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Definition of a fluid A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously under the action of a shear stress, however small magnitude present. It means that a fluid deforms under very small shear stress, but a solid may not deform under that magnitude of the shear stress. By contrast a solid deforms when a constant shear stress is applied, but its deformation does not continue with increasing time. In Fig.L1.1, deformation pattern of a solid and a fluid under the action of constant shear force is illustrated. We explain in detail here deformation behaviour of a solid and a fluid under the action of a shear force. In Fig.L1.1, a shear force F is applied to the upper plate to which the solid has been bonded, a shear stress resulted by the force equals to , where A is the contact area of the upper plate. We know that in the case of the solid block the deformation is proportional to the shear stress t provided the elastic limit of the solid material is not exceeded. When a fluid is placed between the plates, the deformation of the fluid element is illustrated in Fig.L1.3. We can observe the fact that the deformation of the fluid element continues to increase as long as the force is applied. The fluid particles in direct contact with the plates move with the same speed of the plates. This can be interpreted that there is no slip at the boundary. This fluid behavior has been verified in numerous experiments with various kinds of fluid and boundary material. In short, a fluid continues in motion under the application of a shear stress and can not sustain any shear stress when at rest.
Fluid as a continuum
In the definition of the fluid the molecular structure of the fluid was not mentioned. As we know the fluids are composed of molecules in constant motions. For a liquid, molecules are closely spaced compared with that of a gas. In most engineering applications the average or macroscopic effects of a large number of molecules is considered. We thus do not concern about the behavior of individual molecules. The fluid is treated as an infinitely divisible substance, a continuum at which the properties of the fluid are considered as a continuous (smooth) function of the space variables and time. To illustrate the concept of fluid as a continuum consider fluid density as a fluid property at a small region.(Fig.L1.2(a)). Density is defined as mass of the fluid molecules per unit volume. Thus the mean density within the small region C could be equal to mass of fluid molecules per unit volume. When the small region Coccupies space which is larger than the cube of molecular spacing, the number of the above which the effect of molecular molecules will remain constant. This is the limiting volume variations on fluid properties is negligible. A plot of the mean density versus the size of unit volume is illustrated in Fig.L1.2(b).
Fig. L-1.2(a):Small region in fluid domain
Fig. L-1.2(b): Variation of density with respect to volume of the region
Note that the limiting volume
for all liquids and for gases at atmospheric
temperature. Within the given limiting value, air at the standard condition has approximately molecules. It justifies in defining a nearly constant density in a region which is larger than the limiting volume.
In conclusion, since most of the engineering problems deal with fluids at a dimension which is larger than the limiting volume, the assumption of fluid as a continuum is valid. For example the fluid density is defined as a function of space (for Cartesian coordinate system, x, y, and z) and time (t ) by simplification helps to use the differential calculus for solving fluid problems. . This
Basic Properties of Fluid:
Properties of fluid
Some of the basic properties of fluids are discussed belowDensity : As we stated earlier the density of a substance is its mass per unit volume. In fluid mechanic it is expressed in three different waysMass density ρ is the mass of the fluid per unit volume (given by Eq.L1.1) UnitDimensionTypical values: water- 1000 kg/ Airat standard pressure and temperature (STP)
Specific weight, w: - As we express a mass M has a weight W=Mg . The specific weight of the fluid can be defined similarly as its weight per unit volume. L-2.1 Unit: Dimension: Typical values; waterAir(STP)
Relative density (Specific gravity), S :Specific gravity is the ratio of fluid density (specific weight) to the fluid density (specific weight) of a standard reference fluid. For liquids water at is considered as standard fluid.
L-2.2 Similarly for gases air at specific temperature and pressure is considered as a standard reference fluid.
L-2.3 Units: pure number having no units. Dimension:Typical vales : - Mercury- 13.6 Water-1
Specific volume density.
: - Specific volume of a fluid is mean volume per unit mass i.e. the reciprocal of mass
and the shear strain results with time due to the deformation. shear strain rate is considered. The upper plate moves at a constant velocity expressed as under the action of constant shear force .6 From the geometry of the figure.1 ). Under the action of shear force (fig-L2.Dimension: Typical values: . Viscosity is a fluid property. The shear stress. L2. not shear strain as commonly used in solid mechanics. . we can define For small Therefore. Let us consider a fluid element placed between two infinite plates as shown in fig (Fig-2. which determines the relationship between the fluid strain rate and the applied shear stress.1). the fluid element is deformed from position ABCD at time t to position AB'C'D' at time The shear strain rate is given by Shear strain rate Where is the angular deformation. This means that air has low viscosity than water. is the area of contact of the fluid element with the top plate. t is where. Viscosity can be inferred as a quantative measure of a fluid's resistance to the flow. It can be noted that in fluid flows.Water Air- Viscosity n section L1 definition of a fluid says that under the action of a shear stress a fluid continuously deforms. . For example moving an object through air requires very less force compared to water.
The limit of both side of the equality gives L-2. [In the absolute metric system basic unit of co-efficient of viscosity is called poise.5 ) L-2. The relation is Substituting the relation gives in equation(L-2.6 Introducing the constant of proportionality L-2. Dimensions and units for ] are . respectively. The experimental finding showed that a linear relation between them is applicable for common fluids such as water.7 where and is called absolute or dynamic viscosity. and air. Newton 's Viscosity Law Sir Isaac Newton conducted many experimental studies on various fluids to determine relationship between shear stress and the shear strain rate.5 The above expression relates shear strain rate to velocity gradient along the y -axis. 1 poise = . oil.
which is the slope of shear stress versus shear strain rate curve. The fluids that follow the linear relationship given in equation (L-2.3.7) are called Newtonian fluids. non-Newtonian fluids are broadly classified into the following groups – decreases with increasing shear strain rate. is used for these types of fluid. pseudo plastic. colloidal suspensions.2: Relationship between shear stress and velocity gradient of Newtonian fluids Fig. For a) Pseudo plastics (shear thinning fluids): example polymer solutions. Examples are paints. Instead of the dynamic viscosity apparent viscosity.L-2. Examples: Suspension of starch and quick sand (mixture of water and sand).L-2.Newtonian fluids Fluids in which shear stress is not linearly related to the rate of shear strain are non Newtonian fluids. b) Dilatants (shear thickening fluids) increases with increasing shear strain rate. blot. polymeric solution. latex paints. . etc. Kinematic viscosity v Kinematic viscosity is defined as the ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density L-2.3: Relationship between shear stress and shear strain rate of diferent fluids Typical relationships for common fluids are illustrated in Fig-L2.Fig.8 Units: Dimension: Typical values: water Non . Based on the behavior of .
Example 2: Density . e. Example 1: Density If 5 m3 of certain oil weighs 45 kN calculate the specific weight. decreases with time under a constant applied shear stress.c) Plastics : Fluids that can sustain finite shear stress without any deformation. Solution : Given data: Volume = 5 m3 Weight = 45 kN Answer: . Example: some typical liquid-solid suspensions. they flow like a fluid. L-2. tooth paste and fly ash. specific gravity and mass density of the oil. some examples are clay suspensions. Thixotropic fluid(Fig. 0. crude oils. The relation between the shear stress and the exceeds the finite stress resulting shear strain is given by L-2.9 Fluids with n = 1 are called Bingham plastic. d. Rheopectic fluid : increases with increasing time.917. but once shear stress .4): Example: Ink.
