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1. What were the main characteristics of the First Settlers of Britain and Ireland? In the late ice Age, when Britain was still joined by a land bridge to Europe, bands of hunter nomads roamed what is now southern England. 250.000 y ago, the first known inhabitant lived in the valley where the Kentish town of Swanscombe now stands. His tribe shared the forests with the prehistoric animals, that meant two things to them: meat and danger. There were straight-tusked elephants, gigantic cattle called aurochs, two species of fearsome rhinoceroses, horses and red deer. Armed only with wooden spears, the Swanscombe hunters tracked their prey in the forests of oak, elm and viburnum. After a kill, they skinned and butchered the animal. Swanscombe man probably had a beetling brow and a massive jaw. Only three of his skull bones have survived, but experts believe that he was not very different from men of today, with a very similar brain size. His life was precarious. Disease and hunting accidents must have taken a heavy toll. The bones which have been found belong to someone who died young, probably aged only 20 or 25 y old. The most tantalising question about Swanscombe man is wether he understood the secret of fire.
2. What were the most relevant Neolithic changes? The arrival of the first farmers in Britain and their settlement in the south of England, brought about one of the greatest changes in the history of the island. The farmers brought not only seeds of barley and of wheat, but sheep and cattle. Life was very hard for a Neolithic person, and in many ways, it was a more arduous form of existence. Agriculture helped to increase the population to m any times what it had been in the hunting and gathering era of around 8000 BC. Men
were able to observe the sun, the moon and the stars. They used their knowledge to build stone circles in which the stones were meticulously placed.
3. How did they build Stonehenge? It was built in 4 periods and it is unique, and represents the culmination of a very long tradition of building with large stones.
4. What were the new materials and tools used in the Bronze Age? The Wessex people brought the rich metal resources of Britain under their control, and founded a culture of exceptional wealth and power. Southwards, they were within easy reach of the English Channel and continental trade routes. The Wessex chieftains could exchange the grain, wool and hides produced by their peasant subjects for the precious metals of Ireland, Cornwall, Wales and northern England. They worked the valuable tin, copper and gold ores to create useful tools and beautiful ornaments.
5. What does ritual Landscape mean? They are places that, once upon a time, had been religious, they tend to have standing stones (Stonehenge) , they can also contain small graves, artificial ponds, wooden structures...
6. Enumerate the main features of Celtic Art. La Tène art is considered to be the first definitive Celtic art. Initially, it¶s fantastic imagery often included interpretations of classical and oriental forms. Like Celtic character, Celtic art was energetic, exuberant and explosive, and yet at the same time full of humour. By about 200 BC ,an essentially British style of Celtic art began to appear under Continental influence. Individual µschools¶ of artists, working under the patronage of wealthy chieftains, developed their own distinctive styles.
7. Describe the construction of the Hill-Fort defences. Most hill-forts occupied an impressive hilltop spur, fortified against attack from hill or valley. Many went out of use as major centres around 50 bc, for reasons which are not clear. There is no reason to suppose that their main function was defence against attack. The act of enclosure could be a response to a number of needs, both social and ritual, while the massive defence and gates could have been designed to impress rather than to deter, proclaiming the status of the occupants.
8. What were the most important changes in the Iron Age? There was an interaction between the µcivilised µcultures of the Mediterranean sphere (Greeks, Etruscans, Phoenicians, Romans) and the µbarbarians¶ beyond, played out over a period of some 800 y. The sea allowed adjacent communities to keep in contact with one another, exchanging ideas and gifts, trading in a nu mber of commodities, among them the metals in which the region was so very rich. In Ireland, Iron Age settlements were more elusive, but a number of hilltop enclosures have been found.
9. Why was religion so important in Prehistoric times? It was the µhero¶ and big solution against a great enemy, the devil. Churches were seen as places to keep safe. People have become less and less religious throughout the years, but in the old ages, religion was very highly considered, almost everyone was religious once upo n a time.
10 . Who were druids? Knowledge of the Druids comes directly from classical writers of their time. Druids managed the higher legal system and the courts of appeal, and their colleges in Britain were famous throughout the continent. Their knowledge of astronomy may have descended from the priests of megalithic times, together with the spiritual secrets of the landscape.
served for life. In good years. It has very long history of building and alteration. This had been achieved in a mere 1500 y. It is the focal point of the densest concentration of Neolithic and bronze age monuments anywhere in Britain. With their flint axes. The tools were primitive. man began building huge earthwork enclosures. and enjoyed absolute authority all over the Druids 11 . 12 . Digging sticks were used for planting and hoeing. It was the most important turning point since the introduction of farming. In the Neolithic.The president of the order. Stonehenge is the stone circle with highest stones in the whole of Britain! Stonehenge is unique. Excavations have shown that four main periods can be recognised in the building and use of Stonehenge. They introduced new types of stone tools including sickles. In the Neolithic period. men were able to observe the sun. Agriculture helped to increase the population. or henges. who was elected. enough grain could be grown to last through a lean winter. Describe the main symbolic features of Stonehenge. which covered most of the country. Explain the evolution that occurred in Britain from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. These henges acted as religious centres for large areas and were used for over 500 y. they hacked out cleanings in the woods. Agriculture had reached a stage where men could be spared from the field for long stretches. brought about one of the greatest changes in the history of the island. and represents the culmination of a very long tradition of building with large stone. The farmers brought not only seeds of barley and wheat. but sheep and cattle. The arrival of the first farmers in Britain and their settlement in the south of England. .
is one of the most complex in the British Isles. An increasingly large and complex society soon began to construct it¶s first full-scale monuments. they were within easy reach of the English Channel and continental trade routes. The best-known example from this time is Stonehenge. In the Bronze Age. This place presents one of the best examples of such a group of monuments anywhere in Europe. New materials and Tools The Wessex people brought the rich metal resources of Britain under their control. In this period. Ireland. They used their knowledge to build stone circles in which the stones were meticulously placed. The Wessex chieftains could exchange the grain. These causewayed camps were certainly not inhabited all the year round. including that of individual elite burials under cairns or barrows. or what forms of worship or ceremonies took place within it The Boyne Ritual Landscape in Country Meath. Stonehenge: It is unique. . Southwards. It is unknown what religious beliefs Stonehenge represents. wool and hides produced by their peasant subjects for the precious metals of Ireland. and some of them were blocked. Around them were dug a series of ditches. New traditions had arisen. which in places were bridged by solid causeways. it represents the culmination of a very long tradition of building with large stones. there were strong elements of continuity with Neolithic traditions. and founded a culture of exceptional wealth and power. Cornwall. the old ancestral tombs were no longer used. Bronze Age: The Bronze age in Britain and Ireland covers the period from about 2400 to about 700 BC . Wales and northern England. Initially. with the ongoing use of stone circles and communal burials in chambered tombs. where the sarsen circle. had been set up within the old henge.the moon and the stars. and later the horseshoe setting inside it. a definable social structure began to emerge in Britain.
a warrior people. Compare the effects the Celtic settlement had on England and Europe The first written historical reference to the Celts is around 450 BC when the Greek historian Herodotus told of Celtic settlements near the source of the Danube. so did the technical abilities of the bronze smiths. As supplies of bronze increased in Britain. the migration of the Celts is recorded all over Europe. Fostered by contacts with metal working on the continent. British craftsmen were lavishing their skills on objects used to display wealth a nd status. helmets and horse trapping. These objects were weapons.They worked the valuable tin. Etruscans. but they were comparatively few in number.. The Celts. played out over a period of some 800 y. shields. From this point on. there was an interaction between the µcivilised¶ cultures of the Mediterranean sphere (Greeks. In the late Bronze Age and during the greater part of the Iron Age (the last millennium bc). spread across much of Europe throughout the 5 th and 4th centuries BC. British trade and production in bronze reached its peak in the 8 th century BC. It began in the eigth century BC. In the Iron age. Bronze Age monuments were certainly spectacular. knowledge of an even better metal was beginning to spread to the island: iron. new types of monuments such as hill-forts appeared and new iron weapons began to emerge. When the Romans came to Britain in 55 BC. But during the next two centuries. . It was abundant. 13 . copper and gold ores to create useful tools and beautiful ornaments. when the Greeks and Phoenicians were starting to colonise the Mediterranean coasts. widespread and much more durable than the medals they had been using. Many established themselves in well-defended hill-forts in the south and west of England. Phoenicians and Romans) and the µbarbarians¶ beyond.
it was split into warring tribes . an essentially British style of Celtic art began to appear u nder continental influence 15 . its distinctive styles were more reminiscent of plant forms. La téne culture reached its flowering in the 3 rd century BC.Norman invasion of the 12 th century.but the Romans established law and order among them. Before Britain became a province of the Roman Empire. La Téne art is considered to be the first definitive Celtic Art. Outline the situation of Britain at the Romans¶ arrival. 14 . Although Gaelic identity was stimulated by the coming of the Vikings. it provided a refuge for Caesar¶s enemies . Initially. its fantastic imagery often included interpretations of classical and oriental forms. but later. Apart from that. more practically. exuberant and explosive. UNIT 2 Roman period and the Great invations 1. Native Celtic tradition now fused with these new ideas to create an extremely rich cultural environment. the centre of the druidic religion which the Romans had encountered in Gaul. It was reported to be rich and that there was gold and pearl fishing. But. and it exported tin and copper. Its slaves were highly valued.. Like Celtic character. it was a place of mystery. By about 200 BC. and yet at the same time full of humour. Celtic art was energetic. native Gaelic society and culture was profoundly changed following the Anglo. Write about the major forms and manifestations of Celtic Art in Britain.The coming of Christianity brought with it µRomanitas¶ the culture of Rome. Why did the Romans come to Britain? The Romans knew little of Britain.
5. wild flowers and the barbarian 4. the Vikings began to build fortified bases. and opened up communications so that trade could flourish. the willing cooperation of it¶s people had to be guaranteed through a process of Romanisation. Others were ordered away to fight Goths. In 407. which probably owed its early growth to Viking slave-trading. Why did the Romans abandon Hadrian¶s Wall? Hadrian¶s fortification served it¶s purpose for 250 years. Britain was to enjoy three centuries of unprecedented peace and prosperity. rain. It was simply abandoned to the wind. Under Rome. However.disciplined men. Which was the most important Viking settlement in Ireland? In 836. which in the tenth century developed into Ireland¶s first true towns. If a province was to be integrated into the empire. the last effective roman forces left Britain for the Continent. glorious battle decided the fate of the wall. But its success depended on the constant manning of garrisons with loyal and well. but a few became permanent settlements. What were the Romanisation? most relevant features of the The Romans established a system of law and order which gave the island it¶s first taste of national unity. founded in 841. So no final. Roman generals fighting for the imperial throne drained away troops. The most successful of these was Dublin. Vandals and huns battering on borders much nearer to Rome. What were the main aims of the Northern Frontier? To have a barrier between the barbarians and the Romans 3.2. called longphorts by the Irish. in the 4 th century the forces were no longer available. Most of these positions were occupied only briefly. in which they spent the winter so as to be able to make an early start to raiding when the spring arrived. .
social unrest and warfare. were Roman culture had been most entrenched. µeconomic roads¶ were also built by the roman army to link economic centres. called. most connecting local fields and hamlets. This upheaval affected all the British territories but its consequences were felt most strongly in southern and eastern Britain. -They found a collection of roads and paths. bloodthirsty crowds. 7. Many pots made in Roman Britain show gladiators fighting. partly because the roman towns and forts were built on new sites away from the Celtic settlements. In building their network of roads. (all roads leads to Rome). These waves of land hungry warriors come to Britain first as raiders and then as settlers. sporting events and real tragedies were played out. and depict tales of their feats. Describe the circuses´. Even in Britain. but also some longer -distance trade routes. This period of mass migrations across the North and Irish seas initiated the creation of a new political order. . meaning of the phrase: ³Bread and 6. In the arenas inside the cities. Every roman road in Britain was linked to London. The minor roads. bread and circuses. Generations of Roman emperors believed that the best way to preserve the loyalty of their far -flung subjects was to provide them with µpanem et circenses¶. They were used for plays and pantomimes. the Romans mostly ignored these previous paths. the roman need for food led to arrangements with tribes both inside and outside the province for supply of grain.- - - -In the countryside. Most Roman cities had amphitheatres outside the walls. one of the most remote territories of the empire was a constant succession of popular entertainments. What were the origins of the great migrations and Invasions? The collapse of the Roman province of Brittania created a fragile structure that drew Germanic migrants from across the channel and propelled native people around the British Isles. Men and animals were torn or hacked to death in gladiatorial clashes which drew cheering.
