You are on page 1of 224

Anetymologicallexicon

ofProtoCeltic(in
progress)[Matasovic]

r
EditedinPDFformatforhomeuseonlybyCuonorix.

Totalof1215records

Please,visit(originalsourceandmoreinformations):
http://www.indoeuropean.nl/cgibin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=\data\ie\

celtic&first=1
Forabetteruseofthis,wesuggestthesearchtoolofthePDFreadersoftware.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 1

ProtoCeltic:*abaln'appletree'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:afon[f]

OldIrish:aball[f]

MiddleBreton:auon

MiddleWelsh:afall[f]

Cornish:auon

MiddleBreton:avallenn,OBret.aballen

Gaulish:ambegl.rivo

Cornish:auallengl.malus

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eph3on'river'

Gaulish:auallogl.poma

PageinPokorny:1

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eph3oln

IEcognates:Hitt.hpa,Lat.amnis,OHGaffa
(inrivernames)

PageinPokorny:1
Seealso:*abalo'apple'
References:LEIAA6,DGVB50,EIEC25,
GPCI:41,Campanile1974:10f.

Notes:OIr.aubclearlypointstoPCelt.*ab,
Acc.*abonen;theform*abon(>MWafon)
wasbuilttothisstem.

ProtoCeltic:*abalo'apple'[Noun]

References:LEIAA4,LP38,EIEC486,GPC
I:43,Lambert1994:203,Matasovic2004:
104,Stber1998:97f.,Campanile1974:11.

OldIrish:ubull[on](DILuball)

ProtoCeltic:*ad'to'[Preposition]

MiddleWelsh:afal[m]

OldIrish:ad

MiddleBreton:aval,OBret.abal

MiddleWelsh:add

Gaulish:avallo(Vienne)gl.poma

Gaulish:Adianto[PN]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eph3ol'apple'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ed'to,at'

PageinPokorny:1

PageinPokorny:3

IEcognates:OHGapful,OCSablko

IEcognates:Lat.ad,Go.at

Seealso:*abaln

Notes:MWeddyl'target'ispresumablyderived
fromPCelt.*adilo,withthesamesuffixasOE
til'to,until',cp.alsoOEtilian'reach'.Ifso,the
Germanicformsarefrom*h2dilo,which
meansthatthePIEroothadablaut(*h2ed/
*h2d).

Notes:TheCelticformscanbederivedfromthe
obliquecasesofthePIElstemNs*h2eph3ol
(*h2eph3l)/Gs*h2(e)ph3los.Thegeminate
llcouldhavearisenunderanalogicalinfluence
of*abaln'appletree'.
References:LEIAU12f.,DGVB50,EIEC25f,
GPCI:40,Delamarre28f.,HampZCP
37/1979:158166.
ProtoCeltic:*abon'river'[Noun]

References:LEIAA13,Falileyev3,GPC31
ProtoCeltic:*ad'hawthorn'[Noun]
OldIrish:aide[Gens]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ed(h)

OldIrish:ab,aub[nf]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 2

IEcognates:Hitt.hat(t)alkisnas
'hawthorn/whitethornbranch'
References:Watkins1993.
ProtoCeltic:*adbert'offering,victim'
[Noun]
OldIrish:edbart(DILidbart)[f]
MiddleWelsh:aperth[mandf](OW),MW[m
andf]aberth'sacrifice'
Notes:TheOIr.wordisactuallytheverbalnoun
ofadopair'sacrifices,offers'.
References:Falileyev9,GPCI:2,Hamp1982.
ProtoCeltic:*addamyo'allow,permit'[Verb]
OldIrish:addaim'recognize,permit'
MiddleWelsh:addef'acknowledge,confess'
Seealso:*damyo

Gaulish:appisetu[Impv.](Thiaucourt)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kweys'perceive'
PageinPokorny:637
IEcognates:Avestancinahmi'determine',Gr.ti
'reckon'
References:KPV431ff.,LIV381f.,LEIA
C89ff.,RIGII.2:269ff.,Delamarre51,
Lambert1994:126,150159
ProtoCeltic:*adreto'reach,grasp'[Verb]
OldIrish:adreith
MiddleWelsh:eiryt[3sPres.]
Seealso:*reto
References:KPV538ff.
ProtoCeltic:*sanna'reach'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*adkubro'wish'[Noun]

OldIrish:seinnid,seinn'reach,bringsomeone
tosomething';seiss,se[Subj.];sifais,sif(e)
[Fut.];sephaind[Pret.];sessae,sess[Pret.
Pass.]

OldIrish:accobor[om]

Gaulish:?soniti

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kup'wish'

Celtiberian:?uerzoniti[3s](BotorritaI)

PageinPokorny:596

ProtoIndoEuropean:*senh2'reach,find,
attain'

References:KPV260ff,GPCI:32.

IEcognates:Lat.cupio'wish',Skt.kupyati'be
angry'
Notes:TheOIr.wordisactuallytheverbalnoun
ofadcobra'wish',whichisitselfofdeadjectival
origin,cp.Oscancyprum'good'(Varro,L.L.V
159).Cp.alsodeaCupra(Picenum).Anold
compoundfromthisrootismilchobar'honey
desiring=bear'(asemanticparallelisprovided
byRuss.medved''bear'(lit.'honeyeater').
References:LEIAA10,Watkins1962a,Uhlich
2002:418f.
ProtoCeltic:*adkwiso'see'[Verb]
OldIrish:adci,aicci;accai[Pret.];adcess,
aiccess[Pass.]

PageinPokorny:906
IEcognates:Hitt.sanahzi'seeks',Skt.sanoti
'attains'
References:KPV558ff.,LIV532f.,Lambert
1994:173,LEIAS86f.,Delamarre278,Co
lera1998:89,186.
ProtoCeltic:*ay(s)to'life,age'[Noun]
OldIrish:aes,oes[on]
MiddleWelsh:ois(OW)[f]'age',MWoes;oit
[fandm](OW)'time,period',MWoed
MiddleBreton:oit(OBret.),MBret.oet

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 3

Cornish:huisgl.seculum(OCo.),Co.oys
Celtiberian:aiuizas(?)(BotorritaI)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eywo'age'
IEcognates:Lat.aeuum,Go.aiws
Notes:TheGoidelicandBritishformsdifferto
someextent.Perhapsweshouldreconstruct
bothPCelt.*ayto(>MWoed)and*aysso<
*aytso(MWoes).Cp.alsoOgamPNAvitto
rigesandOBret.Oedri.
References:LEIAA21,LP9,Falileyev124,
DGVB275,Campanile1974:66,Schrijver
1995:194
ProtoCeltic:*ambi'around'[Preposition]
OldIrish:imb,imm[aspirating,+Acc.]
MiddleWelsh:im(OW),MWam
MiddleBreton:am,em

(sometimesspelleddaingen)issometimes
connectedwiththisroot.Theformdaigen
pointstoaprotoform*degino(withe>a
beforepalatalizedg,asindaig'wall')<PCl.
*degwi.Thischangewaspriortoraisingand
lowering,soonecannotderivedaigenfrom
**diginoandrelateittothePIEroot*dheyg'h.
Itcould,however,befrom*dhegwh'burn,
heat'(see*degwi).
References:KPV276ff.,LIV140,LP357f,
McCone1991:41,46f.
ProtoCeltic:*fare'infrontof'[Preposition]
OldIrish:air,ar[aspirating,+Acc,+Dat.]
MiddleWelsh:ar,er
MiddleBreton:er,ar
Gaulish:Aremorici[Ethnonym]
Celtiberian:arekorata(A52)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*prH(i)'infrontof'

Gaulish:ambi
Celtiberian:ambi(ampi)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2embhi'around,about'

PageinPokorny:810812
IEcognates:Skt.pur,Gr.para,OHGfuri

IEcognates:Skt.abhi,Gr.amphi,Lat.ambi

Notes:LEIAA37relatestheCelt.formstoGr.
peri,Go.faur,Lat.per(PIE*peri'near'),but
thisislessprobableinlightofthevocalism
(*rHV>arisexpected).

References:EIEC32,Delamarre41f.,Falileyev
90,Colera1998:88,96,103

References:LEIAA37,GOI497f.,Delamarre
52,Villar1997:902.

ProtoCeltic:*dingo'knead,form,press'
[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*bedo'grave,ditch'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:34

OldIrish:dingid,ding;didis[Fut.];dedaig
[Pret.];decht[Pret.Pass.]
Celtiberian:ambitinkounei'build'<*ambi
dingo[Inf]
PageinPokorny:244f.
IEcognates:Lat.fingo
Notes:TheconnectionoftheCeltiberianform
withthisstemisnotcertain;see,however,KPV
277.OIr.adjectivedaigen'firm,fast,solid'

MiddleWelsh:bedd[m];beddau,beddi[p]
MiddleBreton:bez
Cornish:beth
Celtiberian:(arkato)bezom(K.0.7)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhedh'dig'
PageinPokorny:113f.
IEcognates:Lat.fodio,Go.badi'bed',Lith.
bedu,besti

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 4

Notes:Thesamewordispreservedin
toponymy,e.g.inthehydronymsLeBe,Le
Bez,etc.inFrance,aswellasinsomesubstrate
wordsinFrenchandItaliandialects(see
Delamarre70)
References:GPCI:267,LP36,Delamarre70,
Villar1997:906.

Notes:TheMWformbuisusedonlyin
countingcows;otherwise,thederivativebuchis
used,withparallelsinMBret.buch,Corn.buch.
References:LEIAB61,GPCI:342,DGVB88,
LHEB641,EIEC98,134,Delamarre79f.,Co
lera1998:14,39,Villar1997:907.

ProtoCeltic:*arganto'silver'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*kanxsman'step,actofstepping'
[Noun]

OldIrish:argat[tn]

OldIrish:ceimm[nn]

MiddleWelsh:argant(OW),MWariant[m]
(GPCarian,ariant)

MiddleWelsh:cemmein[p](OW),MWcam
[m]

MiddleBreton:argant(OBret.),Bret.arc'hant

MiddleBreton:cam

Cornish:argans

Cornish:cam

Gaulish:Argantomagus[Toponym]

Celtiberian:Camanom(?)(Botorrita)

Celtiberian:arkato(K.0.7)

Notes:Vulg.Latin*cammnus'path,way'(F
chemin,Ital.camino,etc.)arereflexesofthe
Gaulishcognateofthisword.Ifinditdoubtful
whetherCeltib.Camanombelongshere,butc.
Schrijver1995:375andMeid1994a:22.(who
interpretscamanomas'way').