2 N/m2 and the velocity gradient is 0.55.21 s-1 . moves at 40 cm/s and requires a force of 1 N. Example 3: Viscosity A plate (2m x 2m ).A liquid has a mass density of 1550 kg/m3.25N/m2 And. specific gravity and specific volume. 0. If the mass density of the oil is 950 kg/ m3 find the kinematic viscosity. F = 1 N Now. Answer: Example 4: Viscosity At a certain point in an oil the shear stress is 0. . Solution : Given data: Change of velocity. Calculate its specific weight. Determine the dynamic viscosity of the fluid in between the plates. 1. Solution : Given data: Mass density = 1550 kg/m3 Specific gravity = Answer: .25 mm distant apart from a fixed plate. Shear stress. Distance between the plates. Solution : . Contact area A = 2x2 = 4 m2 Force required. = F/A = 0.
02 stokes Example 5: Viscosity As shown in the figure a cubical block of 20 cm side and of 20 kg weight is allowed to slide down along a plane inclined at 300 to the horizontal on which there is a film of oil having viscosity 2.16x10-3 Ns/m2 . Answer: 28.5cm . Answer: 10.025mm? Solution : Given data : Weight = 20 kg Block dimension = 20x20x20 cm3 Driving force along the plane Shear force Contact area.35 poise.21 s -1 . Also.What will be the terminal velocity of the block if the film thickness is 0.2 N/m2 => Then. Given the viscosity of the liquid is 8. Shear stress t = 0. Solution : Given Data: Velocity profile .Given data: Velocity Gradient = 0. Kinematic viscosity. Example 6: Viscosity If the equation of a velocity profile over a plate is v = 5y 2 + y (where v is the velocity in m/s) determine the shear stress at y =0 and at y =7.38m/s.
85 m of ram is engaged in the cylinder Solution : Given data: Mass density of the oil Oil thickness.075 on the above equation.23 N A =258. we get shear stress at respective depths. Example 7: Viscosity A hydraulic lift consists of a 50 cm diameter ram and slides in a cylinder of diameter 50. Since 3.025cm2/s and specific gravity of 0.835 . Ex7).85m of ram is engaged the contact area becomes Total frictional force F = Answer: 258.15m/min find the frictional resistance when 3. If the rate of travel of the ram is 9.23 N Example 8: Viscosity .015 cm while the annular space is being filled up with oil having kinematic viscosity of 0.Substituting y = 0 and y =0. Answer: 0.85 (Fig.
Substituting the value of Answer: 2.5 N calculate the maximum speed with which it can be drawn through the gap. v = .021 Ns/m 2 completely fills the gap for a length of 80 cm along the tape. Diameter of the shaft = 5 cm Length of the shaft = 15 cm Peripheral speed.015 cm thick and 1. we get Example 9: Viscosity Determine the torque and power required to run a 15 cm long and 5 cm diameter shaft running at the rate of 500 rpm in a 5. A lubricant of dynamic viscosity 0.00 cm wide is to be drawn through a gap with a clearance of 0. = 0. Solution : Given data: . t = F/A Maximum shear stress the tape can withstand.5 N Shear stress. Solution : Given data: Dynamic viscosity 0.467185 kN/m2 Also shear stress.01cm on each side.01 cm Contact area maximum tension the tape can with stand =7.A tape of 0.1 cm diameter concentric bearing flooded with oil of dynamic viscosity 100 centipoise. in the above equation.23 m/s. If the tape can withstand a maximum tensile force of 7.021 Ns/m2 Clearance dy = 0.Rotational speed = 500rpm Dynamic viscosity =100 centipoise.
shown in Figure (b) Torque acting on the elementary area. Compute the power dissipated in the bearing if it rotates at 150 rpm.12 m Dynamic viscosity = 85 centipoise Now.3 watt.1) the liquid molecules.5 mm of dynamic viscosity 85 centipoise. As shown in Fig (L .617 N-m and 32. Total torque Power required = T ω = 0. Answer: 0. Linear Speed of the element on the ring Shearing stress for the elementary area on the ring.178 watt.3. Surface tension In this section we will discuss about a fluid property which occurs at the interfaces of a liquid and gas or at the interface of two immiscible liquids. Example 10: Viscosity A thrust bearing having a 12cm diameter pad rotating on another pad separated by an oil film of 1. However the molecule B' close to the .= = 12.3 watt.34 N = 0.617 N-m Total power required W = T ω = 32. Solution : Given data:Rotational Speed =150 rpm Diameter of the pad = 12 cm = 0. Answer: 0.178 watt.'A' is under the action of molecular attraction between like molecules (cohesion).
a liquid contacts a solid surface. .2. i. and solid is evident in the contact angle. immiscible fluids. The droplet is divided into two halves as shown in Fig.L-3. At the critical temperature of a fluid surface tension becomes zero.3: Contact line for wetting condition . Since the droplet is small the hydrostatic pressure variations become negligible. the sum of the forces acting at the interface in any direction will be zero. At the contact line the net surface tension depending upon all three materials . But at the interface of molecule 'B' the cohesive forces exceed the adhesive force of the gas. Dimension: Unit: Typical values: Water at C with air. the interface is at a state of tension similar to a stretched elastic membrane.e. A force balance on the contact line yields: Fig : L-3. The corresponding net force acts on the interface. consider a small spherical droplet of a fluid at rest. As explained.interface is subject to molecular attractions between both like and unlike molecules (adhesion). the boundary between the fluids vanishes. . gas. Equilibrium of forces gives Solving for the pressure difference and then denoting we can rewrite equation (L. Since the droplet is at rest. the corresponding net force is referred to as surface tension. As a result the cohesive forces cancel for liquid molecule 'A'.3.liquid.1) as Contact angle and welting As shown in fig. The line at which liquid gas and solid meet is called the contact line. Pressure difference at the interface In order to study the effect of surface tension on the pressure difference across a curved interface. Note that the only forces acting at the interface are pressure and surface tension. In short it is apparent tensile stresses which acts at the interface of two Note that surface tension decreases with the liquid temperature because intermolecular cohesive forces decreases.
Typical values: for air-water. interface. h by equating force balance in the z-direction (shown in Fig : L-3. the sum of all of forces acting on the fluid column is zero. and is the surface tension of liquid-gas interface. we can determine the capillary rise or depression. the liquid will rise in the tube (fig : L -3. d is the tube diameter. The pressure acting on the top curved interface in the tube is atmospheric. when . taking into account surface tension. is inserted vertically in to a liquid.here is the surface tension of the gas-solid interface. Such a phenomenon of rise or fall of the liquid surface relative to the adjacent level of the fluid is called capillarity. which wets the tube. Upward force due to surface tension Weight of the liquid column Thus equating these two forces we find The expression for h becomes L -3. the solid surface is not wetted by Capillarity If a thin tube. the pressure acting on the bottom of the liquid column is at atmospheric pressure because the lines of constant pressure in a liquid at rest are horizontal and the tube is open.4).glass interface for air-mercury glass interface If the contact angle the liquid. is the surface tension of solid-liquid the liquid is said to wet the solid. If the liquid does not wet the tube it will be depressed below the level of free surface outside. Since the column of fluid is at rest. If is the angle of contact between liquid and solid.5). gravity and pressure.2 . Otherwise. open at the both ends.
