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Classification of Tissues
Tissue Structure and Function - General Review
1. Define tissue.
A group of cells similar to one another in structure that perform a common or related function.
2. Use the key choices to identify the major tissue types described below. Key: a. connective tissue b. epithelium c. muscle d. nervous tissue
b; epithelium c; muscle d; nervous c; muscle a; connective b; epithelium d; nervous
1. lines body cavities and covers the body's external surface 2. pumps blood, flushes urine out of the body, allows one to swing a bat 3. transmits electrochemical impulses 4. anchors, packages, and supports body organs
5. cells may absorb, secrete, and filter 6. most involved in regulating and controlling body functions 7. major function is to contract 8. synthesizes hormones 9. the most durable tissue type 10. abundant nonliving extracellular matrix 11. most widespread tissue in the body 12. forms nerves and the brain
b; epithelium a; connective a; connective a; connective d; nervous
3. Describe five general characteristics of epithelial tissue.
The cells fit closely together,forming sheetlike membranes.
Little intercellular material between the cells. Avascular. Membrane has afree edge. Generally has a high regenerative capacity.
. aSISare epit h e 1· 1 tissues c 1asslifIed? Number of layers and cell shape. Ia . . 4 . 0 n w h at basi
Simple epithelia allow materials to move across them and are less protective. 10. stratified squamous b. They produce hormones. stratified squamous transitional e. increasing the internal volume of the organ (e. simple cuboidal simple squamous e. which are liberated directly to the blood. and give examples of each. How does the function of stratified epithelia differ from the function of simple epithelia? layers for protection. How does it differ structurally from other stratified squamous epithelia? but when not stretched. f.S.g. oil. Key: a. its top layers are squamous. In the reproductive tract. How do the endocrine and exocrine glands differ in structure and function? Endocrine glands are ductless glands. simple columnar 1. 8. Respond to the following with the key choices. its top layers are pillow-shaped.. etc. which are ducted to the body (or membrane) surface. When stretched. 7. Transitional epithelium is actually stratified squamous epithelium with special characteristics. respectively). 9. it acts to propel sperm or ova (male andfemale tracts respectively) along the tract. List five major functions of epithelium in the body. Where is ciliated epithelium found? Lining of the respiratory tract and of the male andfemale reproductive tracts (ductus deferens and uterine tubes.). How does the structural difference support its function? The surface cells have the ability to slide over one another. lining of the stomach 38 Review Sheet 6A . lining of the esophagus 2. b. d. bladder) as it fills and maintaining an intact lining whether stretched or contracted. pseudostratified ciliated columnar simple columnar c. What role does it play? In the respiratory tract. digestive enzymes. it acts to sweep mucus superiorly away from the lungs. Exocrine glands maintain their ducts and manufacture secretions of various types (perspiration. Function 1: protection Function 2: absorption Function 3: filtration and secretion Function 4: secretion Function 5: sensory reception Example: Example: Example: Example: skin cells lining digestive tract kidney tubule cells glandular cells or kidney cells _ Example: free endings of sensory neurons Stratified epithelia have more 6.
structurally amorphous matrix heavily invaded with fibers. The nucleus is pushed to the periphery. 6. 7. dense 1. the large amount of nonliving matrix seen provides the strength needed to protect the body and carry out the normal functions of the body. dense e. simple cuboidal e. attaches bones to bones and muscles to bones 2. 5. adipose connective tissue areolar connective tissue dense fibrous connective tissue elastic cartilage fibrocartilage hematopoietic tissue hyaline cartilage osseous tissue 15. Why do adipose cells remind people of a ring with a single jewel? of the cell volume. adipose Key: a. and a large amount of extracellular matrix that varies with tissue type all characterize connective tissue. support. g. Transportation of substances within the body. 4. Using the key. alveolar sacs of lungs tubules of the kidney epidermis of the skin lining of bladder. makes up the intervertebral discs 5. 12. hyaline cartilage d. the dennis of the skin 4. giving the cell a "signet ring" appearance. c. e. What functions are performed by connective tissue? Protection. d. This is reflected in the wide variety offunctions There is a wide variety in the structures of they perform. f. and the embryonic skeleton 8. stratified squamous f. appears glassy and smooth 10. forms the hip bone 6. a soft packaging tissue with a jellylike matrix 7. 14. elastic cartilage g. simple squamous c. adipose c. 13. fibrocartilage h: osseous b: areolar g. firm.d. simple squamous 3. acts as a storage depot for fat 3. provides a flexible framework for the external ear 9. choose the best response to identify the connective tissues described below. peculiar cells that have the ability to slide over each other forms the thin serous membranes. a single layer of flattened cells Connective Tissue 11. hyaline cartilage h: osseous a. Also. and the binding together of other body tissues. the costal cartilages of the ribs. transitional d. composes basement membranes. matrix hard owing to calcium salts. forms the larynx. provides levers for muscles to act on 11. insulates against heat loss They contain a large fat-filled vacuole occupying most a. varied degrees of vascularity. How are the functions of connective tissue reflected in its structure? connective tissue. What are three general characteristics of connective tissues? Common origin of connective tissue from mesenchyme. c. Review Sheet 6A 39 . h. b.
/ Changes the internal volume of an organ as it contracts Tissue of the heart 40 Review Sheet 6A . This is facilitated by their long cytoplasmic extenstions.Nervous Tissue 16./ . 17. How are they different? Their cytoplasm is drawn out into long processes. Describe how the unique structure of a neuron relates to its function in the body./ ./ . Characteristic Voluntarily controlled Involuntarily controlled Striated Has a single nucleus in each cell Has several nuclei per cell Found attached to bones Allows you to direct your eyeballs Found in the walls of the stomach./ ./ ./ . and arteries Contains spindle-shaped cells Skeletal Cardiac Smooth . In what ways are neurons similar to other cells? They contain a nucleus and the usual organelles. Neurons conduct impulses over relatively long distances in the body./ Contains branching cylindrical cells Contains long. non branching cylindrical cells Has intercalated discs Concerned with locomotion ./ ./ ./ ./ . Muscle Tissue 19./ ./ ./ . uterus. What two physiological characteristics are highly developed in neurons (nerve cells)? Irritability and conductivity. The three types of muscle tissue exhibit similarities as well as differences./ . Check the appropriate space in the chart to indicate which muscle types exhibit each characteristic./ ./ ./ of the body as a whole . 18.
Label the tissue types illustrated here and on the next pages.. or dense regular connective tissue Review Sheet 6A 41 ..q-(a) Simple columnar epithelial Basement membrane (b) Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial ~---":~--Nuclei of epithelial cells L.".".Simple columnar epithelial cell Pseudostratified epithelial layer "".<-.4.'-+-.For Review 20. Connective tissue -7-~""f'i. and identify all structures provided with leaders..is"-'sue (c) Stratified squamous epithelial A-f-- Nucleus of fibroblast >=....Fibers of matrix (e) Areolar connective tissue (f) Dense fibrous connective tissue..-...::==- "----if----' Basement membrane (d) Transitional epithelial Connective '----i-t::"..f-.
.---+- Vacuole containing fat droplet (i) Adipose tissue (j) Smooth muscle tissue Intercalated discs (k) Skeletal muscle tissue (I) Cardiac muscle tissue 42 Review Sheet 6A ..b-- Nuclei of fat cells ------'if---.~~~b--- Lacunae (g) Bone (osseous tissue) (h) Hyaline cartilage 't'i-------'....
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