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2erg'nto
PageinPokorny:64
IEcognates:Lat.argentum,Skt.rajata
References:LEIAA88,EIEC518,641.,
DGVB72,Falileyev11,GPCI:203,LP33,
LHEB467f.,Colera1998:20,Lambert1994:
76f.,Delamarre53,Birkhan1970:121,
Campanile1974:9.,McCone1994:80.

References:LEIAC55,GPCI:396,Falileyev
25,DeBernardoStempel1999:265,Stber
1998:64,Schrijver1995:375,Meid1994a:22,
Eska1989:145.
ProtoCeltic:*ekwo,*ekwlo'horse'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*bow'cow'[Noun]

OldIrish:ech[om]

OldIrish:bo[irregularf]

MiddleWelsh:ebawl'foal'[m](GPCebol)

MiddleWelsh:bu,buw[mandf]

MiddleBreton:eb'horse'(OBret.),ebol'foal'
(OBret.),MBret.ebeul

MiddleBreton:boutig'stable'
Gaulish:Bomarus[PN]
Celtiberian:boustom(?)'stable'(BotorritaI)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gww'cow'
PageinPokorny:482

Cornish:ebolgl.pullus(OCo.)
Gaulish:Epos[PN]
Celtiberian:Ekualaku[PN](A.63)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1ek'wo'horse'
PageinPokorny:301

IEcognates:Lat.bs,OHGchuo,Skt.gau,
Arm.kov
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 5

IEcognates:Luw.auwa,Skt.asvas,Lat.
equus,OEeoh,ToByakwe
Notes:Gaul.Equos'nameoftheninthmonth'
(Coligny)mightbeanarchaicform(with
preservedqu<*kw),butitmightalsobea
Latinloanword.TheBrit.forms(exceptOBret.
eb)arefromaderivative*ekwlo(cp.also
Celtib.Ekualaku).

References:GPCI:1160,DGVB154,GOI
507ff.,Delamarre169,OFlaithearta1997:
658.
ProtoCeltic:*kantom'100'[Numeral]
OldIrish:cet
MiddleWelsh:cant(OW),MWcant

References:GPCI:1156,DGVB154,EIEC98,
274,Delamarre163ff.,Campanile1974:41,De
BernardoStempel1999:43,219

MiddleBreton:cant(OBret.),Bret.kant

ProtoCeltic:*enter'between'[Preposition]

Gaulish:Cantomili[PN]

OldIrish:eter[AspiratinginMid.Ir.,+Acc.]

Celtiberian:kantom(BotorritaI)

MiddleWelsh:ithr(OW),MWythr

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'mtom'100'

MiddleBreton:entr(OBret.)

PageinPokorny:192

Gaulish:Entarabo[TheonymDat.]

IEcognates:Lat.centum,Go.hund

Celtiberian:entara(Botorrita)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1enter'into,between'

References:LEIAC82,GPCI:418,DGVB96,
Delamarre104,Falileyev21,Campanile1974:
21.

PageinPokorny:313

ProtoCeltic:*gabyo'take,hold'[Verb]

IEcognates:Lat.inter,OHGuntar(i),Alb.nder

OldIrish:gaibid,gaib;gaba[Subj.];geba
[Fut.];gabais,gab[Pret.],gabad[Pret.Pass.]

References:GOI510,DGVB161,EIEC63,
Delamarre163,Falileyev98.
ProtoCeltic:*exs'outof,from'[Preposition
OldIrish:ess,a

Cornish:cans

MiddleWelsh:adgabael(OW),MWcaffael
'get,receive',keiff[3sPres.];cauas[Pret.]
MiddleBreton:caffout
Cornish:kavoes,gauaelgl.prehensio(OCo.)

MiddleWelsh:ech,eh
MiddleBreton:ech(OBret.)
Gaulish:ex

Gaulish:gabi[2sImpv.]
Celtiberian:kapizeti[3s](BotorritaI)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ghHbh

Celtiberian:es,es
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(h1)eg'hs
PageinPokorny:292f.
IEcognates:Lat.ex,Gr.eks,OCSiz

PageinPokorny:407ff.
IEcognates:Lat.habeo'have'
References:KPV318ff.,LIV195,LP365ff.,
EIEC707,MorrisJones1913:343ff.,RIGII.2:
330f.,Lambert1994:123,212,Eska1989:168.
ProtoCeltic:*kwe'and'[Conjunction]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 6

PageinPokorny:700
OldIrish:ch

IEcognates:Skt.mt,Lat.mter

Gaulish:etic

Notes:TheBritishformsmean'aunt'andare
from*mtrikw(cp.Skt.mtrka'mother's
brother').

Celtiberian:kue
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwe'and'
PageinPokorny:635
IEcognates:Lat.que,Gr.te,Skt.ca
References:LEIAC89,Colera1998:17,103,
149
ProtoCeltic:*Lugu'godLug',perhaps
originally'theshinyone'[Noun]
OldIrish:Lug[NP]
MiddleWelsh:Llew
Gaulish:Lugus

References:LEIAM25,GPCIII:2473,DGVB
260,EIEC98,385,Delamarre220,Colera
1998:70,75.
ProtoCeltic:*medu'mead,alcoholicdrink'
[Noun]
OldIrish:mid[un>m]
MiddleWelsh:medd[m]
MiddleBreton:medotgl.ebrietas(OBret.),
MBret.mez
Cornish:med,meth
Gaulish:Medugenos[PN]

Celtiberian:Luguei[Dat.s]
Notes:Cp.theparallelismofthecompoundPNs
OIr.Lugaid(GenLuigdech),Ogam
LUGUDECCAS(CIICno.263)andGaul.
Lucudeca'servingthegodLug'<PCelt.*Lugu
deks(Uhlich2002:409).Forthesecond
elementofthiscompoundseePCelt.*dekos.
References:EIEC97,Delamarre211,Colera
1998:63,207ff,Uhlich2002:409.
ProtoCeltic:*mtr'mother'[Noun]
OldIrish:mathir[r,f]`mother`
MiddleWelsh:modryb[f]'aunt'
MiddleBreton:motrep'aunt'(OBret.),MBret.
mozreb'aunt'
Cornish:moderebgl.matertera(OCo.)'aunt'
Gaulish:matrebo[r,f][Dat.p]
Celtiberian:matrubos(?)[Dat.p](CILII2848,
MurodeAgreda)

Celtiberian:Mezukenos[PN](BotorritaIII)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*medhu'mead'
PageinPokorny:707
IEcognates:Skt.madhu,Gr.methy'wine'
Notes:OBret.medotcorrespondstoMW
meddawt'drunkenness';bothrepresenta
derivative*medtu.
References:LEIAM48,GPCIII:2394,LP36,
EIEC271,313,Delamarre222f.,Colera1998:
26,190ff.
ProtoCeltic:*bina'strike,hit'[Verb]
OldIrish:benaid;bia[Subj.];biu[1sFut.];bi
[Pret.];bith[Pret.Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:kymynu'hit,cutdown'<*kom
bina;kymyn[3sPres.]
MiddleBreton:benaff'cut'
Gaulish:biietutu'shouldstrike'[Impv.]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meh2tr'mother'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 7

Celtiberian:nebintor'shouldnotbehit'[3p
Impv.Med.](BotorritaI)

IEcognates:Skt.nar'man,male',Oscan
nerum[Genp]'man'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bheyH

Seealso:*nero

PageinPokorny:117f.

References:LEIAN10f.,GPCIII:2571f.,
DGVB266,LP47,EIEC366,Colera1999:
121f.,DeBernardoStempel1999:240ff.,
Delamarre235,Falileyev119,EllisEvans
1967:237.

IEcognates:OLat.perfines'youshouldstrike'
OCSbiti'strike'
References:LIV72,KPV226ff.,LEIA
B3234,McCone1991:11,125,RIGII.2:
251266,Lambert1994:160172,214f.
ProtoCeltic:*nekwe'not'[Negation]

ProtoCeltic:*nest'not'[Negation]
OldIrish:ni
MiddleWelsh:ni(OW),MWny,nyt(GPCni)

OldIrish:nach
MiddleWelsh:nag

MiddleBreton:ne(OBret.),MBret.ne
Cornish:ny

Celtiberian:nekue
ProtoIndoEuropean:*nekwe
PageinPokorny:756
IEcognates:Lneque

Celtiberian:ne
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ne
PageinPokorny:756
IEcognates:Skt.na,Lat.ne,Go.ni

Seealso:*nest
References:LEIAN14,GPCIII:2549,Colera
1998:103.
ProtoCeltic:*nerto'strenth,force'[Noun]
OldIrish:nert[on]
MiddleWelsh:nerth[mandf](OWandMW)

Notes:PCelt.*neispreservedinCeltiberian,
butdevelopedtoniinInsularCeltic;theparticle
addedtothemainclausenegationinInsular
Celticcannotbeidentifiedwithcertainty.Ithas
tobeassumed,however,becausethereis
geminationofthefollowingwordinitial
consonantinbothGoidelicandBritish.For
discussionsee,e.g.Schrijver1997:158.

MiddleBreton:nerthgl.robur(OBret.),
MoBret.nerz,Vannetaisnerh

References:LEIAN14,GPCIII2581,DGVB
264,Falileyev119f.,Colera1998:103,
Schrijver1997:158

Cornish:nerth

ProtoCeltic:*rextu'rule,law'[Noun]

Gaulish:Nertomaros[PN],Nertobriga
[Toponym]

OldIrish:recht[um]

Celtiberian:Nertobi(s)[Toponym],Nertomarus
[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2nerto'virile,strong'
PageinPokorny:765

MiddleWelsh:reyth(GPCrhaith)[f]'law,
sermon,jury,verdict'
MiddleBreton:reiz'law,rule,arrangement'
Gaulish:Rectugenus,Rextugenus
Celtiberian:retukeno[Gens,PN]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 8

Seealso:*rego'extend,stretch'
References:LEIAR12,GPCIII:3033,EIEC
485,DeBernardoStempel1999:291,Meid
1994:45f.,Meid2005:125f.
ProtoCeltic:*sego'force'[Noun]
OldIrish:seg[om]
MiddleWelsh:hy'bold,brave'(GPChy,hyf)
Gaulish:Segomaros[PN]
Lepontic:seeu(?)<*seged'Leponticcoin'
Celtiberian:Segouia(?)[Toponym],
Sekobirikez[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*seg'h'hold(byforce)'
PageinPokorny:888
IEcognates:Skt.sahate'beable,support',Gr.e
kh'hold',Go.sigis'victory'
Notes:Celtib.asekati(Botorrita)mightreflect
*adseg(Eska1989).
References:LEIAS68,GPCII:1945,LIV467,
EIEC123,Delamarre269f.,Colera1998:31.
ProtoCeltic:*sista'put,stand'[Verb]
OldIrish:sissidir,sissedar'stand';siasair
[Pret.]

