1 DISCUSS THE IMPACT THAT DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP STYLES MAY HAVE ON MOTIVATION IN ORGANIZATIONS IN PERIODS OF CHANGE Different types of leadership styles are discussed below: 1. Autocratic leadership Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where leaders have absolute power over their workers or team. Staff and team members have little opportunity to make suggestions, even if these would be in the team's or the organization's best interest. Most people tend to resent being treated like this. Therefore, autocratic leadership often leads to high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover. However, for some routine and unskilled jobs, the style can remain effective because the advantages of control may outweigh the disadvantages. 2. Bureaucratic leadership Bureaucratic leaders work "by the book." They follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their staff follows procedures precisely. This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances, or at dangerous heights) or where large sums of money are involved (such as handling cash). 3. Charismatic leadership A charismatic leadership style can seem similar to transformational leadership, because these leaders inspire lots of enthusiasm in their teams and are very energetic in driving others forward. However, charismatic leaders can tend to believe more in themselves than in their teams, and this creates a risk that a project, or even an entire organization, might collapse if the leader leaves. In the eyes of the followers, success is directly connected to the presence of the charismatic leader. As such, charismatic leadership carries great responsibility, and it needs a long-term commitment from the leader. 4. Democratic leadership or participative leadership Although democratic leaders make the final decisions, they invite other members of the team to contribute to the decision-making process. This not only increases job satisfaction by involving team members, but it also helps to develop people's skills. Team members feel in control of their own destiny, so they're motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward.
Because participation takes time, this approach can take longer, but often the end result is better. The approach can be most suitable when working as a team is essential, and when quality is more important than speed to market, or productivity. 5. Laissez-faire leadership This French phrase means "leave it be," and it's used to describe leaders who leave their team members to work on their own. It can be effective if the leader monitors what's being achieved and communicates this back to the team regularly. Most often, laissez-faire leadership is effective when individual team members are very experienced and skilled self-starters. Unfortunately, this type of leadership can also occur when managers don't apply sufficient control. 6. People-oriented leadership or relations-oriented leadership This is the opposite of task-oriented leadership. With people-oriented leadership, leaders are totally focused on organizing, supporting, and developing the people in their teams. It's a participative style, and it tends to encourage good teamwork and creative collaboration. In practice, most leaders use both task-oriented and people-oriented styles of leadership. 7. Servant leadership This term, created by Robert Greenleaf in the 1970s, describes a leader who is often not formally recognized as such. When someone, at any level within an organization, leads simply by meeting the needs of the team, he or she is described as a "servant leader." In many ways, servant leadership is a form of democratic leadership, because the whole team tends to be involved in decision making. Supporters of the servant leadership model suggest that it's an important way to move ahead in a world where values are increasingly important, and where servant leaders achieve power on the basis of their values and ideals. Others believe that in competitive leadership situations, people who practice servant leadership can find themselves left behind by leaders using other leadership styles. 8. Task-Oriented leadership Highly task-oriented leaders focus only on getting the job done, and they can be quite autocratic. They actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize, and monitor. However, because task-oriented leaders don't tend to think much about the well-being
of their teams, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership, with difficulties in motivating and retaining staff. 9. Transactional leadership This style of leadership starts with the idea that team members agree to obey their leader totally when they accept a job. The "transaction" is usually the organization paying the team members in return for their effort and compliance. The leader has a right to "punish" team members if their work doesn't meet the pre-determined standard. Team members can do little to improve their job satisfaction under transactional leadership. The leader could give team members some control of their income/reward by using incentives that encourage even higher standards or greater productivity. Alternatively, a transactional leader could practice "management by exception" ± rather than rewarding better work, the leader could take corrective action if the required standards are not met. Transactional leadership is really a type of management, not a true leadership style, because the focus is on short-term tasks. It has serious limitations for knowledge-based or creative work; however it can be effective in other situations. 10. Transformational leadership As we discussed earlier, people with this leadership style are true leaders who inspire their teams constantly with a shared vision of the future. While this leader's enthusiasm is often passed onto the team, he or she can need to be supported by "detail people." That's why, in many organizations, both transactional and transformational leadership are needed. The transactional leaders (or managers) ensure that routine work is done reliably, while the transformational leaders look after initiatives that add new value.
