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ONE INTRODUCTION A Brief History A Brief Introduction to the Technology of Aeronautics TWO FLUID MECHANICS Fluid Statics and the Atmosphere Fluid Dynamics Conservation of Mass The Momentum Theorem Euler's Equation of Motion Bernoulli's Equation Determination of FreeStream Velocity Determination of True Airspeed Potential Flow Velocity Potential and Stream Function Elementary Flow Functions V~x Source BiotSavart Law The Calculation of Flows for WellDefined Body Shapes The Circular Cylinder The Numerical Calculation of Potential Flow Around Arbitrary Body Shapes THREE THE GENERA TION OF LIFT Wing Geometry Airfoils Airfoil Families NACA FourDigit Series NACA FiveDigit Series NACA ISeries (Series 16) N ACA 6Series Modern Airfoil Developments Prediction of Airfoil Behavior Maximum Lift Flaps Plain Flaps Split Flaps Slotted Flaps
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CONTENTS
ONE INTRODUCTION A Brief History A Brief Introduction to the Technology of Aeronautics TWO FLUID MECHANICS Fluid Statics and the Atmosphere Fluid Dynamics Conservation of Mass The Momentum Theorem Euler's Equation of Motion Bernoulli's Equation Determination of FreeStream Velocity Determination of True Airspeed Potential Flow Velocity Potential and Stream Function Elementary Flow Functions Vortex Source BiotSavart Law The Calculation of Flows for WellDefined Body Shapes The Circular Cylinder The Numerical Calculation of Potential Flow Around Arbitrary Body Shapes THREE THE GENERA TlON OF LIFT Wing Geometry Airfoils Airfoil Families NACA FOUTDigitSeries NACA FiveDigit Series NACA ISeries (Series 16) NACA 6Series Modern Airfoil Developments Prediction of Airfoil Behavior Maximum Lift Flaps Plain Flaps Split Flaps Slotted Flaps
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63 72 72 72 74 74
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CONTENTS
CONTENTS
xiii
303 304 309 315 321 332 332 333 339 343 343 347 349 351 359
364 366 368.
Flap Effectiveness in the Linear Range Leading Edge Devices The Optimum Airfoil for High Lift PoweredLift Systems The Lifting Characteristics of a Finite Wing The Vortex System for a Wing The Maximum Lift of a Finite Wing Effect of Fuselage on CLm .. Effect of Trim on C""" Estimation of C,..,,, for a Complete Airplane Configuration Airfoil Characteristics at Low Reynolds Numbers FOUR DRAG Skin Friction Drag Form Drag Drag of Streamlined Shapes Interference Drag Induced Drag Calculation of Induced Drag Effective Aspect Ratio Drag Breakdown and Equivalent FlatPlate Area Drag Counts Average Skin Friction Coefficients Example Estimates of Drag Breakdown Trim Drag Cooling Drag Drag Reduction Winglets Reduction of Skin Friction Drag Drag Cleanup Total Airplane Drag FIVE LIFT AND DRAG AT HIGH MACH NUMBERS Qualitative Behavior of Airfoils as a Function of Mach Number Subsonic Flow at High Mach Numbers Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics OneDimensional Isentropic Flow Normal Shock Waves Oblique Shock Waves Expansion Waves Transonic Airfoils Supersonic Airfoils Linearized Compressible Potential Flow Subsonic Flow Supersonic Flow (Ackeret Theory) ThreeDimensional Wings Characteristics of Sweptback Wings Delta Wings
109 113 117
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131 140 144 146 148 151 162 163 168 176 18.1 18.5 186 194 1% 196 197
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Supersonic Wings Subsonic Leading Edges Supersonic Leading Edges Effect of Mach Number on the Zero Lift Drag of Two and ThreeDimensional Shapes Area Rule for Transonic Flow SIX THE PRODUCTION OF THRUST A Brief History of the Piston Engine Piston Engine Characteristics Supercharged Engines Propeller Analysis Momentum Theory Blade Element Theories MomentumBlade Element Theory Vortex Theory Practical Use of Propeller Charts Approximate Useful Relationships for Propellers Propeller Selection Design of a New Propeller A Brief History of the Turbojet Description of the Gas Turbine Engine Engine Ratings Flat Rating Some Considerations Relating to Gas Turbine Performance Qualitative Comparison of the Performance of Turbojet, Turbofan, and Turboprop Engines Specific Engine Characteristics and Performance Turbojet Turbofan Turboprop Installation Losses Trends in Aircraft Propulsion
203 206 214 215 221 231 232 237 237 238 244 244 248 253 258 261 266 271 272 274 279 281 294
370 371 377 378 378 382 385 385 398 405
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SEVEN AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE Takeoff Ground Roll Effect of Wind Airborne Distance Balanced Field Length Rate of Climb, Time to Climb. and Ceilings Generalized PowerRequired Curve Time to Climb Range Maximum Endurance Descent Landing
418 4HI 419 425 427 431 432 438 439
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CY'r 594 595 596 596 597 597 598 600 .. ) . and Velocities Longitudinal Static Stability StickFixed Stability StickFixed Neutral Point and Static Margin eM.Elevator Configuration Stabilator Effect of Fuselage and Nacelles Effects of Propulsion System Propellers Jets Ground Effect Lateral and Directional Static Stability and Control Directional Static Stability Directional Control Lateral Control Adverse Yaw Roll Control by the Use of Spoilers Aileron Reversal Steady Rolling Motion Coupling Effects Rolling Moment with Rudder Rolling Moment with Yaw Rate Yawing Moment with Roll Rate Rolling Moment with Sideslip AngleDihedral Effect 486 g 488 488 489 489 491 491 492 493 494 495 502 505 505 506 508 508 509 512 512 512 NINE LONGITUDINAL DYNAMIC STABIUTY AND CONTROL Equations of Motion Linearization of the Equations A Summary Look at the Stability Derivatives and Other Parameters Affecting Longitudinal Dynamic Motion X Derivatives and Parameters Z Derivatives and Parameters M Derivatives and Parameters Examination and Reduction of Equations of Longitudinal Motion Solution of nthOrder Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients Mode Shapes Phugoid (LongPeriod Mode) ShortPeriod Mode Solution of the Longitudinal Equations of Motion Using an Analog Computer Longitudinal Flying Qualities Phugoid Mode Flight Path Stability Short Period Mode 'i TEN 513 513 515 515 521 523 524 .j' LATERALDfRECTIONAL DYNAMIC STABILITY AND CONTROL Equations of Motion Euler Angles Reduction of the LateralDirectional Equations of Motion A Summary Look at the Stability Derivatives and Otber Parameters Affecting LateralDirectional Dynamic Motion Y Derivatives Cy~ CYp Cy.._'.xiv CONTENTS CONTENTS xv 524 526 528 534 534 537 538 541 541 542 543 543 552 552 556 561 561 563 564 565 565 569 574 576 576 585 586 587 587 591 591 Airborne Distance Ground Roll Range Payload Operating Limitations Flight Envelope Maneuvering Envelope (Vn Diagram) Gust Load Factors Energy Methods for Optimal Trajectories The Art of Estimating and Scaling 450 451 452 460 460 468 463 466 471 477 477 478 479 479 481 484 EIGHT STATIC STABILITY AND CONTROL Introduction Coordinate SystemForces. and Aerodynamic Center Location for a Finite Wing Downwash Angle Longitudinal Control Control Position as a Function of Lift Coefficient AllMovable Tail StabilizerElevator Stabilator Control Forces Gearing Stick Force for A Stabilator Stick Force for a Horizontal StabilizerElevator Combination Estimation of Aerodynamic Hinge Moments Example Calculation of Stick Force StickFree Longitudinal Static Stability ElevatorStabilizer Configuration Stabilator Configuration StickFree Static Margin Steady Maneuvering Horizontal StabilizerElevator Configuration: Elevator Angle per Stabilator Angle per g Stick Force per g Stabilizer. Moments.
2 A.1 A. CN. 600 600 601 602 603 603 604 604 604 604 605 605 AERODYNAMICS.3 THE S[ SYSTEM STANDARD ATMOSPHERE AIRPLANE DATA AND ABBREVIA TlONS eN'" 605 606 606 607 609 610 611 612 612 613 621 " 624 ! &29 640 AA NOMENCLATURE 649 .xvt CONTENTS I Derivatives e lb elf c. AND FLIGHT MECHANICS LateralDirectional Equations for the Cherokee i80 Mode Shapes Roll Mode Spiral Mode Oscillatory or "Dutch Roll" Mode Lateral Directional Flying Qualities Roll Mode Dutch Roll Mode Spiral Stability Spinning APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX INDEX A. AERONAUTICS. c.. N D~rivatives Cr: c. CN. CN.
taken from Orville Wright's diary. as reported in Reference 1. A sudden dart when out about 100 feet from the end of the tracks ended the /light. W. was blowing a little over 20 miles (corrected) 27 miles according to the government anemometer at Kitty Hawk. at 20 min. Brinkly of Manteo. W. As a result the machine would rise suddenly to about 10ft. The level for throwing off the engine was broken." The above. 1903 "When we got up a wind of between 20 and 25 miles was blowing from the north. Before we were quite ready. the art or science of operating aircraft. powered flight in a 1 . on turning the rudder.ONE INTRODUCTION Aeronautics is defined as "the science that treats of the operation of aircraft. with aeronautics. Mr. and the skid under the rudder cracked. I found the control of the front rudder quite difficult on account of its being balanced too near the center and thus had a tendency to tum itself when started so that the rudder was turned too far on one side and then too far on the other. D. and Johnny Moore of Nags Head arrived. December 17. after 11 0 'clock Will made the second trial. S. Daniels took a picture just as it left the tracks. dart for the ground. We got the machine out early and put our the signal for the men at the station. also. After running the engine and propellers a few minutes to get them in working order. A. Etheridge. On slipping the rope the machine started off increasing in speed to probably 7 or 8 miles. C. The wind. and then as suddenly. After repairs. describes mankind's first sustained. Daniels. according to our anemometers at this time. one is concerned with predicting and controlling the forces and moments on an aircraft that is traveling through the atmosphere. Dough.1. The machine lifted from the truck just as it was entering the fourth rail. 1 got on the machine at 10:35 for the first trial. A BRIEF HISTORY Thursday. John T. controlled." Basically. Time about 12 seconds (not known exactly as watch was not promptly stopped).
They were anything but a "couple of bicycle mechanics. Wilbur Wright was invited to deliver a lecture before the Western Society of Engineers at a meeting in Chicago. began just at 12 o'clock and covered 260 min 59 s. lllinois. in a methodical manner. The Wright Brothers were painstaking in their research and confident of their own results. hundreds of different airfoil and wing planform shapes. by Wilbur Wright. The last one.1. Their success was no stroke of luck.2 INTRODUCTION j_ _. the Wright Brothers achieved their goal. and dynamics. is shown here as Figure 1.. 1903. Among the conclusions reached by him in that paper were: . begun approximately 4 yr earlier.~ II "L___. They built their own wind tunnel and tested. December 17. L 3 . a strong gust of wind struck the airplane. On September 18. Three more flights were made that morning. reveal the Wright Brothers to have been learned men well versed in basic concepts such as work." Their letters to Octave Chanute.2. A threeview drawing of their first airplane is presented in Figure 1. Although the machine was severely damaged and never flew again. statics. turning it over and over. Smithsonian Institution. (Courtesy of the National Air and Space Museum. energy.. The photograph.1 The first flight. f~ Figure 1. mentioned by Orville Wright.) 1\\ ~ ~ "_ . a respected civil engineer and aviation enthusiast of the day. Shortly after this flight. 1901. 1 n  heavierthanair machine.
any fluid obeying this relationship is referred to as a Newtonian fluid. inspired by Lilienthal's work.1) show that the Wright Brothers had a good understanding of wing and airfoil behavior well beyond that of other experimenters of the time. Lilienthal. in 1903. but moves slowly forward as the angle becomes less. On March 30. this work was not made generally known . they resorted to an allmovable horizontal tail mounted in front of the wing. Today we are able to explain the results of the early experimenters in a very rational way by applying wellestablished aerodynamic principles that have evolved over the years from both analysis and experimentation. published his treatise. When the Wright Brothers began their gliding experiments in the fall of 19(X). France (Ref. he published tables of lift and drag measurements on which the Wright Brothers based their early designs. he also relied on kinesthetic control. Otto Lilienthal lost control and crashed from an altitude of approximately 15 m. 18%. A second machine built by the Voisin Brothers for Henri Farman. configuration for added strength. In fact. has less lift in proportion to drift than either surface separately. was connected to the wingwarping wires so as to produce what pilots refer to today as a coordinated tum. or tandem surfaces. reasoned that the . The Bernoullis made important contributions to understanding the behavior of fluids. 1. Unfortunately. Newton also postulated the shear force in a viscous fluid to be proportional to the velocity gradient. Most of the success of the Wright Brothers must be attributed to their own research. as the result of a gust.. In 1738. However. "That in arched surfaces the center of pressure at 90 degrees is near the center of the surface. The Wright Brothers were well ahead of all other aviation enthusiasts of their era. North Carolina. who is probably best known for his work in solid mechanics. and he was probably the first to apply momentum principles to infinitesimal fluid elements. The vertical tail. Based on measurements obtained from these experiments. Octave Chanute. developed a theory to predict the aerodynamic behavior of wings. another Swiss mathematician. designed and built several gliders that were flown by others near Miller. 1907. was flown by Farman later that year on flights that exceeded 2000 m." ("Drift" is what we now call "drag. turning to the left or right) was accomplished by means of an allmovable vertical tail mounted behind the wing. Yaw control (i. their work was built. after which it moves rapidly toward the rear till the angle of no lift is found. whereby he shifted his weight fore and aft and side to side. 1. till a critical angle varying with the shape and depth of the Curve is reached. Today. a Swiss mathematician. Following their first successful flights at Kitty Hawk. In 1687 Newton.e. John introduced the concept of internal pressure. the velocity squared. on the gliding experiments of Otto Lilienthal and Octave Chanute." which was followed in 1743 by a similar work produced by his father. ") 2. These developments have their beginnings with Sir Isaac Newton. "That the ratio of drift to lift in wellshaped surfaces is less at angles of incidence of five degrees to 12 degrees than at an angle of three degrees. In addition.. Unfortunately. Their method of roll control (i. who has been called the first real fluid mechanician (Ref. which utilized their wind tunnel and numerous experiments with controlled kites and gliders. Leonhard Euler. Unfortunately. Charles Voisin made a controlled flight of approximately 100m in an airplane similar in appearance to the Wright flyer. to some degree. To provide pitch control (i. It was he who first derived along a streamline the relationship that we refer to today as "Bernoulli's equation. in excess of 30 km and 30 min while others were still trying to get off the ground. In particular. working near Berlin. Two years later they were making flights there. In 1894 the English engineer. Chanute recognized Lilienthal's control problems and was attempting to achieve an "automatic" stability in his designs. By the end of that year at least five others succeeded in following the Wright Brothers' lead. "Hydrodynamics.e. Beginning in 1891. resistance of a body moving through a fluid is proportional to the fluid density. and aviation was on its way. Ohio.2). it was not until 3 yr after their first flight that a similar capability was demonstrated.hey realized that adequate control about all three axes was one of the t major prerequisites to successful flight." or biplane. or rudder. John Bernoulli. nose up or down).the Wright Brothers returned to their home in Dayton. Daniel Bernoulli. a bicycle and automobile racer. On August 9. first put the science of hydrodynamics on a fum mathematical base. the Wright Brothers devised a means of warping their "box" wing so that the angle of incidence was increased on one side and decreased on the other. Frederick William Lanchester. and the area of the body. even after making allowance for weight and head resistance of the connections.3)." These statements and other remarks (see Ref. Here." The aerodynamic theories of the 1800s and early 1900s developed from the early works of these mathematicians. Germany. During 1896 and 1897. Lilienthal had no means of providing direct aerodynamic control to his gliders and relied instead on kinesthetic control.. almost routinely. lowering one side of the wing and raising the other) was not as obvious from photographs as the controls about the other two axes.4 INTRODUCTION A BRIEF HISTORY 5 1. 1. Indiana. Chanute's principal contribution was the addition of both vertical and horizontal stabilizing tail surfaces. "That a pair of superposed. made approximately 2000 gliding flights over a 5·yr period. he went to the "box. He died the next day. " 3. this by Charles and Gabriel Voisin in Paris.e. Euler properly formulated the equations of motion based on Newtonian mechanics and the works of John and Daniel Bernoulli. Around 1755.
x hr/E::llg.6U 11/29 144.736 105.33 30 746 2x800hp buried.1114 built.1. with o. It 211 ArC. U~efLJI Load. VOO.229 44. 24(1 hp 5.000 hp J4. lOOOlh PO . K7 171. Constitution Hugh es a H4(HK·I) 11/47 230 1~2.6% 51. Win~ Power. H~IOIh (1. Engines wing b.1 16..28 3. [t Wing Length. 89 b.9 a.\H 12 x 500hp 22. ·~"'_·'L~.M. Flyer IOOOlb 0.33 2 x 400hp Il.'l'7 17.9 91.53 14. Modd Name Wrighl b. J(KIOIt> 53. Transaero Junkers a..12 _lO. lb!hp or Numher'" Flown Passenger Span. lbfhp orlb Number" Flown Passenger Capacity Range.3 6.1 Largest Aircraft Examples Starting with the Wright Brothers Loadings Designer a Model Number or Fir:d Fli~ht Dale 12/0J Wing GfO'iS Manufacturer Empty Weight. Wing rower.47 Ib Capacity Comment Canard driving biplane and two 62.58 7.1 n. H.700 Bomber.8b 24.50 1UJ 168 7.OOO 30 15 IS 4)( 275 hp IO.38 6.5 11. projected 120 Area.8 72.300 liui1L to bomb BcriininW..450 400 248 152 & x \.4 76.54 14.W.610 184 11147 320.67 700 5. x hpjcng.93 16.500 hp 54. ft' 4.. Ft 401 Length.15(V/150()) 2)( 2 traclorl Caproru 0. ST.61 1 v.1':>9 2' 1.~.67 50.i W~igtJL Empty W~ighl.000 hp 32. 7.Table 1.900 Flying boat. XC·99 55. to 1 ·tt 'f'if YWen g T • Table 1.75 IOOOlb 0.700 4.63 a..5 4.l.233 116.1 3. Full doubledeck uccommcdatinns 156. all wood. Plant. Comment Bomber. [.317 290 145 145 8 x 2..55 2~. Medel Name First Flight Dale Span.72 engines with pushe r propellers. II' liD Wcight.5 1}1. Handley Page 4/IM 126 J.772 140 6 x 3. ANT·20 h.5 n.9 7..(19 Flying boat: triple triplane.2 .79 Useful Luau.887 I()(M)lh Ihlft' 17.m 27. no. (iros.66 15.7 W.% passenger transport version not Tupolcv a. 6 wingburied a.45 Biplane tractor with engines on lower wing~ used effeotivcly as a bomber in ZeppelinStaaken 4/15 138. 0·38 28.84 8 'x: 875hp 22.5 218.4 4. Power Plant. 20. 9149 230 177 5.50 100 5. U)'Cl Muuromelz 4/n propellers: 113 672 1. Maxim Gorki .50 o single engines pusher SJ<orsky/RRVZ b. b.27 10 40 1. DoX 100<1 850 flying boat.oJ IH.240 Equ ipped with printing aerial press and prnpuganda loudspeaker Douglas a. XB19 Lockheed a.I: biplane pusher arrangement.99 14.W. coupled in pairs tct tractor propellers.15" Ibllt' 1.2 44 Riplane with one nose mounted engine and two wingmounted pushers. DLH line service from 1932 to 1944.1 3. 1921' 98.9 7)( 750 hp I.J3 16. Model Number b.7 1065 5. Dcrnie 7/29 15'.500 8 '" ingburied b.000 hp Convair 11/46 1891 system. . fun dcebledeck accommodaBristol a..615 10.16 0' 100 410 C. 167 tions. er no.34 11.2(.14 Kalinin a. 206. Rrabazon I engine.OOU hp 4 x 3.P. N41 212 162 75 114 65 70 4 x 2.1 (continued) Dc~ignerM Manufacturer a.
the useful load increased by a factor of 10 and today is more than 1. I I Consider the airplane in steady. ""C (I) :::::I C A BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF AERONAUTICS TO THE TECHNOLOGY C o o ~ " o ~ ~ ~~ . all forces and moments on the aircraft must be in balance.. Where analytical or numerical techniques are insufficient. complicated threedimensional flows in turbomachinery.. Lanchester completed an analysis of airplane stability that could also have been of value to the Wrights. a Russian professor of rational mechanics and aerodynamics 10 Moscow. . if any. The work of these early hydro. and aerothermodynamics. engineers.2 8 ~. The term steady means that the airplane is not accelerating... Although the resultant of all the forces must pass .~3 oj . However. it was the analytical base laid by Euler and those who followed him on which the rapid progress in aviation was built. published a series of lectures on hydrodynamics in which the behavior of a family of airfoils was investigated analytically . hence. Much of the knowledge that they had laboriously deduced from experiment could have been reasoned from Lanchester's theory..78 x 106 N (400. To be more precise. and the turbojet engine. Quantum improvements were accomplished with the use of flaps. . In the next 10 yr. After 1908.. the cantilevered wing.::j until 1907 in a book published by Lanchester. a German professor of mechanics. this work was not published until 1908. Note that in Jess than 10 yr from the Wright Brothers' first flight. This impressive growth is documented in Table 1.000 lb) for the Lockheed C5A. In 1894. allmetal construction.. Again. Lanchester's wing theory was somewhat intuitive in its development. By then the Wright Brothers had been flying for 3 yr. climbing flight shown in Figure 1. Our state of knowledge IS now such that one can predict with some certainty the performance of an airplane before it is ever flown. retractable gear. To depict the angles more clearly. In 1918 Ludwig Prandtl. to the progress and ultimate success of those struggling to fly.1. today both men are credited with this accomplishment.A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE TECHNOLOGY OF AERONAUTICS 9 . presented a mathematical formulation of threedimensional wing theory. Prandtl also made another important contribution to the science with his formalized boundary layer concept. the useful load increased from 667 N (150Ib) to more than 13.300 N (3000 lb).3. and scientists contributing to the development of aviation grew rapidly. one states that the vector sum of all forces and moments on the airplane must be zero. all forces are shown acting through the center of gravity (cg). sophisticated experimental facilities are utilized to investigate areas such as highlift devices. the list of aviators.and aerodynamicists contributed little. Around 1917 Nikolai Ergorovich Joukowski (the spelling has been anglicized).
struts. in landing many aircraft require a downward force on the horizontal tail in order to trim out the nosedown pitching moment produced by the wing flaps. L. When he learned of the Wright Brothers' wind tunnel tests.10 INTRODUCTION A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE TECHNOLOGY OF AERONAUTICS 11 v I f I' D w F. must satisfy this condition. This increase is therefore usually included as part of the induced drag.2) . T. Part of the wing drag contributes to the parasite drag and is sometimes referred to as profile drag. a turbojet. the sum of these moments about the center of gravity must be zero. tail. Wilbur and Orville Wright chose to believe their own wind tunnel results. W cos Be . it is the relative motion between the air and airplane and not the absolute motion of either that determines the aerodynamic forces. V. Later we will use other angles of attack referenced to the wing geometry. Obviously. Octave Chanute wrote to them on October 12. it is not generally true that anyone of the forces.3) and results from the distribution of aerodynamic forces on the wing.Be) .D . This force is composed of two principal parts. 1901 (Ref. This vector is shown inclined upward from the horizontal through the angle of climb. one must be careful in interpreting lift and drag data presented as a function of the angle of attack. We know today that the aerodynamic forces on an airplane are the same whether we move the airplane through still air or fix the airplane and move the air past it.3 Forces and moments on an airplane in a steady climb. V. however.1) Normal to this direction. as will become clearer later on." Fortunately. the parasite drag and the induced drag. the parasite drag is the drag of the fuselage." Chanute con. being driven from behind. In a strict sense this is incorrect. This statement was not always so obvious. with the exception of W.Be) = (1. in the direction of flight. Hence. is defined as the component of all aerodynamic forces generated by the airplane in the direction opposite to the velocity vector. The angle between the reference line and the velocity vector. acts at the center of gravity of the airplane and is directed vertically downward. landing gear. is defined as positive in the noseup direction (clockwise in Figure 1. the drag. engine nacelles. however. If this line is taken to be the reference line of the airplane.Be. or a rocket engine. it does increase with increasing lift. it includes the tail and fuselage forces. Returning to Figure 1.1) and referred to "natural wind. This trimming force can be significant. 1.:_/ jectured in his letter: "It seems to me that there may be a difference in the result whether the air is impinged upon by a moving body or whether the wind impinges upon the same body at rest. In other words. is referred to as the angle of attack of the airplane. we may equate the vector sum of all forces to zero. T cos (6 .3. if the airplane is in trim. T can be produced by a propeller. then one states that the airplane is pitched up through this angle.gure 1. In level flight this means principally the upward vertical force produced by the wing. 0. There is a fine point concerning the drag of the wing to be mentioned here that will be elaborated on later. since the airplane is in equilibrium. Generally. requiring a wing lift noticeably in excess of the airplane's weight. is the propelling force that balances mainly the aerodynamic drag on the airplane. D.L .W sin Be = 0 0 (1. through the center of gravity. The profile drag is closely equal to the drag of the wing at zero lift. The induced drag is generated as a result of producing lift. The angle between the horizontal and the thrust line is denoted as B. and other surfaces exposed to the flow. It is composed of the empty weight of the airplane and its useful load. W is the gross weight of the airplane and. In this figure V represents the velocity vector of the airplane's center of gravity. thus. and other surfaces exposed to the air. by definition. fuselage. Similar to the lift. is defined as the component of all aerodynamic forces generated by the aircraft in the direction normal to the velocity vector. This latter weight includes the payload (passengers and cargo) and the fuel weight. For example. The pitching moment.T sin (B .. The thrust. M. The lift. In the latter case each molecule. tends to transfer more oj its energy to the body than in the [ormer case when the body meets each molecule successively before it has time to react on its neighbors. (}.
Thus. Thus. This is the condition for maximum airspeed. "straight and level. Hence the power available from the propeller is given by Pavail = TV (1. the power from the engine will then be in excess of that required for level flight. Equation 1. power = S Tt But. in the case of airplanes with shaft engines. However. Flying qualities refers primarily to stability and control. propulsor. the airplane's path is still essentially horizontal. This is an unstable situation where the airplane. this equation is modified so that we can deal with power instead of thrust. Also.eq'd 0.4. In addition. returning to Equation L. work = TS Power is the rate at which work is performed. In addition to performance. The following chapters will present detailed analytical and experimental material sufficient to determine the performance and stability and control characteristics of an airplane. let us assume that 0< and (0 . SIt is equal to the velocity of advance of the propeller. When a wide open throttle (WOT) condition is reached the maximum power available is equal to the power required. at a given airspeed." From this brief introduction into airplane performance. when disturbed. Suppose this increment in M is positive. equating the excess power to the power required to lift the airplane's w_elg~tat ~he rate ~c. it follows that. M. A pilot IS flying at a given speed in steady. . shown in Figure 1. results mainly from the lift on the wing and tail. Before it can respond. As you study the material to follow. keep in mind that it took the early aviation pioneers a lifetime to accumulate only a fraction of the knowledge that is yours to gain with a few months of study. obviously. Also. while opening the throttle. and the airplane will climb. level flight with the engine throttle only partially open. we get = W(V8J po•rill  P. Pxs.3) In this form. First.eq'd= DV Thus. instead of keeping it constant. stable response.6 shows that the vertical rate of climb can be obtained by. and distribution of pressure over the wing. the pilot. However.D LT' sm (fi fie) + (1. This is about as far as we can go without considering in detail the generation of aerodynamic forces and moments on an airplane and its components. the area of "flying qualities" is very important to the acceptance of an airplane by the customer. consider a thrusting propeller that moves a distance S in time t at a constant velocity. the power required by a body traveling through the air with a velocity of V and having a drag of D will be P. The work that the propeller performs during this time is. Ve.6) The quantity vee is the vertical rate of climb.8e) .5) Similarly. The difference between the power that is re~uired and that available is referred to as the excess power. so that the angle between the velocity vector and the plane's axis is momentarily increased.Thus Equation 1. contributions arise from the fuselage. Equation 1. defined previously as the angle of attack. In operating an airplane this means the following. tends to move even further from its steadystate condition. This moment.4) For airplanes propelled by turbojets or rockets. Let us briefly consider the pitching moment M.4 is in the form that one would normally use for calculating the angle of climb. but it also encompasses airplane response to atmospheric disturbances. V. is dependent on this angle. it is obvious that we must be able to estimate the aerodynamic forces on the airplane before we can predict its performance.3 becomes a priori B=c W TD (1. we desire that the increment in M caused by an angle of attack change be negative. It will be shown later that. Suppose now that the airplane is trimmed in steady. by multiplying through by WV. the moment. allows the airspeed to increase in such a manner as to maintain a constant altitude. Be appears on both sides of the equation. hence. the thrust for most airplanes is only a fraction of the weight.3. which must be zero for steady. in general. a knowledge of the characteristics of its power plantpropulsor combination is essential. Suppose. except for very high performance and V/STOL (vertical or short takeoff and landing) airplanes. Since the moment was initially zero before the airplane was disturbed.8e) are small angles. level flight when it is suddenly disturbed (possibly by a gust or an input from the pilot) such that it pitches up by some amount. If the pilot advances the throttle while maintaining a constant airspeed. trimmed flight. nacelles. it will have some value other than zero due to the increase in angle of attack.12 INTRODUCTION A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE TECHNOLOGY OF AERONAUTICS 13 These equations can be solved for the angle of climb to give 1I _ Uc  t an I T cos ((~. for the airplane to exhibit a more favorable. In this case the tendency would then be for the angle of attack to increase even further. The preceding discussion has shown the importance of being able to predict these quantities from both performance and flying qualities viewpoints.
lZe Effeels me' ..3 ~obertson. An airport is 16 km (9." J.000 N (10.t Wilbur and Orville Wright 1. Pren14 M htl ' . Physical Constants Office.5 A student pushes against the side of a building with a force of 6 N for a period of 4 hr. E. NASA SP~7~~20 Units. Current practice is to express rate of climb in feet per minute. A. to assure familiarity with both systems. Also. a limited number of exercises are given in the English system. 7(6).W~IJ.~LOd~ ~craft Design. c. ec y. show that (} _ t c an I T cos lh .r~ . Aircraft. What would be your answer in these units? 1.2 Harris. the ang1e of climb is not necessarily small. Express Y.:ri~. For a more complete explanation of the SI system.6 An aircraft has a lifttodrag ratio of 15. a comparison to the English system is presented in Appendix A.D L + T sin lh 1. PROBLEMS 1. 1953..S.0 at a forward velocity of 70 mls (230 fps).4 For an aircraft with a high thrusttoweight ratio. how fast will the airplane climb when the throttle is advanced to the wide open position? 1. 1171b) and requires 597 kW (800 hp) to fly straight and level at a speed of 80 mls (179 mph). .25 and a lifttodrag ratio of 15.2 Which of the systems (ball and track) pictured below are in equilibrium? Which are stable? j I 1. Simon and James Hydrodynamics in lLceHalJ. 1. Washington. It is at an altitude of 1500 m (4921 ft) when the engine fails.14 INTRODUCTION The primary system of units to be used in this text is the SI (Systems Internationale) system. New York. The International Sy t f and Conversion Factors.3 An aircraft weighs 45.r::. Govenunent Printing 1. "S' . I I REFERENCES REFERENCES 15 1.1 Calculate the rate of climb of an airplane having a thrusttoweight ratio of 0.4.:Le~e Pa:.I. D. M. How much work was done? 1.94 miles) ahead.5 Cleveland .. see Reference 1. F • A . If the available power is I 895 kW (l200 hp).. Since this system is just now being adopted in the United States. Englewood Cliffs N J 1965 Theory and Application. If this angle is denoted as (JT. NovemberDecember 1~~~..1 McFarland Marvin W dit Including the Chanute~l.C. in meters per second. 1969 ' U. New York 1970 . ' Schuster.vlatlon s PIOneer Days. SherwoOd. a.. the thrust vector can be inclined upward significantly with respect to the direction of flight. of r TIght Brothers Lecture). . In addition. for certain V/STOL aircraft. .. Will the pilot be able to reach it':' . The First to fl.