Gaulish:dede[Pret.](Orgon,etc.)
Lepontic:tetu
Celtiberian:tatuz[Imperative](?)(BotorritaI)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*deh3
PageinPokorny:223ff.
IEcognates:Skt.d,Lat.dare,OCSdati
Seealso:*dno
Notes:OnCeltib.tatuz(BotorritaI)seeEska
1989:142).GaulishdedeandLepontictetu
mightbefromPIE*dheh1ratherthanfrom
*deh3,butthisappearslessprobable(theredo
notappeartobeanytracesof*dheh1in
Celtic).
References:KPV265ff.,LIV105,Delamarre
138f.,Lejeune1971:94.
ProtoCeltic:*dwo'god'[Noun]
OldIrish:dia[om]
MiddleWelsh:duiu(OW),Wduw,Duw[m]
MiddleBreton:doe,doue
Cornish:duy(OCo.),dew(MCo.)
Gaulish:Deuognata[PN],teuoxtonio
(Vercelli)

Celtiberian:sistat[3sPres.]'puts,constructs'
(Penalba,K.3.3)

Celtiberian:Teiuoreikis(K6.1)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*steh2'stand'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*deywo'god,skygod'

PageinPokorny:1004f.

PageinPokorny:184f.

IEcognates:Lat.sto,stare,Lith.stoti

IEcognates:Skt.deva,Lat.deus,OPruss.
deiwas

Seealso:*st'be,findoneself'
References:KPV571f.,LIV590ff.,LEIA
S118ff.,LP395f.,Colera1998:207ff.

References:LEIAD64,GPCI:1101,De
BernardoStempel1999:44,Delamarre143,
Birkhan1970:324,Villar1997:900ff.

ProtoCeltic:*d'give'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*rg'king'[Noun]

OldIrish:tartat<*turoadd'couldgive'[3s
Pres.]

OldIrish:ri[gm]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 9

MiddleWelsh:ri(OW),MWri[m](GPCrhi)
Gaulish:Rigomagus[Toponym],Caturix[PN]
Celtiberian:Teiuoreikis[PN](K.6.1)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(H)rg''king'
PageinPokorny:855
IEcognates:Skt.rj,Lat.rx
Notes:Therehavebeensomejustifieddoubts
abouttheexistenceofthePIEwordfor'king'
(seeMatasovic2004:85andtheliterature
quotedthere).PerhapsPIE*(H)rg'smeant
'power,force',orsomethingsimilar.
References:LEIAR25,GPCIII:3065,EIEC,
DeBernardoStempel1999:30ff.,177,
Delamarre261,McCone1998,Schrijver1995:
193,,Colera1998:21,Matasovic2004:85

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhugh2tr'daughter'
PageinPokorny:277
IEcognates:HieroglyphicLuviantuwatar,Skt.
duhitar,Gthygatr,ToBtkcer,Arm.dustr
Notes:ForprobableOIr.reflexesoftheword
for'daughter'inOIr.seeDeBernardoStempel
1997.
References:EIEC148,393,Delamarre159,De
BernardoStempel1997.
ProtoCeltic:*owxsV'high'[Adjective]
OldIrish:uais'high,noble'
MiddleWelsh:uchaf'highest'
Cornish:agh

ProtoCeltic:*dekan'ten'[Numeral]

Gaulish:Uxisama,Uxama[Toponyms]

OldIrish:deich[Nasalizing]

Celtiberian:usama[Superlative]

MiddleWelsh:deg

Seealso:*owfselo,*owxso

MiddleBreton:dec(OBret.),Bret.dek

References:LEIAU4f.,GPCIII:3692,Villar
1997.

Cornish:dec

ProtoCeltic:*nowyo'new'[Adjective]

Gaulish:decan,decometos'tenth'
Celtiberian:tekametam'tenth'(BotorritaI)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dek'm'ten'
PageinPokorny:191
IEcognates:Lat.decem,Gr.deka,Go.taihun,
ToAsk
References:Stokes145,GPCI:916,DGVB
131,EIEC403,Delamarre137

OldIrish:nuae[io]
MiddleWelsh:newydd
MiddleBreton:enneuidteruogl.mensis
nouorum(OBret.)
Cornish:newyth
Gaulish:Nouio(dunum)[Placename]
Celtiberian:_?nouiza

ProtoCeltic:*duxtr'daughter'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*newos'new'

OldIrish:Der,Dar[elementsofPN],e.g.Dar
inill;Dechtir[PN]

PageinPokorny:769

Gaulish:duxtir(Larzac)
Celtiberian:tuateros[Gen.s](BotorritaIII)

IEcognates:Skt.navas,Lat.nouus,Gr.neos
Seealso:*nu

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 10

Notes:ThemeaningoftheCeltiberianform
nouiza(BotorritaIII,1)isfarfromascertained.
OBret.neguid,whichissometimesadduced
here,appearstobeactuallyaverbalform(ne
guid'doesnotknow').OBret.neuidterouis
actuallyapluralformof*neuidter'newness'.

Notes:TheGreekandLatinwordsfor'left'can
bederivedfrom*skh2eywo,whileinthe
Celticformswemustassumelaryngeal
metathesisand'expressive'gemination(*skih2
tto),whichrendersthisetymologyrather
speculative.

References:LEIAN23f.,GPCIII:2577,
DGVB161,266,EIEC393,Schrijver1995:
283ff.,DeBernardoStempel1999:202,
Delamarre236,Colera1999:190.

References:LEIAC108,EIEC349,GPCI:
858

ProtoCeltic:*(f)alis'rock,stone'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*(s)towxsman'bend,arch,curve'
[Noun]
OldIrish:tuaimm[nn](MIr.)'?mound'

OldIrish:ail[if]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*pel

MiddleWelsh:ystum'curve,gesture,shape,
trick'[mandf]

PageinPokorny:807

MiddleBreton:stum'form'

IEcognates:OHGfelis,Gr.pella

Cornish:Stym(codde)[Toponym]

Seealso:*falso'cliff'

Seealso:*stungo'bend'

Notes:ThevocalismofOIr.ailisproblematic.
Gaul.ToponymAlesia,Alisiamightberelated,
aswellastheCeltib.PNAlizos,butthisisfar
fromcertain(seeColera1998:131,Delamarre
39).TheCelticformscanbesquaredwiththose
fromGermaniclanguagesifwestartfromPIE
ablautinglaryngealstem,withtheNoms
*pelh1is,Gens*plh1eys.Celticwouldhave
generalizedthestemoftheobliquecases.The
developmentof*ClHV>*CalVinCelticis
regular.Gr.pellaisaglossaryword(Hesych),
soitsformcannotbeusedasasafeargumentin
reconstruction(usually*pelsisassumed).An
oldsstem,ultimatelyfromthesameroot,is
OIr.all'cliff'<*falso.

Notes:TheexactmeaningofMIr.tuaimmis
unknown,butitappearstomeansomethinglike
'tumulus,mound'.Greene(1958)relateditto
OIr.tuag[f]'arch'.Wystumisapparentlythe
samewordastuaimmwiththesmobile,or,
alternatively,withtheprefix*eks(Stber
1998:68).

References:LEIAA29f.,EIEC548,Delamarre
39,Colera1998:26,131.
ProtoCeltic:*(s)ktto'left,clumsy'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:cittach[o]
MiddleWelsh:chwith'left,lefthanded,sinister,
sad,wrong'

References:GPCIII:3867,Stber1998:68,
Greene1958,Schrijver1995:419.
ProtoCeltic:*abaln'appletree'[Noun]
OldIrish:aball[f]
MiddleWelsh:afall[f]
MiddleBreton:avallenn,OBret.aballen
Cornish:auallengl.malus
Gaulish:auallogl.poma
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eph3oln
PageinPokorny:1

ProtoIndoEuropean:*skh2ey'left'

Seealso:*abalo'apple'

IEcognates:Lat.scaeuus,Gr.skaios

References:LEIAA6,DGVB50,EIEC25,
GPCI:41,Campanile1974:10f.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 11

ProtoCeltic:*abalo'apple'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*ad'to'[Preposition]

OldIrish:ubull[on](DILuball)

OldIrish:ad

MiddleWelsh:afal[m]

MiddleWelsh:add

MiddleBreton:aval,OBret.abal

Gaulish:Adianto[PN]

Gaulish:avallo(Vienne)gl.poma

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ed'to,at'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eph3ol'apple'

PageinPokorny:3

PageinPokorny:1

IEcognates:Lat.ad,Go.at

IEcognates:OHGapful,OCSablko

Notes:MWeddyl'target'ispresumablyderived
fromPCelt.*adilo,withthesamesuffixasOE
til'to,until',cp.alsoOEtilian'reach'.Ifso,the
Germanicformsarefrom*h2dilo,which
meansthatthePIEroothadablaut(*h2ed/
*h2d).

Seealso:*abaln
Notes:TheCelticformscanbederivedfromthe
obliquecasesofthePIElstemNs*h2eph3ol
(*h2eph3l)/Gs*h2(e)ph3los.Thegeminate
llcouldhavearisenunderanalogicalinfluence
of*abaln'appletree'.
References:LEIAU12f.,DGVB50,EIEC25f,
GPCI:40,Delamarre28f.,HampZCP
37/1979:158166.

References:LEIAA13,Falileyev3,GPC31
ProtoCeltic:*ad(u)'law'[Noun]
OldIrish:ad,ada[Gens]

ProtoCeltic:*abon'river'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:addas1.'merit,reward'2.'right,
fitting'

OldIrish:ab,aub[nf]

MiddleBreton:camadasgl.habilis(OBret.)

