh has more water resources per capita than most other countries of the world and demand of fish for consumption and export is very high. efficiency to convert organic and agricultural wastes in to high quality protein and ability to grow well at high stocking and overcrowding situations. Because. Among the desirable cultivable finfishes. therefore. 102 . resistance to infectious diseases and poor water quality. tilapia has tremendous prospects to be considered as a number one protein food item. In view of that an attempt has been made to narrate briefly the available techniques of tilapia culture in the cages. The time is not very far off when intensive farming of commercially important fish species particularly tilapias will take the place in aquaculture due to limited land and other resources. Many entrepreneurs might come forward in near future to initiate developing the high input and high cost systems for tilapia farming in this country. tolerance to wide range of environmental conditions. tanks and raceways. tilapias are the most suitable candidates for intensive culture in cages and raceways due to their amenability to intensification.

Farming of Tilapia

9.2

TILAPIA CULTURE IN CAGES

Among intensive culture methods, cage culture is one by which the farmer can stock a large number of fish, control over feeding, minimize unwanted reproduction, harvest easily and obtain maximum profit from per unit area. It permits the more intensive exploitation of a water system with a low capital expenditure. The method can be utilized minimal infrastructural requirements and the ease of management lends the system to intensification (Balarin and Haller 1982). Various materials viz. simple bamboo poles and nylon nets, plastic and steel materials etc., can be used to construct cages for tilapia culture. Very large operations have been developed in the Philippines and Indonesia based on cage culture of respectively tilapias and common carps that provide jobs for thousands as members of cooperatives or employees of companies and food for local consumption and for international trade (Fitzsimmons, 1997). Cage culture of tilapia has also been attempted commercially or experimentally in other countries viz. Brazil, China, Cote d’Ivoire, El Salvador, Guatemala, Israel, Indonesia, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Niger, Sri Lanka and USA. In Bangladesh, Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation (BFDC) was the pioneer to initiate experimental cage culture of Nile tilapia in Kaptai Lake, Ragamati some time during 80’s but no production data is available. Subsequently CARE, Bangladesh conducted grow-out trials of GIFT strain in cages at Meghna river lagoon area near Munshiganj during 90’s (Hussain et al. 2000). Even, meanwhile, CARE implemented a CAGES project for more than 5 years with limited success as potential livelihood option in different places of Bangladesh. Recently a number of private entrepreneurs have initiated tilapia cage culture at Meghna river canals near Chandpur. As public water bodies like reservoirs, river lagoons, lakes, irrigation canals, deep borrow pits, estuaries, coastal bays including perennial natural depressions, and village ponds etc. are suitable for cage culture, therefore, small or large scale operation of tilapia culture in cages in these or other selected suitable water bodies has a bright future to play an important role in aquaculture.
103

Farming of Tilapia

9.2.1 Site selection
• • • • Dead rivers, lagoons, deepwater lakes, protected irrigation canals, creeks, deep ponds, borrow pits, closed coastal bays can be selected. Optimum water depth of a water body should be 4 – 10 m. The site should be free from remains of trees and other debris. The sites should be out of the reach of heavy flood, high tides and cyclones etc.

9.2.2 Construction and setting of net cages (a) Essential materials for constructing a floating net cage
• • • • • • • Bamboo pieces Styrofoam blocks Empty Drums Nylon nets with a mesh size of 15 – 25 mm Wood pieces Plastic ropes Iron nails

(b) Construction of the raft
• Bamboo pieces need to be arranged to make a square raft and drums should be fixed and set underneath of the raft so that drums can float the raft.

(c) Making the net cage
• •
104

Net materials (mesh size 15 – 25 mm) should be cut and fixed by sewing the ends with plastic ropes to form a square net. Various sizes of net can be considered viz. 1 x 1 x1 m; 2 x 2 x 2.0 m; 4 x 4 x 2.5 m; 6 x 6 x 2.5 m; 8 x 8 x 2.5 m.

Farming of Tilapia

(d) Setting the net cage with the raft
• • • • • The net can be attached to the floating raft by binding the net to bamboo poles fixed at equal distances to the raft. Weights (2 kg) need to be fixed and hung around the bottom of the net to stretch the net into a square. The floating rafts with net cages can be set in one or two series to form a battery of cages for large-scale operation (Figure 41). A wooden or bamboo platform can be constructed along the series of rafts to allow feeding trolleys, sampling equipment/buckets and harvesting nets etc. to be carried. The rafts with net cages finally need to be anchored strongly to the shore or bottom.

(e) Stocking of fish
• • Mixed or monosex tilapia fingerlings weighing 20 – 30 g can be procured for stocking in the net cages. Stocking density can be maintained at 200 – 400 individuals/m3.

(f) Feeds and feeding
• • • Fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. Every 2 weeks sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.

(g) Culture duration
• Duration of tilapia culture in cages should range between 90 – 150 days.
105

Under such intensive system of cage culture expected tilapia production will be 30 – 70 kg/m3 (averagely 50 kg/m3). Dead and sick fish should always be removed from the cages. 41 The floating rafts with net cages for intensive tilapia culture (Courtesy: Dr.Farming of Tilapia (h) Harvesting of fish and expected production • • Fish weighing on an average about 200 g can be harvested by using dip or push net or by lifting the cages and transferred to bamboo baskets or plastic buckets.2.. . 9. Nuanmane Pongthana). Fig. The tilapia cage culture information and production data of different countries are summarized in Table 8.3 Overall management of tilapia culture in floating cages • • 106 Water quality and fish health in the cages needs to be monitored regularly.