A freebody diagram of a small slug of the fluid is shown in Figure 2. T is the thermodynamic or absolute Kelvin. For a more complete treatment. .. finite system of solid masses under the influence of force and moment vectors acting on the system. An airplane in flight does not experience a sudden change in the properties of the air surrounding it. independent of the pressure imposed on the mass. For the reader whose preparation does not include fluid mechanics.1 and 2. are related by This chapter will stress the principles in fluid mechanics that are especially important to the study of aerodynamics. In fluid mechanics one generally deals not with a finite system. T. The term fluid should not be confused with the term liquid.15 (2. Refs. they are both known as fluids.lb. but with the flow of a continuous fluid mass under the influence of distributed pressures and shear stresses.1) R is referred to as the gas constant at normal temperatures. The mass per unit volume of a fluid is defined as the mass density.3 m rKsec for air In Equation 2. Since both liquids and gases satisfy this definition. The mass density is a 16 1 (b) 2. The stream of water from a firehose exerts a steady force on the side of a burning building. p. Generally a fluid is defined as any substance that will readily deform under the influence of shearing forces. T=t+273. This slug has a T dh og dh. t. and pressure. Indeed. 2.g. usually denoted by p.1 The variation of pressure with depth in a liquid. Thus a fluid is the antonym of a solid.2) A container filled with a liquid is pictured in Figure 2. unlike the impulse on a swinging bat as it connects with the discrete mass of the baseball. and T are related by the equation of state p = pRT 2 2 (2. see any of the many available texts on fluid mechanics (e.2). A liquid is distinguished from a gas by the fact that the former is nearly incompressible. In solid mechanics.FLUID STATICS AND THE ATMOSPHERE 17 TWO FLUID MECHANICS constant for liquids.1. but it is a function of temperature. P. one normally deals with a continuous medium in the study of fluid mechanics. the material in this chapter should be sufficient to understand the developments in succeeding chapters. for a gas. the volume of a given mass of liquid remains nearly constant. Unlike solid mechanics. T and the Celsius temperature. Unlike a gas. FLUID STATICS AND THE ATMOSPHERE Before treating the more difficult case of a fluid in motion. let us consider a fluid at rest in static equilibrium. for gases. one is concerned with the behavior of a given. since the former includes not only the latter. but gases as wen. temperature in degrees and has a value of 287. t Q. p.
causes the liquid in the left side of the Utube to drop while the level on the right side rises.p as the total pressure. so that Equation 2. is the atmospheric pressure at the free surface.3 changes. which leads to dp P = _gdh RT (2. In addition to the pressure forces.1.6 cannot be integrated immediately. the pressure at the bottom of the Uvtube can be calculated by Equation 2. The impact of the gas being brought to rest at the nose of the tube produces a pressure higher than that along the sides of the tube.3) Integrating Equation 2. the velocity of the gas can be calculated. If we denote p as the static pressure and p +. a device known as a pilotstatic tube is immersed in and aligned with a gas flow. is transmitted through a tube to one side of a Vshaped glass tube partially filled with a liquid. h will be taken to be the altitude above the ground and. pg dh.4) where P. In this case we could then determine the difference between the total pressure The mass density. It is based on Equation 2. g is the gravitational constant. Now consider the variation of static pressure through the atmosphere. In order to perform the integration the equation of state.2. is substituted for p. + pgho = p + pg(. if it is far enough back from the nose.6) or pg ilh Hence. and static pressure in the gas flow from which. The static pressure also acts inward around the sides of the element. Acting downward over the upper surface is the static pressure. The total pressure. For the atmosphere.2 Pitotstatic tube connected to a Utube liquid manometer. p = pa +pgh (2.5) dp = _pg (2. while acting upward over the lower face is this same pressure plus the rate of increase of p with depth multiplied by the change in depth.4 using either the right or left side of the tube. the weight of the fluid element. However. is not a constant in this case. Equating the results from the two sides gives p +.7) .p Figure 2. This static pressure is transmitted to the right side of the glass Utube manometer. since the gravitational attraction is now opposite to the direction of increasing h. Here. the sign of Equation 2. Equation 2. acts vertically downward. known as the total pressure. This pressure. does not disturb the flow so that the pressure sampled by it is the same as the static pressure of the undisturbed flow. h.1. p. This opening. A manometer is a device frequently used to measure pressures.1. Some distance back from the nose of the pitotstatic tube the pressure is sampled through a small opening that is flush with the sides of the tube.h + ho) J1p = dh (2. being higher than the static pressure. the difference of the liquid levels in the two sides of the manometer is a direct measure of the pressure difference applied across the manometer. Consider the experimental setup pictured in Figure 2.3 for a liquid. Summing forces on the element in the vertical direction leads to dp =pg dh (2. as we will see later. p. but this contributes nothing to the balance of forces in the vertical direction. dh.3 from h = 0 at the surface to any depth. Again the forces acting on a differential mass of gas will be treated in a manner similar to the development of Equation 2.4.1.18 FLUID MECHANICS Gas flow FLUID STATICS AND THE ATMOSPHERE 19 unit crosssectional area and a differential length of dh. results in the static pressure as a function of the depth.
_  a DO ~ ~ i'. To : Vo : Qo : 1.8 to 2. '\ \ . . the variation of temperature with altitude is known or.8 dp _ dT 1 ~\ l\ .8.. K Vo p '" 32 . .. (T=0.1'\<. One normally thinks of altitude as the vertical distance of an airplane above the earth's surface.69" R) 1. r. 20 8 28 10 14 44 36 Thousands of feet Flgure 2.9) 0... Specifically. . 0....r. and T. An airplane's altimeter is simply an absolute pressure gage calibrated according to 0." In addition to p.1 o o 4 2 4 8 12 16 6 Altitude.. not on the geometric height.15 "K.. the standard atmosphere. Through the remainder of the stratosphere.9" K (518.8) where ... Above 11 km and up to an altitude of approximately 23 km._ ..5 1.92 in.5723 x 10 4 ft2/s) 341.. Figure 2. FLUID STATICS AND THE ATMOSPHERE 21 .3 presents graphs (taken from Ref. (T...r R(dT/dh) or (2. 2.4 rn/s [116A fth where h is the altitude in kilometers.5 is the ratio of the static pressure at altitude to the pressure at sea level and 8 is the corresponding absolute temperature ratio... one refers to the pressure altitude or the density altitude as the height in the standard atmosphere corresponding t.. <. .. a standard variation has been agreed on. reaching approximately 270 OK at an altitude of around 50 km. ~ : T To 1\"~\ r...7 becomes 1. Using the equation of state.. Equation 2..... at least. \' . r. known as the lapse rate. 12 40 0.10) 0. the operation of an airplane depends on the properties of the air through which it is flying.10 hold is referred to as the troposphere.the pressure or density. """'1'. r....20 FLUID MECHANICS From experimental observation... This is the region in which most of today's flying is done. r.. <. respectively.. is obtained immediately from Equation 2.3 '" km 24 r. the temperature is nearly constant. the altimeter will read the pressure altitude..6 or U sing the standard lapse rate and a sea level temperature function of altitude is given by 8 = \ 1\ I'" 1\ \ I\.. Thus the altitude is frequently specified in terms of the standard atmosphere.3) of the various properties of the standard atmosphere as a function of altitude..02256 h (2.3 The standard atmosphere.. (J as a 0. p 02 ~ <. This region forms the lower part of the stratosphere.. Up to an altitude of 11 km..002378 slugs!ftJ) 101..456 X 105 m2/s [1.1""' .. ~ r.2 psi) 287. Each property is presented as a ratio to its standard sea level value denoted by the subscript "0.. the temperature is taken to decrease linearly with altitude at a rate. r.7 \ 1\' \ I\. the corresponding density ratio. These two properties will be defined later.31 kN/m2 (2116.. Thus. Pfj Pfj of 288. i'....4 '"'\ '"r..0 ~ ~ r':r p.51 DC/km.0... When set to standard sea level pressure (760 mm Hg. Hg). assuming the instrument and static pressure source to be free of errors.... the acoustic velocity and kinematic viscosity are presented. 29.. When set to the local sea level barometric pressure (which the pilot can obtain over the . However. the temperature increases. of the atmosphere in which the airplane is operating. p... of 6._ "I".223 kg/m3 _ (0. Standard sea level values 8 8 (2. The lower region of the atmosphere up to an altitude for which Equations 2. <.. It has a manual adjustment to allow for variations in sea level barometric pressure.
forces on the body can be determined by integrating this pressure over its surface. the turbulent boundary 1. from surface roughnesses) are no longer damped out. This layer is considerably thicker than the laminar one and is characterized by a mean velocity profile on which small. observe that the flow is illustrated by means of streamlines. Figure 2. disturbances to the flow (e. successive layers of fluid are slowed by the shearing stresses produced by the inner layers.. At some distance back from the nose of the body. at every point along the line. Note that the body surface itself is a streamline. if y(x) defines the position of a streamline. this means simply that the ftow field is a function only of two coordinates (x and y.4 might represent the ftow around a long. adjacent to the surface. Near the front of the body this layer is very thin. inertial and shearing forces must be considered. For example. If such a surface is closed. Po. the turbulent boundary layer continues to thicken toward the rear of the body. it is known as a stream tube.4. the velocity vector is tangent to the line. u(x) and v(x). (The term "layers" is used only as a convenience in describing the fI. As ftuid passes over a solid surface. A streamline is an imaginary line characterizing the flow such that. In addition to the local static pressure.6 em thick. Thus. randomly Huctuating velocity components are superimposed. shearing stresses resulting from the fluid's viscosity also give rise to body forces.2 em. Over this portion of the surface the fluid . For example. This static pressure distribution. known as the boundary layer.!_j point boundary point flow layer ® Positi~e ® Laminar Figure 2.4. streamlined strut such as the one that supports the wing of a highwing airplane. its thickness would be approximately 0. If this static pressure distribution.4. Here the ftuid particles might be described as moving along in the layer on parallel planes.4.4) and does not depend on the third coordinate.0 m back from the leading edge would be only approximately t. p. FLUID DYNAMICS flow.g. the altimeter will read closely the true altitude above sea level. is known. First. is pictured on the lower half of the body in Figure 2. The fluid shears in a continuous manner and not in discrete layers. by dy dx = u(x) y(x) is related to the and y vex) (2. Several features of flow around a body in general are noted in Figure 2. Note that this figure is Iabled "twodimensional flow". relative to the static pressure. The boundary layers are pictured considerably thicker than they actually are for purposes of illustration. and the flow is threedimensional.) The result is a thin layer of slower moving fluid. hence the flow is referred to as laminar. As another example. and the laminar boundary layer undergoes transition to a turbulent boundary layer. Moving away from the surface. in the ftuid far removed from the body. In threedimensional ftow a surface swept by streamlines is known as a stream surface.22 FLUID DYNAMICS FLUID MECHANICS 23 x radio while in flight). If the layer were still Laminarat this point. further aft the pressure becomes negative relative to Po. Returning to Figure 2. cylindrical smokestack is essentially twodimensional except near the top. the fluid particles immediately in contact with the surface are brought to rest. A pilot must refer to a chart prescribing the ground elevation above sea level in order to determine the height above th.4. These flow regions are shown in Figure 2. These disturbances suddenly amplify.\7 Turbulent \. acting normal to the surface. The small arrows represent the local static pressure. and the flow within it is smooth without any random or turbulent fluctuations.e ground. acting everywhere normal to the body's surface. Here the wind goes over as weU as around the stack. or laminae. fJ\ Negative \V ® Transition static pressure static pressure point layer (.11) We will now treat a fluid that is moving so that. on the wing of an airplane flying at lOOmls at low altitude. Near the nose p is greater than po. the ftow of wind around a tall. components of the velocity. The mass flow accelerates around the body as the result of a continuous distribution of pressure exerted on the fluid by the body. The threedimensional counterpart of this shape might be the blimp.uidbehavior.4 Twodimensional (3) Velocity o Stagnation vector boundary @ Separated @ Wake ® Streamline ® Separation flow around a streamlined shape. in the case of Figure 2. in twodimensional y L. An equal and opposite reaction must occur on the body. A typical ftow around a streamlined shape is pictured in Figure 2.. in addition to gravitational forces.
L and D. The general flow pattern described thus far can vary. and time to be consistent. This can be do?e. The velocity of sound is the speed at which a small pressure disturbance is propagated through the fluid.15 is applicable to calculating the shear stresses between fluid elements and is not restricted simply to the wall. However. V is the freestream velocity. Downstream of this separation point.e.. length. The coefficient of viscosity. This decrement of momentum (more precisely. b.12) I"" dy y=o (dU) (2. For example. S.5.14a) (2. the size of the body.. the viscous shearing stress in the fluid in any plane parallel to the flow and away y =w V SC 2 2 L (2. momentum flux) is a direct measure of the body drag (i. If we assume that anyone force F is proportional to the product of these parameters each raised to an unknown power. The quantity p V /2 is referred to as the dynamic pressure. 2. at this point. a velocity deficiency representing a momentum loss by the fluid is found near the center of the wake. it follows that ~7 = (~r(~rL" where [ is a characteristic length. One mig~t reasonably assume that the forces on a body moving through a fluid depend ill some way on the mass density of the fluid. p. and c = 2. on the wall.24 FLUID MECHANICS FLUID DYNAMICS 25 is moving into a region of increasing static pressure that is tending to oppose the flow. the coefficients CL and CD remain constant for a given geometric shape over a wide range of operating conditions or body size.. however. then F o: For many applications. viscous flow over a surface. In addition.12 possibly being dependent on a number of dimensionless parameters. (J. 0 R= Vip 1L (2.13b) D=Wy SCD Note that the square of the characteristic length. Two of the most important of these are known as the Reynolds number. CL and CD. At some distance downstream of the body the separated flow closes. it requires no further explanation. CL will be almost independent of the size of the airfoil. defined by. Here. .5 Viscous flow adjacent to a surface. the Significance of which will be made clear shortly. and c from which it is found that a = 1. . M. Hence. This force per unit area is related to the gradient of the velocity u(y) at the wall by 'Tw = Considering M.14b) M= Y a payl1lC In order for the basic units of mass. and T in order leads to three equations for the unknown exponents a. FIgure :2.12 is referred to as a coefficient and is modified by the name of the force for example. (2. Also. the lift coefficient. can be expressed as L Actually. reverse flow will be found along the surface with the static pressure nearly constant and equal to that at the point of separation. R. the magnitude of the freestream velocity.15) For a particular force the constant of proportionality in Equation 2. [2. Generally. are arbitrary at this p~m. Equation 2. the force on the body in the direction of the freestream velocity). and the body's velocity.1)] will result in the constant of proportionality in Equation 2. and the Mach number. a twodimensional airfoil at a 1 angle of attack will have a lift coefficient of approximately 0.t. . a more rigorous application of dimensional analysis [see Buckingham's 7T" theorem (Ref. l. is not as well known and will be elaborated on by reference to Figure 2. Thus the lift and drag forces. V. and a is the velocity of sound. Here. Variations in these parameters can eliminate transition or separation or both. depending on the Size and shape of the body. so that at some point the flow actually separates from the body surface.1 for velocities from a few meters per second up to 100 mls or more. b = 2. and the properties of the fluid. The slower moving fluid in the boundary layer may be unable to overcome this adverse pressure gradient.13a) (2. The viscous shearing produces a shearing stress of T. has been replaced by a reference area. a factor of 1/2 has been introduced. is the coefficient of viscosity. and a wake is formed. since the li~t and 2dra~ coefficients. the velocity profile is pictured in the boundary layer of a laminar. L.
At lower Mach numbers. normal to v=f!:.28) the normal pressure will be shown to be proportional to pyl whereas.to p.L to p that governs the Reynolds number. for a given shape.. Hence the mass In the following material (see Equation 2. for example.. since it is the ratio of (. For many cases of interest to aerodynamics the pressure field around a shape can be calculated assuming the air to be inviscid and incompressible. The volume of the slug is transported across the reference plane during rate of flow. For incompressible flow. if the velocity vector is not normal to the surface. picture a small slug cross a reference plane. the variation of mass density with pressure).. Generally. The fluid velocity is of fluid of length.6 r. a flow is less viscous than another flow if its Reynolds number is higher than that of the second flow. p is defined as a matter of convenience. p. Thus. VII is proportional to the shearing stress. p is a constant. from Equation 2.8 before significant compressibility effects are encountered. CD for a body 10 m long at 100 mls will be the same as CD for a lOOm long body at 10 m/s. The kinematic viscosity for the standard atmosphere is included in Figure 2. Hence for a given flow the Reynolds number is proportional to the ratio of normal pressures (inertia forces) to viscous shearing stresses. Current jet transports. can cruise at Mach numbers up to approximately 0.15. pVl VII) Massflow through a surface.16) Along a streamtube (which may be a conduit with solid walls) the quantity pAY must be a constant if mass is not to accumulate in the system. at 25 mls transition would occur at a distance of 4 m from the leading edge. Then. The Mach number determines to what extent fluid compressibility can be neglected (i. At time l/ V. Here flow is . For example. I. J' v: ~J~)\Jit\ A : : at T =0 raj V: ~: Figure 2. Hence. m. At time t = 0. Conservation of Mass pictured along a streamtube of crosssectional equal to V. Similarly. about to slug will have passed through AI. so that a mass of pAl was the time l/ V.i:: .6. pA V is the mass flux. the mass flux will be pAV·n with the momentum flux written as (pAV·o)V here n is the unit vector normal to the surface and in the direction in which the flux is defined to be positive. This is easily seen by reference to Figure 2. 0 would Fluid passing through an area at a velocity of V has a mass flow rate equal to pA V. for example. J'.L and the velocity gradient the direction of flow. is given by pAl m = (l/Y) =pAV (2. As another example.26 FLUID MECHANICS FLUID DYNAMICS Reference plane 27 from the wall is given by the product of I.<T ~f (b) R = (p. Small corrections can then be made to the resulting solutions to account for these "real fluid" effects. The mass flux through a surface multiplied by the velocity vector at the surface is defined as the momentum flux. is defined as the ratio of fJ. two flows are geometrically and dynamically similar if the Reynolds numbers are the same for both flows. so that the conservation of mass leads to the continuity principle A V = constant A V is the volume flow rate and is sometimes referred to as the flux. suppose transition occurs 2 m back from the leading edge of a flat plate aligned with a flow having a velocity of 50 m/s. Obviously the effects of R and M on dimensionless aerodynamic coefficients must be considered when interpreting test results obtained with the use of small models. relatively speaking. Corrections for viscosity or compressibility will be considered as needed in the following chapters. The kinematic viscosity. this entire the reference plane. area A.3 as an inverse fraction of the standard sea level value. if the surface encloses a volume and the net mass flux out of the volume is to be calculated.e. A physical significance can be given to the Reynolds number by multiplying numerator and denominator by V and dividing by I.
which states that a force imposed on a system produces a rate of change in the momentum of the system.iy Writin? similar expressions for the other three faces leads to the net mass flux out being Any physically possible flow must satisfy Equation 2.6. Ref. the theorem can be expressed in vector notation by A rectangular differential control sUrface. given by (p~x at iJ ay) y The momentum theorem in fluid mechanics is the counterpart of Newton's second law of motion in solid mechanics.x and ~y are arbitrary.1) and will not be repeated here.ix.19.17 reduces to V'V=O (2.7 pv pv + arp"J ilx dx o(pu} a. ~or simpli~ity.0 . Since . n) dS + :t J J I v p V dT (2.dx ax Mathematically. For an incompressible flow.17) where V is the vector operator." surface surface through angular T Figure 2.7. The Momentum Theorem + o(PV)] Ax 6. n is the unit normal directed outward from the surface. y The net mass flux ~ut of the differential element must equal the rate at which the mass of the fluid contained within the element is decreasing. . I pu + P dx x pu P+Ef. so Equation 2.. the momentum theorem states: "The sum of external forces (or moments) acting on a control and internal forces (or moments) acting on the fluid within the control produces a change in the flux of momentum (or angular momentum) the surface and an instantaneous rate of change of momentum (or momentum) of the fluid particles within the control surface. The flow passing through this element has V~lOCl!ycompone~ts of u and v in the center of the element in the x and y directions. and the following integral would be evaluated over the entire surface.17 at every point in the flow. del.a V =1+]+ ax ay kiJ Bz [pu + a~u) ~x] [Q!pU) ox oy . 2. div V. the mass density is a constant.g. defined by .28 FLUID MECHANICS FLUID DYNAMICS 29 be directed outward from the volume. The details of the derivation can be found in several texts (e. Defining a control surface as an imaginary closed surface through which a How is passing. Hence the mass flux out through the right face will be In three dimensions the preceding equation can be written in vector notation as ap + V . for linear motion of an inviscid fluid. A rectangular conto~r IS shown 10 FIgure 2.19) In Equation 2. it follows that. ap + a(pu) if pV'ndS at ax + iJ(pv) = 0 ay Consider the conservation of mass applied to a differential control surface. respectively. a twodimensional flow will be treated.. (p V) at =0 (2. The theorem can be easily derived by treating the fluid as a collection of fluid particles and applying the second law. f f s pn dS + B= LJ p V(V . in general. The corresponding components on the right face of the el~ment are found by exp~nding them in a Taylor series in x and y and dropping secondorder and higher terms in .18) The above is known as the divergence of the velocity vector.
3kN. Referring again to Figure 2. Euler's Equatfon of Motion Pressure distribution on the wall The principle of conservation of mass. since the control surface does not enclose any Measuring p relative to the atmospheric static pressure.7.30 FLUID MECHANICS FLUID DYNAMICS 31 Sf enclosing the volume. n) dS Q= Is f p(V x r)(V . Figure 2.19 will now be written for this system in the x direction. which generally depends on position and time. the static pressure will be p + ilp Ilx ax2 This pressure and a similar pressure on the left face produce a net force in the x direction equal to FIgure 2. Similarly. Thus Equation 2.iF""  Is I (lOOO)6Oi(60) dS ""36x lWi IsI dS The surface integral reduces to the nozzle area of 7. If F represents the magnitude of the total force on the wall.6 A jet of water impacting on a waiL Lh Ily ap ax . Since the flow is steady. led to Equation 2. . the momentum theorem applied to the same element leads to another set of equations that must hold everywhere. p is the mass density of the fluid defined as the mass per unit volume. Q is the vector sum of all moments. consider the force on the burning building produced by the firehose mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. the unit normal to this cylindrical surface has no component in the x direction.17. the partial derivative with respect to time of the volume integral given by the last term on the right side of the equation vanishes. Thus.Is f po dS = Is f p V(V . V=60i n=i For the fluid leaving the control surface. . admittedly simplified. V. without actually determining the pressure distribution on the wall. V is the velocity vector. Equation 2. B is zero. acting on the control surface or the fluid within the surface.8 illustrates a possible flow pattern. Also. n) dS For the fluid entering the control surface on the left. p is zero everywhere along the control surface except at the wall. As an example of the use of the momentum theorem. For the anguJar momentum.19 becomes . The control surface is shown dotted. which must be satisfied everywhere in the flow. applied to an elemental control surface.iF = Is I p V(V . if p is the static pressure at the center of the element then. bodies. B represents the vector sum of all body forces within the control surface acting on the fluid.85 x 103 m'. both internal and external.is issuing from the nozzle with a velocity of 60 mfs. r is the radius vector to a fluid particle. Suppose the nozzle has a diameter of 10em and water . 0) dS + :t J I I v p(V x r) dr (2. Hence.20) Here. Here n is directed to the right so that the surface integral on the left becomes the total force exerted on the fluid by the pressure on the wall. The mass density of water is approximately 1000kg/m". the total force on the wall is found from the momentum theorem to equal 28. on the center of the right face.
.24 that. 1~ p ax dx ov at +u av sx +v +v ov ay ay +W ilv = _ az . a( )/at. for an inviscid fluid.26) Generalizing this to three dimensions Euler's equations of motion. It was first formulated by EuJer in the middle 1700s.22c) Notice that if u is written as u(x.26 for u dy. [pu + o(pu) 2 ox Ax J(u + au 6. dx dy dx ==u au au au +u+v= at ax oy 1 ap pax in a set of equations (2. and is known as the vorticity. 8ernoultl's Equation Thus. V x V. the flow is usually taken to be uniform. z. This last term results from the fact that au 1 au2 £1=ax 2 ax and V2 Thus.25) [pv + a(pv) ay 6.23) term in equations If the vector product of the operator Equation 2.YJ(u 2 + au AY) ay 2 Ax Similar expressions can be written for the momentum flux in through the left and bottom faces. multiply Equation 2.! ap p ilz (2. V)(JJ = 0 (JJ is the curl of the velocity vector. Also. respectively. Equation 2.22 is the total derivative of u. multiply Equation 2. the vorticity at that location is zero.dz ay az =.22c by dz. hence. it is zero everywhere. y.26 for v dx and w dx.22a through by dx and then substitute Equation 2.22b by dy.22h) oW + U (Jw at ax iJw + W aw az =_ . momentum equating the net forces in the x direction to the and momentum flux and using Equation 2.dx au + u au + v au + W ou ~ _ at ax ay oZ .17 leads to change in Bernoulli's equation is well known in fluid mechanics and relates the pressure to the velocity along a streamline in an inviscid. The operator.24 results. incompressible flow. along a streamline. and substitute Equation 2.! iJp p ax (2.dy + u . the left side of Equation 2. Adding the three equations results in perfect differentials for p and V2. The momentum flux out of the right face in the x direction will be oW ~ + (V at . V being the magnitude of the resultant velocity along the streamline. The derivation of this equation follows from EuJer's equations using the fact that along a streamline the velocity vector is tangential to the streamline. that is. at this time only steady flow will be considered. the first term of the equation will be set equal to zero. The instantaneous change of the fluid momentum contained within the element in the x direction is simply One can conclude from Equation 2.x) ox 2 momentum dy flux will be Vxv= Out of the upper face the corresponding ax u a a v i ay a az w k (2. the vorticity is constant along a streamline.2J.22a) ax ~ ~ + u . results First.24) Since there are no body forces present and the fluid is assumed inviscid. ~ u .. Euler's = u2 + V 2 + w2 become (2.21) known as v w (2. Since. Equation 2.32 FLUID DYNAMICS FLUID MECHANICS 33 (2. w dy and u dz. is the local acceleration and exists only if the flow is unsteady. the above force must equal the net momentum flux out plus the instantaneous change of fluid momentum contained within the element. In vector notation Euler's equation can be written Tt+(V' Similarly.27) av 1 V)V= pVP V is taken with each (2. r).! op p oy (2. far removed from a body. v dz.
31) ylp .9 assumes the possibility of a stationary disturbance in a steady flow across which the pressure.30. the momentum theorem gives 2 . p. from Equation 2. also referred to as the stagnation or reservoir pressure.31~ +_y_P. (2.1 = constant (2. the flow is incompressible).34) Here V is the magnitude of the local velocity and p is the local static pressure._=_y_PO Rgure 2. Figure 2. definition.35) atmos pressure to the specific heat at constant volume and is equal approximately to 1. B. This latter term is called the dynamic pressure and is frequently denoted by the symbol q. P ".3 for the standard phere.27 and integrating leads to an equation sometimes referred to as the compressible Bernoulli's equation. from continuity. However.f 2 (2. It follows that u..30) 2+ V2 a2 y . This is most readily achieved by measuring. and for that of a liquid. and velocity change by small increments.29) (y.31 can be written constant (2. In the absence of body forces and viscosity.+tpV". Voc and P". is (2. referred to in this case as the stagnation or total pressure.9 A stationary small disturbance in a steady compressible flow. 2 yIp ylpo ._ constant = At low speeds (compared to the acoustic velocity) a gas flow is essentially incompressible.30 into Equation 2.32) u P. Equation 2.1). are the corresponding freestream values. given by Equation 2. p . Thus. in addition to the difference between the stagnation pressure and the static pressure. plpY = An alternate form. the local pressure. Substituting Equation 2.29 for compressible flow is obtained by assuming pressure and density changes to follow an isentropic process.33) 2. Equation 2.34 FLUID MECHANICS FLUID DYNAMICS 35 If P is not a function of p (i.e.36) But. so that Vx must be determined from Equation 2.2 measures CPo. + dp)(u + dU)2 = pu pu1 v.1). = [2CPo.bvio~sly u is the velocity of the disturbance relative to the fluid.28 becomes p +~py2 constant If the small disturbance is stationary in the steady flow having a velocity of u then . is the acoustic velocity. be integrated immediately to give p Equation 2.+ y_ P. the acoustic velocity is obtained as a= = P". The density is then determined from the equation of state (Equation 2.dp = (p y is the ratio of the specific heat at constant The acoustic velocity is also included in Figure 2.p=) and is probably the most common means used to determine airspeed.29 applies. (p + dp)(u + du) or u dp Thus = pu (2. In this case.32..+ du P + dp. notice that Equation 2.II' where Po is the total pressure. If the fluid is brought to rest so that the local velocity is zero then.4 for air.29 is known as Bernoulli's equation. By the use of Equation 2. At higher speeds (and we will now examine what is high) Equation 2.2 (2..27 can (2. This equation can be written in terms of the acoustic velocity.o.28) + W V2 = = constant If the flow is uniform at infinity. For such a process. First it is necessary to derive the acoustic velocity. The pitotstatic tube shown in Figure 2.29 no longer holds. using the equation of state (Equation a = (yRT)1/2 Thus Equation 2. and p V}/2. The counterpart to Equation 2. the static pressure itself and the temperature. which can be done by the use of the momentum theorem and continuity. is equal to the sum of the freestream static pressure. density. Equation 2.29. Determination of FreeStream Velocity V2 .36 contains the mass density that must be determined before the airspeed can be calculated. P"J] 1/2 (2.