MiddleWelsh:afon[f]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ed

MiddleBreton:auon

PageinPokorny:3

Cornish:auon

IEcognates:Umbrianarsie'sancte'

Gaulish:ambegl.rivo

Seealso:*ad

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eph3on'river'

Notes:ThereconstructionofthePCelt.formis
basedontheassumptionthatOIr.ada'legal'is
actuallythegenitivesingularofad,whichmight
notbethecase.Waddas'convenient,worthyof'
presumablyrepresentsaderivative*adestu,
paralleltoOIr.adas'lawful,just'

PageinPokorny:1
IEcognates:Hitt.hpa,Lat.amnis,OHGaffa
(inrivernames)
Notes:OIr.aubclearlypointstoPCelt.*ab,
Acc.*abonen;theform*abon(>MWafon)
wasbuilttothisstem.
References:LEIAA4,LP38,EIEC486,GPC
I:43,Lambert1994:203,Matasovic2004:
104,Stber1998:97f.,Campanile1974:11.

References:LEIAA12,13,DGVB94,GPCI:
31DeBernardoStempel1999:94.
ProtoCeltic:*adbert'offering,victim'
[Noun]
OldIrish:edbart(DILidbart)[f]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 12

MiddleWelsh:aperth[mandf](OW),MW[m
andf]aberth'sacrifice'

References:LEIAA10,Watkins1962a,Uhlich
2002:418f.

Notes:TheOIr.wordisactuallytheverbalnoun
ofadopair'sacrifices,offers'.

ProtoCeltic:*adreto'reach,grasp'[Verb]

References:Falileyev9,GPCI:2,Hamp1982.
ProtoCeltic:*addamyo'allow,permit'[Verb]
OldIrish:addaim'recognize,permit'
MiddleWelsh:addef'acknowledge,confess'

OldIrish:adreith
MiddleWelsh:eiryt[3sPres.]
Seealso:*reto
References:KPV538ff.

Seealso:*damyo

ProtoCeltic:*adtekwo'runto,approach'
[Verb]

References:KPV260ff,GPCI:32.

OldIrish:adteich'findrefugewithsomeone'

ProtoCeltic:*adkwiso'see'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:athechaf[1sPres.]'tofleefrom,
avoid'

OldIrish:adci,aicci;accai[Pret.];adcess,
aiccess[Pass.]

Seealso:*tekwo

Gaulish:appisetu[Impv.](Thiaucourt)

References:KPV629f.,GPCI:234

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kweys'perceive'

ProtoCeltic:*ad'hawthorn'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:637

OldIrish:aide[Gens]

IEcognates:Avestancinahmi'determine',Gr.ti
'reckon'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ed(h)

References:KPV431ff.,LIV381f.,LEIA
C89ff.,RIGII.2:269ff.,Delamarre51,
Lambert1994:126,150159

IEcognates:Hitt.hat(t)alkisnas
'hawthorn/whitethornbranch'
References:Watkins1993.

ProtoCeltic:*adkubro'wish'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*ago'drive'[Verb]

OldIrish:accobor[om]

OldIrish:agid,aig;agaid,aga[subj.];acht,
acht[pret.];

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kup'wish'
PageinPokorny:596
IEcognates:Lat.cupio'wish',Skt.kupyati'be
angry'
Notes:TheOIr.wordisactuallytheverbalnoun
ofadcobra'wish',whichisitselfofdeadjectival
origin,cp.Oscancyprum'good'(Varro,L.L.V
159).Cp.alsodeaCupra(Picenum).Anold
compoundfromthisrootismilchobar'honey
desiring=bear'(asemanticparallelisprovided
byRuss.medved''bear'(lit.'honeyeater').

MiddleWelsh:hegit[3sg.pres.]'go'(OW),MW
a,aa[3sg.pres.];aeth,ayth[pret.]
MiddleBreton:a'go',OBret.nita;aez[pret.]
Cornish:a'go';eth,etha[pret.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eg'
PageinPokorny:4f.
IEcognates:Skt.ajati,Lat.ago,Arm.acem

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 13

Notes:InBrit.thisverbhasasuppletiveVN,
MWmynet,MBret.monet,MCo.mones.Gaul.
axat(MarcellusdeBordeaux)maybe3sPres.
Subj.ofthesameverb(Delamarre63),soit
wouldmean'heshouldbring'

IEcognates:MHGeckern'acorn',Lith.uoga
'strawberry',Russ.jagoda

References:LIV255f,KPV189191,LEIA
A22,DGVB50,GPCI:40,Delamarre63

ProtoCeltic:*agro'carnage,battle'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*aglo'brood,litter'[Noun]

References:LEIAA48,GPCI:1196,De
BernardoStempel1999:367

OldIrish:ar[on]

OldIrish:al[om]

MiddleWelsh:hair[f](OW),MWaer[f]
'battle'

MiddleWelsh:ael[f]

MiddleBreton:air(OBret.)

Notes:TheMWformrepresents*agl,
originallyacollectiveto*aglo.ThePIEroot
fromwhichtheseformsmightbederivedis
presumably*h2eg''drive'(Pokorny4f.).

Cornish:hairgl.clades

References:LEIAA58,GPCI:36,De
BernardoStempel1999:224

Gaulish:Veragri[Ethnonym](Caesar)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eg'ro'hunt'
PageinPokorny:6

ProtoCeltic:*agos'cow'[Noun]

IEcognates:Gr.agr'hunt',Av.azr'hunt'

OldIrish:ag[sn>f]'cow'

Notes:ThewordinitialhinOWisnon
etymological.Presumably,thesewordsare
derivedfromPIE*h2eg''drive'(Lat.ago,etc.).

MiddleWelsh:aelaw[m]'riches,wealth'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eg'Ho'cow'
PageinPokorny:7
IEcognates:Skt.ah,Arm.ezn
Notes:TheMWwordrepresentsaderivative,
*agilo.
References:LEIAA22,GPCI:36,EIEC135,
DeBernardoStempel1999:143.
ProtoCeltic:*agriny'sloe,fruitofthe
blackthorn'[Noun]
OldIrish:airne[if]
MiddleWelsh:eirin[p]eirinen[singulativef]
MiddleBreton:irinenn
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eg'fruit,berry'
PageinPokorny:773

References:LEIAA82,LP32,DGVB58,
GPCI:36,EIEC284,Falileyev80.
ProtoCeltic:*akro'high'[Adjective]
OldIrish:er'high,noble,great'
Gaulish:Axrotalus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ek'ro'high'
PageinPokorny:21
IEcognates:Gr.akros
Notes:OIr.acher(DILaicher)'sharp,violent,
fierce'[o]mightalsobelonghere,ifitisnota
Latinloanword(asstatedbyLEIAA11).It
couldrepresentPCelt.*akeroor*akaro(itis
occasionallyspelledachar),cp.*okari>OIR.
ochair'edge'.
References:LEIAA11,Delamarre31,De
BernardoStempel1999:233.
ProtoCeltic:*al(i)yo'other'[Pronoun]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 14

OldIrish:aile[io]

Cornish:arall

MiddleWelsh:eil,all

Seealso:*al(i)yo

MiddleBreton:eil

Notes:Thisisareduplicated,intensivevariant
of*al(i)yo'other'

Cornish:yl
Gaulish:Allobroges[PN],allos(La
Graufesenque)

References:LEIAA11,Falileyev9,GPCI:
176

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2elyo'other'

ProtoCeltic:*alamo'herd,flock,movable
proprety'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:25f.

OldIrish:alam[?n]

IEcognates:Lat.alius,Go.aljis

MiddleWelsh:alaf[m]'herd,wealth,property'

Notes:Celtib.ailam,whichhasbeeninterpreted
astheAcc.softhispronoun(e.g.McCone
1996:109),hasalsobeentakentomean
somethinglike'place,abode'(e.g.Meid1994:
48).

PageinPokorny:26

References:LEIAA31f.,Delamarre39f.,
McCone1996:109,Meid1994:48

References:LEIAA60,GPCI:73,Schrijver
1995f.

ProtoCeltic:*alo'feed,raise'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*albiyo'world'[Noun]

OldIrish:alid,ail;alaid,ala[subj.];ailt,alt
[pret.];altae,alt[pret.pass.]

MiddleWelsh:elbid[mandf]'world'(OW),
MWeluit,eluyd

MiddleWelsh:alu'bearyoung';alho
[3sg.pres.subj.]

Gaulish:Albiorix[PN]

MiddleBreton:halaff'bearyoung,calve'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2el
PageinPokorny:26
IEcognates:Lat.alo,Gr.nels'strong',Go.
alan'grow'
References:LIV262,KPV193195,LEIA
A57,GPCI:73
ProtoCeltic:*alal(i)yo'another,other'
[Pronoun]

Notes:Schrijver(1995:75)derivesthesewords
fromPIE*pelh2'todrive'(Lat.pello,etc.),
whichispossible.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2elbho'white'
PageinPokorny:30
IEcognates:Lat.albus,OHGalbiz'swan'
Notes:Forthesemantics,seeDelamarre36;the
primarymeaningis'upperworld'(inopposition
totheunderworld),withthesemantic
developmentsimilartotheoneseeninRuss.
svet'world,light'.ThenameofBritainattested
inancientauthors,Albion,ispresumablyfrom
thesameroot,aswellastheOIr.namefor
Britainand(later)Scotland,Albu.

OldIrish:arail

References:Delamarre36,Falileyev52,Meid
1991.

MiddleWelsh:arall(OWandMW)

ProtoCeltic:*alnassV'sweat'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:al(l)all,arall

OldIrish:allas[?on]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 15

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2elh1'heat'
IEcognates:Hitt.allaniyezzi'sweats',Gr.alea
'bodyheat,warmth'
Notes:ThegenderandstemoftheOIr.wordare
notcertainlyestablished.AccordingtoDIL,itis
anostem,andaccordingtoDeBernardo
Stempel1999:272itisneuter.Itisoccasionally
spelledallusinearlysources,soitcould,
conceivably,representanoldustemneuter
*alnossu<*alnostu.
References:LEIAA62,EIEC560,De
BernardoStempel1999:272.

Notes:ThesewordsareprobablyrelatedtoLat.
altus'high'.Somederivethemfromtheroot
*h2el'feed,raise';thesemanticdevelopment
fwouldhavebeen'raised'>'high'.
References:LEIAA63f.,LP47,GPCI:78.
ProtoCeltic:*altrawon'fosteruncle'[Noun]
OldIrish:altra[nm]'fosterfather'
MiddleWelsh:athro[m]'teacher',athrawon[p]
MiddleBreton:autrou'lord,master'
Cornish:altrou'stepfather'

ProtoCeltic:*alten'razor'[Noun]

Seealso:*alo'nourish'

OldIrish:ailt[nf]

Notes:Thesecondelementofthiscompound,
PCelt.*aw/*awon,istheCelticparallelto
Lat.auunculus'uncle'(seeStber1998:109f.).
ItispreservedalsoinBret.eontr,Wewythi
'uncle'<*awontr.