3.2 Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace Employee Motivation in the Workplace: Different Types of Motivation Theories Of the many different types of motivation theories, I would like to highlight three that are of particular use: David Merrill and Roger Reid¶s work on the four personal styles David McClelland¶s theory of motivation involving three basic needs: achievement, power, and affiliation Fredrick Herzberg¶s work on money as a de-motivator at work
There are many more good motivation theories ± Maslow, Myers-Briggs, etc. ± but I¶ve found these three to be most useful in managing groups. The Power of Intrinsic Motivation The starting point for all three different types of motivation theories is that they are built on the concept that intrinsic motivation is much stronger than extrinsic. This bedrock fundamental is perhaps the most powerful concept to apply in your work; see my post on top employee motivators for a more thorough review of incentive plans. Briefly, it means that to get great results, you need people to be intrinsically interested in their work. Your efforts to control, set expectations, and reward people are all methods of extrinsic motivation, which helps explain why managers are often disappointed with employee results when relying on those motivation tools. So, to help you get better results, here are three methods of intrinsic motivation that all build on that intrinsic bedrock. Employee Motivation Theory 1: Personal Styles In their theory on motivating different types of people, Merrill and Reid identify four personal styles: Style Driver Major Drivers Action Oriented: Focus is on present time frame, direct action. Minimum concern for caution in relationships. Tends to reject inaction. Expressive Intuition Oriented: Focus is on involving others, future time frame. Minimum concern for routine. Tends to reject isolation. Amiable Relationship Oriented: Focus is on relating, Emote, Emote, Tell Prefers to Control, Tell
supporting; present time frame. Minimum concern Ask for affecting change. Tends to reject conflict. Analytical Thinking Oriented: Focus is on cautious action, ³getting it right´, historical time frame, cautious Control, Ask
action. Minimum concern for relationships. Tends to reject being wrong. * Information adapted from their book, Personal Styles & Effective Performance. Application: To help people feel connected intrinsically with their work, structure their work so these personal style needs are met. Examples: Style Driver More Effective When you want to make a point, ask, as in, ³What do you think of this idea?´ Less Effective When you want to make a point, lecturing them, as in, ³Here¶s how it is."
Get things done quickly that are going to be effective, even if they aren¶t perfected.
Spending time in reflection and consideration, in an attempt to perfect.
Expressive Make work a party while you¶re
Spend 3 hours in a room
getting stuff done; breathe life into sequentially creating a work. step-by-step checklist.
Make use of their good gut instincts. Amiable
Don¶t trust them until they can ³prove it.´
Include effectively when a group Try to get results tackles a project, and not just the ³amiable´ coworker; they¶ll feels others¶ ³pain´ if their input is excluded. Divide and conquer; use conflict ± of ideas, of Act trustworthy, and trust them. emotions ± to try to get through intimidation and application of stress.
best results Analytical Give them space to get grounded ± to get it ³right´ ± before they proceed to action. Push, push, push, Assign complex problems where you need absolute confidence in the details. especially if towards an outcome that favors your self-interest. Use conflict to try to get best results.