)/8 + l](~lll~ .39) The square root of Equation 2. M Figure 2.l 1] l (2.5 the error is seen to be less than 3%.40) where a SUbscript SL is used to denote standard sea level values.I) 'Y . The airspeed indicator is nothing more than an accurate differential pressure gage calibrated according to Equation 2. The pilot then resorts to a small hand calculator or. the pilot must also read the altimeter and outside air temperature.37 gives po. p. so that p.31.P = y!2 [( + 1 'Y ~ 1M2Y'(1. but then is calibrated to obtain V by assuming standard sea level values for the acoustic velocity and the free and can be obtained from Equation 2. (j and 8 are the temperature and pressure ratios. If compressibility can be neglected.36 FLUID MECHANICS FLUID DYNAMICS 37 At this point the subscript 00 has been dropped.P + PSL J 1 )b. P» . a pilot soon learns that the airspeed that appears on the airspeed indicator is not the true airspeed. q.40. Below a Mach number of 0.3. the preceding equation becomes M2 1 1 Po P +=2 y 1 y 1 P Po Using Equation 2. Thus the calibrated airspeed is defined by .~'Ylh. .41) where + lrl}11 1] The airspeed indicator measures the difference. Remembering that wto is the square of the acoustic velocity. this can be written as v« [ l+M" .p [ [U(Vo. respectively.P (sometimes called the compressible dynamic pressure). the airspeed will be given by Equa . As a ratio to Vooh the true airspeed can be written L_ { Ve•l  8 V 2= :~21(po. teal DUring training.I)I~ _ 1]] 112 (2.37) The dynamic pressure. Instead.I J) (2.10. adjusts the dial on the airspeed indicator accordingly to allow for the atmospheric properties.1 = P 2 (2. This equation can be put in the form = [2a ( SL2 'Y  1) [(po . is defined as q = ~py2 (2. reservoir pressure and dynamic pressure as a stream static pressure.38) which can be written in terms of the Mach number as q =hpM2 Combining this with Equation 2. and V without a subscript may be local or freestream values.1]}112 U(Vc• + ltl' I){. in some instances. Determination of True Airspeed Mach number.10 Relationship between function of Mach number.. The departure of this function from unity is a measure of the error to be incurred in calculating the airspeed from the incompressible Bernoulli equation. in order to determine the true airspeed.39 is presented graphically in Figure 2.
is related to the velocity components by u v = iJI/! iJy =_ al/J ax (2. is equal to twice the rotational or angular velocity. A line element is.11 with flow passing through it.43 one must assure that any mathematical description of the flow field around a given body shape satisfies the boundary condition that there be no velocity normal to the body at all points I/! can only be defined for twodimensional.45) Equation 2. a value 3. The resulting fluid motion is described as being irrotational. and hence rp can be defined.46) The operator. pictured in Figure 2.6m/s. = [2(Po. the indicated airspeed. the curl of the velocity vector. To assist in the solution of Equation 2. V 112 (2.7m/s.466.43. using the incompressible relationship to estimate the true airspeed from the indicated airspeed results in a speed a few percent higher than that obtained from the calibrated airspeed relationship. Vi. Hence (1' = 0. known as the Laplacian. is defined simply as the airspeed that the pilot reads from the airspeed indicator. and is defined such that u ~ iJrp iJx v = iJrp iJy iJz w or.43 satisfies identically Equation 2. flow. The measured temperature ratio. '1]2. the following must hold.43b) A flow for which Equation 2. divV= V· v=o (2. According to Equation 3. This element is a segment of an arbitrary line connecting two points A and B.4% less than the calibrated airspeed.564. This altitude.9mis.41.42) where II is the density ratio.826. Vi = Voal = Yr· As an example in determining true airspeed. This follows since. the true airspeed will be 239.42. The stream function. The first of these is known as the velocity potential. If the indicator has no mechanical error (instrument error) and if the static source is located so that it samples the true freestream static pressure (otherwise a position error incurs). this results in a Ve of 173. the partial derivative of I/J is taken in the direction normal to the velocity and to the left as one looks in the direction of the velocity. (2. In addition to satisfying Equation 2. is known as a potential flow. or axisymmetric. inviscid. rp. which is zero. using the standard sea level value of p to calibrate the airspeed indicator dial leads to the equivalent airspeed. according to Equations 2. From Equation 2. two functions are introduced.10.38 FLUID MECHANICS POTENTIAL FLOW 39 tion 2.47) The first equation satisfies conservation of mass.p)]If1 PSL on its surface. in order to satisfy Equation 2. is defined as V2= a a a iJX2 ++z2 oy2 iJ 2 2 2 POTENTIAL FLOW For a steady. suppose a pilot reads an indicated airspeed of 180 tnl« for an OAT of 239 OK and an altimeter reading of 6000 m. To obtain a particular component. = iJrp v = vrp (2.43b. in the limit at a point. it follows that tP must be a harmonic function.42. Finally. 8. t/J. that is. Euler's equations of fluid motion reduce to two relatively simple relationships that govern the velocity vector. the true airspeed is calculated to be 231. the second one assures that the dynamics of the flow is treated correctly. Thus. corresponds to a pressure ratio [j of 0.36. However. if the Mach number is not too high. In the previous example. generally.43a) curl V = V x V = 0 (2.44) or =0' v. incompressible flow.43a. If n is the unit vector normal to the surface. V·n=O Velocity Potential and Stream Function (2.8 and 2. Vi = Vco1• Furthermore. In this case. The . V.43 is satisfied. Equation 2. is equal to 0. To be precise one calculates the true airspeed from the calibrated airspeed and then determines the equivalent airspeed from its definition.
47 results in y where R is the radius vector to the curve along which the integration is being performed. It follows that . For an irrotationaI flow.11 Twodimensional flow through a line element. "p{B) . since the values of both rP and . directed positively. consider the uniform flow pictured in Figure 2. satisfies identically Equation 2. using vector notation.j dx)/ds V=iu+jv Substituting n and V into dQ and using Equation dQ or dQ Thus . As an example in the use of ~ and I/f. y) then d"p = ?!!!.43a.49) In a manner similar to the derivation of Equation between two points can also be easily obtained. dx + a"p dy iJx 8y Figure 2.p(B) = = = 2.48 will be zero if the integral is performed along a line for which y is a constant. however.p v=O if! will be taken to be zero along the xaxis. the change in ljJ A cp = "p(x. (2. as shown in Figure 2.50) dQ =V·nds n = (i dy .p can be changed by a constant amount without affecting the velocity field obtained from their derivatives. If 2.p is a constant along a streamline.40 FLUID MECHANICS B POTENTIAL FLOW 41 or I/f = constant (along a streamline) v The stream function.48) That is. the two relationships give Figure 2. Equation 2. dR is then the differential vector along the curve.48.12.v dx __ _. u = U = constant aI/J dx ax + iJI/! d oy d. as a measure of the flux.cp(A) = differential But flux through this element will be LB v· dR (2.11. . y V= i U I/J(A) = f: V· n ds (2. with a magnitude of ds. For this flow. in order to meet Equation 2. L_ __ ~__  x Uniform flow in the x direction.12 = v dy u dy . = u dx +vdy or. the change in the stream function between two points is equal to the flux between the points. This can be shown by noting that along a streamline u= dx and dI/J = dQ Combined.43b it follows that if! must also be harmonic. This choice is arbitrary.
Denoting the tangential velocity component by Ve. .p will be derived for this same flow using Equation 2. .50. This flow in two dimensions is purely circular around a point with no radial velocity component.53 represents the real benefit to be gained in describing a flow in terms of <fJ and 1/1.p2 are functions satisfying Equation 2. taking <fJ A vortex is pictured in Figure 2.13 and Ve is independent of 8.42b. Equation 2. if! becomes '" = Uy Vx The minus sign in Equation 2.52) or.54b is satisfied identically and. The simple flows from which more complicated patterns can be Figure 2. y) (2.13. in addition component V in the y direction. (2.42 FLUID MECHANICS POTENTIAL FLOW 43 Thus l/I changes direction gives only in the y direction. The first of these has already been covered with <fJ and i/J given by Equations 2.48 in this l/I(Y) . is zero in Figure 2. their sum will also satisfy Equation 2. vortex. i dy developed are referred to as elementary flow functions. In general. Vortex i/J = Uy to U. + r a9 Vr iJr r (2. V=iU+jV R=ix+jy Hence dR= idx +j dy so that. the problem is to find Vo as a function of r that will satisfy the set of Equations 2.54a <fJ(x. There are three of them: uniform rectilinear flow. Integrating Equation 2.51. with Vr being the radial component of velocity and Vo the tangential component. n is directed to the right as one looks in the direction of point B from point A. In this case the integration for the second term is in the positive x direction. In polar coordinates. V = ! avo + av.13 Flow field around a vortex. V9 is to be independent of 8.52 and 2. respectively. y) i~1 Equation 2. Since v.50.53b) I/I(x. This statement will become obvious as the developments proceed. = where rand 9 are the polar coordinates.53a) (2. because this equation is linear. and source. after integrating.54b) =0 at x.11. y) r'Y U dx + V dy (2. both the velocity potential and stream function can be constructed by summing less complicated functions.l/I(O) or = f (i U) . a constant velocity (2. y) =~ r=1 (Mx.54a) v .50 then.51) If the uniform flow contains.51 is in accordance with the positive direction of n. from Equation 2. In a more formal manner. y) = ~ "'i(X.42a and 2. so n equals j. = Ux+ Vy rve = y constant Elementary Row FUnctions If <fJ I and . <fJ(x. y = 0. as shown in figure 2.
14.61) = _ _1_ 27T In reB) rCA) Letting I/I(A) be zero and rCA) be an arbitrary radius.57) (2. 'Y. one may verify that for the source 4> = 27T y8 (2. ¢(B) . denoted by is measured by integrating the tangential velocity completely around the vortex. Here the flow. can be extended to three dimensions. (2.ln~ Equations 2. is measured by the total flux emanating from the center.60) '" = The stream function for a vortex is found from I/I(B) . but it is entirely radial with no tangential velocity component.59) or v =. leads to ". BiotSavart Law The threedimensional velocity field associated with a vortex line is considerably more complicated and is given by the BiotSavart law.59.56 and 2.!L r = . immediately as (7. 27Tr (2.: If 8 is measured relative to zero and 8(B) is taken to be any value of 8.=. Thus.. is again symmetrical about the center.15a illustrates The source is the counterpart of a vortex.cf>(A) = Figure 2.62) 2p a The minus sign results from the choice of positive coordinate Source directions. a.55 on a constant radius leads to the relationship between the tangential velocity around a vortex. 'Y=fv. which define the velocities around vortices and sources.. 4> and 1/1 for a vortex follow immediately from Equations 2.14 Flow from a source. this flux will equal the product of the radial velocity and the surface area through which the velocity is passing. and the vortex strength.48.. one can write u.55) This closedline integral of the velocity is known as the circulation. If Q is the strength of a threedimensional source. for potential flow. The strength of a source.56. Figure 2.14. the tangential velocity around a vortex must vary inversely with the radial distance from the center ofthe vortex.1. From Figure 2. dR (2. and 2. In a manner similar to that followed for the vortex.!/I(A) = fB __:]_ dr 27Tr A 27T q(J (2.58) (2. The strength of a vortex.44 FLUID MECHANICS POTENTIAL FLOW 45 Thus. . 2. q is obviously given by q= fB A 21' (r d8) 7Tr .6(A)] 27Trv.56) Equation 2. The value of this integral is independent of the path providing it encloses the singular point at the center of the vortex. [8(B) .50.55 is a wellknown relationship and can be easily remembered from the definition of y. the radius. Evaluating Equation 2. q. The derivation of this law is beyond the scope of this text. pictured in Figure 2.
When combining these functions. r is the radius vector from the point P to the line element dR. If v.63. the angles a and f3 approach zero.53a. the velocities will add vectorially. functions. V=Vj+V2+·· .. = k 41Th (cos a + cos fJ) Figure 2. The x. A special form of the BiorSavart law for a straightline vortex segment found in many texts can be obtained by integrating Equation 2.I = 47T a.pI + gradcf>2+ . y.158 Definition 01 quantities used in the BiotSavart law. {3.15b. P. dR is the derivative of the radius vector from the origin to the vortex line and is thus the directed differential distance along the line.15b.15b The BiotSavart law for a straight·1 ine vortex.63 then becomes kfyp Vi = ~  Xp)2 + Yi]112 dx LX 0 [(x  Xp)2 + y/]3!2 (2. since grad or As an example e = grad .64 reduces to the expression for the velocity around a twodimensional point vortex given by Equation 256. and h are defined in Figure 2. Notice that the velocity has only a z component. is defined according to the righthand rule. This is obvious from Equation 2. The positive direction of the circulatory strength. R=ix OP+r=R OP Thus r so that = ixp + j yp xp) . As the line becomes infinite in length. is constant. By combining these functions a multitude of more complicated flows can be described. is the velocity vector induced at any point.46 FLUID MECHANICS POTENTIAL FLOW 47 p to Figure 2. d v. Referring The flow functions described thus far are basic functions.63) This is the most general form of the BiotSavart law. z orthogonal coordinate system is also righthanded.. For this figure. in the field by the vortex line. for convenience the line vortex is placed on the xaxis and lies between 0 and x. and Equation 2.j yp = i(x  dR= idx Rgure 2. The zaxis will project out of the paper according to the righthand rule. consider the classic of the use of these . the BiotSavart law states a portion of a vortex line about which at any point the circulation. The circulation r is taken to be positive in the x direction which means it will be clockwise when viewed in that direction. I'.64) This reduces to r v. r. The Calculation of Flows for WellDefined Body Shapes prI r r rXdR (2. j yp rxdR= (xxp) dx =kYpdx k 0 0 0 Irl = [(x Equation 2.
Because of the multivaluedness the tangent function. and sink. then at its maximum thickness point (x = 0). However. Hence ::::~=7 u _u x = / I I / il _ 27rUY (J 2_ "1 q (2. 61 = fh. Adding the IjJ functions for the uniform flow. If Yw is the location of a particular streamline away from the body . To the left of the source along the xaxis a distance of Xo from the origin a stagnation point exists where the resultant velocity is zero.16.. Hence x and y along the dividing streamline tan I 1 This can be solved explicitly are related by 2y x 2  y 2 "" 'IT (U . is related to to xo.16 Sou roesin k combination in a uniform flow. t I 2[1 + (q/7rU)]312 q/U (2.65) Si~ce any streamline can be replaced by a solid boundary. If it is assumed that the body's fineness ratio (i. one obtains (2. one must be careful in evaluating this expression.67) Since the flow is symmetrical. The location of this point can be found from Equation 2. Three velocities from the source.69) the Notice that as y approaches value given by Equation 2.e. source. and uniform flow are shown added vectorially at P giving the resultant velocity. we only need to calculate the streamline shapes in one quadrant. 1_ x' = s'> tan fIT [1  2y (2 Uy/ q)]} 2. say the one for which x and yare both positive.59 for the velocity from a source (or sink). for x.70) It will be seen that this point lies on a dividing streamline that is closed and that separates the flow leaving the source and entering the sink from the uniform flow.68) v.2 q ) 1 y (2. twodimensional case illustrated in Figure 2. a more direct way is to form the stream function and then solve for y(x) for constant values of t/J. The resultant streamline pattern can be constructed by calculating the velocity at many points in the field and fairing streamlines tangent to these vectors.68 can be written approximately as 2yo'" 'IT (12 or Yo = 2[1 ~ X02 = 1 + _9.and yaxes. the semilength. the dividing streamhne represents a closed body.66) where (JL and (J2 are shown in Figure 2. Since this point lies on the dividing streamline. of + ('lTU/q)] q/ U by Yo is the sernithickness of the body corresponding Hence the fineness ratio of the body. thickness to length) is small.68.65. Equation 2. It is easily verified that the entire resulting flow is symmetrical about both the x. so that t/J = O. The streamline pattern can be determined as a function of the streamline position far from the body.48 FLUID MECHANICS POTENTIAL FLOW 49 y At the stagnation point. and y = 0. Here a source and a sink (a negative source) of equal strength are placed a unit distance from either side of the origin in a uniform flow.71) This classical body shape is referred to as the Rankine oval._ 7TU yo) (2.16. a value of t/J = 0 will define this streamline. x 01 = tan " _y_ I+x 1 s: = 1 Agure 2. x approaches (2. sink. In this quadrant. t/ I. zero in Equation O=U~ or 2'IT(xo q 1) + 2'IT(xo q + 1) (2.
!. Only the flow external to the dividing streamline is shown. the minimum pressure occurs near the nose. yte.2 y . note first that C" = 1 at the stagnation point where V is zero.1.2(Ulq)(y _ Yoo)] }112 (2.0. for this particular streamline. .WIllnow move them instead toward the origin. is defined according to (2. the pressure distribution is normally presented in coefficient form.17. where the curvature is the greatest.Y . ~he flow field around a circular cylinder and resulting pressure distnbutlon can be determined as a limiting case of the Rankine oval. = 05 I .72) This relation was used to calculate the streamline patterns of Figure 2. X From Equation 2. this point of maximum velocity mayor may not be at the maximum thickness of the body.75) The pressure distribution along the surfaces of 20 and 50% thick Rankine ovals have been calculated using the preceding equations.18. ' Although one co~ld work with 1/1.IS to calculate the u and v components directly by adding the components attributed to each elementary flow function. the next obvious point of interest is the pressure distribution over the body's surface. Cp is found from the ratio of local velocity to freestream velocity. the velocity increases to a maximum at some location. Because this equation assumes til to be small.17 Calculated streamlines for 20 and 50% thick Rankine ovals.69. Moving away from the nose along the 1/1 = 0 streamline. x = o. In this case it will be found that The pressure coefficient is then calculated from (2. this figure presents the streamline patterns (in one quadrant only) for 20% and 50% thick ovals..29. Having defined the shape of a body and the velocity field around it. q{ U was chosen on the basis of Equation 2. For each thickness. x 2 The circuter Cylinder x FIgure 2. It is not too surprising to find that. Cp. for the 20% oval. but increase their strengths l~ Inverse proportion to the distance between them. Equating this to Equation 2. where C.16 l?e source and sink were placed at x = .tan 7T[1.0 and x = 1. Letting 2€ equal the distance between the source and sink and m the . that is.73) 1. but it is nearly flat over the middle 70% of the body's length. For comparison. In the limit as the dIstance between the source and sink goes to zero. one obtains a relationship between x and y along the streamline as a function of yoO and q/ U that can be solved explicitly for x.66. Depending on the fineness ratio. the thickness ratio of the one shape is slightly greater than 50%. respectively.74) _ {2 2y 1. For the 50% thick oval the minimum pressure occurs approximately halfway from the center of the body to the nose. Returning now to the Rankine oval. (2. In order to remove the dependence of the predicted pressure distribution on the freestream pressure and velocity. and the results are presented in Figure 2. In Figure 2.50 FLUID MECHANICS POTENTIAL FLOW 51 then. knowing the source (and sink) strength the easiest approach . a socalled sourcesink doublet is obtained.
..5 I 2U sin (J + 2.R (2. since y is not generally zero..47 by differentiating 1/1 with respect to r and evaluating the result at r = R. this becomes .!.45.52 FLUID MECHANICS POTENTIAL FLOW 53 O.78 agrees fairly well with experimental results over the front half of the cylinder.64 can be written as I/I=4m Referring to Figure 2. In this way Ve is found to be Vo = 2U sin (J (2..!.> . Equation 2. (J 2U stn (J "Y + 27rR 12 (2. / 0:. = 0. + y2 tan'" (~) .Po ="21 pU "21 p 2 I.19 Circular cylinder with circulation.19. "'1J.4 The tangential velocity along the surface of the cylinder is found from Equation 2. but departs from actual measurements over the rear portion as the result of viscosity. __ (m/21TU)tl2 Thus 1/1 can be written in polar coordinates as where r2 x = (J = tjJ= 2 ursin8[1(~)2] I (2. If this is done..6 0. A point vortex of strength 'Y can be placed at the origin without altering the streamline representing the surface of the cylinder.. is thus predicted to be (2. lim i" pR sin dO E_"O In the limit. from Equation 2. ''b.t..B 0. Predicted pressure distributions x Relative to Po the pressure on the surface of the cylinder will be for 20 and 50% thick Rankine P . = . the net vertical force.2 __ L~L~~L_iL~~~L~~L_~L~~ The pressure coefficient distribution..~.77) 0... Equation 2.2 o~~_L~ 0._ 0 cos "'_ I o ~..18 ovals..77 becomes Va = ~~.76) Rgure 2. This is the equation of a circle of radius R = ____ 1__~_ ...80) constant doublet strength equal to 2eQ. it follows that 't.79) y Figure 2. on the cylinder resulting from the pressure distribution will be L = sre (tan1_Y+tant_Yrr) e +X E x U.. or lift... 'P  ~Y+ 2 21T x + y2 U y pRde sin e I pRde I For 1/1 = 0.78) In Chapter Four it will be seen that Equation 2..
Taking n elements and letting i = 1.2. The net horizontal force.3. N UoStn(8j(. This will be amplified further in Chapter Three. Hence . This result is known as D' Alernbert's paradox.21 shows two elements along the surface of a body. The total flux through this surface must equal q <lx. Q3. Thus. _ q.84a) .•• .81) L=pUy This is referred to as the KuttaJoukowski law. Itit1tttJ Rgure 2. qi. after Jean le Rond D' Alembert. The normal velocity induced at the middle of the jth element by qi is obtained immediately from Equation 2... on the cylinder is found from D = r pR cos 8 dO rttjtjtti ~~~~~~~~~~I~~~~~~I~~~~~~~MrX qt x) U sing Equation 2. If ti and 1)i correspond to the midpoints of the ith element then. the numerical solution of the problem proceeds by segmenting eii is an influence coefficient. the drag is found to be zero. 2 In Reference 2. The freestream velocity U« is shown relative to the body xaxis at an angle of attack of a.78. for Figure 2. Thus 2v or ax v =q ax jot.I')2+~%C'i (2.x and a vanishing small height. which accounts for the geometry of the body shape in determining the normal velocity induced at the ith element by the source at the jth element.20. (2. having a length of tl.82) flow about is specified. Figure 2. Here q is the source strength per unit length. from Equation 2. or drag. a result that is true in general for a closed body in steady potential flow. At the ith .20. it can be applied to other shapes where y represents generally the circulation around the shape. . n leads to a set of n linear simultaneous algebraic equations for the unknowns. . unlike the Rankine oval.21: (2. Essentially the body ~ The preceding has demonstrated how particular body shapes can be generated by the superposition of elementary flow functions. The Numerical Calculation Arbitrary Body Shapes of Potential Flow Around surface and distributing a unit source strength. Q2. q. Close to the surface the u velocity components from the elemental sources will cancel so that only a v component remains.4 this relationship is used to determine the arbitrary shapes. Consider first the twodimensional source distribution shown in Figure 2. The concept of a point source or a point vortex can be extended to a continuous distribution of these functions.54 FLUID MECHANICS POTENTIAL y I FLOW 55 or. At the center of the ith element the normal velocity components from each source and the free stream must vanish.80.20 Distributed sources in twodimensional flow. over the [th element. The contribution to the velocity at the ith element from another element is calculated by assuming the total source strength at the second element to be a point source located at the middle of that element. this reduces to (2. satisfy the to be zero. qll' Consider in more detail this approach for twodimensional flow. Although derived here specifically for a circular cylinder. This procedure can be generalized and the inverse problem can be solved where the body shape is prescribed and the elementary flow functions that will generate the body shape are found.82.83) =9. element a point source is located having a strength equal to qI asI' <lS/ being the length of the jth element. a French mathematician who first reached this conclusion around 1743. The ith element is the control element over which the unit source strength qi is distributed.. the body shape and the problem is to find the distribution of singularities to condition that the velocity everywhere normal to the body surface This particular problem is referred to as the Neumann problem. . Consider the closed contour shown dashed in Figure 2.
= 2 (Xi + Xi+l) 1 TIl = 2(Yi + Yi. qi. the resultant velocity at any location can be determined by adding vectorially the freestream velocity to the contributions from all of the sources.21 sources.. Numerical solution of the Neumann problem by a distribution of Figure 2.22 Approximation to a circular cylinder with straightline segments. Finally.84c) (2.84b) A.74.23 Convergence circular cylinder.56 FLUID MECHANICS y POTENTIAL FLOW 57 Y qj . of the numerical result to the exact solution for a .Yi Xi+lX. only eight elements are shown.lsi Body contour  _o~ x. Yi +1 uo Figure 2.11 _____i_ . o/IJ = tan " Tij  {j _ {j 1/j (2. Xi = cos 8i Yj = sin 8. . y.> . the pressure distribution can be determined from Equation 2.84d) (2. {. "I".d Cp Having thus determined the source strengths. J' . (2. This numerical procedure applied to a circular cylinder with a unit radius is illustrated in Figure 2.. Here.22. Figure 2.84e) (2.84f) OJ = tan " 1 YI+I . For this case. .>: J "'"j+"Yj+l : X.
10 A light aircraft indicates an airspeed of 266 km/hr (165. the approximate solution is seen to approach the exact solution rapidly.3 mm Hg (30.7S. Potential flow methods will be used extensively with corrections given for Reynolds and Mach numbers. The outside air temperature (OAT) reads 15°C (5 oF). Houghton Mifflin. If the outside air temperature IS 10 °C. This can be done by dividing a line vortex into finite.23 with the exact solution given by Equation 2.85 in. where w is a constant. .' 2.6 n=oS The numerical calculation of the pressure distribution around a circular cylinder is compared in Figure 2. E. Hg)].11.2S) becomes p + pgh + !p V2 constant for a liquid.3 2. the liquid's mass density. 2. In Chapter Three this numerical method will be extended to include distributed vortices in addition to sources.05 in. 1975. 2. At a desired location the velocities induced by all of the elements can then be added vectorially to give the total resultant velocity. 2.2 mm Hg (29. Set to standard sea level pressure. The tank is at standard sea level (SSL) temperature. Hg). The hypothetical wake downstream of a twodimensional shape is pictured below. 6th edition. J 1 Prove that the velocity induced at the center of a ring vortex (like a smoke ring) of strength r and radius R is normal to the plane of the ring and has a magnitude of f!2R.I) 2 2.. The sea level barometric pressure is 763.7 An incompressible flow has velocity components given by u = wyand v = wX. 2..12 Write a computer program to solve the BiotSavart equations num~ncal!y. John A.4 REFERENCES 2. but the pilot incorrectly sets the altimeter to 758.58 where FLUID MECHANICS REFERENCES 59 fJ.8 PROBLEMS 2. small straightline elements. In this way the lift of an arbitrary airfoil can be predicted.000 Pa (22 psi)..1 2. c . Clayton T. McGrawHill. and Crowe.2 mph) at a pressure altitude of 2400 m (7874 ft).r SUMMARY This chapter has introduced some fundamentaJ concepts in fluid mechanics that will be expanded on and applied to explaining the aerodynamic behavior of airplane components in succeeding chapters. Hg). 2. This wake is far enough away from the body so that the static pressure through the wake is essentially constan~ and equal to the freestream static pressure. Pennsylvania. State College. =0 the streamlines.2 Roberson. As the number of segments increases. an altimeter reads 2500 rn (8200 ft). What is the pressure altitude? What is the density altitude? By integrating the pressure over a body's surface. Check your program by using it to solve Problem 2. 1975. prove that the buoyant force on the body when immersed in a liquid is equal to the product of the volume of the displaced liquid. for which the field elevation is listed at 378 m (1241 ft) above sea level. Is such a flow physically possible? Can a velocity potential be defined? How is w related to the vorticity? Sketch 2. 2. and the acceleration due to gravity.1 Streeter.9 A jet of air exits from a tank having an absolute pressure of 152.2 Prove that the resultant static force on the face of a dam acts at the centroid of the dam's area. Derive Bernoulli's equation directly by applying the momentum theorem to a differential control surface formed by the walls of a small streamtube and two closely spaced parallel planes perpendicular to the velocity. Show that the incompressible Bernoulli's equation (Equation 2. Boston. Standard sea level pressure is equal to 760 mm Hg (29.5 . Benjamin. I =0 7T  21T n (i . Will the pilot be flying too high or too low and by how much? [Note. . Calculate the jet velocity if it expands isentropic ally to SSL pressure. and Wylie. (h is the depth of the streamline relative to an arbitrary horizontal reference plane. New York. what is the true airspeed? 2. Engineering Fluid Mechanics. Fluid Mechanics. Calculate the drag coefficient of the shape based on its projected frontal area. the weight of which is significant in comparison to the static pressure forces. Victor L.) A pilot is making an instrument approach into the University Park Airport.92 in.
" AF CRCTR59267. "The ARDC Model Atmosphere. W. The length. this reduces to A=P. is defined as the value that. "Incompressible Flow About Bodies of Arbitrary Shape. Los Angeles.3) 61 .3 Minzner. WING GEOMETRY The top view. 2. or planform. and Pond. 0.. K. results in the planform area. including the fuselage.1) The aspect ratio of a wing. other components can contribute to or significantly affect the lift. Champion. and horizontal tail. c. when multiplied by the span.. R. engine nacelles.c (3. but to a lesser extent than the wing. The chord generally varies with y so that. presented at the lAS National Sciences Meeting. 1959. b. There are exceptions however. 62143." lAS Paper No.60 FLUID MECHANICS 2. A. y. June 1962.. is the distance from the wing's leading edge to its trailing edge measured parallel to the plane of symmetry in which the centerline chord.. Thus (3. Depending on the airplane's geometry. at some spanwise station. These latter components will be considered. So _S c=b (3. A. The chord. lies. c. is a measure of how Longthe span is with respect to the mean chord. S. A. the lift is directed vertically upward and sustains the weight of the airplane.. from one wing tip to the other is defined as the wingspan. Mostly. M. THREE THE GENERATION OF LIFT Lift is the component of the resultant aerodynamic forces on an airplane normal to the airplane's velocity vector. H. co.4 Smith. for purposes of characterizing wing geometry. a mean chord.2) For a rectangular pJanform where the chord is constant. of a wing is shown in Figure 3. A jet fighter with a thrusttoweight ratio close to unity in a steep climb may be generating very little lift with its weight being opposed mainly by the engine thrust. The component that is the major lift producer on an airplane and on which this chapter will concentrate is the wing.1. L.