MiddleWelsh:elinngl.nouacula(OW),MW
ellyn[mandf]
MiddleBreton:altingl.ferula(OBret.)[f]
Notes:IfinddoubtfulPokorny'setymology(p.
986)whichderivestheseCelticwordsfromPIE
*(s)pel'cut'(Germanspalten).Falileyev(53)
acceptsthisetymology.
References:LEIAA34,LP47,Falileyev53,
GPCI:1209
ProtoCeltic:*altiyo'fosterling,client'[Noun]
OldIrish:altae[iom]
MiddleWelsh:eillt[m]'unfreelandholder,
subject,vassal'
Seealso:*alo'feed,raise'
References:GPCI:73
ProtoCeltic:*alto'height,cliff'[Noun]
OldIrish:alt[om]
MiddleWelsh:allt[f]'hill'
MiddleBreton:penanaout'topofthehill'
Cornish:alsgl.litus

References:GPCI:235,Stber1998:109f.
ProtoCeltic:*am(y)o'wash'[Verb]
OldIrish:indaim<*andeameti
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2em
References:LIV265,KPV195
ProtoCeltic:*amaro'pain'[Noun]
OldIrish:amar[om]'wailing,moaning'
MiddleWelsh:afar[m]'sadness,lamentation'
References:LEIAA65,GPCI:41,De
BernardoStempel1999:317.
ProtoCeltic:*ambaxto'servant'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:amaeth[m]'servusarans'
MiddleBreton:ambaith(OBret.)
Gaulish:ambaktos,ambactus(Festus,Caesar)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2mbhih2eg'
Seealso:*ago

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 16

Notes:OHGambaht'servant'isaCeltic
loanword.
References:Delamarre40,Lewis30,Birkhan
1970:58,Meid2005:162f.
ProtoCeltic:*ambigwano'fight(eachother)'
OldIrish:immgoin
MiddleWelsh:ymwan(GPCymwan(u))
Cornish:omwana'pierceoneself'
Seealso:*gwano
References:KPV363f.,GPCIII:3806
ProtoCeltic:*ambigab'meet'[Verb]
OldIrish:immimmgaib'avoids'
MiddleWelsh:ymgaffael'meet,sleepwith'
(GPCymgael,ymgaff(a)el)
Seealso:*gabyo
References:GPCIII:3778
ProtoCeltic:*ambird'think'[Verb]
OldIrish:immradi'think'
MiddleWelsh:amraud(OW)'thought'
Seealso:*rd
References:LEIAR3,Falileyev6
ProtoCeltic:*amster'time,moment'[Noun]
OldIrish:aimser[f]
MiddleWelsh:amser[m]'time',amser'because,
when'(OW),MWamser[mandf]'time'
MiddleBreton:amzer[f]
Cornish:ansergl.tempus(OC)
Notes:InOIr.thereisthenounam(m)[n]'time',
whichreflectstheroot*amofromwhich
*amstermustbederived.However,its
etymologyisunknown(LEIAA67).Itisalso

unclearwhyWamserismasculineitmaybe
fromPCelt.byform*amstero
References:LEIAA3,LP21,Falleyev6,GPC
I:102,Campanile1974:3.
ProtoCeltic:*ana'breathe,remain'[Verb]
OldIrish:anaid,ana'waits,remains';anaid,
ana[subj.];anais,an[pret.]
MiddleWelsh:kynhanu'pronounce'<*kom
ana
MiddleBreton:ehanaff'remain'<*eksana
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2enh1'breathe,blow'
PageinPokorny:38f.
IEcognates:Skt.aniti'breathes',Gr.anemos
'breath',Lat.animus'spirit'
References:LIV267f,KPV196f,LEIAA71
ProtoCeltic:*anam'blemish,fault'[Noun]
OldIrish:anim[?,laterf]
MiddleWelsh:anamougl.mendae(OW),MW
anaf
MiddleBreton:anaf,anaff'fault',OBret.di
anamgl.efficaciter
Notes:ThePCelt.reconstructionisherebased
onthesomewhatdoubtfulassumptionthatthe
OIr.wordsisanancientstem(italsoinflects
asstem,buttheNpanmimightbean
indicationthatinflectionisoriginal).
Pokorny'sconnectionofthesewordswithGr.o
nomai'blame,injure'isimprobable.Itis
possiblethat*anisthenegativeprefixinthis
word;cp.alsotheparallelismbetweenOBret.
dianamandOIr.dianim'faultless'.
References:LEIAA78,DGVB63,GPCI:106
ProtoCeltic:*anamon'soul'[Noun]
OldIrish:anim[nf]
MiddleBreton:eneff
Cornish:enef

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 17

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2enh1mon
PageinPokorny:38
IEcognates:Lat.anima'soul'
Seealso:*anatl'breath'
Notes:InbothbranchesofInsularCelticthe
reflexesofthisPCelt.etymonwereinfluenced
byLat.anima.
References:LEIAA78.
ProtoCeltic:*anatl'breath'[Noun]
OldIrish:anal[f]
MiddleWelsh:anadyl,anadl[fandm]
MiddleBreton:alazn
Cornish:anal,anel
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2enh1tlo
PageinPokorny:38
IEcognates:Lat.animus,Gr.anemos<
*h2enh1mo
Notes:Gaul.anatia(Larzac)shouldperhapsbe
translatedas'souls'(Lambert)andrelatedto
thesewords.
References:LEIAA73,GPC:I:104,EIEC82,
98.,McCone1996:51.,Delamarre44f.
ProtoCeltic:*ander'youngwoman'[Noun]
OldIrish:ander[f]
MiddleWelsh:anneir[f]'heifer'(GPCanner,
annair)
MiddleBreton:anner'heifer'
Cornish:annoergl.uitula
Gaulish:?anderon[Gen.p]
Notes:Ithasbeenoftensuggestedthatthereisa
connectionofthisCelticetymonandBasque
andere'lady,woman',butthismightbeonlya

chanceressemblance.ThemeaningofGaulish
anderonisnotcertain(itmightratherberelated
toLinferus),sothiswordmightbeunrelated
afterall.
References:LEIAA76,GPCI:136,Lambert
1994:155,Delamarre47.
ProtoCeltic:*anego'protect'[Verb]
OldIrish:aingid,anaig;anais,ain[subj.];
anais,ain[fut.];anacht,anacht[pret.];
anachtae,anacht[pret.pass.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:_*h1egH
PageinPokorny:290
IEcognates:Lat.egeo,ONekla'lack'
References:LIV231,KPV197200,LEIA
A76f,Schrijver1995:86
ProtoCeltic:*anegtlo'refuge,protection'
[Noun]
OldIrish:anacul[o,n]
Gaulish:Anextlomarus'attributeofApollo',
perhaps'he,whoseprotectionisgreat'
Seealso:*anego
Notes:ThemeaningofAnextlomrosis
doubtful;sincethesuffix*tlousuallyhas
instrumentalmeaning,perhapsAnextlomros
originallymeant"heofthegreatshelter".
References:LEIAA77,Schrijver1995:86,
Delamarre49,Dottin1920:227,Lujan2003:
188,Markey2003.
ProtoCeltic:*angwn'nail'[Noun]
OldIrish:ingen[f]
MiddleWelsh:eguin(OW),MWewin[mand
f]
MiddleBreton:eguingl.adungem(OBret.),
Bret.euin
Cornish:euuingl.unguis

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 18

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3noghu,Gen.
*h3nghews'nail'

OldIrish:ec[um]

PageinPokorny:780

MiddleWelsh:angau

IEcognates:Lat.unguis,Gr.onyks,OCS
nogt,ToAmaku[p]'nails'

MiddleBreton:ancou(OBret.)

References:LP34,EIEC389,LHEB387,
Falileyev52,GPCI:1262,Campanile1974:45,
DeBernardoStempel1999:219,447
ProtoCeltic:*angu'narrow'[Adjective]
OldIrish:cumung<*komingu
MiddleWelsh:ing

Cornish:ankow
ProtoIndoEuropean:*nek'u'death'
PageinPokorny:762
IEcognates:Gr.nekys'corpse',Avest.nasu
'corpse',ToAonk'man'

MiddleBreton:enc(OBret.),MBret.encq

Notes:OIr.echtisanotherderivativefromthe
sameroot.ItcanbederivedfromPCelt.anxti<
PIE*nk'ti.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eng'hu'tight,narrow,
constricted'

References:DGVB64,EIEC150,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:97

PageinPokorny:42f.

ProtoCeltic:*anman'name'[Noun]

IEcognates:Skt.amhu'narrow',Lat.ango
'strangle',OHGengi'narrow'

OldIrish:ainm[nn]

Seealso:*komangu
References:LEIAC292,DGVB159,EIEC
391

MiddleWelsh:anu(OW),MWenw[m]
MiddleBreton:hanu
Cornish:enw

ProtoCeltic:*anko'reach'[Verb]

Gaulish:anuana[p](Larzac)

OldIrish:ic,doic'come';ti[subj.];tanicc
[pret.],roic'reach';richt[pret.pass.],conic
'can',etc.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3nomn'name'

MiddleWelsh:rynghu'reach'<*froank,
reingk[3sgpres.]

IEcognates:Hitt.lman,Skt.nman,Lat.
nmen,Gr.onoma,Goth.nam,OPr.emmens

MiddleBreton:renc,rencq'reaches'[3sgpres.]

Notes:TheCelticformsarederivedfromthe
obliquecasesofthisPIEword,i.e.from
*h3nmen.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2nek'
PageinPokorny:316318
IEcognates:Skt.asnoti'reaches',Lat.
nanciscor
References:LIV282284,KPV200202,
McCone1991a
ProtoCeltic:*anku'death'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:321

References:LEIAA36f.,GPCI:1220,
Lambert1994:18f.,Falileyev8,Delamarre
50f.,McCone1996:50,64,61,72,80,117,
127,134,Matasovic2004:122
ProtoCeltic:*ansyo'reins'[Noun]
OldIrish:eis(s)i[?iomp]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 19

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ensyo'reins'

References:KPV204f,LIV272f

PageinPokorny:48

ProtoCeltic:*aratro'plow'[Noun]

IEcognates:Gr.(Myc.)anija,Gr.hnia

OldIrish:arathar[onorm]

References:EIEC481

MiddleWelsh:ara[ter](OW),MWaradr[m]

ProtoCeltic:*anto'border'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:arazr

Gaulish:antom(Vercelli)

Cornish:aradargl.aratrum

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ento'border'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2erh3tro

PageinPokorny:48ff.

