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FARMING OF TILAPIA
Breeding Plans, Mass Seed Production and Aquaculture Techniques
Bangladesh iii .FARMING OF TILAPIA Breeding Plans. Mass Seed Production and Aquaculture Techniques M.G. Hussain BSc Fisheries (Hons). Research & Planning Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute Mymensingh 2201. MSc Aquaculture & Management. PhD Aquaculture Genetics (Stirling. UK) Director.
FARMING OF TILAPIA Breeding Plans. Hussain Printed by Momin Offset Press. mass seed production and aquaculture techniques. 2004. Bangladesh Price: Taka 300 (Three Hundred) Outside Bangladesh: US$ 15 iv . Published by Habiba Akter Hussain 55 Kristawpur.G. Hussain 2004 Hussain. Dhaka. Mymensingh 2200 Bangladesh ISBN 984-32-1839-6 Cover and other photos by M.G.G. M. Mass Seed Production and Aquaculture Techniques First Edition 2004 M. Farming of tilapia: Breeding plans. 149 p.
especially to his wife Habiba Akter Hussain and sons Sazzad Hussain and Ali Hussain without whose love. kindness and encouragement this book could never have been completed v . patience.Dedication The author dedicates this book to his family.
1 2.2 2.1 1.1 Introduction Importance and potential of tilapia species in aquaculture Tilapia species introduction in Bangladesh Performance and potentials of the GIFT strain of Oreochromis niloticus General and reproductive biology of tilapia Taxonomic classification Generic groups of tilapias General biology of Nile tilapia Breeding and reproductive biology of Nile tilapia x xiv xv xvii 1 1 2 3 9 9 9 10 11 Brood stock replacement and breeding plans for 18 tilapia hatchery stocks Brood stock management to avoid genetic stock deterioration Brood stock replacement techniques Breeding plan and genetic stock improvement of tilapia Maximizing the effective population size (Ne) Ploidy manipulation and production of all sterile.1 3.Contents List of figures List of tables Preface Acknowledgements Chapter 1 1.3 2.3 Chapter 2 2.4 Chapter 4 4.2 3.3 3. female and male population Genomic status and determination of sex vii 18 19 20 30 31 31 .2 1.4 Chapter 3 3.
2 5.2 Induction of mitotic gynogenesis Production of genetically induced all male population Protocols for chromosome karyopyting Body colour inheritance and development of purebred strains of red tilapia Inheritance of body colour in commercially available strains Importance and problems associated with the present stocks Mechanisms of progeny testing to develop purebred strains of red tilapia Maintenance of purebred brood stock for seed production in the hatchery Development and operation of mixed sex commercial tilapia seed production systems Mixed sex tilapia seed production in ponds Mixed sex tilapia seed production in concrete tanks Mixed sex tilapia seed production in hapas Mixed sex tilapia seed production in rice fields Development and operation of monosex commercial tilapia seed production systems Sex reversal technique for the production of monosex fish fry viii 32 32 38 38 39 42 42 45 45 46 48 51 53 6.2 4.3 4.2 6.4 Chapter 7 7.1 5.2.4 Chapter 6 Production of genetically induced all sterile population 4.1 Induction of meiotic gynogenesis 4.1 Induction of polyploidy Production of genetically induced all female population 4.4.1 6.1 53 56 59 61 63 63 .4 4.3.5 Chapter 5 5.3 5.3.3 6.
4 8.1 Hatchery design and operation of monosex seed production systems 7.7.2 Production of YY males and operation of monosex all male seed production system Development and operation of semi-intensive tilapia culture systems Tilapia culture in seasonal ditches and ponds Tilapia culture in rice fields Polyculture of tilapia with carps Tilapia culture in pens Tilapia culture in ponds under commercial farming management Development and operation of intensive tilapia culture systems The suitability of tilapia for intensive culture Tilapia culture in cages Tilapia culture in tanks and raceways 9.2 9.3.2 All male monosex seed production through inversion of sexes in tilapia 7.3 8.3.5 Chapter 9 9.1 9.2 8.3 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Glossary References Index ix .2.1 Tilapia culture in tanks 9.2 Tilapia culture in raceways Diseases and parasites of tilapia and their control measures Marketing of tilapia Strategies and prospects of frontier development of tilapia aquaculture 63 66 78 86 86 87 90 91 93 102 102 103 107 108 110 113 121 126 130 134 144 Chapter 8 8.1 8.2.
Genital papilla of female Oreochromis niloticus having three openings. medium type of trays connected to the recirculating system Floy tagging underneath the scale below the dorsal fin and above the lateral line of tilapia Plastic numbered tags with nylon thread PIT tagging into the visceral cavity of tilapia x 4 4 5 5 13 6 16 7 16 8 25 9 10 11 28 28 29 . plastic water bottles and b. Oreochromis niloticus Red tilapia strain Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain a. the urogenital opening.List of figures 1 2 3 4 5 Mozambique tilapia. the anus. Oreochromis mossambicus Nile tilapia. b. where egg passes through Histological section of an ovary shows various stages of development at peak maturation of female Oreochromis niloticus Histological section of a testis shows various stages of development at peak maturation of male Oreochromis niloticus A simple tilapia egg incubation system having a. where the milt and urine are excreted and the anus. the urethra for urine passing and the oviduct. for the discharge of fecal waste. Genital papilla of male Oreochromis niloticus having two opening.
triploid (3n = 66). haploid (n = 22). a. d. heat and cold shocks Metaphase chromosome of Oreochromis niloticus. aneuploid metaphase (hyperhaploid or hypodiploid) Purebred red tilapia Impure blotched type tilapia of red phenotype Tilapia fry holding hapas Low cost tilapia breeding and fry rearing tanks Tilapia egg incubation and hatching system model Typical modern monosex tilapia seed production hatchery system in Thailand Tilapia breeding hapas in pond Gathering tilapia breeders at regular intervals for egg collection purpose in the breeding hapa Plastic vowels placed in a bamboo frame for separating the collected fertilized eggs having different colours (based on different age groups) 33 35 35 38 16 44 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 52 52 57 57 68 68 73 73 74 xi . heat and cold shocks 1 – 1. c.12 13 14 15 A schematic diagram of inducing polyploids in O. diploid (2n = 44). b. niloticus using pressure.5 L vessel capacity pressure apparatus Thermostatically regulated 50 L capacity water bath A schematic diagram of inducing two types of gynogenesis (meiotic and mitotic) in Oreochromis niloticus using pressure.
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 A series of round bottom plastic jars and flat trays for incubating the fertilized eggs/hatched fry with yolk sac Separate flat trays where hatched larvae are kept until their yolk sac resorption stage is over The protocol for preparation and application of hormone mixed feeds for sex reversal of Nile tilapia fry Automatic hormone feed mixing machine The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in the transitory hapas Manual counting of tilapia fry a. Hapas can be installed and fixed with RCC frame made over the pond for feeding hormone mixed feeds The protocol for feeding of hormone mixed feeds The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the early fry in the nursery hapas The protocol for sex identification in tilapia fry The protocol of producing all male monosex population through the indirect method of sex reversal The monk in a pond A typical layout of a fish arm View of a commercial fish farm 74 75 75 79 79 80 80 81 81 82 82 85 100 100 101 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 xii . b. Hapas can be installed in the pond and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles for feeding hormone mixed feeds.
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51
Simple paddle wheel type of aerators set in the ponds for aeration of water to add more oxygen The floating rafts with net cages for intensive tilapia culture The cemented tanks for intensive tilapia culture Race ways for intensive tilapia culture Abdominal dropsy in tilapia Protozoan parasite Chilodonella sp. Protozoan parasite Trichodina sp. Fish lice Argulas sp. Washing of harvested live tilapias in the holding tank with the inflowing cool water before marketing Tilapias in the retailing fish market for the consumers Tilapia is a fish of the decade Tilapia is a good food fish
101 106 109 111 116 117 118 119 123 123 129 129
List of tables
1 Serum calcium concentration and steroid hormone levels in mature female and male O. niloticus. All values are mean ± SE estimated from an equal number (n=10) of fish in each category Inbreeding resulting from some matings between closely related individuals Correlation between effective population size (Ne) and rate of inbreeding in a hatchery Polyploidy induction in various Oreochromis spp. using pressure, heat and cold shocks Gynogenesis induction in various Oreochromis spp. using pressure and heat shocks Formulated feed for feeding tilapia fry in rearing hapas and nursery ponds Formulated feed for feeding tilapia under semi-intensive system in the grow out ponds Available data on tilapia cage culture in different countries Available data on tilapia culture in tanks in different countries 17
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
19 30 37 41 61 98 107 110 112
10 Available data on tilapia culture in raceways in different countries
In the context of declining trends both in inland and marine capture fisheries, aquaculture is the most promising option for increasing fish production. In addition to earning profits, aquaculture can improve the livelihoods and nutrition of the resource-poor rural people in the region. In fact, promotion of aquaculture of Indian and Chinese major carp and shrimp species has taken place for many years in the developing countries of this part of Asia, like Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Although production was promisingly increased especially for carps through adoption of improved technologies, but these could not be diversified out of freshwater areas. On the other hand, mass involvement of rural people in carp and shrimp culture was found difficult due to their limited water resources and financial incapability in many cases. Like Thailand and Vietnam, recently farming of riverine catfish (Pangasius sutchi) has dramatically increased in Bangladesh. However, feed crisis and low market prices have severely damaged the progress of farming of this fish in the country. On the other hand, improved extensive shrimp culture is in collapse due to disease outbreaks in recent times. Under such conditions, a large number of commercial catfish and shrimp producers are looking for alternative species to culture in their farms to maximize the production. Of the available farmed species, tilapias are among the best candidates to overcome the situation due to their desirable characteristics like ease of seed production, high yield, disease resistance and efficiency of growing well with organic and agricultural wastes and low cost feeds. In spite of the promising future of tilapia farming in Bangladesh, it took a long time to realize the fact, due to some negative attitudes of the respective organization(s) and decision makers. Although the best tilapia farming species like Nile tilapia (Oreochronis niloticus) was introduced in this country in 1974, but it was not clear that the species is highly potential and productive for suitable water bodies until the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI) discovered the truth through introduction of GIFT strain (1994) and subsequently conducted intensive research and developed the super strain of GIFT. Tilapia farming is gaining popularity day by day in Bangladesh and a number of entrepreneurs have already initiated its hatchery development
female and male populations in tilapia and production of purebred red tilapia strains are detailed in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 . It has been felt that very little readily available information on farming practices of tilapia is available in Bangladesh and elsewhere in this region. mass seed production and various aquaculture techniques of the fish in Bangladesh and elsewhere in Asia where tilapias are being used for promotion of aquaculture. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3.for commercial mixed and monosex seed production and farming in different parts of the country. All these chapters are designed for progressive fish farmers and entrepreneurs. which I believe will be useful as a guide to hatchery operators. disease and parasites of tilapia and their control measures and marketing of tilapia are presented respectively in Chapter 8. the performance of the GIFT strain of Oreochromis niloticus. Chapter 9. Simple classical biotechnological tools to develop genetically induced all sterile. Hussain xvi . Chapter 10 and Chapter 11. In Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. stock improvement. general and reproductive biology of tilapia. Finally in Chapter 12. special emphasis has been given to simple techniques for design and operation of mixed and monosex mass seed production systems. brood stock replacement and development of outbred and genetically improved hatchery stocks of tilapia in the Chapter 1. entrepreneurs. a note on future strategies and prospects of frontier development of tilapia aquaculture is highlighted. Detailed development and operation of semi-intensive systems. M. progressive farmers. an attempt has been made to prepare a comprehensive handbook and publish it initially in English for the national and international readers. Therefore. This book highlights the importance of tilapia species in aquaculture. researchers and planners developing programs for simple breeding. intensive systems of tilapia culture.G. I have tried my best to invest my knowledge on the subject in compiling the best information on tilapia farming in this book.
Wahab.A.A. S. Drs. Director General of Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute for his kindness to allow me for using many materials from the institute library and stations including his valuable suggestions and encouragement. R. She also provided a number of her diagrams and photographs for this document. Sarder.S.I. Yong Kim Thai. M. These persons are: Dr. A. Shubra Hatchery Group. A. and Riliance Aqua Ltd. Dr. R. Dr. are greatly acknowledged. Mazid.V. Scotland. Dr.V. Thailand guided me to collect information and design of monosex tilapia hatchery from private tilapia hatchery entrepreneurs of several provinces in Thailand. Alam. Poultry and Dairy Farms Ltd. R. Special thanks are due to Dr. Eknath. Stirling University. Ponzoni. Hoq assisted and formulated the overall design of the book. Dr.J. J. Malaysia for his kind permission to use some of his farm photographs in this book. Prof. Dr. R. M. M. who provided a wealth of information and critically reviewed and improved the first draft of the manuscript. B. Dr. xvii . National Aquaculture Genetic Research Institute. Above all my thanks go to Dr. I owe my greatest debt to my lovely wife Habiba Akhter Hussain (Koli) for her continuous support and encouragement until the completion of this book.M.Acknowledgements The author wishes to acknowledge the kindness of all of his good friends and colleagues. Janssen.M. Dey. Selangor.J. Dr. All the assistance and support from the tilapia hatchery and farming entrepreneurs of Bangladesh viz. Institute of Aquaculture.E. Kohinoor and Mr. the former Director. Dr. M. Pullin. Bismillah Hatchery Group. Dr. Nuanmanee Pongthana. Islam. G. I am also indebted to Mr.H. C. who have provided information. Muktagacha Fisheries. Fish Genetics and Reproduction Research Group.W. materials and photographs for use in this book. Mair. Penman. Dunham. Karim. David J. NIRIBILI Group. Dr. McAndrew. Dr. Dr. Dr. A. M. Gupta. Managing Director of PKPS Farm Mart. E.
A total of about 70 species of tilapia have been so far listed as native to Africa (Anon 1984). Although the important natural tilapia genetic resources are in Africa.647 mt). In recent years. In the early days of the 20th century.6% came from China. 500 mt in 1950 to 1. . tilapias were wild fish in the great lakes and rivers of that continent. mossambicus). Thailand (151. aureus). Other countries like. While widespread introductions have provided the mechanism for expansion of tilapia culture.1 Introduction IMPORTANCE AND POTENTIAL OF TILAPIA SPECIES IN AQUACULTURE Tilapias are a group of “Cichlid” fish native to African countries. effective management of reproduction is the primary factor that has been instrumental in the realization of their aquaculture potential in the later half of the 20th century (Shelton 2002).930 mt) and Sri Lanka (31. Indonesia (86. the total world production of tilapias (wild and aquaculture) has increased from 37. commercial farming of several species of tilapia has become a common practice in aquaculture throughout several regions of the world such as China. About 989. According to FAO. After that the tilapia species were spread over most of the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. which include Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Africa. In the central African countries. Galilee tilapia (Sarotherodon galilaeus). 800 mt in 2000. three spotted tilapia (O. Blue tilapia (O. USA and Latin America/Caribbean (Vannuccini 1998). 450 mt) are the major tilapia producing countries in Asia (Guerrero 2002). Mozambique tilapia (O. the major aquaculture industries at present are in Asia. andersonii). Only a few species are suitable and popular for farming in ponds and other culture systems. Philippines (99. longfin tilapia (O. blackchin tilapia (S. farming of tilapias in ponds was introduced after Second World War.724 mt). macrochir). SE Asia.899 mt tilapia were produced in Asia in 1999 of which 62. 265.Farming of Tilapia 1 1.
Pullin (1983) compared the attributes of various species with culture potential. In the First International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture (May 1983. As a result. once considered a low value fish. mossambicus (Figure 1) was the first species. niloticus) has taken the lead as the principal species (cited by Shelton 2002). While the former is still used to produce hybrids. Mozambique tilapia. 1. There are also some genetically improved strains such as Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). which was introduced into Bangladesh from Thailand in 1954. it has been effectively left behind as the Nile tilapia (O. which being grown on commercial farms in 100 countries of the world from extensive to super-intensive.2 TILAPIA SPECIES INTRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH Among tilapias. Vannuccini (1998) stated “Tilapia. Israel) Drs.Farming of Tilapia melanotheron) and redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zillii). red tilapia strains and hybrids. It is believed that in the future it may become the most important fin fish in the world”. O. Above all. has in recent times gained wider consumer acceptance and is now considered an attractive menu item in chain restaurants”. The fish did not flourish and proved to be a pest due to its early maturation and prolific breeding habits in the ponds. Liao and Chen concluded that “Tilapia is no longer an African fish but an International fish. It remains to be seen whether the “food fish of the 21st century” will surpass production of the carps in aquaculture during the new millennium (Fitzsimmons 2000). he suggested concentrating research efforts on the Blue tilapia and Nile tilapia. Tilapia has also been described as the important aquaculture species of the 21st century. O. niloticus has been recognized as the prime domesticated species for farming in a wide range of aquaculture systems from simple waste-fed fishponds to intensive culture systems (ICLARM 1991). producers 2 . only suitable for the ethnic market. Nazareth.
mossambicus x O. niloticus (Figure 2). In 1988 Drs.Farming of Tilapia and consumers regarded the fish as “nuisance fish”. niloticus. For evaluating this strain in other countries of Asia. was introduced into Bangladesh from Thailand through UNICEF. During the 1970’s a renewed interest in tilapia culture developed in some Asian countries including Bangladesh with the introduction of Nile tilapia. was developed in Taiwan and introduced into Thailand. formerly FRI) initiated the second introduction of the fish in this country. a promising farmed species. 1. a hybrid between albino O. Thailand and Vietnam under the auspices of a WorldFish Center's project entitled "Dissemination and Evaluation of 3 . was introduced in July 1994 from the Philippines. the Chitralada strain of Nile tilapia. Thailand. a red mutant tilapia (Figure 3). O. Under the Dissemination and Evaluation of Genetically Improved Tilapia in Asia (DEGITA) project of WorldFish Center (Formerly ICLARM). Hussain and S. The Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI. niloticus. niloticus (Eknath et al. also from Thailand. O. M. 1993). In on-station trials. a research project was initiated in Bangladesh. the 'Israel’ strain (Eknath 1992). in 1987. another promising Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain (Figure 4). Overall performance of Nile tilapia and other fast growing tilapias have proved that they are no longer pests but have come to be known as “aquatic chicken”. Philippines. In 1974. Meanwhile. Bangkok. China.G.3 PERFORMANCE AND POTENTIAL OF THE GIFT STRAIN OF OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS The GIFT strain was developed by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) through several generations of selection from a base population involving eight different strains of Nile tilapia. a synthetic strain of O. Dewan brought a batch of this red strain of tilapia to Bangladesh from the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT). the synthetic GIFT strain was reported to show on an average 60% faster growth and 50% better survival at harvest than the most commonly farmed strain in the Philippines.
Fig. 4 . 5558)". Asian Development Bank (ADB) Technical Assistant Grant Project: RETA No. Fig 2 Nile tilapia. 1 Mozambique tilapia.Farming of Tilapia the Genetically Improved Tilapia in Asia (DEGITA. Oreochromis niloticus. Oreochromis mossambicus.
Fig. 3 Red tilapia strain. 4 Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain. 5 .Farming of Tilapia Fig.
Chandina. China. In other DEGETA countries viz. niloticus strains was assessed in five test environments (i. 6 . the possibility of both natural and artificial selection of local strains to their environments. the mean final weights of GIFT and existing strains were 134. Total yield of the GIFT was significantly higher (57% more.4 g and 85. In multi-locational on-farm trials in ponds. In on-station ponds. the GIFT strain appears to be about 10-15% superior to local strains in terms of growth (Dey 1996).05) than that of the existing strain. Indonesia. nursery systems.4±2.Farming of Tilapia 1. The average gross production of GIFT and existing strains were estimated at 4. comparative growth and production potential of GIFT and existing Nile tilapia strains (O.4 g. P<0. net cages and growout ponds) and six multi-locational sites (i.e. niloticus) was evaluated both under onstation and on-farm conditions.3. cisterns. and 18 to 40% higher yield in comparison to the local strains of Vietnam. Comparative production performance of GIFT and existing O. hapas. Paikgacha.966 kg/ha/6 months. in on-station conditions. and therefore.e. Manikganj. Trishal. 15 to 20% higher yield than that of the Chitralada strain of Thailand.411 and 2. Jessore Sadar and Mithapukur) respectively under on-station and on-farm conditions (Hussain et al. ‘1988’ introduced and hybrid strain of China. On the other hand. respectively.1 Growth and production performance In Bangladesh. where there are longer histories of tilapia farming.3±2. Thailand and Vietnam. 2000). respectively. the GIFT strain gave about 15 to 25% higher yield than the other strains like ‘1978’ introduced. at harvest.05) higher (52%) than that of the existing local strain. in on-farm conditions. The growth performance expressed as least square mean (LSM) values of body weight at harvest of individual strains across different environments revealed that GIFT was consistently better performing than the existing strain. greater climatic variation. the average production of the GIFT strain per unit area in the on-farm conditions was also found to be significantly (P<0.
F3 and F4 selected generations attained 2. respectively. The weight gain values of 4th generation of 7 .9% cumulative weight gain. over three generations.3 Further genetic selection and development of superior strain BFRI has been maintaining the gene pool of pure GIFT strain since its introduction and has enhanced the stock by introduction of new generations from the Philippines in 1996. Evaluation of growth performance was carried out through comparative trials between selected and non-selected average control (existing stock of GIFT) groups. proved to be very suitable fish for aquaculture in Bangladesh and other DEGITA countries.8%. The F2.5% and 6.0 % genetic gain in growth performance was attained by the F1 generation over the non-selected control group. further stock improvement has also been initiated using selective breeding technique. 1. A 5. meanwhile.9%.2 The suitability of GIFT strain for seed production and aquaculture The GIFT strain has. 12.3.Farming of Tilapia 1. The desirable characteristics of this genetically improved strain are as follows: • • • • • • • High yielding Excellent breeder Efficient converter of organic and agricultural wastes in to high quality protein Resistant to disease Very hardy Tolerant to over crowding conditions Able to grow in either fresh or brackish water The GIFT strain of O. Subsequently. The average gain per generation across four generations of selection for growth performance in weight was estimated 6. personal communication). niloticus is being presently widely used for mono sex seed production in a large number of tilapia hatcheries in Thailand (Dr.3. Nuanmanee Pongthana.