it is better to stop feeding until the next day. mossambicus x O. (2000) Guerrero (1997) Guerrero (1997) Coche (1975) Mikolasek et al. Security of the cages needs to be ensured to avoid poaching and escapement of fish during windy or stormy weather as well as during monsoon months. These practices ensure high yield per unit area and/or unit volume of water.9 2.353.24:1 Reference Hussain et al. Available data on tilapia cage culture in different countries (Revised after Balarin and Haller 1982) Countries Bangladesh China Philippines Cote d’Ivoire Niger Nigeria Puerto Rico USA USA Species O.zillii 0.niloticus S.5-85 FCR 1. Table 8.niloticus Hybrid (O.7:1 2.aureus O.68 100.niloticus T.niloticus O. At every harvest.aureus no.Farming of Tilapia • • • • If the growing fish do not take feed particularly in rainy or cloudy days./m 350 300400 200 215488 264 256 300500 286857 487 3 Duration (days) 120 96 103 92 210 171 70 156 87 Production 3 kg/m 30. High water exchange is 107 .niloticus) O.7:1 2.21.niloticus O.0 35-76 68.30 66. in that case lids made of fine mesh nets can be used over each net cage.2:1 1.63:1 12.4:1 1. Important processes in such systems are the removal of solids and dissolved metabolites. If the stocked fish show any attempt of jumping out.galilaeus O. the nets need to taken out from the raft to remove the algae scum and sun dried before using further. (1997) Ita (1976) Jordan & Pagan (1973) Pagan (1970) Suwanasart (1971) 9.6 63.64 17..63.9 1.3 TILAPIA CULTURE IN TANKS AND RACEWAYS Intensive culture of tilapias like salmonids in the recirculating or flow through tanks/raceways is one of the preferred techniques for large-scale commercial production.43 17-23 35-94.aureus O.

3. canals or reservoirs. 1997). 10 m diameter circular tank (10 t unit) is considered as the most economic size and self-cleaning for tilapia production 108 . 9. (b) Design and characteristics of the tanks • • • • Cemented tanks are suitable for intensive tilapia culture. • Enough water supply source either from underground or other surface water source like rivers. Shape of the tanks can be circular. intensive tank and raceway culture requires water treatment and recirculation (Cole et al.0 m long. • Stable electricity.0 m wide with a depth of 0. rectangular or oval. Experimental or active rearing of tilapia in tanks has been reported from a number of countries (Table 9) and use of raceways reported from a few countries (Table 10) of the world.0 m. In tanks and raceways tilapias are cultured under crowded conditions. • Market access of products.0 – 20. These systems are especially attractive in areas that can recover the effluent water from these farm operations to use for field crop irrigation and can be used as good source of fertilizers (Fitzsimmons 1997). generally wider than raceways (Figure 42).Farming of Tilapia needed for this purpose.0 – 50. • Road access for all weather for supply of products and services. square. Rectangular size of individual tank may vary from 10. the following factors need to be considered for site selection: • Site should be flood free and nearby tilapia hatcheries. 8.1 Tilapia culture in tanks (a) Site selection Before initiating the construction of rearing or growing tanks for commercial tilapia production systems. In water-limited areas.8 – 1.

4 times daily. maximize the requirement of oxygen of growing fish and provide rapid expulsion of solid wastes and faecal materials through the central drain (Balarin and Haller 1982). a low flow to velocity ratio. (d) Feeds and feeding • • Fish in the grow out tanks can be fed with formulated feeds (Table 7) @ 3% per estimated body weight 3 . so that water can be made useful to maintain a high water quality. Fig. Tanks should be adaptable to fry rearing. (c) Stocking of fish • For fattening tilapia fingerlings weighing 25 -50 g can be stocked @ 200 – 250 fish/m3 in the tanks in order to achieve the enhanced individual growth to produce larger fish. 109 . Thai). Every 2 weeks.Farming of Tilapia • • • An intensive tilapia culture tank is required to have a demand feeder. Y. sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. on growing and fattening of desired numbers of fish. The cost and construction complexity of tanks should be low and the system should have access to water recirculation and aeration. 42 The cemented tanks for intensive tilapia culture (Courtesy: Mr. K.

Countries Beligium Kenya Malaysia Scotland Taiwan USA Species O.aureus O.3.2 Tilapia culture in raceways (a) Site selection • Site selection criteria for commercial tilapia culture in raceways under intensive system are similar like tank culture. Available data on tilapia culture in tanks in different countries (Revised after Balarin and Haller 1982).5 3 Duration (days) 170-200 150 120 150 150 125 Production 3 kg/m >30 50 30 32. Expected production will be around 50 kg/m3. (f) Harvesting of fish and expected production • • Fish weighing 200 – 250 g can be harvested by using dip or push net or by dewatering the tanks. enough water supplies either from underground or other surface water source should be ensured.Farming of Tilapia Table 9.aureus no./m 100800 200250 23 90 200250 12.5:1 Reference Melard & Philippart (1980) Balarin & Haller (1979) Guerrero 1989 McAndrew (cited by Balarin & Haller 1982) Sports (1983) Lauenstein (1978) (e) Duration of culture • Fattening of large fish: 120 – 150 days.9 1. niloticus x O.4 112 16-24 FCR 2:1 2:1 1. 9. niloticus O. 110 . In both cases. niloticus Male red tilapia O.aureus hybrid O. niloticus x O.

Although the capital expenditure will be greater than in some other installations but the maintenance costs will be lower (Stevenson 1980).5 – 3. In many ways raceways are easier to manage and maintain than tanks. Each raceway should have its own independent supply and evacuation facilities (Figure 43). 43 The raceways for intensive tilapia culture. Most ideal arrangement of raceways should include single or double or multiple series of parallel ponds. 111 . Fig. Size of individual raceway may vary from 15 – 30 m long. Continuous flow of water supply need to be ensured for each series of raceways and excess water should be out through the outlet drains fitted with fish protecting screens.0 m wide with a depth of 0. Construction can be made either by concrete or earth. 2. Recirculation system to reuse the available water can minimize the input costs of raceway operation without harming the production of tilapia.75 – 1. in most cases cemented raceways are used for fry/fingerling rearing and fattening of large fish.Farming of Tilapia (b) Design and characteristics of the raceways • • • • • • • • • Raceways are rectangular in shape having both inlet and outlet facilities. Raceways can be used both for fry rearing and fattening large fish.0 m.