Occasionally. is expedient to consider first the behavior of twodimensional airfoils. a line defined by the locus of points a quarter of the distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge. These oppositely moving surfaces are called ailerons. and chord wise posi . one will find wing geometry characterized in terms of the wing root chord instead of the midspan chord. the predecessor of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). or flaperons. additional roll control is usually provided by spoilers. The development of an unflapped airfoil shape is illustrated in Figure 3.1 is an excellent summary of this effort prior to 1948. A. is also measured relative to the leading edge. Co (3. Reference 3. including leading edge flaps and the many different types of trailing edge flaps. to the midspan chord.62 THE GENERA TlON OF UFT AIRFOILS 63 Trailing edge i ~r'~Rgure 3. An airfoil can be thought of as a constant chord wing of infinite aspect ratio. the camber line is plotted up from the chord a small distance z. In order to understand and predict the aerodynamic behavior of a wing. Next. These are panels that project into the flow near the trailing edge to cause separation with an attendant loss of lift. On the outer onethird or so of the span the trailing edge on one side of the wing deflects opposite to that on the other. Cr. The wing root is defined as the wing section at the juncture of the wing and fuselage. Observe that the chord line is the line joining the ends of the mean camber line. First. There is no differential movement of the flaps on the left and right sides of the wing. The early NACA families of airfoils were described in this way.2c. In such a case they are referred to as drooped ailerons. a moment is produced that tends to Liftthe A considerable amount of experimental and analytical effort has been devoted to the development of airfoils. general aviation aircraft. Finally. ailerons provide a rolling moment about the airplane's longitudinal axis. for a given weight. For takeoff and landing the flaps are lowered the same on both sides. A= AIRFOILS £t. is frequently measured relative to the quarterchord line of the wing. as shown in Figure 3.2a. As shown in Figure 3. which is a function of the distance from the leading edge.4) The sweep angle. The taper ratio.2. is defined as the ratio of the tip chord. the semithickness is added to either side of the camber line. in the literature. will be discussed in more detail later. maximum cambertochord ratios. the chord line. In such an instance the wing's aspect ratio and taper ratio are determined by ignoring the fuselage and extrapolating the planform shape into the centerline.7 or higher. the nose circle is centered on a tangent to the camber line at the leading edge and passes through the leading edge. However. that is. Approximately the aft 25 to 30% of a wing's trailing edge is movable. The inner movable portions of the wing's trailing edge on both sides of the wing are known as the flaps. when the aileron on the left wing moves down and the one on the right moves uP. The purpose of the flaps is to allow the wing to develop a higher lift coefficient than it would otherwise. a wing planform may be tapered and swept back. for certain combinations of maximum thicknesslochord ratios. Also.1 Top view of a wing (planform). Next in Figure 3. For example. Co. Ii"'" Leftwing and lower the right one. this is a maneuver necessary in making a coordinated tum to the right. Much of this work was done by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). the airplane can fly slower with the flaps down than with them up. particularly for application to helicopter rotor blades. More recently NASA and others have shown a renewed interest in airfoil development. an outer contour is faired around the skeleton to form the airfoil shape. is drawn. it. with the camber and thickness distributions given as algebraic functions of the chordwise position.2b.1. in Figure 3. and aircraft operating at transonic speeds of Mach 0. The midspan chord in this instance is thus somewhat fictitious. For some applications both ailerons are lowered to serve as an extension to the flaps. c. A. Usually the center portion of a wing is enclosed by the fuselage. Flaps. on occasion. Thus. A. When flaperons are employed.
) dx (3.7) x.5 and 3. tion of maximum camber.2 The construction of an airtoil contour. Before discussing the various families of airfoils in detail. The moment calculated from Equation 3. then the total lift (per unit span) on the airfoil will be L= where the upper and lower pressure coefficients are defined according to Equation 2.6 become (e) Ci = and f (CPt .Pu _ P' .CPJ dx (3.6) In accord with Equation 2.8) IIE:"C~"I I x (4) Note that lowercase SUbscripts are used to denote coefficients for a twodimensional airfoil. As a fraction of the chord.P.3.10) (d) Figure 3. the distance xcp to this point. tabulated ordinates for the upper and lower surfaces are available (Ref.1). 3. the moment coefficient about any other point.12) f (PI .11) Knowing x. can be calculated from (3. Writing PI .73. referring to Figure 3.5) e". The moment about the leading edge.12.p.10 can be visualized as being produced by the resultant lift acting at a particular distance back from the leading edge. defined positive nose up. To begin.9) (3. Dimensionless moment at x produced by dimensionless lift acting at . as (3. Figure 3. an airfoil derives its lift from the pressure being higher on the lower surface of the airfoil than on the upper surface. will be MLE = f xtp. known as the center of pressure.Po (1/2)p V2  (1/2)p y2 . x..(l/2)p 0 (h) and redefining x as the distance in chord lengths from the leading edge. all of which can be influenced by airfoil geometry.3 p.64 THE GENERA nON OF LIFT AIRFOILS 65 (3.) dx (3. If a subscript l denotes lower surface and "u" denotes upper surface. along the airfoil can be written.Po Pu . Equations 3. C. we will generally consider the aerodynamic characteristics for airfoils.p. whereas uppercase subscripts are used for the threedimensional wing. . = O/2)p V2c L (3. the lift and moment can be expressed in terms of dimensionless coefficients.
the center of pressure is the point at which the resultant lift acts.4a and 3. (f) Airfoil with trailing edge separation. If the angle of attack of the plate is too great. Instead. Again.4b observe that there is one streamline that divides the flow that passes over the plate from that below. As the flow progresses forward along this line. there is practically no lift produced on the plate.66 THE GENERATION OF LIFT AIRFOILS 67 It will be shown later that a point exists on an airfoil called the aerodynamic center about which the moment coefficient is constant and does not depend on Cj. Thus the limit in Cj. The resulting nonsymmetrical flow pattern causes the fluid particles to accelerate over the upper surface and decelerate over the lower surface. as shown in Figure 3. However. because of viscosity. This pressure difference acting on the airfoil produces a lift. Kutta. flat plate. Consider first the simple shape of a thin. the separated flow at the leading edge will not reattach to the upper surface. Equation 3. to be more nearly aligned with the flow in (a) FIgure 3. (d) Flat plate with curved leading edge to prevent leading edge separation. This behavior of the airfoil is known as stall. . the flow will appear for a moment as shown.. M. the large separated region of unordered flow on the upper surface produces an increase in pressure on that surface and hence a loss in lift. it is turned backward by the main flow and reattaches to the upper surface a short distance from the leading edge.4a if the angle of attack of a thin.4b.4 Progressive development of airfoil shapes.reference to Figure 3. the flow at the trailing edge cannot continue to turn the sharp edge to flow upstream. When this occurs. where it joins perpendicular to the lower surface of the plate near the leading edge.13) Do not confuse the aerodynamic center with the center of pressure. Denoting the location of the aerodynamic center by X. Beginning with Figure 3. Cl. This condition is known as the Kutta condition after the German scientist.12 can be solved for the location of the center of pressure.4d.. from Bernoulli's equation.... Hence. (e) Flat plate experiencing leading edge separation and loss of lift (stall). who in 1902 first imposed the trailing edge condition in order to predict the lift of an airfoil theoretically. flat plate is suddenly increased from zero. it quickly adjusts to the pattern shown in Figure 3. Historically airfoils developed approximately in this manner. as shown in Figure 3. (e) Airfoil with thickness and camber to delay stall.4c. (b) Flat plate at angle of attack in steady flow and generating lift. the aerodynamic center is the location about which the moment is constant. . W. However. (a) Flat plate at sudden angle of attackno lift. To improve this condition. In Figure 3. Here the flow leaves nearly tangent 10 the trailing edge. Along this "dividing streamline. one can curve the leading edge portion of the flat plate.4b." the flow comes to rest at the stagnation point. is the result of flow separation on the upper surface of the airfoil. Because of nearsymmetry. The progressive development of an airfoil shape is illustrated by . there is a decrease in air pressure above the plate and an increase below it. xcp= xac em" G (3. it is unable to adhere to the surface around the sharp leading edge and separates from the plate.c. that is.
with the leading edge separation being avoided altogether.4 (Continued) that region. in a qualitative sense. In the case of the 1408 airfoil pictured in Figure 3. The degree to which the flow separates from the leading or trailing edge depends on the Reynolds number and the airfoil geometry. the flow can separate initially near the trailing edge. of the lift curve over the 1inear portion is unchanged by deflecting the split flap. Thus.is negative for a cambered airfoil. the performance of the airfoil is improved over a range of angles. as one might expect. is sensitive to angle of attack and only holds near a particular design angle. by adding thickness to the thin. However. trailing edge separation is progressive with angle of attack and results in a more gradual stalling. the lift curve is more rounded. for a thicker airfoil with the same camber. This separation also improves with increasing values of the Reynolds number. by a constant increment for each (l! in the linear range. Thus the angle of attack for zero lift. an airfoil with a wellrounded lift curve is desirable in order to avoid a sudden loss in lift as a pilot slows down the airplane. Observe that the lift curve.5 note the sharp drop in q at an (l! of 12° for R = 3 X 106. with a gradual decrease in Ci beyond an a of 14°. including nonaerodynamic considerations such as structural efficiency. Even a cambered airfoil of finite thickness has its limitations.5 and 3.1).6 illustrate other characteristics of airfoil behavior that will be considered in more detail later. is nearly linear over a range of angles of attack. a{)j. other factors such as drag and Mach number effects must also be considered in selecting an airfoil.5 and 3. with the split flap deflected 60°. Cr versus a. As the angle of attack is increased. as is true with most design decisions.4/. At this higher angle. the lift increases up to an angle of approximately 160 for all R values tested. generally. In Figure 3. From a flying qualities standpoint. with the separation point progressively moving forward as the angle of attack continues to increase. 3. as shown in Figure 3.68 THE GENERATION OF LIFT AIRFOILS 69 ~ (ei Figure 3. cambered plate and providing a rounded leading edge. instead. it appears that leading edge separation occurs because of the sharp drop in C for a values greater than 16°. whereas for R = 9 X 106. Camber and thickness are not needed to produce lift (lift can be produced with a flat plate) but. even for R = 9 x nr. However.6.6 (taken from Ref. Thicker airfoils with more rounded leading edges tend to delay leading edge separation. Figures 3. . to increase the maximum lift that a given wing area can deliver. Leading edge separation results in flow separation over the entire airfoil and a sudden loss in lift. dClda. of increasing camber is to increase C. In Figure 3.5. Hence. the aerodynamicist chooses an airfoil that represents the best compromise to conflicting requirements. The situation is illustrated in Figures 3. On the other hand. we have defined a typical airfoil shape. Notice also that the slope. Such a shape is similar to that used by the Wright Brothers. This solution to the separation problem. aD' equals 12S. The effect of lowering the flap or.
007 0.8 0.4 O.2 III 0.91 0.4 .4 " :ij E "0.4   II I\ll Y'< :  <:RIIIIIHfI o 02 (lA:.2 1.2 o _~ 0..B 0.004 rI 0 8· 1..1 L c 3.4 0.3 '" ..0.8 8 V I 0.8 U) II II ~~= 0.. c.[.B i: . Figure 3.036 0.5 Characteristics of the NACA 1408 airfoil.0 0.0 Standard rouqhness 0 R • Y <: ~ 0 ::li] 1.~ 0:: 0.2 I 1.6 0.'" ~.8 0. Standard rwghness 0.4 Section I 0. 0.5 o 8 "0' 16 deg 24 32 1.6 0.5 O.02B 0.0 a..<o \ ~~ ~ \ II I. L c c ¥ 60" _ I 0.4 0. I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I 2.0 ~ " '" E 0 s t 0 " 0. I ac position .2 t ~ rlI rII 0.2 0.3.0 Standard roughness v 6.6 3.B C.s. 2 ·1.0 1.0 X 11)4 0.1 .8 C.250 0 D 6.2 0.< " ~ W~ ~' I Iv ~ '0 iii ::: 1. o II I I I I L IIII II 1.016 0. 16 0..6 I I I I I I I II II I 1.250 0." 8 _ 24 16 Section 0.JJ \ ~ V <: .012 = ~ o ~ ""(l a .020 0.036 0.3 ~ II~ 'u . 0.6 Characteristics of the NACA 1412 airfoil..J  fil II / f  If ~ l 1\ \ f"h.8 0. I+++I+~J.2 2.'52 0. 6.4 o .2 angle of attack..s t: II II1~ ~ 0 ..8 2.2 ~ 0.~ .260 0.__I \ :: . lift coefficient..2 ~ 0 0.0 1.6 1. .~   ~~~~~~~~~~o 0. 3..4 i E a :::. deg ~ i " L /I~ '7 3...~ I I )'1 I d~ r> !.020 Va k(I ~ p j } II k i v 0.0 0.0 32 \.0 .2 O. ~ ~ ~ 1\ /A _.0 0.2 .~ c.1.I' j II( ~ II V .2 l II III III III III II I III II II/  2.4 lIIl a 0. 01·I I I II 32 24 16 8 16 24 o 8 !>Action angle of attack. '13 E ~ :._ ac position   ~  II  0.£.016 0.008 '" If f\l~ _ 0.4 Section o 0.: 15 0.5 h 1. ~ ~ UJ ~ c .0 X 104 0. Figure 3.f r r 0.2 0.4 1..1 ] 0.032 I0.028 o 3.1 0. 4 III v In r j'V :r i/ r.~  /// .3 0.250 0 o 9.024 2.250 09.20c simulated spilt flap deflected 60':: 'V 6.~ _ 0.6 0. : Y l.: iE o I~ ..026 _ J:>.008 0.a 0.012 ~ rr a .. 32 0.  t 0.028 :. 1.6 2.4 2. 6.6 0.2 0.0 ".3 0.6 1.20c simulated split flap deflected ? 6.024 AI . 6. .032 0.0 Standard rough ness D.4 lift coefficient. 1. u 8 0.020 06.0 2.004 '" ~ 0 1 a~ fR O.? ~ \IJ "!:I" V ~ J ~ . 6 .
the first gives the maximum camber in percent of chord. For example. "00 not 'fudge' your datait be right. the second the location of the maximum camber in tenths of chord. This airfoil is also pictured in Figure 3. noted these two peaks in the C.2 higher than s those for the fo'. The 2412 airfoil is pictured in Figure 3.212 c Whitcombtype NASA ======supercritical airfoil Around 1932. The last two digits give the percent thickness. in his early experiments.1. for comparable thicknesses and cambers. I have myself sometimes found it difficult to let the lines run where they will. My conclusion is that it is safest to follow the observations exactly and let others do their own correcting if they wish" (Ref. such as the wellknown ClarkY section.3 and a maximum camber located 15% of c back from the leading edge. in order to move the position of maximum camber forward in an effort to increase C. his line would probably have been nearer the truth. versus a curve but chose to fair a smooth curve through them. Langley. the Wright Brothers observed the same characteristics and were troubled by Langley's smooth curve. NACA tested a series of airfoil shapes known as the fourdigit sections. The second peak in C. These distributions were not selected on any theoretical basis.1 to 0.:digit airfoils.1). the C.Y15 NACA 2412 NACA 23012 To paraphrase the immortal Wilbur Wright. The numbering system for the fivedigit series is not as straightforward as for the fourdigit series. The fourdigit airfoil geometry is defined.. instead of running them where I think they ought to go. NACA RveDlglt Series GA1W]1 FIgure 3. . Wilbur Wright wrote to Octave Chanute on December I. is generally not as high as that which occurs just before the airfoil stalls. Later.7 Comparison of various airfoil shapes.7 along with other airfoils yet to be described. . After searching Langley's original data and finding that he. The NACA fivedigit series developed around 1935 uses the same thickness distribution as the fourdigit series. 1901. If he (Langley) had [ollowed his obseroations.t Series NACA 65. and the last two the maximum thickness in percent of chord. had a "bump" in the data. For example. but were formulated to approximate efficient wing sections in use at that time. S. Indeed. The first digit multiplied by 3/2 gives the design lift coefficient of the airfoil. The camber and thickness distributions for these sections are given by equations to be found in Reference 3. 1. however. values for the mfivedigit eries are 0. The next two digits are twice the position of maximum camber in percent of chord. the 23012airfoil is a 12% thick airfoil having a design C1 of 0. will again begin to increase before dropping off to zero at an a of approximately 90°. by four digits. as the name implies. P. too. .4c from the leading edge. the 2412 airfoil is a 12%thick airfoil having a 2% camber located O. c c c 73 Clark. The mean camber line is defined differently.72 THE GENERA TlON OF LIFT AIRFOIL FAMILIES If a is increased beyond the stall C.7." may NACA 16212 AIRFOIL FAMILIES NACA FourDlg.
Operated at its design q.rs.J  0 . and e'm.6c point and are referred to as seriesIs airfoils. lIIl " . the first number gives the design C.. C III) co ~ Ie ~c c:i ~ . The camber line for these airfoils is designed to produce a uniform chordwise pressure difference across it. These requirements are somewhat conflicting..6 . as a = I I II  . The first digit designates the series. for example. i III ~ g Fr ..0 00 III o J II 0 .g  at i:'" 0.. ctJ I '0 o II II1 III d I I '" d I II M o I ci I . The mean lines used with the 6series airfoils have a uniform loading back to a distance of xlc = 2. Seriesl airfoils are also identified by five digits as. and it appears that the motivation for these airfoils was primarily the achievement of low drag. In the latter.   I lIII 1'f' I ~ f<>~ "'tt . In the former application.. the second digit designates the location of the minimum pressure in tenths of chord.....L ~ ~ ~ . The a = 1 mean line corresponds to the uniform loading for the series16 airfoils. N  ~ . this corresponds to a constant chordwise distribution of vorticity. '" I '" 75 . N II o N I I I ... III II I III <0 I.~c51 I ~ I _lIe N . The later series is identified. The chordwise pressure distribution resulting from the combination of thickness and camber is conducive to maintaining extensive laminar flow over the leading portion of the airfoil over a limited range of Ci values. Outside of this range.qP • h  _a .74 THE GENERATION OF LIFT NACA 1Serles (Series 16) The NACA lseries of wing sections developed around 1939 was the first series based on theoretical considerations. The most commonly used Iseries airfoils have the minimum pressure located at the O. The 16212 airfoil is shown in Figure 3. As for the other airfoils.. Thus the airfoil has been applied extensively to both marine and aircraft propellers. c 0''2 IE ~ C\I . II . lowpressure regions are undesirable from the standpoint of cavitation (the formation of vaporous cavities in a flowing liquid). performance. It) o II I II I II iTT r IN (') fTT 11 I The 6series airfoils were designed to achieve desirable drag. In the thin airfoil theory to follow. Cd and C.. Following the dash.. .. ('IJ I ci I N JI ll) CD ~ Z s: .. the last two digits designate the maximum thickness in percent of chord.7. the seriesIs airfoil produces its lift while avoiding lowpressure peaks corresponding to regions of high local velocities.p   ""II ~ '""{> I  ~ ~  )._ III ... the use of series16 airfoils delays the onset of deleterious effects resulting from shock waves being formed locally in regions of high velocities. the NACA 16212 section. in tenths........ compressibility. There are many perturbations on the numbering system for the 6series airfoils. NACA 6Serles ~I I <0 <:). Aft of this location the load decreases linearly.m ax values are not too much different from other airfoils. :g as CD ci II lIS .. for example. II I III ..
The flow then decelerates rapidly through a relatively strong shock wave to subsonic conditions. at least in part. the last two digits specify the percentage thickness. Again. the supercritical airfoil is shaped. the shock wave strengthens sufficiently to cause the drag to rise suddenly.84 Supercritical flow phenomena. it is understood to equal unity.or 6senes airfoils. For a constant thickness of 12%. _. 0 .012 / / . This. where the drag is significantly lower between C.7 Suoercritical airfoil M = 0. which bas sharper leading edges.008 0. to specialized airfoils designed to satisfy particular requirements.7.. causes the boundary layer to thicken and.. M 0. These airfoils are synthesized with the use of sophisticated computer programs such as the one described in Reference 3.. and resulting low drag.7 or so depending on the shape and CI> a conventional airfoil will accelerate the flow to velocities that are locally supersonic over the forward or middle portion of its upper surface. 20 0 . A qualitative explanation for the superior performance of the supercritical airfoil is found by reference to Figure 3.2. with its steep positive pressure gradient.016 conventional/ / j I 0. Refined supercritica] . to separate.9 0. The 651212 airfoil is shown in Figure 3. extensive laminar flow is maintained over the surface of the foil with an attendent decrease in the skin friction drag. so that around its design lift coefficient the flow decelerates to subsonic conditions through a distribution of weak compression waves instead of one strong one.8 \ '' <. As this value is exceeded by a few hundredths.76 Mach number." In practice this laminar flow. The supercritical airfoil also accelerates the flow to locally supersonic conditions at freestream Mach numbers comparable to the 1. causes a significant increase in the drag. for obvious reasons. In addition. Lift and drag curves for the 65]212 airfoil are presented in Figure 3.. causing transition. MODERN AIRFOIL DEVELOPMENTS Systematic series of airfoils have given way.8. .7. the numeral 5 is the location of the mimmum pressure in tenths of chord for the basic thickness and distribution. the wellrounded leading edge provides an improvement in c.9.l above and below the design Ci of the 0. values of approximately 0 to 0.. wind tunnel studies indicate a possible increase of approximately 15% in the dragdivergence Mach number for a supercritical airfoil as compared to a more conventional 6series airfoil.. Early supsreritical 0.. This airfoil has a wellrounded leading edge and is relatively flat on top with a drooped trailing edge.80 0. supersonic is referred to as the critical Mach number. a. . Pre~sure distributions Conventional airfoil M = 0.5. Chapter Four will discuss the drag of these airfoils in more detail. and the subscript 1 indicates that low drag is maintained at q values of O.. The minimum value of the freestream Mach number for which the local How becomes 0. This region. In this way the dragdivergence Mach number is increased substantially.. If the fraction. This freestream Mach number is known as the dragdivergence Mach number. denoted by the 2 following the dash..76 THE GENERATION OF LIFT MODERN AIRFOIL DEVELOPMENTS 77 Here 6 denotes the series.004 o FIgure 3. is known as the "drag bucket. . At a freestream Mach number as low as 0. In this region. Notice the unusual shape of Cd versus C. which will be discussed in more detail later. at low speeds over the 6series.6 and 3. in tum.3. is difficult to achieve because of contamination by bugs or by structurally transmitted vibration that perturbs the laminar boundary layer. is not specified. depending on the strength of the shock. One such special purpose airfoil is the socalled supercritical airfoil reported on in References 3. However. This compression wave./ I . for very smooth surfaces and for Reynolds numbers less than 9 x 106.
.0 ff I 0 I 1. 0 for O. As a result.Q2 " I~ la:.Q..15.0..6 2. Whitcomb.8 ~ J V / t v  r.0 1.04 78 THE GENERATION OF LIFT 0.20)... \ :::. 2 8 4 a 4 8 ex.2 Conditions same as Figu re 3...10a. o 0.6 ~ 5.2 12 I~ l.2 o O.8 tip li"" J / . The GA(W)l airfoil is the last of the Figure 3. V ~ f).1 6. 1 ). the supercritical airfoils were found to have good C1 values as well as low Cd values at moderate lift coefficients. fY' 2.9 R X 106 o <> LJ.1 6. deg 20 "'l b. '11\\ 3. 4 0 0. These are the "general aviation" airfoils. designated GA(W) for general aviation (Whitcomb). their successful development in modern times is attributed to R.1 o.9 3.7 LJ.9 <> 5..tJ ~ 10'" &.2 4}7~'~ OHI Off D ROUghnjS Off II o a: 4.~ 12 16 A~ 0. T. A Whitcombtype supercritical airfoil is pictured in Figure 3.2 12.i'b \ I I O. b.03 11.. but for lowspeed applications.0 0. ~06 Although the possibility of such airfoils was known for some time. L~ Y rd"" ~I'\.S 0... 24 28 of the 0..~~ o 3..l0b 2.4 1 ~ 2. V "\\ 1\. 0.6 )'f.3 V J .QIo >or 4 8 m b:4 16 12 o 12 a.4 IP'~~ 111 1.ose 1\\ ~ 2.1 e".7 9.8 1.1Oe GA(W)1 airfoil section characteristics deflected 60 (M = 0. 12.3 ~ 0..8 .. j 1 .01 \ !l12[. on section characteristics FIgure 3.4 0.4 9. deg FIgure 3.. an~her family of airfoils evolved from the supercritical airfoils.7..20c simulated split flap 79 .4 .l0a Effect of Reynolds number GA(W)l airfoil Model smooth.4 1.: V"'I ) 0 0.B o. v a ~ 0.Y"" ~fP' o 0.4 i~ V nI! iJ / 1.2 0.2 to.. M = 0. ~I." / / ~ ~ ~ ~ .( III J 1 o 0. Tested at low speeds.. 2.. S 4 l. 1.
0 1. R 10 12 14X106 Rgure 3. The same is true of the supercritica! airfoil.  I NASA o Roughness NACA off GA~W)1 airfoil o Roughness roughness off Or!  II airfoil....2 0.6..~ I ....4 0.1 0 Cm 0. Figure 3.8 1.7..4 o 0. In addition.\ ~ 0.8 0.8 <. At the time of this writing. J:: /" 9! VJl ~ » /: lP Ihr .. Observe that the performance of the GA(W)l airfoil is very Reynolds numberdependent. 0.. #10.0 1.. 8 deg (11) 12 16 20 24 2..4.8 0. the GA(W) airfoil is beginning to be employed on production aircraft. For example. ~ ~. II u .2 12 662~415 I 4418  2412 I 8 4 o 4 Q..04 NASA GA~WIl airfoil 1 o NASA standard roughness c NACA standard roughness NACA airfoil.. 'J""" )oc' ~ A ~ ..12.6 . and 17 is the maximum m .2 / .11 Comparison of section characteristiCS of NASA GA(W)1 airfoil and N~CA 65:0415 and 65:r418 airfoils. M = 0.~::: ~::: .~ J V/ . the GA(W)l airfoil becomes LS(l)0417. . These data are presented in Figure 3. 80 .~~ _.. t 81 NASA roughness o NACA standard roughness NACA airfoil. (b) Variation of Cd with C/.03 652415 65J418 I ...0 II roughness 1. Indeed. mu' COl data far mooel_ smooth "=c.2 66]418 0.. particularly Ci which increases rapidly with Reynolds number from 2 to 6 million. above q values of around 0. :P . Comparisons of em.ct I 1.l :'iribil f.10 for the GA(W)I airfoil. ff  I . \ t 1". V ~y hr ~ airfoils pictured in Figure 3.".4 (b) 0. and Cd for this airfoil with similar coefficients for other airfoils are presented in Figures 3. the supercritical airfoil is being used on both the Boeing YC14 and McDonnellDouglas YC15 prototypes currently being tested for the advanced medium STOL transport (AMST) competition. ..6 1. o£>.8 C.15. I o 1. The 04 refers to a design lift coefficient of 0.01 1. 0.. ". ." 14 I I .. ". .. R "'" 6 X 108• (a) Variation of CI and Cm with a. NACA standard 2.~ fA (j' t:~ /.& c~ ~ I I 23018 I' I .0 o 2 4 6 Reynolds 8 number.4 0 0..12 Comparison of maxim um lift coeffi clent of the GA(W)1 ai rfo iI with other NACA airfoils M = 0.11 and 3. its drag is lower than the older laminar flow series with standard roughness.. V i ..1 00·_ ~~ r 'f"' 'Y 'P' Y /. At the time of this writing... . They will be designated by LS (low speed) or MS (medium speed) followed by four digits.':: .2 1. NACA standard roughness o NASA ~andard 652415 65:l418 G1cwlT_...6 2. 0..~\. The (1) designates a family. :/.20. 1. Test results for this airfoil are reported in Reference 3. ...8..2 0..MODERN AIRFOIL DEVELOPMENTS W r2. where its Cs values are shown to be about 30% higher than those for the older NACA 65series airfoils. NASA is adopting a new nomenclature for the GA(W) airfoils..
Such a distribution is referred to as a vortex sheet. consider a similar distribution of vortices as illustrated in Figure 3. the addition of a vortex also produced lift. However. In addition. the velocity is tangent to the vortex sheet whereas. From Equation 2. Because of the symmetry to the flow provided by anyone segment of the sheet. it follows that yax = 2v ax or (3. If y is the strength per unit length of the sheet.82. relating circulation to the strength of a vortex.. a vortex sheet of unit strength 2v along the airfoil. one must find the chordwise distribution of y(x) that will produce a resultant flow everywhere tangent to the mean camber line (thin airfoil approximation). Consider now the thin airfoil pictured in Figure 3.: = Vr V~+ v = v v The velocity difference across a lifting thin airfoil. If the airfoil is producing a lift. The contribution to the lift of a differential length of the airfoil will be dl = (PI  Pu) dx Or.20..14 point source could be extended to a continuous distribution of the elementary flow functions. y ax will be the total strength enclosed by the dashed contour shown in the figure.82 THE GENERATION OF LIFT PREDICTION OF AIRFOIL BEHAVIOR 83 thickness in percent of chord. v. the velocity on the upper surface is greater than the velocity on the lower surface. the upper and lower velocities can be written as Vu = V+v Vv and Vj= Thus the flow field around the airfoil is the same as that which would be produced by placing. dl = pV(2v) dx Since 2v is the unit vortex strength. In the case of the circular cylinder.. from Bernoulli's equation. using Bernoulli's equation.. v. dl = pVydx or. Hence. in the case of Equation 3.82.:lx ~ total strength of enclosed vortices FIgure 3. this becomes.18 over the entire chord.55. the velocity is normal to the line on which the sources lie. In that chapter a distribution of sources in a uniform flow was found to produce a nonlifting body of finite thickness. for Equation 2._'::_ .14) Note the similarity of this relationship to that expressed by Equation 2. I l' ~ vortex strength f ydx (3.>s: I / ' L/ ..81) is found to hold for the airfoil element. The contour is taken to lie just above and below the sheet.16) per unit length CCCCCClccc:ccCCCCC L~ ~ v l'. velocity across the airfoil equal 2v.14. PREDICTION OF AIRFOIL BEHAVIOR v Vu In Chapter Two it was noted that the concepts of a point vortex and a v Vr Figure 3. in a uniform flow of velocity V. In order to predict the lift and moment on the airfoil. the KuttaJoukowski law (Equation 2. Comparable to the continuous distribution of sources pictured in Figure 2. the pressure on the lower surface is greater than that on the upper.15) where I' is the total circulation around the airfoil given by f= ~. the tangential velocity just below the sheet is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to that just above the sheet. ax is sufficiently small so that the velocity tangent to the sheet. l=pYr (3.13 Distributed vortices in a twodimensional flow (vortex sheet).13. integrating Equation 3. Letting this difference in >. the Kutta condition is applied at the trailing edge to assure that the flow leaves the trailing edge tangent to the mean camber line at that point. can be assumed to be constant.:lx_" . This is a . For more information on modern airfoils.36. consult Reference 3." iv:.14.