3% superiority over the non-selected GIFT control. The new super strain is gaining popularity day by day in Bangladesh and a number of entrepreneurs have already initiated its hatchery development for commercial mixed and monosex seed production and farming in several regions of the country. tilapias have yet to be farmed widely in Bangladesh.Farming of Tilapia the selected group showed 27. 8 . To date. because interest in tilapia farming is growing due to its success in other Asian countries and increasing consumer acceptance (ADB 2004). fecundity and disease resistance) the new strain can be termed as Super Strain of GIFT (ie. BFRI Super GIFT). Due to excellent performances for growth and other relevant traits (survival.
E. e. zillii. The taxonomic classification of the Nile tilapia is given below: Phylum: Subphylum: Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Common name: Chordata Vertebrata Osteichthyes Perciformes Cichlidae Oreochromis Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus Nile tilapia 2. a Senior Tilapia Taxonomist of British Museum (Natural History) made a thorough review of natural history of African cichlid species in her book “Tilapiine Species” and showed the basis for distinguishing Tilapia.2 GENERIC GROUPS OF TILAPIAS The fishery scientists and taxonomists change the generic names of tilapias from time to time on the basis of research on their various characters but mainly by spawning and breeding behaviors. Trewavas.1 Tilapias are predominantly freshwater finfishes often some species characterized with nest building and surface or mouth brooding habits. T.g. Dr. Sarotherodon and Oreochromis as genera.Farming of Tilapia 2 General and reproductive biology of tilapia TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATION 2. According to Trewavas (1983) the three main distinct generic groups of tilapias are as below: • Genus Tilapia: Includes those species which are substrate spawners and do not keep the eggs in the mouth for incubation. 9 .
2 Tolerance to ecological conditions The Nile tilapia. Caudal fin covered with narrow vertical stripes. melanotheron.5 – 8. The suitable ranges of water quality parameters under which the fish can survive well are: • • 10 Water temperatures 12 to 35 oC. the upper margin of dorsal fin black or gray. pH 6. which are available just on the lower part of the first arch. the dorsal and caudal fin margins of the males become bright red. and females come to find spawning partners. usually these scales remain around 31-33. Number of dorsal spines are 17.3. Unlike other cichlid fish. niloticus. 2.g. O. O. is a very hardy fish and can thrive a wide range of aquatic ecological conditions from purely freshwater to brackish or semi saline waters. the body colour of the males is more attractive than females. e.0.3 GENERAL BIOLOGY OF NILE TILAPIA 2. mossambicus. S. Both sexes at breeding time show red flush on the belly and lower flanks. In this group the males construct and defend a mating territory in an arena with other males in adjacent terrirories. O. aureus. galilaeus.1 Distinguishing characters Body elongate and deep. Genus Oreochromis: Includes those species which are exclusively maternal mouth brooders. . Scales in lateral line series are 30-34.g. S.Farming of Tilapia • Genus Sarotherodon: Includes those species which are mostly paternal mouth brooders and sometimes eggs and hatched larvae are brooded by both parents. e. which is brighter in male. The numbers of gill-rakers are 20 –26. covered with moderately large scales.3. In particular. • 2.
2. the Nile tilapia can grow to 150 – 250 g in 4 to 6 months. 4 BREEDING AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF NILE TILAPIA 2.0 mg/l. weights 4-7 kg. Salinity 3 . both aquatic larvae and terrestrial insects that fall on the water (Trewavas 1983). hydracarines and various insects.25 ppt. niloticus is capable of using a wide range of food materials from tiny plankton (phytoplanton and zooplankton) to macrophytes.0 – 8.Farming of Tilapia • • Dissolve oxygen 2. The young fry are omnivorous. 2.3. It grows well on artificial feeds.64 cm. actively pursuing copepods. 11 .4 Food O. In the great lakes of Africa.1 Breeding habit and natural spawning (a) Sexual dimorphism Sexual dimorphism is common in Nile tilapia. 500 to 800 g in 10 to 12 months and 2 – 3 kg in 2 years. 2. several scientists (Worthington and Ricardo 1936.3 Growth In tropical pond waters under semi-intensive culture management.3. Lowe-McConnell 1958) recorded maximum sizes of 61.4. The males are larger than females. It is reported that the males become 20 – 30% heavier in weight in comparison to the females (Hussain and Kohinoor 2003).
the urogenital opening.2 to 0. where eggs pass through (Figure 5b). The nest has a circular shape with a depression from 0. the selected female is allowed to enter to the nest. (e) Mating and spawning activity In most of the tilapia species. erection of fins and body colour patterns) to attract the females. (c) Sexual maturation of brood fish The Nile tilapia sexually matures at the age of 3 months.e. When a mating partnership is finally settled.3 meter deep.1 to 0. The female has a flatter and shorter papilla with 3 openings. In Bangladesh. where the milt and urine are excreted and the anus. when it attains a body weight of around 40 – 60 g (Hussain 1989). prespawning courtship behavior between males and females is observed. During the spawning the female shows the movement of touching the bottom of the nest and the 12 . the urethra (for excretion of urine) and the oviduct. (d) Nest building for natural breeding For natural breeding males build nests on the substratum in shallow regions of stagnant water bodies/ ponds to attract the females for spawning. it breeds from February to November when water temperatures remain around 22 – 30 oC.Farming of Tilapia (b) Morphology of sexual organs The genital papilla of male is larger than that of the females and has 2 openings (Velasco 2003a). The female spawns in the nest after a short mating ritual.3 meter in diameter and 0. It is also recorded that the nest is about twice the length of the male making it (Hussain 1989). In particularly the males are more active to exhibit their secondary sexual characteristics (i. the anus. They choose partners of more or less same age group. for the discharge of fecal waste (Figure 5a).
b. Genital papilla of female Oreochromis niloticus having three openings. for the discharge of fecal waste. b a Fig. It is reported that the females subsequent to ovulation attract the partner males through releasing sexual pheromones (Velasco 2003a). Genital papilla of male Oreochromis niloticus having two opening. In view of mouth brooding the female picks up the fertilized eggs in to her mouth.Farming of Tilapia erected conical genital papilla fully descends to deposit the ovulated ova (unfertilized eggs) in batches (30 – 60 eggs/batch). the urogenital opening. the anus. 5 a. the urethra for urine passing and the oviduct. 13 . Ova deposition and fertilization activities occur over a period of up to 2 – 3 hours. where egg passes through. The male ejects milt over the eggs to effect fertilization immediately after deposition of each batch of eggs by the female (Chen 1976). where the milt and urine are excreted and the anus.
In O. The weight of first feeding tiny fry of Nile tilapia is about 0. depending on the size and age of the female.f. 12 – 14 days a. 14 .0-2. 70-90 hrs. (g) Mouth brooding and development of fertilized eggs and embryos The Nile tilapia is maternal mouth brooder. It means that absolute fecundity in this species is inversely correlated with the weight of sexually mature females (Velasco 2003a).Farming of Tilapia (f) Fecundity The colour of ripe and fertilized eggs is pale yellow orange. they are ovoid in shape and the size ranges between 1.5-3.) 45-50 hrs. It is reported that as the weight of GIFT strain O. which might need another 6–10 days. niloticus increases to a range of 180 – 498 g.f. and 2. niloticus embryonic development there are five easily observed developmental stages (Hussain 1992): • • • • • Morula stage: Pigmentation stage: Hatching stage: Yolk sac resorption stage: First feeding stage: 6-8 hrs.f. after fertilization (a. The fecundity fluctuates widely from a few hundred to several thousand eggs. so the female immediately takes the fertilized eggs into her mouth for incubation. Hatching of eggs take place after 70–90 hours in the mouth at 28±1oC and the female holds the hatched larvae and gives parental care until the swim up stage.f.0 mm x 1. 6-10 days a. the number of eggs decreases.01g and after this stage they are able to take natural or artificial feeds and move easily in the surrounding waters and do not need any parental care.0 mm in diameter. a.3 – 2.f.8 mm in length. a.
high-energy yolk (vitellogenin) deposition occurs in the growing oocytes. each of which gives rise to secondary spermatocytes and then to spermatozoa or mature sperm. In the female fish. early egg development starts with the oogonia. vitellogenin production is normally stimulated by 17β-oestradiol hormone). niloticus (Figure 6).3 Endocrine hormone profiles In the process of sexual maturation and gonad development in the fish including tilapia.4. spermatogonia develop to primary spermatocytes. testosterone 15 . 17β-oestradiol. then primary oocytes which give rise to secondary oocytes. prominent urogenital papilla etc. 2. Sumpter and Bromage 1987). which is synthesized by the liver.2 Process of gonad development In Nile tilapia development of gonadal products (eggs and sperms) is a short process. The yolk precursor is believed to be synthesized during the vitellogenesis phase of ovarian growth under the influence of oestrogenic control (ie. 11-ketotestosterone etc. A histological section of an ovary shows various stages of development at peak maturation of female O.Farming of Tilapia 2. testosterone. bluish fins with reddish margins. the most vital role is played by the endocrine hormones like vitellogenin. During the pre-ovulatory period. are also controlled by these sex steroid hormones. The secondary oocytes complete such yolk deposition by the process of vitellogenesis and remain as mature oocytes in the ovary for a variable period of time until their final maturation or ovulation. The process of sperm development starts in the males with the spermatogonia.4. On the other hand. Development of secondary sexual characteristics such as bright and shiny body colour. Normally in female fish egg yolk is derived from a precursor of lipophosphoprotein-calcium complex called vitellogenin. released into the blood and finally sequestered by the oocytes by means of a receptor-mediated endocytotic process (Tyler. Various stages of germ cell development are visible in testicular section at maturation (Figure 7).
16 . 6 Histological section of an ovary shows various stages of development at peak maturation of female Oreochromis niloticus. Fig. 7 Histological section of a testis shows various stages of development at peak maturation of male Oreochromis niloticus.Farming of Tilapia Fig.
0 Hussain et al. niloticus brood stock and fish larger than 20-30 g. In this species the overall sex ratio does not generally differ from the expected 1:1 ratio. an alternative aceto-carmine squash technique can be used (see Chapter 7). vitellogenin and all other sex steroid hormones have interlinked functions to regulate oocyte maturation.5 17-β-oestradiol (ng ml-1) 0.1 82.4 Sex ratio In normal O. Sexes Female Male Serum Ca++level -1 (mg 100 ml ) 34.5 Testosterone (ng ml-1) 39.3 16.07±17. 1995) and the data are presented in Table 1. In small fish (3-5 g size) where manual sexing is not possible.07±7. All values are mean ± SE estimated from an equal number (n=10) of fish in each category. Serum calcium concentration (index of vitellogenin) and sex steroid hormone levels in sexually matured female and male O.3 0. niloticus have been determined respectively by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry and radioimmunoassay techniques (Hussain et al.46±0. 17 . Ultimately. examining their urogenital papilla can easily differentiate sex. Serum calcium concentration and steroid hormone levels in mature female and male O.Farming of Tilapia hormone acts as precursor in oestrogen synthesis.0 37. Similarly in male fish sex steroid hormones also regulate more or less the sexual maturation and development of testicular products (ie. niloticus.4.45±12. Table 1.28±6. (1995) 2. semen and sperm).54±2.2 11-ketotestosterone (ng ml-1) 0.012.
in a small-scale seed production system of tilapia inbreeding will be common because of the mating of close relatives as in most cases female and male breeders are chosen from the finite population. 18 . poor survival etc. which ultimately leads the subsequent generations to become stunted and undesirable. On the other hand. increased incidence of deformities. The most detrimental problem associated with the growing population. Inbreeding tends to increase the homozygosity across all loci fixing some alleles while others are lost (Mair 1999). as they rapidly become poor genetic material due to inbreeding of stocks for poor brood stock management. Such genetic stock deterioration will undoubtedly be a critical problem for tilapia seed production. a good brood stock management practice in a hatchery or seed production system of tilapia is essential to avoid inbreeding and other related genetic stock deterioration aspects. A short generation time and essentially uncontrolled reproduction make tilapia susceptible to inbreeding. loss of fecundity.Farming of Tilapia 3 Brood stock replacement and breeding plans for tilapia hatchery stocks BROOD STOCK MANAGEMENT TO AVOID GENETIC STOCK DETERIORATION 3. Such uncontrolled inbreeding often leads to the loss of genetic variability and other deleterious consequences known as inbreeding depression. Therefore. Inbreeding depression makes a stock having the characteristics of reduced growth rate.1 As it is an established fact that the main drawback of all the existing commercial tilapia strains is their precocious maturation and short cycle habit of reproduction in pond conditions.
0 25.5 12. Brood stock should be transferred and kept separately by sex in two transitory hapas (size 8 m x 2. Before stocking at least 80 to 100 breeding hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m) need to be set in a pond. Mating between breeding stocks Full sibs Parent offspring Half sibs Uncle-niece First cousins Unrelated Inbreeding rate at 1st generation (%) 25. 19 . Inbreeding resulting from some matings between closely related individuals (Dr.2 BROOD STOCK REPLACEMENT TECHNIQUES Use of a high ‘effective population size (ie. A pair of female and male breeders (1:1 ratio) are stocked in each breeding hapa. personal communication). For brood stock replacement a simple protocol should be developed and maintained to ensure that each pair of breeders will contribute only once to the next generation. A tilapia hatchery operator should maintain at least 500 brood fish (more or less equal number of females and males) per generation as a standard population size for breeding.Farming of Tilapia Table 2. Raul Ponzoni. Ne)” supported by standard reference stocks/strains will be the main principle of the tilapia breeding plan in a hatchery.0 3.5m x 1 m).5 6. The mating protocol should be devised in such a way that will reduce the chances of declining genetic variation between pairs.0 12. The steps of the protocol is furnished below: • • • • Required numbers of founder stock need to be collected from a known source (either from BFRI or from it’s regional stations/sub-stations) and reared in the holding tanks/ponds until maturity.5 0.
e.Farming of Tilapia • • • • • • • It is necessary to check the mouth of all the stocked fish in each hapa 10-14 days interval to collect the fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac in view of their artificial incubation. cross breeding. at least 200 fry from each progeny family will be transferred to separate nursery hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m). Selective breeding is a long-term continuous strategy to improve the production performance and quality of tilapia (WorldFish Center 2004). This will be done to ensure the equal contribution of each breeding pair to brood stock replacement as well as to maximize the effective population size (Ne). Immediately after hatching. the larvae are shifted to a series of trays and kept until their yolk sac resorption stage i.3 BREEDING PLAN AND GENETIC STOCK IMPROVEMENT OF TILAPIA In view of enhancing productivity of aquaculture species including tilapia. chromosome manipulation. hybridization. first feeding fry stage (in farmer’s condition. if the egg/larvae incubation system is not available. Fry need to be grown up to 30 – 40 g size in the same hapa by reducing their numbers 40 – 50 fingerlings/m3. Fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac that have been collected from the mouth of each female fish will be kept separately and incubated family wise in plastic jars. a number of advanced genetic techniques are presently available viz. In a well-designed 20 . From each progeny group at least 5 females and 5 males should be selected as reference stock by manual sexing and shifted them for brood stock replacement. 3. mouth checking is not necessary. Subsequently. gene transfer and selective breeding. in that case. sex reversal (including YY-male technology). alternatively fry produced in the hapas can be collected at fortnightly interval by scooping them from the inside or lifting up the bottom). None of these techniques are suitable for continuous improvement of desired traits of a population except selective breeding.
The success of this phenomenon is dependant on the base population. which needs to have high additive genetic variation.Farming of Tilapia selective breeding program the pedigree of brood fish can be monitored to increase the accuracy of selection and to restrict inbreeding. depends on the additive genetic variation present in the breeding population and the intensity of selection (WorldFish Center 2004). The rationale of this stock development/maintenance is to form a heterogeneous. 21 .3. Through adopting brood stock replacement program as described above. the rate of selection response. Such superior and outbred stocks may be of benefit to breeding and aquaculture by increasing growth rate. genetically superior individuals can be developed per generation. therefore. The base population requires a large effective population size with a large number of breeders. survival and disease resistance of commercially important tilapia species/strains. then it will be wonderful to improve a stock with desirable traits and high genetic variation. In the process of selective breeding. 3. In this way. If the selective breeding technique can be added with brood stock replacement program. the tilapia hatchery operators have a chance to collect and maintain superior brood stock and mate them accordingly. which might need to develop or maintain huge tilapia reference stocks. outbred and broad genetic base in the population at the beginning of the selection program. fecundity.1 Development of the base population It is worthy to mention here that a breeding population has every chance of attaining genetic gain every generation if they are produced through a planned selective breeding. heritability and genetic variability of all traits can be increased to a maximum level and inbreeding depression can be kept to a minimum (Hussain and Mazid 2001).
viz. Schom and Baily (1986) reported that mass selection of brood stock in subsequent generations improves the chances of genetic gains through the accumulation of favorable alleles/traits with high genetic variability in the population. Mass selection is normally used to improve phenotypic traits (e. growth.3. (1998) showed about 15% additive genetic gain in the GIFT strain though five generations of selection.Farming of Tilapia 3. Hussain et al. Mass selection as an initial method of choice is described below: (a) Mass selection This is a relatively simple selection strategy where breeding candidates are selected on the basis of individual performance.3 and assumed coefficient of variation of 30%. as shown in many fish species. According to Bentsen et al.g. Several authors found this to be a useful selection strategy for genetic improvement of commercially important fish stocks.2%. (1996) an assumed heritability for body weight of about 0. any one can be followed for genetic stock improvement. where the weight gain values of fifth generation of the selected group showed 31. shape and colour) that are recorded on the living fish. (b) Family selection and (c) Combined selection. the genetic gain in the progeny should be about 15 to 17% per generation compared to the mean of parent generation. (a) Mass or individual selection. The most important step to be considered by the hatchery operators in mass selection strategy is that in every generation at least 5-10% bestselected breeders should be collected and used for breeding program for 22 . Similar performance was also attained by Super Strain of GIFT (derived from pure GIFT strain through several generations of genetic selection) in Bangladesh.2 The selection methods In tilapia breeding program among three selection methods. Eknath et al.2% superiority (average genetic gain per generation across four generations of selection was 6. (2002) reported that in silver barb the average gain per generation across two generations of selection for growth performance in weight was 7.0%) over the non-selected control group.
good growth and healthy appearance (Hussain and Mazid 2001). (b) Setting of breeding hapas and stocking of breeders At least 80 to 100 breeding hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m) are prepared and set in breeding ponds and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles. The selected breeding candidates can become more related to each other. and a consequent accumulation of inbreeding. after several generations the accumulation of inbreeding can be a major problem. It is also reported that when using a mass selection method. If large families are naturally produced or stocked in the test environment. maternal and age effects) may easily result in a disproportionately high contribution of individuals from just a few parents to the next generation.3.3 Initiate breeding and testing programs (a) Selection. In this situation either family selection strategy or combined selection strategy can be followed as described in the manual entitled “Gift technology manual: An aid to tilapia selective breeding” published by WorldFish Center (2004). Such inbreeding reduces the genetic variation and the potential for further genetic improvement in the breeding population (WorldFish Center 2004). During this transitory period. 3. Individual selection of the breeders is followed based on empirical assessment of best size and weight.Farming of Tilapia the production of next generation.g. the best females and males are chosen (weighing between 100-150 gm each) and kept separately by sex in two transitory hapas (size 8 m x 2. when the Nile tilapia brood stock derived as base population become sexually mature. sexing and maintenance of brood stock During the month March/April. the wide genetic variation and common non-genetic effects (e. the brood stock are maintained by proper feeding. A pair of female and male breeders (1:1 ratio) is stocked in each breeding 23 .5m x 1 m) set in a pond until they are used for the planned selective breeding program.
Fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac that have been collected from the mouth of each female fish are incubated separately in this system. So. in that case. it is wise not to remove the fertilized eggs from the mouth of the female breeder(s). the larvae are shifted to a series of trays and kept separately until their yolk sac resorption stage i. where fresh water (28±1 oC) comes directly from a header tank by gravity (Figure 8). it is necessary to check the mouth of all the stocked females in each hapa twice a week to collect the fertilized eggs/larvae with yolk sac in view of their artificial incubation. Rather these eggs should be allowed to hatch and incubate in the mouth of the female(s). Immediately after hatching. The bottles and trays need to be set over the designed concrete platform and connected to the recirculating system. (c) Collection of fertilized eggs/larvae The female fish normally holds the fertilized eggs in her mouth for natural incubation. Artificial feeds having 35% crude protein can be fed @ 3 .0 liter capacity empty plastic coca cola or drinking water bottles and medium type plastic trays (30 x 25 x 8 cm). In that case only first feeding or advanced fry can be collected by using a scoop net for their separate nursing in the other series of hapas. first feeding fry stage. Note: If there is no facility for artificial hatching and incubation system (s).Farming of Tilapia hapa.4% per estimated weight of biomass 2-3 times daily. (d) Development of incubation system and hatching of fertilized eggs/larvae A simple tilapia egg incubation system can be developed using 2.e. 24 .
8b A simple tilapia egg incubation system having medium type of trays. 8a A simple tilapia egg incubation system having plastic water bottles. 25 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. Fig.