PageinPokorny:62

IEcognates:Skt.anta,Goth.andeis'end'

IEcognates:Lat.aratrum,Gr.arotron,Lith.a
rklas

References:Delamarre50
ProtoCeltic:*antono'forehead'[Noun]
OldIrish:etan[om]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ent'face,forehead'
PageinPokorny:209

Seealso:*aryo'toplow'
References:LEIAA84f.,LP2,93,Falileyev9,
GPCI:175,McCone1996:51,53ff.,
Campanile1974:9
ProtoCeltic:*arawar/*arawen'grain,cereal'
[Noun]

IEcognates:Skt.anti'infrontof',Lat.ante'in
frontof',Hitt.hant,ToBnte'surface,
forehead'

OldIrish:arbor[nn]

Seealso:*anto'border'

PageinPokorny:63

References:EIEC209,DeBernardoStempel
1999:256,450

IEcognates:Lat.aruum'plowedfield'Gr.
(Myc.)aroura'field'

ProtoCeltic:*aryo'plow'[Verb]

Seealso:*aryo

OldIrish:airid,air;araid,ara[subj.];ebraid,
ebra[fut.]

Notes:TheinflectionofOIr.arborshowsthat
thiswordwasaheteroclitoninPCelt.Theexact
developmentofWerw'field'isuncleartome.
McCone1994:72assumesthatitisfromthe
Britishp.arwviaraising.

MiddleWelsh:eredic,ardd[3sg.pres.]
MiddleBreton:arat;aret[part.pret.pass.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2erh3'plow'
PageinPokorny:62f
IEcognates:Lat.aro,Go.arjan
Notes:Thefuturestem(ebraid)issuppletivein
OIr.ItcanbederivedfromPCelt.*ibrse/o

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2erh3wr'field'

References:LEIAA85,EIEC200,McCone
1994:72,McCone1996:49,53,Hamp1995.
ProtoCeltic:*ardi'point,extremity,direction'
[Noun]
OldIrish:aird[if]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2erdi

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 20

PageinPokorny:63

References:Delamarre54

IEcognates:Gr.ardis'point(ofspear)'

ProtoCeltic:*aro'ploughing,ploughedland'
[Noun]

References:LEIAA40f.,EIEC439,De
BernardoStempel199:71,Matasovic2004:
115
ProtoCeltic:*ardwo'high'[Adjective]

OldIrish:ar[on>m]'tilling,husbandry'
MiddleWelsh:ar[m]'ploughedland'(GPCr)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2erh3o'ploughing'

OldIrish:ard[o]
Gaulish:Arduenna(silua)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2erHdhwo'upright'
PageinPokorny:339
IEcognates:Lat.arduus'high,difficult',Skt.
rdhva,Gr.orthos'upright'

Seealso:*aryo
References:LEIAA81,GPCI:174
ProtoCeltic:*arto'bear'[Noun]
OldIrish:art[om]'bear,hero,warrior'
MiddleWelsh:arth[mandf]

Notes:Gorthoscanbederivedfrom
*h2orHdhwoquiteregularly(thelossofthe
laryngealisexpectedafteroR).

MiddleBreton:Ard,Arth(OBret.),Bret.arz

References:LEIAA87,EIEC269,McCone
1996:103,Delamarre51f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2rtk'o'bear'

ProtoCeltic:*arextu'conversation,assembly,
meeting'[Noun]
OldIrish:airecht[um]'assembly'
MiddleWelsh:areith[f]'conversation'(GPC
araith)
MiddleBreton:areih(Vannetais)'dispute'
Cornish:areth
References:LEIAA43,GPCI:176
ProtoCeltic:*argyo'white'[Adjective],'snow'
[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:eiry(GPCeira,eiry)[m]'snow'
MiddleBreton:erc'h
Cornish:irch

Gaulish:Artio[Theonym]

PageinPokorny:845
IEcognates:Hitt.hartagga,Gr.arktos,Lat.
ursus
Notes:Basquehartz'bear'ispresumablya
Celticloanword.Thedevelopmentofthe
syllabicresonant*r>arbeforeastopis
probablytobeexplainedbyassumingthat*tk'
firstchangedtoPCelt.*xt,andthat*xbehaved
like*swhenthesyllabicresonantdeveloped
vocalisprothesis.Thuswehad*h2rtk'os>
*(H)rxtos>*arxtos>*artos.Another,less
probableexplanationwouldinvolvepositinga
specialrule*h2rC>*arCbeforeCRC>CriC
(Joseph1982:50f.).
References:LEIAA91,LP25,GPCI:212,
EIEC55,98,Matasovic2004:87,Delamarre
55f.
ProtoCeltic:*arto'stone'[Noun]
OldIrish:art

Gaulish:Argiotalus[PN]

Gaulish:artuass'stones'(Todi)

Seealso:*argant'silver'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 21

Notes:Thisisaratherweaketymology,since
theOIr.wordisknownonlyfromglossaries(its
genderandstemformationareunknown),and
themeaningoftheGaulishnounisnot
ascertained(cp.Lambert1994:74)
References:LEIAA91
ProtoCeltic:*aryo'freeman'[Noun]
OldIrish:aire[km,originallyiom]
Gaulish:Ariomanus,Ariovistus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eryo

Seealso:*gwano
References:KPV362ff.,GPCI:28
ProtoCeltic:*atiliyo'stick,adhereto'[Verb]
OldIrish:adlen
MiddleWelsh:edlynu
Seealso:*liyo
References:KPV453f.,GPCI:1166

PageinPokorny:24,67

ProtoCeltic:*atinewo'promise,assentto'
[Verb]

IEcognates:Skt.arya'kind,favorable'

OldIrish:adnoi'entrust'

Notes:ThekstemofOIr.aireisclearly
secondary,asDat.pairibisalsoattested.The
wordwasthereforeoriginallyayostem.A
differentetymology(e.g.inMeid2005:146)
relatestheseCelticwordstoPIE*prh3'first'
(Skr.prvaetc.),butthisislessconvincing
becausetherearenotracesoflaryngealin
Celtic.

MiddleWelsh:adneu[m]'inhumation,deposit
(intheearth),pledge'(GPCadnau)

References:LEIAA42,EIEC213,Delamarre
55,Meid2005:146.

IEcognates:Lat.adnuo,Skt.navate'move,
turnoneself',Gr.neu'nod'

ProtoCeltic:*astno'bone,rib'[Noun]
OldIrish:asna,esna[iom]'rib'

Notes:TheBritishformsdonotagreeverywell
inmeaningwiththeOIr.verb;forsemantic
develpomentseeLEIAN13

MiddleWelsh:eisen[Singulativef]'rib'

References:LEIAN13,GPCI:24,LIV410

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2osth1'bone'

ProtoCeltic:*atriyo'paternal'[Adjective]

PageinPokorny:783

OldIrish:aithre[iom]'paternalfamily'

IEcognates:Hitt.hasti,Skt.asthi,Lat.os,
ossis

MiddleWelsh:edrydd[m]'paternaldomain'

MiddleBreton:adnou'deposit'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*new'nod,assentto'
PageinPokorny:767

Seealso:*atr

References:GPCI:1198,EIEC77,De
BernardoStempel368,Matasovic2004:97,
108

References:LEIAA100,GPCI:1168,EIEC
195

ProtoCeltic:*atigwano'strikeagain'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*attreb'settlement'[Noun]

OldIrish:adgoin

OldIrish:attrab[f]

MiddleWelsh:atwanaf[1sPres.](GPC
adwanaf)

MiddleWelsh:athref[f]'domicilium'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 22

Gaulish:Atrebates[Ethnonym]

MiddleWelsh:o(OWandMW)

Seealso:*treb

MiddleBreton:o

Notes:ThegeminateinCelticisdoubtlesslythe
resultofassimilationfrom*adtreb,cp.Wtref
'home,town'<*treb

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ew'away'

References:GPCI:235,LP123,147,
Delamarre59

IEcognates:Lat.au,Skt.ava,OCSu

ProtoCeltic:*attyo,*tato'father,fosterfather'
[Noun]
OldIrish:aite[iom]
MiddleWelsh:tat
MiddleBreton:tat
Cornish:tatgl.pater
ProtoIndoEuropean:*atta
PageinPokorny:71
IEcognates:Gr.atta,Go.atta,Lat.atta
Notes:Nurserywordsnotreallyderivablefrom
thesameprototype(theBritishformsarefroma
reduplicatedroot*tato).

PageinPokorny:73

Notes:TheOIr.conjunctiono(andMWo)
'when'isthesameword(intheunstressed
position).Thereis,inOIr.,alsotheadverbau
'away'
References:LEIAO1,EIEC37,Falileyev
122f.,
ProtoCeltic:*aw'negativeprefixandparticle'
[Particle]
OldIrish:ua
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ew
PageinPokorny:72
IEcognates:OCSu(bog)'poor'
Seealso:*aw'from'

References:LEIAA52f.,Campanile1974:98.

Notes:Thisisperhapsthesameentryas*aw
'from'(seeHamp,Celtica21:173177).

ProtoCeltic:*atr'father'[Noun]

References:LEIAU1

OldIrish:athir,athair[rm]

ProtoCeltic:*aweC'inspiration,insight'
[Noun]

Gaulish:atrebo
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ph2tr'father'

OldIrish:aui,ai[tm>f]'poeticinspiration'

PageinPokorny:829

MiddleWelsh:awen[f]'poeticinspiration,
talent'

IEcognates:Skt.pitar,Lat.pater,Go.fadar

Seealso:*awel

Seealso:*attyo,*atriyo

References:LEIAA19,GPCI:240,De
BernardoStempel172

References:LEIAA100,EIEC100,194,
Lambert1994:16

ProtoCeltic:*awel'breeze,wind'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*aw'from'[Preposition]

MiddleWelsh:awel[f]'breeze'

OldIrish:o,ua[aspirating,+Dat.]