1. Answer:- Example 2: The inside diameters of the two arms of a U-tube are 1.3.Typical values of capillary rise are a) Capillary rise is approximately 4.03N/cm 2and the surface tension of water at that temperature is 0. Capillary action causes a serious source of error in reading the levels of the liquid in small pressure measuring tubes. a two-dimensional model for the capillary rise of a liquid in a crack width.0736 N/m. Besides this. L-3. b.0736 N/m and zero contact angle what will be the difference in the level of miniscii between the two arms. is illustrated.6). b) Capillary depression is approximately . The height of the capillary rise can also be computed by equating force balance as explained in the previous section.5 mm respectively.3 Example 1: Find the pressure inside a water droplet having diameter of 0. Solution : Given Data: - Pressure inside the droplet. In figure (Fig : L . Capillary rise.0 mm and 1.5 mm for water in a glass tube of 5 mm diameter.5 mm at 20 0 C if the outside pressure is 1. Now if it is partially filled with water having surface tension of 0.(shown in the figure below) Solution : .5 mm (depression) for mercury in the same tube. capillary action causes the movement of liquids to penetrate cracks even when there is no significant pressure difference acting to move the fluids in to the cracks. Therefore the diameter of the measuring tubes should be large enough so that errors due to the capillary rise should be very less.
0 mm and 1.051N/m Capillary rise in a tube For mercury and Note that the negative sign indicates capillary depression. For water specific weight The Answer: 15mm rise and 6.Given that the surface tension of water and mercury at 200 C are 0. Answer: 10mm. sm =0.0736 N/m and 0.0736 N/m And surface tension mercury. Contact angles of water and mercury are 00 and 1300 respectively.68mm depression. and Example 4 : .051N/m respectively. sw = 0. Example 3 Compare the capillary rise of water and mercury in a glass tube of 2 mm diameter at 200 C . Solution : Given data: Surface tension of water.Given data: Diameter of the tubes 1.5 mm respectively Capillary rise in a tube For water contact angle 0c = 00 and Specific weight ρg = 9810 N/m3 Which gives h1 = 30 mm when tube diameter is 1mm And h2 = 20 mm when tube diameter is 1.5 mm.
Solution : Given data: Surface tension of water s = 0. Solution : Given data: Bubble pressure = 150 N/m2 Pressure of overlying oil N/m2 Effective Pressure element to surface tension Answer:- Example 6 : .8 Pa.5 mm immersed at a depth of 1.85.0736 N/m at that temperature.0736 N/m Excess pressure in a cylindrical jet Answer: 36.5 cm in a mineral oil having specific gravity of 0. Calculate the unit surface energy of the oil if the maximum bubble pressure is 150 N/m2. Example 5 : Air is forced through a tube of internal diameter of 1.Find the excess pressure inside a cylindrical jet of water 4 mm diameter than the outside atmosphere? The surface tension of water is 0.
Determine the minimum size of a glass tube, which can be used to measure pressure in water flowing system. The capillary rise in the tube must not exceed 10 mm and surface tension of water- air - glass interface is 0.001 N/m. Solution : Given data: Surface tension in the water-air-glass interface = 0.0736 N/m
Capillary rise in a tube in a tube is From the typical value given in Lecture (3) we get the value of the contact angle and specific weight: for water. Now, in order to have maximum capillary rise of10 mm, the radius of the tube obtained from the above equation, r =1.5 mm. Answer: 1.5 mm.
Pressure When a fluid is at rest, the fluid exerts a force normal to a solid boundary or any imaginary plane drawn through the fluid. Since the force may vary within the region of interest, we conveniently define the force in terms of the pressure, P, of the fluid. The pressure is defined as the force per unit area . In Fig : L - 6.1 pressure variation of a fluid at different locations is illustrated. Commonly the pressure changes from point to point. We can define the pressure at a point as
L - 6.1 where is the area on which the force given P = P (x, y, z, t) acts. It is a scalar field and varies spatially and temporally as
Pascal's Law : Pressure at a point The Pascal's law states that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions . Let us prove this law by considering the equilibrium of a small fluid element shown in Fig : L - 6.2 Since the fluid is at rest, there will be no shearing stress on the faces of the element. The equilibrium of the fluid element implies that sum of the forces in any direction must be zero. For the xdirection: Force due to Px is Component of force due to Pn
Summing the forces we get,
L - 6.2
Similarly in the y-direction, we can equate the forces as given below Force due to Py = Component of force due to Pn
The negative sign indicates that weight of the fluid element acts in opposite direction of the z-direction. Summing the forces yields
is very small, the weight of the element is negligible in Since the volume of the fluids comparison with other force terms.So the above Equation becomes Py = P n Hence, P n = P x = P y Similar relation can be derived for the z-axis direction. This law is valid for the cases of fluid flow where shear stresses do not exist. The cases are a. Fluid at rest. b. No relative motion exists between different fluid layers. For example, fluid at a constant linear acceleration in a container. c. Ideal fluid flow where viscous force is negligible. Basic equations of fluid statics An equation representing pressure field P = P (x, y, z) within fluid at rest is derived in this section. Since the fluid is at rest, we can define the pressure field in terms of space dimensions (x, y and z) only. Consider a fluid element of rectangular parellopiped shape( Fig : L - 7.1) within a large fluid region which is at rest. The forces acting on the element are body and surface forces. Body force : The body force due to gravity is L -7.1 where is the volume of the element.
Surface force : The pressure at the center of the element is assumed to be P (x, y, z). Using Taylor series
expansion the pressure at point
on the surface can be expressed as
, only the first two terms become significant. The above equation becomes
The center pressure of the face represents the average pressure on that face.7.3 Similarly. pressures at the center of all the faces can be derived in terms of P (x.6 The total force per unit volume is .4 Similarly the surface forces on the other two directions (x and z) will be The surface force which is the vectorical sum of the force scalar components L .5 The total force acting on the fluid is L .7. z) and its gradient.7. y.L . Note that surface areas of the faces are very small. The surface force acting on the element in the y-direction is L -7.
y and z directions are is expressed as . Simplifications of the Basic Equations If the gravity is aligned with one of the co-ordinate axis. dF=0 .axis. then The component equations are reduced to .For a static fluid. Then. the components of Eq(L.7.8) in the The above equations are the basic equation for a fluid at rest. for example z.7 If acceleration due to gravity x. L -7.