Ask them to ³wing it´, to bet the company on their ³hunch.´
Employee Motivation Theory 2: McClelland¶s Theory of Motivation Style More Effective Less Effective Work alone or with other high achievers Direct others
Achievement Seek: To excel; may avoid both lownAch and high-risks as a result, in order to pursue meaningful success. Power nPow Seek: Either personal or institutional power. Either way they want to direct others, but the institutional power is in service to the institution¶s success, so those with that focus tend to make better managers. Affiliation nAff Seek: Harmonious work relationships, to accept, to be accepted, and to include others. They can be more comfortable conforming to group
Work in settings with significant personal
Application: To help people connect intrinsically with their work, structure their work so their major need is met. The ³Power´ need correlates to the ³Driver´ above; ³Affiliation´ to the ³Amiable´ above. What¶s new here is the ³Achievement´ need. It can cut across all the Merrill and Reid personal motivation styles. The key here is to surround high achievers with other high achievers. To be their best, they need to know they¶re on a team capable of pulling off a worthwhile, attainable mission. Employee Motivation Theory 3: Money as a De-Motivator Frederick Herzberg was a clinical psychologist and pioneer of ³job enrichment.´ He proposed the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, also known as the two factor theory of job satisfaction. According to his theory, people are influenced by two sets of factors: Motivator Factors Work itself Responsibility Promotion Growth Achievement Recognition Hygiene Factors Pay and benefits Company policy and administration Relationships with co-workers Physical environment Supervision Status Job security Salary Application: To create an environment where people motivate themselves, you must adequately take care of the hygiene factors. If you don¶t, demotivated employees will likely result. The key here is that ³adequate´ is enough; you don¶t need an outstanding physical environment because it won¶t increase employee motivation noticeably. In sum, the ³hygiene factors´ have a downside if not done well, but not much of an upside potential impact on employees, even if they¶re done very well.
Then, allow the ³motivator factors´ to work for you ± these are the factors that have the real upside and can make a strong contribution to your results. And note, they are almost all methods of intrinsic motivation. The one ³extrinsic´ item on the list, recognition, can be made intrinsic if it¶s in the form of encouragement, rather than as a reward. For example, in Soul of a New Machine, Tracey Kidder writes that the ³reward´ for successful hi tech engineers is«the chance to tackle the next cool project! ³Congratulations on the great results. I¶m not at all surprised. Now let¶s figure out how you can make that kind of an impact again,´ is more powerful than ³Atta boy/girl´ in whatever form, whether bonus, plaque, employee of the month award, etc. A Summary of Employee Motivation Theories Employee motivation is simple. You can¶t motivate people. You can provide an environment where people motivate themselves. Apply what you know about people¶s styles to strengthen their individual work ³environment.´ And along the way, focus, focus, focus on intrinsic motivation factors. Which means: Build strong work relationships and expand those relationships so that more is possible. These different types of motivation theories are simple in concept. What makes it hard is that all of the above mean building a healthy, vibrant work environment, and that work is as vulnerable as building any other effective relationship in your life
3.3 Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for Managers Motivation is to inspire people to work, individually or in groups in the ways such as to produce best results. It is the will to act. It is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts and ability to satisfy some individual need. Motivation is getting somebody to do something because they want to do it. It was once assumed that motivation had to be injected from outside, but it is now understood that everyone is motivated by several differing forces. Motivation is a general term applied to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. To say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those
things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in a desired manner. To motivate others is the most important of management tasks. It comprises the abilities to communicate, to set an example, to challenge, to encourage, obtaining feedback, to involve, to delegate, to develop and train, to inform, to brief and to provide a just reward.
(1) Treat staff well: Subordinates have to be treated with diligence. The manager has to stay friendly as well as maintain a level of distance with his staff. It¶s a tricky ground to tread. The staff looks up on the manager as their leader. They expect maturity, rationality and understanding from their superiors. Simple things like calling people by their first name, chatting about their families for a while or even a general inquiry about their well-being, brings in a feeling of belongingness. Small gestures of this type help in building up of a cordial relationship. (2) Think like a winner: A manager has to handle two situations, ³The Winning´ and ³The loosing´. The crux is to think like a winner even when all the odds seem against you. It is necessary to equip yourself with all
the tools of a winner. Always remember that winning and losing rotate in a cycle. If you have been losing from a long time you are very near the winning edge. (3) Recognize the differences: All the employees in the organization vibrate to a different pace. A treatment that motivates one may demonization the other. Understanding the difference in temperament in between the individuals is important. 4) Set realistic goals: Set moderate goals. Setting too high a task creates a feeling of non-achievement, right from the beginning itself. The goals set should be such which seem feasible to the employees to be achieved. A slightly higher target than expected provides a challenge.