By the mid¶ 870¶s. of settling 10. and by the end of Roman Britain. In the thick of the fighting. existing British leaders were sufficiently highly regarded to be left in charge of their territories after the . the Vikings had shown signs permanently in the ravaged lands of Britain. conquest was not an end in itself. Why is the Anglo-Saxons chronicle so important? Because a new era was opened in British History.This period of conflict provides the historical context for the heroic efforts of (the probably largely legendary) King Arthur to resist the Anglo-Saxon expansion into western Britain. These new-comers created the pattern of villages that was to endure to modern times. survived even after the norman conquest. Although the Romans rated military glory highly. Christianity had a significant number of believers in Britain. Outline the situation of Britain at the beginning of the Romans period. 8. The Vikings inspired their enemies to unite against them. Then a great trial of strength took place. 11. Ethelred of Wessex died.the ³year of battles´. as the AngloSaxon Chronicle called it. The Danelaw. and was succeeded by Alfred. 9. while the Saxons remained pagan until the seventh century. place names ending in by (a village) and Thorpe (a hamlet) are a legacy of the Danish settlers. And t oday. In a few cases. When was the zenith of the Viking¶s assimilation in Britain? The Vikings invasions of Britain reached their peak in 870-1. where they settled and imposed their legal customs. Why was religion so important in the invasion period? Because the Romans were trying to spread out Christianity over the whole empire.
the Romans mostly ignored the previous paths. Trade flourished under the protection of the Roman legions. Roman civilisation was based on racial toleration and it was also firmly based on a society of different classes. at least. temporarily. In building their network of roads. In the countryside. Britain was to enjoy 3 centuries of unprecedented peace and prosperity. but between Britain and the rest of Europe. which must have been acquired in part through contact with the Roman Empire 12. Roads: The Romans found a collection of roads and paths. Describe the main features of the Romanisation of the British Isles. not only within the island. Walls = They were used as protective barriers. 13. the Roman administration needed a better network of roads to connect its new towns and army posts and to speed the flow of both trade goods and troops. The British benefited from a range of opportunities offered by Roman occupation. most connecting local fields and hamlets. economic and social . partly because the Roman towns and forts were built on new sites away from the Celtic settlements. The Romans established a system of law and order which gave the island its first taste of national unity. Under Rome. the Roman need for food led to arrangements with tribes both inside and outside the province for the supply of grain. Explain the function of the roman walls and roads in Britannia. There were Roman citizens and slaves. but also some longer distance trade routes. each Roman town was surrounded of Walls. However.Roman conquest. This brought a degree of political rules and wealth among these tribes.
This period of mass migrations across the North and Irish seas initiated the creation of a new political order. Explain the main features Unification of England. This long period of conflicts and ethnic tensions redefined a new Britain. social unrest and warfare. 14. Discuss the meaning of the great migrations in Britain. unlike the roman provincial structure. It lasted from 600 to 1066. consisting of little kingdoms. the finest examples of which were found in the Roman villa at Lullingstone in Kent. Celtic and Anglo-Saxon social organisation was not so different. Compare the impact of the Roman Conquest and the great invasions of Britain.Introduced to Britain in the 3rd century. of the process of the . There was new political landscape. but there were great religious and linguistic differences 15. The collapse of the Roman province of Britannia created a fragile structure that drew Germanic migrants from across the channel and propelled native people around the British Isles. UNIT 3 The unification of England 1. Two striking differences between the scenes in the Roman and AngloSaxon reconstructions are that: a) The town was much more densely occupied in Roman times and b) The building styles are very different. This period of conflict provides the historical context for the heroic efforts of (the probably largely legendary) King Arthur to resist the Anglo-Saxon expansion into western Britain. Christianity flourished under the Romans and inspired its own art.
In 939. The battle of Hastings was a traditional watershed in English history. Edward the elder (899-924). from the kingdom of the West Saxons to the kingdom of the English. Any opposition to his rule was brutally crushed. After his death. the invading Normans. his successors extended their rule over the Danes and the Northumbrians. The Vikings conquered the kingdoms of East Anglia. William won his throne by force and he defended it by force. vanquished the Anglo-Saxons under Harold Godwineson. led by their Duke. too. who spread West Saxon control over the Da nes of eastern England and the Mercians. The frontier had been taken up to the river Humber. William the bastard (later William the Conqueror). Ireland. Sussex. The Norman conquest of 1066 was an outer ripple of this movement. seemed to be moving towards greater political unity under the High king Brian Boru. the Dublin Norse re-established their links with York but it was not until the reign of king Edgar (975) that the unified kingdom of England was completed. in the early 11th century.The ancient kingdom of the West Saxons had been transformed into a kingdom of Anglo-Saxons by King Alfred the Great. . Surrey and Essex. The kingdom of the West Saxons had spread eas twards in the central decades of the 9 th century to control Kent. One represented the new mobility of the Anglo-Danish power and the older defended the political interests north of the river Thames 2. Northumbria and Mercia. the English were facing a constant external threat and. There was a process of political development throughout the ninth and 10th centuries.on Athelstan¶s death. the Danish invaded. Describe the main features of the Norman conquest. and during the 10th century. Alfred¶s ³kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons´ passed to his son. who died with an arrow in his eye.
He must have known that if resistance continued. and stretching some way into Mercia. to discover the true wealth and probable future wealth of England. covering all the old kingdoms of Wessex. Royal officials journeyed throughout the land. ³not even one ox. In January. Yet such was the English leaders¶ indecision that. a few weeks later. On Christmas day 1066 he was crowned king of England. In 1068 the Conqueror faced a real challenge. 4. 3. at the news of the conqueror¶s approach. leaving it to be occupied by the rebels. What were the main purposes of the Magna Carta? It was a document that King John of England was forced into singing. London still held out. which were the subdivisions of counties. his communications with Normandy were vulnerable and his sources of supply uncertain. the Normans fled from York. according to a chronicler. the rebellion collapsed. Kent. William knew that final victory was a long way off. Sussex and Essex.´ When the information had been gathered. It was one of the first censuses. The Magna Carta became the basis for English citizens µrights.. His dominion was primarily in the south. The survey was carried out quickly but with such thoroughness that. recording details of the property owned by everyone from the king downwards. it came from the north. or one cow or pig escaped notice. This was the most serious defeat suffered by the Normans in England. returns were submitted for individual ³hundreds´.Not all England had accepted him as king.) The main aim of the Magna Carta was to curb the king and make him govern by the old English laws that had prevailed before the Normans . What is the Domesday Book? It¶s the record of the great national survey ordered by William I in 1085. ( it demonstrated that the power of the king could be limited by a written grant. Most of its clauses recounted their specific complaints against the lawless behaviour of King John. a Norman army was massacred in Durham.
The Magna Carta is considered to be the founding document of English liberties and hence American liberties. or other person that holds lands directly of the Crown. the heir of heirs of a knight 100s. 4 The guardian of the land of an heir who is under age shall take from it only reasonable revenues. customary dues. but the fact that it was granted at all. of us and our heirs: 2.came. The influence of Magna Carta can be seen in the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights. to have and to keep for them and their heirs. That is to say the heir of heirs of an earl shall pay 100 for the entire earl¶s barony. and feudal services. Summary of Magna Carta: 1 The English Church shall be free. some copied and some recollected some old and some new. baron. and shall have its rights undiminished. and its liberties unimpaired. At the most for the entire knight¶s ³fee´ and any man that owes less shall pay less. and at his death his heir shall be of full age and owe a ³relief´ . which in future ages were to be regarded as the backbone of English Liberties. shall die. The Magna Carta was a collection of 37 English laws. All these clauses were largely the work of Stephen Langton. he must govern his subjects according to its terms and not according to his own whim. Copies of the Magna Carta were distributed to bishops. all the liberties written out below. He . Magna Carta insisted that the king could not be above the law and that in the future. If any earl. for us and for our heirs forever. sheriffs and other important people throughout England. for military service. The most important thing about this charter was not what it said. 3 But if the heir of such a person is under age and a ward. TO ALL FREE MEN OF OUR KINGDOM we have also granted. Copies of the Magna Carta were distributed to sheriffs and other important people throughout England. when he comes of age he shall have his inheritance without ³relief´ or fine . The Magna Carta mixed specific complaints with some principles of law. in accordance with the ancient usage of ³fees´.
For these purposes only a reasonable ³aid´ may be levied. for lack of means. 6.shall do this without destruction or damage to men or property. who shall be similarly answerable to us. and (once) to marry our eldest daughter. unless the debtor can show that he has settled his obligations to them. he shall maintain the houses. so long as she wishes to remain without a husband. ponds. 11 If a man dies owing money to Jews. 8 No widow shall be compelled to marry. Before a marriage takes place. to make our eldest son a knight. and he causes destruction or damage. parks. his wife may have her dower and pay nothing towards the debt from it. it shall be µmade known to the heir¶s next-of-kin. and it shall be handed over to two worthy and prudent men of the same ³fee´. irrespective of whom he holds his lands. . from the revenues of the land itself. and everything else pertaining to it. She may remain in her husband¶s house for 40 d after his death. If we have given or sold to anyone the guardianship of such land. and within this period her dower shall be assigned to her. fish preserves. he shall lose the guardian ship of it. 7 At her husband¶s death. But she must give security that she will not marry without royal consent. If. 5 For so long as a guardian has guardianship of suc h land. 9 Neither we or our officials will seize any land or rent in payment of a debt. mills. ³Aids´ from the city of London are to be treated similarly. but not to someone of lower social standing. 12 No ³scutage´ or ³aid´ may be levied in our kingdom without its general consent. 10 If anyone who has borrowed a sum of money from Jews dies before the debt has been repaid. they may have the debtor¶s lands and rents until they have received satisfaction for the debt that they paid for him. Heirs may be given in marriage. a widow may have her marriage portion and inheritance at once and without trouble. unless it is for the ransom of our person. his heir shall pay no interest on the debt for so long as he remains under age. his sureties shall be answerable for it. the debtor is unable to discharge his debt. If they so desire.
or other free holding of land. to come together on a fixed day (of which at least 40 d notice shall be given) and at a fixed place. having regard to the volume of business to be done. 14 To those who hold lands directly of us we will cause a general summons to be issued. of those who have attended the court. 15 In future we will allow no one to levy an ³aid´ from his free men. The details included in this chapter were intended to assure a just hearing. and (once) to marry his eldest daughter. and a husbandman the implements of his husbandry. . In the same way. a free man shall be fined only in proportion to the degree of his offence. and in proportion to the gravity of their offence. except to ransom his person.13 The city of London shall enjoy all its ancient liberties and free customs. For these purposes only a reasonable ³aid´ may be levied 16 No man shall be forced to perform more service for a knight¶s ³fee´. but shall be held in a fixed place. even when the docket was overloaded 20 For a trivial offence. -Efforts would be made to assure a fair hearing. provided for in this chapter. as will suffice for the administration of justice. through the sheriffs and other officials. None of these fines shall be imposed except by the assessment on oath of reputable men of the neighbourhood. as many knights and freeholders shall afterwards remain behind. 21 Earls and barons shall be fined only by their equals. if they fall upon the mercy of a royal court. 19 If any assizes cannot be taken on the day of the county court. both by land and by water. than is due from it. 18 Certain cases were more appropriately (and conveniently) heard in local courts. but not so heavily as to deprive him of his livelihood. and for a serious offence correspondingly. to make his eldest son a knight. 17 Ordinary lawsuits shall not follow the royal court around. a merchant shall be spared his merchandise.