Expected production will be 40 . fish weighing 200 – 250 g can be harvested. (f) Harvesting of fish and expected production • • By using dip or push net or by dewatering the raceways. niloticus O. niloticus O.6 9.60 kg/m3.4 times daily.Farming of Tilapia (c) Stocking of fish • Tilapia fingerlings weighing 25 -30 g can be stocked @ 150 – 300 fish/m3 in the raceways for fattening purpose. aureus O. (e) Feeds and feeding • • Fish in the grow out tanks can be fed with formulated feeds (Table 7) @ 3% per estimated body weight 3 .5:1 Reference Uchida & King (1962) Balarin & Haller (1979) Balarin & Haller (1979) Lauenstein (1978) Lauenstein (1978) 112 . Every 2 weeks. sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. mossambicus O. Available data on tilapia culture in raceways in different countries (Revised after Balarin and Haller 1982) Countries Hawaii Kenya Kenya USA USA Species O. Table 10. (d) Duration of culture • Fattening of large fish: 120 – 150 days. aureus no./m 10002800 1650 1000 6502500 100400 3 Duration (daya 90 40-50 40-50 60 150 Production 3 kg/m 5.6 16-64 35-150 FCR 1.5 35.

proper management and care of fishponds are a must. such as loss of balance. Infected fish also shows other symptoms. precaution is the better way of disease control. 113 . The presence of parasites may cause the fish to try dislodging them on vegetation. So. marked by heavy losses in fish population. which are expressed by some symptoms as follows. but when water quality is good and supplementing of artificial feed is adequate. High production levels and population densities in fish farming ponds might have a chance of increasing the probability of a variety of diseases. it become less probability to develop sickness and diseases. etc. even sufficient to kill the entire crop. there should be doubt about diseases.1 Changes in behavior Fish in good health is only seen during the time of feeding or playing but when the fish is found always gasping together at the surface or near the incoming water supply.1 OCCURRENCE OF DISEASES IN FISH AND THEIR COMMON SYMPTOMS Diseases and parasites often become problematic when animals are crowded or reared closely in confined places. In this regard for preventing unnecessary death and losses of fish population occurred by epidemic infectious diseases. can easily identify infected fish in ponds: 10.Farming of Tilapia 10 Diseases and parasites of tilapia and their control measures 10. In intensive fish farming practice.1. Observing their abnormal physiological conditions. fish diseases may occur frequently. These diseases can be acute. erratically swimming. discomfort.

Farming of Tilapia 10. Otherwise.1. But when they become sick.3 Failure to feed Under good water quality.2 Abnormal physical signs Fish without any infection become physically clean and fresh.1. A gaunt belly. muscles or internal organs and lesions on the several part of the body. for instance. some abnormal physical sign ultimately develop. But sickness in fish may cause to stop feeding themselves. Using any drug or chemical without following the suggested levels is worthless and in some cases become dangerous to fish health. inflamed abdomen. Many of the diseases affecting fish have similar symptoms. After that before beginning any treatment some other essential steps are to be considered like a) knowing the exact volume of water. swollen and pale gills. healthy fish normally feed when food is provided in water. b) knowing about the life history of fishes. cysts in the skin. a long thin body is the sign that the fish have not been feeding well. Treatment must be effective in controlling the suspected parasites and diseases in fish farming ponds. it is necessary to identify these diseases accurately.excessive mucus over the skin. body and fins. which is the first step towards control. a tight skin over the head. bulging and blind eyes. it will usually mean that during this time a lot of money. The above information should be known before the chemicals are applied. 10. etc. hemorrhagic areas on the head. So. valuable energy and a large number of fish might be unnecessarily lost. Because susceptibility of fish to chemicals varies with the species and age of the fish and with the volume of water. c) knowing about the content of toxicity of the chemicals in relation to fish species. Certain parasitic infections act slowly and may cause emaciation long before death. 114 .

then spreads over the body surface.0 ppm) or Malachite green (0. The abdominal dropsy in fish probably arises from the action of both bacteria and viruses.5 to 1. (b) Abdominal dropsy The disease is caused by accumulation of dropsy fluid in the abdominal cavity of carp. which becomes necrotic and sloughs off gradually. such as Copper sulphate (0.2 THE MOST COMMON DISEASES OF TILAPIA AND THEIR TREATMENT The most common diseases and parasites of tilapia and their possible treatments are briefly described below: 10. Treatment: Several types of chemicals can be used for the treatment of fin rot infection of fish in ponds.2. transferred or become wounded or they are reared in crowded conditions.1 ppm) or Formalin (25 ppm). It is also believed that the disease might be caused primarily by the bacterium Aeromonas punctata and secondarily by 115 . Dip or Bath treatment: The infected fish are treated by dipping them in the solution of Copper sulphate (250 ppm) for one minute or Formalin (250 ppm) for one hour. Fish are infected by the disease in a pond. the most common myxobacterial infection is “fin rot”. Any one of the chemicals should be applied at every alternative day for 3-4 times to control the disease. listlessness and fatigue. when they are roughly handled.05 to 0. The rot starts first at the dorsal or caudal fins. tilapia and other susceptible species of fishes (Figure 44).1 Bacterial Diseases (a) Myxobacterial infections Among the diseases caused by bacteria.Farming of Tilapia 10. Fish show discomfort.

The best preventive measure against the dropsy is to liming and drying out the ponds at every alternative year before stocking. belonging to the genus Chilodonella. 10. erratically swimming and discomfortness. 44 Abdominal dropsy in tilapia. the fluid of the abdomen can be taken out by a hypodermic needle with syringe.2. a tendency to stay 116 . Attachment of the parasite is associated with body lesions.2 Parasitic Diseases (a) Chilodonella sp. discomfort. becoming dangerous by growing in number within a very short period and sufficient to kill even plenty of large fish. mostly attached to the gills and skin of the fish. Fig. erratic swimming. At high water temperature. Among the surgical treatment. Diseased fish exhibit extreme inflammation of abdomen. the dorsal side is swollen and the ventral side is partially ciliated (Figure 45). heart shaped. The body of the parasite is dorsoventrally flattened. pale colour of the gills. Treatment: The infected fish can be treated by applying antibiotic Oxytetracycline or Streptomycin or Chlorampheniocol at the rate of 1 mg per 100 g of fish.Farming of Tilapia viruses. This is a protozoan parasite. the infected fish generally start to die.

Farming of Tilapia

near the incoming water supply and occurrence of a higher rate of fish mortality. Chilodonella sp. is generally active to cause disease in tilapia fry fingerlings at the temperature below 20 OC. Chilodonelliasis is a common parasitic disease in tilapia fry and fingerlings during the cold season (Hussain 1988).

Fig. 45 Protozoan parasite Chilodonella sp. (Sarig 1971).