Integrating the equation (L -7.2: Pressure variation in an incompressible fluid This indicates that the pressure increases linearly from the free surface in an incompressible static fluid as illustrated by the linear distribution in the above figure. c.11 Fig.2). Static fluid Gravity is the only body force. Scales of pressure measurement Fluid pressures can be measured with reference to any arbitrary datum. the pressure P depends on z only.10 This simplification is valid under the following restrictions a. The common datum are . Therefore. The z-axis is vertical and upward. total derivative can be used instead of the partial derivative.10) with condition given in figure (Fig : L .7. b. Pressure variations in an incompressible fluid at rest In some fluid problems.7. fluids may be considered homogenous and incompressible i.L -7. L-7. density constant.9 Under this assumption. we have is L -7. L .e .
ρ g h1 s1 = ρ g h2 s2 = ρ g h3 s3 Answer:Example 2 : 12.043 kPa. the pressure difference is called an absolute pressure.2). Example 1 : Convert a pressure head of 10 m of water column to kerosene of specific gravity 0. When the pressure difference is measured either above or below local atmospheric pressure. Absolute zero pressure. s3 = 1. as a datum. 2. .8 Specific gravity of carbon-tetra-chloride.62 For the equivalent water head Weight of the water column = Weight of the kerosene column. P abs . Local atmospheric pressure When absolute zero (complete vacuum) is used as a datum.5 m and 6.7. h 1 = 10 m Specific gravity of water s1 = 1. So.1. Local atmospheric pressure can be measured by mercury barometer. Solution : Given data: Height of water column. the atmospheric pressure is approximately 101.0 Specific gravity of kerosene s2 = 0. As illustrated in figure( Fig : L -7.P abs L . At sea level.8 and carbon-tetrachloride of specific gravity of 1.17 m. under normal conditions. P local . When Pabs < Plocal P gauge = P local . it is called the gauge pressure.62.12 Note that if the absolute pressure is below the local pressure then the pressure difference is known as vacuum suction pressure.
213 = 189. 101. Solution : Given data: Height difference = 2 m Specific gravity of oil s = 0. gauge pressure is the pressure above the normal atmospheric pressure.88 . They are connected by a U-tube manometer with the manometric liquid having a specific gravity of 1. If the manometric liquid in the limb connecting the water pipe is 2 m higher than the other find the pressure difference in two pipes.131+101. the gauge pressure at that depth = 88.88 respectively.344 kN/m2 Answer: 88.131 kN/m2 .81 m/s2 Thus the pressure at that depth due to the overlying water is P = ρ gh = 88. the absolute pressure as P abs = 88.Determine (a) the gauge pressure and (b) The absolute pressure of water at a depth of 9 m from the surface.25.213 kN/m2 Thus.131 kN/m2 Case a) as already discussed. Solution : Given data: Depth of water = 9 m the density of water = 998.2 kg/m3 And acceleration due to gravity = 9.131 kN/m2 Case b) The standard atmospheric pressure is 101.213 kN/m2 Pressure Measuring Devices Example 1: Two pipes on the same elevation convey water and oil of specific gravity 0. Thus.
2 kg/m3 we have P A -P B = 10791 Answer:Example 2 : A two liquid double column enlarged-ends manometer is used to measure pressure difference between two points. A -.75 Specific gravity of Mercury in the U-tube13. [a. The diameter of the basin is 20 times higher than that of the U-tube. The basins are partially filled with liquid of specific gravity 0. Find the pressure difference if the U-tube reading is 25 mm and the liquid in the pipe has a specific weight of 0.51 kPa Example 3: .6.Specific gravity of manometric liquid s = 1.X-Section of tube and basin respectively] Equating pressure head at (A--A) Put the value of Y while X and Z cancel out.475 N/m3 10791 Pa Solution : Given data: U-tube reading 25 mm Specific gravity of liquid in the basin 0. Answer: 31.6 As the volume displaced is constant we have.75 and the lower portion of U-tube is filled with mercury of specific gravity 13.25 Equating pressure head at section (A-A) Substituing h = 5 m and density of water 998.
88. Determine the angle ? which will give a deflection of 5 m in the pipe for a gauge pressure of 1 m water in the tank.28 ρw g Answer: . Determine the pressure difference.88 is in the upper portion of inverted Utube and mercury in the bottom of both bends.131 kPa Example 4: A pipe connected with a tank (diameter 3 m) has an inclination of θ with the horizontal and the diameter of the pipe is 20 cm. L = 5 m .6 Calculate the Pressure difference between each two point as follow P2 -P1 = h ρ g = h S ρw g Start from one and i. PA or P B . Oil with specific gravity 0. Solution : Given data: Specific gravity of the oil in the inverted tube 0. The pressure difference of these two points is to be measured by multiple tube manometers. Rearranging and summing all these equations we have PA .10. Liquid in the tank has a specific gravity of 0.As shown in figure water flows through pipe A and B.e.88 Specific gravity of Mercury in the U-tube13.PB = 103. Solution : Given data: Diameter of tank = 3 m Diameter of tube = 20 cm Deflection in the pipe.
From the figure shown h = L sin θ If X m fall of liquid in the tank rises L m in the tube.04 L/9 And Substitute L = 5m in the above equation. assuming dry adiabatic condition determine the height of the mountain. R=287 joule/[kg(m) deg C abs] Solution : Given data: At the top pressure P = 56cm At the bottom pressure P 0 = 75. (Note that the volume displaced is the same in the tank is equal to the volume displaced in the pipe) Difference of head = x + h = L sin q + 0. Answer: θ = 12.4.87 0 Example 5: At the top of a mountain mercury-barometer reading is 56 cm and thermometer reading is -5 0 C.2 cm At the top of the hill temperature T = -5 0 C = 268 K The pressure and temperature variation for dry adiabatic condition is given as And For dry adiabatic Condition n = 1.2 cm. . while at the foot-hill the reading is 75. Now solve for (Z-Z 0 ) Answer:Example 6: 2289m.
the water rises a height x in the bucket By applying the Boyle's Law at constant temperature we have Also.8m respectively and the trapped water remains at constant temperature. Downward pressure ion the bucket. If the diameter and length of the bucket are 0. Solve for. What would be the force required to hold the bucket in that position atmospheric pressure being 1. Total upward force exerted by the trapped water Downward force due to the overlying water and the Atmospheric Pressure 2 Answer: Example 7: 1.3m and 0.70 mm of mercury (Negative gauge pressure) .62KN A manometer connected to a pipe indicates a negative gauge pressure of 70 mm of mercury . p 1 and x.An empty cylindrical bucket with negligible thickness and weight is forced with its open end first into water until its lower edge is 4m below the water level.03 N/cm 2 Solution : Let. What is the pressure in the pipe in N/m2 ? Solution : Given data: Manometer pressure.