MiddleBreton:avel'wind',OBret.[p]auelougl.
aurarum

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 23

ProtoCeltic:*aw(?)'liver'[Noun]
Cornish:auhelgl.aura(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2uh1el
PageinPokorny:81ff.
IEcognates:Gr.aella'stormwind'
Notes:TheCelticformspresupposethefull
gradeoftheroot,*h2ewh1el,whileGr.aella
isfrom*h2uh1el.Weareprobablydealing
withanarchaicneuterlstemhere,withNs
*h2ewh1lGs*h2uh1els.BoththeGreekand
theCelticreflexesmaybefromtheold
(collective)plural.
References:DGVB77,GPCI:240,Campanile
1974:11
ProtoCeltic:*aws'ear'[Noun]
OldIrish:au,o[sn]
Gaulish:Suausia[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ews'ear'
PageinPokorny:785
IEcognates:Lat.auris,OEare
References:LEIAA102,EIEC173.De
BernardoStempel1999:35,148
ProtoCeltic:*awontr'uncle'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:ewythr[m]
MiddleBreton:eontr

OldIrish:oa[f],oeib[Datp]
MiddleWelsh:afu[mandf],ahu
MiddleBreton:avu
Notes:ThereconstructionofthePCelt.formis
veryuncertain.Itappearspossibletorelate
theseCelt.wordstothePIEwordfor'kidney',
*h2eh2r(Hitt.hahrietc.,seePCelt.*ron),if
onestartsfromPIEobliquestem*h2h2on?>
PCelt.*aon>*awon,fromwhichthenew
Nom.s*awwasformed.Thestemofthe
obliquecases,*awon,wassubsequentlylostin
bothBritishandinGoidelic.
References:LEIAO2,GPCI:46,PedersenI
313.
ProtoCeltic:*axsil'axis'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:echel[f]
MiddleBreton:ahel
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ek's'axis'
PageinPokorny:6
IEcognates:Lat.axis,Lith.ais
Notes:OIr.ais[f]'back'mightberelated,but
therearesemanticproblemswiththis
etymology.
References:LEIAA50,GPCI:1160,LP20,
EIEC39

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ewh2on

ProtoCeltic:*axto,*axtno'furze,gorse'
[Noun]

PageinPokorny:89

OldIrish:aitten[om]

IEcognates:Lat.auunculus

MiddleWelsh:aeth,eithin

Notes:OIr.amnair'maternaluncle'isderived
fromthesamerootintheobliquecasesandwith
adifferentsuffix(*awner).

MiddleBreton:ethingl.rusci(OBret.)

References:LEIAA67,GOI214,GPCI:
1265f.,DeBernardoStempel1999:128,
Schrijver1995:365ff.,Stber1998:110.

Notes:Waethpreservestheoriginalunderived
noun.TheBritishformspresupposeafeminine
noun(presumablyoldcollective)*axtn,while
OIr.aittenpresupposes*axtino

Cornish:eythinen[Singulative]gl.ramnus

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 24

References:LEIAA57,DGVB168,GPCI:
1203
ProtoCeltic:*aydu'fire'[Noun]
OldIrish:aed[?un]
MiddleWelsh:aidd[mandf]'ardor'

References:LEIAB2,DGVB77,GPCI:246,
Falileyev13,DeBernardoStempel1999:513.
ProtoCeltic:*balni'throwaway,die'[Verb]
OldIrish:atbaill'dies'<*eksidbalni
'throwsit';bela[Subj.];bela[Fut.];balt
[Pret.]

MiddleBreton:oaz'ardor,jealousy'

MiddleWelsh:aballu'die,perish'<*adbal;
aballaf[1sPres.]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eydhos'fire,firewood'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwelh1

PageinPokorny:11

PageinPokorny:471f.

IEcognates:Skt.edhas,OEad'bonfire',Lat.
aedes'building,temple'

IEcognates:Gr.ball'throw'

Notes:ItisuncertainwhethertheBritishforms
belonghere,becausethevocalimsareaberrant.
SeeLEIAs.v.aed.Itispossiblethatthe
EthnonymAeduishouldbederivedfromthe
samePCelt.form(Delamarre35).OIr.aedis
notwellattested,butitappearstobeanustem
(theGen.sisaeda).
References:LEIAA20,GPCI:69,EIEC87,
Delamarre35f.
ProtoCeltic:*bakko'(curved)stick,hook'
[Noun]

References:LP340,LEIAB12,GPCI:2,KPV
212,LIV208
ProtoCeltic:*balko'strong'[Adjective]
OldIrish:balc[o]
MiddleWelsh:balch'fine,proud,strong,brave'
MiddleBreton:balc'h
Cornish:balgh
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhel'strength'

OldIrish:bacc[om]'stick'

PageinPokorny:120

MiddleWelsh:bach[mandf](OWandMW)
'hook,peg'

IEcognates:OEbeald'bold'

MiddleBreton:bah(OBret.),MBret.bach
'hook'
Cornish:bagh

References:LEIAB12,GPCI:251
ProtoCeltic:*ballo'member,limb'[Noun]
OldIrish:ball[om]ballferdagl.membrum
uirile

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bak'stick'
PageinPokorny:93
IEcognates:Lat.baculum,Gr.baktron
Notes:Becauseofthewordinitial*bandthe
vowel*aitcontained,thiswordissuspectof
beingaWanderwort,aloanfromsomeunknown
source.Thisispossibleiftheoriginalmeaning
was"shepherd'sstaff"vel.sim.

Gaulish:Ballomarios[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhal
PageinPokorny:120
IEcognates:Gr.phallos'penis'
References:LEIAB12,EllisEvans1967:147,
Delamarre65f.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 25

ProtoCeltic:*banatlo'broomplant,broom'
[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:banadl[p]'broom,oftenfig.for
woman'sgoldenhair'
MiddleBreton:balazn,benal
Cornish:banathelgl.genesta
Gaulish:*balano>OFrenchbalain
References:Delamarre65,GPCI:253
ProtoCeltic:*bandy'drop'[Noun]
OldIrish:banne[if]

Notes:Cp.alsoOBret.PNBleidbara'furious
wolf'.ThesewordsmightbefromthePIEroot
*bherH'pierce,injure'(Lat.ferio,OCSborenie
'fight',Gr.pharos'plough',etc.),butthisis
uncertain(onewouldhavetostartwiththen
stem*bhern/*bherHnos,whichwouldgive
PCelt.*beran,then*baranbyJoseph'srule;
Stber'sstem*barnisimpossible,sincethisis
arootinlaryngeal,cp.theacuteinLith.barti
'scold').
References:LEIAB17,GPCI:256,DGVB79,
Stber1998:171f.
ProtoCeltic:*barn'proclaim'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:ban[m]

MiddleWelsh:barnu'judge,proclaim';barn
[Pres.]

MiddleBreton:banne

MiddleBreton:barn

Cornish:bannegl.gutta

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwerH'praise'

Notes:ThesewordsarenotrelatedtoSkt.bindu
'drop'forreasonsclearlystatedinEIEC477.

PageinPokorny:478

References:LEIAB7f.,GPCI:253,EIEC477

IEcognates:Skt.jarate'sings',Lat.grtus
'pleasing,beloved',Lith.giriu,girti'praise'

ProtoCeltic:*banwo'youngpig,piglet'[Noun]

References:GPCI:260,KPV213,LIV210f.

OldIrish:banb[om]

ProtoCeltic:*baragen'(barley)bread'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:banw[mandf];beinw[p]

OldIrish:bairgen[f]

MiddleBreton:bangl.scrofa

MiddleWelsh:bara[m]

Cornish:baneugl.sus(OCo.)

MiddleBreton:bara

Gaulish:Banuus[PN]

Cornish:baragl.panis,baracan'whitebread'

References:LEIAB14,GPCI:255,LP6,
EllisEvans1967:149,Delamarre66f.,
Campanile1974:12.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhars'barley'

ProtoCeltic:*bar(an)'furor,anger'[Noun]

IEcognates:Lat.far'grain,coarsemeal',OE
bere'barley',Russ.borono'ryemeal'

OldIrish:barae[nf]
MiddleWelsh:br[m],baran[m]
MiddleBreton:berehicgl.furibundus(OBret.),
baran(OBret.)
Gaulish:?Ambibarii(Caesar,B.G.VII754).

PageinPokorny:111

Notes:ThePCelt.reconstructionisbasedon
OIr.,but*baraginappearsequallypossible;the
Britishformscouldbefromunderived*barago
(cp.Lat.farrg)
References:LEIAB9,LP31,GPCI:256,EIEC
51,Campanile1974:12.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 26

ProtoCeltic:*bardo'bard,poet'[Noun]

References:LEIAB9,GPCI:320,De
BernardoStempel1999:459.

OldIrish:bard[om]

ProtoCeltic:*barro'point,top'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:bardd[m];beirdd,beirddion,
beirddiaid[p]

OldIrish:barr[om]

MiddleBreton:barz
Cornish:barthgl.mimus,scurra
Gaulish:*bardos,bardus(Festus),Bardomagus
[Toponym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwrHdhh1o,*gwerH
'praise'
PageinPokorny:478
IEcognates:Skt.grnti'call,praise',Lat.
grtus'delightful',Lith.girti'praise'
References:LEIAB18,GPCI:257,LP33,
LIV188f.,EIEC436,449,Delamarre67,
Campanile1974:12,Schrijver1995:143

MiddleWelsh:bar[m]
MiddleBreton:barr(OBret.),MBret.barr
Cornish:bar
Gaulish:Cunobarrus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhers'point'
PageinPokorny:109
IEcognates:Skt.bhrsti'tip,point',OHG
borst
Notes:TheCelticformsshouldbederivedfrom
thezerograde*bhrsoofanablautingroot
nounwiththeNs*bhrs.

ProtoCeltic:*barin'rock,rockyground'
[Noun]

References:LEIAB20,B20,GPCI:256,
EIEC439,DGVB?0,PedersenI:44,Delamarre
68

OldIrish:bairenn[f]

ProtoCeltic:*basko'red'[Adjective]

MiddleWelsh:brennigen[Singulative]
'barcnacle,limpet'

OldIrish:basc[om]

MiddleBreton:brennik
Cornish:brennik

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhas
PageinPokorny:105
IEcognates:OHGberi'berry'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwrHino
PageinPokorny:477f.
IEcognates:OCSgora'mountain',Lith.giria
'wood',Alb.gur'rock'.
Notes:TheBritishformsrepresentderivatives
withavelarsuffix.Englishbarnacleis
ultimatelyderivedfromBritish*baranko.
CelticpreservedthezerogradeofthePIEroot
noun*gwrHs/*gwrHos'woodymountain'
andaddedthesuffix*inowhichiscommonin
Celtic.