Treatment: The pond should be treated by Potassium permanganate (3-5 ppm), Formalin (25 ppm), Methylene blue (3 ppm), Malachite green (0.10.15 ppm). Any one of these chemicals should be applied every alternative day for 2-3 times. Dip or Bath treatment: The infected fish may be treated by dipping them in solution of Potassium permanganate (10 ppm) for one hour. For prevention of the disease, every alternative year ponds should be disinfected by liming just before releasing the fish.

117

Farming of Tilapia

(b) Trichodina sp.
This protozoan parasite belongs to the genus Trichodina (Figure 46). The infections caused by this type of parasite occur at the site of gills and skin, sometimes dangerous to breakdown the normal physiological conditions of the pond fishes, causing a serious anemia to fry and fingerling fish, finally leading to death. The infected fish exhibit irregular white patches, frayed fins, become sluggish and fail to feed. Trichodiniasis is also a common parasitic disease in tilapia fry and fingerlings during the winter season (Hussain 1988).

Fig. 46 Protozoan parasite Trichodina sp. (Hoffman and Meyer 1974).

Treatment: Treatment in ponds can be carried out by applying Malachite green (0.1-0.15 ppm), Formalin (25 ppm) or Sodium Chloride (200 ppm) for only one time. Dip or Bath treatment: The diseased fish can be bathed by Malachite green (1.25-5.0 ppm) or Formalin (250 ppm) for half an hour.

118

Farming of Tilapia

(c) Myxobolus sp.
These protozoan parasites belong to the genus Myxobolus, which cause infections in gills of susceptible species of fishes. White cysts are appeared in the muscles and below the tissues. Diseased fish develop a thickened epithelium and excessive mucus on the gill regions. Treatment: No treatment is yet been carried out by the chemicals to control the disease. Necessary precautions can be taken for disinfections by liming and drying of ponds.

(d) Argulus sp.
The argulus or fish lice are copepods, and adhere to the body of the fish by means of its suckers and extremities. The parasite has a flattened, often pinkish or reddish disc like body, but lives on the surface of the fish or in the mouth of gill cavity (Figure 47). Infected fish show discomfort, erratic swimming and in the case of a serious infection the fish may stop feeding.

Fig. 47 Fish lice Argulas sp. (Sarig 1971)

119

5%).5-1. Dip or Batch treatment: The infected fish can be treated by dipping in the solution of Potassium permanganate (10 ppm) or Sodium chloride (5%) for half an hour. The parasite cannot be easily removed because of the anchor.0 ppm) or Sodium chloride (1. grass stems.25 ppm once in a week for at least 4 weeks. The infected fish show discomfort. (e) Lernaea sp.25 ppm). Any one of these chemicals may be applied once a week for at least 4 weeks. Treatment: The pond should be treated by Mesoten or Dylox (0. Malathion (0. 120 . Potassium permanganate (3-5 ppm). Their attachment is associated with hemorrhagic reactions in all surfaces of the body. A preventive measure is to dry out ponds at every alternative year.15-0. Dip or Bath treatment: The infected fish may be bathed in the solution of Potassium permanganate (10 ppm) or Sodium chloride (5%). which lead to secondary fungus and bacterial infections.Farming of Tilapia Treatment: For pond treatment Mesoten or Dylox may be applied at the rate of 0. etc. often rubbing their body surface against the bottoms. The lernaea or anchor parasite is sometime dangerous to fry and fingerling fish and can cause their early death by leading to an anemic physiological condition. The parasite resembles a shaft of a small barb inserted into the flesh of the fish.

1 Post harvest handling of tilapia In many developing countries of South-east Asia.Farming of Tilapia 11 Marketing of tilapia 11.1.1 DEMAND OF TILAPIA IN THE DOMESTIC MARKETS Tilapias are becoming popular fish recently among the traders due to their suitability for selling any size (fingerling to adult) in the domestic market of Bangladesh and other South-east Asian countries. shrimp. catfish and other small species as food fish but due to their unavailability and extremely high price in the domestic market. Consumers of this country normally used to like indigenous carps. Many consumers prefer live tilapia like catfish. who might prefer different size grade tilapia. In this part of the world. it is essential to handle the fish carefully at harvest to ascertain their freshness and quality for good market price. The harvested fish need to be kept alive for washing in the holding tanks with the inflowing cold water before their shifting and processing for the market (Figure 48). In this case. there are multi various purchasers of different income levels. they are bound to purchase tilapias and Chinese carp species. 11. Live tilapias can also be shifted in plastic bags with oxygenated water like fish fry/fingerling transportation. Pick up vans having fiberglass tanks can be used for live fish transportation. fish are kept with ice (ice to fish ratio 1:3) in bamboo baskets having inner 121 . So. tilapias are marketed fresh or frozen. Crushed ice is used for processing fresh tilapias for market. It is obvious that rich people always prefer large size and poor people due to their financial incapability go for medium and smaller size for the cheaper price.

no adequate drainage and cleaning facilities. Final Consumers Market: The second distributors sell the fish to retailers to make them available in the retailing markets for the consumers (Figure 49). in Bangladesh tilapias are sold in the domestic markets following the distribution channel of fish trade as below: • • • • Primary Market: Rural market. Private fish traders are the dominant groups who control the major landing centers in the rural and urban areas.3 Present status of domestic wholesale and retail market conditions The overall fish landing facilities and wholesale markets are not well established all over Bangladesh. These centers are unhygienic and poor.Farming of Tilapia side rapped with polythene sheet or Styrofoam boxes for transportation to local markets or distant places. where the brokers are engaged to sell the fish to the small and medium traders by collecting them from the village ponds/farms. 11.2 Domestic marketing systems Like other fishes. Ministry of Local Government through its municipalities controls only the wholesale and retail markets in most of the cities and towns.1. there is no particular auction and packing sheds. Higher Secondary Market: Market at the towns and cities also operated by commission agents and fish are sold to second distributors. Secondary Market: Market nearby the administrative unit headquarters (ie. Thana Headquarters) operated by the commission agents and fish are sold and packet for shifting to urban markets. Conditions of municipal markets are not also at the mark for controlling hygienic aspects of fish. 122 . 11.1.

K. Y. Thai).Farming of Tilapia Fig. Thai). 48 Washing of harvested live tilapias in the holding tank with the inflowing cool water before marketing (Courtesy: Mr. Y. 49. Tilapias in the retailing fish market for the consumers (Courtesy: Mr. 123 . K. Fig.