322 kN/m 2 Also we know the gauge pressure is the pressure above the atmosphere. integration of the above equation can be carried out to determine the pressure at the element as given below . Since there can be no shear force in a static liquid. Consider an element of area on the upper surface.819 kN/m 2 Answer: 91.1 is a plane surface of arbitrary shape fully submerged in a uniform liquid. P = r gh = 9.9) becomes L-9.L-9. In this module the resultant force acting on a submerged surface is derived.819 kN/m 2 Hydrostatic force on submerged surfaces Introduction Designing of any hydraulic structure. Other critical components of the force such as the direction and the line of action need to be addressed. Thus a negative gauge pressure of 70 mm of mercury indicates the absolute pressure of P abs = 101. needs to calculate the total force caused by the retaining liquid on the surface of the structure. the hydrostatic force must act normal to the surface.1 If the fluid density is constant and P 0 is the atmospheric pressure at the free surface.322) = 91.A pressure of 70 mm of Mercury. The pressure force acting on the element is Note that the direction of is normal to the surface area and the negative sign shows that the pressure force acts against the surface. which retains a significant amount of liquid.213 + (-9. The total hydrostatic force on the surface can be computed by integrating the infinitesimal forces over the entire surface area. from the horizontal free surface as given in Equation (L2. If h is the depth of the element. Hydrostatic force on a plane submerged surface Shown in Fig.
L-9. we can equate the moments about the x-axis.4 in which A is the total area of the submerged plane. we know that the moment of the resultant force about any axis must be equal to the moment of distributed force about the same axis. we can express L-9. P=wh and . Thus L-9. To find the co-ordinates of CP. Centre of Pressure (CP) The point of action of total hydrostatic force on the submerged surface is called the Centre of Pressure (CP).2. If yc is the y coordinate of the centroid of the area.3 The integral is the first moment of the surface area about the x-axis.6 Neglecting the atmospheric pressure ( P0 = 0 ) and substituting .2 Total hydrostatic force acting on the surface is L-9.5 This equation says that the total hydrostatic force on a submerged plane surface equals to the pressure at the centroid of the area times the submerged area of the surface and acts normal to it.L-9. . Referring to Fig. L-9.
We get From parallel-axis theorem Where is the second moment of the area about the centroidal axis. the direction of the hydrostatic pressure being normal to the surface varies from point to point.3. L-9. The force vector scalar components as is expressed in terms of its . The pressure force acting on the element is The total hydrostatic force can be computed as Note that since the direction of the pressure varies along the curved surface. Similarly. the derivation of xcp can be carried out.8 This equation indicates that the centre of the pressure is always below the centroid of the submerged plane. Consider an elementary area in the curved submerged surface in a fluid at rest. we cannot integrate the above integral as it was carried out in the previous section. Hydrostatic force on a Curved Submerged surface On a curved submerged surface as shown in Fig. L-9.
h = P/w =19. The pressure at the bottom of the gate is 195 kN/m 2 . Example 1 : A vertical gate of 5 m height and 3 m wide closes a tunnel running full with water. Total force And . The magnitude of the force component in the vertical direction (z direction) Since and neglecting . Determine the total pressure on the gate and position of the centre of the pressure.in which represent the scalar components of F in the x . the dot product of the force and the unit vector ( i ) gives Where is the area projection of the curved element on a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. For computing the component of the force in the x-direction.87m. This integral means that each component of the force on a curved surface is equal to the force on the plane area formed by projection of the curved surface into a plane normal to the component. y and z directions respectively. we can write in which is the weight of liquid above the element surface. This integral shows that the z-component of the force (vertical component) equals to the weight of liquid between the submerged surface and the free surface. The line of action of the component passes through the centre of gravity of the volume of liquid between the free surface and the submerged surface. Solution : Given data: Area of the gate = 5x3 = 15 m 2 The equivalent height of water which gives a pressure intensity of 195 kN/m2 at the bottom.
If the total depth of water is 7 m what horizontal force must be applied at the bottom to keep the gate closed? Solution : Given data: Area of the gate = 4x2 = 8 m 2 Depth of the water = 7 m Hydrostatic force on the gate Taking moments about the hinge we get. Example 2 : A vertical rectangular gate of 4m x 2m is hinged at a point 0.8 kN.25 m below the centre of gravity of the gate.49 m. Answer: 18. Example 3: .56MN and 17.[I G = bd 3 /12] Answer: 2.
the depth of such a line is x from the top of the gate.Area of the gate = 2x2 = 4 m 2 Depth of the top edge 1 m (a) Let.24m and 1. The plate weighs 2200 N.. Taking moments about (A. .24m. (b) Now if be the depth of centre of pressure from the top of water surface. If the top edge of the gate is 2 m below the water level what is the force required to open the gate by pulling a chain set at 45 0 angle with the plate and set to the lower end of the plate. Total force on the gate= Depth of the centre of pressure Distance of the application point of the force from the hinge Taking moments about the hinge .A) and solve for x Answer: Example 4: An opening in a dam is covered with a plate of 1 m square and is hinged on the top and inclined at 60 0 to the horizontal. Find the depth of such a horizontal line that a) the force on the top half is equal to the pressure on the bottom half. b) The moments of the force at both half about the line are equal. Solution : Given data: . Equating these two x =1.A vertical gate of 2m x 2m rests with its top edge 1 m below the water level. Solution : Given data: Area of the gate= 1 m 2 1.167m..
F 2.66 Answer: 18. Let.Then. Thus we have b. the forces on each plate be F 1. T = 18. F 3 etc. are the depth of the centre of pressure below the . If the plate is divided by N such lines that the total force on each plate is equal then show that a) the height of the each portion is given by h=Hv(r/N) and b) the depth of centre of pressure of each portion is given by h p = (2/3)H[r 3/2 (r-1) 3/2 ] / vN Solution : a) Let.66 kN Example 5: A vertical gate of height H and width B held water to its one side up to the top level.
Equate the sum of moments about B to zero. If the gate weighs 25 kN/m 3 find the height of the water that will automatically open the gate. It is hinged on the top and freely supported at one of the bottom ends as shown in the figure.438m. Upward pressure on the horizontal surface acting 1/2 m from B. Example 7: As shown in figure what would be the height of water level h when the gate will automatically tip? . the height of the water h above the bottom of the Gate Weight of the gate (acting downward) acting at 1/3 m from B . Answer: height of the water h = 0.Example 6: A gate closing an opening is triangular in cross section and 1 m long. Solution : Let. Force on the vertical surface acting horizontal direction acting at h/3 m above B.
[Note that the width of the plate (perpendicular to the plane of paper) is taken as unity.] Answer:h= 2. Example 8: As shown in figure what would be the height of water level h when the gate will automatically tip? Solution : The gate will tilt when the centre of pressure acts above the hinge.5 m from the hinge Take moments about the hinge and equate.732 m. .Solution : Horizontal force on the vertical plane acting at h/3 m above the hinge Vertical force on horizontal plane acting at 0.
Find out the total horizontal force on the gate and the total hydrostatic force on the gate.] Answer: 3.03m. The vertical force is equal to the weight of water displaced by the shaded area. The resultant force. Example 9: The length of a tainter gate is 1m perpendicular to the plane of the paper.67h = (h-1) [Note that the width of the plate (perpendicular to the plane of paper) is taken as unity. The tipping condition is 0. . Solution : Horizontal hydrostatic force on the tainter gate where projected area A = 3×1 = 3 m2.Depth of the centre of pressure. The area of the shaded portionThe vertical force.