The Floy tag having two plastic protection discs. During fry/fingerling rearing. Fry need to be grown up to 8 – 10 g (taggable size) in the same hapas or another series of similar size of hapas by reducing their numbers to 80 – 100 individuals/m3 and reared for another 40 . Floy fingerling tags with different colours have been found to be convenient for external tagging to uniquely identify each one of the large numbers of experimental fish (WorldFish Center 2004). Before stocking tilapia fingerlings for any desired communal testing. all nursery hapas should be installed in the same pond. he should record the number of eggs/larvae per jar/tray and their survival.60 days. tagging with suitable materials is essential. which are fixed through its thread 26 . Several types of tagging materials are available in the market presently but not all are found suitable. He should note the body weight and length data of individual male and female stocked in each hapa including the date of eggs/larvae collection. (f) Record keeping/data collection The tilapia hatchery manager/operator must maintain a record book and keep all the necessary family wise data of the hapa breeding and fry/fingerling rearing. (g) Tagging of fingerlings . During incubation. the number of fry stocked in each nursery hapa. To reduce environmental differences between families.Farming of Tilapia (e) Nursing and rearing of fry/fingerlings At least 200 fry from each progeny family will be transferred to a series of separate nursery hapas (size 1 x 1 x 1 m) for rearing for 21 – 24 days. For producing sufficient number of fingerlings and standardizing the rearing conditions of all full-sib families such records are essential. and the fingerlings shifted to rearing hapas should also be recorded.
secured and permanent identification of experimental fish (both for fingerlings and breeders). standard length and tag number of the fingerlings should be recorded. Throughout the entire grow-out period. sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. The capsulated PIT tags are implanted within the visceral cavity of the fish. cages and rice fields as common farm environments should be made ready for communal stocking of all full-sib groups. For tilapia the most convenient is digital tagging by Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags (Figure 11). Stocking density needs to be calculated as per recommended numbers for each test environments. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. Every 30 days. After tagging all the representative number of fingerlings from each family should be shifted to a holding tank or hapa. A few equal numbers of tagged fingerlings per full-sib group can be stocked in the selected environments for a full grow-out period (3 – 5 months). the body weight. (h) Testing in common farm environments Communal testing of fish in common farm environment might be essential for evaluation of growth and other performance traits as well as estimating the breeding values for any desired selection strategy(s) in each generation. 27 . which provide a safe. cemented tanks. The earthen ponds. Before stocking. An electronic scanner is used to read out the digital number at the time of sampling and harvesting. the fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight. Another type of flat.Farming of Tilapia either side with the needle carefully inserted underneath the scale below the dorsal fin and above the lateral line (Figure 9). comparatively longer shaped plastic numbered tags with nylon thread (Figure10) can be used by fixing them at the dorsal fin or tail region of the tilapia fingerlings.
28 . 10 Plastic numbered tag with nylon thread. Fig. 9 Floy tagging underneath the scale below the dorsal fin and above the lateral line of tilapia.Farming of Tilapia Fig.
should be recorded. uncle-nice and cousins) mating should always be avoided to prevent inbreeding depression in further genetic improvement program of tilapia.4 Continue selection program(s) to produce next generation(s) For the production of the next generation. 29 . halfsibs. the very best individuals in terms of individual weight for mass selection/breeding values for other selection strategies should be used. body depth etc. 11 PIT tagging into the visceral cavity of tilapia. 3. All the test fish should be captured as carefully as possible and the individual tag numbers.Farming of Tilapia Fig. sexual maturation condition.e. parent-offspring. body width. standard length. Closely related individuals (i. Fish can be harvested when they attain the weight about 100 – 150 g.3. sex. body weight. But a compromise needs to be maintained between selection intensity and effective population size (WorldFish Center 2004). full-sibs.
“Ne” can be calculated by using the following formula: Ne = 4 x F x M / (F + M) where F = number of female & M = number of males Effective population size is inversely related to the rate of inbreeding (F).Farming of Tilapia 3. the effective population size (Ne) should be maintained >50 up to 1000 to keep the estimated level of inbreeding less than 1% per generation.4 MAXIMIZING THE EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZE (NE) “Ne” should be maximized to minimize the loss of genetic variation and inbreeding. In a well designed breeding program. In a well planned breeding program. “Ne” will be made by collecting very few but equal numbers of individuals from each progeny group (ie. Table 3. individuals produced by each pair of breeders) from maximum number of broodstock and maintaining a 1:1 sex ratio (Mair 1999).5% 0.07% 0. The rate of inbreeding per generation in the range of effective population size (Ne) 50 to 1000 using the above formula is furnished in Table 3. Correlation between effective population size (Ne) and rate of inbreeding in a hatchery. Effective population size (Ne) (Sex ratio 1:1) 50 100 250 500 750 1000 Rate of inbreeding (F value) per generation 1% 0.2% 0. which is shown as: F = 1/2Ne It is worthy to mention here that the rate of inbreeding depends on the skewed sex ratio. In a breeding population where random mating is done.05% 30 .1% 0.
In this case. such as physical shocks (temperature and hydrostatic pressure). while those are produced having XY (heterogametic) set of sex chromosomes become males.e. the gametes (i.e. A single gamete can be termed as genome (i. sperms and eggs) are produced by the male and female O. the offspring that are produced from the fertilized eggs having XX (homogametic) set of sex chromosomes become females. chemicals (i. As the mechanism of sex determination is known in Nile tilapia. As a result. the two haploid genomes or gametes form a zygote and this complement is termed as diploid.1 Like other finfish. 31 .e. having a haploid set of chromosomes). therefore. Ploidy or chromosome manipulation has become popular research in this fish since 1980s for the generation of genetically induced sterile and mono-sex (either all female or all male) populations. niloticus. At fertilization of mature egg and sperm. Here.Farming of Tilapia 4 Ploidy manipulation and production of all sterile. O. a zygote has a diploid genomic status having a total of 44 chromosomes. each haploid set of chromosomes in the egg contains a single X sex chromosome and in the sperm it contains either an X or a Y sex chromosome.e. niloticus has an XX/XY sex determining system. Each genome in this species of tilapia contains 22 chromosomes. Various techniques have been developed so far to interfere with normal functioning of the metaphase spindle apparatus during cell division in eggs using several causal agents. female and male population GENOMIC STATUS AND DETERMINATION OF SEX 4. the methods of controlling sex have become easier. endomitotics) and anesthetics (i. nitrous oxide and freon).
Tetraploid individuals are generated by the disruption of the first mitotic division shortly prior to formation of cleavage furrow of developing fertilized eggs using several agents both physical and chemical.2 PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY INDUCED ALL STERILE POPULATION Genetically induced sterile populations can be produced by the induction of polyploidy (triploidy and tetraploidy) in the developing eggs of Nile tilapia.2. i) triploids and ii) tetraploids. But until now no viable tetraploids in tilapia have produced except the 32 .1 Induction of polyploidy There are two types of polyploids. 4. Triploids are produced directly by blocking of second polar body extrusion during second meiotic division shortly after fertilization of fish eggs using various physical shocks and chemical treatments. because of promising future of large-scale production of genetically induced sterile fish from mating of normal diploid and viable tetraploid individuals. Triploid individuals are expected to be functionally and endocrinologically sterile due to their meiotic inhibition of gametogenesis and lack of essential steroid hormone levels to support gonadal growth (Hussain 1998).Farming of Tilapia individuals with differing genomic status can be produced in a population as below: • • • Polyploids (triploid and tetraploid) Gynogenetics (both meiotic and mitotic gynogenetics) Androgenetics (embryonic development with chromosomes) paternal 4. The production of tetraploids might have tremendous impact. where control of reproduction and population is desirable. Such sterility in both female and male fish can be of benefit to aquaculture.
heat and cold shocks (Hussain 1996). 12 A schematic diagram of inducing polyploids in O. Methods for triploidy and tetraploidy induction (a) Collection and maintenance of brood stock Sufficient numbers (>100 pairs) of purebred O. sexually mature fish are maintained under at least 12-h photoperiod and transferred into a series of 120 L glass aquaria provided a recirculated. A single male and female are accommodated in each aquarium but are kept separate by a sheet of Perspex. niloticus using pressure. In these aquaria the fish need to be fed with commercial pellets (at least 40% protein) at the rate of 2-3% body weight per day. aerated and temperature controlled (28±1 oC) water supply in a wet laboratory. For artificial breeding in view of chromosome manipulation works. 33 .Farming of Tilapia embryos. Fig. niloticus brood stock including improved GIFT strain are to be collected from a known source and attention to be given for their special maintenance in ponds or tanks and feeding with protein rich artificial feeds. niloticus using pressure. A schematic diagram of inducing polyploids in O. heat and cold shocks is shown in Figure 12.
for water hardening before using for further treatments or transfer to the incubation system. motility of sperm is always examined under microscope. For short storage undiluted milt is held at 4 oC in a refrigerator can be used to fertilize eggs until 3-4 days. Readiness of females to spawn is ascertained by examining the degree of swelling of the urogenital papilla and by the pre-spawning behaviour of the fish. After that fertilized eggs are left in the Petri dish for 2-3 min.5 L vessel capacity pressure apparatus (Figure 13) and thermostatically regulated 50 L capacity water bath (Figure 14) are used. heat and cold shocks) to induce both triploidy and tetraploidy. To avoid the female prematurely releasing her eggs. niloticus is collected by manual stripping.Farming of Tilapia (b) Collection and preservation of sperm Milt of sexually mature male O. The urine is first ejected and the genital papilla dried with a paper towel and the milt is sucked into a micro-pipette by capillary attraction when it is placed at the opening of the urethra.1-0. (c) Egg collection and artificial fertilization Under experimental conditions sexually mature female O.2 ml pre-collected dry sperm per batch of eggs (ca. 34 . The stripping is done by applying gentle downward pressure with the thumb and index fingers from just below the pectoral fins up to the genital opening of the fish. Milt contaminated with urine or water is always eliminated. Before any milt is used for fertilization. The ripe female is removed from the aquarium and the ovulated eggs are obtained by manual stripping. (d) Application of shock treatments For applying physical shock treatments (pressure. niloticus spawn at approximately 14-20 day intervals. 100-200 eggs) followed by the addition of 10-20 ml of 28±1 o C water. while the experiment is being prepared. Fertilization is carried out in vitro by mixing 0. The eggs are collected in a clean and sterile Petri dish. both 1 – 1. she can be held in a scope net for up to 2 hrs.
35 . 14 Thermostatically regulated 50 L capacity water bath. 13 1 – 1. Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig.5 L vessel capacity pressure apparatus.
000 psi taking a further 10 sec. 36 .5-30 min a. 3.000 psi typically in the region of 30 sec with the passage from 8000 10.f. Heat shock: 41 oC.000 – 9. the vessel and hydraulic pump reservoir are first filled with 28±1 oC clean water..f.5 min duration to be applied 5 min a. heat and cold shock parameters for the induction of triploidy in O.).1 oC) needs to be filled with clean water and allowed to heat the water up to required temperature. Pressure is released by gradually opening the valve and so the pressure dropped typically over 30 sec (9. after the vessel is sealed and purged of air. 2 min duration to be applied 40-50 min a.000 – 0 psi). The time is taken to raise the pressure level from ambient to 8. Cold shock: 9 oC. 30 min duration to be applied 7 min a. The optimal pressure and heat shock parameters to suppress the first cleavage or mitotic events of cell division in the fertilized eggs in the Nile tilapia (Hussain et al. After the pressure treatment. Eggs are held in individual uncapped vials and. Heat shock: : 41 oC.f. range 0 to 100 oC capable of maintaining ±0. the pressure release valve is closed. niloticus (Hussain et al. the water bath (temp. the eggs are removed from the vials and transferred directly to incubating jars. 2 min duration to be applied 9 min after fertilization (a. pressure was applied gradually by a manually operated hydraulic pump.f.Farming of Tilapia For pressure shocking the fertilised eggs. The optimal pressure. The induction of triploidy and tetraploidy has already been carried out in various Oreochromis spp. is shown in Table 4. For thermal (heat and cold) shocking the fertilized eggs. 1991) are as follows: • • • Pressure shock: 8000 psi. 3.f. 1993) can be used for the induction of tetraploidy are as below: • • Pressure shock: 9000 psi.5 duration to be applied 27.
57-60 a.5 C o 11 C for 60 min o o Induction widow 9 min a. Species Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis aureus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis aureus Causal agents PS HS CS CS PS + CS CS Intensity level 8000 psi for 3. 7 min a. (1991)) Hussain et al.f. the water is sterilized through a UV sterilization unit (ca.2. Table 4.5 min o 41 C for 3. 15 min a. niloticus are composed of three (3n=66 chromosomes) and four (4n=88 chromosomes) sets of genomes respectively. pigmentation and hatching stages (see section 2. heat and cold shocks. namely: morula. (1991)) Valenti (1975)) Myers (1986) Don & Avatalion (1988) (f) Determination of ploidy status The ploidy status of all treatment and control groups can be determined by chromosome preparation of sub-samples of new hatched or 1 day old larvae (Hussain and McAndrew 1994). using pressure. Additionally. For detailed protocol of chromosome karyotyping see section 4.Farming of Tilapia (e) Incubation of eggs Fertilized. 37 .3). The triploid and teraploid metaphases in O. 1986). (1991)) Hussain et al.f. 62.f.f.f. Ploidy status Triploidy Triploidy Triploidy Triploidy Tetraploidy Tetraploidy Authors Hussain et al.5 of this chapter.f.5 min 9 C for 30 min 11 C for 60 min 7000 psi for 7 min + o 7. The numbers of normal and deformed fry at hatch are also need to be recorded. 92 min a. The survival rate in treated and control groups is checked at three development stages.000 µWsec/cm2) and there should be a provision so as to ensure gentle movement of the developing eggs at all times (Rana. 5 min a. treated and controlled eggs are identically incubated in a series of round bottom plastic jars (750 – 1500 ml capacity) connected to the warm water (28±1 oC ) recirculating system. Polyploidy induction in various Oreochromis spp.
embryonic development proceeds with the inheritance of only maternal 38 . Fig. heat and cold shocks (Hussain 1996). As a result.Farming of Tilapia 4. eggs are fertilized with UV irradiated sperm and then are exposed to a variety of physical shock or chemical treatments. So two types of gynogenetic individuals can thus be generated through the induction of meiotic or mitotic events of fertilized eggs. niloticus using pressure. heat and cold shocks is shown in Figure 15. 15 A schematic diagram of inducing two types of gynogenesis (meiotic and mitotic) in O. which suppress the anaphase stages of second meiotic division by disruption of metaphase spindles.3. A schematic diagram of inducing two types of gynogenesis (meiotic and mitotic) in O. niloticus using pressure.1 Induction of meiotic gynogenesis In the process of meiotic gynogenesis. 4.3 PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY INDUCED ALL FEMALE POPULATION Genetically induced all female populations in fish can be produced by artificial diploidization of the maternal chromosome complement either by retention of the second polar body or inhibition of first cleavage using physical and chemical treatments.
Pongathana et al. 1998). 1981. It has commonly suggested that meiotic gynogentic induction coupled with sex inversion such that functional XX males could be produced (Nagy 1987. 39 .2 Induction of mitotic gynogenesis In this process. Hussain et al. 4.3. Streisinger et al. Han et al. where the growth rate of females is superior to males. which will be homozygous at every gene locus (Chourrout 1984. Such sex-reversed males are thought to be useful in cross breeding experiments to produce all outbred monosex female population. 1995). Therefore. even when reproduction is repeated for several generations would never produce homozygous inbred lines.Farming of Tilapia chromosome set(s). putative gynogenetic progeny derive by the artificial diploidization of the maternal chromosome complement due to prevention of mitotic cleavage. Thorgaard and Allen 1987. Despite the first generation of mitotic gynogenetics have limitations to use them directly for culture but they are potential and valuable as completely homozygous brood stock to produce second generation of clonal lines in fish including tilapia (Hussain et al. At present there are few direct applications of meiotic gynogens in aquaculture because the fish partly or mostly are inbred and have reduced variability compared to normal diploids. 1994). (1991) suggested that using meiotic gynogenetic diploids. The main rationale of mitotic gynogenesis induction in fish has been its potential for generating rapidly inbred lines. induction of diploid gynogenesis by inhibition of first cleavage at mitotic division of a zygote might be more promising method for producing inbred lines.
when not being submitted for shock treatments. their maintenance. their maintenance.5 ml diluted (with modified Cortland’s solution) UV irradiated sperm.4 – 0. niloticus brood stock collection.05 ml of modified Cortland’s solution (Hussain et al.2.). 1993).5x107 ml-1. 2. All the treatment batches of eggs are fertilized by mixing 0. All treatment batches of eggs except the UV control are exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat shocks. (b) Ultraviolet irradiation of sperm Milt samples required for UV treatment are checked for motility and irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp set using a radiometer (Ultra-Violet Products Inc. The optimal second polar body retaining pressure and heat shock parameters (Hussain et al.1.Farming of Tilapia Methods for induction of meiotic and mitotic gynogenesis (a) Source of brood stock.1. stripping of sperm/egg collection and fertilization protocols are described in section 3. sperm/egg collection and fertilization The true breeding O. un-irradiated sperm from the same pool is used to fertilize a portion of eggs as a control. After fertilization. (c) Application of shock treatments The same protocols for the application of both pressure and thermal shocks treatments can be followed as described in the section 4. Irradiation is carried out in a 5 cm diameter Petri dish at 4 o C to give a dose of 300-310 µW/cm2 for 2 min with a sperm concentration of 2. 1991) can be applied for the induction of meiotic gynogenesis as follows: 40 . eggs are at all times incubated at 28±1 oC.1 of this chapter.
f. 2 min duration to be applied 40-50 min a.5 min o 41 C for 3. Ploidy status Meiotic gynogenetic Meiotic gynogenetic Meiotic gynogenetic Mitotic gynogenetic Mitotic gynogenetic Mitotic gynogenetic Authors Hussain et al.5 min o o Induction widow 9 min a.3. 32-54 min a. 1993) can be used as below: • • Pressure shock: 9000 psi.). (1993) Hussain et al. (1991) Mair (1988). Table 5 shows a brief review of suppression of meiotic and mitotic events of cell division in the fertilised eggs to produce meiotic and mitotic gynogenetics in various Oreochromis spp. Heat shock: 41 oC.5 min duration to be applied 5 min a.2.f.Farming of Tilapia • • Pressure shock: 8000 psi.5 min duration to be applied 27.f.5-30 min a. 40-50 min a. Egg incubation and checking of survival rates of embryos at various developmental stages can be done as described in the protocols in section 2. (1991) Varadaraj & Pandian (1990) Hussain et al. Hussain et al.1. (1993) Mair (1988) 41 . Species Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis mossambicus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus Causal agents PS HS HS PS HS HS Intensity level 8000 psi for 3.f.f.5-30 min a.5 min 41. Heat shock: 41 oC.1. Determination of ploidy status can be performed as explained in the protocols in section 4.f. Table 5. 3. 3. 25-35 min a.5.f. 5 min a.5 min 41 C for 3. 2 min duration to be applied 9 min after fertilization (a. Gynogenesis induction in various Oreochromis spp. and 3. To interfere with the first mitosis for the induction of mitotic gynogenesis the recommended optimal parameters of pressure and heat shocks (Hussain et al.f. 27.7 C for 3 min 9000 psi for 2 min o 41 C for 3.f. using pressure and heat shocks.f.
1985. Another possible application of genetically induced males lies in recovering genotypes from cryopreserved sperm. The first androgenetic diploids were produced by the suppression of first cleavage of inactivated eggs in salmonids (Parsons and Thorgaard. 1988.005% colchicine solution (freshly prepared or stored for 4 . The protocol for chromosome preparation from embryonic tissues is as follows: • Embryonic tissues need to be collected from newly hatched or 1 dayold larvae of treatment groups. • For each group (ca 100) 15 .0. 42 . 4.Farming of Tilapia 4. The resulting embryo develops with entirely paternal chromosomal inheritance without any contribution from the maternal chromosomes. For the commercial production and application of genetically induced males need further research. 1990) and later in Nile tilapia (J.002 .4 PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY INDUCED ALL MALE POPULATION The induction of androgenesis is the alternative method of producing genetically induced all male population in tilapia and other selected fish species to replace hormonal sex reversal. which involves a genetically inactivated egg fertilised with normal sperm.6 hrs at 28oC).5 PROTOCOLS FOR CHROMOSOME KARYOPYTING Hussain and McAndrew (1994) developed an improved technique for chromosome karyrotyping from embryonic and soft tissues of tilapia. which is important as egg and embryo cryopreservation has not yet been succeeded.20 embryos are placed in a small Petri dish containing 8 . Thorgaard et al. the reverse to gynogenesis. The eggs can be inactivated successfully by gamma or x-rays including UV irradiation.M.10 ml of 0. Androgenesis is a genome manipulation technique. Myers personal communication). May et al.
acetic acid at 4oC. placed in the cavity of a Perspex slide with two to three drops 60% glacial acetic acid and minced for 1 min. later blotting out the excess fixative.75% saline solution under a dissecting microscope by removing their heads and yolk sacs and putting these in distilled water (hypotonic solution) for 8 .0) for 15 . The slides are rinsed in distilled water.12 seconds leaving a fine and clean ring of cells using a single micro-hematocrit dropper.Farming of Tilapia • • • • • • Tissues are obtained from the embryos in chilled 0.40 cm onto a clean glass slide on a warmed hot plate (44 .20 min.90 days. respectively.02% colchicine solution.01M phosphate buffer pH 7. the tissues are removed from the fixative and. air dried and mounted with DPX after 10 min. • The are placed overnight (10-12 hours) in a plastic container with aerated 0. Slides are air dried and stained with freshly prepared 10% Giemsa stain (prepared in 0. three to four drops of cell suspension are dropped from a height of 30 . • Slides are prepared according to the same technique described for chromosome karyotyping from embryonic tissues. • Tissues are collected with fine scissors and forceps then transferred immediately to distilled water for 10-20 min before being fixed in 4:1 methanol-acetic acid (two changes) and stored at 4 oC up to 30 days. The tissues are then immersed in a fixative of 4:1 methanol ..48oC) and withdrawn within 8 . After two changes the tissues are stored in the fixative for 30 .20 min. After 15 . The protocol for chromosome preparation from soft tissues is as follows: • Soft tissues like gill epithelia and the soft edges of the caudal fin are collected from 25-30 day old (after hatching) fry.12 min. The temperature of the solution is maintained 28±1 oC. of Xylene wash. with a glass rod to allow sufficient dissociation of epithelial cells. To prepare the slides. with a compound microscope. 43 . Metaphase spreads of chromosomes are to be checked and chromosome number noted by observing the slides under x400 and x1000 (oil immersion) magnifications.01-0.
niloticus consisting of 22 pairs with no morphologically distinct sex chromosomes. Fig. In fact only one pair large marker chromosomes are recognizable and remaining 21 being similar in size and acrocentric morphologically. c.Farming of Tilapia Counting the chromosomes of as many karyotypes as possible per slide carries out the karyological examination. triploid (3n = 66). which are composed of respectively one (n=22 including one large marker chromosome). 44 . d. The haploid. a. diploid and triploid metaphases. b. two (2n=44 including two large marker chromosomes) and three (3n=66 including three large marker chromosomes) sets of chromosomes are shown in Figure 16 a-c. 16 Metaphase chromosome of Oreochromis niloticus. The karyotypes of O. aneuploid metaphase (hyperhaploid or hypodiploid) (Hussain 1995). Aneuploid metaphase (hyperhaploid or hypodiploid) is composed of more than 22 and less than 44 chromosomes in this species (Figure 16 d). haploid (n = 22). diploid (2n = 44).