one not subject to local interpretation. hundred. royal official or other person shall take horses or carts for transport from any free man.21 ±Punishment for violations of the law was to be in proportion to the seriousness of the offense. 29 A knight taken or sent on military service shall be excused from castle-guard for the period of this service. 28 No constable or other royal official shall take corn or other movable goods from any man without immediate payment. under the supervision of the Church. the Medway.20. thus establishing a standard of fairness 22 A fine imposed upon the lay property of a clerk in holy orders shall be assessed upon the same principles. coroners. without reference to the value of his ecclesiastical benefice. or for any other purpose. 30 No sheriff. wapentake. 26 If no debt is due to the Crown. The rights of his debtors are to be preserved. 33 All fish weirs shall be removed from the Thames. except the royal demesne manors. after which they shall be returned to the lords of the ³fees´ concerned. unless the seller voluntarily offers postponement of this. and throughout the whole of England. 31 Neither we nor any royal official will take wood for our castle. 24 No sheriff. 32 We will not keep the lands of people convicted of felony in our hand for longer than a year and a day. his movable goods are to be distributed by his next -of-kin and friends. all the movable goods shall be regarded as the property of the dead man. 25 Every county. or other royal officials are to hold lawsuits that should be held by the royal justices. without his consent. except on the sea coast . constable. without the consent of the owner. 27 If a free man dies intestate. and tithing shall remain at its ancient rent. without increase. except the reasonable shares of his wife and children. -The goal of this provision was to provide a uniform system of justice. 23 No town or person shall be forced to build bridges over rivers except those with an ancient obligation to do so.
if a free man could thereby be deprived of the right of trial in his own lord¶s court. this chapter required that an inquiry be conducted in any case that might result in the defendant being deprived of life or limb. -A precursor to the writ of habeas corpus. to no one deny or delay right or justice. indicating the importance he pla ced on this procedure. -The requirement for a jury of one¶s peers (or. and not refused. as the British Library translation puts it. it did not. mean that a jury ( as we understand that term) would hear the case and render a verdict. ale. These charges were considered legitimate ways for .with cost dependant on the nature of the writ and its potential value. however. this chapter required ³faithful witnesses´ to attest that a man has committed a crime before he was formally accused and prosecuted. was to charge a fee for certain writs. subject to punishment.39 No free man shall be seized or imprisoned. 35 There shall be standard measures of wine. Edward Coke referred to this as the ³golden passage´. and corn (the London quarter) 36 In future nothing shall be payed or accepted for the issue of a writ of inquisition of life or limbs. until this clause was adopted. In the context of the time in which it was written. The writ calling for the inquiry was to be issued free of charge. It shall be given gratis.34 The writ called precipe shall not in future be issued to anyone in respect of any holding of land. 38 In future no official shall place a man on trial upon his own unsupported statement. ³the lawful judgement of the equals´) is probably the most famous and certainly one of the most crucial guarantees of due process in the Magna Carta. -Another key element in due process. or stripped of his rights or possessions. i. or outlawed or exiled. This established one of the essential elements of due process of law37 The king gives up his prior rights to lands of heirs. this provision meant that a person could present his case to members of his own class.40 To no one will we sell. -The practice. without producing credible witnesses to the truth of it.e.
However.the king to raise revenue. only men that know the law of the realm and are minded to keep it well. 44 People who live outside the forest need not in future appear before the royal justices of the forest in answer to general summonses. for some short period. in accordance with ancient and lawful customs. and may stay or travel within it. and have charters of English Kings or ancient tenure as evidence of this. 49 We will at once return all hostages and charters delivered up to us by Englishmen as security for peace or for loyal service. for the common benefit of the realm. unless they are actually involved in proceedings or are sureties for someone who has been seized for a forest offence 45 We will appoint as justices. for purposes of trade.41 All merchants may enter or leave England unharmed and without fear. such as the honour of Wallingford. free from all illegal exactions. or other officials . except in time of war. Riverbanks that have been enclosed in our reign shall be treated similarly. may have guardianship of them when there is no abbot. sheriffs. Boulogne. 42 In future it shall be lawful for any man to leave and return to our kingdom unharmed and without fear. preserving his allegiance to us. by land or water. Lancaster. constables. they had the effect of denying justice to those who could not afford them. We will hold the ³es cheat´ in the same manner as the baron held it. Nottingham. had the barony been in the baron¶s hand. -This sets a standard for those appointed to enforce and administer the law. as in their due.they must ³know the law´ and be prepared to ³keep it well´ 46 All barons who have founded abbeys. at his death his heir shall give us only the ³relief´ and service that we would have made to the baron. . 47 All forests that have been created in our reign shall at once be disafforested. 50 We will remove completely from their offices the kinsmen of Gerard de Athée. and in future they shall hold no offices in England. or of other ³escheats´ in our hand that are baronies. 43 If a man holds lands of any ³escheat´.
-Picking up on the theme of fairness.. to its harm. 54 No one shall be arrested or imprisoned on the appeal of a woman for the death of any person except her husband. archbishop of Canterbury. or to remain forests. all Welsh hostages. shall be entirely remitted or the matter decided by a majority judgement of the 25 barons referred to below in the clause for se curing the peace (61) together with Stephen. with the guardianship of lands in another person¶s ³fee´. Worth nothing is the attempt to avoid a ³conflict of interest´: a baron was expected to step aside and allow a substitute to decide a case similar to one in whic h he was himself involved 56 English law shall apply to holdings of land in England. 55 All fines that have been given to us unjustly and against the law of the land. 52 To any man whom we have deprived or dispossessed of lands..The people in question are Engelard de Cigogné. when these were first a-orested by our father Henry or our brother Richard. and all their followers. and the law of the Marches to those in the marches. when we have hitherto had this by virtue of a ³fee´ held of us for knight¶s service by a third party. Peter. with horses and arms. Guy. bowmen. and his brothers. the chapter called for the repayment of all fines that were imposed unjustly. and with abbeys founded in another person¶s ³fee´. 53 We shall have similar respite in rendering justice in connexion with forests that are to be disafforested. liberties or rights. Welsh law to those in Wales. 51 As soon as peace is restored. castles. 58 We will at once return the son of L lywelyn. and it established the procedure by which challenges against unjust fines were to be handled. and such others as he wishes to bring with him. in which the lord of the ³fee´ claims to own a right. and all fines that we have exacted unjustly. we will remove from the kingdom all the foreign knights. The Welsh shall treat us and ours in the same way. without the lawful judgement of his equals we will at once restore these. . with Geoffrey his nephew. and the mercenaries that have come to it. and the charters delivered to us as security foe the peace. if he can be present. their attendants. Philip Marc and his brothers.
was driven by the conviction that he was Scottish. his liberties and his rights. we give and grant to the barons the following security. that he could be treated otherwise.59 With regard to the return of the sisters and hostages of Alexander. Their great victory was in September . The Scots were on the march. and to allay the discord that has arisen between us and our barons. Wallace raised an enthusiastic army and he tramped his men into the north and retook the castles that Edward had captured. formerly king of Scotland. the English Parliament progressively limited the power of the English monarchy which arguably culminated in the English civil war and the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649 6. and. Edward was English. for the better ordering of our kingdom. implying that the right and liberties would be extended to all men and by all men within the kingdom 61 SINCE WE HAVE GRANTED ALL THESE THINGS for God. this chapter enlarged the scope of the Magna Carta. Let al men of our kingdom. Witness the abovementioned people and many others 5. ove r the centuries. 60 All these customs and liberties that we have granted shall be observed in our kingdom in so far as concerns our own relations with our subjects. and since we desire that they shall be enjoyed in their entirety. -Another of Coke¶s favourites. and Scotland must be free of the king called the hammer of the Scots. king of Scotland. How did Scotland win its independence in 1328? William Wallace. whether clergy or laymen. unless it appears from the charters that we hold from his father William. Why is the summoning of the First English Parliament a turning point in British History? Because it introduced a feudal system. 63 ±Both we and the barons have sworn that all this shall be observed in good faith and without deceit. a mere boy in his twenties in the town of Paisley. observe them similarly in their relations with their own men. we will treat him in the same way as our other barons of England. with lasting strength.
How can the Medieval British Economy be described? The general belief in medieval times was the existence of a sole Church. 8. Henry VI remained at large. and when Edward seated himself upon the throne in Westminster. This battle demonstrated the military brilliance of Wallace. The medieval population were highly immobile with regard to both vertical (social) and horizontal (spatial) mobility. Why was the medieval church so important in the British Isles? . 7. The land-cultivating class made up. What were main effects of the continual between the Houses of Lancaster and York? warfare Each family believed that it had a legitimate claim to the throne. 9. He was hanged. there were few who regretted the passing of the red rose of Lancaster. In 1305 Wallace was betrayed and carried to London to be charged with treason. Another feature of the middle ages is immobility. since he had never given his loyalty to an English king. drawn and quartered all the same. The House of York (1461-1485). The English survivors fled and Walla ce became the master of Scotland. He rejected the charge. the largest segment of the population. Medieval society was mainly agricultural and it had to overcome serious difficulties with obtaining a continuous supply of food and raw materials. Vertical immobility was the result of a rigidly hierarchies society. The old king. the catholic creed. a wandering fugitive with a small band of attendants. had a stronger claim to the throne the House of Lancaster. by far.1297 at Stirling Bridge. The Lancastrians met defeat in their turn. the Roman Catholic Church with it s sole truth. Edward was proclaimed the first Yorkist king . although both were branches of the house Plantagenet.
. The epidemic had London in it¶s grip by January 1349. disease and death were a constant threat. Edward III dissolved Parliament. Thus. men looked to God and the Church rather than to science for aid and assistance. The average Englishman could exp ect to live only to the age of 38 y in the mid 14th century. natural phenomena in the skies such as eclipses or comets were often looked upon as divine intervention and greeted with awe and terror. it was believed. had exactly that effect. Its symptoms inspired terror in men¶s hearts. What were the main social consequences of the Black Death? and economic Life in the middle Ages was a battle for survival for the vast majority of British people. Therefore. in which Harold was killed and Saxon England fell to William and his Norman invaders. in times of trial and peril. The appearance in 1066 of Halley¶s Comet. God seemed to have abandoned the English people. It was regarded as a sign that God was about to punish King Harold for breaking an oath which he had broken his word and thus. But.In the middle ages. And to many. or that it was spread by travelling Jews who poisoned the wells. The English knew the plague was spreading towards them. man¶s faith in the Christian religion was unshakeable. and the court left London in haste f or the countryside. and the Black Death was no exception. Sickness. Most particularly. Epidemics usually follow commercial trade routes. Frightene d men asserted that the disease was carried in a great black cloud. The outbreak of the plague in 1348 seems to have originated in the Yunnan Peninsula of China. as the terrible plague of the Black Death swept through England in 1348. faced divine vengeance. where they supposed there was less risk of infection. named after the 17 th century astronomer who subsequently charted its orbit. the outcome of the battle of Hastings. the outbreak of a plague without known cause or cure led many to go on pilgrimages. 10. but their primitive medical science was no barrier to the advance of the most virulent epidemic in western history. seemed to justify their forebodings of disaster.
aristocratic and cosmopolitan ecclesiastics. He sought to limit papal power in England. It is difficult to say to what extent the Black Death affected the Irish population. and came to a head with the crisis involving Archbishop Thomas Becket. the Those at the head of the English church were often wealthy. The Magna Carta is considered to be the founding document of English liberties and hence American liberties. the potential for conflict between church and state grew. Priests could not be found to say Mass in poor parishes. Positive ones: Most of its clauses recounted their specific complaints against the lawless behaviour of King John. Present your ideas and impressions about conflict between Church and State. The m ain aim of the Magna Carta was to curb the king and make him govern by the old English laws that had prevailed before the Normans came. The outcome of the row in 1164 was the murder of Thomas . In 1351 this outbreak of the plague had run its course. and the laying waste of over 1000 villages. The destruction of one third of England¶s population of 3 million. Henry II expected to have a complaint church after proposing the constitutions of Clarendon (1164). One chronicler explained that µno sin of man could be so awful as to deserve such a punishment of God. 11. The foregoing evidence shows that the plague penetrated all regions of the country between 1348 and 1350. With such conspicuous wealth among clergy. through some localities undoubtedly escaped. Magna Carta insisted that the king could not be above the law and that in the future. Arguments for and against the signing of the Magna Carta. he must govern his subjects according to its terms and not according to his own whim. 12.Three successive Archbishops of Canterbury died in the space of 12 months. London¶s cemeteries were too small to take the hundreds of dead who arrived every day. was a disaster unparalleled in modern times. Becket was determined to sustain the church.