It supports water at one side. Vertical force due to water is V1 = Water Displaced = V 2 = Oil m3 weight of the cylinder acting downward = 2500N.95 KN and θ = Example 10: A solid cylinder of 2.75 Diameter of the cylinder = 1. And 10.Answer: 46.53 kN. Answer: . If the length of gate is 3. Water and oil (specific gravity 0. Example 11: A gate as shown in fig.15 kN. Find the magnitude of the horizontal and vertical component of the force that keeps the cylinder touching the tank bottom.2 m respectively. Solution : Given data: Specific gravity of the oil = 0.15 kN.4 m diameter and 2. The sum of vertical forces is 10. is hinged at O and it is in the form of a quadrant of a circle of radius 1m.5m find the force required to hold the gate. .2 m Sum of horizontal force acting on the cylinder = 3531.3.5 kN weight rests on the bottom of a tank which is one meter long.6m and 1.75) are poured into the two sides of the cylinder up to a depth of 0.6 N The vertical force is the volume of water and oil displaced in each side of the cylinder .
Now. Find the force required to hold the gate.5 x1=3.5m2 And it acts at a distance 1 / 3 m from hinge The vertical force is the weight of the water held Acting through the centroid of the water held and is located at 4p / 3 m from the vertical line through A. Example 12: A quarter circle (10 m diameter) gate which is 10 m wide perpendicular to the paper holds water as shown in the figure.17. taking moments about the hinge we get Answer:. The weight of the gate can be neglected. Solution : Horizontal force .Solution : Horizontal force component Where A is the projected area =3.16 kN.
which is Determined as follow - C. And the upward vertical force is the weight of the imaginary water body held over the plate. The width of the curved portion is 2 m perpendicular to the paper.G. And it will act through its C. Taking moments about Answer:Example 13: Determine the total hydrostatic force on the curved surface as shown in the figure. of total area about AA is 2. Solution : .12m.G. Distance from 'O'= (5-3.88) = 1.And it acts at a distance of 5/3 m from the bottom end.5m away from AA.
Answer: F = 394. Volume of the imaginary cylinder . Vertical force will be the weight of water held by the curved surface. the area covered by the curve Volume of water held over the surface = 4×10 = 40 m3.Horizontal force on the surface Where A is the vertically projected area Now.4 kN. The dome is fixed to the floor by 3 bolts equally spaced. Example 14: The hemispherical dome as shown in the figure weighs 25 kN and holds water. Find the force on each bolt. Then. Solution : The total vertical upward force can be calculated by the weight of imaginary volume of water held over the structure.
883 MN Example 17: A concrete dam retaining 9 m of water at its upstream is shown in Figure. Answer: 1. 0.5 m above the crest of the arch. The foundation soil is assumed to be impermeable. Solution : a.Now. the imaginary volume of water = Total upward force = 128. Determione the factor of safety of the dam against aliding if the coefficient of friction between the base of the dam and the foundatin soil is 0. (b) the horizontal thrust on the half of the arch. Solution : . Due to a flood the water level raises 1. Calculate (a) The upward force the arch.7 x 9810 = 1. The upward force will be the imaginary volume of water held over the surface. force on each bolt is F/3. the volume of the bottom hemispherical Volume of the shaded part Imaginary Volume of the water over the dome Total upward force F Three bolts are there.26 MN.48. The depth of water at its downstream is 6 m and the unit weight of the concrete is 23. Answer: Example 16: The arch of a bridge over a river is in the form of a semi-circle of radius 3 m.5kN/m2. The bridge width is 10 m.26 MN The horizontal force on each side. Now.
From the figure Answer: 2. but a small needle of iron sinks into water. The upward force that tends to lift the body is called the buoyant force. . . The buoyant force acting on floating and submerged objects can be estimated by employing hydrostatic principle. This means that a fluid exerts an upward force on a body which is immersed fully or partially in it.12 Buoyancy Introduction In our common experience we know that wooden objects float on water.
Buoyant force in a layered fluid As shown in figure (L-10. Center of Buoyancy The line of action of the buoyant force on the object is called the center of buoyancy. The net upward force acting on L-10. The equation gives the distance to the centeroid to the object volume.1). moments about an axis OO can be taken and equated to the moment of the resultant forces. the buoyant force is .With reference to figure(L. The centeroid of the displaced volume of fluid is the centre of buoyancy. is applicable for both submerged and floating objects. This principle is known as the Archimedes principle which states: "A body immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical buoyant force which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body and the buoyant force acts upward through the centroid of the displaced volume". consider a fluid element of area the fluid element is .1 The total upward buoyant force becomes This result shows that the buoyant force acting on the object is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.2) an object floats at an interface between two immiscible fluids of density Considering the element shown in Figure L-10. which. To find the centre of buoyancy.10.3.
are the volumes of fluid element submerged in fluid 1 and 2 respectively. equation (L-10.3) weight of water is 9800 becomes (Displaced volume of the submerged liquid) = The weight of the liquid displaced by the body.we can neglect the weight of displaced air.8 ) is negligible as compared with the specific weight of the liquid (for example specific ).3). Hence. with the remainder in contact with air (as shown in figure). Since the specific weight of the air (11. Example 1: A large iceberg floating in sea water is of cubical shape and its specific gravity is 0. The centre where of buoyancy can be estimated by summing moments of the buoyant forces in each fluid volume displaced. Buoyant force on a floating body When a body is partially submerged in a liquid.9 If 20 cm proportion of the iceberg is above the sea surface. determine the volume of the iceberg if specific gravity of sea water is 1.025. The buoyant force acts at the centre of the buoyancy which coincides with the centeroid of the volume of liquid displaced. Solution Let the side of the cubical iceberg be h. the buoyant force of the body can also be computed using equation (L-10. .
weight of the iceberg = weight of the displaced water The side of the iceberg is 164 cm. under action of small displacement due to any external force. is overturn and then capsized. after imposing such a displacement the body restores its original position and this body is said to be in stable equilibrium. These external forces cause a small displacement to the body which may overturn it.41m3 Answer: 4. If a floating or submerged body. ships etc. in the design of the floating/submerged bodies the stability analysis is one of major criteria. etc.41m 3 Stability Introduction Floating or submerged bodies such as boats. Thus the volume of the iceberg is 4. For flotation. Therefore. . Some of the common external forces are wind and wave action. the body is stable. are sometime acted upon by certain external forces. Otherwise. pressure due to maneuvering a floating object in a curved path.Total volume of the iceberg = h 3 volume of the submerged portion is = ( h -20) x h 2 Now. Stability of a Submerged body Consider a body fully submerged in a fluid in the case shown in figure (Fig. pressure due to river current. the body is said to be in unstable. When a small angular displacement is applied a moment will generate and restore the body to its original position. L-11.1) of which the center of gravity (CG) of the body is below the centre of buoyancy.