The expression agrees identically with the theoretical solution of this problem that follows. r will be placed at a particular point on the airfoil.19) (3. the threequarterchord point. The approximation of Figure 3.02/rad. known as Weissinger's approximation. at the quarterchord point. let us consider a numerical approach to predicting the lift and moment of an airfoil. show a value of around O.5 and 3. c/J "" (4 . Notice that the result predicts the slope of the lift curve. dC/Ida. As a gross approximation to the distributed vorticity along the airfoil. for example.15 for a flatplate airfoil. Experimentally this figure is usually found to be x II: ~ _f_ . .105/deg or 6. the distribution will be replaced by only one vortex of unknown strength. first. However.16.B4 THE GENERA TION OF LIFT PREDICTION OF AIRFOIL BEHAVIOR 85 necessary condition. otherwise. Figure 3. r. An analytical solution to the thin airfoil will be obtained later but. The unknown strengths are determined by assuring that the normal velocity vanishes at the threequarterchord point of each segment.17) (3.8x)z relationship. the Kutta condition is assured. To illustrate this numerical solution of the thin airfoil. the resulting flow will appear similar to Figure 3. Figures 3.18) (3. to be 21Tlrad.4a with the lift being equal to zero.6.16 A circular arc airfoil approximated by two vortices.16) at any distance x can be determined from the geometry of the figure. With the last control point downstream of the last vortex singularity. This approximation. If it is assumed that z~1 (3. of the airfoil will be related to z approximately by R =Sz (3.19 leads to where a is the angle of attack in radians. L = pvr. is illustrated in Figure 3.20) 1 Assuming a to be a small angle. 1I"c Rgure 3. R.15 Weissinger's approximation to a thin airfoil. Here. consider Figure 3.21) = 1TC r the radius of curvature. so that (3. The velocity induced at 3c/4 by r placed at cf4 will be Vi somewhat less. The boundary condition and the Kutta condition will be satisfied at only one point.15 can be improved on by dividing the airfoil chord into a number of equal segments and placing a vortex of unknown strength at the quarterchord point of each segment. a circular arc airfoil having a unit chord length with a maximum camber ratio of z is operating at an angle of attack a. it follows that Vi= Va 1TCVa or From the KuttaJoukowski r= L The slope of the camber line relative to the chord line (the angle t/J in Figure 3.22) = p1TcV a 2 Expressing lift in terms of the lift coefficient and using Equation3.
In coefficient form the lift and moment (about the leading edge) become C1 = 211'(0' N 4.p. Hence. First.24 results in 4(a 3. As one divides the airfoil into a greater and greater number of elements. respectively.25b) 5. Thus.23b) cambering an airfoil will not change the slope of the lift curve. of a vortex placed at the cf4 point of an element of length 8x will be related to the pressure jump.0 02 x5 010 II 15 + 2z) a (3. In preparing this figure it should be noted that !J. across the element by ~p = = V(a +3z) pVy The problem is linearized by Equation 3. .25a) (3.28.= V(aI/I) It follows that at control points 1 and 2 located at x values of 3c/8 and 7c/8. In this case a is taken to be zero.0 Thus.4 0. x Figl. avoiding the infinitely negative Cp at the leading edge. !J. given by Equation 3. )'. for the fiatplate airfoil.24b) Equating Equations 3.17 Comparison of numerical calculation of chordwise lift distribution with analytical prediction for a flatplate airfoil at 10° angle of attack. Figure 3.56. twopoint model results in several important observations that are in agreement with more exact solutions.0 Cp 3.86 THE GENERATION OF LIFT PREDICTION OF AIRFOIL BEHAVIOR 87 The component of V normal to the mean camber line and directed upward is thus v.23a) (3. this point is predicted to be the aerodynamic center. (3. according to Equation 2. distributions will approach the theoretical pressure distribution predicted on the basis of continuous y distributions. The strength.ll'V Figure 3. between the pressure distribution obtained using the foregoing numerical procedure with that based on a continuous distribution of )' along the chord.24a) ~x (3. has been expressed in coefficient form and plotted at the location of each point vortex.z) at at 2 (3.26b) emu = Tr ( 2+4" 7Z) The moment coefficient about the leading edge can be transferred to the quarterchord point by using 2.p.28) Vi = ~(j 1'1 = )'1 + 21'2) at 2 (3.26a shows the lift coefficient to be a linear combination of a and z.Jre 3. note that Equation 3. Thus.0 1.0 )'2=4(0' 7rV +5z) Applying the KuttaJoukowski law to each vortex results not only in a predicted total lift. )'1 and 1'2.2 0. it is predicted that the moment about the quarter chord will be independent of a.21 so that the vortices. It is seen that the numerical results rapidly converge to the continuous solution as the number of elements increases.26a) (3.6 This simple. are taken to lie on the chord line.18 presents a similar comparison for the circular arc airfoil.27) 0. Second. the total velocities induced at the two control points by the two vortices will be (3. but also in a moment. the resulting). + z) (3.23 and 3.17 presents a comparison. the two vortices similating the airfoil must induce velocities downward given by Vj = Vi V(a .
5 0.. as used with the numerical solution.3 Rgure 3. ~~ ~~c~alue (em"" = ~ Jr. circular arc airfoil. Ref.10 0.) c T 0.19 Numerical calculation of moment coefficient tical prediction for 4% cambered. the center of pressure moves aft.20 The modeling of a thin airfoil by a vortex sheet.88 THE GENERATION 0.4 0.6 cp 0. ( Figure 3.19.13.g. the exact value of the moment coefficient about the aerodynamic center (cf4) for the circular arc airfoil is given by Cm.04 compared with analy 0.29) as Using Equation 3.20.02 0.< = 7TZ • (x) ca mber line (3. goes to zero. Figure 3.06 0. .3).2 0.19 shows that the exact value is approached rapidly. However. the airfoil is replaced by a continuous distribution of vortices instead of discrete point vortices. The Wright Brothers were probably the first to recognize the true nature of the centerofpressure movement as a result of their meticulous wind tunnel tests. As indicated by Figure 3. circular arc airfoil. This movement of the center of pressure is opposite to what was believed to be true by the early pioneers in aviation. without any loss of generality.. 015 010 x5 02 « ~ 0° Z ~ 0. given by Equation 3. Referring to Figure 3. as the number of segments increases. lift distribution Observe that as C. 3. decreases.30) dw FIgure 3.rT__' ~O.27. approaching infinity as C.7 OF LIFT PREDICTION OF AIRFOIL BEHAVIOR 89 00~~r~~T~. however. is only threequarters of that obtained by analytical means.1 .12 <. the airfoil is taken to have a unit chord lying along the xaxis with the origin at the leading The numerical model predicts the lift in exact agreement with more precise analytical models. Here..2 and 3. Analytical solutions to the thin airfoil can be found in several texts (e.08 0. the location of the center of pressure can be found (3.18 Comparison of numerical calculation of chordwise with analytical prediction for a 4% cambered. the moment coefficient.
it is known that y(x) is generally singular at the leading edge approaching infinity as llx. to a small angle approximation. PREDICTION OF AIRFOIL BEHAVIOR 91 edge.33 becomes (" y(8) dO 21TV Jo cos Ocos 0 1 = a ( dz_ \ dxJ (3. the following integral equation must be solved a:  1 (I y(x) dx 21rV Jo :tox = (dz) dx Xo (3... knowing the shape of the mean camber line.90 THE GENERATION OF LiFT z(x).35 becomes Ao . The shape of the camber line is given by z(x) <O! 1 and it is assumed that Using the relationships ~ [cos (n . see Ref. .33) Thus.31) n •••.dx dz = 0. cos n8 M rex) dx 21T(Xo . z(x). so that this point is the aerodynamic center. it can be concluded immediately without considering the actual form of z(x) that G is given by a .= In addition.g. integrating over the chord. the induced velocity will be infinite just downstream of this point.38b) for Thus.35) On the basis of the more sophisticated method of conformal mapping (e.cos 00 = 1T sin 60 (3. given a: and y(x). 8) + SIn It follows that em about the quarterchord point is independent of a. (3.x dx (3.37) Equation 3. or. the coefficients Ao. 1. w(xo) = Multiplying both sides of the preceding equation by cos m6 (m _1 (I y(x) 21T Jo Xo . it follows that.41) ~ A" sin n8] 0=1 (3. ) and integrating from 0 to 1T leads to In order to satisfy the boundary condition that the flow be tangent everywhere to the mean camber line. The lift and moment about the leading edge are given by L= MLF. 3.39) (3. 3.~ A. Otherwise. . the downward velocity induced by an elemental vortex of strength r(x) dx located at x. Having these coefficients.cos (n and With this assumption the problem is linearized and made tractable by replacing the airfoil with a vortex sheet of unit strength y(x) lying along the chord line instead of along the camber line.56."LE= 1T 2" ( Ao+A1T A1) (3.38a) " = 2 1T L'II"dZ cosn9d8 0 dx (3.33 is solved by first transforming to polar coordinates.40) Equation 3.32) A A u = dz cr11'11" dB 1Todx (3. will be given by _ d w (Xo )  + 1)6] = sin nO sin 8 1"" o cos n8 dO sin n(Jo cos 6 . Letting (3..36.34) f pV'Y(x) dx pVr(x) f x dx From these and using Equation 3.4). y(x) must vanish at the trailing edge in order to satisfy the Kutta condition.1).1)9 . Thus we will assume a priori that Equation 3.35 can be satisfied by a r(6) distribution of the form y = 2V [Ao (l +. A" A2 ••• . At the point Xo.co.x) = a . with the moment coefficient being given by (3. Equation 3. according to Equation 2. C1 and Cm can then be easily determined from the KuttaJoukowski relationship. C1 = 21TAO + 1TAI C. can be determined either in closed form or by graphical or numerical means (see Ref. 2.36) Since a is contained only in the Ao coefficient.
hence. Note..7. as shown in Figure 3. In order to allow for both finite thickness and circulation. with the vortex strength per unit length.'[oils. that if there are n corners and hence n + 1 unknown "'I values at the corners.. There is a range of angles of attack over which the lift coefficient varies linearly with a. This situation is remedied by applying the Kutta condition at the trailing edge.m. that a thlckne~s ratio of 12%is about optimum. At intermediate thickness ratios of around 0.12.. for NACA fourdigit airfoils at an R of g x 1(Yi.92 THE GENERA nON OF LIFT MAXIMUM LIFT 93 linear combination of a and a function of z. This same reference presents the following empirical formula for Cim. A continuous distribution of vortices is then placed on each side of the polygon.5 and 3. The airfoil shape is then enlarged slightly to allow for the boundary layer thickness and the potential flow solutions are repeated. = 1. For many purposes an assumed value of 0. conventional airfoils without any special highlift devices will deliver CI values of approximately 1.3 to 1. and c". The details of this iterative procedure are beyond the scope of this text. the airfoil contour is approximated by a closed polygon.6. such as that presented in Figures 3.21 Approximation of alrtoll contour by closed polygon. the growth of the turbulent layer. 4. Figure 3. so the following material on em ax is mainly empirical. Typically. This program begins by calculating the potential flow around the airfoil. These are typified by Reference 3. As discussed previously. Rgure 3.. which will be described briefly. varying linearly from one corner to the next and continuous across the comer. GA(\V)1 airfoil.5.22 illustrates this model for two sides connecting corners 3.2.022.23 presents c. Experimental data also show the aerodynamic center to be close to the quarterchord point.". located 40% of the chord back from the leading edge.14.0. Separation is difficult to predict analytically.. elm. Control points are chosen midway between the comers. depending on Reynolds number. are also predicted well. The appreciable dependence of C on R shown in Figure 3. Recently large numerical programs have been developed to predict the performance of airfoils that incorporate Reynolds number and Mach number effects.8 pz . transition. 'Y.21. c~ber. which is a "real fluid" effect. and thickness distribution. the velocity field and. The slope of this lift curve is usually not as high as the theory predicts. pressure distribution around the airfoil can be calculated. Reference to airfoil data..22 Vortex distributions representing airfoil contour. The effects of camber on Cj.6 (0. Note. with R parallels that of th~ 17% thi~k . will show that the predictions of thin airfoil theory are essentially correct. Having determined the vortex strengths.67 + 7. Thus. Figure 3. This requires that "'1"+1 = ""'11> assuring that the velocities induced at the trailing edge are finite. This result is then used to calculate the boundary layer development over the airfoil. ernax ' is determined by fi~w separation.5z t32 tf (3. The values of the vortex unit strengths at the corners are then found that will induce velocities at each control point tangent to the polygon side at that point.12 for the GA(W)l airfoil is typical of other ai... dCt/da.123+ 0.1 C. camber changes can be expected to affect the angle of zero lift but not the slope of the lift curve. the ~~ ~ Rgure 3. however. This figure is taken from Reference 3. as a function of R and thickness ratio for NACA fourdigit airfoils having a maximum camber of 2%. . being approximately 4 to 8% less than the theoretical value.42) . the variation of CI ". the n control points provide one less equation than unknowns. and possible boundary layer separation. and 5. including the growth of the laminar layer./deg is sufficiently accurate and is a useful number to remember. MAXIMUM LIFT 8 Airfoil theory based on potential flow methods predicts the lift of an airfoil in its linear range but does not provide any information concerning maximum lift capability. at least for this camber function.
Deflecting the flap.6 OF LIFT MAXIMUM UFT 95 aileron roll control even though the wing has begun to stall.43) since (1 + x)c is the actual chord.24.160... the outboard region being unstalled will still provide An examination of all of the airfoil data presented in Reference 3. t = 0. The effect of a mechanical flap can be seen by referring once again to Figure 3. for a 2415 airfoil. providing a builtin stall warning device.. one resorts to the use of mechanical devices to alter temporarily the geometry of the airfoil.26.Even the presence of a fuselage does not seem to have much effect.. when deflected. respectively.4 Ctmax 1. by noting whether or not the slope of the lift curve is increased with the :flap deflected. Aerodynamics of v/STOL Flight. the spanwise position of initial stall moves progressively outboard. and p are thickness.4 0.0 0. hence. .. Academic Press. In addition to the purely mechanical flaps. with inboard stall. This is as one might expect from Equation 3.04 0.8 1.7. maximum camber. The physical lift curve would have a slope given by m ax (3.8..".140.200. 1967. Inc.020.) m .02 p =0. Z. The lift characteristics of threedimensional wings will be treated in more detail later.120. they extend the original chord on which the lift coefficient is based.. W.8 0. == 1.22 Rgure 3_23 Variation of eJ with thickness ratio of NACA 24xx airfoils for various Reynolds numbers. As the taper ratio is decreased.1 discloses that the greatest value of Ctrn ax one can expect at a high Reynolds number from an ordinary airfoil is around 1. One usually wants a wing to stall inboard initially for two reasons. is seen to shift the lift curve upward without changing the slope. Beyond CLmax the wing is said to be stalled.6.080. expressed as a fraction of the chord. Consider a :flap that. ." it (and wing twist) significantly affect what portion of the wing stalls first.2 1. values in excess of those from mechanical flaps.15 z = 0. For example. expressed in terms of the extended chord and c. in this case a split flap. This tendency is undesirable and can be compensated for by "washing out" (negative twist) the tips. since deflecting the flap is comparable to adding camber to the airfoil.2 O~L~~ o __~ __~~ t c __ ~~LL __ ~~ 0. such as the Fowler or Zap flaps in Figure 3. 1. the most common of which are illustrated in Figure 3.06 0. This maximum value is achieved by the NACA 23012 airfoil. delivers the second highest value. Flaps 1. known as flaps.40 so that according to Equation 3. CLmax is reached and any further increase in a win result in a loss of lift. One can determine if the flap is extensible. there is little effect of aspect ratio or taper ratio on Cr.. would be CI• (flapped) = (I + x)CI• (unflapped) Now the maximum lift. Inc. Reprinted by permission of Academic Press.6 0.". These devices. (B. c. the turbulence shed from the stalled region can shake the tail. extends the original chord by the fraction x. the lift curve slope of the :flappedairfoil based on the unflapped chord. CIa does not depend significantly on thickness or camber. the 2412.100. Although taper ratio does not significantly affect the overall wing Cr. Another 12% thick airfoil. As the angle of attack of a wing increases.42. this figure depicts flaps that can be formed by sheets of air exiting at the trailing edge.70 For a plain wing (unflapped). Second. These "jet flaps" can produce Clm. Frequently one uses the terms "powered" and "unpowered" to distinguish between jet and mechanical flaps. exist in many different configurations.. Some flap configurations appear to be significantly better than others simply because.94 THE GENERATION 1. Clm . provided sufficient energy and momentum are contained in the jet. when deflected.180. In order to achieve higher Ci values for takeoff and landing without unduly penalizing an airplane's cruising performance. and position of maximum camber. McCormick. First.24. t.
& 'f" ~ Or. (c) Effect of gap seal on maximum lift coefficient of a rectangular ClarkY wing equipped with a fullspan O..B.609 X loB._ 0 . 1 (2~ NACA nOseries R = 0.4 Zap n" \ o o NACA 2301TI "lJNACA 23015 (3) i 20 (1) I NA f~. (a) (3) (4) NACA 23012 airfoil..d I"" . (a) Variation of maximum section liN coeHicient with flap deflection for several airfoil sections equipped with plain flaps.96 THE GENERA nON OF LIFT f~~~C··j 2. LJrull = ClarkYairfoil· R = 0. Cja (flapped) C. A = 6.5 <> 0.= (1 + X)C10l"..20 0.20... =0. ~ (j _..? airfoils.:::.20c plain flap.l E '" E '" x :! ~ ! ! C Doubleslotted ::. 1..p .4 2.25 Performance of plain flaps._._. t = C.::. ~ '" .609 x 1()6 . °S_ 00.P' I lA ~ 7 e r' ...6 I ._ Kruger flap 1.10 _ 3 5 1 f.~ ~\_ \ 1. ~~ L. R "" 0.25 «( For or 0.8 +' Fowler flap J~ Slotted flap r~ Extensible slat Leadift9 edge flap g W c w 0.20 3..0 c~ I2f I.8 MAXIMUM LIFT 97 2... .8 2..2 0.20 airfoils: Airfoil _ c Cj Airfoil o NACA 66(215~216 o NACA 6~. BO 100 a 20 Flap deflection 6f.44) .O:. f :  0.~ '"flap G"" ~ Blown flap .m)(1 + x) _C 1m.. (b) Variation of optimum increment of maximum section lift coefficient with flap chord ratio for several airfoil sections equipped with plain flaps. 0 i (1) 00.8 "  A i~ ~ .2 aE 0.. i"'" . ~'r l.6 ___ Split flap ~/ / Plain flap ~ [. NACA 6series 2 p VZ( 1 + X )cCI.4 0 2.10 00._I"'Q . (unftapped) Rgure 3. based on the original chord becomes C.4 2. R=6...24 Flap configurations.. .. ~ A ! ~ .x. Thus Clma.6 X 104• (3. .0 x las. 3 61 (4)  40 60 Rgure 3. deg 1 40 60 1 1 6T I 100 I BO (based on that chord) would be..0 1." . or Cr..0 1.P H:r:.»..3.f c _Reynolds cf Effecti~e fnumber 00.4 1 f c u j.60 _ f.
EY ~~ ~ I{ Vd .25. 2.1 and 3... ill V .. R = NACA 23012 airfoil section.. The optimum flap angle is approximately 70°.2 present section data on plain...2 '/ I I /.15.P r.' Figures 3. split.. 1" ...25 (Continued) 1.§ ~ V r..._ .: ...4 2. The optimum flap angle is approximately 600.25 to 3. . The maximum achievable increment in elm» is approximately 0.~ ::...60 o 20 40 («) 60 BO 100 0 a 20 40 60 (c) 80 100 120 o 0.. I I ~ Gap sealed I .. ! I . .: ~  ~ ~ V' " IY Y '\ 1' '/ l.' (. . 1 .A section.B E .. ~ .8 x I ) / ~ .s ~2.10 00..0 1.3 for 12% thick airfoils.. . (c) NA'. 1.: 0. The optimum flap chord ratio is approximately 0.. ... 4.. Figure 3. ~ I. increasing to 004 or higher for thicker airfoils... A study of this data suggests the following: Plain Flaps 1.2 I "NACA o 0.40 E O. " 1.30 and Tables 3.6 1. j~ IF 00. 4. C. 2... 5. 1M I~ 100 deg o ~ W M (c) 100 Of' Flop deflection.5 X 106• (a) 23030 airfoil Variation of maximum section lift coefficient with flap deflection for 230series airfoils equipped with split flaps of various sizes.8 . is approximately 0... E E >< t.. 2.' E 1..9.0 Split Flaps i 20 .30 .2 1..40 0 2(J 40 60 80 100 FI. ~I' dog (bi it V /' IW V r~ J. 0./ eC f '~ 0..2  ::: " 8  ~ u . i " Q .B 2. i ." . The optimum thickness ratio is approximately 18%.4 / I f . Leakage through gap at flap nose can decrease e'm ax by approximately The maximum achievable increment in CI". ! . " . ~ ~ I E ..50 Rgure 3.9.. 0.J1' V .. c "'0" 't . 3. .26 three NACA 3.20 00.f' j lI' _.2 MAXIMUM LIFT 99 1. .7 x 106 < R < 6 x 10'.~ .. and slotted flaps as reported in Reference 3.. With these data one should be able to estimate reasonably accurately the characteristics of an airfoil section equipped with flaps.10 Airfoil oClarkY oNACA 23012 (> NACA 23015 23021 " \~ I 0..0 .. Gap open O.. ...30 Flap chord ratio (b) 1 0. increases nearly linearly with log R for 0. 3...I? Ir' ~ It! / rpo 1"" :rf V . 'u . ::.6 .p deflection.2 2.0032c V 004.4 .'" . (b) NACA 23021 airfoil section.98 THE GENERATION OF LIFT 3..20 0. !ar: I.S o :l a. The optimum flap chord ratio is approximately 0.
4.. [..... is sensitive to flap (and vane) position.B 0.0 lOS Rel'nolds number.0 X 5.0 4.0 3."" . 2. _..2 (0) > jo:j~~ i' .. !.0 R 4. Slotted Flaps 1. .6 " E ~ 1..:::: ~ .4 . (a) Smooth airfoil..7 1.3...I NACA 23012 NACA 23015 with flap '" o d O..5 (b) 0.9 for double slotted flaps.r: yt'"" ~ .~":" ~ 1.0 2. . o NACA 642415 Airfoil !f ~ NACA 643418 Plain airfoil " :~ 1> 8 c 2.. 2 O.2 o NACA 64409 oNACA 641412  ~ .27 Variation of maximum section lift coefficient with Reynolds number for several NACA airfoil sections with and without O.100 3. r .0 5.4 )"" l..:. 5.. The optimum flap angle is approximately 40° for single slots and 70· for doubleslotted flaps..A":: .~~ ..2 THE GENERATION OF LIFT (J"f..E 2.6 E i I " ::: <0 1. 'u Cl u 2.1Airfoil  ....B 3. ..0 0..:.0 &: E ::> 1. (b) Airfoil with leading edge roughness. o ~ E ~ ~ r: 2.0 3. R Rgure 3.. r ~ '. Ct. The optimum flap chord ratio is approximately 0. D ~.. V . Reynolds number. The optimum thickness ratio is approximately 16%.8 E .20c split flaps deflected 60°..7 1. 101 . 2.0 ..5 0.'  ~~ ~[.0 2.B .oj. The maximum achievable increment in elmex is approximately 1. :.g <> 2.n.o ~ ~ V ! ~ " <= '+... . p"V C> ~: F.5 for single slots and 1.. 3.
. (8) No skirt extension.Doubleslotted ~ 2. "'IRiA 1M Jt.. From the figure. This correction can typically reduce acr. located approximately 25% of the chord back from the leading edge.16 0.3 0 F:'~ ... the increment in CI".:0 . 2.2 0 0 0.. Hence the effective increment in Liftdue to the flap is less than that which the wingflap combination produces alone.10 0. 0 1.6 3.02 0. 3. The moment is positive if it tends to increase the angle of attack. Figure 3.30.:.. c 0 .. 0 e.r=:: 1 1:.08 Airfoil'thickness ratio./ .4 6.2 THE GENERATION OF LIFT MAXIMUM LIFT . The lift and moment are taken to act at the aerodynamic center of the airfoil."" by 0. i ... .15) presents pitching moment data for flapped airfoil sections...e 32 ~_LLJ_W~~~~1~~I~~I~I~~U~)tl~~~~~~3 24 16 8 0 B 16 24 32 40 32 24 16 8 0 B 16 24 32 40 Section angle of attack.44 and Figure 3. 1 O. 7 Maximum section lift coefficients for several NACA airfoil sections with doubleslotted and split flaps.:~ v. Figure 3.12 CJdeg as compared to the expected unflapped value of approximately 0.4 2. C". R = 6. f.0x 106 3.8 (Sf flaps ..22 0. '" s O. ~::. (c) Partial skirt extension.. it is obvious that some of the superior performance of the doubleslotted flap results from the extension of the chord. 4 I (aJ J _l j 0.102 3..5 X 1[J6 0...0 1.04 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 11 I I I 0..~  I R q. 4421 (approxim~teIY) airfoil equipped with a doubleslotted flap and several slot~ntryskirt extens~ons. .~Y' ~ ~ ~ ..t.0 x 10~.29 2.4~10. (b) Partial.(flapped) is equal to 0.4 x 10 . 4 0 0.4  0.2 rtr III 0..06 0..1L L 11' Referring to Equation 3.12 0.1... 4 (c) L o.1 to 0.skirt ext~nslon./. ~I" ~ .3.. .4x104.8 3.31 (taken from Ref.31. R =2.: ~ c: .18 0. B 2.... From Figure 3.(d) Full skirt extension: R = 2. ..6 3.. for the doubleslotted flap is only 1. However.< NACA 66series Airfoil '" .6. _. Hence..6'1l '£ :. .26 0. this is still almost twice that afforded by plain or split flaps and points to the beneficial effect of the slot in delaying separation.B r 0 0... t y c..2 2. U' IP e 1.. B O. the lowering of a flap results in an incremental pitching moment. "0' deg Figure 3.24 0. x " lI: E 1. ~ r' .1 IJJ I 0. " i 1 1 Split I flapsi I NAGA 63series 0 ''..14 0. based on the actual chord.20 0. The wing must now support this download in addition to the aircraft's weight. R=2.6 tr 0..4 rr  0 o o I  D  0 "J 0     t> NACA 6c3series NACA 64series } NACA 65series NACA 66wries NACA 14series ) NACA 230series 0.30 Section lift characteristics of an NACA 63.~ 103 r. In order to trim the airplane a download must be produced on the horizontal tail.~ . 2 ..
4421 (approximately) 65210 65210 0.038 0.005 0.257 0. a = 0.5 3.257 0. 23021 23021 23030 23030 23030 23030 63.00 1.00 1.88 2.256 0.5 3.257 0.68 3.00 A A A 2.00 0.25 30 40 40 50 30 o o o o 0_004 2.83 0.90 40 30 50 40 30 40 o 0.5 3.715 0.25 0.82 a 50 o 0.25 0.40 0.827 0.020 0.92 2_92 2.257 0.5 3.Q25 0.30 0.060 0_045 0.020 0.6 6.00 1.827 0.050 0.25 0.025 0.0 5.00 3.5 3.0 9.2216.0 6.48 2.775 0.40 0.40 0..263 0.975 b a b a b a b A A B B B B 2.30 0.017 0.47 2.775 0.30 0.88 3. a = 0.5 o 0_S24 0.5 3.44 2_83 3.70 2.74 23021 23021 23021 23021 o o 0.0 6.25 0.5 3.025 3.95 6.00 0.10 0.009 0.30 SlotEntry configuration Flap Nose Shape A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A [jf (de g) Yj Optimum Position Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes R 0.010 0.1 Maximum Lift Coefficients of Airfoil Sections Equipped with SingleSlotted Flaps c==:>A Slotentry configuration c.860 0.89 2.018 0.005 0.032 0.257 0.257 0.40 0.5 3.002 0.40 0.824 0.5 3.257 No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 1.15 1.01l 5_1 6.023 0.83 1.5 3_5 3.68 2.29 0.020 No No No No 3.59 40 50 50 60 60 40 60 60 60 o oms 0.5 o 0.860 0.027 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 3.1 0.5 3.827 2.00 0.15 0.2116.61 x 10 0.016 0.5 3.17 2_69 2.00 0.30 0_25 0_25 2..015 0_015 0.15 0.3 35 35 40 40 30 0_004 0.5 6_0 9.93 1.5 3.25 No Typical singleslotted flap configuration.> B Flap nose shapes Airfoil Section Clark Y Clark Y Clark Y 0.6 6.800 0. 2 Table 3.002 0.015 0.025 0.019 0.015 No No Yes Yes 3.025 0.257 0..005 0.015 0.90 0.010 0.015 0.0 9.20 0.71 2.031 No No No Yes Yes 0.5 3.832 0.87 2_90 2.020 0_030 0.82 2..5 3.915 0.5 3..243 0.21 50 35 40 45 0.834 0.5 3.2216.66 3.2221 (approximately) 6(215)116.0 o No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2.5 mIrq 7 iii om .83 0.025 No No Yes 9.005 0.D25 0.038 0.827 0.045 0.D15 O.024 0.90 b b b a b b 2.0 0.0 9.93 0.69 2.22 40 50 50 23012 23012 23012 23012 23012 a a a b o 0.30 0.0 6.76 2_81 2.45 2_69 2.009 0.25 0.835 0.060 0.259 0.025 0.014 0. a = 0_6 6.6 6. (All dimensions are given in fractions of airfoil chord.015 0.25 0.5 3. a = 0_6 6.OIS 0.0 6.59 2.2IIS c c c 0.019 0.90 0.040 0.015 0_025 0.) .88 2.5 3.827 A A B B A A 2.015 0.040 0.83 2.028 41.2216.40 0.015 0.30 0.025 3.00 0.040 a c c 65210 5(IIl.5 2.90 50 50 60 60 50 0.90 c a c a c a C 0.016 0.030 0..025 0.046 0.63 2.90 0.Al11 (approximately) 51"213 (approximately) 5tml1I4 5.005 0.40 0.0 6.68 55 45 37 40 45 32.715 1.79 2.25 0.267 0.84 0.88 0..10 2.80 2.013 2.90 o 0.92 2.25 0.336 0_839 0.015 0.00 1.5 3.002 0_002 0.046 0.4420 3.61 0_61 23012 23012 23012 23012 1.889 B A A A A A A A B B A A A A 3.020 0.715 0.5 23012 23012 23012 23012 23021 23021 23012 23012 c c c b b b a b b b b a b 2.715 0.5 3.90 0. a = 0. tnt Til rn rn ) 1'ms r rpm m1i 17 .35 0.