The first newcomers were members of the cluniac reform movement. and in the same century a monetised economy was introduced to the English lordship or Ireland 14. the money supply grew faster than the population during the 13th century. Medieval society was mainly agricultural and it had to overcome serious difficulties with obtaining a continuous supply of food and raw materials. In both England and Scotland.Becket in 1170. unification of the In England. apparently by royal command. Discuss the importance of the feudal system. Norman kings. 13. Ireland. and the Normans actively supported the reforming popes of the late 11th century. Kings and lords created this wide commercial structure. 15. The regular clery was a social group composed by clerks following a rule and forming a property-owning corporation such a monastic society or a military order. Discuss the meaning of the English territories. from Burgundy. the sole monastic order available to Saxon England. New religious orders were introduced to England to increase the Benedictine houses. in his cathedral at Canterbury. Why were the English lords so powerful in Medieval England? Main reasons. worked closely with the church. Commercial confidence was sustained by a moderate rate of inflation and the supply of sound silver coinage maintained by the Scottish and English kings. The . like their Anglo -Saxon predecessors. Feudal lords owned plots of land laboured by their serfs. The medieval population were highly immobile with regard to both vertical (social) and horizontal (spatial) mobility. Scotland and Wales there was a wide network of chartered trading places such as markets. Their main aim was to stimulate and profit from trade. fairs and boroughs where trade took place at designated times and often on privileged dates.
Mercator would complete his first map of the world. What was the role of Parliament in English Politics? . commerce or war. power and enlightenment. when the Tudor dynasty came to power. In just over a century. Why was the Tudor dynasty so important in England? The arrival of the Tudors heralded a new age. although the nobility had not supported its cause 2. whether in diplomacy. and on the high seas. With Henry VII came increasing peace. Both of them were closed classes. by far . England and Spain would become the great rivals for supremacy. All three claimed to derive their authority from heaven. This was the age of the great voyages of exploration. The lesser nobility (knights and feudal lords) and the regular clergy constituted the next step in the pyramid. The Tudor name brought with it an aura of daring and excitement. England was divided and bankrupt after thirty years of civil war. Who supported Mary¶s claim to the throne of England? The Scots. These were usually land-owning classes with great prerogatives. 3. the brilliant Tudors steered the country in a new direction to revitalise their kingdom and make it the envy of the world.land-cultivating class made up. UNIT 4: The Tudor age 1. The king or the emperor and the Pope stood at the apex of medieval society. the largest segment of the population. The country counted for little on the continent. Knights were men of free birth following a non-servile service to an aristocrat. Under these we find the aristocracy and the upper church hierarchy. In 1485.
The new Christians called themselves ³Protestants´ because they were protesting against the Roman ³Catholic´ (meaning ³universal´) Church. its practices. so it looked as if the church was selling pardons. This was often giving money to the church. Parliament was the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Members of the House of Commons were more independent as they were sometimes elected by the people who lived in the area they represented. However. It was unusual for members of the House of Lords to criticise the king's policies. . they had to be passed by Parliament. He believed that man could only be saved by the grace of god. Earls and Barons. a person had to perform a good deed. While Mary¶s strong Catholic faith gave her a great sense of purpose. 4.In Tudor times most important decisions concerning government were made by the king or queen and a small group of advisers called the Privy Council. since the pope didn¶t agree with divorce 5.. they were in danger of being stripped of their titles. Luther (this monk) protested that this was wrong. Their demand for reform led to this period of history being called the Reformation. What was the Reformation? It was a religious movement which led to the birth of the protestant faith. he protested against the catholic practice of granting indulgences. he had to break away from the Catholic church. very few people had the vote and in many cases the largest landowner in the area decided who went to Parliament. In 1517. before these decisions became law. Why did Henry VIII break with the Catholic Church? Because in order to divorce from his wife. Dukes. However. The House of Lords was made up of about sixty Bishops. If they did so. It was started by a catholic monk who did not believe that you could just buy your way into heaven. Church services changed back to Latin. An indulgence was a pardon instead of punish ment for a sin. it also made her obstinate and narrow minded. To gain an indulgence. its teachings and its customs.
the parliament passed the act of suppression. monasteries and convents across Engl. Henry needed to reduce the power of the church in England. and Henry ordered the closing down of the wealthy Roman Catholic Abbeys. as well as find money to fund his fruitless and expensive wars against France and Scotland. At first. thereby putting himself in charge of all the churches and monasteries in England. and their stone-work was plundered by local people in search of building materials. Wales and Ireland. the 2nd act of suppression was passed to sanction the transfer of further monastic possessions to the state. 6. Wales and Ireland. and everything else. In 1539 the 2nd act of Suppression was passed to sanction the transfer of further monastic possessions to the state. In 1536. It took about a century to work through society. Henry VII took . Henry responded to the Pope with the act of supremacy.The reformation was not an immediate success . In 1539. Latin. English. Many of the greatest monasteries fell into ruin. the parliament passed the Act of became known as the Suppression. Henry VIII took ownership of all the buildings. How did the British Reformation influence national and international politics? In 1534. Outlying areas of the British Isles. and Henry ordered the closing down of the wealthy Roman catholic Abbeys. which ³Dissolution of the Monasteries´. money. Some of the monastic buildings and lands were sold off after the dissolution. Some of the small monasteries stayed open because they paid some money to the king. with another. never experienced the reformation. which became known as the ³Dissolution of the monasteries´. monasteries and convents across England. In 1536. land. the reformation merely substituted one barely int elligible language. Wales also suffered the religious upheaval of the reformation. including much of Ireland and small communities.
Eng. land. was the first to pay with his life for his loyalty to the protestant faith. wherever they were. After all this.trying to counteract the Reformation There were groups who supported these two movements. bells re-hung and the old service books returned. England got involved because Henry VIII wanted independence from the Vatican so he could get divorced and remarried. and their stonework was plundered by local people in search of building materials. and their communities scattered.ownership of all the buildings. money and everything else. Mary Tudor finally despaired of ever bearing a child and reluctantly recognised her sister. John Rogers. In the parishes.. Early in the winter of 1558. for e.g. Mary . He was burnt at outside Gloucester Cathedral. A married priest.. Many of the greatest monasteries fell into ruin. Germany. The Counter Reformation is the reaction of the Vatican and the Catholics against the protestant movement. 7. on the 17th of 11. Much could not be restored. the monastic houses had largely been demolished or converted to other uses. In France. The next was John Hooper. Which were the main repercussions of the Counterreformation in Britain? The reformation started ideologically by Martin Luther. Mary was able to re-establish a Benedictine monastery at Westminster and small religious houses elsewhere. the ones who won the day were the Catholics. Some of the small monasteries stayed open because they payed some money to the king. altars re-erected. statuary replaced. as heir to the throne of Engl. A few days later. churchwardens¶ accounts graphically show how church furnishings were restored. Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester.. And Switzerland became independent countries. Some of the monastic buildings and lands were sold off after t he dissolution. Elisabeth. He was burnt at Smithfield in London. Spain. It was there for basically a reactionary movement .
their luck in the fact that they lived to an advanced age and left obvious heirs to succeed them. united and annexed to and with his Realm of England´. and after that. What was the significance of µthe Act of union of 1536¶? Between 1536 and 1543. Describe monarchs. . How did Britain become a world power in this period? The basis of the wealth was mostly exploiting the colonies. 10.. stating (on behalf of the king) that Wales ³is and ever has been incorporated.was dead and Elisabeth proclaimed queen. the major powers (Spain. fact which the preamble to the act of 1536 makes clear. 8. somewhat of an exaggeration. Eng. It was not a question of uniting two countries together as Wales had already been effectively incorporated into England since the days of the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284. It was the end of the Counter ±Reformation in Britain. got into colonising) Eng. Colonised a good chunk of north A. Portugal. And France tried to aswell. Their abilities showed themselves in their astute choice of servants and policies. the main achievements of the Tudor The 5 Tudor monarchs were rulers of extraordinary ability. colonies 11. and much also to their continuing good luck. but in essence the simple truth 9. mostly trading with the A. What were the main reasons for British expansion overseas at the end of the sixteenth century? Had just been discovered at the end of the 15th century. the English parliament passed a series of laws that became known as the Acts of Union during the reign of Henry VIII.
Magnificent displays of wealth and power were more than a way of life. Henry stood as a candidate to succeed him. it contained plenty of criticism of the Henry VIII¶s government he knew. the Tudors had to appear strong. she was arrested. Henry VIII is probably the best known king of Eng.K. Pope. So long as Englishmen thought that their king could defeat any rebellion. Henry VII and later his son Henry VIII concentrated the residences they governed from in the south -east and were unwilling to travel their kingdom as much as their predecessors had done. In order to be strong. Henry¶s second wife was Anne Boleyn. In 1516. And may even be the most notorious. When the Holy Roman Emperor. Henry was the first to inherit a comparatively U. Henry strengthened his claim on the throne by marring Elisabeth of York.Propaganda was the key to Henry¶s success. Tudor government and court The Tudor name brought with it an aura of daring and excitement. Maximilian I. It was part of the European debate. died in 1519. However. tried and found guilty . nominating Thomas Wolsey. This period was one of change in Eur. Henry VII re-established the equilibrium of the English monarchy and its finances. who gave birth to a girl. who regarded him as a good prospect. He obeyed his father¶s that he marry his elder brother¶s widow. in order to continue the alliance with Spain. When Pope Leo X died in 1521. the eldest daughter of Edward IV. they were unlikely to join one. but without success. having earlier been encouraged by Maximilian himself. Katherine of Aragon. Certainly his reign saw some of the most developments in Eng since the time of Edward I. Henry strove to have an Engl. Henry wanted to be the centre of the European stage. In 1536. Thomas Moore¶s utopia was published. thereby uniting the houses of York and Lancaster under the new dynasty. although the nobility had not supported its cause. the future Elisabeth I.