The distance GM is called the metacentric height. Metacentric height GM is positive. In figure (Fig. Therefore the centre of buoyancy in a submerged body remains unchanged.However if the CG is above the centre of buoyancy an overturning moment rotates the body away from its original position and thus the body is unstable (see Fig L-11. But the shape of immersed volume of liquid changes and the centre of buoyancy relative to body moves from B to B 1 . L-11. Determination of Metacentric Height . The restoring moment Provided is small. (in radians). the shape of the displaced fluid remains the same when the body is tilted. The point ' M ' at which the line of action of the new buoyant force intersects the original vertical through the CG of the body. a restoring moment is produced. L-11. In figure (Fig.2). Since the buoyant force weight W are not in the same straight line. We can observe in figure that Stable equilibrium : when M lies above G .2) the moment is a restoring moment and makes the body stable. Stability of a floating body A body floating in equilibrium ( ) is displaced through an angular displacement . The weight of the fluid W continues to act through G. a turning movement proportional to ' and the ' is produced.2) an overturning moment is produced. Unstable equilibrium : When M lies below G an overturning moment is produced and the metacentric height GM is negative. Natural equilibrium : If M coincides with G neither restoring nor overturning moment is produced and GM is zero. is called the metacentre. Note that as the body is fully submerged.
The measurement of is used to compute the metacentric height by equating the overturning moment and restoring moment at the new tilted position. x. When the object is tilted through a small angle the center of buoyancy will move to new . values and the angle 2) Theoretical method: For a floating object of known shape such as a ship or boat determination of metacentric height can be calculated as follows. B.1) Experimental method The metacentric height of a floating body can be determined in an experimental set up with a movable load arrangement. the floating object is tilted with angle for its new equilibrium position. Because of the movement of the load. This may be determined by plotting a graph between . and the original water line is AC . The initial equilibrium position of the object has its centre of Buoyancy. is The restoring moment is For equilibrium in the tilted position. Equating the same yields The metacentric height becomes And the true metacentric height is the value of the calculated value of for various as . the restoring moment must equal to the overturning moment. The overturning moment due to the movement of load P for a known distance.
this integral represents the first moment of the area of the waterline plane about OO . therefore the axisOO must pass through the centeroid of the waterline plane. Weight of wedge = Weight of wedge . As a result. the distance is The distance is calculated by taking moment about the centroidal axis . In the new position is the waterline. The small wedge is submerged and the wedge is uncovered. Since the vertical equilibrium is not disturbed. the total weight of fluid displaced remains unchanged. . da at a distance x from the axis of rotation OO uncover the volume of the fluid is equal to Integrating over the whole wedge and multiplying by the specific weight w of the liquid. Computation of the Metacentric Height Refer to Figure(). Weight of wedge Equating Equations ( ) and (). there will be change in the shape of displaced fluid. Weight of wedge Similarly. In the waterline plan a small area.position . in which.
This oscillation behaves as in the same manner as a simple pendulum suspended at metacentre M . Thus. Only the restoring moment of angular momentum. Periodic Time of Transverse Oscillation When an overturning moment which results an angular displacement to a floating body is suddenly removed. it is equal to the rate of change .The integral portion At a distance x . the floating body may be set in a state of oscillation. equals to zero. Distance Since. because axis symmetrically divides the submerged Substituting it into the above equation gives Where I 0 is the second moment of area of water line plane about . sets it in a state of oscillation. . So.
Example 1: A wooden cylinder of length L and diameter L/2 is floating on water with its axis vertical.2m. the periodic time is From the above equation it can be observed that a large metacentric height gives higher stability to a floating object.6m. River crafts : > 3.3m to 1. However it reduces the time period of oscillation which may cause discomfort for passengers in a passenger ship. and the angular acceleration.5m. War ship : 1m to 1.Where. Some typical metacentric heights of various floating vessels are given below Ocean going vessels : 0. The negative sign indicates the acceleration is in the opposite direction to the displacement. As it corresponds to simple harmonic motion.6 Solution : . Find the metacentric height if the specific gravity of wood is 0. is the radius of gyration about its axis of rotation.
Weight of water displaced = Weight of the cylinder h = 0.Given data: Length of the cylinder = L Diameter of the cylinder = L/2 Specific gravity of wood = 0. Now if the depth of immersion is h.6 Metacentric height .6 For flotation weight of the cylinder should be equal to weight of the water displaced.
For Stable equilibrium Answer: L < 0.1739 L m.817D.6 and 0.8 respectively? Solution : Given data: Specific gravity of liquid = 0.6 Specific gravity of liquid = 0.Answer: .0. Height of centre of pressure from bottom x = Then.8 If the depth of immersion is h Weight of water displaced = weight of the cylinder The depth of immersion . What should be the relation between L and D if the specific gravity of liquid and that of the wood are 0. .) Example 2: A wooden cylinder of length L and diameter D is to be floated in stable equilibrium on a liquid keeping its axis vertical. (The negative sign indicates the body is in unstable equilibrium.
5 m Length L = 3.0409 or 0. For flotation Weight of water displaced = weight of the cylinder h = 91 t For the cylinder to be in equilibrium Solving for t we have t = 0.t = 0. Solution : Given data : Outside diameter 1.8 m Specific weight 75 kN/m 3 Let the thickness t and immersion depth h . Find the thickness of the cylinder if the sea water has a specific weight of 10 kN per cubic meter.5 m and length of 3.Example 3: A hollow cylinder closed in both end.83 mm Example 4: .000829m Answer:.8 m and specific weight 75 kN per cubic meter floats just in stable equilibrium condition. of outside diameter 1.
Example 5: . Solution : Given data: Let. If the specific gravity of the material is S. Substituting the values we get.G of the cone is 3/4 th of the height above the apex. find the condition for stable equilibrium. The C. immersed depth be h and diameter of the cone at the water line be d 1 For floating Weight of water displaced = Weight of cone So. Answer:- .A cone is floating in water with its apex vertically downward has a vertical height H and diameter d.
36 m x 0.000 tonnes a weight of 55 tonnes is placed at a distance of 6 m from the longitudinal centre plane to cause a heel through an angle of 3 0 . Solution : Given data: Weight of the ship. Now if one of its edges is depressed to cause the log roll.8 floats in water.0. find the period of roll. h be the depth of immersion and L be the length (perpendicular to the page) Since the section is square its dimension should be 0.36 m For flotation Weight of water displaced = Weight of the log .5 x 10 4 Metacentric height Answer:. W = 10 7 kg Angle of heel ? = 3 0 Distance of the weight X = 6 m Weight placed w = 5.8 MW is being transmitted by a single propeller shaft at the rate of 90 rpm. Solution : Let. Example 6: A log of wood of 1296 cm 2 cross section (square) with specific gravity 0. What is the metacentre height? Hence find the angle of heel and its direction when the ship is moving ahead and 2.629 m and 0.270.To find the metacentre of a ship of 10.
The spherical float has a diameter of 15cm and it is connected with a valve through a weightless link 'AOB' mounted at the hinge O. Time period. A float valve controls the flow of a liquid. Example 7 and we have. Answer: 5. The length of the link AO is 0.35 m below the hinge.88 Let.5m. Volume of liquid displaced .2m and that of OB is 0. h = 0. Now if the valve is to be pressed by a force of 10 N what should be the weight of the float? The angle AOB is given as 120 0 and the link AO should be vertical when the flow is to be stopped. The specific gravity of the liquid is given as 0. the centre of the Spherical float is h m below the top of the liquid surface. Solution : Given data: Diameter of the float 15 cm Specific gravity of the liquid 0.288 m.38 second.Then. The oil flow stops when the free surface of liquid is 0.88.