044 0.227 0.2 .:.4421 (approximately) 64208 6420S 64210 64.017 0.109 0.84 0.012 0.035 0.012 0.010 0.227 0.085 0.009 0.715 0.024 0.5 3.2 Maximum Lift Coefficients of Airfoil Sections Equipped with DoubleSlotted 8.021 0.012 0.84 0.019 0./e 0.004 0.015 0. 1 (.020 0.84 Cj~.257 0..5 65 51 55 60 55 50 x.40 2.004 0.024 0.022 0.51 2.075 0.25 0. nT n ro.236 0.028 0.040 0.024 0.0 6.25 0. II = 0.007 0.025 0..Table 3.049 0.009 0.) Slot retracted "T Airfoil chord line (b) Flap deflected Typical doubleslotted flap configuration.0 • aasenr $ .016 0.25 0.47 3.715 0.82 3..84 0.075 0.018 0.99 3.0 6.009 0.015 O.056 0. 0.87 0.038 0.017 0.019 0.84 0.017 0.5 3.117 0.106 0.lc 0.065 0.147 0.0 6.08 2.0 6.Q75 Co 0.25 0.016 0.72 3.01l 0.004 0.10 0.25 0.l Definition of Flap Geometry given in Table 3.024 0. 2.25 0.025 0.244 0.Q38 0.5 X 106 3.050 0.S4 0.083 0.715 0.012 y.83 2.189 0.854 0.027 0.30 3.032 0.029 0.012 0.029 0.50 3.06 0.014 0.56 3.024 0.0 6.84 0.0 6.009 0.007 0.229 0.083 0.64 2.03 2..25 0.5 6.827 0.009 0.022 0.019 0.826 0.. 0.5 3.014 0.00 deg 70 70 60 80 60 70 50 55 45 50 55 50 55 50 70 6.027 0.018 0.015 0.118 65.35 3.023 0.Q75 0.8 65.30 2.005 0.195 0.851 0.72 3.100 0. (All dimensions are given in fractions of airfoil chord.25 e.024 0. 0.0 6.32 2.236 0.0 6.024 0.91 3.010 0.007 0.023 0039 0..Q15 0.027 0.421 66210 66210 6~214 (approximately) 1410 c.016 3.075 0.075 0.096 0. deg 40 30 30 40 25 30 25 14 30 25 30 30 26 25 12 23 21 20 25 25 20 25 Flaps Optimum Airfoil Section 23012 23012 23021 23030 23012 23021 63210 63.248 0.257 0.Q75 0.38 3.257 0.260 0.025 0.227 0.0 9.83 0.Q25 0.257 0.010 0.015 0.833 0.84 0.0 6. 8.009 0.012 0.006 0.026 Yt x.82 0.QlS 0.024 0.024 0.10 0.84 0.864 0.418 65.044 0.045 0.71 3.0 6.0 6.012 0.25 0.024 0.212 64.257 0.019 position Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes R 3.2 6.021 0.3 6.014 0.5 3.025 0.014 0.0 2.A212 65210 65(216)215.85 0.
08 Theoretical I o Experimental .40 0.20 0.70 0.20 1.50 0.20 0./ / /' /' 0.04  ll:Io.. 0.30 c 0.V V ~~ o Airf~il a NACA 23012 o NACA 23021 <> NACA 23030 0.20 0.00 0. (b) Split flaps. due to the flaps LS given proximately by. (a) Frequently one needs to estimate the increment in C1 below stall.!J.16 II ! 020 . lowering the flaps can cause the nose to pitch This is due to the moment produced about the center of gravity from increase in wing drag because of the flaps. on pitching moment coefficient.31 Influence of flap configuration Plain flaps.40 0.(.80 0./ /' V "'" (e) Figure 3.50 0..30 0. produced by a flap deflection.. (h) c.3\S./ ~n~ 0..45) (3. .30 .60 Flap chord ratio.j :.50 0. c 0.12 I I ! 0.108 THE GENERATION OF LIFT MAXIMUM LIFT 109 o 0. Flap Effectiveness in the Linear Range FIgure 3. l If the wing is located a height of h above the center of gravity. (e) Slotted flaps.04 c 0. the the ap ~ 0.12 V . 12 V V l/ 0. The effect of trim on CLmax for a complete airplane will be discussed in more detail later..20 0.60 0.i 1<j_ 0.90 1. a balancing upload is required on the tail.10 0.9(Cr/C)1.04 0. aCl). o Airfoil a NACA 23012 (] NACA 230211 <> NACA 65210 0.10 o / "'~ /' V V Vi rr . aCD = = up.24 V 0.60 0.38(St/S) sin18f 0. Not only is this needed in connection with the .16 0...10 Flap chord ratio.08 0./ ra. 0.7 1/ o / V .24 1/ o V V 0. increment in wing drag coefficient.24 .7(ctic)I.. c / /' Theoreticy .IS) sin28f (plain and split) (slotted) (3.. Based on the wing area.31 (Continued) Theoretical (plain flap) . lie/.16 F lap chord ratio. In a highwing airplane.08 .46) o I i O.40 0.
the comparisons between the various types of flaps are consistent. Usually. the deflection angle of the vane is less than that for the main flap for maximum lift performance.)/fr ~f = cos" ~2ClC1) Cf = flap chord C = airfoil chord 0. If cpc. the increment in CI.32 and 3. unfortunately.2cj)c/ 4(1. are sparse. but !:J.CI> the angle of zero lift. approaching the curve for split flaps at the higher flap angles. the lift coefficient can be written as (3.CI"._. . The trailing segment of the flap is referred to as the main flap and the leading segment is called the vane. which frequently resemble plain flaps.25. If an airfoil section has a lift curve slope of C.2 Rgure 3. 3.33 is for an optimum flap geometry. The plain flap is fairly good out to about 20 and then apparently the flow separates from the upper surface and the effectiveness drops rapidly. apply Weissinger's approximation to the flapped airfoil using only two point vortices to represent the airfoil. the total flap chord should be used together with the flap angle of the main flap. derive the expression for 'T given on the figure.49) The functions T and 71 can be obtained from Figures 3.6 0. Denoting these increments by fl. Systematic data on 6.32 and 3. 3. Equation 3.. Although there is some scatter in the data.".33.C1 is required also in analyzing the effectiveness of movable control surfaces.0.32 for c.]5.C.49 and Figures 3.e .. Figure 3.20. for example. In a sense the flow is always separated on the upper surface of a split flap.18.32 is based on the thin airfoil theory represented by Equation 3.32 Flap effectiveness factor.n.C" respectively. sin 8. Equation 3.m.110 THE GENERA TlON OF LIFT MAXIMUM LIFT 111 wing lift. flap behavior with 8f is rather nonlinear and hence T must be empirically corrected by a factor 71 to account for the effects of viscosity. T can also be obtained using the numerical methods that led to Figures 3. (3.39. Including 71. Thus. Q'Oh is decreased by (3.!c values of around 0.C..)6. and lowering its Hap produces an increment of fl.)c.must be zero.50 is approximately 10% lower than Figure 3. Theoretically T is a constant for a given flap geometry but. In the case of the doubleslotted flap it should be emphasized that this curve in Figure 3.17 and 0 0.33 is empirical and is based on data from References 3. and A. The doubleslotted flap delays separation on the upper surface. so that the decrease in flap effectiveness occurs at higher flap angles than for the other flap types. In applying Equation 3.48) where a is the angle of attack of the airfoil's zero lift line with the flap undeflected.33 to the doubleslotted flap. Figure 3. + 3 (3.C.48 becomes. As an exercise. Placing one vortex on the quarter chord of the flap and the other on the quarter chord of the remainder of the airfoil leads to T= 3(3 .CI must depend on cJlc. in a sense the entire airfoil is the flap and !:J. for a flapped airfoil.17. The same can be said of the slotted flap relative to the plain and split flaps. the effective angular movement of the mean camber line at the trailing edge of an airfoil with a split flap would only be about half of the flap displacement. even for small flap angles...34 has been drawn based on a limited number of data points and should be used with discretion. T. 3.47) The rate of decrease of Q'QI per unit increase in the flap angle 8/ is referred to as the flap effectiveness factor.. is equal to 1.50) where Cf is the fraction of chord that is flapped. Figure 3. it is obvious that the ratio 6. as Iaired. Thus. The angle of attack at which the flapped airfoil stalls is generally less than that for the plain airfoil..4 T = 1 ~O.8 0.jA. Hence. and 3. at an angle below the stall.c.19. because of the flap is not as great as the increment in C. As another exercise.
1] = 0.34.27.1.2 are achieved by the fixed slot..34. 1\ r.6 o "" .65 + 0.51.8 "~ K 11' l\ . the fixed slot is just thata narrow channel through which the air can flow from the lower surface to the upper surface. whereas the Krugertype nose flap was first employed on the turbojet transport.46 3..32. This result compares closely with Figure 3. ~ In Equation 3..16) Smith.3 and from Figure 3.fflap I I I1 Singleslotted flap.0 0.1 or 0. 0.. These are illustrated in Figure 3.4 ~ .66)(0. in examining numerical results on multielement airfoils.26a..66 for eflc = 0..". dCI is equal to Plain flap 0.".. . Hence.015 is obtained from Reference 3. and 3.1. ! ~ aLi ~~ Plain and __.5 x 106• From Figure 3. . for the flapped airfoil. O.2 0. consider the prediction of Clm» for a 23012 airfoil equipped with a 30% chord split flap deflected 60° and operating at a Reynold's number of 3.34 a. or 2.51) . Using Figure (3. = 0. The extensible slat is similar in its performance to the slot. the ratio of dCtmo< to dCI is obtained as 0. Hence from Equation 3. in a Wright Brothers' Lecture (Ref.:leI".96 :::::::.6 . Increments in C.33 Correction factor to flap effectiveness factor T. As the name implies.m•• increment ratio as a function of flap chord ratio.B 'I ~\ ~ I sc. 0. 3.. 3. but it is Figure 3.35. <. close agreement is also obtained with the figure. ~ ) = Lfcx_ T'r{ty ) I ~le=SIO!tBd flap t As an example. concluded that improved stall performance from slots is most likely the result of more favorable pressure gradients being produced un one airfoil element by the other.2 N~ ~ . The fixed slot and extensible slat have been in use for some time.35 for a split flap deflected 60". :t. special highlift devices can also be incorporated into the leading edge to supplement the benefits of trailing edge flaps. T = 0. If the procedure is repeated for other flap angles.. .32 to 3..6 <.33. ~ aCt". 1. As in the case of slots with trailing edge flaps.34 are higher than those shown in Figure 3. Double=slotted.66... This channeling of the flow allows the airfoil to operate at higher angles of attack before the upper surface of the leading edge separates than otherwise would be the case. the predicted values of CI._ _I .35)(60) 1. ACt = = = Ct. TTl s (0. elm" for a plain 23012 airfoil equals 1.. Clm" is predicted to be 1.33. however. It is a moot question as to why this delay in the separation occurs.5 X 10°. Note that curves apply for thickness ratios of approximately 12% and flap chord fractions of 40% or less..%. based on Figures 3. . More recently.65 at R = 3.. SPlitfja~ 0.B 10 o 0. <. deg 60 Leading Edge Devices In order to avoid leading edge separation. of approximately 0.. However for a flap chord ratio of 0. thereby decreasing its tendency to separate . 80 o o 20 40 5. particularly at low Reynolds numbers or for airfoils with relatively sharp leading edges. r.. '\ ~tted flap ""'l\.0 MAXIMUM LIFT 113 O. C/o of 0..4 Cf C Figure 3..32.! I.__ ..2 According to Figure 3.49.112 THE GENERA nON OF LIFT 1.plit flaps f OA 0. the explanation has been offered in the past that the flow through the slot feeds energy into the slower moving boundary layer. in using Figures 3.61.26a.105)(0. Thus. 0.
114
THE GENERA TION OF LIFT
MAXIMUM
LIFT
115
Extensible slat
leading edge flap
#:
1.8
Slat geometry Open symbols with slat
Krugertype
leading edge flap
Figure 3.35
Various
methods
for delaying
leading edge separation.
considerably more efficient because it can be positioned to optimize its contribution to Clm... The mechanically extended slat is finding increased application, particularly with the use of thinner airfoil sections for highspeed applications. Figure 3.36 presents some data on 'slats taken from Reference 3.17. Here a NACA 64AOlO airfoil was tested using a slat in combination with split and doubleslotted trailing edge flaps. The slat is seen to improve CIrna , significantly, producing increments in C1mu. of approximately 0.9, 0.8, and 0.6 for the noflap, splitflap, and doubleslotted flap configurations, respectively. Unlike the trailing edge flap, the primary effect of the slat is seen to be an extension of the lift curve without the slat; that is, opening the slat does not change C, by a large increment at a fixed angle of attack. The same is true of leading edge flaps and is not unexpected in view of Figure 3.32. The performance of a leading edge flap is presented in Figure 3.37 for the same airfoil as for Figure 3.36. Comparing the two figures, it is obvious that the two leading edge devices are nearly comparable in performance. Figure 3.38 shows a section of a sophisticated Krugertype flap. As this flap swings down and forward, it assumes the curved shape that is shown. With this optimum shaping, its performance probably exceeds to some extent
R = 6 X 10S
0'.
deg
Figure 3.36 flaps.
Effect of leading edge slat on NACA 64A010 airfoil with and wi1hout
116
THE GENERA TION OF LIFT
3.2
MAXIMUM
LIFT
117
lin : 30"
~
2.8
~
lL
L_<;
A
2.4
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_L
IP
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R:6 X 106
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II
1.6 r
8
c
I
IF
j
"',e II
I
1.2
11_ I.(_
~
I(_ IL_
I I
1 III
Figure 3.38 Flexible fiberglass YC14 airplanes. leading edge flap used on the Boeing 747 and
0.8
0.4 II
IL
Trai ling edge flap o Non e o Split flap ODou ble+slotted flap
o
IL
0.4
11
...
c:
0
I
.,
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~ D. 2 J
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the data presented in Figures 3.39 and 3.40, Figure 3.39 (taken from Ref. 3.18) shows that without a trailing edge flap the Kruger flap gives an increment in e'm.. to the 64012 airfoil of only 0.4. However, the plain airfoil has a higher e'm to begin with than that of Figures 3.36 and 3.37, Hence, the total e, for the Krugerflapped airfoil without a trailing edge flap is about the same ;; for the other two leading edge devices. However, with the split flap, the Kruger flap produces a combined elm.. equal to 3.0, which is 0.3 to 0.4 higher than the corresponding data of Figures 3,36 and 3.37. The data of Figure 3.40 (taken from Ref. 3.21) are based on Kruger's original work.
ax
The Optimum Airfoil for High Lift
Leading edge flap
8
Section
o
8
16 «, deg
angl e of attack,
Rgure 3.37 flaps.
Effect of leading edge flap on NACA 64A010 airfoil with and without
Stratford, in References 3.23 and 3.24, examined both theoretically and experimentally the possibility of diffusing a turbulent boundary layer in such a way as to produce zero wall shear. Known as "imminent separation pressure recovery," Stratford found that it is indeed possible, with the proper pressure gradient, to maintain a velocity profile along a diffuser such that au(y)/ay is equal to zero at the wall. u(y) is the velocity in the boundary layer parallel to the wall and is a function of the distance, y, from the wall. With the velocity gradient at the wall equal to zero, the boundary layer is just on the verge of separating, since a negative value of this gradient will result in reverse flow, as illustrated in Figure 3.41.
118
THE GENERA TlON OF LIFT
MAXIMUM
LIFT
119
Kruger nose flap
0.7 0.6 2.0
~C
eN
=
(
.F
1.6 G"
~'
:~
't
<=
Q>
1.2
..}
<I
1
0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2
0.1
0.05 0.1 ''0.2
....
.2
c
0 ''
0.8
........... 0.1 0.2
,......
<,_/
IJi /,i
I
r.
!..Y
0.8
i
>
0.7 0.6 0.5
<I
jl
U
0.4
0.3 50'
'IN ;.
(1))
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!
150°
.}. 0.4 '' 0.3 0.2 0.1
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/
/
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/'
100'
0.1
0.2
f.j_i~
c (e)
0
°ITE
0.4
[deq]
Configuration Plain airfoil Leading edge flap alone
Figure 3.40 Characteristics of Kruger flaps. (a) Illustration of Kruger's type of nose flap and simple, hinged, leading edge flap. (b) Effect of flap angle on maximum lift coefficient. (e) Effect of flap chord on maximum lift coefficient.
0.8
60 60
PIain airfoi I and trailing edge flep
1.2 16
8
0
8
16
24
32
y
u(y)
y
y
Secti on angle of attack
C/o' deg
FIgure 3.39 Section lift characteristics for the NACA 641012 airfoil section equipped with a 0.10c uppersurface leading edge flap alone, and in combination with a O.20etrailing edge split flap. R = 6.0 X 106•
In the abstract to Reference 3.24, Stratford states: "No fundamental difficulty was encountered in establishing the flow and it had, moreover, a good margin of stability. The dynamic head in the zero skin friction boundary layer was found to be linear at the wall (i.e., U oc y1/2), as predicted theoretically in the previous paper. (Author's note, Stratford is referring to Ref. 3.23.)
~<Oaty=O
Jy
Figure 3.41
Relationship of velocity gradient at the wall to flow separation.
0  x p___. is constant. Most of the poweredflap systems presently under consideration bear a resemblance.44b. transition does not occur until the start of the Stratford pressure recovery.6.. C1". (a) Optimum airfoil pressure distribution according to variational analysis. their full potential cannot be achieved when applied to an airplane..45 (taken from Ref. Although this configuration is referred to by the reference as a"turbulent rooftop" case.6 to J . eLm" values considerably above those achievable with flap systems discussed so far are possible by the expenditure of power.01 over a wide range of C1 values from 0. (b) Modified form of optimum pressure distribution for airfoil upper and lower surfaces (not to scale)..42 Pressure distributions for Liebeck airfoils.22). or can be . (2) round the leading edge to allow operation over an angleofattack range. (R. since these two aircraft were experimental in nature and used distributed suction over the wing to delay separation.J Flat rooftop ~. 3. Test data on this airfoil obtained at a Reynolds number of 3 x 106 are presented in Figure 3._.m ax and Cd.25) and was extended later by Liebeck (Ref. Reprinted from the Journal of Aircraft by permission of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.n C" (I xJ o (~I x1 x2 1. the flaps cannot be applied over the entire span of the wing.. and (3) satisfy the Kutta condition at the trailing edge. Included on the figure is the pressure distribution to which the airfoil was designed. Beginning at the stagnation point.44h. an added penalty results from the fuselage and tail download required for trim. The resulting modified form of the optimum pressure distribution is compared with the optimum distribution in Figure 3. by comparison with the standard NACA airfoils. Thus.. 3. the flow is accelerated up to a socalled rooftop region over which the velocity. the optimum Cp distributions are modified in order to (1) dose the airfoil contour at the trailing edge. LE accehs ation CP. From this figure and the preceding information on flapped and plain airfoils. AIM Journal of Aircraft." The Stratford imminent separation pressure recovery was adopted for airfoils by Liebeck and Ormsbee (Ref. Specifically. I. as will be seen later.~ (1)) Stagnation CPn Figure 3. One possible drawback in this regard is the sharp drop in its lift curve at stall.__(aJ __. Using variational calculus. In addition to this loss in C1". H..___.) Figure 3. In this case the performance of the airfoil is seen to be good from the standpoint of C. Liebeck and A...22). 1970.. 3. an air/oil which could utilize it immediately after transition from laminar flow would be expected to have a very low drag. optimum chordwise pressure distributions for the upper and lower surfaces are prescribed that are modified slightly by additional constraints not present in the optimization process. "Optimization of Airfoils for Maximum lift".:::. PoweredLilt Systems H or~~~_t_x 1+1 LO I. The drag coefficient remains below the value of 0.. Generally.. of slightly over 3 is probably the best that can be achieved without the addition of power.120 THE GENERATION OF LIFT MAXIMUM LIFT 121 The fiow appears to achieve any specified pressure rise in the shortest possible distance and with probably the least possible dissipation of energy for a given initial boundary layer. and hence the pressure. the Stratford pressure recovery distribution is employed to reduce the velocity over the upper surface to its value at the trailing edge.26) presents the growth of eLm•• over the years since the Wright Brothers' success.44a and 3. Although twodimensional airfoils with doubleslotted flaps can do better than this. in the future..43 (taken from Ref.42. Following the rooftop region.. may find application to general aviation aircraft... 3. Artificially producing transition near the leading edge severely compromises CI". Ormsbee. the Liebeck airfoil appears to offer superior performance at low speeds and. The two points labeled K and L are somewhat misleading. and C« as shown in Figure 3. Still... One such airfoil design is presented in Figure 3.
1973.J at peak of rooftop. H. the total lift on the airfoil will be (3.p=mll (3. Liebeck. augmentor wing.46b. to the jet flap.on strip at at 5% }5% 12% a Transition strip at 20% f1I Theoretical CD for transition \.) 1. in order to understand better the performance of systems such as upper surface blowing (USB).6 0. H.35 a = 9. If r c is the total circulation around the airfoil then. "Class of Airfoils Designed for High Lift".52) 1. 0. and circulation control.Q2 R = 3 X loG C 0 M£ 0.2 c Transition strip o Transit.04 0.122 THE GENERATION OF LIFT 0. = 1.44. "Class of Airfoils Designed for High Lift".04 ~~ __ ~ __ ~I__ ~I __ ~I CD O. 1 t = 12.!. externally blown flaps (EBF). it follows that a pressure difference must exist across the jet..) FIgure 3.46. Reprinted from the Journal of Aircraft by permission of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. In order to redirect the flux of jet momentum. (R.43 Liebeck airfoil with its pressure distribution. or /lpR8 = mjvj8 Theoretical CD for transition at the leading edge. AIM Journal of Aircraft.04 Design conditions: Turbulent roof top 0. As the jet leaves the airfoil. Reprinted from the Journal of Aircraft by permission of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Liebeck. Reprinted from the Journal of Aircraft by permission of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. This line is shown at an angle of attack a.8 1. we will begin with the jet flap shown in Figure 3.07 4 8 12 16 Rgure 3.) Figure 3.2 /l. Applying the momentum theorem in the direction of curvature.02 4 \ C1.06 \ ~ em.0 x H)6 Plus transition strip at on lower surface related in their performance. 0. H. (R. it gets turned in the direction of the freestream velocity. "Class of Airfoils Designed for High Lift".53) Effect of transition location on the lift and drag of a Liebeck airfoil. assuming a and 8 to be small. AIM Journal of Aircraft. Aip.05~. 1973.6 ~ Turbulent rooftop R= "" 3.2 @ where mj is the mass flux in the jet and vi is the jet velocity.2" 0.4 0. Liebeck.5% 0.tallift curve and drag polar for airfoil of Figure 3. Thus. AIM Journal of Aircraft. can be related to mjVj and the radius of curvature R by the use of Figure 3. A thin sheet of air exits the trailing edge at a downward angle of S relative to the airfoil zero lift line. 1973.43. Experimen. This pressure difference. (R.4 1.44b 123 .
the results . 1970 Reprinted from the Journal of Aircraft by permission of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.(F. 0 I ~ 4.55) Fowler or doubleslotted NAiA 0 1900 1930 II flaps Combining Equations 3....) Equation 3..56 relates the jet vortex strength to the shape of the sheet and the jet momentum flux.L19 Since the jet exerts a force on the fluid. 0 Clark~foil I f". 0 Split flaps . y.> 0 A 1. and 3.. Although the solution of Reference 3.Spirit of St..56) 1940 Year 1950 1960 1970 Rgure 3. Louis 1 MAXIMUM H 7~9 LiFT 125 .54) the radius of KS '~ C 3. 3.pRO = pVyRB 12. AIM Journal of Aircraft.58) The boundary value problem is then posed where the airfoil and jet sheet are each replaced by an unknown vortex distribution. Measuring the position of the jet.~ ~ OJ r+ LE devices and tripleslotted or Fowler flaps (sweep wings) rI"> L or 'Yi = pV Ap (3. positively downward..W~i9ht flyer B .19 is not in closed form.. The total circulation of the jet vortex sheet can be obtained by integrating Equation 3. 0 C' LU 's Po: 1910 1920 ~ D _ airfOilj C G J (3. it can be replaced by an equivalent continuous vortex sheet that exerts the same force.57 shows that the KuttaJoukowski relationship holds for the jetflapped airfoil if the circulation is taken around both the airfoil and the jet.d y2 vi= pV dx (3.A . Letting "Ii be the strength per unit length of the sheet.53. vw(x) p + /!ip (b) = dy dx Rgure 3. fJ. Along the sheet the following must hold...56 from x = 0 to».57) Combining Equations 3. (3. The details of the solution are beyond the scope of this text and can be found in Reference 3. = 10 00 'Yj d~ =. .i u ~ ~ o E E ::> Theoretical limit 41t CDEFG C47 23012 airfoil B32 C54 C124 11049 J C130 KMM M 727 N . Cleveland. .45 History of maximum lift coefficients for mechanical lift systems.. "Size Effects in Conventional Aircraft".dx2 <ii c .46 The jet flap. curvature and y for a nearly horizontal jet are related by 1 R d2y .CSA l.19. Distributions must then be found that will induce a velocity at each point on the airfoil and combining with the freestream velocity to give a resultant velocity tangent to the airfoil.O~~r m'v' =~(a pV +8) (3. r.'l' o N ~~M C .52 and 3.54.55 gives 2 ~ mv. A.
the increment in C.47 Blown flap effectiveness.e 3.~8 14 L (3. the jetflapped airfoil maintains lift alI the way back to the trailing edge. C. known as the momentum for a twodimensional airfoil by C = mjvj .....61) (3..112 O. Generally.1 0. (B. ?f The negative pitching moment of the jet flaps is higher than the moment for conventional Haps for two reasons.. can be obtained from Figure 3. As with a physical flap. qc 10 V if V / V'l %0 [. is defined (3. For a pure jet flap (CrIC = 0).. and C'ij are given by a chord of Cf (see the blown flap of of eric.)]'12 + c. McCormick.. Inc. Reference recommends the use of the relationship presented in Fig. = 2'1T(1 + O.te values other than zero.Jac..62 since. = C. the jet exits ahead of the trailing edge and blows over and is deflected by a physical flap having Figure 3.. First. ~C"""1 (3.. Col is given in Figure 3. the jet reaction acts at the trailing edge.49. As with the lift. (1 + 0. presented as a function of Cw jet the to 3. is also a function Ct. since the jet fixes Kutta condition and provides some control over the boundary layer prevent separation.63) In this equation aC.126 THE GENERATION OF LIFT 16 can be expressed in a relatively simple way. 1967. because of a change in angle of attack and flap angle can be expressed as a linear combination of the two angles. The derivatives Cia and CI.1 . The curve labeled ctf c == 1. in addition. Data concerning C'm".L V 1.3 Cf 0. C.219CIJ 0 o 2 G~ 3 4 5 For c.151 C.0: ~v ~ ~ V / V~ V / /': "/ ~ VJ/: ~ '/:y ~ ° ~ I / L r.. second. Reprinted by perrmssron of Academic Press.5 0.62) I C's = {4'1TC. (3... This ratio.0 0. .59) 12 C la  . Academic Press.05 0. As a preliminary estimate for C. = (if..41 fairly closely._a + (ac _ aC1 M ) Cl " 8V .. CM can be written as a linear combination of ll' and 6. Cia = C. are a function momentum flux to the product of the freestream reference area.47..24)... W.2 C 0. Here difference in the angle of attack for stall. a where + C.. C. . " ..0 in this figure corresponds to Equation 3.. for this case.60) dC. rn 6 2 or CM _ (aC aCt M ) 8=CORSt C .139C.erodynamics V/STOL Flight.48. for jetHapped airfoils is sparse. with and without blowing.% ~ 'fh ~ If. A.3 the is Figure 3. the flap follows the predictions of Figure 3.02 8 V r/ ~~ 6 4V~ 2 '/ / V v/ tL ~ ~~ VJ ~ r% ~ VI L. Inc. then CI.t51CI"12+0. da of the ratio of the jet dynamic pressure and a coefficient.«.
.17 . =::. The jet expands isentropically from a reservoir pressure of 25 psia and a temperature of 70 OF. At ir CI is estimated to be 1.0023378(50 x 1.7) 946.. on pitching moments for blown flaps._)(~1)11]}112 RTo From Figure 3..4421 airfoil (Figure 3.9) I' From Figures 3. 0.1 25(144) Po = 1716(529.9) 0. (8.5 0.7) = 0. C = (0.. Clm" for the unblown airfoil without a flap is equal approximately to 1.48.34.109 (from Figure 3.00271(0. We begin by calculating the jet velocity from the compressible Bernoulli equation (Equation 2.5 ~_ __ 0 =_ c f Po is calculated from the equation of state. Aerodynamics of V/STOL Flight..17.31).AjVj = = 0.0428)(946. 6. It has a chord of 5 ft and the jet thickness is 0.49 Effect of C. Thus. Reprinted by permission of Academic Press.4.30).77 = O. The airfoil is operating at 50 mph at SSL conditions. Academic Press.P . del due to the plain flap (CI' = 0) is estimated as del so that dCI".397(5) = 1... for the NACA 63.~3) = 1.=po =6. irma:>:= 2.2(13 15 ) = = of state (Equation Po/Po 21T(O.003% slugs/It' Thus Pi = 0. The mass density of the expanded jet will be p.00271 slugsjft" The jet mass flux will be equal to mj = p.2/12)(946..47 and 3. Inc. 1967.. W. consider the prediction of CI".30. = (E.) ( ""Pol II~ 0. McCormick. (Po _ E. 0.) Po p Po 9.109 0. for CI' = 0 with the flap deflected. Cl". with CI.1). with the use of Equation 2.!!. = 0) =::.5.128 THE GENERATION OF LIFT MAX/MUM C LIFT 129 :::=_0. Using Figures 3.30) equipped with a 25% blown flap deflected 50°. Inc. = Thus.27 Clo = v/ = __1y_ yl or.2 in.5/rad irmax .6)(0. =.467)2/2 6.15 e(1.035)(5...3 0.1.4)(1~~:)(529. Vj = ={ 2"11'0 [1("I l)po 2.2S6]} 1/2 = Thus. 2° Vj From the equation Thus.umax(C .ax is estimated to be 2.33 and 3.30.) The freestream dynamic pressure q = !pV2 = 0..9fps [1_ C~57) .397 psf To illustrate the use of the foregoing relationship for the jetflapped airfoil.0428 slugs/s is Figure 3.09/rad CI• = 6.