In Engl. a historic assembly gathered together in the dim light of Westminster Hall. The 1601 Parliament is a good example of a Parliament called for one purpose which diverted its attention to others. who gave birth to the future Edward VI. At first. the different Houses of Lords included the abbots of the leading monasteries. At the first Engl. elected representatives from the different shires and the main towns (the parliamentary borough). The Parliament: The creation of Parliament is one of the greatest gifts that Britain has given to the world. but in Scotland they were excluded after 1638. for the first time. Henry married Jane Seymour. Until the protestant reformation. on a March morning in 1265. and the House of Commons.of treason and executed. Elisabeth went on to reign for nearly 45 y. Simon de Montfort. There had been other rebellions during her reign. It was under Henry III that. . The English parliament consisted of 2 chambers. An important topic to be considered during Elizabeth¶s reign was the revolution in Ireland. the strong Tudor monarchs. longer than any king since Edward III. She personified her country at the summit of its fame. Parliament. successors to York and Lancaster. who were the nobility. There were a number of revolts against English monarchy during Elizabeth¶s reign. which remained on the statute book until 1834. Henry swore to mend his ways and reform his government. such as that of Shane O¶Neil in Ulster during the 1560¶s the Fitzmaurice rising of 1569-1573 and the desmond rebellion of 1579-1583. including attacks on monopolies and a codification of the Poor Law. This achievement was the work of one man. Soon after that. controlled generally docile Parliaments. bishops continued to sit in the Lords after the reformation. the House of Lords.
political and economical issues of the time. 13. including sr. Finally. the Great Western Schism also contributed to the loss of papal authority as it split Christian Europe into hostile camps. as they did not trust the Pope. was born just before Arthur. which still can be seen today. whose court was one of the richest in Eur. One of the main ones was that the papal authority and credibility were damaged. There were some great physicists and speculative thinkers who emerged in Elizabethan¶s y. Present the situation of England at the end of the th 16 century With the birth of his son. it brought uncertainty to the people. This revolution had a major impact on Europe and it gave way to short term and long-term consequences. it was suffering from attacks on the papacy. As the Holy See was not as powerful anymore. They were not happy that the Church was concentrating on making profits and not on the . Glory and the birth of a modern Engl. It arose from objections to doctrines and practices in the medieval church. Following this. such as that of Alexander VI (who did not keep the celibacy vow) resulted in loss of papal credibility.a time where the headquarters of the Holy See had to be moved from Rome to Avignon. some go as far back as the fourteenth century. With the end of the middle Ages. At the height of her power. Their daughter. They were eventually married in 1499. and believed the Pope favoured the French. loss of papal authority and credibility as well as other societal. Francis Bacon. who was one of th e most influential.12. Catherine. Henry VII wanted to make a strong alliance with the rulers of Aragon and Castile. the corruption of the Renaissance papacy. the Reformation had on Reformation is the religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the 16th century. because three different men were claiming to be the true Pope. The link with Spain became even more important followin g Columbusus¶s discovery of a route to the Indies (1492) The end of the century saw Engl. Many felt that the Pope and his Bishops had developed into an abusive feudal monarchy. . Ferdinand and Isabella. each having some support from different kings and princes of Europe. This was done through. Henry¶s reign is seen as the start of Eng. There were many causes of Reformation. Arthur. Compare the effects England and Europe. Avignon papacy. in 1486.
. What were the major forms of English resistance to Spanish power? Throughout her reign (Elisabeth). Was divided and bankrupt after 30 y of civil warLife in Tudor England was governed by a rigid social system.. because of practices such the indulgences ± when individuals paid to church for forgiveness of their sins. Conflict with Spain dragged on for another 15 y. Early reformation movements such as the Lollards and the Hussites that were founded by John Wycliffe and John Huss respectively were suppressed for their attacks on the papacy. thus increasing his maritime and merchant strength. 14. which was held to follow ³God¶s divine laws´. Philip II of Spain was enfuriated by England¶s piracy of Spanish ships from the new world. This was the age of the great voyages of exploration. when the Spanish sent their Armada against England in July 1588. With Henry VII came increasing peace. People also resented the Church. Explain the situation of England at the beginning and at the end of the Tudor Age. Spain and Portugal dominated the seas. material possessions. and privileged position in. The society was aware that the higher clergy was interested in political power. and in 1580 Philip became king of Portugal s well as Spain. Philip¶s relationship with England continued to sour and the culmination of all this was one of the most famous confrontations of all time. England had been fighting an unofficial conflict with Spain.spiritual well being of people. This Armada was doomed by the weather even more than by the superiority of English seamanship and the better design of the English ships. . power and enlightenment. 15. which allowed them to hug the water and dart through the waves. In 1485. Eng. The arrival of the Tudors heralded a new age. when Tudor dynasty came to power.
James I. In the 16th century. UNIT 5. These kings believed in their ³Divine Right´ to rule as they chose. Why was Charles I in conflict with Parliament? Charles was arrogant. Their suffering always increased after bad harvests. In Tudor England a third of the population lived in poverty. He had witnessed the damaged relationship between his father and Parliament. conceited and a strong believer in the divine rights of kings. He found it difficult to believe that a King could be wrong. however. he and his son. would have ended with the public execution of Charles. Their subjects. However. CIVIL WAR 1. His arrogant attitude was eventually to lead to his execution. but money and religion were the most common causes of arguments. How did the English civil Wars break out? The English civil wars were due to different causes but the personality of Charles I must be counted as one of the major reasons. Explain the Stuarts¶ belief in their µDivine Right¶ to rule? The first Stuart. Few people could have predicted a civil war that started in 1642. unemployment was a major cause of poverty. had followed a different path. Charles argued with Parliament over most issues. No king had ever . and considered that Parliament was entirely at fault. Charles I. It has been estimated that in 1570 about 10% of the population were still wandering around the country looking for work. From 1625 to 1629. 3. both found that their subjects meant to instruct them.Pain for the poor and benefits for gentry were to be significant characteristics of the next century of English history. as previous monarchs had consulted their people in Parliament 2. boasted that he was an old and experienced king.
On the side of the Parliament were the new commercial classes. the south. the Puritans. James was a firm believer in the ³Divine Right of Kings´.. and the attempts to allow toleration for Catholics. of Charles I in January 1649. a policy that worked as long as Charles did not need large amounts of money. From 1629 until 1640. An important long term cause was the fact that the status of the monarchy had started to decline under the reign of James I. he did not expect it to argue with any of his decisions 4.been executed in England. and execution.Parliament Similar enough to the Spanish civil wars 5. the midlands. the navy. Who supported the king and the Parliament in the civil Wars? King: Aristocracy. and London . and the execution of Charles was not greeted with joy. . The wars were due to both long and short term causes. 1660.. James expected Parliament to do as he wanted. the Anglican church. It began with the overthrow. Catholics. This was the belief that god had made someone a king and God could not be wrong. the war with Spain. In what ways did µpopular¶ politics and religion come to prominence during the Stuart Age? Charles I dissolved his first Parliament in 1626 because they had demanded limits on his rights t o levy customs duties. which only Parliament could grant him. the landowners. and ended with the restoration of Charles II on May 29. a second in 1629 after protests over taxation. Charles ruled without Parliament. Rich-King Poor. 6. What did the civil wars and the Interregnum achieve? The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule by the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell under the Commonwealth of England after the English Civil War.
and it is an expression that is still used by the Westminster Parliament. The new balance of power between Parliament and crown made the promises of English government more credible. It was also called the Revolution of 1688. It is an act of the Parliament of Eng. Defeat in the first and second bishop¶ s wars. What was the glorious revolution? The expression ³Glorious Revolution´ was first used by John Hampden in 1689.The inevitable crisis was caused by Charles0¶s attempts to impose the English liturgy in Scotland. 1694. and credibility allowed the government to reorganize its finances through a collection of changes called the Financial Rev. It was a second Magna Carta. which prevented the king from dissolving Parliament at will and placed a legal requirement that general elections had to be held every 3 y. and occasionally the Bloodless Revolution. Parliament placed constitutionally significant legal and practical limitations on the monarchy establishing the foundation of England¶s constitutional monarchy. It promoted religious toleration and the Triennial Act. whose title is An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the subjects and settling the succession of the Crown. forced Charles to call first the short parliament 7. rather than a ³revolution´. . 9. Enumerate the main civil and political rights included in the Bill of Rights. setting out the personal and political rights of all Englishmen. 8. How did the glorious revolution development of Great Britain? affect the The new constitution created the expectation that future monarchs would also remain constrained by Parliament. This crit ical event is better described as the invasion it undoubtedly was.
The new king landed at Dover on May 26th.K of Great Britain. Wales. 1660. the fear that the Scots may take sides with France and rekindle the ³Auld Alliance´ was decisive. Catholics were not allowed to celebrate Mass and he refused to listen to Puritan demands for church reform. When he died in 1625 the country was badly in debt.K met for the 1rst time in Oct. 12.that he was answerable to God alone and could not be tried by any court. instead authorising use of the King James Bible that is still in existence today. The Scots feared that they would simply become another region of England. The arrival of . there had been no monarchy but the Restoration Settlement brought back from exile the son of the beheaded Charles I. 1707. his choice of favourites alienated Parliament and he was not able to solve the country's finan cial or political problems. provoked the The Restoration Settlement led to Charles Stuart being proclaimed King Charles II of England. 11. For England. Why was the 1707 Act of Union of England and Scotland so relevant? Because it led to the creation of the U. James I also introduced English and Irish Protestants into Northern Ireland through the Ulster Plantation scheme and tried to keep England at peace with the rest of Europe. Describe the main causes that restoration of the Stuart monarchy. Although he was a clever man. James believed in the Divine Right of Kings . Suspicion and mistrust between the 2 countries had prevented the union throughout the 17 th century. Scotland and Ireland on May 8 th. The Parliament of the U. He forbade any interpretation of church doctrine different to his own and made Sunday Church-going compulsory. being swallowed up as had happened to Wales some 400 y earlier. Describe the situation of Britain on the Stuarts¶ accession The accession of James VI of Scotland as James I of England united the countries of England and Scotland under one monarch for the first time. For eleven years.10.
This act forgave and pardoned people for past actions (though it was eventually to exclude those classed as regicides) and it allowed the new monarch a fresh start. However. Explain the significance of the glorious revolution in British history. the Restoration Settlement was a complicated affair spread between 1660 and 1664.Charles in Dover was well received by the locals in the port ± and their jubilation was shared throughout the country. In February 1689 William and Mary were proclaimed king and queen of England. and credibility allowed the government to reorganise its finances through a collection of changes called the Financial Revolution. . and occasionally the Bloodless Revolution. Many were happy that the old order had been reinstalled as they saw the monarchy as the normal state of affairs within the country. it was very much an ad hoc affair with little planning involved. 13. rather than a ³revolution´. and the new constitution created the expectation that future monarchs would also remain constrained by Parliament. The new co-monarchy of King William III and Queen Mary II accepted more constraints from Parliament than previous monarchs had. Great things were expected from Charles II. There was a desire to forget about the dislocation of the previous twenty years. This may well have been a reaction to the years when Oliver Cromwell controlled the country ± an era of austerity which many saw as µunnatural¶. in fact. The new balance of power between parliament and crown made the promises of the English government more credible. It was also called the Revolution of 1688. One of the first acts of the new government was to introduce an Act of Indemnity and Pardon. The term µRestoration Settlement¶ seems to give an air of structure to the settlement but. This critical event of 1688 is better described as the invasion it undoubtedly was. Parliament placed constitutionally significant legal and practical limitations on the monarchy establishing the foundation of England¶s constitutional monarchy.
Society. It must have been very hard for them during the 118 years the Tudor kings and Queens ruled because they were often forced to change their religion depending on the religion of the reigning monarch. Their demand for reform led to this period of history being called the Reformation. religion. Express your opinion about the Stuarts and their policies in Britain.. Scots. There were major changes in the church during the reign of the Tudor king and queens. In 1517. Become a great empire were trade. its teachings and its customs. a German monk called Martin Luther led a breakaway from the Roman Catholic Church. The new Christians called themselves µProtestants¶ because they were protesting against the Roman 'Catholic' (meaning 'universal') Church.. ambition and adventure .14. there was a big change in the way some Christians worshipped God. Up until the 16th century most people were Roman Catholic and the Pope in Rome was the head of church. religion. Compare the role that religion played in the Stuart and Tudor ages. UNIT 6. Irish and Welsh men and women to travel across the Atlantic? For trade reasons. What drove English. which made money for British companies. Economy and culture in the 18th century 1. Among the causes that made great Brit. politics. 15. England started as a Catholic country and ended up being a Protestant one under the Tudors. Politics. Tudor Britain People in Tudor times were very religious and were prepared to die for their beliefs. In the 16th century.