4.1 Explain the nature of groups and group behavior within organizations Introduction The term group can be defined as two or more persons interacting and working together for a common purpose. When people work in groups rather than as individuals, the goals of the organization can be easily achieved. However, working in a group is a complex task. Group dynamics refers to the interactions between the members of a group. A work group of an organization is the main foundation for the social identity of employees in that organization. Hence, performance at work and relationships outside the organization are influenced by the nature of groups in the organization. In this unit, we will discuss the nature and types of groups and the stages in development of groups along with the structure, tasks, and processes of groups. Nature of Groups Different types of groups are formed to achieve specific results in organizations. The definition of a group as given by Harold H. Kelley and J.W. Thibaut is ³A collection of individuals. The members accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance, and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment.´ Kurt Lewin popularized the term µgroup dynamics¶ in the 1930s. There are three views on the nature of interaction between members of a group or group dynamics. The first view is the normative view, which describes how to carry out activities and organize a group. According to the second view, group dynamics consists of a set of techniques which include brainstorming, role play, team building, sensitivity training, selfmanaged teams, and transactional analysis. The third view explains group dynamics from the
viewpoint of the internal nature of the groups. The formation of groups, structure, processes, and functioning are discussed in this view along with the effect of groups on individuals, other groups, and the complete organization. Dynamics of Group Formation People form groups for various reasons. Different classical theories of groups try to explain why people form groups. The theory of propinquity proposes geographical closeness as the reason. The propinquity theory provides a very basic explanation that people living or working at places located close to one another tend to form groups. But the theory doesn¶t explain the complexity of group formation. The balance theory says group formation results from the similarity of attitudes and values between people. Individuals with common interests maintain their relationship by a symmetrical balance between their attitudes and common interests. Another theory of group formation is the exchange theory. It proposes reward-cost outcomes of interaction as the reason. There may be several other economic, social, and security reasons for the formation of groups. By becoming members of a group, individuals fulfill their need for affiliation. There are formal and informal groups in organizations. Various groups exist within the organization and they are of varying degrees of formalization. Groups in organizations are of various types based on the number of members they have and the interactions between them. Formal Groups A group formed by the organization to accomplish a specific task is termed as a formal group. The organization sets up a formal group and allocates tasks and responsibilities to different members with the intention of achieving organizational goals. Command groups and task groups are examples of formal groups. A command group is relatively permanent in nature and finds representation in the organization chart. Functional departments of organizations are considered as command groups. Task groups, on the other hand, are formed for a specific task and are temporary in nature. They are dissolved after the task is accomplished. After dissolution of the task group, the members of the task group continue as members of their respective functional departments or command groups with reduced duties. Informal Groups Unlike formal groups that are established by the organization, informal groups are formed by the employees themselves. The reasons for the formation of informal groups could be the need for
companionship, common interests, growth, recreation, or support. There are two types of informal groups ± friendship groups and interest groups. Members of friendship groups have a cordial relationship with each other, common interests and are similar in age, ethnic heritage, views, etc. They like each other¶s company and want to spend time together. Interest groups are formed to organize an activity and are temporary in nature. Informal groups mainly satisfy the social needs of members. Stages of Group Development Before the 1960s, it was believed that groups were formed in a specific sequence but it was later realized that they do not follow a standard pattern of development. Established models of group development are the five-stage model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The Five-Stage Model According to the five-stage model of group development, all groups pass through the forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning stages. The duration of each stage varies from group to group and some groups do not pass through all the stages. This model became popular in the mid-1960s. Forming This is the initial stage of group formation where members try to identify acceptable behavior in a group. The members try to mold their behavior so as be a part of the group. Storming In this stage, disagreements about leadership among members may give rise to other conflicts. By the end of this stage, a relatively clear hierarchy of positions in the group emerges. Norming This stage of group development enhances a sense of camaraderie in members through the development of close relationships. A common set of expectations for behavior in the group is the outcome of this stage. Performing In this stage, members of the group exhibit committed performance to achieve goals defined in the norming stage. This is the last stage for permanent work groups. Adjourning This is the last stage for temporary groups such as task groups or committees formed to accomplish a certain task. After this stage, the groups cease to exist. While some of the members
may feel happy about the accomplishments, others may be depressed that they will lose friends after the group disperses. The effectiveness of groups is supposed to increase through the stages. But this does not always happen and some groups may cease to exist without passing through all the stages while some other may not follow the sequence of stages given in the five stage model. In fact, group effectiveness depends on complex factors.