The Taiwanese red tilapia has been reported as a hybrid between albino O. the proportion of red phenotypic fry was increased from 30% in 1969 to 80% in 1974. The pink phenotype was homozygous dominant. 1988) and Liao and Chang (1983). studies have also been made particularly to determine the genetics of body colour inheritance in a limited number of commercial and experimental populations of fishes including tilapias. many geneticists working with various plants and animals have since conducted an immense number of experimental works.Farming of Tilapia 5 Body colour inheritance and development of purebred strains of red tilapia INHERITANCE OF BODY COLOUR IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE STRAINS 5. Initially the founder hybrid strain did not produce a high frequency of red fry. The red strain in the Philippines was introduced from Singapore in 1978 and the breeding characteristics of various crosses of different phenotypes 45 . white. Commercially available red tilapia strains are mostly hybrids and products of cross breeding involving as many as four different species in which O. mossambicus and O. mossambicus and O. but after several years of continued selection and hybridization trials using F1 progeny. 1988). These crosses were made between phenotypic individuals such as red. Meanwhile. niloticus are predominant (McAndrew et al. Later further genetic improvement of such red tilapia was made through cross breeding (Kuo and Tsay 1988). brown and wild type: colour segregations occurred in all crosses. niloticus by Kuo (1969. the red heterozygous and the wild type homozygous recessive.1 After the discovery of Mendel’s theory of heredity or inheritance.
O. strains of hybrid red tilapias. Tave et al (1989) demonstrated that black body coloured fish were homozygous dominant. which might be epistatic to the “R” gene and expressed only in its presence. extensive farming practice of this fish has not yet 46 . Israel. 1988). the authors stated that red-gold colouration was dominant and controlled by two or three gene pairs in this strain. pink. Guam. black spotted and albino) were subsequently investigated (Galman et al. the Philippines. 1982). hornorum and O. Among all red. 1988). In Israel. pink and albinos. the pink phenotype seemed to be homozygous dominant. Among U. niloticus. Greece. aureus. mossambicus (Sipe 1979) and the second strain a red-gold colour mutant hybrid between O. the red/gold body colour of O. the red body colour was inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in presence of wild type (McAndrew et al. gold fish were homozygous recessive and bronze fish were heterozygotes. the first one derived from cross breeding involving O. Jamaica and USA. Observing several generations.S. 5. Thailand. 1990).2 IMPORTANCE AND PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESENT STOCKS Red tilapia strains have become increasingly popular to fish farmers and entrepreneurs for their characteristic body colour. grey. Although the Thai red strain was introduced into Bangladesh in 1988. fast growth. Malaysia.Farming of Tilapia (ie. Hussain (1994) also observed similar pattern of colour inheritance both in Egyptian and Thai red strains. In an Egyptian strain of O. His results demonstrated that red body colour in these two mutant strains is controlled by a single autosomal dominant “R” gene. hornorum and red O. mossambicus has been determined and it was revealed that the mutant phenotype was inherited as a Mendelian recessive (Wohlfarth et al. Brazil. tasty flesh and high demand in the market. The frequency of blotchy pattern in these strains further indicated that blotched phenotype are heterozygotes (Rr). These strains are commercially cultured in many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world such as Taiwan. mossambicus (Behrends et al. Indonesia.
the red strain will also take a place in aquaculture soon due to its commercial importance and high demand in the international markets. It has been experimentally proved that the existing stocks of Thai red strain are a mixture of both homozygous “RR” that breed true. Thailand in 1987. An Official of Thai Government informed the meeting that red tilapia was found in a pond in northern Thailand. one major problem of these mutant strains is that the majority of them do not breed true. Prof. It will be difficult to maintain or improve the quality and development of pure breeding red populations of the present stocks until the mode of body colour inheritance is well understood by tilapia hatchery workers and researchers. mossambicus was introduced from Malaysia in 1949. niloticus. communication).J. 5. including Thai red strain.Farming of Tilapia flourished. McAndrew and Dr. In this case. Red mutant brooders can be made as true breeders when they will be fixed 47 .1 Genetic status of Thai red strain The origin of the Thai red strain is less certain and its origins were discussed for the first time in a workshop on “Tilapia Genetic Resources for Aquaculture” held in Bangkok. where O. and heterozygous “Rr” individuals that do not (Hussain 1994). mossambicus and O. Another problem associated with the appearance of varying proportions of blotched types (presence of black spots on the skin) of fish in each generation. progeny testing is a valuable method for maintaining the production of all pure red progenies of Thai and other mutant strains. which are not as valuable to the consumers as the pure red individuals. Electrophoretic analysis of Thai red tilapia samples showed that both O. P. It is expected that like the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia.2. Despite the commercial importance and development of several red tilapia strains in many regions of the world. this fish was assumed to be a hybrid between O. Sodsuk. mossmabicus and O. B. Thus. niloticus alleles were present (Pullin 1988. pers.
to allow the undesirable “r” allele to be selected out. Stripped eggs of each red female need to be fertilized with freshly collected milt of red males and incubated separately.1 Collection of red and wild brood stock Both red and wild type pure O. 5.3 MECHANISMS OF PROGENY TESTING TO DEVELOP PUREBRED STRAINS OF RED TILAPIA 5. stripping. stripping.1. in mini tanks or glass aquaria. niloticus stocks should be collected from a known source or from a tilapia reference collection maintained at the research institute(s). During all the phases of growing period of brood stocks.Farming of Tilapia as all homozygous at the “R” allele. . 5. The brood stocks of these strains need to be maintained separately initially in the earthen ponds and subsequently in a recirculated water system ie.2 Fish breeding. No females in these crosses are used more than once and males can be used several times with different females. 5. the fish should be fed with formulated or commercial feeds having at least 30% crude protein at recommended rates.3 Parental cross breeding (a) Red x Red parental cross • • • 48 A number of red females can be used to cross with red males.3.3.2. fertilization and incubation of eggs Fish breeding. egg fertilization and incubation protocols to be used for progeny production will be similar to section 4.3.
• 49 . 100% red progeny producing parental stocks (RR genotype) can be isolated to develop purebred red strains (Figure 17) for commercial breeding purpose. In these crosses it will be difficult to identity the true breeding parental stocks to develop purebred red strains for breeding purpose until the F1 progenies are used for sib crosses. Stripped eggs of each female (red or wild) need to be fertilized with freshly collected milt of corresponding males (red or wild) and incubated separately. . (b) Red x Wild type parental cross • • • • • • A number of red females or males can be used to cross with wild type males or females. It is expected that body colour segregation of progenies of all these crosses will be all red. No females in these crosses are used more than once and males can be used several times with different females.Farming of Tilapia • • • • F1 progenies produced in these crosses need to be reared for few weeks in the nursery hapas until the fry develop distinguishable body colour. It is expected that body colour segregation of F1 progenies of all these crosses will be either 100% red or 50% red plus 50% wild type. Thus it can be presumed that the parental red stocks will be either “RR” (where F1 progenies are 100% red) or “Rr” (where F1 progenies are expected 1 red:1 wild) genotypes or combination of both. Thus it can be presumed that the parental red stocks will be either “RR” or “Rr” genotypes or combination of both. From this test crosses. F1 progenies produced in these crosses need to be reared for few weeks in the nursery hapas until the fry develop distinguishable body colour.
of survivors) x 100 50 . 100% red progeny producing F1 stocks (RR genotype) can be isolated to develop purebred red strains for commercial breeding purpose. Thus it can be presumed that the parental red stocks will be either “RR” (where F2 progenies are 100% red) or “Rr” (where F2 progenies are expected 3 red:1 wild) genotypes or combination of both. the proportion of progeny phenotypes are calculated as: (No. • 5. To determine the observed ratio of colour segregation.5 Scoring of progeny phenotypes Progeny phenotypes in all the crosses can be categorized as “red” (including blotched type) and “wild” type (those normally pigmented and completely different from those of red phenotype) of the same strains. F2 progenies produced in these crosses need to be reared for few weeks in the nursery hapas until the fry develop distinguishable body colour.4 Sib cross breeding • • • • • • A number of F1 red females can be used to cross with F1 red males. No females in these crosses are used more than once and males can be used several times with different females. It is expected that body colour segregation of F2 progenies of all these crosses will be either all red or 75% red plus 25% wild type.3. From this test crosses.Farming of Tilapia 5. although both types together are designated as “red” (McAndrew et al.3. Only F1 or F2 progenies can be categorized into full red (approximately <10% body surface with melanophores) and blotched types (approximately >10% body surface with melanophores). of progeny of a given phenotype / Total no. 1988). Stripped eggs of each red female need to be fertilized with freshly collected milt of red males and incubated separately.
Farming of Tilapia
MAINTENANCE OF PUREBRED BROOD STOCK FOR SEED PRODUCTION IN THE HATCHERY
For purebred red brood stock development, fingerlings (20 – 30 g in weight) of “RR” genotypes could be produced or collected and stocked at the rate of 3-4 fish/m2 in the small and medium type brood stock rearing earthen ponds ranging from 1000 – 1500 m2 with the depth of 1.0 to 1.5 m. During all the phases of growing period of brood stocks, the fish should be fed with formulated or commercial feeds having at least 30% crude protein @ 3-10% body weight. During 1st and 2nd week of rearing the fish can be fed @ 10%, during 3rd and 4th week @ 5% and during 5th and 6th week onwards @ 3% body weight. Care should be taken not to contaminate with wild type or impure red blotched type Rr genotypes (Figure 18) in the rearing ponds. Brood stock replacement and stock improvement protocols and monosex production techniques for red strains will be the same as described respectively in Chapter 3 and Chapter 7.
Farming of Tilapia
Fig. 17 Purebred red tilapia strain.
Fig. 18 Impure blotched type tilapia of red phenotype.
Farming of Tilapia
Development and operation of mixed sex commercial tilapia seed production systems
MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN PONDS
Mixed sex seed production through controlled natural spawning in small and medium earthen ponds is a common practice for tilapia breeders. This system consists of three basic components as follows: i) ii) iii) Brood stock collection and maintenance. Fry production through natural spawning. Rearing of fry in nursery ponds.
6.1.1 Brood stock collection and maintenance
For seed production, the brood stock should be collected from the regional stations and sub-stations of BFRI or any other reliable known sources, who are maintaining outbred and improved stocks of O. niloticus. For brood stock development, fingerlings (20 – 30 g in weight) could be collected and stocked at the rate of 3-4 fish/m2 in the small and medium type brood stock rearing earthen ponds ranging from 1000 – 1500 m2 with the depth of 1.0 to 1.5 m. During all the phases of growing period of brood stocks, the fish should be fed with formulated or commercial feeds having at least 30% crude protein @ 3-10% body weight. During 1st and 2nd week of rearing the fish can be fed @ 10%, during 3rd and 4th week @ 5% and during 5th and 6th week onwards @ 3% body weight. If formulated feeds are not available
6. All the predatory fish and animals are to be completely eradicated by dewatering and drying of ponds before stocking of fish. (c) Feeding • Supplementary feeds with a mixture of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake or 75% rice barn or 25% fish meal can be given at 3-5% biomass 2 times a day. • • (b) Stocking of brood fish • Sexually matured breeders weighing 80 to 100 g each should be stocked @ 2-3 fish/m2 with a sex ratio of 1 male to 3 females.. Feeding of brood fish during low temperature and rainy days should be avoided to minimize the loss of resources. Seven days after liming. If this is not possible.0 meter need to be selected for the purpose of natural spawning. Ponds should be limed @ 250 – 300 kg CaO /ha.P (25 + 25 kg/ha). manuring and fertilization of each pond should be made respectively with cattle dung @ 800 – 1000 kg/ha and Urea plus T. then ponds need to be poisoned by using rotenone @ 10 – 12 kg/ha.Farming of Tilapia alternatively a mixture of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake can be given at 5 -10 % biomass 2 times a day.1.2 Fry production through natural spawning (a) Pond selection and preparation • • One or two ponds having an area of 400 – 800 m2 with inside slope about 1:3 and average water depth of 1.S. 54 .
advanced fry can be reared further by stocking @ 100 – 200 m2 in a series of well prepared nursery ponds for 40 – 60 days. At this stage. (b) Secondary stage • In view of producing better stockable size. Early fry can be fed with powdered feeds as a mixture of rice bran and mustard oilcake (1:1 ratio) at the rate of 12 – 15% initial body weight 3 –4 times per day. the first feeding fry can be stocked @ 500 – 600 per m2. when early fry are found schooling near the shore of spawning ponds. 6.. the available fry should be collected regularly in the early morning with a fine-mesh seine net and transferred to holding hapas (Figure 19) set in the ponds prior to stocking in the nursery ponds. Rearing of tilapia fry to stockable size can be made following the two stages technique as follows: (a) Primary stage • • • • In well prepared nursery ponds. The growing fry need to be reared for 21 days in these ponds to attain an average weight about 1 g each.Farming of Tilapia (d) Collection of early fry • Three to four weeks after stocking of brood stock. 55 . the available fry can be sold directly to the buyers or reared in another series of nurseries by reducing their stocking densities.1.3 Rearing of fry in nursery ponds The size and preparation of nursery ponds should be more or less the same as brood stock ponds described above.
which do not need much surface land area.2.0 – 10. 6. Shape of the tanks can be either circular. The fingerlings are expected to attain the average body weight about 8 – 10 g each.2 MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN CONCRETE TANKS Concrete tanks are often useful for tilapia seed production.0 m long.0 m wide with a depth of 0.Farming of Tilapia • • Fry can be fed formulated feeds (Table 6) and feeding rate can be reduced to 8 –10% biomass 2 – 4 times per day.1 Tilapia breeding in the tanks (c) Design of the tanks • • • • • Tilapia breeding tanks are generally simple and smaller in comparison to the fattening tanks normally used for intensive culture systems. square. Low cost breeding and fry rearing tanks might not have access to water flowing or recirculation system but can be facilitated for irregular water flashing for cleaning the tanks once a week (Figure 20).0 m. rectangular or oval Rectangular tanks are suitable and the size of individual tank may vary from 2.0 – 4. 4-6 m diameter circular tank is also most economic size and self cleaning for tilapia seed production. Tanks can be constructed at any places including the towns and cities.8 – 1. 56 . 6. 2.
Fig. 19 Tilapia fry holding hapas.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 20 Low cost tilapia breeding and fry rearing tanks. 57 .
reducing the feed may lessen water quality deterioration in the tanks.Farming of Tilapia (b) Stocking of brood fish • • Sexually matured breeders weighing 80 to 100 g each should be stocked in the breeding tanks @ 3-4 fish/m2 with a sex ratio of 1 male to 3 females. the density should be reduced to 500 – 600 per m2 and feeding rates will be 12-15% of biomass. Fry collected from the breeding tanks need to be graded. counted and stocked in a series of nursery tanks. 58 . (c) Feeding • • Supplementary feeds with a mixture of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake or 75% rice barn or 25% fish meal can be given at 3-5% biomass 2 times a day. 6. using a fine meshed dip net the first schooling fry should be collected. (d) Early fry collection • • • At the 12th to 15th day from stocking of the breeders. the stocking of fry will be 1000 – 1200 per m2 and feeding will be made with high protein powder feed (at least 35% crude protein) @ 15-20% of biomass 4-6 times per day. After a week. Breeders need to be replaced when they attain an average weight of 250 g or more.2. Every alternative week the fry collection needs to be repeated.2 Fry/fingerling rearing of in the nursery tanks • • For one week. they do not actively take artificial feeds. In this case. The females while mouth brooding.
3 Overall maintenance of tilapia breeding and nursery tanks • • • • Breeding tanks should be cleaned manually or by water flashing fortnightly.6 . Fry will be ready to sell when they will be >1 g each. Water depth of the nursery tanks can be kept 0.8 meter. water in the tanks should not be too green or foul in odor.3 MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN HAPAS A commercial mixed sex seed production system in fine meshed hapas (net cages) can be operated easily for large-scale production of tilapia seed for aquaculture where monosex tilapia culture is not preferred. The marginal or small-scale farmers with one or two earthen ponds having an area of 1500 – 2000 m2 each can follow a simple and efficient method.2. 6. the density will be 300-400 per m2 and feeding rates will be 10-12% of biomass. 59 . For healthy growth of fry/fingerings.Farming of Tilapia • • • • After second week. Partial water change in nursery tanks can be done depending on the water quality.0. The fry/fingerlings can be harvested in the tanks by netting or draining the water. 6. Advanced fry can be reared further by stocking 100 – 150 2 individuals/m by feeding formulated feeds (Table 6) for 40 – 60 days.
2 Fry/fingerling rearing of in the nursery hapas • • • • • 60 Prior to capture and transfer of fry from breeding hapas another series of nursery hapas having the size of 8 m x 2. At least 0. (b) Stocking of brood fish • • • Sexually matured breeders weighing 80 to 100 g each should be stocked @ 2-3 fish/m2 with a sex ratio of 1 male to 3 females.25 m of top side of the hapas should above the waterline. the stocking of fry will be 1000 – 1500 per m2 and feeding will be made with high protein powder feed (at least 35% crude protein) @ 15-20% of biomass 4-6 times per day. During the second week.3.5m x 0.5 m can be set in the pond(s) by fixing them to bamboo poles by nylon thread.Farming of Tilapia 6. Breeders weighing more than 250 g should always be replaced with new batches.3. schooling of tiny fry will be visible in each hapa. During the first week. .8 m need to be set in the same pond(s) or other pond(s). The breeders need to be fed with supplementary feed consisting of 60% rice bran and 40% mustard oil cake or 75% rice barn or 25% fish meal.1 Tilapia breeding in the hapas (a) Setting of breeding hapas • A series of breeding hapas having the size of 2 m x 1 m to 12 m x 3 m with depths of 1. their density should be reduced to 500 – 700 per m2 and feeding rates will be 12-15% of biomass. The hapas can be covered with fine meshed nets or kept uncovered. 6. About 10 – 15 days after stocking of breeders. The feeds can be given at 3-5% biomass 2 times a day. Fry can be collected by using dip or push net or by lifting the hapas and transferred to nursery hapas.
3 times per day.00 Mustard oilcake 20.8 m) by feeding formulated feeds (Table 6) for 40 – 60 days.80 7.5m x 0.50 30.20 4. Seven days after liming. Water depth in the rice plot should be at least 20 – 25 cm during fry rearing period. Formulated feed for feeding tilapia fry in rearing hapas and nursery ponds (Hoq et al.P (25 + 25 kg/ha).2 million/ha for 30 – 40 days. FCR: 2. 61 . manuring and fertilization of rice plot should be made respectively with cattle dung @ 800 – 1000 kg/ha and Urea plus T.00 6. • • • • • Land can be prepared by using lime CaO @ 250 – 300 kg /ha.00 Wheat bran 10. Proportion (%) Fish meal 28. Fry can be fed rice polish and feeding rate should be 5 –8% per estimated body weight of biomass for 2 . advanced fry can be 2 reared further by stocking 100 – 200 individuals/m in nylon hapas (8 m x 2. In view of producing better stockable size. Fry will be ready to sell when they will be >1 g each. the density will be 300-400 per m2 and feeding rates will be 10-12% of biomass.00 Total 100 Cost per kg feed: US$ 0.4 MIXED SEX TILAPIA SEED PRODUCTION IN RICE FIELDS Rice fields are the ideal place for rearing tilapia fry either at the time of rice cultivation or after rice harvesting. Table 6. 2003) .00 Rice polish 37.Farming of Tilapia • • • During third week.25 (Taka 15).S.00 Molasses 5.50 1. Immediately after sowing rice seedlings.1 – 0.0 Feed ingredients Crude protein (%) 16. mixed sex tilapia fry weighing 1 – 2 g can be stocked @ 0.
Enough care should be taken to protect any incidental escaping of fry/fingerlings from the rice fields to the surrounding canals/water bodies. 62 .Farming of Tilapia • • The fingerlings are expected to attain the average body weight about 8 – 10 g each at end of rearing period.