In This was its main export. Until the abolition of the slave trade. Britain was responsible for the transportation of a third of all the slaves that w ere imported. These puritans later became known as the Pilgrim Fathers. the Mayflower landed in America. Started a second round of colonising attempts using joint -stock companies to establish settlement. From the beginning. so that they could build new settlements. When King James I granted the first charter. and found a colony based on their own religious ideals 3. land was plentiful and labour was scarce. led by J. 4. Virginia. What were the main colonizing impulse? reasons that intensified the In colonial America. bringing Puritan separatists who were escaping from religious persecution in their homeland. in 1807. a governor. so they could build new settlements.2. . which issued instructions to the first settlers to appoint a colonial council. Smith and managed by the Virginia Company. a council was formed in England. practice their religion as they wanted. The colony survived and started to ship tobacco to Engl. Engl. 1614. John Delaware was appointed. Why did the puritans go to America and settle there? Because they were escaping from religious per secution in their homeland. In 1620. What was the primary motivation for emigration in the New England colonies? The permanent English settlement was established in 1607 in Jamestown. This set the pattern for English colonisation. but as it proved to be ineffective. slavery was the basis of the British Empire in the West Indies.
. Why did the Methodists appeal to the working class? Methodism was a religious movement which met the needs of the growing industrial working class. Walpole made sure that the powers of the king would always be limited by the Constitution. Many highlanders were killed or sent to America and a law was passed that prohibited most of their traditions. that is to say. Rob. 9. Enclosures implied more effectively managed and cultiv ated land. coal was mined extensively and cloth-making was a national industry 8. Why were the Scottish Highlanders repressed after the Jacobite rebellions? As a consequence of their support for the Jacobites. Walpole was in power for over 20y. a Whig son of Norfolk landowners who developed the idea of the cabinet. the Whigs were pre-eminent for 56 y. Who is regarded as the first British politician to have held the office of Prime Minister and how long did he stay in power? From 1714 to 1784. Under Walpole. such as wearing the kilt or playing the bagpipes 7. Why is the precise? term Agricultural Revolution not really It was a gradual process rather than a single event. Walpole. This movement encouraged people to experience Christ personally. Why did so many Pennsylvania? people pour in the colony of It was a good refuge for English Quakers 6. a group of ministers who met without the king and took the actual control of administration from the Crown. the British treated the Scots cruelly.5.
which was available to the rich. Eternal damnation might be the consequence of indiscipline at work. and God was the most vigilant overseer of all. The utility of Methodism as a work-discipline is obvious. the was a constant inner goading to ³sober and industrious´ behaviour. the cross was the pattern of his obedience. 10. Methodism demanded a transformation of human nature.Methodism was identified the religious life of the lower and middle classes. The Methodist was taught to bear his cross of poverty and humiliation. from which the transformed industrial worker hung. He wanted to conquer sin.. the outward sign of grace. Write about the Methodist movement. ordinary traders and merchants wealthy merchants. not social deprivation. The poor were suitable cases for treatment because they lacked the diversity of opportunity for sin. Work was the cross. Which were the 4 main classes of people who lived in eighteenth century towns? Unskilled workers. Wesley¶s talent for organising as well as inspiring the poor made him an outstanding figure of great interest. Methodism as a faith for the working classes was ideally suited to the needs of middle-class utilitarianism. and 11. Since salvation was never assured and temptations lurked on every side. There is an argument that Methodism was indirectly responsible for a growth in the self-confidence and capacity for organisation of working people. Methodism could appeal to the simplest and least educated . so opening its doors to become the religion of the poor. Methodism provided the impetus for that change. skilled craftsman. As a religion of the heart. social repercussions of the The transmission to working-class societies of forms of organisation was peculiar to the Methodist connection. but Methodism successfully performed a dual role as the religion of both the exploiters and the exploited because of indoctrination: the Methodists .
.. 13.inherited from Welsey the conviction that children were sinful. Reflect on the main consequences Agricultural change and write them down. and produced a shift of exces labour to the towns to work in the new industries. agricultural methods and output. It was a mutually agreed arrangement between landowners and tenants. This process had started in the 16th century and became common in the 1740¶s. 14. parcelled and divided up. that took place in the U. of the It refers to a series of circumstances that produced an improvement in agriculture. This change of crops and better methods of farming led to a higher productivity enabling the population to be fed. Describe the role women in XVIII century society. and that their sinfulness had to be broken. by which lands were enclosed. and expanded its imperial holdings across the world. During the 18th century there was a fast growth in population in Britain and Ireland. British rule continued in the Caribbean and in upper and lower Canada. Britain enjoyed a century of dominance. a sustained improvement in crops. The loss of the 13 colonies in North America in 1783 after the war of independence deprived Britain from its most populous colonies and marked the end of the ³1rst British Empire´. 12. This population had to be fed which led to improvements in the techniques and a change in the organisation of farming and crops. Despite this setback. The loss of the American colonies is considered as the event defining the transition between the ³first´ and ³second´ empires.K during the 18 th and 19th centuries. Discuss the implications of the loss of the American Colonies. Following the defeat of Napoleonic France in 1815. One of the processes that led to this change was the enclosure of the medieval common fields.
or in some cases as sutlers selling to the army.000 women followed one army or another and transformed camps into small towns. Women who travelled with the army were known as campfollowers and did so for many reasons: inability to provide for themselves at home. a role which in many cases included partnership in running farms o r home businesses. War. they prepared food for militia musters and made cartridges. 15. Nevertheless. fear of attack. invading troops destroyed farms and homes. food foragers. In the early days leading up to Lexington and Concord. desire to be with husbands. In some ways. the attraction of a paying job and rations (even if their pay and rations were minimal). the number of women generally exceeded that which would have been required and often represented a nuisance to commanding officers: women and accompanying children used scarce rations and slowed the movement of the army. when it came. While the essential role of most women continued to be managing all aspects of their households. doing so took on political overtones: the commitment of the women was critical to maintaining the tea boycott and the decision to boycott British goods caused home manufacturing to become both a statement of defiance and a n ecessity. eviction by troops.During the eighteenth century. women were an important element because they carried out tasks such as laundering and nursing (both of which were paid) which men were unwilling to do and without which the army would have been even more seriously depleted by disease. Some women were able to continue to manage homes. Write system. they were tolerated because they performed important jobs for the welfare of the armies and for fear that the men would desert if their families were sent home. Even those women whose social standing afforded increased leisure took up spinning and other activities to replace imported goods. farms and shops but others were unable to survive on their own and forced to abandon their homes and follow their husbands with the army. and the absence of husbands and fathers left some in danger of starvation. spies and water carriers (all unpaid). However. touched everyone: resources were scarce leading to high inflation. Well over 20. the main implications of the enclosure . women performed duties as cooks. married women¶s lives revolved to a large extent around managing the household. The defiance of English rule and the onset of the war disrupted the usual patterns of life in many ways including impacting how women responded to events surrounding them. In addition.
UNIT 7. The nineteenth century 1. Did the Factory Acts solve the problems of children in factories? Not really 4. providing instead for Ireland to be represented at Westminster by 4 bishops and 28 . there was an exodus of unemployed farm workers from the country into the cities. What was the main consequence of the Act of Union of 1800 for Ireland? The act of union abolished the parliament in Dublin. a Liberal MP. although not entirely to their requirements. since only men could vote in elections. Why was the education act of 1870 considered very important? It set the framework for schooling of all children between ages 5 and 12 in England and Wales. As a result of this movement. Were men and women equal in Victorian Britain? No they weren¶t. and it was introduced on 17 February 1870 after campaigning by the National Education League. adding to the strength of Britain¶s work force. 5. 3.The enclosure movement restricted the ownership of public far mlands specifically to the wealthy landowners. It was drafted by William Forster. Why did the government change the political system in 1832? Because the first Reform Bill expanded right to vote and restructured representation in Parliament 2.
the Boer Wars in South Africa (1881. and by 100 elected members in the house of commons. In all. Her reign was almost free of war. With this act. the act gave the vote to about 1. the result pleased no one and Dublin declined in glamour and prosperity as estates in Ireland were neglected and fell into decay due to abs entee landlords. What were the dimensions of the British Empire during the Victorian Era? During the reign of Victoria. However. 1899-1902) and Indian rebellion (1857) being the only exceptions. it enfranchised the working classes in the towns. The Catholics had the most to resent at the way things turned out. 8. What was Queen realignment? Victoria¶s role in the political Victoria¶s role after the realignment was one of mediation between departing and arriving prime ministers who were chosen by the party in control of the House of Commons. the empire doubled in size. with an Irish uprising (1848). It evolved into Britain¶s first national working-class movement. 7. What was Chartism? It was a political organisation founded in 1838.peers in the house of Lords. 6. 9.000 men. Male lodgers paying 10 p were also granted to vote. . Australia. The ruling protestant minority was naturally opposed to the abolition of the Dublin Parliament.500. In effect. encompassing Canada. the right to vote was given to every male adult householder living in the towns. India and various places in Africa and the South Pacific. Why was the 1867 Reform Act so relevant? It reduced the property qualification to the point where the urban working class became eligible to vote.
By 1870. When she died of old age. Victoria¶s was the longest reign in English history and her reign has been considered as one of the defining periods of British history. as well as political and social reforms on the continent. she maintained a youthful energy and optimism that infected the English population as a whole. Egypt. Imperialism was popular. How did the Treaty of Amiens affect Britain? The loss of Britain¶s 13 American colonies in 1776 -1783 was compensated by new settlements in Australia from 1788. and covered one sixth of the Earth¶s land surface. Saint Lucia. an entire era died with her. by the spectacular growth of Upper Canada (now Ontario) after the emigration of loyalists from what had become the United States. It possessed the world¶s largest Empire protected by a very formidable navy. It possessed the world ¶s largest empire protected by a very formidable navy. Victoria was named empress of India in 1878. Nigeria and Rhodesia. Britain was the most industrialised and most powerful country in the world. and during this period Britain added to her colonial possessions. . and in the Treaty of Paris (1814) France ceded Tobago. The 19th century was marked by the full expansion of the British empire. South Africa. Research the main social reforms that took place in the Victorian Era and write in depth about one of them. 10. Mauritius. 11. and Malta. Malaysia. The Napoleonic Wars provided further additions to the empire. Canada. She became queen when she was 18 y old. Britain was the most industrialized and the most powerful country in the world. By 1870. Even in her dotage. India. Victoria¶s long reign witnessed an evolution in English politics and the expansion of the British Empire. Australia. the Treaty of Amiens (1802) made Trinidad and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) officially British. Queen Victoria succeeded her uncle William IV in 1837. (New Zealand.
and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times.. "For the first time in history. and eventually the world. The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal. North America. Britain had a leading role as the first industrial nation and the pioneer railway transport. mining.. Summarize the main consequences of the Industrial Revolution. average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. Nothing remotely like this economic behaviour has happened before. manufacturing. almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. while the world's population increased over 6-fold. reflected by the importance of India as the most significant colony of the century. The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture. the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth. 12. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in human history. and was the increased by  the development use the of refined introduction of iron-making techniques Trade expansion enabled of canals. . the mechanisation of  the textile industries.  The development of all-metal machine tools in the first . wider utilisation of water wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity."  Starting in the later part of the 18th century. transportation. It started with coal. there began a transition in parts of Great Britain's previously manual labour and draft-animal± based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. In the two centuries following 1800. In the words of Nobel Prize winning Robert E. Lucas. It began in the United Kingdom. the world's average per capita income increased over 10 -fold.During the ³Victorian period´. Most notably. Queen Victoria refused any further influence from her domineering mother and ruled in her own stead. then subsequently spread throughout Europe. It was also an imperial leadership. improved roads and railways. Jr..