4.2 Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organizations
Following provides tools and consulting, training and facilitation services to help: Organizations install team-based structures, and Project teams, self-directed teams, executive teams and department teams be more effective. Characteristics of Effective team work Approach Tailored to the organization ± Each organization is different and requires an approach customized to the culture and aligned with the business strategy and environment. Flexible ±The off-the-shelf approach can utilize a variety of models and approaches and integrate our approach with your existing training and organizational development efforts. Materials are professionally produced with your logo, in your style, so that everyone in your organization knows that this is your effort, not a training/consulting firm. Practical and Relevant ± In working with team members, it is believed that it is best to ³keep it simple´ and introduce concepts and tools that can be applied immediately to real-life situations. Trying to dazzle members with sophisticated concepts and tools is counter-productive. Competency-Based ± In training team leaders and team members, applied research that has identified the key competencies that distinguish high performing teams from average performing teams. If appropriate, a customized team competency model can be developed for your organization Customer-Focused ±It is encouraged that teams to collect and utilize feedback from internal and/or external customers, and manages customers¶ expectations. Most teams have found customer feedback meetings and service quality improvement tools, such as Moments of Truth/Cycles of Service analysis, to be extremely valuable.
Transfer of technology ± Organizations that have had the most success with teams have done most of the work themselves and have developed the internal capability to provide on- going day-to-day support for each team. Being dependent any consulting firm in the long term is not a good strategy. It is preferred to identify and/or develop internal consultants or change agents.
4.3 Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organization. New technology has been injected into the workplace at an exponentially increasing rate over the last few decades. Many companies see new technology as the means to increase profit margins and to remain competitive in a rapidly evolving marketplace. This paper will discuss some of those new technologies and their impact on the workplace. Specifically, I would like to focus on information technology, its implementation, its pitfalls, and its future. In 1977, knowledge and information-based activities contributed to almost half of the gross national product and employed 47% of the American workforce (Sussan, 2006). One could postulate that those numbers have increased over the last 30 years. As information has become an increasingly important feature in the business world, new technologies have become available to facilitate its use and dissemination. This has led to an ever expanding and evolving field of information technology (IT). New developments in IT have led to an increasingly mobile workforce. We are no longer tied to our desk in order to stay in the information loop. We can take our office with us wherever we go. Cellular phones allow us to be reached almost anywhere. Blackberries and Ultra-mobile PCs permit to access e-mail and other data products at a wide range of locations. A wide range of new technologies have given businesses access to faster communication, increased efficiencies, and the ability to work away from the office (Mamaghani, 2006).