Singapore. Israel alone exports more than 60% of total supply to the markets of USA. Many entrepreneurs are coming forward to Bangladesh to initiate commercial tilapia farming and invest money for filleting tilapias for export. Jamaica. Israel. Bangladesh could be in the same line to export tilapias like shrimp to the world markets. for market diversification both in the country and abroad the following points need to be considered: • • 124 Tilapia farming should be expanded and bank credits need to be provided to the interested farmers/entrepreneurs. Costa Rica. farmers get less price at the farm gate. In view of this. But recently tilapias have also obtained consumer recognition in the USA and to some extend in Europe and around the world (Vannuccini 1998). Price of colored tilapia is 1. Large or medium sized red or blue (Nile tilapia) strains can either be filleted or packet in icebox freshly for export marketing. only suitable for ethnic markets and their traditional markets have been in Africa and Asia for a long time. These have become third preferred fish like channel catfish after shrimp and salmon in the United States.5 times higher than normal colored tilapias. Philippines. Accurate data on global trade for tilapia are not readily available. Venezuela and Ecuador. therefore. which were once accepted as low value fish. Thailand. . As the fish producers ie. Particularly in Japan. Colombia. tilapia fillet might be the choice of consumers. USA and Canada. the fillets of the Nile and red tilapias are used for raw fish gourmet dishes as sashimi and excellent substitutes for the high priced red sea bream (Guerrero 1997). Indonesia. tilapias are recently considered as attractive menu items. There is a growing demand of tilapia fillets produced from large sized fish (0. 2 DEMAND OF TILAPIA IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKETS In most of the chain restaurants.6 to 1 kg) in Japan. Israel and Taiwan are the two countries from where majority of tilapias are being exported in the global markets. In developed countries. so they are not getting enough profit from tilapia culture.Farming of Tilapia 11. It is reported that the major exporting countries are Taiwan.

ice packing and canning industries should be encouraged and supported. in particularly filleting. It is obvious that international regulations need to be strictly followed for processing of tilapias for export. concrete sheds. Tilapia processing industries. 125 . Ancillary market facilities like road networks. holding tanks for keeping live fish and nice display facilities need to be created. packing and preservation facilities. washing. Appropriate policies and strategies need to be formulated and adopted by the Government for commercial farming of tilapias and their export.Farming of Tilapia • • • Government should fix the farm gate price of the fish like rice and other food grains.

According to Guerrero (1994). Researchers developed the technology and overcame the marketing constraints. Bangladesh and other countries of this region with appropriate water resources could learn from Philippine and Asian tilapia-producing countries experience and promote tilapia production.2 STRATEGIES FOR TILAPIA AQUCULTURE Tilapia has great potential in Bangladesh as an alternative and additional species of farmed fish. 12.Farming of Tilapia 12 Strategies and prospects of frontier development of tilapia aquaculture 12. The Philippines has recently become one of the largest producers of tilapia in the Asia (Guerrero 1994). and Taiwan are presently in the line of developing tilapia aquaculture industry. the Philippines government selected tilapia for development because of its potential to benefit resource poor farmers as well as commercial growers. cage operators and merchants (Smith et al. the following developmental areas and strategies are identified for necessary consideration: 126 . Tilapia technology was successfully adapted and extended to small-scale farmers and large commercial producers. The steady expansion of tilapia industry has benefited small-scale hatchery operators. grow-out farmers.1 LEARNING FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF OTHER TILAPIA PRODUCING COUNTRIES Tilapia farming has become an important source of additional income and a cheap source of protein for rural communities in the Philippines (Fermin 1985). A number of Asian countries like Thailand. Indonesia. 1985). In view of taking tilapia as one of the important and potential fish species.

Farming of Tilapia • Among the South East Asian countries. It is presumed that tilapia farming will largely be expanded both in small and commercial scales. which retain water for 4-6 months. barrow pits etc. so there will be an extreme need for huge number of quality seeds (both mixed sex and monosex). In that case. In Kaptai reservoir (0.) farming in the country. 127 • • • • . No doubt. these water bodies have tremendous potential for aquaculture of fish species with short life cycle and characteristics of faster growth rate and require low input support (Hussain et al.07 m ha) and other similar water bodies’ commercial cage culture of monosex tilapia could flourish to boost fish production. where carp species can not be cultured. Similar aquaculture activities can further be expanded in the suitable brackish water polders and enclosures (0. a large number of commercial catfish producers have found tilapia as an alternative species to culture in their farms to maximize the production.14 m ha) of the country. In such cases. road side canals. tilapia can be a promising candidate for aquaculture in the suitable seasonal water bodies. adequate feed crisis and low market price severely damaged the exotic riverine catfish (Panagsius sp. therefore.1 m ha) in the form of ditches. shallow ponds. commercial farming of tilapia will be an alternative.87 m ha). In brackish water ponds (0. development and operation of commercial tilapia hatcheries will be essential throughout the country. where improve extensive shrimp culture is in collapse due to disease outbreak. Commercial seed production activities both in public and private hatcheries will enable to create additional employment opportunities for a large group of unemployed people. Success of such attempts will encourage the entrepreneurs to come forward for initiating commercial tilapia farming in freshwater ponds and other suitable water bodies. Recently. Bangladesh in particular abounds with hundreds and thousands of seasonal water bodies (>0. 2000).

128 . Among the available farmed fish species. On the other hand. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Diversified and frontier aquaculture development with short cycled fish species like tilapias can overcome all the above-mentioned situations and have access to all existing aquatic ecosystems. until recently the Governments of these nations have not yet taken it seriously. India. Although per unit area of production was promisingly increased especially for carps through adoption of improved technologies these could not be diversified except into freshwater ponds or related water bodies. the inland and marine capture fisheries have registered a gradual decline due to deterioration of aquatic environments and over fishing. the tilapias are among the best candidates for culture because of their desirable qualities (Guerrero 2002). Therefore. Broadly it can be said “Tilapia is a good food fish (Figure 51) for you and all others.Farming of Tilapia 12. Since many years enormous efforts and investments have been made to promote aquaculture of Indian and Chinese major carp and shrimp species particularly in Bangladesh and India. Thus aquaculture is seen as the most promising option of filling the pending void in the aquatic food supply. mass involvement of rural people in carp and shrimp culture was found difficult due to their limited water resources and financial incapability in many cases. Nepal. it is a good cash crop for all the stake holders mainly the poor farmers living in Asia and other developing countries of the world”. it can confidently be presumed today that tilapia is a novel and excellent species (Figure 50) for future aquaculture in all the suitable aquatic ecosystems in Bangladesh and elsewhere in South East Asia.3 DIVERSIFIED AND FRONTIER DEVELOPMENT OF TILAPIA AQUACULTURE In the recent past all over the Asia. which will certainly benefit the nation like ours in providing income for small-scale farmers and large producers and helping the country to alleviate shortfalls in fish production. In spite of bright and promising future of tilapia farming in the developing countries of this part of Asia like Bangladesh.