Guerrero and Guerrero 1988) and in case of salmonids and cyprinids. Guerrero 1979. In this technique. in tilapia males grow faster than females.2 ALL MALE MONOSEX SEED PRODUCTION THROUGH INVERSION OF SEXES IN TILAPIA Despite the popularity of tilapia species in worldwide aquaculture. where females grow faster than males. treatment with female hormones or oestrogens (17βoestradiol) produces individuals with ovaries and female characteristics in fish. The use of monosex populations also eliminates reproduction during grow out in the case of tilapias. the first feeding fry are treated with male hormones or androgens (ie. Bye and Lincoln 1986) have become a popular practice. The choice of conversion of sexes (either all males or all females) depends on growth performance characteristics of individual sexes of fish species.Farming of Tilapia 7 Development and operation of monosex commercial tilapia seed production systems SEX REVERSAL TECHNIQUE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF MONOSEX FISH FRY 7. which develops testes and male sexual characteristics at maturity and on the other hand. For instance. masculinization using androgen hormones (Shelton et al. 1978. feminization using oestrogen hormones (Shelton 1987. 17α-methyl testosterone). the main drawback of all the existing commercial strains is their precocious 63 . 7.1 Sex reversal is a technique of changing of sexes from one sex to another in fish by administering synthetic steroid hormones before and/or during the period of sexual differentiation.
In order to overcome this serious problem. many of these crosses did not produce the predicted 100% male offspring. However. niloticus x O. In many countries. mossambicus x O. After that many others also came forward to initiate similar interspecific hybridization between more supposedly homogametic species involving crosses of O. aureus (Pruginin et al. Hulata et al. where the acceptable market is 150 g or more and tilapias are normally grown in mixed sex culture this has become a critical problem (Guerrero 1982). genetic impurity of existing tilapia strains and careless maintenance of brood stocks in poor farming conditions made more problematic the method of hybridization for mass seed production of all male tilapia population. Majumdar and McAndrew 1983). interspecific hybridization and masculinization using hormones and genetic manipulation techniques. The main goal of all these methods was to produce monosex populations of tilapias by manual separation of sexes. On the other hand. niloticus (Kuo 1969. As interspecific hybridization and genetically induced all male seed production in tilapia have proved difficult in practice. since 1960 several methods have been proposed and developed to reduce and eliminate uncontrolled reproduction in grow-out systems. hornorum. direct masculinization of tilapias using hormones is the most common method 64 . mossambicus and male O.Farming of Tilapia maturation in tropical and sub-tropical climatic conditions. Interspecific hybridization of tilapias to produce all male hybrids was demonstrated first by Hickling (1960). O. 1975. wasteful and sometimes unreliable at the small fish (<10 g). resulting in undesirable stunting and low yields of harvestable size fish. This leads to prolific breeding and over-crowding in grow-out systems. 1983). laborious. Hand or manual sexing of tilapia by examining urogenital papilla is a simple technique but it is time consuming. using female O. The results of Majumdar and McAndrew (1983) indicate that the mechanism responsible for sex determination in hybrids is indeed variable and complicated and that a number of different alleles of different strength are operating in the tilapias as a whole.
Advantages of all male seed production through sex-reversal • • • • • • Technique is simple and economic. The results of these authors suggest that functional sex-reversal using hormones can lead to the production of all male monosex population in tilapia for aquaculture. male steroids is administered to first feeding tilapia fry so that the undifferentiated gonadal tissue of genetic females develops into testicular tissue. niloticus (Velasco 2003b). 1978. 1990. But there is no evidence for any human health hazard (Green and Teichert-Coddington 2000). Monosexing has been the key that has facilitated the development of tilapia culture in the global food fish arena (Shelton 2002). Overall input costs are not very high. Green and TeichertCoddington 2000). 65 . Ensures high production and high net profit. Generally the primal gonadal tissue starts to differentiate into ovarian tissue with 3–4 weeks after hatching in O. Reliability of 98 – 100% male seed production. It does not need sophisticated laboratory and equipment. Guerrero 1979. Recent studies have demonstrated that exogenous steroids are rapidly cleared from tissue after the end of treatment: no residual can be detected within one month of the termination of monosexing treatment (Rothbard et al. A technician or an experienced farmer can run monosex seed production hatchery and nursery systems. Philippines and Thailand are the two leading countries where commercial mass seed production of all male Nile tilapia using androgen hormones is a popular practice. producing individuals that grow and function reproductively as males. Guerrero and Guerrero 1988). In Asia. In this process. sex-reversed male tilapia using hormones) might be harmful for human health.Farming of Tilapia for monosex male production (Shelton et al. Some concern has been raised that consumption of steroid-treated tilapia (ie.
Enough water supply source either from underground or other surface water source like rivers. Market access of products. hatching and larvae nursing are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • Hatchery shed should be made by iron angles covered with CI sheets. (a) Design and construction of a hatchery complex Major components and requirements of a tilapia hatchery to facilitate egg incubation.Farming of Tilapia 7.1 Hatchery design and operation of monosex seed production systems Before initiating the construction of commercial monosex tilapia seed production systems. Cemented hatchery floor. Feed preparation and store room. the following factors need to be considered for site selection: • • • • • • Site should be flood free and nearby tilapia grow out farms. Road access for all weather for supply of products and services. Overhead water tank of 10. Egg incubating jars and trays with stands.000 liter capacity. 66 . Stable electricity. Recommended soil type for necessary pond construction.000 – 20. Water supply lines (internal and external). Recirculating water system. Water pump (submersible pump). canals or reservoirs. Aeration systems. Nursery ponds for hormone treatment.2. Transitory nursing tanks.
iii. v. Nursing trays to hold and nurse the newly hatched larvae. CI sheet roofing. (d) Setting of incubation jars and trays The incubation jars and trays with the following capacities and numbers need to be set with plastic containers and holding stands properly inside the hatchery (Figure 22): 67 . (c) Hatchery shed and cemented floor construction For constructing a medium size tilapia hatchery. Beams and column. Filter chamber where used waters from incubation jars and trays are drained and filtered. MS angle truss. Oyster shells chamber has the similar function to further purify water passing from other chambers (filter and bioball). the following components are essential: • • • • • Hatchery shed structure: 86. Incubation jars to hold and hatch the fertilized eggs. Bioball chamber through which incoming water is passed from filter for purification. ii.Farming of Tilapia (b) Model of tilapia egg incubation system Tilapia egg incubation and hatching system model is shown in Figure 21 and essential components are listed below: i. Cemented floor: 77 m2 (11 m x 7 m). Header tank to hold enough fresh water to supply the required quantity to incubation jars and trays. vii.25 m2 (11.5 m x 7 m). Storage tank to hold purified water and back to the head tank through the submersible water pump. vi. iv.
Fig. 68 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. 22 Typical modern monosex tilapia seed production hatchery system in Thailand. Nuanmane Pongthana). 21 Tilapia egg incubation and hatching system model (Courtesy: Dr.
5 – 2 m. It is necessary to stretch the hapas as much as possible to prevent the folding by winds and perform the well setting.4 ha each can be constructed following a well-planned engineering design with the depth of 1. Hapas need to be set 0. The top edge of the hapas should be 50 – 60 cm above the water surface. Hapas can be set by using bamboo/wooden or steel bar poles by tying the top and bottom corners into the poles staked into the pond bottom. Number of trays. (f) Making and setting of breeding hapas Polyetheline or fine meshed nylon netting materials need to be procured from local market and rectangular size (40 m x 3 m with depths of 1. About 8 – 10 hapas are installed in each pond (Figure 23) in the following ways: • • • • Hapas should be checked carefully before installation whether any hole is reaming or not.5 m. 30 x 120 x 20 cm: 30.5 m) hapas are to be made by a tailor. Ponds should be rectangular size with two bypasses for water supply and evacuation. 69 . (e) Construction of breeding ponds At least 3 breeding ponds having an area of o. 28 x 43 x 10 cm each: 60 (50% for jars plus 50% to use as nursing trays). Steel/iron/wooden stands: 15 (50% for jars plus 50% for nursing trays).5 – 1m apart to allow water circulation.Farming of Tilapia • • • • Number of 2 liter capacity jars: 30. The average water depth of each pond should be around 1. Number of plastic container for holding the trays.
which will minimize the biting occurrence leading to skin lesions that can cause stress and even mortality of females. Super Strain of GIFT) weighing 100 – 150 g each either collected from known sources or already reared in separate ponds in the hatchery (section 4.Farming of Tilapia (g) Selection and stocking of brood stock in the breeding hapas Stocking density of breeders varies with the size of hapas. (Figure 24). it is necessary to check the mouth of all the stocked females in each hapa twice or at least once a week to collect the eggs as described below: • The breeders are checked by gathering them at a place in the hapa using a 4 m long bamboo pole transversely run at the level of water surface from anterior end to other end to concentrate the brood fish at the posterior end of hapa.5 years old and >300 g in weight should be replaced by the new batches. True breeding and improved strain(s) of Nile tilapia (eg. 2003b).1. Formulated or commercial feeds having 30% crude protein can be fed @ 3-4% per estimated weight of biomass 2 times daily. So. For lifting the hapa and collection of fertilized eggs/near to hatch larvae or yolk sac fry at least 2-3 persons are needed.e. 1 male to 3 females). (h) Collection of fertilized eggs from the fish mouth Each sexually mature female normally liberates ovulated eggs on average at 2-3 week intervals under tropical pond conditions and subsequently the male partner in the breeding hapa fertilizes the eggs. The female fish holds the fertilized eggs in her mouth for natural incubation. Sex ratio should be maintained 1:3 (i. For grading the different age groups of fertilized eggs or near to hatch larvae or yolk sac fry that are collected from mouth of the • • • 70 . clipping the premaxilla of the male needs to be done (Velasco. If the size of male is not comparable to female. Each brood fish is taken by using scoop net and checked carefully to see if her mouth is holding fertilized eggs or yolk sac fry.1) can be stocked. Recommended densities ranges from 4 – 6 fish/m2. Breeders >1-1. Breeders should be almost the same size at stocking.
20. pale yellow.000 x 3 batches).000. are incubated in a series of round bottom plastic jars and flat trays connected to the recirculating system (Figure 26). Estimated number of hatched fry per tray: 24.20. Each batch of fertilized eggs needs on an average about 10 –12 days to complete the cycle of development (both embryonic and larval stages). deep yellow and reddish tiny fry with yolk sac) and can be kept in separate plastic bowls placed in a steel.000. Whitish. (i) Incubation of collected eggs and larvae in the jars/trays Fertilized eggs/hatched fry with yolk sac. Estimated total first feeding fry production per month: Approx.000 x 30 trays). that have been collected from the mouth of female breeders. At least 3 batches of first feeding fry per month can be produced at water temperatures between 27 . iron or bamboo frame (Figure 25). the larvae are deposited at the basement of the attached tray and they are transferred to the series of separate trays (Figure 27) and kept until their yolk sac resorption stage is over i. Estimated total first feeding fry per batch: 7. Immediately after hatching. Fertilized eggs/hatched larvae can be stocked for incubation in each jar/tray by keeping the numbers given below: • • • • • Estimated number of eggs in each jar: 25.e.2 million (7. Hatching period: 65 – 72 hours.000 (24.Farming of Tilapia • • females are separated by their different colors (4 colors are normally identified viz. first feeding fry stage. 2. After that the eggs/larvae/yolk sac fry are shifted to the hatchery for incubation. where fresh water (28±1 oC) come directly from header tank by gravity. Collected products can be disinfected with 5-7 ppt solution of saline water for 8-10 minutes at ambient temperature. 71 .30 oC.
From prepared stock solution. 1 kg of finely sieved feeds (formulated feed as mentioned in Table 6) is placed in a clean dry mixing bowl. The treated feed is left to dry.Farming of Tilapia (j) Preparation. Hormone mixed dry feeds are stored at room temperature or fridge at 4oC for maximum 7 days Preparation of hormone mixed feeds using stock solution Alternatively a stock solution can be prepared for 100 kg feeds and stored in refrigerator for few weeks for subsequent use (Velasco. 10 ml is further diluted to 100 ml of ethanol and shaken well. The treated feed is left to dry. 2003b): • • • • • • 5 g of 17-α Methyl testosterone (MT) is dissolved in 1 liter Ethyl Alcohol (95%). storage and application of androgen hormone mixed feeds The protocol for preparation and application of hormone mixed feeds for sex reversal of Nile tilapia fry is shown as flow diagram in Figure 28 and briefly explained below: Direct feed preparation of hormone mixed feeds • • • • Hormone dose: 50 mg of 17-α Methyl testosterone (MT) is dissolved in 100 ml Ethyl Alcohol (95%). 72 . MT solution is mixed with 1 kg powdered feed (mixture of 50% normal feed plus 50% fish meal) for 10 to 15 minutes. Excess hormone mixed feeds can be stored at 4oC for a week. The solution is gradually poured into the feeds and mixed for 10 to 15 minutes.
73 . 23 Tilapia breeding hapas in pond. 24 Gathering tilapia breeders at regular intervals for egg collection purpose in the breeding hapa. Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig.
26 A series of round bottom plastic jars and flat trays for incubating the fertilized eggs/hatched fry with yolk sac. 25 Plastic vowels placed in a bamboo frame for separating the collected fertilized eggs having different colours (based on different age groups). Fig. 74 .Farming of Tilapia Fig.
Fig. Nuanmane Pongthana). 75 . 28 The protocol for preparation and application of hormone mixed feeds for sex reversal of Nile tilapia fry (Courtesy: Dr. 27 Separate flat trays where hatched larvae are kept until their yolk sac resorption stage is over.Farming of Tilapia Fig.
6 m. Water level in the tank: 60 cm.4 ha can be constructed following a well-planned engineering design for setting the nursery hapas. Number of tanks: 4.75 m.000.50. Feeding of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in transitory tanks The system for feeding of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in transitory tanks (Figure 30) is briefly explained below: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Size of tank: 17 m x 3 m x 0. The depth of pond should be 1. Water quality of the tanks need to be maintained by regular exchange of fresh cool water (temperature 24 – 27oC). Hapa size: 8 m x 2. Feeding intensity: 4-6 times daily. At the end of transitory period fry are shifted to nursery feeding hapas by estimating their numbers (Figure 31). Ponds should be rectangular size with two bypasses for water supply and evacuation. Duration of feeding: 3 days. Number of fry in each hapa: 1. Number of required hapas in each tank: 2. Feeding rate: At satiation level. Hapas can be installed in the pond and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles like 76 . Covered with fine meshed netting materials. For the safety of the workers involved in hormone feed preparation should use hand gloves and face mask.2 m.5 .5 m x 0.Farming of Tilapia For commercial operation automatic feed mixing machine can be used (Figure 29). Feeding of hormone mixed feeds to the early fry in nursery hapas At least one pond having an area of 0. Feeding hormone treated feed is initiated in these hapas.
Nursery feeding rate: 8 .2 weeks.5 m x 0. 2. 77 . The well designed fry feeding system for the production of all male monosex fry is summarized below: • • • • • • • • • Hapa size: 8 x 2.98% will be sex reversed male.75 m Number of required hapas: 25 hapas Stocking density of fry in each hapa: 100.10 % per estimated body weight.Farming of Tilapia breeding hapas or well designed hapa holding frame can be made over the pond using RCC construction as shown in Figure 32a and 32b. The protocol for feeding of hormone mixed feeds is shown in a flow diagram (Figure 33) and technique of application of feeds to the early fry in the nursery hapas is shown in Figure 34.5 m x 0. 2 million per month Water quality of the nursery hapa holding ponds need to be maintained by regular exchange of fresh cool water (temperature 24 – 27oC) Monosex fry storage and rearing for sale It is expected that after 21-24 days of feeding hormone mixed feeds to the fry 95 . 000 Total number of stocked fry : Apprx. Storing: Monosex fry of 21 – 24 days old.8 m. Rearing period: 1.5 million Feeding rate: 15-30% per estimated body weight Feeding intensity: 4-6 times daily Duration of feeding hormone mixed feeds: 18 -21 days Monosex all male fry production: Apprx. 3 Stocking density: 400 – 600 individuals/m . At this stage the fry will be reared by feeding normal feeds (Table 6) until selling in separate nursery hapas in an earthen pond and their maintenance will be as below: • • • • • Hapa size: 8 m x 2.
in that case the indirect method of producing monosex all males (ie. 100 ml. The collected gonad is placed in a glass slide and a drop of acetocarmine stain is added on the gonad. But in case of early fry smaller than 2 g. The tiny thread-like gonad that lies along the anterodorsal abdominal cavity is removed using fine forceps. 0. sex can easily be identified manually by examining their urogenital papilla. The gonad is lightly squashed with a cover slip. Then the gonads are examined under the microscope.5 g. A protocol for sex identification in tilapia fry is shown in a flow diagram (Figure 35). cool and filter. The technique of aceto-carmine stain preparation is as follows: • • • Carmine (granular stain): 45% Acetic acid: Boil for 2 – 4 minutes. where the manual sexing is not useful. an aceto-carmine squash technique is used as described by Guerrero and Shelton (1974). 78 . 7. • • • • A sub-sample of fry are killed and dissected using a sharp pointed surgical scissor. the male gonad is composed of fine granular like structure of spermatogonia and the female is characterized with the structure of circular oogonia. YY males) by combining both sex-reversal and/or genetic manipulation of the sex determining system will once be the alternative choice of the commercial seed producers.2.Farming of Tilapia (k) Sex identification technique in tilapia fry In tilapia fry/fingerlings larger than 20 –30 g.2 Production of YY males and operation of monosex all male seed production system Direct hormonal masculinization might not appear to be a viable technique in tilapia and might have adverse environmental impacts or consumer reaction in near future.
79 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. 29 Automatic hormone feed mixing machine. 30 The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the first feeding fry in the transitory hapas. Fig.
80 . Fig. 31 Manual counting of tilapia fry. 32a Hapas can be installed in the pond and fixed and tied to nylon ropes and bamboo poles for feeding hormone mixed feeds.Farming of Tilapia Fig.
Nuanmane Pongthana). 33 The protocol for feeding of hormone mixed feeds (Courtesy: Dr. Fig.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 81 . 32b Hapas can be installed and fixed with RCC frame made over the pond for feeding hormone mixed feeds.
34 The technique of application of hormone mixed feeds to the early fry in the nursery hapas. Nuanmane Pongthana). 35 The protocol for sex identification in tilapia fry (Courtesy: Dr. 82 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. Fig.
storage and application of estrogen hormone mixed feeds are more or less the same as the protocol of androgen hormone. egg collection. storage and application of estrogen hormone mixed feeds The protocols for preparation. Hormone solution is mixed with 1 kg powdered feed (mixture of 50% normal feed plus 50% fish meal). incubation and hatching of fertilized eggs are same as described in the section 5. The essential steps of the protocol are as follows: Production of F1 generation The first feeding fry are fed with estrogen hormone mixed feeds at the rate of 15-30% body weight 4 – 6 times daily for at least 21 days in a series of nursery hapas.2. (c) Protocols for production of all male monosex population using YY males It needs to go up to at least three generations to produce all male monosex population through this indirect method of sex reversal (Figure 36). It is expected that the sex reversed progeny will be about 83 . Feed preparation technique is summarized below: • • • Hormone dose: 50-100 mg of 17β-oestrodiol is dissolve in 95% Ethyl Alcohol. (b) Preparation. In this case 17β-oestrodiol hormone is used.Farming of Tilapia (a) Breeding and fry production for hormone treatment The protocols for breeding. Hormone mixed dry feeds are stored at room temperature or fridge at 4oC for maximum 7 days.1 of this chapter.
The genotype ration of the produced generation are expected to be 1XX females: 2 XY males: 1 YY males (75% males and 25% females). Among males. The XY genotypic females can be termed as neofemales and need to be identified by progeny testing. In this case. progeny testing and identifying carefully the YY genotypic males and preserved them separately in the system.Farming of Tilapia 100% female having XX and XY genotypes. Fry will be ready to sell when they will be >1-2 g each. YY genotypic males need to be identified by further progeny testing at their maturity. Production of F2 generation Sexually matured neofemales (XY genotype) can be crossed with normal female (XX genotype) to produce F2 generation of progeny. 84 . precautions must be taken for breeding. Commercial production system of all male monosex population using YY males can be established and operated same as monosex seed production using androgen hormones. Production of F3 generation YY genotypic males can be crossed with normal females (XX genotype) to produce F3 generation of all males (XY genotypes). True breeding tilapia strains and highly experienced technician(s) are prerequisite for running such system for commercial seed production. All male monosex fry rearing and sale About 100% monosex male fry produced by using YY males can be reared in the nursery hapas with normal feeding as per recommended rates for 25 – 30 days.
85 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. 36 The protocol of producing all male monosex population through the indirect method of sex reversal.
Liming of pond bottom with 250 – 300 kg CaO or CaCo3 per ha. dead river lagoons. Selected ponds should be dried.1. hilly creeks.8 – 1.1 Because of the seasonal river flow and monsoon rains. where average water depth remains 80 – 100 cm. flooded paddy fields etc. 8.04 – 0. 34% of the country is considered to be wetlands that remain under water for at least 6 months of the year. backyard impoundments and ponds.1 Pond selection and preparation • • • • • • • 86 Seasonal pond is preferred having an area 0. are highly suitable for mixed or monosex farming of improved strain (s) of tilapia.Farming of Tilapia 8 Development and operation of semi-intensive tilapia culture systems TILAPIA CULTURE IN SEASONAL DITCHES AND PONDS 8. that all have potential for producing increased yields of fish through managed aquaculture practices. 10 – 20 decimal) with average depth of 0. shallow marshy wetlands.08 ha (ie. borrow pits. Pond fertilization with urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) @ 50 kg in 1:1 ratio can be used before stocking of tilapia fingerlings. Ponds need to be filled with fresh water and water level can be remained at optimum.25 m. The seasonal closed water areas particularly in the form of small natural depressions. . road side ditches. seasonal water fieldditches. Cattle dung or poultry manure can be applied on the bottom @ 2000 – 3000 kg per ha. Dykes should be repaired and free of unwanted vegetation. The country has millions of small ponds.