New technology has opened a door of opportunities for companies and employees willing to explore non-traditional work arrangements. Standley (2006) wrote, "91 percent of organizations allow employees to work at home occasionally." As telecommuting becomes more popular, employers are realizing the benefits, including "productivity gains, reduced absenteeism, reduced employee turnover costs, reduced real estate costs, and reduced relocation costs to name a few"
(Mamaghani, 2006). For Employees, "telecommuting can offer more flexibility and a relief from workplace policies such as dress code and formal office hours" (Sussan, 2006). This technology also allows a new kind of team to emerge. Virtual teams can be formed, bringing together the best people regardless of location and time (Gignac, 2005). E-mail, teleconferencing, video conferencing, and new emerging technologies are enabling people around the world to communicate and collaborate rapidly and efficiently. Virtual teams are contributing to a synergy like never before seen. Pitfalls With all the improvements in productivity and efficiency offered by new technologies, there are areas of concern that must be considered thoroughly by any organization before implementing a new technology. Security is a primary concern inherent in a mobile and accessible IT system. Denying network access to unauthorized users is an ongoing battle in many firms. Physical security of IT equipment is also an issue. Standley (2006) writes, "It was recently reported that the average business laptop held about $1 million of commercial data."
Companies implementing new technology must also take into account the social impact. According to Sussan (2006), "teamwork is a crucial element of workplace functioning." He goes on to explain that studies have shown lower satisfaction levels for users of virtual meeting tools in contrast with fact-to-face meetings. This effect may be able to be mitigated with a hybrid virtual team, where members occasionally meet in a traditional physical location. There are also some concerns to consider with the telecommuting arrangement. If team cohesiveness is a primary concern with an organization, the lack of interaction between peers could hinder this goal. Supervision of employees working off-site is also problematic. Evaluating performance, distributing the workload, and motivating employees is more difficult when they are not physically present. Finally, how will customer service be affected by a transition to a mobile workforce? Customer acceptance is important (Mamaghani, 2006). The growth of new technologies to be used in the workplace is showing no sign of slowing down. Some examples of technology currently in development for commercial use are wearable computing, city and region-wide WiFi, and nanotechnology (Standley, 2006). Microsoft and IBM are working on collaboration technology that will facilitate virtual meetings where
participants will be able to teleconference on their computer screens, while creating or changing documents and product designs using a "virtual whiteboard" (Mamaghani, 2006). These technologies and many more, including all the unforeseen advances, will continue to contribute to an increasingly mobile workforce. The challenge lies in discovering how to implement new technology in the workplace as it becomes available. Standley (2006) says that according to a Global Future Forum survey, 76 percent of respondents agreed that "organizations are unable to effectively manage and deploy new technology due to rapid change and constant innovation." The ability to keep up with technology changes and integrate them in to business will require a paradigm shift in the way we view technology. Today's children are growing up in a high-technology era, and will be very capable of realizing this new business model in regard to technology (Standley, 2006). The only thing certain about the future of technology in the workplace is that it will continue to change and evolve at an astounding rate. Despite any pitfalls, the implementation of this new technology, especially IT, is necessary for a company to remain competitive in today's market and in the future. As Standley (2006) has said, "If it is to benefit, business will need to understand far more than the mechanics of new technologies. They will need to understand the way that people - their employees and customers, will use and interact with them."
References http://www.typepad.com/services/trackback/6a00d8341bf85853ef011571d53141970b http://www.laynetworks.com/Motivation.html Standley, Alan. "Set Your Workers Free?" Baylor Business Review, Fall 2006, 25(1). Retrieved April 5, 2007, from ProQuest database.
Sussan, Aysar P. "The Impact of E-Mail Utilization on Job satisfaction: The Case of Multi Locations." The Business Review, Cambridge. Dec 2006, 6(1). Retrieved April 5, 2007, from ProQuest database. Mamaghani, Farrokh. "Impact of Information Technology on the Workforce of the Future: An Analysis." International Journal of Management. Dec 2006, 23(4). Retrieved April 5, 2007, from ProQuest database. Gignac, Francine. Building Successful Virtual Teams. Boston: Artech House, Inc., 2005. Retrieved April 5, 2007, from Net Library.