is a chronic inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs.  .it is an inflammation of the main airways in the lungs that continues for a long period or keeps coming back.Chronic Bronchitis . - .

and chemical fumes • exposure to certain gases or fumes in the workplace • exposure to heavy amounts of secondhand smoke and pollution • frequent use of cooking gas without proper ventilation • occupational exposure .Causes: • tobacco smoking • exposure to air pollution. gases. secondhand smoke.

Signs and symptoms: • • • • • • • • • dyspnea Expectorating cough chest pain fever fatigue or body malaise wheezes headaches Edema Cyanosis .

Risk factors: • • • • • smoking habit age over 45 years Gender (female) allergies to dust particles or pollen .

• you smoke or live with a smoker • you have low resistance to disease (very old. very young. or have immune disorder) • you have frequent respiratory infections • you have acid reflux (GERD or gastroesophageal reflux disease) • you are exposed to lung irritants on the job • you are exposed to air pollution .

Complications: • irregular heart beats • need for breathing machine and oxygen therapy • right-sided heart failure or cor pulmonale (heart swelling and heart failure due to chronic lung disease • pneumonia • pneumothorax • severe weight loss and malnutrition  .

ray Sputum test Blood test High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) Electrocardiogram Sputum Cultures Pulse oximetry (oxygen saturation testing) Complete Blood Count (CBC) Arterial Blood Gas .Diagnostic exams: • • • • • • • • • • Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) Chest x.

Nursing management: vIncrease fluid intake vChest physiotherapy vImproving breathing patterns vImproving activity tolerance vPositioning vEncourage to cough effectively vIncentive spirometer vAdminister IV fluids and nutrients vOxygen therapy • .

Medical management: vRISK REDUCTION:  • Smoking cessation • avoiding secondhand smoke • avoid air-borne bronchial irritants • • .

vTREATMENT:  • Antibiotics • Bronchodilators • Other medications: • Anti.inflammatory drugs/ Corticosteroids • Oxygen therapy .

antitrypsin augmentation therapy Øantibiotic agents Ømucolytic agents Øantitussive agents ØVasodilators ØNarcotics Øinfluenza vaccines . other medications: Øalpha1.

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