8.2 Stocking of fry and pond management • • • • • Mixed or monosex tilapia fry of 10 – 15 g weight can be stocked in the prepared ditches or ponds @ 15000 . In well-managed ponds fish can be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7. yields of 2500 – 3000 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop. which can be used for tilapia fry rearing and culture.20000 per ha.2 TILAPIA CULTURE IN RICE FIELDS Rice fields either irrigated or rain fed is the suitable plot.3 Fish harvesting and estimation of production • • After 4 – 6 months of grow out when the fish have the average weight of 150 -200 g. undesirable populations of tiny fry will be seen within 3 months of stocking. Every month sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. To enhance the status of natural food in pond water. harvesting of fish can be made by repeated netting or drying out the ponds. If the ponds are stocked with mixed sex tilapia. Due to application of adequate 87 . • 8.Farming of Tilapia 8.1. Stocked fish need to be fed with rice polish @ 3 – 5% per estimated weight of biomass.1. In that case as many as possible of the fry must be removed by repeated netting (using fine mesh seine net) at 15 days intervals to avoid the problem of overpopulation. Under semi-intensive culture system. regular fertilization can be made at 15 days intervals with cattle dung or poultry manure @ 800 – 1000 kg per hectare.
15 g each can be stocked per hectare. Improved strain of Nile tilapia (eg.1 Selection of land • • • • Land should not be flood prone.Farming of Tilapia quantity of fertilizers and manures in the rice fields. A small ditch (1 m deep) needs to be constructed at the lower part of the land. Land should have irrigation facility. Manures and fertilizers can be used as per recommended doses of rice plot preparation. 8. the plot will be ready to stock tilapia fry. Soil texture should be clay-loamy. High land should always be avoided. The ditch size should be 3 – 4% of the rice plots. .2. 8. Water depth in the rice plot should be at least 20 – 25 cm during culture period. About 4000 – 5000 tilapia fry (either mixed or monosex) having a weight of 10 . So. the available aquatic condition become rich enough in natural food to support fish growth.3 Stocking of fish • • • 88 15 days after transplantation of rice seedlings. when water depth of the plot remains around 20 cm. in most cases supplementary feeding to growing fry and fish is not a prerequisite.2. Super strain of GIFT) should be considered for stocking in the rice fields for better production.2.2 Preparation of land • • • • • Dyke around the land should be constructed at the height of 25 – 30 cm. 8.
5 Fish harvesting and estimation of production • Fish can only be harvested after sawing the rice from the plots. Bamboo screens can be used at some places of the dykes to reduce the excess water level during heavy rainy season. During culture period rice plots can be fertilized with chemical fertilizers at recommended doses. Care should be taken to protect the incoming source of pesticide mixed water from nearby plots.2.2. It is recorded that about 300 – 350 kg of tilapia can be produced along with rice per ha of land per crop (Hussain and Koohinoor 2003). all the fish can be captured and yield can be estimated. 89 . Special care should be taken that growing tilapia or naturally produced fry (in case of mixed sex stocking) cannot escape from the rice plots to nearby water bodies. water hyacinth can be spread over the ditches to protect the growing fish. Dykes should be protected from rat and crab nesting. Use of pesticides is prohibited in the rice plots during fish culture. Normally feeding of fish is not required in the rice plots. Either netting or complete dewatering the rice plots.Farming of Tilapia 8. If necessary irrigation should be made at regular basis. but farmer can apply rice polish @ 2 – 3% per estimated weight of fish 5 days a week in the ditch area.4 Overall management • • • • • • • • • • Optimum level of water in the rice plots should always be kept during culture period. During extreme hot weather. 8.
3. pond selection and preparation procedures will also be same as section 8. To enhance the status of natural food in pond water. 2000). The fish can be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7.3.3 POLYCULTURE OF TILAPIA WITH CARPS In a Southeast Asian country like Bangladesh. silver barb 20%.1 Pond selection and preparation In this case. involving low inputs in terms of labour and costs and ensuring high production within a short period (4-6 months) of time (Hussain et al. silver barb 60%. • • • 90 . common/mirror carp and silver carp can be stocked in the prepared ponds. regular fertilization can be made at 15 days intervals with cattle dung or poultry manure @ 800 – 1000 kg per hectare. The species combination should be genetically improved tilapia strain 60%. common/mirror carp 10% and silver carp 10% or improved tilapia strain 20%.1.1.2 Stocking of fish and pond management • • Mixed or monosex tilapia fry/fingerlings along with short cycle carp species viz. common/mirror carp 10% and silver carp 10%. The average weight of fry/fingerlings should be 10 – 15 g each and stocking density should be maintained 20000 fish per ha. polyculture of carp species in homestead perennial ponds is a traditional practice but the available small or medium seasonal water bodies also hold tremendous potential for culturing improved tilapia strain(s) along with various desirable carp species. To initiate polyculture of tilapia with carp species in seasonal ponds and such type of water bodies the steps as mentioned below can be followed: 8. 2000). 8.Farming of Tilapia 8. Such kind of fish farming operation cannot only increase intake of animal protein for rural people but can also generate income and employment opportunities (Hussain et al. silver barb.
canals. a yield of 3000 – 3500 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop. Selected water bodies can be encircled or screened either by bamboo fencing or net made by knotless polyethylene net materials with a mesh between 10 – 15 mm. Under semi-intensive culture system. undesirable populations of tiny fry will be marked within 3 months of stocking.Farming of Tilapia • • If the ponds are stocked with mixed sex tilapia. 8. common/mirror carp and silver carp attain the average weight of 500 – 600 g. Tilapia can be cultured in these types of suitable pens comparatively keeping moderate or high density with or without feeding.1 Site selection and setting the pens • • Large or small open water bodies which are not being used for fish culture can be selected. Every month sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.4.3 Fish harvesting and estimation of production • Within 4 – 6 months of farming when the tilapia and silver barb will attain the average weight of 200 g.3.4 TILAPIA CULTURE IN PENS When a part of open water bodies like dead river basins. in that case as many as possible of the fry must be removed by repeated netting (using fine mesh seine net) at 15 days intervals to avoid the problem of over population. harvesting of fish can be made by repeated netting or drying out the ponds. • 8. hilly creeks etc. is encircled or blocked by using bamboo screens or nylon nets. 8. it can be termed as a pen. 91 . small streams.
Fingerlings should be collected from a known source or a hatchery where pure breeds of Nile tilapia or its improved strain(s) are maintained.Farming of Tilapia • The pen fencing should be fixed with strong bamboo or wooden poles having the enough height above the level of water to withstand wind pressure and water current. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. 92 .2 Stocking of fish • • • All monosex tilapia fingerlings (10 – 15 g size) need to be stocked to avoid the risk of contamination and undesirable reproduction in the water bodies.3 Feeding • • • Fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight.4. 8. If the stocking density remains >30 fish/ m3 and the water bodies seem to be productive.4 Harvesting and estimation of production • • Fish can be harvested when they attain the weight about 150 – 250 g. Every 30 days sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.4. It is roughly estimated that under a good management averagely 5-8 kg/ m3 can be harvested. Water depth of the pens should be 1 – 3 m. if any. Stocking density can be maintained @ 30 – 50 fish/m3. 8. 8. in that fish might not need artificial feeding. which might take 4-5 months.4.
which might require an inflow of water at least 3 liters per second/ha (Huet 1979). A neutral pH (6.5 TILAPIA CULTURE IN PONDS UNDER COMMERCIAL FARMING MANAGEMENT 8.5) of soil is desirable and acid sulphate soil needs to be avoided. Water: Any aquaculture operation generally needs a good quantity and good quality of water.1 Construction of Commercial Tilapia Farms (a) Site Selection For site selection of tilapia farms. • • • 93 . soils containing gravel or sand layers or rock strata formations should be avoided. reservoirs and shallow or deep tube wells (ie. Topography: Pond construction lay out should be made on the basis of favorable topographical conditions. the important factors to be considered are as below: • Soils: Soils with more than 20% clay are essential to reduce the loss of water by seepage.5 cm (about 1 inch) per day. irrigation canals. heavy metals and organic matter. herbicides. Any sort of water that will be used for fish farms must not be contaminated with toxic chemicals such pesticides.5 – 7. Water source might be from rivers.5.Farming of Tilapia 8. A slightly depression type of land is ideal where simple dykes can be constructed easily and economically to hold adequate water depth. Water loss in a pond through evaporation is a common fact in both tropical and sub-tropical climates. underground). It is roughly estimated that evaporation of water can reach on an average 2.
For small pond it can be reduced to 1:1. which include: • Pond depth: Depth of a pond should be kept on the basis of type of fishes as well as pattern of culture systems. mechanical excavators etc. Rearing pond for advanced fry/fingerlings: c. bulldozers. ponds can be made both with outlet and inlet by pass facilities for supply and evacuation of water. completely new ponds need to be constructed. Manual laborers. 94 . can be used for digging ponds and transporting soils for constructing dikes. (b) Pond Design After finalization of site selection. The slope for outside angle of the dike should be 1:1 to 1:1. The dike must be some 30-40 cm above the surface of water for small ponds and 50-60 cm for large ponds. Nursery pond for early fry: b.Farming of Tilapia If the ground is completely flat type.25 1. the farm area should be marked as per engineering design.0 m 1. A well-designed farm might consist various types of ponds having all essential components. average depth for tilapia farm might be as below: a.5 to 2. Grow-out ponds: • 08 to 1. The following principles can be followed to construct an ideal dike: Width of the dike at the top should be equal to its height but should be never less than 1 m wide.5 and on the inside slope about 1:2.0 m to 1. In such case.0 m The dike construction: Building a solid and seepage protected earthen wall or dike is one of the most important task of pond construction to keep enough water for planned fish production. Generally.
• Draining installation (the monk): In a pond the monk is a part of dike. 8. Typical farm areas might be as follows: • • • Small farm: Medium farm: Large farm: 3 – 5 ha 7 – 10 ha 15 – 25 ha 95 .Farming of Tilapia When dike construction is complete. and also a vertical branch or so called monk.5. (Figure 39). which regulates the required level of water as well as draining of water at the time of urgency and harvesting period of fish in a pond (Figure 37). Two or three parallel groves are made using “U” shaped iron rod or cutting the concrete for making the placing of screen and wooden boards (20-30 cm high and 4-6 cm thick). which depends on production target and management system. (c) Arrangement of ponds and layout of a farm Most ideal arrangement of ponds of a farm should include one or two or multiple series of parallel ponds having two bypasses. The emptying device consists of a horizontal channel or drainage pipe running the full length of the foot of the dike. Each pond should have its own independent supply and evacuation facilities (Figure 38). The monk is normally built in concrete and should reach at least 30-40 cm above the level of water. it can be covered with the topsoil and turf or soft grasses.2 Operation and Management of Commercial Tilapia Farms (a) Area of farms Area of commercial tilapia farms can vary from 3 to 25 ha. quadrangular in shape 40-60 cm wide (also depends on the area of the pond) open on one side of front.
Pond fertilization with urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) @ 50 kg in 1:1 ratio can be used before stocking of tilapia fingerlings. 96 . In that case as many fry as possible must be removed by repeated netting (using fine mesh seine net) at 15 days intervals to avoid the problem of over population. Ponds need to be filled with fresh water and water level can be remained at optimum. (c) Stocking of fry and post stocking management • • • • • Mixed or monosex tilapia fry of 10 – 15 g weight can be stocked in the well prepared ponds @ 25000 – 30000 per ha. • (d) Water quality monitoring Water quality in tilapia farm should be monitored every week using HACH kit or other electronic equipments. To enhance the status of natural food in pond water. regular fertilization can be made at 15 days intervals with cattle dung or poultry manure @ 800 – 1000 kg per hectare. Cattle dung or poultry manure can be applied on the bottom @ 2000 – 3000 kg per ha. If the ponds are stocked with mixed sex tilapia.Farming of Tilapia (b) Grow out pond preparation: liming and fertilization • • • • Liming of pond bottom should be with 250 – 300 kg CaO or CaCo3 per ha. undesirable populations of tiny fry will be marked within 3 months of stocking. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. Every month sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. Fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight.
0 to 12 mg/L 10. Under such type of semi-intensive culture system.Farming of Tilapia For good fish growth of tilapias.3 Option for commercial tilapia farming in ponds under the management of high stoking density In commercial farms tilapia can be cultured even under high stocking density provided simple paddle wheel type of aerators are set in the ponds 97 .0 to 100.0 oC 1.0 mg/L 50.0 to 250. 8.0 to 8.5. (g) Fish harvesting and estimation of production • • Within 4 – 6 months of farming when the fish having the average weight of 200 g.5 to 9. (f) Culture period • 120 – 180 days. yield of 4000 – 6000 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop.0 to 15. desirable water quality parameters are: • • • • • • • pH: Dissolved Oxygen: Free Carbon Dioxide: Total Alkalinity: Total Hardness: Temperature: Salinity: 6.0 mg/L 25.0 3.0 to 30.00 ppt (e) Water supply and aeration A regular water supply (twice a week) needs to be available in the grow out ponds just to fill up the level.0 mg/L 5. to compensate for evaporation. harvesting of fish can be made by repeated netting or drying out the ponds.
000 – 20.Farming of Tilapia (at least two aerators in 1 ha pond) for aeration of water to add more oxygen (Figure 40).40 4. the grow out pond preparation. In brackish water farms.00 Total 100 Cost per kg feed: US$ 0. under semiintensive culture management. 2003).00 Rice polish 40.000 per ha. Stocking density of advanced fry/fingerlings should be maintained @ 80. Formulated feed for feeding tilapia under semi-intensive system in the grow out ponds (Hoq et al.00 98 . Alternate cropping of tilapia in shrimp farms has recently been introduced in the coastal belt of Bangladesh as a means of reducing the risk of shrimp disease outbreak. Farm areas close to the sea and exposed to strong waves should be avoided.6 meter between mean high tide and mean low tide is necessary to ensure adequate tidal water flow (Guerrero 1997). liming and fertilization procedure will be same as above. Brackish water enclosures are extremely suitable for tilapia culture either by extensive or semi-intensive type of management.4 Option for commercial tilapia farming in brackish water ponds As tilapia can tolerate salinities up to 25 ppt with gradual acclimation.00 Molasses 5. 8.0 Feed ingredients Crude protein (%) 12. FCR: 2. In that case input cost will be high due to running aerators (the cost the machine and electric bills) but production of marketable size fish can reach up to 15. Under such type of farming management. Table 7.000 – 100.00 Wheat bran 20.90 25.21 (Taka 13). A range of at least 0.5. so the fish can nicely be cultured in brackish water ponds with a salinity range of 10 – 15 ppt without any stress.000 kg per ha per crop.00 Mustard oilcake 15.00 5. a yield of 3000 – 4000 kg fish per ha can be obtained per crop.90 2. Proportion (%) Fish meal 20.
• 99 . where regular maintenance of the ponds and farms requires various types of manpower but mostly labor.5. fry should be grown up to a suitable size (at least 10 – 15 g). Therefore. quality seeds. partial harvesting of grow out fish (about 150 g weight each) can be followed to reduce the load of biomass per unit area of ponds. good capital investment is a prerequisite for obtaining maximum profits from commercial fish farming and the overall management options as below can be considered: • • A commercial farm should have the opportunity to produce the required quantity of quality fry (both mixed and monosex) in the available nursery ponds or procure such fry from reliable hatcheries Before stocking.5 Overall management of commercial tilapia farms Like aquaculture of other commercially important fish species. they should be kept for few days in a series of tanks or small ponds for prophylactic treatment. commercial tilapia farming is capital intensive. feeds and fertilizers. The operation of such types of farming is also labor intensive. If the fry are taken from other sources. The main inputs needed are good water. In high density stocking ponds.Farming of Tilapia 8.
100 .Farming of Tilapia Fig. 1992). 38 A typical layout of a fish farm (Bromage et al. 37 The monk in a pond Fig.
M.Farming of Tilapia Fig. 101 . Fig. 39 View of a commercial fish farm (Courtesy: Dr.J. 40 Simple paddle wheel type of aerators set in the ponds for aeration of water to add more oxygen. Alam).
In view of that an attempt has been made to narrate briefly the available techniques of tilapia culture in the cages. tilapias are the most suitable candidates for intensive culture in cages and raceways due to their amenability to intensification. tanks and raceways. The time is not very far off when intensive farming of commercially important fish species particularly tilapias will take the place in aquaculture due to limited land and other resources. Among the desirable cultivable finfishes. for the international and domestic markets.Farming of Tilapia 9 Development and operation of intensive tilapia culture systems THE SUITABILITY OF TILAPIA FOR INTENSIVE CULTURE 9. the aquaculture industry is booming day by day. which make them feasible for farming under various culture systems. tolerance to wide range of environmental conditions. ease of seed production. 102 . efficiency to convert organic and agricultural wastes in to high quality protein and ability to grow well at high stocking and overcrowding situations. Because. therefore. resistance to infectious diseases and poor water quality. Many entrepreneurs might come forward in near future to initiate developing the high input and high cost systems for tilapia farming in this country. tilapia has tremendous prospects to be considered as a number one protein food item. Bangladesh has more water resources per capita than most other countries of the world and demand of fish for consumption and export is very high.1 It is mentioned in the first chapter of this book that commercially important tilapia species or strains have some special characteristics. viz.
Farming of Tilapia
TILAPIA CULTURE IN CAGES
Among intensive culture methods, cage culture is one by which the farmer can stock a large number of fish, control over feeding, minimize unwanted reproduction, harvest easily and obtain maximum profit from per unit area. It permits the more intensive exploitation of a water system with a low capital expenditure. The method can be utilized minimal infrastructural requirements and the ease of management lends the system to intensification (Balarin and Haller 1982). Various materials viz. simple bamboo poles and nylon nets, plastic and steel materials etc., can be used to construct cages for tilapia culture. Very large operations have been developed in the Philippines and Indonesia based on cage culture of respectively tilapias and common carps that provide jobs for thousands as members of cooperatives or employees of companies and food for local consumption and for international trade (Fitzsimmons, 1997). Cage culture of tilapia has also been attempted commercially or experimentally in other countries viz. Brazil, China, Cote d’Ivoire, El Salvador, Guatemala, Israel, Indonesia, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Niger, Sri Lanka and USA. In Bangladesh, Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation (BFDC) was the pioneer to initiate experimental cage culture of Nile tilapia in Kaptai Lake, Ragamati some time during 80’s but no production data is available. Subsequently CARE, Bangladesh conducted grow-out trials of GIFT strain in cages at Meghna river lagoon area near Munshiganj during 90’s (Hussain et al. 2000). Even, meanwhile, CARE implemented a CAGES project for more than 5 years with limited success as potential livelihood option in different places of Bangladesh. Recently a number of private entrepreneurs have initiated tilapia cage culture at Meghna river canals near Chandpur. As public water bodies like reservoirs, river lagoons, lakes, irrigation canals, deep borrow pits, estuaries, coastal bays including perennial natural depressions, and village ponds etc. are suitable for cage culture, therefore, small or large scale operation of tilapia culture in cages in these or other selected suitable water bodies has a bright future to play an important role in aquaculture.
Farming of Tilapia
9.2.1 Site selection
• • • • Dead rivers, lagoons, deepwater lakes, protected irrigation canals, creeks, deep ponds, borrow pits, closed coastal bays can be selected. Optimum water depth of a water body should be 4 – 10 m. The site should be free from remains of trees and other debris. The sites should be out of the reach of heavy flood, high tides and cyclones etc.
9.2.2 Construction and setting of net cages (a) Essential materials for constructing a floating net cage
• • • • • • • Bamboo pieces Styrofoam blocks Empty Drums Nylon nets with a mesh size of 15 – 25 mm Wood pieces Plastic ropes Iron nails
(b) Construction of the raft
• Bamboo pieces need to be arranged to make a square raft and drums should be fixed and set underneath of the raft so that drums can float the raft.
(c) Making the net cage
Net materials (mesh size 15 – 25 mm) should be cut and fixed by sewing the ends with plastic ropes to form a square net. Various sizes of net can be considered viz. 1 x 1 x1 m; 2 x 2 x 2.0 m; 4 x 4 x 2.5 m; 6 x 6 x 2.5 m; 8 x 8 x 2.5 m.
Farming of Tilapia
(d) Setting the net cage with the raft
• • • • • The net can be attached to the floating raft by binding the net to bamboo poles fixed at equal distances to the raft. Weights (2 kg) need to be fixed and hung around the bottom of the net to stretch the net into a square. The floating rafts with net cages can be set in one or two series to form a battery of cages for large-scale operation (Figure 41). A wooden or bamboo platform can be constructed along the series of rafts to allow feeding trolleys, sampling equipment/buckets and harvesting nets etc. to be carried. The rafts with net cages finally need to be anchored strongly to the shore or bottom.
(e) Stocking of fish
• • Mixed or monosex tilapia fingerlings weighing 20 – 30 g can be procured for stocking in the net cages. Stocking density can be maintained at 200 – 400 individuals/m3.
(f) Feeds and feeding
• • • Fish should be fed with formulated feeds as shown in Table 7 @ 3% per estimated body weight. Feeding intensity should be at least 2 times daily. Every 2 weeks sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.
(g) Culture duration
• Duration of tilapia culture in cages should range between 90 – 150 days.
Under such intensive system of cage culture expected tilapia production will be 30 – 70 kg/m3 (averagely 50 kg/m3)..2. Fig. The tilapia cage culture information and production data of different countries are summarized in Table 8.Farming of Tilapia (h) Harvesting of fish and expected production • • Fish weighing on an average about 200 g can be harvested by using dip or push net or by lifting the cages and transferred to bamboo baskets or plastic buckets. 41 The floating rafts with net cages for intensive tilapia culture (Courtesy: Dr. Nuanmane Pongthana).3 Overall management of tilapia culture in floating cages • • 106 Water quality and fish health in the cages needs to be monitored regularly. . 9. Dead and sick fish should always be removed from the cages.