Reflect Union¶1800. Use of the spinning wheel and hand loom restricted the production capacity of the industry.two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. brought into existence a political entity called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. instead of a separate and independent Ireland. developed with the help of John Wyatt in Birmingham. 14. but the processing was difficult because of the pre processing needed. a factory was opened in Northampton with fifty spindles on each of five of Paul and Wyatt's machines. doing the spinning and weaving on their own premises. the Choose one city or town in England and research social conditions there during the Industrial Revolution. In the early 18th century. India was displaced as the premier supplier of cotton goods. Pitt succeeded in forcing this measure through the Parliaments of Westminster and Dublin. upon the consequences of the Act of The act of union of 1800. and thus goods in these mat erials made only a small proportion of the output. Lewis Paul patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-andbobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness. 13. . effective from 1-1-1801. but incremental advances increased productivity to the extent that manufactured cotton goods became the dominant British export by the early decades of the 19th century. a full-scale union between Ireland and Britain. British textile manufacture was based on wool which was processed by individual artisans. In 1743. This system is called a cottage industry. Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey. Flax and cotton were also used for fine materials. He thought that the Irish problem required.
(e. O¶Connell contested a by-election for the century of Clare and won the seat. providing instead for Ireland to be represented at Westminster by 4 bishops and 28 peers in the House of Lords. The ruling protestant minority was naturally opposed to the abolition of the Dublin Parliament. the promise of catholic emancipation. giving the community full equality of rights with the Anglo. Research one of the British possessions during its empire in the XIX century and summarize its history. From 1823. but with less marginal adjustments in terms of political representation to accommodate Irish interests. Pitt was out of office for only three years. In 1828. the repeal of the union of 1800. Pitt sidetracked their opposition by well placed bribes and by winning the support of the catholic majority. Catholic emancipation was brought back by Daniel O¶ Coell.Irish protestants.The Act of Union abolished the parliament in Dublin. The Catholics had the most to resent at the way things turned out.g: India) . and by 100 elected members in the House of Commons. The act of Union that was duly negotiated between Britain and Ireland in 1800 again represented the continuation of the English parliament. O¶Connell took his seat and became the leader of the Irish members and worked towards the achievement of his main aim. 15. removing nearly all the barriers against Catholics holding public office. The result put Catholic Ireland into a state of chaos. he organised a network of Catholic associations throughout Ireland to demand an end to discrimination. The act of union was passed without any element of catholic emancipation being included. an experienced campaigner who had achieved prominence in 1800 for his speeches in Dublin against the Act of Union. and Pitt resigned in Febr uary 1801 when it became obvious that the king¶s opposition made it impossible for a subsequent bill to redress the omission. until the king recalled him in 1804 to continue the war against Napoleon. The Emancipation Act was passed in 1829. This he achieved by means of a pledge which he ful ly intended to honour.
secured for her the title empress of India. It moved goods. building new tracks or in goods delivery services. The railways opened up enormous opportunities and moved vast volumes of freight and passengers in the 19th century. It is hard to consider the scale of 19 th century development without the railway. the masses were able to travel. How did the railway change the lives of people in Victorian Britain? The railway is considered to be one of the greatest factors in the transformation of Britain into an industrial nation. The lives of millions were changed as. Disraeli. becoming known as ³ the jewel in the crown´ of Queen Victoria. the British crown assumed the East India Company¶s governmental authority in India. women and even children workers at low . This status was emphasized in 1876 when her prime minister. How safe were the working conditions in Victorian Britain? Living conditions in cities became unsanitary and impoverished. due to its importance both on strategic and economic grounds. Britain¶s acquisition of Burma (Myanmar) was completed in 1886..In the wake of the Indian Mutiny (1857). There was a huge employment of people either on the railways themselves. By the end of the 19th century. She became empress of India in 1878 UNIT 8 THE 19th CENTURY (II) 1. suddenly. 2. India remained the most significant of the imperial possessions. Factories subjected men. foods and people faster than canals or horsedrawn wagons. while its conquest of the Punjab (1849) and of Baluchistan (1854-76) provided substantial new territory in the Indian subcontinent itself.
wages, hard punishments,, and unprotected work around dangerous machinery
3. Why have there been objections to the term of Industrial Rev? The Indus. Rev. Produced severe social problems, as Britain became the world¶s most urbanised country. Over half of the population now lived in cities. The social problems were to be found especially in the area of housing, education and health ca re
4. Why do we remember Florence Nightingale? She was the most important women in history of nursing (medicine). Known as the lady with the lamp..« She fought for effective reform of the entire system of military hospitals and medical care.
5. How was leisure time spent in Victorian Britain? Weatherpermiting, people went to many wonderful parks, most of them with a lake , with usually a band stand with people playing there. If it rained, they played board games. People would also go to the theatre, see a show
6. What are the impacts of Indus. Rev. On the lives of the British people during that time? Changes of activity, new places to live. New towns were built. The steam engine is the basis of the Industrial Rev. (coal was needed) wherever a factory was built, a new town was built around it for the workers. Before this, all these people had been agricultural workers
7. How crucial were the railways to the Victorian economy?
They were totally essential. Not only for the transport of people, but mostly for the transport of goods. Before railways, most heavy goods were transported by barge (by canal or river). Thanks to the trains, good could be transported more easily, to more places, and amazingly faster.
8. Mention some of the inventions that shaped the Indus. Rev The steam engine is the basis of everything else. In practical terms, railway engines, boats, any factory machine...
9. How many people died as a consequence of the Great Famine? 1 million.
10. How did the great Famine affect the emigration in Ireland? Many Irish people migrated. A large part of the Irish population lived as impoverished tenant farmers, generally in debt to British landlords. The need to survive on small plots of rented land created the perilous situation where vast numbers of people depended on the potato crop for survival. While the population of Europe rose during this period, population growth in Ireland was particularly dramatic. Unlike Britain, Ireland lacked major industrial centres. Jobs were scarce
11. Summarize the main consequences of the Indus. Rev. The Indus. Rev. Is a term applied to the social and economic changes that marked the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society relying on complex machinery rather than tools. It meant the widespread replacement of manual labour by new inventions or machinery..
The Industrial Rev. Originated in Engl., and was manifested in a series of technological and social innovations, which came about for several reasons. One most important starting points dates back to the creation of the bank of Engl. In 1694. The Industrial Rev. had a number of important consequences. It changed the face of nations, giving rise to urban centres requiring vast municipal services. It created a specialised and independent economic life and made the urban worker more completely dependent on the will of the employer than the rural worker had been. Relations between capital and labour were aggravated, and there was social unrest. The Indus. Rev was a great turning point in the history of Great Britain, which changed from a basically urban and industrial society.
12. Choose one technological innovation that took place during the Indus. Rev and write about its importance BoatsThe era of the steamboat began in America in 1787 when John Fitch (1743-1798) made the first successful trial of a forty -five-foot steamboat on the Delaware River on August 22, 1787, in the presence of members of the Constitutional Convention. Fitch later built a larger vessel that carried passengers and freight between Philadelphia and Burlington, New Jersey
13. Chose one means of transport that was developed during the industrial re. And discuss its importance Railways In early 1800s the Industrial Revolution needed quicker, cheaper transport. The Bridgewater Canal was already proving inadequate in the Northwest. Earliest railways were simple wagons on wooden rails, used to carry coal, etc, short distances to rivers or coasts. By 1810 there were about 300 miles of such µtrackways¶. First Public Railway: 1801 Surrey Iron railway (horse-drawn). First steam locomotive: 1804 (pulling coal at a mine) built by Trevithick. George and Robert Stephenson were building similar (but improved) locomotives after 1814.
Horses were also used but it was proved that locomotives were more efficient. especially in the late 1800¶s.First steam powered railway: 1825 Stockton ± Darlington Railway. Discuss the main consequences of the great Famine In the 19th century. Beef cattle raised in Ireland were also exported for English tables. And elsewhere. This was standardised to 4 foot 8 ½ after 1892. Potatoes were very vulnerable to disease and no cure existed in Ireland for the dreaded ³potato blight´. The summer of 1845 was mild but very wet and provided the perfect weather conditions for the blight to spread. 15. And how they improved during the 19th century. other crops were being grown in Ireland. the Great Famine of 1845 has been considered the hardest one. The y of 1845 was a turning point in Ireland¶s history. built by Stephensons for Edward Pease. Railways became hugely popular with passengers as well as greatly successful in moving goods ± 1844 µcheap trains¶ Act said that companies should run a certain number of cheap trains each day. In 1841 Isambard Kingdom Brunel (shipbuilder) built the London to Bristol Railway (the Great Western). Although famine had been common in the 19 th century Ireland. and food was exported for market in Engl. 14. 1830 Liverpool ± Manchester line opened ± Stephensons asked to be engineers and also asked to build the locomotives after the success of their µRocket¶ at the Rainhill trials in 1829. While Irish peasants were forced to subsist on potatoes. . Write about working conditions for children at the beginning of the Industrial Rev. businessman. using the 7 foot gauge to Stephenson¶s 4 foot 8 1/2 inch gauge (width between rails). hope for better life encouraged record emigration from Ireland. a fungus called Phytophthora Infestans.
hit by the economic crisis. while there was virtually no presence of these industries in the north and in Wales. the U. 3. This statement was followed not long after by the dissolution of the Labour government.W 1 proved costly in terms of human lives and sacrifices and people expected to be rewarded with a better life afterwards. The problem was that they were concentrated in the Midlands and in some areas of South East England.K entered a period of decline.UNIT 9 The early 20th century 1. . What was Labour Prime Minister James McDonald¶s response to the declining economy at the beginning of the depression? He tried to avoid the issue by repeating the socialist argument that the capitalist system was the problem. going through a social. How can the British government¶s economic policy in the early years after the W. rayon production and electrical engineering were very successful. he could not be expected to do anything about unemployment within the capitalist system. 2.W. the economy was not faltering everywhere in Britain. They expected their soldiers to come back to a land fit hor heroes and instead they could only offer them low wages and unemployment. W. economic ans ideological crisis. Some new industries such as car manufacturing. and that as such. Of which party was David Lloyd a member? Member of the Welsh Council of the RCGP since 1992. W 1 be described? After the 1rst W. However. and the beginning of the long y of the depression.
. Women had to wait until 2 nd July.4. Which British Prime Minister was responsible for signing the Munich Pact? Chamberlain signed the Munich pact in 1938. in addition to the house wife and mother jobs.W? They kept the country and society functioning by doing. granting Hitler the Czech Sudetenland to appease the dictator. women became entitled to vote in the general election of 1918. What contribution did women workers make in the first W. Why is the Easter Rising considered a turning point in Irish history? It was a republic that was declared during the rebellion. Women had to wait until July 1928 to gain political equality with men. since women under 30 could not vote. 5. How did women win the vote? Since June. 6. 8. although it was a restricted franchise. 1917. and it meant a fracture in Irish politics between constitutionalism and militantism. all the jobs men couldn¶t do cause they were at war. 1928 to gain political equality with men. The law as seen as a success for women¶s suffrage. How far did women¶s war efforts contribute to gaining the vote in 1918? They managed it in 1918. The appeasement policy proved to be a failure. to which the British had to reply with a declaration of war. but it was a restricted franchise. since soon Hitler showed his wish for a total European domination. since women under 30 could not vote. 7.W II lay clear. The path to W.