K. 50 Tilapia is a fish of the decade Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig. Y. 51 Tilapia is a good food fish (Courtesy: Mr. Thai). 129 .

consisting of one representative from each of the pairs characteristic of the somatic cells in a diploid species. strains or lines is combined. Breed: Group of animals having a common origin and identifying characters that distinguish them as belonging to a breeding group. which carry the heredity material. Chromosome set: A group of chromosomes representing a genome. Alleles: Members of a pair of different hereditary factors that may occupy a given locus on a specific chromosome and that segregate in formation of gametes. As a result. Alternative form of gene. They occur in pairs in somatic cells with the number of pairs and morphology being characteristic of the species. Crossbred: An animal produced by crossing two or more pure breeds. Androgenesis: Opposite to gynogenesis. in terms of its or their ability to transmit certain distinguished features that separate them from other such group. 130 . Chromosomes: Darkly staining bodies in cell nuclei. embryonic development proceeds with the inheritance of only paternal chromosome sets. and prevents any contribution of the female genome to the embryo.Farming of Tilapia Glossary Additive genetic variance: The proportion of the total phenotypic variance that depends on the additive effects of the genes. which involves fertilization of eggs with inactivated maternal nucleus. Crossbreeding: Mating systems in which hereditary material from two or more pure breeds. Breeding value: The genetic value of a fish or a population. and thereby achieve a greater selection response. Breeding population: A group fish to be used for planned breeding. strains or lines. Broodstock: Parent (Female and Male) fish cultivated to provide eggs/milt or fry. Crossbred individuals are from intraspecific matings. Combined selection: Combination of both within-family and betweenfamily selection to increase the accuracy of the estimates of breeding values.

that portion which is inherited. Effective population size (Ne): The ideal population size is infinitely large. Gene: The classical term of the basic unit of heredity. As a result. Family selection: Selection of the best male and best female fish from a family. Heritability: The proportionate amount of additive genetic variance: h2 = VA/Vp Inbreeding: A system of mating in which mates are more closely related than average individuals of the population to which they belong. embryonic development proceeds with the inheritance of only maternal chromosome sets. Genotype: Genetic makeup of a fish. and prevents any contribution of the male genome to the embryo. sometimes expressed as number per fish. 131 . the sex ratio. sometimes per kg of fish. and the variance of family size in the production of fish that are used to produce the next generation. Hapa: Fine meshed rectangular or square structure on which fertilized eggs or larvae are deposited after artificial spawning and hatching. This is termed the 2n condition and is characteristic of most fish species. Fecundity: Number of eggs produced.Farming of Tilapia Diploid: Cells with two members of each pair of chromosomes. Gynogenesis: Gynogenesis involves fertilization of eggs with inactivated sperm. the mating system employed. most gametes are haploid so that when fertilization occurs the diploid condition is restored. Gonad: Fish organ in which either eggs or sperm are produced. generally termed as ovary in female or testis in male. ensuring no loss of genetic variation which is a function of the total number of breeding individuals. such type of selection based on deviations from average family performance. Haploid: Having one complete set of chromosomes (see also Diploid). The complete genetic make up is also referred to as the genome.

g. Mass selection: Individual selection or empirical selection of the best male and female individuals from a population. survival. Monosex population: Production of only female or male fish through genetic manipulation or sex inversion.Farming of Tilapia Inbreeding depression: Decreased performance in growth rate. and an increased percentage of deformed/abnormal fish that occur due to inbreeding. triploid (3n) or tetraploid (4n). Polyploidy: A state where a cell or an individual contains three or more sets of chromosomes: e. Phenotype: Physical appearance or characteristics of an organism. based on some predetermined criteria. Vitellogenesis: The formation of yolk in the developing oocyte. The term is often used for photomicrographs of the metaphase chromosomes arranged in a standard sequence. Progeny: Offspring of any generation. Meiotic gynogenesis: Gynogenetic diploids poduced by the suppression of the second meiotic cell division of fertilized eggs. Phenotypic variance: The variance that is observed or measured for a particular aspect of the phenotype in a population. Morula: An embryo that consists of a cluster of cleaving blastomeres. Selection: A breeding program in which the breeder chooses which fish will be the next generation’s broodstock. fecundity. Sexual maturation: Condition of female and male individuals having ripe gonadal materials (eggs and sperm). 132 . etc. Triploidy: Individuals having 3 sets of chromosomes (4n). Karyotype: The somatic chromosomal complement of an individual or species. Pedigree: A fish’s family tree. Mitotic gynogenesis: Gynogenetic diploids produced by the inhibition of the first mitotic cell division of fertilized eggs. Tetraploidy: Individuals having 4 sets of chromosomes (4n). Sex reversal: Modification of sex using hormonal manipulation.

Farming of Tilapia Vitellogenin: A protein synthesized in the liver of sexually maturing females and incorporated into the yolk spheres of the developing oocyte. produces in tilapia a female. YY male production: Indirect method of producing monosex all males (having YY genomic status) by combining both sex-reversal and/or genetic manipulation technique of the sex determining system in tilapia. 133 . XY chromosome: Heterozygous pair of sex chromosomes. produces in tilapia a male. XX chromosome: Homozygous pair of sex chromosomes.