57.4 = 6.94. Next. For his honors thesis at Lafayette College.51. This was contrary to the thinking of the day that not only would a supersonic jet separate from a blown flap. Prior to 1951.130 THE GENERATION OF LIFT THE LIFTING CHARACTERISTICS OF A FINITE WING 131 or. around the tips. an estimate for preliminary design purposes or relative parametric design studies. because the wing is twisted so that the tip is at a lower angle of attack than the root (washout). in the ratio of approximately 0. F8K. First.1" for the zero lift line at stall is / x / .46./ For the operating CJ" the angle of attack estimated to equal 7. Following this success. this spanwise flow produces a swirling motion of the air trailing downstream of the wing. In the final analysis.m"" .02 Washout = 2 909 7. first perceived by Lanchester. but the losses associated with the shock wave system downstream of the nozzle would be prohibitive.. Q'max = 9. the Attinello flap went into production on the F109.3 J/'// / 65 50 x/ / Taper ratio = 0. Also. Such systems required large and heavy ducting. which will now be developed. 4 deg (for the midspan chord line in the case of the wing) Comparison of NACA 65210 airfoil lift curve with that of a wing using the same airfoil. however..50 illustrates the principal differences in the . to account for trimming tail loads. and inward toward the center of the wing. When incorporated into a wing of finite aspect ratio.6°. of approximately 1. The effect of aspect ratio is to decrease the slope of the lift curve CL as the aspect ratio decreases. using Figure 3. lightweight systems using bleed air from the turbojet engine compressor section. F4. relative to the zero lift line. is higher for the wing by approximately 0. model and prototype component testing of the blowing system must be performed.13) oWing: A = 9. C. CL.Twodimensional airfoil 0 (Ref. be further corrected. The Vortex System 10' a Wing A wing's lift is the result of a generally higher pressure acting on its lower surface compared with the pressure on the upper surface. the slope of the wing's lift curve. This led to the development of compact. 3. CLa• is approximately 0. including several foreign models. flaps up. all blown systems utilized pressure ratios less than critical in order to avoid supersonic flow in the jet. Figure 3. Finally. the angle for zero lift. This motion. 57. at best.::::=J 0:. of course. which rolls up rapidly within a few chord lengths to form a pair THE LIFTING CHARACTERISTICS OF A FINITE WING A twodimensional airfoil with its zero lift line at an angle of attack of 10" will deliver a lift coefficient.0. it should be emphasized that the preceding is. this same airfoil at the same angle of attack will produce a wing lift coefficient.79 of the slope for the airfoil. more sophisticated testing performed by the David Taylor Model Basin confirmed Attinello's predictions (Ref. 3. / o//~ ~.3 + . Later.1 =. This pressure difference causes a spanwise flow of air outward toward the tips on the lower surface. significantly less than 1. is only slightly less than C. and other aircraft. as illustrated in Figure 3. CL". A5. or C 1". Attinello demonstrated with "homemade" equipment that a supersonic jet would adhere to a deflected flap. is referred to as the wing's trailing vortex system.•• /X"l r:I' "I'/r:I' x. The Attinello flap system was flight tested on an F9F4 and produced a significant decrease in the stalling speed for an added weight of only 50 lb.43 and Equation 3. Immediately behind the wing the vortex system is shed in the form of a vortex sheet. Figure 3.38) of high lift coefficients for supersonic jet flaps.. Credit for the practical application of the jet flap must be given to John Attinello. Combined with the freestream velocity. These three differences are almost exactly what one would expect on the basis of wing theory. measured at the root.50 lift behavior of a wing and an airfoil.0.1".8 The preceding answer must. Thus.
and section lift coefficient.51 Generation of vortex system by finite aspect ratio wing.28) applies fairly well. The trailing vortex system. l20). the lift. Thus.65) Rgure 3. el(y)." since it is in a sense bound to the wing."L". 1. must vanish at the tips.3. a free vortex filament of strength dr. is related to the lift distribution along the wing by the KuttaJoukowski relationship. hence it appears as a closed loop. This statement may be clarified by reference to Figure 3. ends on a boundary.132 THE GENERATION OF LIFT THE LIFTING CHARACTERISTICS Bound OF A FINITE WING 133 vortex line ['(y) I I tt ( I \ Flgure 3. the principal effect of the trailing vortex system is to reduce the angle of attack of each section by a small decrement known as the induced angle of attack. The strength of this vortex. I'(y). lying in the direction of the freestream velocity. 3. . In this case Prandtl's classical lifting line theory (Ref. opposite r r + dr dr (3..53 Illustration of vortex continuity. a vortex line or filament can neither begin nor end in a fluid.~ = k(y)c/(y)V I Expressing the lift per unit length of span in terms of the section chord length.52. Looking in the direction of flight. known as the "bound vortex. This vortex. a. not present with a twodimensional airfoil. approximately 5 or higher. the vortex from the left wing tip rotates in a clockwise direction. If the aspect ratio of the wing is large. must be feeding into r in order to satisfy vortex continuity. As shown in Figure 3. t T"". the right tip vortex rotates in the opposite direction. p.52 can be visualized as being closed infinitely far downstream by a "starting" vortex.51. c(Y). leads to r(y) (3.52 Lifting line model of a wing and trailing vortex system. of oppositely rotating line vortices. dL(y) = Vr() dy P Y With no physical surface outboard of the wing tips to sustain a pressure difference. According to the Helmholtz theorem regarding vortex continuity (Ref. The entire vortex system shown in Figure 3.64) Figure 3.. it follows that if in going from y to y + dy the bound circulation around the wing increases from r to r + dr. or extends to infinity. induces an additional velocity field at the wing that must be considered in calculating the behavior of each section of the wing. the wing is replaced by a single equivalent vortex line. and hence I'.
Y ) (3.g. Coordinate transformation used in the reduction 4( df(y) tr Yo. The trailing vortex system of strength dr induces a downwash. fo is obviously the midspan value of the bound circulation.69 becomes "%w_"""'__'L' OI. w(y).68 this transforms to f = b Since more elaborate and comprehensive treatments of wing theory can be found in texts devoted specifically to the subject (e. y ="2cos 9 U sing Equation 3.71) If the wing is untwisted so that a is also not a function of y then.cos 00 (3. for an elliptic I distribution. To a small angle approximation. this reduces the angle of attack by the small angle aj. W. Equation 3.67) Hence. 3. at the lifting line. a.69) Equations 3..66. 3. only the classical solution for the eliptic r distribution will be covered here. as mentioned earlier. Thus Equation 3. Assume that r is of the form (3. As pictured in Figure 3. If the vortex strength df trails from the wing at a location of y.Ja  ail (3.29). see Ref. ai = 2bV Figure 3. and 3. This particular case is easily handled and results in the essence of the general problem. the induced angle of attack.55 equations..68) Jo t" cos dr(ll) 0 . The downwash.54. becomes O'j(Yo) =  1 fbl2 4·nY df(y) ~J2 Yo .66) "2 b a being measured relative to the section zero lift line.70) rosin 0 Here. ai. and hence the downwash is found to be a constant independent of y.cos 00 The preceding integral was encountered previously in thin airfoil theory and has a value of 1T'. = C.Y (3.. 10 (3. f" cos9d8 o cos 9 .68 together relate T(y) to c(y) and a(y) so that. Thus the section lift coefficient will be given by c. from . it is expedient to make the coordinate transformation pictured in Figure 3. given the wing geometry and angle of attack. would be shed from the trailing edge of the wing as its angle of attack is increased from zero. In order to accomplish the solution.55. can be determined by integrating the contributions of the elemental trailing vortices of strength dr.134 THE GENERA nON OF LIFT THE LIFTING CHARACTERISTICS OF A FINITE WING 135 in direction to the bound vortex.64 to be dw(yo) _  ___ L "2 b o ___l____j__ Y . its contribution to the downwash at another location Yocan be found by Equation 2.67 becomes 1 ai(llo) = 27rh V Thus. a.54 A wing section under the influence of the freestream velocity and the downwash. of the lifting line b Figure 3. one should theoretically be able to solve for r and hence the wing lift. is given by w! V.65. Thus.{y) r a(8 j 0 ) 21Th V r.
the preceding becomes = ~pV2CIS (3.66.[(1 + C~J{1TA] a 2 pVlCI 1 sn c dy Using the theoretical value of 27T Ctlrad derived earlier. (rj becomes C C L. Equation 3. As described in Reference 3.65 then gives r(y) = 2: c(y)CL 1 V or.66.. ~ 1.136 THE GENERA nON OF LIFT THE LIFTING CHARACTERISTICS OF A FINITE WING 137 Equation 3. ja But. the lifting line becomes progressively less accurate. reduces the slope of the lift curve. is constant and equal to CL. according to lifting line theory. aspect ratio by A=~ 7Teo and b are related to the (C1)7T) + V(C1j11i"t" A A2 Replacing Ca by 2'IT in the denominator. First.="4b COCL Co An alternate to Equation 3.50 could be explained theoretically.74a is offered by Reference 3. in turn. it follows that the section C.73 is approximately 11% higher than that predicted by more exact methods..65.35 and is referred to as the Helmbold equation. CL.73) Equations 3.66.50.72 and 3. is constant along the span. on the basis of Equation 3.73.74b) (3. A + [2(A + 4)/(A + 2)] (3. In this case. CLa = 0.' A wing having a low aspect ratio will require a higher angle of attack than a wing with a greater aspect ratio in order to produce the same CL• It was stated previously that the comparative performance between the wing and airfoil shown in Figure 3. 3.65. CL =[ = b12 2 PV2CC1 dy fbl2 I = CI.2+V4+A2 A (3. an untwisted wing with an elliptical planform will produce an elliptic r distribution. from Equations 3.74a and 3. . Thus. Such a wing will have a constant downwash and section C.73 are important results. for an aspect ratio of 4.~ This result is within about 2% of the experimental results presented in Figure As the aspect ratio decreases.72) Inserted into Equation 3. for the planform given by Equation 3. L bll or. For example. Thus. Equation 3.819 C.74a) a. The induced angle of attack is seen to increase with decreasing aspect ratio which. 3. after the original source noted in the reference. and 3.0.74h agree within a couple of percent over the range of practical aspect ratios and approach each other in the limits of A = 0 or A = roo This holds for high or low aspect ratios and is based on an approximate lifting surface theory. =0 But L C1= qS Hence. A 9. The Helmbold equation reads C C L. Since C.71 can be applied at the midspan position in order to determine the slope of the wing lift curve.Equations 3.72 and 3.3. the preceding results in Equation 3.66. which accounts for the chordwise distribution of bound circulation as well as the spanwise distribution. a more accurate estimate of CL" is obtained from A CLa = CI" Thus it is found that.02 so that.
Trailing vortex lines . In addition.5 0 0 0 v I I 0 0. The wing lift coefficient and section lift coefficients are nearly equal.S s~ron. 0 0 0 0 0 + E) (3. Many of these fall into a class known as vortex lattice methods.. 0 0 0 0 r..u methods to be found in the literature for doing this.'. The unknown vortex strengths are then adjusted to assure that the resultant flow at each control point is tangent to the mean surface of the wing. the wing's performance depends on It s airfoil performance. There are sev.gly dependent on q"a<. But L= = IX 0 0 e = kc I f Ol2 sn qcC. CI~'will be C.. I. Approximately. The vortex lattice method is similar to lifting line theory except that discrete vortex lines are also distributed in the chordwise direction. Helmholtz's law of vortex continuity must hold. eLm... eC.. 0 0 0 0 0 _.dy qk fWl cdr qks Figure 3..30. the tail d~wnl~ad. The detailed estimation of a wing's CL begins with a calculation of its span wise load distribution. this lift distribution is taken as the average of a constant "zero" distribution and one obtained by neglecting any induced velocities.... Thus. One such vortex is shown dashed for illustrative purposes.78) 0 0 0 0 : : I 0 i I I I 0 The additional lift distribution results from an angle of attack different from u"Il and is assumed to be the average of an elliptic distribution and one proportional to the planform. req~ured to tr~m the aerodynamic pitching moment... At every juncture of the vortex lines.j._(u"'Il + E) + OJ . As illustrated in Figure 3. For the latter. Trends in the behavior of C'ma. 0 0 0 0 0 r. This method deals with two distributions: a basic lift distribution. and the spanwise distribution of loading over the wing..e.. is slight. "JJJi I I I ..30. the wing is covered with a mesh of spanwise and chordwise bound vortex lines with free vortex lines shed downstream from the trailing edge..c5" 0 0 0 0 0 0 v 01 0 0 ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 v o~ oro 0". One of the first of these can be found in Reference 3. . control points are chosen over the wing equal in number to the number of unknown vortex line strengths. T~e effect ~f as~ect ratio on eLmo.140 THE GENERATION OF LIFT THE LIFTING CHARACTERISTICS OF A FINITE WING 141 The Maximum Uft of a Finite Wing The ma~imum lift c~efficient of a finite wing is influenced by several factors... some points are even slightly off of the wing's surface.. as one might expect from the preceding considerations on the elliptic wing...56.. = Thus. the spanwise extent to which the wing is flapped has a significant influence on C .... 0 0 0 0 0 0 __. C'b = t(u"'n o~ 010 0 010 0 0 I I . in the manner of Reference 3. that is. The lattice model shown in Figure 3.~' one m~st account for the presence of the fuseh. 3. Obviously. as related to wing geometry can be seen by the application of an approximate method for determining spanwise load distribution known as Schrenk's approximation (Ref.31).k"' Control 0 0 I points or the basic section lift coefficient... Also in estimating CL".. s. is formed by the superposition of horseshoeshaped line vortices. Stipulating that the flow at these points parallels the camber surface at the trailing edge will satisfy approximately the Kutta condition. ~pV2cC/ = ~gcontour ~[W V2eC.. and an additional lift distribution..56. Second. Note that the downstream control points are aft of the last bound vortex Lines.56 Vortex lattice model for a wing. The basic distribution is that which exists along the span when the total lift is equal to zero.. both having the same total lift. 0 0 0 0 0 _. k = CL· For the elliptic distribution.
Using Equations 3. Thus. the stalling would be expected to spread to either side of equal to 0. since the planform is A Cl".6 0.b 4S (2y)2] 2 sbc (3. which is just equal to the section Ct. in this case becomes The additional section lift coefficient C.34) or 1. or 11. In this instance.57 were calculated. to 2.79.4 1 :1 1 :1 2 :0. 2y/b 3.4.".. Since the C.~ 1. elm.. As a further and more extreme example of the method.142 so that THE GENERA TlON OF LIFT THE LIFTING CHARACTERISTICS OF A FINITE WING 143 L= The constant of proportionality.6 flCI :..22 results in a section C. the zero lift lines of the sections outboard of the flaps are reduced in angle of attack by flCiC/... taken from Figure 3. is best explained by an example.24 + E) same.80) ~he manner in which this equation is used to estimate CL".. CI.57 is revised as shown in Figure 3. 20% chord split flaps deflected 60°. In many cases.2 0.. a"1l' for zero lift becomes 4. Any attempt to increase CL above this value will therefore cause the wing to stall at this location.. Thus. is approximately remains the . .6 2 >0.545)(0.79 for a CL of unity.0 0 0 FIgure 3. Relative to the midspan chord.78 and 3. becomes E= E= 21 :1 21 :12 0:0..8 1.30 over the inner 60% of the span. even though a section of it begins to stall.4 Usually Ct. to estimate the CL". flCI is estimated to be 0.57 shows that a wing CL of 1. Figure 3.236 0. L:lqK~le:f K= 48 CL 1rb then becomes dy K. 0.026.58 to increase the section C. halfway out along the span. at that location..ax as a function of spanwise location. which is just equal to the section CI". curve is rather flat in this location.50.35)(60) = For this twist distribution and a taper ratio of 0.83 of the preceding equation (Figure = 0.79) 0. Consider the wing of Figure 3. empirically. thus. . From Equation 3. ho"'wever. 2 11.5.. value of 1. the angle of attack of the midspan zero lift line. the CLm ax predicted by this method wiU be somewhat conservative. since the total wing CL may still increase somewhat.8 c. Figure 3. in degrees. (3.=d CL[ 1+.57 Predicted lift coefficient distributions for wing of Figure 3. of a wing.7T] 8 1. for this flapped wing. Combining C/& and Cia in the form of Equation 3.43. decreases toward the tip as the airfoil becomes relatively thinner or as the chord lengths become smaller. Aerodynamically the twist of the wing is changed by lowering the flaps.2 Gilt 0.50.054(4. Thus C'b The additional lift distribution = 0.22 compares favorably with the experim"'ental results. . This particular wing has a taper ratio of 0.0. consider the wing of Figure 3.50 to he a is constant.80. Thus. Also graphed on this figure is Ct. somewhere alo~g the span. Gen~rallY..24°. is defined as the value of Equation 3.4°.50 equipped with 60% span. one finds the wing CL that results in a section C. the basic and additional section lift coefficient distributions given in Figure 3.6 x 0.. E.4 and a washout of 2°. In this instance the Cr. q..108 (0.
The predicted CI distributions with the partial span split flaps are presented in Figure 3.79 using kCla/CL = 1. The ratio Sfu". which is obviously inexact. near the center of the wing.!{j ..0. b. and Clu is the nearly constant section C.50 with 60% span. split.60 are test results from References 3.81) In Reference 3. singleslotted. of 1. The fuselage was circular in crosssection and the wing was mounted slightly above the middle of the fuselage. let us assume that the fuselage effects a constant drop in eCI over its width proportional to the midspan value of eCI. 20% chord split flaps deflected 60°. and doubleslotted flaps were tested with and without a fuselage. since it allows a finite loading at the tip and other discontinuities in the eCI distribution. This is illustrated in Figure 3. T.. Also plotted on Figure 3.6 Cl~ 1 !~'~! U. Nevertheless. Thus./ S was equal to 0.58 Predicted lift coefficient distributions for wing of Figure 3. The ratio Stu. Effect of Fuse/age on the lift per unit span over the portion of the wing covered by the fuselage. The upper distribution is without the fuselage."..4 2 RguTe 3.""' 1.0 1.! S was nearly the same for these elm ax In working with a wingfuselage combination. This agreement is somewhat fortuitous in view of Shrenk's approximation.58. the lift decrement resulting from the fuselage will be ilL = kqCIuSf use Sfuse is the wing planform area submerged in the fuselage. Shrenk's approximation is a useful tool.27. call be written in terms of CL before the fuselage is added as (3. it is based on this total wing planform area obtained by extrapolating the leading and trailing edges into the fuselage centerline. The results of these tests are plotted in Figure 3.. CLr . and the location of the initial stall. or in lieu of more exact lifting surface methods..144 THE GENERATION 2.2 : ! I t: .63. Generally.58 predicts that the wing wiIJbegin to stall just outboard of the flaps at a wing Cr.32 and 3...Y 0.083. As an approximation.27 with regard to both Cz. unchanged.59 Effect of fuselage on spanwise lift distribution..60 and compared with Equation 3. iii . two wings equipped with partial and fullspan.59.33. Figure 3. Thus the total CL with the fuselage. for preliminary design studies.o" 2 I' ". This result agrees exactly with Reference 3. one normally defines the wing planform area to include the portion submerged within the fuselage.. Figure 3. the fuselage will effect a decrease in .4 OF LIFT THE LIFTING CHARACTERISTICS OF A FINITE WING 145 2. When a lift coefficient is quoted for the combination. The dashed line on the lower figure is the qualitative drop in eCI due to the fuselage. k is the constant of proportionality.
at least to the extent that the correction to CL. + LC t. in addition to the weight. If . CWqS LC1.OB3 C/o = C/. Le." of the wing alone.0 SI". lso depends on wing position and appears to be a a maximum for the midwing configuration.82 modified to account for the flap eLm ex In order to calculate the stalling speed of an airplane in steady flight. the tail lift to trim is given by LT Mac ":"""1. With the aerodynamic center of the tail located a distance of IT behind the center of gravity and the wing's aerodynamic center a distance of (xes: . for the fuselage appears to increase Linearly with CL.146 THE GENERA nON OF LIFT THE LIFTING CHARACTERISTICS L OF A FINITE WING 147 Wingfuselage L:.1.1~ (3.61.. Mac.Cp denotes this increment in the drag coefficient and if the flaps are located a distance of h above the center of gravity. the wing lift L.81.60 W Effect of fuselage on eLm ax" Therefore.. the tail lift. Effect of Trim on ] Mac +T In coefficient form this becomes CL == CLw [ 1 + PXCI  xac)] + CM. It was mentioned earlier that the added drag caused by flaps must sometimes be considered in the trim of an airplane. Here.34 also shows the correction to be slight for elliptical shapes where the height is greater than the width. the wing's lift must support any download on the horizontal tail required to trim the airplane around its pitching axis. section Mid Round Rectangu Ia r Round Rectangular . static equilibrium in the vertical direction requires that L+Lr":""" Figure 3.w refers to the untrimmed wing lift coefficient corrected for the fuselage.82) Here. The decrement in Cr.. CL is taken to mean the trim CL. Equation 3. Reference 3..61 Longitudinal trim of an airplane. In order to determine this additional trim load. Mid D Low • Low Figure 3.. and the weight are all shown in a posit~ve sense. These data support the form of Equation 3. one must consider that.12 = 0."....81 k = 1..<xcs  Xac ) In addition.27..xac)i: ahead.. The correction depends on the crosssectional shape of the fuselage and seems to vanish or even be slightly favorable for a rectangularly shaped section. Equation 3. refer to Figure . the pitching moment about the wing's aerodynamic center. o Plain • Partial wing or fullspan span flaps flaps 3. it follows that W ":""" 1+ h (Xcg L[ C Xac) two references as for Reference 3.
.ldC.78 for the flapped wing sections.4 Fin area 7.9 It2 Horizontal tail area 24. For this Reynold's number.B Rudder area 3.62 Piper Cherokee PA281S0.148 THE GENERA TION OF LIFT THE LIFTING CHARACTERISTICS 1180 OF A FINITE WING 149 drag becomes (3. singleslotted flap deflected 40°.3. including the increment because of the flaps. The section CI". is estimated at 1. gal Enqine Lycoming 0360A3A Normalrating 180 bhp @ 2700 rpm Gross weight 2400 Ib flap angles 100• 25'. Cu.34 for the flapped airfoil. is estimated from Figure 3.0 Aileron area .B Wing area 160.0 U.5 r i i 63. = 170 slug ly = 1249 slug ft2 fe I. This is the angle of attack of the zero lift line at midspan for a zero wing CL• C'a and Ctb can then be calculated for the wing alone and are given in Table 3.31 to equal 0.a" In calculating CM.1 ft2.32..3 re.... The area of the wing within the fuselage is 25.total 14. Pertinent dimensions.B Flap area . or by iteration. and 3.. areas.33.62 (Continued) I   10 Retracted 12 Extended o J 85. The derivative dC.45 for the plain 65T415 airfoil with a lift curve slope of 0. l Estimation of C'max for a Complete Airplane Configuration A Piper Cherokee P A28 is pictured in Figure 3.0'" from Equation 3.20. is normally less than the wing Cr.1).34 predict a <lei of 1.. Figures 3. is integrated over the wing excluding the part submerged in the fuselage. = 0.83.. Assuming beforehand.".5% chord.83) <lCv can be obtained experimentally or estimated on the basis of Equations 3. and other data are tabulated on the figure. = 1312slugft' Figure 3.46. Since eM. eM.S.. for use in Equation 3. it follows that the trim CLm .106 CJdeg. is normally negative and greater in magnitude than the moments resulting from CLw and <lCI> Thus CL is normally less than CLW" Since Equation 3. 3. the section aerodynamic moment determined from CM.07 for the plain airfoil (Ref. swept leading edge near the root into the fuselage centerline and accounting for the elliptically shaped tips gives a total wing area when the flaps are extended of 165. Extrapolating the ~I~{\ 1 I I . II 281.. a reasonable value for the "stalling speed" of 60 mph leads to a Reynold's number of approximately 3 x 1O~ for a wing section.4 74 I L__ V Rgure 3.83 holds for maximum lift conditions. Using an 18. weights. 3.9° in the angle of attack of the zero lift line..33 giving a Clm •• of 2. Reference 3. 40' Airfoil section 65. ~C'm".1 shows a value for elmo> of 1.16.total 10. Accounting for the 2° of washout and the increment of £ro/ caused by flaps leads to an £r"'o value of 6.6 fuel 50.415 Washout l" I."'" 0.45 and 3.62. ax .37 corresponding to an increase of 12.
~ U "III III .. 1.1"= lI'1_ + J i2 at ......"..."..~_:~~~oddd {l ~ o + 00 1.".. J :glr.... rrrrrr. ~ .....J II  ... o I II d '' II r...J § o ~ I. CII o ~... o " "=I~ V'I_ ~ I o o I . ''11. It) .. I I I 1..I II r"l {l ==00000000""..t) ..J::.. V'l...''II'" §' o oocicioooooo ~g)~g)88~~?:S:: _'...... i!i i 11 £ JiiL jJ .. 8 .~~...t'7'7'7 NNNt'l~~~~~""': ~~!..:I' N N c::: a..1\ ...gg§::~~ I ~ :.
64 Airfoil shapes tested at low Reynolds numbers. The form of the lift curves for the three airfoils is seen to change substantially.000 10" 10" 20' " 1. two 12% thick airfoils with 3 and 4% camber.000.65 Effect of Reynolds number on airfoil lift coefficients. The most reliable lowReynolds number airfoil data appear to be those given in Reference 3. the flatplate results are nearly independent of R since the separation point at the leading edge is well defined. over the R range from 4. flat plate.2 x ]05 down to 0. For remotepiloted vehicles (RPV).5 The 625 airfoil ~ A flatplate airfoil Curved plate 4 T7A The N60 airfoil I DC R = 84. and the like. the C. Reynolds numbers as low as 5 x 104 can be encountered.000 R = 128. cambered plate. The flow apparently separates at all positive angles just downstream of the minimum pressure point. model airplanes. These are seen to comprise a thin. a thin. The airfoil shapes are similar in appearance to the NACA fourdigit series. . 1. Figure 3. These tests were conducted in a lowturbulence tunnel. The five airfoil shapes that were tested in Reference 3. The lift curves for these airfoils are presented in Figure 3.37 are shown in Figure 3. however.5 625 1. versus a curve is no longer linear.000 \ I if R = 42.5 R = 420.152 THE GENERATION OF LIFT AIRFOIL CHARACTERlsncS AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBERS 153 were obtained at R values of 3 x 106 and higher. the same can be said for the cambered plate.000J 10' 10' 20" The N60R airfoil " Figure 3. and one 20% thick airfoil with 6% camber.64.0 0. As one might expect. A search of the literature win show little airfoil data available in this Reynolds number range.35.65 for fOUT different Reynolds numbers. near the maximum thickness location.42 x 105• Particularly at the very lowest Reynolds number. To a slightly lesser degree. where tests of five different airfoil shapes are reported for R values as low as 42.
68 Drag polar for the flatplate airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. ]r1 7 ·usm . T 'Eli if 1~ 1.35 0.25 0.4 0.. fPP' nrc'·· IT un Ie ~Tr mr .05 0..0 R = 420.4 r 1.25 Figure 3. 0 rag poIar for N60Rairfoil at low Reynolds '!lWCl· It··l.000 0.6 0.67 numbers.20 0.15 Cd 0. .10 0.14 C/.69 Drag polar for the 625 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers.S 168.20 0.15 Cd 0.05 0.2 1. Figure 3. Figure 3.30 0. nIT·mms· .66 Lift Curvefor the N60 airfoil. 16 IS 20 deg o Cd FIgure 3.2 0.000 O.10 0.
as illustrated.25 0.20 Cd 0.66.5m.000and 42. complete separation on the upper surface occurs at around 12°. 0. the drag characteristics for these lowReynolds number tests are presented now in Figures 3.71 Drag polar for the N60 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers.10 0. Here C.1 A wing has a taper ratio of 1/3. above an a of approximately 0°. an area of 20 m". Drag polar for the 417a airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. a large hysteresis is seen to exist in the curves for the higher Reynolds numbers.8 0. Aerodynamic drag is considered in more detail in the following chapter.15 0.05 0.4 0.ng.05 0. Calculate Ci and em"" for this airfoil according to Equations 3.30 0.4 R 1. The angle of attack must then be decreased to around 5° before the flow will again reattach.25 0.67 to 3. Typically. PROBLEMS This explanation is substantiated by Figure 3. as a is increased. 0.6 c .000 1.2 0. cambered airfoil is approximated by two straightline segments. Thus.2 A thin.venfor the N60 airfoil.2 o 0. As a is first increased up to a value well beyond the stall and then decreased. Nevertheless.4 o 0. What is its aspect ratio? 3.35 Figure 3. .71.000.15 0. and a tip chord of 1.30 o Figure 3. At the lowest Reynolds number. versus a is gi.2 = 105.39 and 3.20 Cd 0.70 0. the lift curve tends to follow the portion of the curves at the higher Reynolds numbers after stall has occurred and a is decreasi.41.156 THE GENERATION OF LIFT PROBLEMS 157 1.10 0.0 C. 3. it would appear that the flow is entirely separated from the upper surface for the lower R values of 21.
3 and 0. D..l + y." AIAA J. 3... 3.32. 1967. 1958. April 1928.12 Anonymous.n) from the centerline line. September 1975. what would C1 be? Comparing this C. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils.• and Schetzer. Aerodynamics of V/STOL Flight.4 Taking a cue from Problems 3.• An Airfoil Shape for Efficient Hight at Supercritical Mach Numbers..2 Kuethe. Do this by comparing section G and elm ex values along the span." AIAA 1.3.. If this airfoil is incorporated into an untwisted wing having an elliptical planform.66.33. . December 1973. to the value from Problem 3.. L. and 3. John Wiley. New York.. "Supercritical Aerodynamics Worthwhile over a Range of Speeds. J. It has a 6 ft chord and is operating at ]00 mph at SSL conditions. At each control point. 3.0. 3. John Wiley. This is not as difficult and laborious as it may sound. The chord is 3 m long and the jet thickness equals 2..··· . LowSpeed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 17Percent Thick Airfoil Section Designed for General Aviation Applications.. New York.11 Write a computer program to solve the lifting line model illustrated in Figure 3.y" Once these are found. Manfred.3. The jet expands isentropically from a reservoir pressure of 170 kPa absolute and a temperature of 290 OK. 3. and Bandettini. and Beasley. The down wash w can be expressed as a sum of contributions from each trailing vortex. NASA TN D7428. = w/V. 12 (9). 3. H. X.2. Theory of Wing Sections (including a summary of airfoil data) Dover Publications.6 Estimate CI for a thin flatplate airfoil at a 5° angle of attack having a 33% c plain flap deflected 15°. T. F. and Von Doenhoff. W. 3. Also. 1976).3 THE GENERA TION OF LIFT REFERENCES 159 The airfoil of Problem 3.10a is equipped with a pure jet flap. J. Assuming R = 9 X 106 and a smooth airfoil with the characteristics given by Figure 3. F..10 Hurley. London. Mathematical Model for TwoDimensional MultiComponent Airfoils in Viscous Flow. B.. NASA TM XI109. of Aircraft.(Y.11 Lindsey. Stivers.9 Carlson.. September 1948. 3. 3. A.8 McGhee. A.5 Stevens.4 Rauscher.. T. W. Hence these relationships lead to a system of n simultaneous equations for the unknown vortex strengths YI> 1'2. 3. 3. calculate CLm. of Aircraft. Calculate C1 for an a of ZO and a jet flap angle of 30".. and Daley B. 3.)/2. (b) the numerous tables and graphs of data. Estimate CI".2 can be thought of as a flatplate airfoil at an angle of attack with a 50% chord flap deflected through a given angle. You should find that C. May 1976 (also NASA CR2578. and (c) Figures 3. derive the equation for T given in Figure 3.8.10 The wing of Problem 3. where Q.3c flaps over the inboard 60% of the span. REFERENCES 3. one from the tip and the other one halfway out along the span.NACAR 285. Roos. 0 Check your program by calculating the C1 distribution for an elliptic wing. 3. R. (Yl + Y2)/2. Aerodynamic Characteristics of 24 N ACA 16Series Airfoils at Mach Numbers between 0.32.7 The GA(W)1 airfoil of Figure 3.1 Abbot. 93. 3. 13 (5).for a flap angle of 40". from: (a) the summary observations listed at the beginning of the section on flaps. The airfoil is operating at SSL conditions at 15 m/s. M.7 Ayers. 3.• Goradia. A. F. But C1 is given by Equation 3. Spaid. 3. F.. 124. NACA TN 1546.. 3..1 has a washout of 4 and plain . 3. (Y2 + Y3)/2. W. 1953. F. B. Foundations of Aerodynamics. L.V (Continuation of Reports Nos. 3.6. D. Divide the chord into three equal segments and model the airfoil with three suitably placed point vortices. is nearly constant except near the tips.. and Braden. 1971. doubleslotted flap deflected at an optimum angle. 3.52. J. W. "Transonic Airfoil Analysis and Design Using Cartesian Coordinates." Astronautics and Aeronautics. NASA CR1843.5 mm. August 1972. New York.2 and 3.9 Use Schrenk's approximation instead of the approximate lifting line model to answer Problem 3.8 A finite wing is simulated by an approximate lifting line model consisting of a bound vortex and two vortices trailing from each side. I . Place symmetrically disposed trailing vortices of strength )'i at a distance of Yi(1. What are these two equivalent angles? For this a and zero flap angle.. r and C1 can be ca1culated. An n of 20 should suffice for this example. R. N. 1959. 182 and 244). July 1965. A. "Supercritical Airfoil Flowfield Measurements. Introduction to Aeronautical Dynamics. R .34. Ira H. W. Albert E.12 A cambered airfoil has an angle of attack for zero lift of 4°.. 10 (8).... 3.158 3. D.32. A . the bound circulation equals the sum of the vortices shed outboard of the point. Academic Press.6 Whitcomb. W.8. calculate the flap effectiveness factor 'T and compare it with Figure 3. Choose control points of 0. . S. untwisted rectangular wing with an aspect ratio of 6 at an angle of attack of 10°. .2. New York. calculate the section lift coefficients at these stations for a fiat. G.. it is easy to show that C1 = 2r/cV. what will the wing lift coefficient be for an angle of attack of 8°? The wing aspect ratio is equal to 5. NASA Langley Research Center.3 McCormick. Stevenson. Using the midspan and threequarterspan stations as control points.5 A 23015 airfoil is equipped with a 25% fully extensible.. where the accuracy of the numerical model deteriorates. S. . and Clark..