Then volume of the submerged portion is = ( h -20) x h 2 Total volume of the iceberg = h 3 Now. the liquid within the tanker starts splashing.69 N A large iceberge. each liquid particle moves with same acceleration. If a 20-cm -high proportion of the iceberg is above the surface of the water. floating in seawater.025.41m3 Answer: 4.9. At this equilibrium stage the liquid moves as if it were a solid. is of cubical shape and its average specific gravity is 0. weight of the iceberg = weight of the displaced water So. the side of the iceberg is 164 cm. . For flotation. After that a new free surface is formed.Vertical force on the float If the weight of the float is W Net vertical force = (F W) Taking moments about the hinge Answer:Example 8 424.41m 3 Liquids in Rigid Body Motion Many liquids such as water. determine the volume of the iceberg if the specific gravity of the seawater is 1. Thus the volume of the iceberg is 4. When a tanker is being accelerated at constant rate. Solution Let the side of the cubical iceberg is h. milk and oil are transported in tankers.
In scalar form equation (L-12.Since there is no relative motion between liquid particles the shear stress is zero throughout the liquid.3 Special case I :.Uniform acceleration of a liquid container on a straight path. Consider a container partly filled with a liquid. i. Uniform linear acceleration A liquid in a vessel is subjected to a uniform linear acceleration.1) represents respective force per unit volume.2 where are the acceleration components in the x . In order to simplify the analysis the projection of the path of motion on the horizontal plane is assured to be the x-axis.2) becomes 12.1) is applied with the acceleration component as Note that each term of equation (L-12. moving on a straight path with a uniform acceleration 'a'. Consider a small fluid element of dx.e. a as discussed in previous section after sometime the liquid particles assumes acceleration a as a solid body. The hydrostatic equation (L-12. If . Note that there is no acceleration component in the y direction.z directions respectively. and the projection on the vertical plane to be the z-axis. At this equilibrium it is said to be liquid in rigid body motion. dy and dz dimensions as shown in figure.y . . the relation can be resolved into their vectorical components as L12.
The slope of the free surface is .The equations ( ) of motion for acceleration fluid becomes 12. Let. Pressure variations in the liquid can be computed by where c is the constant of integration. Pressure is a function of position and the total differential becomes Substituting for the partial differentials yields For an incompressible fluid integration. . vertical rise between two points located on the free surface is computed as follows 12.8 Note that the pressure at both points is the atmospheric pressure. and finally the above equation becomes ressure variation.4 Therefore. the pressure then. If the accelerated liquid has a free surface. at origin.
94 kN Side faces 104. Force on bottom 529.9 The line of constant pressure isobars are parallel to the free surface (shown in figure). Find in each case the shape of the free water surface and the pressure on the bottom and on the side walls. Example 1: An open rectangular open tank 6m x 4.082m.918m and 1.74 kN Leading face 25.5m x 3m high containing water up to a level of 2m is accelerated at 3m/ s 2A)horizontally along the longer side. Solution Case a) Length = 6m. .84 kN Trailing face 187. The conservation of mass of an incompressible fluid implies that the volume of the liquid remains constant before and during acceleration.12.64 kN on each side. The rise of the liquid level on one side must be balanced by liquid level drop on the other side. Answer: 2. B) vertically downwards and C) vertically upwards D) in 30 0 inclination with horizontal along the longer side.
Uniform rotation about a vertical axis When a liquid in a container is rotated about its vertical axis at constant angular velocity. . after sometime the liquid will move like a solid together with the container. This type of motion is also known as forced vortex motion.31 m. Fig. Since every liquid particle moves with the same angular velocity: no shear stresses exit in the liquid.Ex1: case (c) Fig.Ex1: case (d) Case c) Case d) Upward acceleration Inclined acceleration Answer: 2.Case b) Downward acceleration.69 m and 1.
in the radial direction and in the direct A fluid particle p' rotating with a constant angular velocity ' ' has a centripetal acceleration radially toward the axis of rotation (-ve direction). By substituting the acceleration component the pressure equation ( ) for the fluid particle becomes Expanding equation ( ) The scalar components are Since . the total differential is L-13.As shown in figure a cylindrical coordinate system with the unit vector vertical upward direction.4 Substituting for then for an incompressible fluid gives and integrating . is selected.
free surface height z and thickness dr.5 where c is the constant of integration.6 where and this equation indicates that the isobars are paraboloids of revolutions. Special case : Cylinder liquid-filled container from the origin. Substituting pressure and position of (1) the equation ( ) gives The equation of the free surface becomes Consider a cylinder element of radius r . we can neglect the effect of the pressure.L-13. The volume of the element is The volume of paraboloid generated by the free surface is . The equation for the surface of constant pressure (for example free surface) is L13. the point (1) on the axis of rotation is at height atmospheric pressure. Since the pressure at point (1) is at Let.
72 rad/s . 15.8 m Case a) The liquid will start to spill over when the maximum height at the periphery becomes 0.8 m while some oil may spill over.5 m and rotating about its vertical axis.84 rad/s.filled with oil upto 0.Since the liquid mass is conserved and incompressible this volume must be equal to the initial volume of the liquid before rotation.5 m Height of the cylinder 0. thus Ans : 13.5m in diameter and 0.88. Solution Given data: Diameter of the cylinder 0. The initial volume of fluid in the container is Equating these two volumes we get In the case of a closed container with no free surface or with a partly exposed free surface rotated about the vertical axis an imaginary free surface based on equation(##) can be constructed.5 m Case b) The bottom of the centre will expose when z 0 will be zero and z max will be still 0.8m in height . z0=0m Example 2: . z 0 = 0. Find the speed at which the liquid will start to spill over and also the speed at which the point of the bottom centre will just exposed.8 m. The specific gravity of liquid is 0. Example 1: An open cylindrical container 0.
2 m and r 2 = 0.An upright manometer of limbs 1m high and 0. Example 3: A conical vessel with the base open is filled completely with water and is rotated at 60 rpm.2m apart from one limb at the rate of 10 rad/s what would be the levels of liquid in the two limbs ? Solution Given data: The radius of rotation of the two limbs are r 1 = 0.3 m Minimum ref. Solution Let H be the total height of the cone H and R be the radius.0142 m 3 of water is left then calculate the ratio of radius and height of the cone.5 m. point of the parabolic shape being Z min Also (Since the total volume of liquid is constant) Answer: 0.373 m. If only 0.627 m and 0. now if it starts rotating about a vertical axis 0.5 m apart are filled with water upto 0. .
73 Answer: R/H = 0.The depth of the paraboloid. We have From the above two equations. Volume of water left Note that the side of the cone is tangential to the parabola.73 . we get the ratio R/H = 0. Now.
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