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108 Clonal line. 24 Asian countries. 23 Breeding hapa. 96 Caudal fin. 98. 30 Breeding tank. 21. 54. 115 Allele. 70 Blotched type. 97 Aeromonas punctata. 23. 42 Aneuploid metaphase. 31. 44 Anus. 48 All male monosex population. 21. 22 Additive genetic variation. 24 Artificial incubation. 12 .. 56 Brackish water. 105 Base population.. 56. 7 Copepod. 22 Blackchin tilapia. 76. 42 Cold shock. 107 Cattle dung. 50 Blue tilapia. 27 Communal testing. 113 Artificial hatching system. 7. 11 Argulas sp. 1 Body colour inheritance. 18-21 Cage. 26-27 Control group. 53 Brood stock management. 21 Aerator. 83. 21. 92. 27. 33. 10. 17 Automatic feed mixing machine. 127 144 Breeding behaviour. 27. 47 Body weight. 23 Biomass. 9-10. 76 Average genetic gain. 3 Aquatic larvae. 31. 11 Courtship behavior. 23. 29 Brood stock. 42. 40. 18 Brood stock replacement. 22 Colchicine solution.Farming of Tilapia Index Abdominal dropsy. 14. 60. 29. 84 Androgenesis. 10 Chichlid. 69 Breeding population. 103 Common farm environment. 20. 42-43 Chromosome manipulation. 39 Closely related individual. 116 Chromosome. Chilodonella sp. 103. 1. 23 Commercial tilapia farm. 22 Combined selection strategy. 115 Absolute fecundity. 24. 95 Common carp. 37. 103. 45. 6 Chlorampheniocol. 8 Asian Development Bank (ADB). 14 Aceto-carmine squash technique. 37 Chromosome karyotyping. 23. 11. 9 Breeding candidate. 117 Chitralada strain. 58-60. 12 Aquatic chicken. 1 Bamboo pole. 119 Artificial feed. 17. 3 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 18. 27. 29 Coefficient of variation. 78 Additive genetic gain. 36 Combined selection. 19. 65. 60. 77 Breeding pond. 58-59 Breeding value. 86. 20 Artificial incubation system. 19. 33 Circular tank.

72. 22 Genetic variability. 26 Galilee tilapia. 18. 6 Family selection. 83 Existing strain. 9 Genetic gain. 53. 22. 22 Family selection strategy. 48 Gonad development. 117 Formulated feed. 53. 20. 29-30 Egg. 53. 40 Egg incubation system. 26 Formalin. 77 Effective population size (Ne). 2 Gene transfer. 26-27. 43 GIFT strain. 56. 59 Fingerling. 33. 31. 31. 6 Demand feeder.23. 32 Floating raft. 58 Cryopreservation. 24 Haploid. 27. 37 Generic names. 1 Gametogenesis. 56. 24. 87. 15 Growth performance. 96. 14 Hatching stage. 66 Egyptian red strain Endocrine hormone. 21 Dissolve oxygen. 112 Feeding trolley. 105 Floy tag. 48. 96. 13. 3-7. 109. 24. 7 DEGITA countries. 54. 56. 31 Haploid metaphase. 31 Ethyl alcohol. 10. 22-23. 11 Dorsal fin. 111 Full-sib family. 59. 15 Endomitotic. 109 Dike construction. 109. 10 Glacial acetic acid. 20. 23 Fecundity. 30 Genital papilla. 44 Disease resistance. 98. 58 First cleavage. 21 Feeding intensity. 18 Freshwater.Farming of Tilapia Cross breeding. 32 Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). 37 145 . 36. 19. 29 Genetic stock deterioration. 27. 21-22 Genetic improvement. 20 Genome. 39 First feeding fry. 14. 27. 111 Finite population. 105. 20. 14. 70 Fine meshed hapa. 36. 18 Fish meal. 45 Crude protein. 29 Hapa. 55. 18. 21-22 Genetic variation. 27 Gynogenesis Half-sib. 21. 105 Fertilization. 59. 20. 10. 42 Cumulative weight gain. 105 Feeding rate. 112 Founder stock. 44 Hatching. 34 Giemsa stain. 1921. 71 First mitotic division. 20. 22 Grow-out period. 127 Freon. 34 Fertilized egg. 3-32 Diploid metaphase. 18 Genetic selection. 95 Diploid. 43 Glass aquaria. 31 Fry. 31. 26. 103 Gill-raker. 26 Earthen pond. 105. 58-60. 12. 14. 20. 38. 13. 27.

77 Hybridization. 63. 34 Israel strain. 40 Monosex population. 45-48 Hormone mixed feed. 14-15. 66 Morula stage. 23. 21 Intensive culture. 103. 11 Hydrolic pump. 89 Modified Cortland’s solution. 9 None selected control group. 13 Mixed sex. 72 Microscope. 1 Malachite green. 31. 78 Micro-pipette. 60 Myxobacterial infection. 19 Homogametic. 21. 34. 64. 14. 83 Oestrogen. 3 Larnaea sp. 13 Mozambique tilapia. 6 Longfin tilapia. 20. 18 Homozygous. 30 Inbreeding depression. 58 Oestradiol-17β. 120 Larvae. 7 Non-genetic effect. 44 Masculinization. 103 Local strain. 34 Marker chromosome. 64 Homozygosity. 22. 15 Omnivorous. 29 146 Mass selection strategy. 63-64 Monosex tilapia seed production system. 34 Milt. 11 On-farm. 6. 20. 20 Lateral line. 63. 64 Hybrid strain. 31. 15 Holding tank. 94 Lipophosphoprotein-calcium. 6 Hydracarine. 12 Nile tilapia. 1. 117 Methyl testosterone-17α. 38 Melanophores. 117 Malathion. 50 Metaphase chromosome. 9. 83 Nursery tank. 36. 21-22 Heterogametic.Farming of Tilapia Heat shock. 1-3. 15 Livelihood.. 23 Maternal mouth brooder. 2 Mustard oilcake. 40-41 Heritability. 44 Methanol-acetic acid. 20. 34 Individual selection. 56. 36 Inbreeding. 115 Myxobolus sp. 22 Maternal effect.. 37 Mouth brooding. 47. 31 Nest building. 77. 22-23 Intensity of selection. 21 Histological section. 15. 120 Manual stripping. 23 Nursery hapa. 31 Heterozygous. 29 Incubation system. 26. 43 Methylene blue. 14 Mating. 18. 17 Oestrogenic control. 10. 10. 55. 1o3 In vitro. 58. 6 . 27 Liming. 18. 78 Mass selection. 70. 119 Natural breeding. 45-47 Heterogeneous. 12 Meiotic gynogenesis. 9-12. 92 Nitrous oxide. 6 On-station.