January 1957. A Method for Predicting Lift Increments Due to Flap Deflection at Low Angles of Attack in Incompressible Flow. November 1947. Report No. E. NACA TM 1910.17 Kelly.25 Liebeck. P. G. Lift and Pitching Moment 3. H. Louis S.24 Stratford.. 3. June 1975. "Size Effects in Conventional Aircraft Design." Gottingen. NOrd 795871. C. 3. A. 1943. J. 10 (10). March 1939. LeadingEdge Flap. B.S. 3.1936. .15 Cahill. and Landahl. R. H. BuAir Report DR 1417... Ann Arbor." I. B. May 1947... 1941. Reading.. I.. W. 3. Interference of Wing and Fuselage from Tests of 209 Combinations in the NACA VariableDensity Tunnel. 5. A. "An Experimental Flow with Zero Skin Friction Throughout its Region of Pressure Rise. NACA TN 3007. The Pennsylvania State University. R. A. September 1953. Albert." 1. October 1973.. of Fluid Mechanics.. 3. V. S.. and Recant... F. of Fluid Mechanics.. A Simple Approximation Method for Obtaining the Spanwise Lift Distribution. NACAR 824. N.. July 1952. NACAR 938.35 Lowry. "HighLift Aerodynamics. and Ormsbee. 3. 1949. 7 (6).. 3. F. M. "Vier Abhandlungen Zur Hydrodynarnik und Aerodynamic..26 Cleveland. "A Class of Airfoils Designed for High Lift in Incompressible Flow.. R. 3. 1959. NACA TN 3911.. Split Flap. of Aircraft.28 Prandtl. A. F. F. Kenneth E.36 Advanced Technology Airfoil Research Conference. Investigation in the Langley J9Foot Pressure Tunnel of Two Wings of NACA 65210 and 64210 Airfoil Sections with Various Type Flaps. and Spooner. I.. An Interim Attack Airplane from a Navy Fighter. H.38 Attinello. 1940. 1978. "The Calculation of Aerodynamic Loading on Surfaces of Any Shape.. Wind Tunnel Investigation of NACA 23012. E. and DoubleSlotted Rap. and Rogallo. Fullmer.22 Liebeck. and 23030 Airfoils Equipped with 40Percent Chord Double Slotted Raps. B. TwoDimensional Wind Tunnel Investigation of the NACA 641012 Airfoil Equipped with Two Types of LeadingEdge Flap.. of Aircraft. March 79.33 Sherman. F. J.23 Stratford. J. NACA TN 1272... "Airfoil Information for Propeller Design. NACA R 575. 1965. Issued by Ministry of Aircraft Production.30 Faulkner. F. NovemberDecember 1970.. 3. 0.31 Schrenk. 2460.S. "Optimization of Airfoils for Maximum Lift. 1943.20 3. 3. Summary of Section Data on TrailingEdge HighLift Devices. and Betz. C. J. Wenzinger. Albert. von Doenhoff. 3. 12. A. 3. 3. T. 1927 (reprint Edward Bros.29 Ashley. T.. Aerodynamics of Wings and Bodies. 3.18 3. NASA Langley Research Center. 3. C. NACA 941. Interference of Wing and Fuse/age from Tests of 30 Combinations with Triangular and Elliptical Fuselages in the NACA VariableDensity Tunnel. Eastman N. Aerodynamics of Model Aircraft Wing Measurements I. 23021. N ACA TN 690. Interference of Wing and Fuselage from Tests of 28 Combinations in the NACA VariableDensity Tunnel.16 Smith. I.. 5. A.. 1947. and Stivers. Translation No." ARC R&M 2622. 3. 1936. M. M.13 Abbott. 3. Mich..32 Jacobs.. 1945. SeptemberOctober 1970. D. (6)." ARC R&M 1910. A. Harris." Ordnance Research Laboratory. and Ward.37 Schmitz." 1... and Hayter.). NACA TN 1277. 7 (5). 0. F." J." 1. 1953. 3. 3. NACAR 540. Mass. NACAR 723. Resume of AirLoad Data on Slats and Flaps.21 at Low Speeds of the NACA 64AOlO Airfoil Section Equipped with Various Combinations of a LeadingEdge Slat. "The Prediction of the Separation of the Turbulent Boundary Layer.14 Anonymous.27 Sivells. 5. Young. 3. Summary of Airfoil Data. H.160 THE GENERA TlON OF LIFT REFERENCES 161 3. of Aircraft. G. 1949... L. J. and Polhamas.. of Aircraft.19 3. J." J.34 Sherman. A. AddisonWesley. 1959. M. 3. "The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Flaps.
SKIN FRICTION
DRAG
163
Profile Drag Usually taken to mean the total of the skin friction drag and
form drag for a twodimensional airfoil section.
FOUR DRAG
Cooling Drag The drag resulting from the momentum lost by the air that
passes through the power plant installation for purposes of cooling the engine, oil, and accessories. Bose Drag The specific contribution to the pressure drag attributed to the blunt afterend of a body. Wave Drag Limited. to sup~rsonic flow, this drag is a pressure drag resulting from noncancehng static pressure components to either side of a shock wave acting on the surface of the body from which the wave is emanating. With the exception of wave drag, the material to follow will consider the.se v~rious ~ypes o~ drag in detail and will present methods of reasonably estimating their magnitudes. Wave drag will be discussed in Chapter 6.
SKIN FRICTION DRAG
As a child, it was fun to stick your hand out of the car window and feel the force of the moving, invisible air. To the aeronautical engineer, however, there is nothing very funny about aerodynamic drag. A continuing struggle for the practicing aerodynamicist is that of minimizing drag, whether it is for an airplane, missile, or groundbased vehicle such as an automobile or train. It takes power to move a vehicle through the air. This power is required to overcome the aerodynamic force on the vehicle opposite to its velocity vector. Any reduction of this force, known as the drag, represents either a direct saving in fuel or an increase in performance. The estimation of the drag of a complete airplane is a difficult and challenging task, even for the simplest configurations. A list of the definitions of various types of drag partly reveals why this is so.
Induced Drag The drag that results from the generation of a trailing vortex
Figure 4.1 depicts a thin, flat plate aligned with the freestream velocity. Frequently the drag of a very streamlined shape such as this is expressed in terms of a skin friction drag coefficient. q, defined by, Cf=D qSw (4.1)
system downstream of a lifting surface of finite aspect ratio.
Parasite Drag The total drag of an airplane minus the induced drag. Thus, it is
the drag not directly associated with the production of lift. The parasite drag is composed of many drag components, the definitions of which follow. Skin Friction Drag The drag on a body resulting from viscous shearing stresses over its wetted surface (see Equation 2.15). Form Drag (Sometimes Called Pressure Drag) The drag on a body resulting from the integrated effect of the static pressure acting normal to its surface resolved in the drag direction. Interference Drag The increment in drag resulting from bringing two bodies in proximity to each other. For example, the total drag of a wingfuselage combination will usually be greater than the sum of the wing drag and fuselage drag independent of each other. Trim Drag The increment in drag resulting from the aerodynamic forces required to trim the airplane about its center of gravity. Usually this takes the form of added induced and form drag on the horizontal tail.
162
where S... is the wetted surface area that is exposed to the flow. This coefficient is presented in Figure 4.1 as a function of Reynolds number for the two cases where the flow in the boundary layer is entirely laminar or entirely turbulent over the plate. Here the Reynolds number is based on the total length of the plate in the direction of the velocity. In a usual application, the boundary layer is normally laminar near the leading edge of the plate undergoing transition to a turbulent layer at some distance back along the surface, as described in Chapter Two. The situation is pictured in Figure 4.1, where the velocity profile through the layer is shown. In order to illustrate it, the thickness of the layer is shown much greater than it actually is. As shown in this figure, a laminar boundary layer begins to develop at the leading edge and grows in thickness downstream. At some distance from the leading edge, the laminar boundary becomes unstable and is unable to suppress disturbances imposed on it by surface roughness or fluctuations in the free stream. In a short distance the boundary layer undergoes transition to a turbulent boundary layer. Here the layer suddenly increases in thickness and is characterized by a mean velocity profile on which a random fluctuating velocity component is superimposed. The di.stance, x, from the leading edge
164
DRAG
SKIN FRICTION
DRAG
165
Laminar boundary

T
.. ransl~ layer
( Turbulent ~
boundary
layer
0.01
r,
I
i
r....
<,
C;, "
c
i
1
a",. If}ar
/
__
i
I
°Y'of();?·58
i
Figure 4.2
Displacement thickness .
y"
I
'.a<.
(J;~ "'N,r
c~ " f
D.455 (/
I~ ,",
oJ
>::..
0' ..p'J;
i
N
I I
2 4
Then
vrsei
i~
udy
(4.4)
0.001 104
2
i
<,
II
2
i
~
f'.....
4
Allowing {) to become infinite Leads to Equation 4.3. If we arbitrarily define (5 as the value of y at which u laminar layer,
=
0.99V then, for a
Figure 4.1
Drag of a th in flat plate.
8 = 5.2(~r2 ~ 5.2x (~xrl/2
s»
For a turbulent layer,
=
(4.5) (4.6)
of the plate to the transition point can be calculated from the transition Reynolds number, R; R, is typically, for a flat plate, of the order of 3 x 105, R. being defined by (4.2)
£.
3
s =O.37x
s = £.
8
(~xrI15
(4.7)
(4.8)
For very smooth plates in a flow having a low level of ambient turbulence, R, can exceed 1 x 106• Since the velocity profile through the boundary Layer approaches the velocity outside the layer asymptotically, the thickness of the layer is vague. To be more definitive, a displacement thickness, 8*. is frequently used to measure the thickness of the layer. 6* is illustrated in Figure 4.2 and is defined mathematically by 6*
=
r (1 ~)
dy
(4.3)
where y is the normal distance without any boundary layer, the flow for the original plate with a be the boundary layer thickness
from the plate at any location such that, total flow past that location would equal the boundary layer. To clarify this further, let fj where, for aLI intents and purposes, u = V.
Observe that relatively speaking, the turbulent boundary layer is more uniform, with fj* being only oneeighth of b as compared to onethird for the laminar layer. In order to clarify the use of Figure 4.1 and Equations 4.5 to 4.8, Jet us consider the horizontal tail of the Cherokee pictured in Figure 3.62 at a velocity of 60.4 tnls (135 mph) at a 1524 m (5000 ft) standard altitude. We will assume that the tail can be approximately treated as a flat plate at zero angle of attack. From Figure 3.62, the length of the plate is 30 in or 0.762 m. The total wetted area, taking both sides and neglecting the fuselage, is 4.65 m2 (50 fe). From Figure 2.3, at an altitude of 1.52 krn, p = 0.1054 kg/m3 and v = 1.639 x 105 m2ls. We will assume that the transition Reynolds number is equal to 3x 105•
166
DRAG
SKIN FRICTION
DRAG
167
The distance Equation 4.2.
from the leading edge to the transition
point is found from
X=V
=
vR~
1.639 x 10
5
If the flow were turbulent would be C,
=
over the leading 0.455 (log., Rf2.58
portion
of the plate, its
q
x
3
x 60.4
1<Y Thus its drag for a turbulent
= =
0.455 (log., 3 x 1<y)2.5B 0.00566 layer would be
= 0.0814 m (3.2 in.)
The Reynolds number based on the total length wiJI be equal to R1=VI
V
boundary
D = qC{S",
=
(1923)(0.00566)(0.497)
= 5.35N
The above is 5.35  2.31, or 3.04 N flow. Hence this difference must be previously calculated assuming the entire plate. Hence the final drag of D
= = =
=
60.4 (0.762) 1.639 x 10 5
X
= 2.81
106 then, from Figure 4.1, (4.9)
If the flow over the tail were entirely turbulent
higher than the actual drag for laminar subtracted from the total drag of 33.17 N boundary layer to be turbulent over the the total horizontal tail is estimated to be
Cr
The dynamic pressure
= =
0.455 (log., R,f2•58 0.00371
33.17  3.04 30.13 N 6.77 lb. layer at the beginning of transition
q for this case is
q
=
pV2/2 0.1054 (60.4f 2
The thickness, 6, of the laminar boundary can be calculated from Equation 4.5.
{j =
=
1923 N/m2
5.2 (0.0814)(3 x l(fr'/2 = 7.728 x 104 m
=
0.0304 in. from
Hence the total skin friction
drag would be
D=qS ..q
= =
The thickness of the turbulent layer right after transition is found Equation 4.7 assuming the layer to have started at the leading edge.
$ = 0.37(0.0814)(3
=
X
1923 (4.65)(0.00371) 33.17 N area of (4.10)
103)115
2.418
X
103 m
However, the leading portion of the plate is laminar. The wetted this portion is equal to 0.497 m'. For laminar flow over this portion,
=
0.0952 in. of the turbulent layer win be
At the trailing edge, the thickness 8
Cf
=
1.328R1/2 x 10
5
= 1.328 (3
=
r'n
= 0.37(0.762)(2.81
= =
x 106rl/5
0.00242
0.0l45m 0.5696 in.
Hence the drag of this portion
of the plate is equal to 1923(0.00242)(0.497) 2.31 N
D=qqS",
= =
The displacement thickness at the trailing edge is thus only 0.0018 m (0.071 in.). Before leaving the topic of skin friction drag, the importance of surface roughness should be discussed. Surface roughness can have either a benefi~ial or adverse effect on drag. If it causes premature transition, it can result m a
so is skin friction drag except for the simplest cases. then its effect on q will be minimal. v FIgure 4. For that matter. First.3 Flat plate normal to flow. It is difficult to quantify the increment in Cj as a function of roughness. in general cases. in accordance with Figure 4. Here. the resulting turbulent C. Thus the high pressure acting over the front and the low pressure over the rear result in a high form drag. is higher than q for laminar flow. a laminar boundary layer develops. form drag is difficult to predict.3. An approximate estimate of the effect of roughness.. Thus. where the total drag results from both normal and tangential stresses (or pressures) one must usually resort to experimental data to estimate the drag. the use of flush riveting near the trailing edge is probably not justified. The grains were spread thinly to cover 5 to 10% of the area. An examination of the drag data with and without the standard roughness discloses a 50 to 60% increase in airfoil drag resulting from the roughness. for a given type of flow laminar or turbulent. The extreme case of a flat plate normal to the ftow is pictured in Figure 4.168 DRAG FORM DRAG 169 reduced form drag by delaying separation. the static pressure (normal) is highest at the stagnation point and decreases to a minimum at the top and bottom. Probably the NACA standard roughness is too severe for highspeed aircraft employing extensive flush riveting with particular attention to the surface finish.4).1.78) and there would be no drag. can be obtained by examining the airfoil data of Reference 3.5a flow is pictured at a low Reynolds number.61m (2ft) chords consisted of O. by causing premature transition. its momentum is insufficient to move against the positive pressure gradient. There is no skin friction drag present in this case. In the case of a production light aircraft for general aviation usage. Moving around toward the rear.4.Ol1in. Thus. referred to as an adverse gradient. surface roughness increases the skin friction coefficient. a body generally experiences some form drag. for the preceding example of the horizontal tail for the Cherokee. Cj increases as the surface is roughened. if a roughness lies well within the boundary layer thickness. Generally. In the absence of viscosity the normal pressure distribution would be symmetrical (Equation 2. Results are presented for airfoils having both smooth and rough surfaces. 4. since roughness comes in many forms. To see why. Second. tending toward the stagnation pressure at the very rear. As the slower moving fluid in the laminar boundary layer moves beyond the minimum pressure point on the cylinder.4 Body having both skin friction and form drag. and thus the flow separates just past the top and bottom locations on the cylinder. . Adversely. beyond these points.028cm (O. For some information on this. In Figure 4. As with skin friction drag. beginning at the stagnation point. Here the drag is totally the result of an unbalance in the normal pressure distribution. Generally. This is explained more fully in the next section.) carborundum grains applied to the model surface starting at the leading edge and extending 8% of the chord back on both the upper and lower surfaces. Ref. consider the flow around the circular cylinder pictured in Figure 4.5. form drag results from the distribution of pressure normal to the body's surface. FORM DRAG In addition to skin friction drag. v Figure 4. On the surface of the cylinder. which states that a body in a inviscid fluid will experience no drag.1. form drag is generally dependent on Reynolds number.g. Unlike the skin friction drag that results from viscous shearing forces tangential to a body's surface. the static pressure increases. such as that pictured in Figure 4. refer to the outstanding collection of drag data noted previously (e. In the separated region over most of the rear portion of the cylinder the static pressure is constant and equal to the low pressure at the top and bottom. the standard roughness could be quite appropriate. This is a clear example of D' Alembert's paradox. It is difficult to say how applicable these results are to production aircraft. say of the order of the displacement thickness. at least on streamlined bodies. The NACA "standard" roughness for O.
Large wake. 0..10 4 2 4 S= fd v _ . rn 0. Cd is based on the projected frontal area.r.6 Cd S (a) ~ . (a) Low Reynolds number.6 Drag coefficients of cylinders and spheres versus Reynolds number.2 \ ~ . (b) Spheres. because of reduced form drag. Although not concerned with drag per se.S 0. the vorticity in the boundary layer is shed symmetrically from the upper and lower surfaces to form two vortices of opposite rotation. neither will streamlined shapes.. \ \ Figure 4. Cd as a function of Reynolds number is presented in Figure 4. Thus. Figure 4.5b.. S. Here.4 (h) 0. known as the Strouhal number.3 Cd <.6a also includes the 0.08 0.6 for both spheres and twodimensional circular cylinders. (a) Twodimensional Circular cylinders.2 0. Therefore. Hz II.1 Reynolds number (a) . S characterizes an interesting. so that succeeding vortices are then shed alternately from the upper and lower surfaces. the symmetrical placement of the vortex pair is unstable. / is the frequency at which the . in t~is case. However. rn/s d.170 DRAG 2.I + ~'&'W ~ 0. A body shap~ having a welldefined separation point wiU not exhibit a critical Reynolds number..4 0.f+ \ . the drag coefficient of a cylinder is lower at higher Reynolds numbers. Separation occurs before transition.. The resulting flow pattern of periodically spaced vortices downstream of the body is known as a Karman vortex street. The subsequent turbulent mixing increases the momentum and energy of the boundary layer so that it remains attached toward the rear of the cylinder. ~ " 0.6 0.behavior of bluff bodies with rounded trailing edges. Here the laminar boundary layer undergoes transition to a turbulent boundary layer before separating. the separation region is much smaller and the static pressure is higher on the rear of the cylinder than for the laminar case. Transition occurs before separation. quantity JDIV. This is the socalled critica! Reynolds number.5 Flow over a circular cylinder.0 O. "Subcritical" refers to flow at Reynolds numbers that are less than critical' "su~ercritical" denotes R values that are higher than critical.0 FORM DRAG 171 c. Small wake. As such a body first begins to move through a fluid. (b) High Reynolds number.1 The highReynolds number case is shown in Figure 4.3 0. In the definition of Strouhal number. well beyond the separation point of the laminar layer.~~. Note the rapid drop in Cd above an R value of approximately 2 x 1(f.t 1. where the transition point is nearly coincident with the separation point. k ~ f.06 104 2 4 6 8 105 4 Reynolds number • Vd v (b) Figure 4.
226)(8f(1...7 Cd = 0. From the KuttaJoukowski law.456 x 10 s 1.863N/m 1. where the point of flow separation is well defined and not dependent on Reynolds number. i= VS d 8(0. for this Reynolds number.2 = = Vd v 8(0. R = ~ ~ ~ ~ 1.172 DRAG vortices are shed.1)(0. Assuming standard sea level conditions. to twodimensional drag for 173 . It is not too surprising to find that drag coefficients for such shapes are nearly constant over a wide range of Reynolds number values.) ( ~ ~ ~ ~ c.7a.. .6a.7 Three+dimensional Thus the drag per unit length on the wire will be D= qCdd = = Figure 4. consider a wire 2 cm in diameter in a wind blowing at a speed of 8 m/s.18  = = = 20 ~2 2 ~1 Cd 2.6a.1 0.18) 0.6 =72Hz Let us now consider the extreme case of form drag illustrated in Figure 4. FIgure 4. Cd = l.4 Cd = = 1.0 The frequency of the alternating lift force on the wire will be.3. As a vortex is shed from one surface of the cylinder.099 X 104 C" 14 C" ~ 1.02) O. A number of such shapes are pictured in Figure 4. a force on the cylinder normal to V results.0 From Figure 4. As the next vortex is shed.4 0. Cd(2D) Cd(3D) 0. of Rey ~(1.8 0..02 0. Threedimensional shapes are aLIbodies of revolution.. Observe that for the same profile shape.7ft Transition cylinders at supercritical from threedimensional Reynolds numbers. This figure presents values for both twodimensional and threedimensional shapes. As an example of the use of Figure 4.2  Reciprocal of aspect ratio = 18 . the force reverses its direction. This particular phenomenon is the cause for the "singing" of telephone wires in the wind.7a Examples of shapes having Cd values nearly independent nolds number.1 1. it produces a momentary circulation around the cylinder opposite in direction to the vortex.t = 1.98 ~ ~ 1 C.2 Cd = 1.3 ~ ~ Cd = 2. resulting in an alternating force on the cylinder.02) 1.0 to 1.18 Twodimensional Cd 0. C" S = = .
. R Corner radius as fraction of height 1 I Supercritical R Cd = 0. = ~ 104 3 4 6 2 3 II. 3 4 3 Reynolds number. This curve is based on data from several sources.6 0. ) Reynolds number.4.6 0.7h..0 0. 2.0 GIi .3 4.167 4.98 2 3. C varies approximately in the manner given by the normalized curve of Figure 4.. the drag 3.333 0.0 Cd = 1.8 0.10 Drag coefficients Reynolds number..3 r~'.8 0. GJ 0.8 0..55 0. A qualitative evaluation of the drag coefficient for a given shape can be made using some "educated intuition. including Reference 4.4 C. "j Figure 4.2 0.500 6 810" :2 Subcritical R Reynolds number... 0.0 Cd = 1.0 3.0 (j) Qualitative estimate of drag for twodimensional shapes. R 4 2 3 0..4 0. Cd is nearly constant and equal to the 3D value.0 G) 1 ~[]1 c.021 0.9 Drag reduction of a high drag shape.[} 0. ~ ~1 0.3 104 2 G .250 8 Figure 4.042 L 3 4 6 8 106  GJ 0.4 0. for various cyl ind rical shapes as a function of .8..174 DRAG If the ratio of the span to the height (or diameter) of a flat plate (or cylinder) normal to the flow is approximately 5 or less. Rgure 4.083 ~0 1..3 10' 2 ® ~ 3 4 :2 3 .. 4 2 3 ~[J .. For aspect ratios greater than 5.0 Cd 8) 1.0 2.167 ~ 0.021 2." Referring to Figure 4...
the drag is principally form drag. it might be well in either case to use fineness ratios higher than these. the data in Figure 4.9. smooth surface. nacelles. more and more of its drag is attributable to skin friction. the skin friction drag predominates. based on the pro 0. For example. as the fineness ratio becomes large.13.8 can be reduced significantly by providing a body behind it to which the flow can reattach. Conversely. and airships is composed of both form drag and skin friction drag.11 is to be expected.v~ ~ ~ I'" Length~ I Milximum thickness Fineness ratio = Lcnqrn """M:. Cd is given as a function of fineness ratio in Figure 4. At the other extreme. R107 based on length.6 and 4.12 Minimum Cd for four and fivedigit airfoils of varying camber ratios as a function of thickness ratio. This is illustrated in Figure 4. Co"based on frontal area. submarines. a fineness ratio of 1. the low pressure in the separated region between the front and the afterbody reacts on both parts.x. At low values of fineness ratio.0 corresponds to a circular cylinder and sphere for twodimensional and threedimensional shapes.OOB 0.8. and 4. The crossover of the two curves in Figure 4. 4. in this case.10 are provided (Ref.5). one would expect. of fineness DRAG OF STREAMLINED SHAPES The drag of shapes such as airfoils. respectively. In order to provide an additional basis for estimating the drag of twodimensional sections. 177 . Based on the projected frontal area. if one wishes to fair a blunt shape of a given frontal area. With regard to drag. Intuitively.1 3D 2 3 4 5 6 7 B Fineness ratio Figure 4.006 R = 6 x 10" 0L_ ~ 0. As opposed to Figure 4.7. for the same projected frontal area.11 Drag coefficients for streamlined shapes as a function ratio. and at a value of approximately 3 for a twodimensional shape. This figure shows that for a shape with sharp corners.. In this figure.:. As the fineness ratio (length/maximum thickness) of a streamlined shape increases.12. in view of the sharp rise in both curves at the lower fineness ratios.010 .m". 0.08 Rgure 4.11. the trailing edge shape of a body is usually more important than the leading edge shape. Beginning with the top figure and working downward. such a progression is visualized by picturing the flow as separating tangent to the surface and then being turned gradually in the direction of the main flow.:'c:"':'m::"'t"'"hic"7kness a 0. that the widths of the wakes would diminish progressively.4 0. O. However. a rounding of the corners will reduce the drag coefficient as well as the critical Reynolds number.. If Cf is assumed to be the same for either the twodimensional or threedimensional shapes. the drag of the top shape in Figure 4.4. say around 4. at low fineness ratios. fuselages. Notice that the minimum drag occurs at a fineness ratio of approximately 2 for a threedimensional shape.. Cd based on chord.16 ~ ~ ~ o 0. contributing little or nothing to the drag. the ratio of the Cd values.176 DRAG coefficient of a bluff shape depends on the width of the wake behind the body (before viscosity dissipates it). Data on the drag of twodimensional and threedimensional streamlined shapes are presented in Figures 4.11 at a high Reynolds number.12 t c L 0.3 _. based on the data of Figures 4. torpedoes.04 ~ L 0. Cd for the twodimensional shapes is higher than that for the threedimensional bodies.
According to Figure 4. but with more detail.005. Denoting the volume by Vm.4 = projected frontal 'IA area Fineness ratio. Data representing practical fuselage and nacelle construction are included in Figure 4. and a tail cone. this becomes Cd (3D) ~ Cd (2D) ~ 2" 7T Obviously. 1 d camber.1. the experimental results should approach one of these lines as the fineness ratio gets large. for fuselages.13) Using this relationship and Figure 4.0034. we will define another drag coefficient. Indeed. this would require laminar flow over these sections more extensive than one would expect.(3D) 4 SK·(2D) 7TD Cdy is related to C. Minimum profile drag coefficients for NACA four. For fully turbulent flow at an R of 25 x 106. It is also of interest to the design of tip tanks. q for a flat plate would be 0.)' 'n] (4. the ratio of the frontal area.Here. expected Cd values for various values of q are also included on the figure. appears to vary almost linearly with tlc and extrapolates to a value of 0.0026. For an elliptical twodimensional shape compared to an ellipsoid. For a given q value. transition is delayed until approximately the 25% chord point.0032 to 0. Cd is based on the chord length.11) This is close to the ratio from Figure 4.002. One would then expect a em. Figure 4.13 by Cdy = A Vmin Cd where D is the maximum threedimensional body diameter or the maximum thickness of the twodimensional shape. It is interesting to examine the data of Figure 4. This is particularly important for airship and underwater applications. as is usual for airfoils.14 were obtained. For this particular shape. (4.178 DRAG DRAG OF STREAMLINED SHAPES 179 Fuselaqe and nacelles R! variable but large . where minimum drag for a given volume of fuel is desirable. A. The higher skin friction drag on the bodies is probably the result of surface roughness." value of about 0. the location of maximum thickness. Note that C does not vary significantly with dm1. Cam. Cdy = Figure 4.11. D qVm 2/J (4. This corresponds to a Cf value of 0.13 presents threedimensional drag data directly comparable to Figure 4. From this figure it can be seen that to enclose a given volume with a minimum drag body. a cylindrical midbody extending to the middle of the body.13 in terms of minimum drag for a given body volume.13.12) jected frontal areas becomes S". the graphs presented in Figure 4. Probably.11 for a finess ratio of 8 and only slightly lower than the corresponding ratio given earlier for the form drag.and fivedigit airfoils are presented in Figure 4. in Figure 4.. the drag for a given volume is nearly constant for lid values from 4 to 10. Assuming a reasonable relationship between the frontal and wetted areas of such bodies. im~[(. to the 2/3 power of the volume depends on the particular body shape. We will assume the body to be composed approximately of a hemispherical nose.004 for a tic of zero.approximately 25 X 10" Or greater o Streamlined bodies of revolution WWllvintage fuselages nacelles ® Propengine c d = !2_ ..13 Drag of fuselages and similar shapes.13.12 as a function of thickness ratio at a Reynolds number of 6 x IO~. its fineness ratio should be higher than the optimum values from Figure 4. The several data points at each thickness ratio result from airfoils of different camber ratios. .:. whereas the data appears to be approaching a q of 0.13 together with Cd results from torpedoshaped bodies.
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