64 17.9 1.63.7:1 2.5-85 FCR 1../m 350 300400 200 215488 264 256 300500 286857 487 3 Duration (days) 120 96 103 92 210 171 70 156 87 Production 3 kg/m 30.3 TILAPIA CULTURE IN TANKS AND RACEWAYS Intensive culture of tilapias like salmonids in the recirculating or flow through tanks/raceways is one of the preferred techniques for large-scale commercial production.353. Important processes in such systems are the removal of solids and dissolved metabolites. (2000) Guerrero (1997) Guerrero (1997) Coche (1975) Mikolasek et al.21.zillii 0. the nets need to taken out from the raft to remove the algae scum and sun dried before using further.6 63.niloticus S. (1997) Ita (1976) Jordan & Pagan (1973) Pagan (1970) Suwanasart (1971) 9.2:1 1.niloticus O.niloticus Hybrid (O.30 66.galilaeus O.Farming of Tilapia • • • • If the growing fish do not take feed particularly in rainy or cloudy days. mossambicus x O. These practices ensure high yield per unit area and/or unit volume of water.aureus no.7:1 2.0 35-76 68.niloticus T.niloticus O.aureus O.niloticus) O.aureus O. Table 8.24:1 Reference Hussain et al. in that case lids made of fine mesh nets can be used over each net cage.63:1 12.43 17-23 35-94.4:1 1.68 100. At every harvest. If the stocked fish show any attempt of jumping out. Security of the cages needs to be ensured to avoid poaching and escapement of fish during windy or stormy weather as well as during monsoon months. it is better to stop feeding until the next day. High water exchange is 107 . Available data on tilapia cage culture in different countries (Revised after Balarin and Haller 1982) Countries Bangladesh China Philippines Cote d’Ivoire Niger Nigeria Puerto Rico USA USA Species O.9 2.
• Road access for all weather for supply of products and services.0 m wide with a depth of 0.0 – 20. 1997).0 – 50. canals or reservoirs. Shape of the tanks can be circular. • Stable electricity. generally wider than raceways (Figure 42). Experimental or active rearing of tilapia in tanks has been reported from a number of countries (Table 9) and use of raceways reported from a few countries (Table 10) of the world. (b) Design and characteristics of the tanks • • • • Cemented tanks are suitable for intensive tilapia culture. • Market access of products.Farming of Tilapia needed for this purpose. the following factors need to be considered for site selection: • Site should be flood free and nearby tilapia hatcheries. rectangular or oval.8 – 1. intensive tank and raceway culture requires water treatment and recirculation (Cole et al. • Enough water supply source either from underground or other surface water source like rivers. square.1 Tilapia culture in tanks (a) Site selection Before initiating the construction of rearing or growing tanks for commercial tilapia production systems. These systems are especially attractive in areas that can recover the effluent water from these farm operations to use for field crop irrigation and can be used as good source of fertilizers (Fitzsimmons 1997).0 m.0 m long. 10 m diameter circular tank (10 t unit) is considered as the most economic size and self-cleaning for tilapia production 108 .3. 8. In water-limited areas. In tanks and raceways tilapias are cultured under crowded conditions. 9. Rectangular size of individual tank may vary from 10.
Y. so that water can be made useful to maintain a high water quality. K. Fig. (c) Stocking of fish • For fattening tilapia fingerlings weighing 25 -50 g can be stocked @ 200 – 250 fish/m3 in the tanks in order to achieve the enhanced individual growth to produce larger fish. 42 The cemented tanks for intensive tilapia culture (Courtesy: Mr. Tanks should be adaptable to fry rearing. Every 2 weeks.Farming of Tilapia • • • An intensive tilapia culture tank is required to have a demand feeder. on growing and fattening of desired numbers of fish.4 times daily. 109 . a low flow to velocity ratio. Thai). sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate. maximize the requirement of oxygen of growing fish and provide rapid expulsion of solid wastes and faecal materials through the central drain (Balarin and Haller 1982). (d) Feeds and feeding • • Fish in the grow out tanks can be fed with formulated feeds (Table 7) @ 3% per estimated body weight 3 . The cost and construction complexity of tanks should be low and the system should have access to water recirculation and aeration.
In both cases. 110 .5:1 Reference Melard & Philippart (1980) Balarin & Haller (1979) Guerrero 1989 McAndrew (cited by Balarin & Haller 1982) Sports (1983) Lauenstein (1978) (e) Duration of culture • Fattening of large fish: 120 – 150 days. niloticus x O.aureus O.3. enough water supplies either from underground or other surface water source should be ensured. (f) Harvesting of fish and expected production • • Fish weighing 200 – 250 g can be harvested by using dip or push net or by dewatering the tanks.9 1.5 3 Duration (days) 170-200 150 120 150 150 125 Production 3 kg/m >30 50 30 32. niloticus O. 9.aureus hybrid O.2 Tilapia culture in raceways (a) Site selection • Site selection criteria for commercial tilapia culture in raceways under intensive system are similar like tank culture./m 100800 200250 23 90 200250 12. niloticus x O.4 112 16-24 FCR 2:1 2:1 1.Farming of Tilapia Table 9. Available data on tilapia culture in tanks in different countries (Revised after Balarin and Haller 1982). niloticus Male red tilapia O. Countries Beligium Kenya Malaysia Scotland Taiwan USA Species O. Expected production will be around 50 kg/m3.aureus no.
In many ways raceways are easier to manage and maintain than tanks. Continuous flow of water supply need to be ensured for each series of raceways and excess water should be out through the outlet drains fitted with fish protecting screens. Size of individual raceway may vary from 15 – 30 m long. in most cases cemented raceways are used for fry/fingerling rearing and fattening of large fish. Most ideal arrangement of raceways should include single or double or multiple series of parallel ponds.5 – 3. Although the capital expenditure will be greater than in some other installations but the maintenance costs will be lower (Stevenson 1980). Construction can be made either by concrete or earth. Recirculation system to reuse the available water can minimize the input costs of raceway operation without harming the production of tilapia. Each raceway should have its own independent supply and evacuation facilities (Figure 43).0 m.0 m wide with a depth of 0.75 – 1. Fig. 111 . 43 The raceways for intensive tilapia culture.Farming of Tilapia (b) Design and characteristics of the raceways • • • • • • • • • Raceways are rectangular in shape having both inlet and outlet facilities. 2. Raceways can be used both for fry rearing and fattening large fish.
aureus no. Expected production will be 40 . (f) Harvesting of fish and expected production • • By using dip or push net or by dewatering the raceways. Available data on tilapia culture in raceways in different countries (Revised after Balarin and Haller 1982) Countries Hawaii Kenya Kenya USA USA Species O.4 times daily. (e) Feeds and feeding • • Fish in the grow out tanks can be fed with formulated feeds (Table 7) @ 3% per estimated body weight 3 .6 16-64 35-150 FCR 1.5:1 Reference Uchida & King (1962) Balarin & Haller (1979) Balarin & Haller (1979) Lauenstein (1978) Lauenstein (1978) 112 .5 35. sampling of growing fish should be made to check the growth and adjust the feeding rate.60 kg/m3. (d) Duration of culture • Fattening of large fish: 120 – 150 days. niloticus O. Every 2 weeks. niloticus O./m 10002800 1650 1000 6502500 100400 3 Duration (daya 90 40-50 40-50 60 150 Production 3 kg/m 5. mossambicus O.6 9. fish weighing 200 – 250 g can be harvested.Farming of Tilapia (c) Stocking of fish • Tilapia fingerlings weighing 25 -30 g can be stocked @ 150 – 300 fish/m3 in the raceways for fattening purpose. Table 10. aureus O.
High production levels and population densities in fish farming ponds might have a chance of increasing the probability of a variety of diseases. marked by heavy losses in fish population. it become less probability to develop sickness and diseases. there should be doubt about diseases.1. In intensive fish farming practice. The presence of parasites may cause the fish to try dislodging them on vegetation. discomfort. Infected fish also shows other symptoms. These diseases can be acute. precaution is the better way of disease control. Observing their abnormal physiological conditions. but when water quality is good and supplementing of artificial feed is adequate. etc. So.1 Changes in behavior Fish in good health is only seen during the time of feeding or playing but when the fish is found always gasping together at the surface or near the incoming water supply. even sufficient to kill the entire crop. In this regard for preventing unnecessary death and losses of fish population occurred by epidemic infectious diseases. fish diseases may occur frequently. 113 . proper management and care of fishponds are a must. which are expressed by some symptoms as follows. such as loss of balance. can easily identify infected fish in ponds: 10. erratically swimming.Farming of Tilapia 10 Diseases and parasites of tilapia and their control measures 10.1 OCCURRENCE OF DISEASES IN FISH AND THEIR COMMON SYMPTOMS Diseases and parasites often become problematic when animals are crowded or reared closely in confined places.
hemorrhagic areas on the head. After that before beginning any treatment some other essential steps are to be considered like a) knowing the exact volume of water. body and fins. etc. Using any drug or chemical without following the suggested levels is worthless and in some cases become dangerous to fish health. a tight skin over the head. some abnormal physical sign ultimately develop. Treatment must be effective in controlling the suspected parasites and diseases in fish farming ponds. bulging and blind eyes. swollen and pale gills.3 Failure to feed Under good water quality. for instance. 114 . Certain parasitic infections act slowly and may cause emaciation long before death. which is the first step towards control. muscles or internal organs and lesions on the several part of the body. b) knowing about the life history of fishes. But sickness in fish may cause to stop feeding themselves. But when they become sick. Because susceptibility of fish to chemicals varies with the species and age of the fish and with the volume of water. it is necessary to identify these diseases accurately.2 Abnormal physical signs Fish without any infection become physically clean and fresh. healthy fish normally feed when food is provided in water. Many of the diseases affecting fish have similar symptoms.1. Otherwise. cysts in the skin. a long thin body is the sign that the fish have not been feeding well.1. The above information should be known before the chemicals are applied.excessive mucus over the skin. valuable energy and a large number of fish might be unnecessarily lost. it will usually mean that during this time a lot of money. inflamed abdomen. c) knowing about the content of toxicity of the chemicals in relation to fish species. 10. A gaunt belly. So.Farming of Tilapia 10.
Treatment: Several types of chemicals can be used for the treatment of fin rot infection of fish in ponds. The abdominal dropsy in fish probably arises from the action of both bacteria and viruses. such as Copper sulphate (0. the most common myxobacterial infection is “fin rot”. Fish are infected by the disease in a pond. (b) Abdominal dropsy The disease is caused by accumulation of dropsy fluid in the abdominal cavity of carp. then spreads over the body surface. The rot starts first at the dorsal or caudal fins.5 to 1.05 to 0.0 ppm) or Malachite green (0. It is also believed that the disease might be caused primarily by the bacterium Aeromonas punctata and secondarily by 115 . when they are roughly handled.Farming of Tilapia 10. Dip or Bath treatment: The infected fish are treated by dipping them in the solution of Copper sulphate (250 ppm) for one minute or Formalin (250 ppm) for one hour.2. tilapia and other susceptible species of fishes (Figure 44). which becomes necrotic and sloughs off gradually.1 Bacterial Diseases (a) Myxobacterial infections Among the diseases caused by bacteria.1 ppm) or Formalin (25 ppm). transferred or become wounded or they are reared in crowded conditions. listlessness and fatigue.2 THE MOST COMMON DISEASES OF TILAPIA AND THEIR TREATMENT The most common diseases and parasites of tilapia and their possible treatments are briefly described below: 10. Fish show discomfort. Any one of the chemicals should be applied at every alternative day for 3-4 times to control the disease.
the fluid of the abdomen can be taken out by a hypodermic needle with syringe. The body of the parasite is dorsoventrally flattened. Diseased fish exhibit extreme inflammation of abdomen. erratic swimming. the dorsal side is swollen and the ventral side is partially ciliated (Figure 45). Among the surgical treatment. pale colour of the gills. Fig. Treatment: The infected fish can be treated by applying antibiotic Oxytetracycline or Streptomycin or Chlorampheniocol at the rate of 1 mg per 100 g of fish. The best preventive measure against the dropsy is to liming and drying out the ponds at every alternative year before stocking.2. 44 Abdominal dropsy in tilapia. the infected fish generally start to die. 10. mostly attached to the gills and skin of the fish. Attachment of the parasite is associated with body lesions.2 Parasitic Diseases (a) Chilodonella sp.Farming of Tilapia viruses. belonging to the genus Chilodonella. At high water temperature. heart shaped. discomfort. erratically swimming and discomfortness. becoming dangerous by growing in number within a very short period and sufficient to kill even plenty of large fish. a tendency to stay 116 . This is a protozoan parasite.
Farming of Tilapia
near the incoming water supply and occurrence of a higher rate of fish mortality. Chilodonella sp. is generally active to cause disease in tilapia fry fingerlings at the temperature below 20 OC. Chilodonelliasis is a common parasitic disease in tilapia fry and fingerlings during the cold season (Hussain 1988).
Fig. 45 Protozoan parasite Chilodonella sp. (Sarig 1971).
Treatment: The pond should be treated by Potassium permanganate (3-5 ppm), Formalin (25 ppm), Methylene blue (3 ppm), Malachite green (0.10.15 ppm). Any one of these chemicals should be applied every alternative day for 2-3 times. Dip or Bath treatment: The infected fish may be treated by dipping them in solution of Potassium permanganate (10 ppm) for one hour. For prevention of the disease, every alternative year ponds should be disinfected by liming just before releasing the fish.
Farming of Tilapia
(b) Trichodina sp.
This protozoan parasite belongs to the genus Trichodina (Figure 46). The infections caused by this type of parasite occur at the site of gills and skin, sometimes dangerous to breakdown the normal physiological conditions of the pond fishes, causing a serious anemia to fry and fingerling fish, finally leading to death. The infected fish exhibit irregular white patches, frayed fins, become sluggish and fail to feed. Trichodiniasis is also a common parasitic disease in tilapia fry and fingerlings during the winter season (Hussain 1988).
Fig. 46 Protozoan parasite Trichodina sp. (Hoffman and Meyer 1974).
Treatment: Treatment in ponds can be carried out by applying Malachite green (0.1-0.15 ppm), Formalin (25 ppm) or Sodium Chloride (200 ppm) for only one time. Dip or Bath treatment: The diseased fish can be bathed by Malachite green (1.25-5.0 ppm) or Formalin (250 ppm) for half an hour.
Farming of Tilapia
(c) Myxobolus sp.
These protozoan parasites belong to the genus Myxobolus, which cause infections in gills of susceptible species of fishes. White cysts are appeared in the muscles and below the tissues. Diseased fish develop a thickened epithelium and excessive mucus on the gill regions. Treatment: No treatment is yet been carried out by the chemicals to control the disease. Necessary precautions can be taken for disinfections by liming and drying of ponds.
(d) Argulus sp.
The argulus or fish lice are copepods, and adhere to the body of the fish by means of its suckers and extremities. The parasite has a flattened, often pinkish or reddish disc like body, but lives on the surface of the fish or in the mouth of gill cavity (Figure 47). Infected fish show discomfort, erratic swimming and in the case of a serious infection the fish may stop feeding.
Fig. 47 Fish lice Argulas sp. (Sarig 1971)
5%).Farming of Tilapia Treatment: For pond treatment Mesoten or Dylox may be applied at the rate of 0. which lead to secondary fungus and bacterial infections. Any one of these chemicals may be applied once a week for at least 4 weeks.25 ppm). 120 . Malathion (0. Dip or Batch treatment: The infected fish can be treated by dipping in the solution of Potassium permanganate (10 ppm) or Sodium chloride (5%) for half an hour. Their attachment is associated with hemorrhagic reactions in all surfaces of the body.5-1. The lernaea or anchor parasite is sometime dangerous to fry and fingerling fish and can cause their early death by leading to an anemic physiological condition.15-0. Potassium permanganate (3-5 ppm). Dip or Bath treatment: The infected fish may be bathed in the solution of Potassium permanganate (10 ppm) or Sodium chloride (5%). The infected fish show discomfort. etc. The parasite resembles a shaft of a small barb inserted into the flesh of the fish.0 ppm) or Sodium chloride (1. often rubbing their body surface against the bottoms. A preventive measure is to dry out ponds at every alternative year. (e) Lernaea sp. grass stems. Treatment: The pond should be treated by Mesoten or Dylox (0. The parasite cannot be easily removed because of the anchor.25 ppm once in a week for at least 4 weeks.
there are multi various purchasers of different income levels. In this case. shrimp. Consumers of this country normally used to like indigenous carps. they are bound to purchase tilapias and Chinese carp species. It is obvious that rich people always prefer large size and poor people due to their financial incapability go for medium and smaller size for the cheaper price.Farming of Tilapia 11 Marketing of tilapia 11. Pick up vans having fiberglass tanks can be used for live fish transportation.1 DEMAND OF TILAPIA IN THE DOMESTIC MARKETS Tilapias are becoming popular fish recently among the traders due to their suitability for selling any size (fingerling to adult) in the domestic market of Bangladesh and other South-east Asian countries. Many consumers prefer live tilapia like catfish. Live tilapias can also be shifted in plastic bags with oxygenated water like fish fry/fingerling transportation. The harvested fish need to be kept alive for washing in the holding tanks with the inflowing cold water before their shifting and processing for the market (Figure 48). it is essential to handle the fish carefully at harvest to ascertain their freshness and quality for good market price.1.1 Post harvest handling of tilapia In many developing countries of South-east Asia. In this part of the world. Crushed ice is used for processing fresh tilapias for market. So. 11. fish are kept with ice (ice to fish ratio 1:3) in bamboo baskets having inner 121 . who might prefer different size grade tilapia. tilapias are marketed fresh or frozen. catfish and other small species as food fish but due to their unavailability and extremely high price in the domestic market.
Ministry of Local Government through its municipalities controls only the wholesale and retail markets in most of the cities and towns. Secondary Market: Market nearby the administrative unit headquarters (ie. Conditions of municipal markets are not also at the mark for controlling hygienic aspects of fish. where the brokers are engaged to sell the fish to the small and medium traders by collecting them from the village ponds/farms.1.2 Domestic marketing systems Like other fishes. Higher Secondary Market: Market at the towns and cities also operated by commission agents and fish are sold to second distributors. 122 .3 Present status of domestic wholesale and retail market conditions The overall fish landing facilities and wholesale markets are not well established all over Bangladesh. Final Consumers Market: The second distributors sell the fish to retailers to make them available in the retailing markets for the consumers (Figure 49). 11. no adequate drainage and cleaning facilities. in Bangladesh tilapias are sold in the domestic markets following the distribution channel of fish trade as below: • • • • Primary Market: Rural market.Farming of Tilapia side rapped with polythene sheet or Styrofoam boxes for transportation to local markets or distant places. 11. These centers are unhygienic and poor.1. Private fish traders are the dominant groups who control the major landing centers in the rural and urban areas. Thana Headquarters) operated by the commission agents and fish are sold and packet for shifting to urban markets. there is no particular auction and packing sheds.
49.Farming of Tilapia Fig. Y. Y. K. Thai). Tilapias in the retailing fish market for the consumers (Courtesy: Mr. 123 . K. Thai). Fig. 48 Washing of harvested live tilapias in the holding tank with the inflowing cool water before marketing (Courtesy: Mr.
Colombia.5 times higher than normal colored tilapias. It is reported that the major exporting countries are Taiwan. farmers get less price at the farm gate. Singapore. only suitable for ethnic markets and their traditional markets have been in Africa and Asia for a long time. In view of this. Many entrepreneurs are coming forward to Bangladesh to initiate commercial tilapia farming and invest money for filleting tilapias for export. Jamaica. 2 DEMAND OF TILAPIA IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKETS In most of the chain restaurants. tilapias are recently considered as attractive menu items. the fillets of the Nile and red tilapias are used for raw fish gourmet dishes as sashimi and excellent substitutes for the high priced red sea bream (Guerrero 1997). These have become third preferred fish like channel catfish after shrimp and salmon in the United States. for market diversification both in the country and abroad the following points need to be considered: • • 124 Tilapia farming should be expanded and bank credits need to be provided to the interested farmers/entrepreneurs.6 to 1 kg) in Japan. Costa Rica. Israel and Taiwan are the two countries from where majority of tilapias are being exported in the global markets.Farming of Tilapia 11. Particularly in Japan. But recently tilapias have also obtained consumer recognition in the USA and to some extend in Europe and around the world (Vannuccini 1998). Large or medium sized red or blue (Nile tilapia) strains can either be filleted or packet in icebox freshly for export marketing. Bangladesh could be in the same line to export tilapias like shrimp to the world markets. tilapia fillet might be the choice of consumers. Israel alone exports more than 60% of total supply to the markets of USA. therefore. Israel. Accurate data on global trade for tilapia are not readily available. so they are not getting enough profit from tilapia culture. which were once accepted as low value fish. Price of colored tilapia is 1. USA and Canada. Indonesia. In developed countries. . There is a growing demand of tilapia fillets produced from large sized fish (0. As the fish producers ie. Venezuela and Ecuador. Philippines. Thailand.
125 . holding tanks for keeping live fish and nice display facilities need to be created. concrete sheds. Appropriate policies and strategies need to be formulated and adopted by the Government for commercial farming of tilapias and their export. washing. Tilapia processing industries.Farming of Tilapia • • • Government should fix the farm gate price of the fish like rice and other food grains. It is obvious that international regulations need to be strictly followed for processing of tilapias for export. Ancillary market facilities like road networks. in particularly filleting. packing and preservation facilities. ice packing and canning industries should be encouraged and supported.