They let him put German troops in the Rheinland violating the same treaty. 10. a council of Ireland was set up to manage relations between the 2 Irish states. thus they let him build up the german armed forces in contravention of the treaty of Versailles.eastern counties remained part of the U. and in December 1921. Then they let him take the rest of Czechoslovakia.Irish Treaty arouse tensions among the Irish? A truce was signed between the IRA and the Irish on 11 July 1921. Read more: http://wiki. Finally they realized he would never be appeased and they would have to fight in order to stop him. while the six counties. What was the policy of appeasement? The appeasement policy was the efforts by France and Britain in the 1930s to allow Nazi Germany to have pretty much anything it wanted in the hopes that eventually Hitler would be appeased and cease his aggressive policies. the terms of an Anglo -Irish Treaty between the British government and the representatives of Dáil Éiream were agreed. The U.K was renamed ³The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland´ to reflect the change. Had they fought several years earlier there would have been a far shorter and less destructive war. They let him take the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia.9. The ³new Irish free State´ accepted the sovereignty of the British crown.. They let annex Austria. The 6 north.answers.com/Q/What_was_the_appeasement_polic y_and_how_did_it_affect_World_War_2#ixzz1BUB4mCIl . The republicans who wanted the independence of all Ireland opposed the Treaty. Why did the Anglo. far from being appeased.K while the south was a dominium within the British Empire. but only in southern Ireland. it simply whetted his appetite for more. Besides. The island was split into 2 parts. which became the province of Northern Ireland or Ulster would remain united with Britain. by which Britain accepted the claims of the Irish to independence. The affect of the policy was that each time Hitler was allowed to get away with something.
Search for arguments for and against the view that the first W. they contributed not only to the war effort. on farms. Women took on men¶s jobs as they went off to fight in the war.K? Yes. 12.K to gain the vote. but also to the running of the country. Write key arguments in favour of the against British women¶s suffrage. since most women suffragists and suffragettes volunteered to help in the war effort.Women¶s social and political union 14.11. During W.K. such as munitions factories and weapon manufacturers. Describe the political battle between the Conservative and Labour Parties in Britain during the inter-war years. but they also worked on the buses and trams. John Stuart Mill helped to found the first British woman suffrage association and organised campaigns for the cause. in hospitals and in offices. Thus. the women¶s suffrage movement suspended its campaign. in fact. In 1865.W 1. In the U. They did the jobs usually done by men in industries key to the war. Could the women¶s Radical Suffrage have occurred in any contry other than in the U. What evidence is there of Labour¶s impact on the generally Conservative British government? What factors kept the Labour Party from establishing and maintaining control over the government? 13. and on the same terms as men in 1928. in ended up happening in most countries. so when most young . women acquired a limited right to vote 1918. 1903. The first country that offered women the franchise without limits and the right to present as candidates in political elections was Australia in 1902.W was decisive for women in the U.
we. 15. This gave women suffragists and suffragettes respect and admiration. ratify the establishment of the Irish Republic and pledge ourselves and our people to make this declaration effective by every means at our command´ The 1rst elections of the Northern Ireland parliament were held in May 1921 and the Unionists got 40 of the 52 seats. What was the aim of the rise of the comprehensive school? It had a double purpose: -to raise the cultural level of the population . 2. which had a favourable effect on public opinion. June 1921.men were in the army. It was followed by the establishment of some de facto political organs.. of the Declaration of Dáil Éiream made the Irish declaration of Independence. women were delivering the mail or driving the busses. in the name of the Irish nation. New Zealand.. Sr James Craig. which proclaimed Irish freedom and ratified the Republic of Ireland and the power of the Irish parliament as the only organ responsible to make laws on the people of Ireland. The new northern Ireland prime minister was the Ulster unionist leader. In its crucial line the declaration pronounced that ³. In which decades was the British Empire gradually transformed? The major change of the Empire was that Britain pulled out of the colonies and created the Commonwealth instead that includes countries such as Australia. the elected representatives of the ancient Irish people in national Parliament assembled... do. The Parliament first met in Belfast. Discuss the importance Independence in 1919. UNIT 10: 1950-2000 1.
now European community (EEC). insisting that a package be agreed by May 1998 as the basis for a referendum. 5. this event was a turning point in the progressive loss of power of the unions in Britain. but the miners returned to work without achieving any settlement. Health remained Prime Minister until 1974. Britain entered the European common market. When did Britain enter the European Community? In 1973. . The Agreement was reached and signed in Belfast on Friday. As Ms Thatcher intended. E. Which plan set out the Good Friday Agreement? Blair¶s original programme placed a time limit on the talks. In Belfast. both governments and the relevant political parties formally agreed to the holding of a referendum along lines close to those jointly proposed by Blair and Ahern. What did the miners achieve after the 1984-5 strike? It was Margaret Thatcher¶s most serious union confrontation. in referenda held simultaneously on 22 May 1998. 1998. It was also overwhelmingly endorsed by the people of Ireland. Economically. 10th April. Edward Health achieved his long-held ambition to lead Britain into the European Community after many y of campaigning on European issues. The Agreement reached at the conclusion of the Multi-Party negotiations altered the context in which the government¶s objectives with regard to Northern Ireland and Anglo-Irish relations were pursued. north and south. Health finally achieved British membership and in 1973. April 10th by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties.-Abolish social differences by allowing youngsters unprivileged background to get to higher education from an 3. the era was character ized by numerous strikes and restrictive practises 4.
In the XXI century. It started as a prolongation of the 50¶s youth rebelliousness. . Why can we refer to the sixties as a time of Cultural Revolution? The 60¶s were like a magical decade.000 Chinese. poetry theatre. or about 5. Engl. What did the Race Relations Act in 1965 ban? In 1965. which came to mean a party with streamlined campaigning systems. Notably. fish and chips have been overtaken by curry as t he most popular British takeaway. which prohibited discrimination on the basis of race in public places such as restaurants and on public transportation.Dean.5% of the population. music.000 Bangladeshis and 165. Britain¶s ethnic minorities numbered some 3 million. 8. Produced an outcast of creation in many fields. Britain is a more open.The referendum took place in May 1998. strong centralised control and a resolute determination to win the vote of ³ Middle England´ or the middle classes.00 Pakistanis.000 Indians. The Asian groups included 825. The scope of the prohibitions was expanded in amendments made in 1968 and 1976.00 of Caribbean origin and 380. 165. more multi-racial society than ever before. What is the meaning of ³new labour´? Blair transformed the Labour party into what he called new Labour. Britain enacted the Race Relations act. Symbolised by the film ³Rebel without a cause´ J. A 94% vote in the republic supported the Good Friday Agreem ent and the proposed change in the constitution. In the 1991 census. 500.000 deriving from Africa and elsewhere. The black community consisted of 500. In Northern Ireland 71% voted for agreement 6. 7..
the longest serving prime minister in 150 y. and British forces joined the Americans in launching attacks against Afghanistan after the Taliban government refused to hand over Osama Bin Laden. Thatcher kept using her apparent sense of invincible power. She organised an amazing expedition to the Islas Maldives to fight the Argentineans. cause they claimed the isles were theirs. By the late 1980¶s. The Blair government was also a strong supporter of the United States µposition that military action should be taken against Iraq if United Nations weapons inspections were not . the British government became the most visible international supporter of the Bush administration in its war on terrorism. which led to her being called the Iron Lady. During those y.There was a real explosion of creation. freezing expenditure and privatising state-owned industries. The 60¶s was a time of great social and cultural change that went hand in hand with an explosion in the creative arts. Thatcher managed to break union resistance through a series of laws that included the banning of sympathy strikes and boycotts. The new conservative government under Thatcher supported a regime of conservative policy making. Which international issue made Tony Blair lose popular support? Following the devastating Sept. She served until 1900 and was. Youth tended to drink beer and take speed. Government officials visited Muslim nations to seek their participation in the campaign. 9. Why was Margaret Thatcher called the ³Iron Lady´? Thatcher was the first woman to become prime minister. terrorist attacks in the USA. Thatcher¶s victory in the general election heralded a sea change in Britain. by reducing the government borrowing . to push through her policies 10. Because she was very strict. 11. replacing the old mood of consensus with the aggressively adversarial stance described as ³conviction´ politics. 2001.
12. Chinese.S led invasion of Iraq. and has never condemned its terrorist activities.. Reflect upon the Northern Ireland peace process. wanted a united Ireland. and the failure to find any weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.it is noticeable that they are cities such as London that are regarded as a micro multicultural society within multicultural Britain. 2004. Sinn Fein has close links with the IRA. GB and Ireland were viewed as increasingly multicultural societies. but a significant minority.. were factors in Labour¶s thirdplace finish in the June. stricter conditions. Many ex -colonies became members of the Commonwealth. It was born as a consequence of colonisation. . local elections. in March 2003. 11. In London we will find Irish. the results reflected the British public dissatisfaction with the country¶s evolvement in Iraq. Pakistani. Research the history of the Commonwealth and the consequences for Great Britain.resumed under new. The political parties in Northern Ireland generally reflect the sectarian divide. Blair¶s strong support for the invasion. the official unionists (heirs of the old unionist party (SDLP) has consistently waged a non-violent. Indian. known as the nationalists. and committed British forces to the U. The majority of the population was unionist and wished to remain part of the U. It has meant an influx of the Commonwealth countries 13. Caribbean. pakis.. democratic campaign for a united Ireland and for reconciliation between the two communities.) west Indians At the turn of the century. Bangladeshi. On the Protestant side there are two main parties.. It had secured trade and cultural partners.K. Focusing on the case of GB. Describe the main ethnic minorities that make up Multicultural Britain and consider if they are really integrated Asians (Indians.
only one long established British group differed from the majority in both race and religion. 2005. a journey made in the other direction. In the spring of 1948. in the longer term. and immigrating in large numbers in the late 19 th and early 20th century.Most colonies were granted immigration after the 2 nd W. However. the government placed advertisements in Jamaica. London suffered 4 coordinated bombing on its underground and bus system. 3 of the suspected ones were born in Britain. On July. bombings in Madrid. and some have risen to high positions. There was yet little religious diversity because the new immigrants were nearly all Christians. The Jews. . A t this stage. were a settled community. The attacks. and tension led to a few race riots. Hindus and Sikhs arrived from the republic of India. many people with differing cultures have successfully integrated into the country. Muslims came from Pakistan and Bangladesh. by their ancestors in slave ships. appeared to be the work of Islamic suicide bombers. Evidence uncovered by the British police indicated that the attacks may have been directed by a member of Al Qaeda. welcomed in Britain from the 1650¶s . The Islamic supporters of the Jihad started having Britain as a target to aim at (enemies). Terrorist bombing attacks in the tub of London. but the bombs failed to detonate. which killed more than 50 people and injured some 700. Hard predictions were made about the effect of these new arrivals on British society. 7. which broadly resembled the March 2004.W and then Britain encouraged immigration from the former colonies to deal with the labour market. and Hindus also came from East Africa. A second set of suicide bombings was attempted later in the month. inviting immigrants to make the journey across the Atlantic. after Uganda¶s Indian population was expelled in 1972. many generations earlier. Discuss the consequence of British participation in the Iraq war. The arrival of the West Indians transformed Britain into a multiracial society. 14.
voluntary association of equal members. in which the UK has no privileged status. Today Engl. a non political. British settlement of Ireland has left its mark in the form of divided Catholic and protestant communities in Northern Ireland. such as in churches. second or foreign language. as Commonwealth realms. Write about the role of the British Commonwealth in the XXI century Most former British colonies are members of the Commonwealth. . 15 members of the Commonwealth continue to share their head of state with the UK. British colonial architecture. railway stations and government buildings. continues to stand in many cities that were once part of the British Empire.15. Is the primary language of up to 400 million people and is spoken by about one and a half billion as a first.
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