1. 31. 116 Paddle wheel. 10. 15 Secondary oocyte. 95 Parasite. 14 Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag. 45-46. 107. 122 Rice bran. 24. 1. 78 Oocyte maturation. 41. 20-21 Retailing market. 38. 111 Redbelly tilapia. 15 Primary oocyte. 40 Seed production. 1 Oreochromis mossambicus. 120 Poultry manure. 71 Ploidy manipulation. 90 Perspex. 91 Polyploidy. 18 Reference stock. 124 Seasonal pond. 11. 37. 1-3. 1. 24. 17 Oogonia. 21 Perennial pond. 12.Farming of Tilapia Oocyte. 97 Parallel pond. 12 Ovulation. 1 Oreochromis aureus. 47. 17. 37 Plastic tray. 112 Oreochromis machrochir. 32. 21 Ovary. 2 Red tilapia strain. 36. 86. 15 Recirculation system. 86 Secondary sexual characteristic. 102. 10 Peak maturation. 96 Precocious maturation. 113 Phytoplankton. 98 Sarotherodon galilaeus. 69. 18. 32 Second polar body. 65. 17 Receptor-mediated endocytotic process. 2. 110. 43 Photoperiod. 10 Sashimi. 49-50 Raceway. 47 Reduced growth rate. 15 Progeny testing. 14. 18 147 . 10. 7. 15. 40 Radioimmunoassay. 122 Salinity. 33 pH. 84 Prophylactic treatment. 33 Physiological condition. 15 Pectoral fin. 27 Paternal mouth brooder. 110. 107. 63 Pressure shock. 32 Pond construction. 31 Polyculture. 18 Potassium permanganate.4. 40-41. 45. 64. 54 Rural market. 15 Second meiotic division. 15 Oviduct. 107 Sarotherodon melanotheron. 112 Outbred stock. 86-87 Poor genetic material. 37. 99 Purebred red strain. 110-112 Radiometer. 34 Pedigree. 10 Phenotype. 112 Oreochromis niloticus. 37. 56. 53. 58 Rotenone. 33. 15 Oreochromis andersonii. 9-11. 93 Pond fertilization. 15 Secondary spermatocyte. 10. 45. 45 Phosphate buffer. 113 Parental care. 13 Oxytetracycline. 90 Polyetheline. 54-55. 11 Pigmentation stage. 107-108. 14. 40 Primary spermatocyte. 90.

48. 14 YY male. 13 Sib cross. 22 Site selection. 37 148 Thai red strain.. 17 Semi-intensive culture. 126-128 Tilapia hatchery. 20. 102. 34. 29 Semen. 37 Vitellogenesis. 15 Yolk sac resorption stage. 22. 34. 17 Water bath. 59 Spawning. 32. 107 Tilapia farming. 39 . 19 Steroid hormone. 8. 15. 19 Trichodina sp. 27. 34. 12 Urethra. 30. 2. 78 Spermatozoa. 55. 15. 1 Tilapia zillii. 87. 15. 116 Substrate spawner. 84 Zooplankton. 96. 17 Sexual dimorphism. 70 Sex reversal. 11 Zygote. 27. 98-99. 58. 77. 46-47 Three spotted tilapia. 44 True breeder. 97. 12 Sperm. 118 Triploidy. 17 Sex chromosome. 92. 34 Urogenital opening. 17 Sexual pheromones. 34 Water quality. 106 Water tempertaure. 32. 118 Solid waste. 11 Sexual maturation.Farming of Tilapia Selective breeding. 66 Transitory hapa. 20. 78 Sex steroid hormone. 9. 10 Wild type. 107 Taxonomic classification. 32 Sodium Chloride. 44 Sex determination. 78. 17. 93-94 Small-scale farmer. 26 Tank. 54. 63. 31 Standard length. 12 Urogenital papilla. 20. 50 World market. 49 Silver barb. 9 Terrestrial insect. 8. 124 Yolk. 9 Super Strain of GIFT. 60 Tagging. 27 Standard population size. 15 Spindle apparatus. 91. 48. 15 Vitellogenin. 64 UV sterilization. 11. 54. 70 Undifferentiated gonadal tissue. 12. 23 Selection intensity. 31 Sex ratio. 105 Stock solution. 109 Stocking density. 72 Streptomycin. 7. 15. 97 Serum calcium concentration. 37 Triploid metaphase. 15. 15. 65 Unfertilized egg. 70 Supplementary feed. 19 Standard reference stock. 40 Spermatogonia. 11 Tetraploidy. 17.

Bangladesh on February 1954. Bangladesh (1978-1981). Principal Scientific Officer and Chief Scientific Officer under BFRI (1986-2000). Director. UNV Fisheries/Aquaculture Specialist under UNDP. As the Team Leader of Fish Breeding and Genetic Research Group of Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI).D. Hussain has published more than 100 peer reviewed journal papers and co-edited several proceedings of seminars and workshops. Hussain was born in Mymensingh. Hussain are: the development of a genetically improved strain of silver barb (Barbods gonionotus) and further improvement of GIFT strain through several generations of genetic selection. he has been conferred the prestigious National Fish Fortnight 2003 Gold Medal Award. in Aquaculture Genetics from the University of Stirling. Dr. Geneva posted in Syria (1981-1986).Farming of Tilapia About the author Dr. The two most recent outstanding contributions of Dr. He has served as Scientific Officer under Department of Fisheries. the recent one is entitled “Genetic improvement and conservation of carp species in Bangladesh”. He has also co-authored several books.G. He has been internationally reputed as “tilapia geneticist” due to his pioneer works on suppression of mitotic cleavage and production of genetic clones in Nile tilapia and genetic inheritance study leading to gene mapping in red tilapia strains. he is presently involved with some international and national fish genetic research programs. In recognition of such contributions. He earned his Ph. Research and Planning under BFRI (2001-2004). Hussain is currently the Director. 149 . Scotland. UK. Admin. operation and promotion of tilapia aquaculture. Dr. and Finance of BFRI. He is instrumental in developing tilapia farming in Bangladesh particularly tilapia hatchery and monosex seed production system designing. M.

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