Indonesia.2 STRATEGIES FOR TILAPIA AQUCULTURE Tilapia has great potential in Bangladesh as an alternative and additional species of farmed fish. Bangladesh and other countries of this region with appropriate water resources could learn from Philippine and Asian tilapia-producing countries experience and promote tilapia production. Researchers developed the technology and overcame the marketing constraints.1 LEARNING FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF OTHER TILAPIA PRODUCING COUNTRIES Tilapia farming has become an important source of additional income and a cheap source of protein for rural communities in the Philippines (Fermin 1985). grow-out farmers. cage operators and merchants (Smith et al. and Taiwan are presently in the line of developing tilapia aquaculture industry. According to Guerrero (1994). A number of Asian countries like Thailand. The steady expansion of tilapia industry has benefited small-scale hatchery operators. The Philippines has recently become one of the largest producers of tilapia in the Asia (Guerrero 1994). 12. the following developmental areas and strategies are identified for necessary consideration: 126 . the Philippines government selected tilapia for development because of its potential to benefit resource poor farmers as well as commercial growers. 1985). Tilapia technology was successfully adapted and extended to small-scale farmers and large commercial producers.Farming of Tilapia 12 Strategies and prospects of frontier development of tilapia aquaculture 12. In view of taking tilapia as one of the important and potential fish species.
Recently.14 m ha) of the country. these water bodies have tremendous potential for aquaculture of fish species with short life cycle and characteristics of faster growth rate and require low input support (Hussain et al. so there will be an extreme need for huge number of quality seeds (both mixed sex and monosex). In brackish water ponds (0. commercial farming of tilapia will be an alternative. where carp species can not be cultured. In Kaptai reservoir (0. shallow ponds.Farming of Tilapia • Among the South East Asian countries. where improve extensive shrimp culture is in collapse due to disease outbreak.1 m ha) in the form of ditches. Similar aquaculture activities can further be expanded in the suitable brackish water polders and enclosures (0.07 m ha) and other similar water bodies’ commercial cage culture of monosex tilapia could flourish to boost fish production. adequate feed crisis and low market price severely damaged the exotic riverine catfish (Panagsius sp. a large number of commercial catfish producers have found tilapia as an alternative species to culture in their farms to maximize the production. Commercial seed production activities both in public and private hatcheries will enable to create additional employment opportunities for a large group of unemployed people. road side canals. Bangladesh in particular abounds with hundreds and thousands of seasonal water bodies (>0. No doubt.87 m ha). barrow pits etc. which retain water for 4-6 months. It is presumed that tilapia farming will largely be expanded both in small and commercial scales. In that case. tilapia can be a promising candidate for aquaculture in the suitable seasonal water bodies. Success of such attempts will encourage the entrepreneurs to come forward for initiating commercial tilapia farming in freshwater ponds and other suitable water bodies. therefore. 2000). development and operation of commercial tilapia hatcheries will be essential throughout the country. In such cases.) farming in the country. 127 • • • • .
Although per unit area of production was promisingly increased especially for carps through adoption of improved technologies these could not be diversified except into freshwater ponds or related water bodies. it can confidently be presumed today that tilapia is a novel and excellent species (Figure 50) for future aquaculture in all the suitable aquatic ecosystems in Bangladesh and elsewhere in South East Asia. Diversified and frontier aquaculture development with short cycled fish species like tilapias can overcome all the above-mentioned situations and have access to all existing aquatic ecosystems. Broadly it can be said “Tilapia is a good food fish (Figure 51) for you and all others. 128 . India. the inland and marine capture fisheries have registered a gradual decline due to deterioration of aquatic environments and over fishing. Nepal. the tilapias are among the best candidates for culture because of their desirable qualities (Guerrero 2002). it is a good cash crop for all the stake holders mainly the poor farmers living in Asia and other developing countries of the world”. On the other hand.Farming of Tilapia 12. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. which will certainly benefit the nation like ours in providing income for small-scale farmers and large producers and helping the country to alleviate shortfalls in fish production. Therefore. Among the available farmed fish species. In spite of bright and promising future of tilapia farming in the developing countries of this part of Asia like Bangladesh.3 DIVERSIFIED AND FRONTIER DEVELOPMENT OF TILAPIA AQUACULTURE In the recent past all over the Asia. mass involvement of rural people in carp and shrimp culture was found difficult due to their limited water resources and financial incapability in many cases. Thus aquaculture is seen as the most promising option of filling the pending void in the aquatic food supply. Since many years enormous efforts and investments have been made to promote aquaculture of Indian and Chinese major carp and shrimp species particularly in Bangladesh and India. until recently the Governments of these nations have not yet taken it seriously.
51 Tilapia is a good food fish (Courtesy: Mr.Farming of Tilapia Fig. Y. 50 Tilapia is a fish of the decade Fig. K. 129 . Thai).
Breeding population: A group fish to be used for planned breeding. Broodstock: Parent (Female and Male) fish cultivated to provide eggs/milt or fry. strains or lines. They occur in pairs in somatic cells with the number of pairs and morphology being characteristic of the species. embryonic development proceeds with the inheritance of only paternal chromosome sets. Crossbred individuals are from intraspecific matings. in terms of its or their ability to transmit certain distinguished features that separate them from other such group. Breed: Group of animals having a common origin and identifying characters that distinguish them as belonging to a breeding group. consisting of one representative from each of the pairs characteristic of the somatic cells in a diploid species.Farming of Tilapia Glossary Additive genetic variance: The proportion of the total phenotypic variance that depends on the additive effects of the genes. Crossbred: An animal produced by crossing two or more pure breeds. Crossbreeding: Mating systems in which hereditary material from two or more pure breeds. and prevents any contribution of the female genome to the embryo. Alleles: Members of a pair of different hereditary factors that may occupy a given locus on a specific chromosome and that segregate in formation of gametes. Alternative form of gene. strains or lines is combined. which carry the heredity material. As a result. Breeding value: The genetic value of a fish or a population. Combined selection: Combination of both within-family and betweenfamily selection to increase the accuracy of the estimates of breeding values. Chromosomes: Darkly staining bodies in cell nuclei. Chromosome set: A group of chromosomes representing a genome. which involves fertilization of eggs with inactivated maternal nucleus. 130 . Androgenesis: Opposite to gynogenesis. and thereby achieve a greater selection response.
and prevents any contribution of the male genome to the embryo. Genotype: Genetic makeup of a fish. most gametes are haploid so that when fertilization occurs the diploid condition is restored. and the variance of family size in the production of fish that are used to produce the next generation. the sex ratio. sometimes expressed as number per fish. generally termed as ovary in female or testis in male. the mating system employed. embryonic development proceeds with the inheritance of only maternal chromosome sets. Gynogenesis: Gynogenesis involves fertilization of eggs with inactivated sperm. Hapa: Fine meshed rectangular or square structure on which fertilized eggs or larvae are deposited after artificial spawning and hatching. ensuring no loss of genetic variation which is a function of the total number of breeding individuals. Family selection: Selection of the best male and best female fish from a family. Haploid: Having one complete set of chromosomes (see also Diploid). that portion which is inherited. The complete genetic make up is also referred to as the genome. Fecundity: Number of eggs produced. This is termed the 2n condition and is characteristic of most fish species. Effective population size (Ne): The ideal population size is infinitely large. 131 . such type of selection based on deviations from average family performance.Farming of Tilapia Diploid: Cells with two members of each pair of chromosomes. Gonad: Fish organ in which either eggs or sperm are produced. As a result. Heritability: The proportionate amount of additive genetic variance: h2 = VA/Vp Inbreeding: A system of mating in which mates are more closely related than average individuals of the population to which they belong. sometimes per kg of fish. Gene: The classical term of the basic unit of heredity.
Monosex population: Production of only female or male fish through genetic manipulation or sex inversion. based on some predetermined criteria. Polyploidy: A state where a cell or an individual contains three or more sets of chromosomes: e. Phenotypic variance: The variance that is observed or measured for a particular aspect of the phenotype in a population. Mitotic gynogenesis: Gynogenetic diploids produced by the inhibition of the first mitotic cell division of fertilized eggs. Sexual maturation: Condition of female and male individuals having ripe gonadal materials (eggs and sperm). Progeny: Offspring of any generation. and an increased percentage of deformed/abnormal fish that occur due to inbreeding. Mass selection: Individual selection or empirical selection of the best male and female individuals from a population. Vitellogenesis: The formation of yolk in the developing oocyte. Phenotype: Physical appearance or characteristics of an organism.Farming of Tilapia Inbreeding depression: Decreased performance in growth rate. Triploidy: Individuals having 3 sets of chromosomes (4n). Morula: An embryo that consists of a cluster of cleaving blastomeres.g. fecundity. Meiotic gynogenesis: Gynogenetic diploids poduced by the suppression of the second meiotic cell division of fertilized eggs. Tetraploidy: Individuals having 4 sets of chromosomes (4n). Pedigree: A fish’s family tree. triploid (3n) or tetraploid (4n). 132 . etc. The term is often used for photomicrographs of the metaphase chromosomes arranged in a standard sequence. Karyotype: The somatic chromosomal complement of an individual or species. Sex reversal: Modification of sex using hormonal manipulation. survival. Selection: A breeding program in which the breeder chooses which fish will be the next generation’s broodstock.
Farming of Tilapia Vitellogenin: A protein synthesized in the liver of sexually maturing females and incorporated into the yolk spheres of the developing oocyte. 133 . XX chromosome: Homozygous pair of sex chromosomes. produces in tilapia a female. produces in tilapia a male. YY male production: Indirect method of producing monosex all males (having YY genomic status) by combining both sex-reversal and/or genetic manipulation technique of the sex determining system in tilapia. XY chromosome: Heterozygous pair of sex chromosomes.
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53 Brood stock management. 1 Body colour inheritance. 60. 24 Artificial incubation. 23. 37. 116 Chromosome.. 29. 42 Cold shock. 77 Breeding pond. 76. 17. 76 Average genetic gain. 29 Brood stock. 103 Common farm environment. 11 Argulas sp. 23 Breeding hapa. 58-60. 54. 95 Common carp. 115 Allele. 23. 22 Additive genetic variation. 103. 58-59 Breeding value. 127 144 Breeding behaviour. 44 Anus. 42. 9-10. 9 Breeding candidate. 27. 117 Chitralada strain. 18 Brood stock replacement. 33 Circular tank. 11. 19. 20 Artificial incubation system. 78 Additive genetic gain. 97 Aeromonas punctata. 113 Artificial hatching system. 8 Asian Development Bank (ADB). 24 Asian countries. 31. 42 Aneuploid metaphase. 50 Blue tilapia. 10 Chichlid. 27 Communal testing. 3 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 23 Biomass. 23 Commercial tilapia farm. 48 All male monosex population. 21. 83. 103. 39 Closely related individual. 3 Aquatic larvae. 27. 18-21 Cage. 105 Base population. 70 Blotched type. 11 Courtship behavior. 37 Chromosome karyotyping. 47 Body weight. 27. Chilodonella sp.. 65. 45. 20. 22 Combined selection strategy. 21. 14 Aceto-carmine squash technique. 1. 36 Combined selection. 69 Breeding population. 108 Clonal line. 7. 56. 14. 30 Breeding tank. 56 Brackish water. 107 Cattle dung. 12 . 6 Chlorampheniocol. 96 Caudal fin. 23. 24. 40. 18. 26-27 Control group. 84 Androgenesis. 119 Artificial feed. 17 Automatic feed mixing machine. 12 Aquatic chicken. 22 Blackchin tilapia. 22 Colchicine solution. 60. 1 Bamboo pole. 21. 10. 33. 115 Absolute fecundity. 7 Copepod. 19.Farming of Tilapia Index Abdominal dropsy. 92. 42-43 Chromosome manipulation. 21 Aerator. 31. 29 Coefficient of variation. 98. 86.
14. 58-60. 18. 27. 33.Farming of Tilapia Cross breeding. 36. 24. 54. 22. 56. 43 GIFT strain. 20. 1 Gametogenesis. 59. 6 Demand feeder. 127 Freon. 53. 24 Haploid. 43 Glass aquaria. 40 Egg incubation system. 70 Fine meshed hapa. 27 Gynogenesis Half-sib. 21-22 Genetic improvement. 21-22 Genetic variation. 12. 22 Grow-out period. 3-32 Diploid metaphase. 58 First cleavage. 26-27. 20. 105. 20 Genome. 117 Formulated feed. 77 Effective population size (Ne). 98. 1921. 111 Full-sib family. 29 Hapa. 83 Existing strain. 105 Feeding rate. 48. 53. 44 Disease resistance. 39 First feeding fry. 96.23. 6 Family selection. 34 Fertilized egg. 26 Galilee tilapia. 20. 58 Cryopreservation. 31 Ethyl alcohol. 22 Genetic variability. 14 Hatching stage. 109 Dike construction. 3-7. 20. 22 Family selection strategy. 95 Diploid. 71 First mitotic division. 26. 21. 30 Genital papilla. 14. 112 Feeding trolley. 29 Genetic stock deterioration. 18. 55. 18 Freshwater. 14. 109. 2 Gene transfer. 24. 21 Dissolve oxygen. 96. 18 Fish meal. 27. 87. 105. 38. 44 Hatching. 15 Growth performance. 9 Genetic gain. 10 Glacial acetic acid. 26 Earthen pond. 27. 109. 59 Fingerling. 10. 37 145 . 32 Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). 11 Dorsal fin. 56. 26 Formalin. 48 Gonad development. 20. 31. 21 Feeding intensity. 31 Haploid metaphase. 111 Finite population. 42 Cumulative weight gain. 31. 34 Giemsa stain. 7 DEGITA countries. 105 Floy tag. 18 Genetic selection. 66 Egyptian red strain Endocrine hormone. 37 Generic names. 23 Fecundity. 13. 22-23. 36. 13. 20. 45 Crude protein. 31. 27. 112 Founder stock. 103 Gill-raker. 31 Fry. 105 Fertilization. 15 Endomitotic. 56. 32 Floating raft. 10. 53. 72. 29-30 Egg. 59. 19.
15 Omnivorous. 23.. 19 Homogametic. 1-3. 29 Incubation system. 20. 63-64 Monosex tilapia seed production system. 31. 20 Lateral line. 36 Inbreeding. 83 Oestrogen. 78 Micro-pipette. 12 Nile tilapia. 11 Hydrolic pump. 9-12. 77. 47. 23 Maternal mouth brooder. 64 Hybrid strain. 10. 2 Mustard oilcake. 23 Nursery hapa. 18. 12 Meiotic gynogenesis. 6. 29 146 Mass selection strategy. 64.. 31 Nest building. 117 Methyl testosterone-17α. 78 Mass selection. 94 Lipophosphoprotein-calcium. 21-22 Heterogametic. 40-41 Heritability. 9. 50 Metaphase chromosome. 20. 58 Oestradiol-17β. 103. 1 Malachite green. 115 Myxobolus sp. 34 Marker chromosome. 63. 18. 18 Homozygous. 3 Larnaea sp. 11 On-farm. 27 Liming. 15. 119 Natural breeding. 17 Oestrogenic control. 6 Longfin tilapia. 92 Nitrous oxide. 34 Individual selection. 103 Local strain. 40 Monosex population. 26. 34 Israel strain. 36. 6 . 31. 45-47 Heterogeneous. 22. 22 Maternal effect. 13 Mozambique tilapia. 21 Histological section. 63. 14 Mating. 45-48 Hormone mixed feed. 34. 22-23 Intensity of selection. 21 Intensive culture.Farming of Tilapia Heat shock. 14-15. 55. 89 Modified Cortland’s solution. 37 Mouth brooding. 15 Holding tank. 6 Hydracarine. 70. 6 On-station. 1. 31 Heterozygous. 66 Morula stage. 83 Nursery tank. 44 Methanol-acetic acid. 38 Melanophores. 77 Hybridization. 15 Livelihood. 30 Inbreeding depression. 117 Malathion. 58. 44 Masculinization. 14. 1o3 In vitro. 20. 13 Mixed sex. 9 None selected control group. 34 Milt. 10. 120 Manual stripping. 60 Myxobacterial infection. 21. 72 Microscope. 7 Non-genetic effect. 43 Methylene blue. 56. 120 Larvae. 64 Homozygosity.
107-108. 15 Second meiotic division. 111 Redbelly tilapia. 36. 18 147 . 54 Rural market. 113 Parental care. 18 Reference stock. 33. 14. 122 Salinity. 110-112 Radiometer. 45-46. 56. 18 Potassium permanganate. 15 Oviduct. 116 Paddle wheel. 32 Second polar body. 64. 90. 84 Prophylactic treatment. 37. 1. 107. 45. 107. 15 Primary oocyte. 69. 1. 12 Ovulation. 9-11. 86 Secondary sexual characteristic. 122 Rice bran. 107 Sarotherodon melanotheron. 24. 2. 91 Polyploidy. 1-3. 24. 124 Seasonal pond. 15 Secondary oocyte. 120 Poultry manure. 110. 37. 11. 20-21 Retailing market. 33 Physiological condition. 47 Reduced growth rate. 10. 54-55. 11 Pigmentation stage. 15 Progeny testing. 43 Photoperiod. 2 Red tilapia strain. 37. 96 Precocious maturation. 113 Phytoplankton. 10 Sashimi. 58 Rotenone. 10. 37 Plastic tray. 40 Radioimmunoassay. 15 Oreochromis andersonii. 21 Ovary. 98 Sarotherodon galilaeus. 93 Pond fertilization. 1 Oreochromis aureus. 31. 99 Purebred red strain. 34 Pedigree. 15 Recirculation system. 31 Polyculture. 15. 27 Paternal mouth brooder. 49-50 Raceway. 45. 40-41. 13 Oxytetracycline. 12. 1 Oreochromis mossambicus. 97 Parallel pond. 17. 65. 86-87 Poor genetic material. 112 Oreochromis machrochir. 78 Oocyte maturation. 40 Primary spermatocyte. 90 Polyetheline. 32. 47. 7. 53. 102. 10. 15 Secondary spermatocyte. 110. 17 Receptor-mediated endocytotic process. 17 Oogonia. 40 Seed production. 95 Parasite. 10 Phenotype. 112 Outbred stock. 63 Pressure shock. 33 pH. 1.Farming of Tilapia Oocyte. 21 Perennial pond. 32 Pond construction. 18. 38. 15 Pectoral fin. 45 Phosphate buffer. 86. 14 Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag. 112 Oreochromis niloticus. 41. 10 Peak maturation.4. 71 Ploidy manipulation. 14. 90 Perspex.
15. 77. 72 Streptomycin. 96. 9 Terrestrial insect. 12 Sperm. 17 Sexual pheromones. 64 UV sterilization. 19 Standard reference stock. 27. 13 Sib cross. 46-47 Three spotted tilapia. 37 Triploid metaphase. 54. 32. 50 World market. 26 Tank. 17 Sexual dimorphism. 70 Undifferentiated gonadal tissue. 32 Sodium Chloride. 27 Standard population size. 20. 78. 11. 2. 54. 7. 32. 31 Sex ratio. 106 Water tempertaure. 92. 107 Taxonomic classification. 118 Triploidy. 116 Substrate spawner. 15. 98-99. 19 Steroid hormone. 15. 109 Stocking density. 20. 39 . 15. 34 Water quality. 12 Urogenital papilla. 65 Unfertilized egg. 70 Sex reversal. 55. 66 Transitory hapa. 60 Tagging. 58. 107 Tilapia farming. 14 YY male. 34. 8. 22. 49 Silver barb. 11 Tetraploidy.. 78 Spermatozoa. 15 Yolk sac resorption stage. 91. 124 Yolk. 37 Vitellogenesis. 37 148 Thai red strain. 34 Urogenital opening. 17 Water bath. 44 Sex determination. 17. 15. 63. 30. 97 Serum calcium concentration. 12 Urethra. 19 Trichodina sp. 93-94 Small-scale farmer. 97. 12.Farming of Tilapia Selective breeding. 29 Semen. 34. 31 Standard length. 23 Selection intensity. 48. 87. 15 Spindle apparatus. 78 Sex steroid hormone. 34. 27. 10 Wild type. 15 Vitellogenin. 17 Semi-intensive culture. 11 Zygote. 48. 44 True breeder. 20. 9 Super Strain of GIFT. 15. 59 Spawning. 126-128 Tilapia hatchery. 22 Site selection. 84 Zooplankton. 8. 118 Solid waste. 105 Stock solution. 40 Spermatogonia. 1 Tilapia zillii. 70 Supplementary feed. 11 Sexual maturation. 17 Sex chromosome. 9. 102. 17.
He has served as Scientific Officer under Department of Fisheries. Director.G. Dr. Scotland. Hussain was born in Mymensingh. operation and promotion of tilapia aquaculture.Farming of Tilapia About the author Dr. He is instrumental in developing tilapia farming in Bangladesh particularly tilapia hatchery and monosex seed production system designing. Hussain has published more than 100 peer reviewed journal papers and co-edited several proceedings of seminars and workshops. and Finance of BFRI. Dr.D. UNV Fisheries/Aquaculture Specialist under UNDP. Hussain are: the development of a genetically improved strain of silver barb (Barbods gonionotus) and further improvement of GIFT strain through several generations of genetic selection. in Aquaculture Genetics from the University of Stirling. UK. He has been internationally reputed as “tilapia geneticist” due to his pioneer works on suppression of mitotic cleavage and production of genetic clones in Nile tilapia and genetic inheritance study leading to gene mapping in red tilapia strains. Admin. He earned his Ph. M. He has also co-authored several books. Geneva posted in Syria (1981-1986). Hussain is currently the Director. he has been conferred the prestigious National Fish Fortnight 2003 Gold Medal Award. The two most recent outstanding contributions of Dr. Principal Scientific Officer and Chief Scientific Officer under BFRI (1986-2000). Research and Planning under BFRI (2001-2004). Bangladesh on February 1954. he is presently involved with some international and national fish genetic research programs. the recent one is entitled “Genetic improvement and conservation of carp species in Bangladesh”. Bangladesh (1978-1981). As the Team Leader of Fish Breeding and Genetic Research Group of Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI). 149 . In recognition of such contributions.
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