References:LEIAB22
ProtoCeltic:*bato'death'[Noun]
OldIrish:bath[no]
MiddleWelsh:bad'pest,plague'[f]
Seealso:*b'die',*bsto'death'
Notes:OIr.bathisanarchaicword,occurring
besidesthemoreusualbas<*gweh2sto.It
canbederivedfromthezerogradeofthesame
root,*gwh2to.PerhapsrelatedareOCo.badus
gl.lunaticusandBret.bad'stupor,giddiness',

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 27

butthesemanticsideofthisconnectionisa
problem.

MiddleBreton:bihan

References:LEIAB22f.,GPCI:247

Cornish:boghan

ProtoCeltic:*bebru'beaver'[Noun]

References:LEIAB24,GPCI:246

OldIrish:Bibar[PN]

ProtoCeltic:*belo'strike'[Verb]

MiddleBreton:beuergl.castor(?)

MiddleWelsh:bel[3sPres.];belu[Verbal
Noun]'pierce,strike'

Gaulish:Bebriacum[Toponym]'locuscastorum'
(Tacitus)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwelH'suffer'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhebhru'beaver'

PageinPokorny:470f.

PageinPokorny:136

IEcognates:OEcwelan'suffer',OPr.gallintwei
'kill'

IEcognates:Skt.babhr,Lat.fiber,Ebeaver
Notes:ItisuncertainwhetherOBret.beueris
originallyBreton,orrathertheVLat.reflexof
Lat.biber.
References:DGVB82,Delamarre69f.
ProtoCeltic:*bego'break'[Verb]
OldIrish:dobeig,cotoibget[3pPres.]
IEcognates:Skt.bhanakti,Arm.ebek'broke',
LIth.bengiu'end'

Seealso:*balni
Notes:FollowingLIVandKPV,theseformsare
tobeseparatedfromPIE*gwelh1'throw',Celt.
*balni
References:GPCI:271,KPV218,LIV185.
ProtoCeltic:*belyo'tree'[Noun]
OldIrish:bile[ion]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bholyo'leaf'

Notes:ThisverbwasconfusedinOIr.withits
nearhomonym,doboing(DIL)'wrests,plucks,
breaks'<*bhungo

PageinPokorny:122

References:KPV216f,McCone1991,LIV66f.

References:LEIAB50f.

ProtoCeltic:*bek(k)o'beak,spout'

ProtoCeltic:*bendi'melodious,harmonious'
[Adjective]

MiddleBreton:beg
Gaulish:becco(Sueton)
Notes:Thisappearstobean'expressive'word,
comparabletoLat.bucca'mouth'.
References:Lambert1994:188
ProtoCeltic:*bekko'small'[Adjective]
OldIrish:bec[o]
MiddleWelsh:bach,bychan

IEcognates:Lat.folium,Gr.phyllon

OldIrish:bind[i]
MiddleWelsh:bann,ban'high,noble,sonorous,
melodious'
MiddleBreton:banngl.canora(OBret.)
Seealso:*benno
Notes:InW,banisalsoanoun[mandf]'top,
tip,summit',also'hornofanimal,corner,angle'.
ItispossiblethatthiswordandPCelt.*benno
'top,peak'becameconfusedinBrit.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 28

References:LEIAB51,GPCI:253,DGVB78
ProtoCeltic:*benno'peak,top'[Noun]
OldIrish:benn[f]'peak,horn'
MiddleWelsh:bann[mandf]
MiddleBreton:bann

Lambert1994:16,Delamarre72f.,Campanile
1974:13,Matasovic2004:83,Hamp1979,
Jasanoff1989.
ProtoCeltic:*berg'pillage,robbery'[Noun]
OldIrish:berg[f]
MiddleWelsh:bery[m]'birdofprey'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bend

Notes:InMWthecompounddifer'treachery'is
paralleltoOIr.diberg'raid,pillage'.OBret.
barcotgl.caragios'sorcerer'andMod.Bret.
barged'fool'areprobablyalsorelated.

PageinPokorny:96f.

References:LEIAB41,GPCI:276,DGVB79

IEcognates:OEpintel'penis'

ProtoCeltic:*bero'carry,bring'[Verb]

References:LEIAB35f.,GPCI:253,Pedersen
I:40,Schrijver1995:455,Lambert1994:43.

OldIrish:beirid;beraid[Subj.];beraid[Fut.];
birt[Pret.];brethae[Pret.Pass.]

ProtoCeltic:*ben'woman'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:beryt'flows'[3sPres.];beru
[VerbalNoun]

Gaulish:Cantobennicus(mons)[Toponym]

OldIrish:be[n],ben[f],mna[Gens],
MiddleWelsh:ben[f](OW)
MiddleBreton:eben'other',lit.'hiswife',
OBret.banleugl.lene
Cornish:benengl.sponsa
Gaulish:bnanom[Genp](Larzac)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwenh2'woman'
PageinPokorny:473
IEcognates:Skt.jani,Ggyn,OEcwen,
OCSena
Notes:OIr.neuterbeisanarchaic,poetic
word,laterreplacedbyben,whichalsohas
irregularinflection.LEIAderivesbefroma
putativeprotoform*gwepes(cp.German
Kebse'concubine'),whichisveryunconvincing.
IassumethattheOIr.wordbeistheregular
reflexof*bena,whilethe'regularized'form
*benyieldedben.OWbenisahapax,andin
OBret.cp.alsobandoiuisgl.musa,literally
'womangoddess'.
References:LEIAB23f.,B31f.,GPCI:271,
DGVB78,DeBernardoStempel1999:29,32,

MiddleBreton:beraff'flow';ber(OBret.)[3s
Pres.]
Cornish:kemmeres'take,receive'<*kombero
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bher
PageinPokorny:128132
IEcognates:Skt.bharati,Lat.fero,Go.bairan
Notes:Cp.alsoOBret.diuergl.influit,Wberu
'flow'.
References:KPV218ff.,GPCI:273,DGVB
145,LIV76f,MorrisJones1913:79,372f.,
McCone1991:67f.
ProtoCeltic:*beru'spit'[Noun]
OldIrish:bir,biur[un]
MiddleWelsh:ber[m]'spear,lance,shaft'
MiddleBreton:ber
Cornish:bergl.ueru
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gweru'spear,spit'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 29

PageinPokorny:479
IEcognates:Lat.uer,Umbr.berva,Av.grava
'staff'
References:LEIAB51f.,GPCI:272,EIEC
536.,Campanile1974:13.
ProtoCeltic:*beruro'watercress'[Noun]
OldIrish:biror[om]

ProtoCeltic:*berxto'bright,beautiful'
[Adjective]
MiddleWelsh:berth'beautiful,fine,rich'
MiddleBreton:berzh'prosperity'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bherHg'to'bright'
PageinPokorny:139

MiddleWelsh:berwr[Collective]

IEcognates:OHGberaht'bright',Russ.berest
'elmtree'

MiddleBreton:beror(OBret.)

References:GPCI:274,Schrijver1995:67

Cornish:beler(OCo.)

ProtoCeltic:*betu'birch'[Noun]

Gaulish:berula(MarcellusofBordeaux)

OldIrish:beithe[iom]

Notes:ThiswordisunattestedinGaulish,but
wehaveGalloLatinberula>Frenchberle.Itis
probablethattheCelticwordsforwatercress
shouldbederivedfrom*beru'water,spring,
well'>OIr.bir.Thesegmentationis,therefore,
presumably*beruro.OIr.biris,inturn,
probablyrelatedtoPCelt.*berw'cook,
brew'.

MiddleWelsh:bedwen[Singulative]

References:LEIAB52.,GPCI:275,DGVB
82,Delamarre73,DeBernardoStempel1999:
318.
ProtoCeltic:*berw'brew,cook'[Verb]
OldIrish:berbaid;berba[Subj.];berbais[Pt.]
MiddleWelsh:berwi,berw
MiddleBreton:bervi,birvi

MiddleBreton:bezu,bezven[Singulative]
Cornish:bedewengl.populus(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwetu'pitch'
PageinPokorny:480
IEcognates:Skt.jatu,OHGcuti,OEcwidu
Notes:TheformationswithinCelticdonot
agree.TheusteminBrit.appearstobemore
archaic.PerhapsOIr.beithecanbefroma
derivative*betwiyoifthedevelopmentof*
twinGoidelicisnotparalleltothe
developmentof*dw>OIr.db(cp.Medb<
*medw),but*kwetwores>cethir.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bherw'boil,brew'

References:LEIAB28,GPCI:266,EIEC65,
Campanile1974:13

PageinPokorny:132

ProtoCeltic:*bibud'guilty'[Adjective]

IEcognates:Lat.ferueo'boil',OEbrowan

OldIrish:bibdu[dm]'culprit,enemy'

Notes:Thisisadenominativeverb,derived
from*berwo>Wberw'stew'.Cp.alsoGaul.
Boruo'anameofApollonasgodofwarm
sources',cp.Delamarre83

MiddleWelsh:bibid(OW)gl.rei

References:LEIAB40f.,LIV65,EIEC76,
GPCI:275,Delamarre83

MiddleBreton:bevez'guilty'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhewd'strike'
PageinPokorny:112

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 30

IEcognates:OEbatan'strike'

Cornish:bistelgl.fel(OCo.)

Notes:TheOIr.formisactuallyaparticiple
*bibdwtfromaverbalrootwhichis
unattestedinCeltic.OWbibidisahapaxin
Welsh.

IEcognates:Lat.blis'gall'

References:LEIAB48,GPCI:363,DGVB82,
EIEC549,LIV66.,Falileyev15.

References:DGVB84,Campanile1974:14,
Falileyev16,Schrijver1995:438,MorrisJones
1913:140.

ProtoCeltic:*biko'bee'[Noun]
OldIrish:bech[om]
MiddleWelsh:begegyr,bygegyr[m]'drone'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhiko
PageinPokorny:116
IEcognates:OEbo,OCSbela
Notes:Lat.fcus'drone'canbederivedfrom
*bhoyko,withtheogradeofthesameroot,
whileLith.bite'bee'hasacompletely
differentsuffix.Perhapsweshouldreconstructa
rootnoun*bhyks/*bhikos/*bhoykmin
PIE.
References:LEIAB24f.,GPCI:363,EIEC57,
DeBernardoStempel44
ProtoCeltic:*birro'short'[Adjective]
OldIrish:berr[o]
MiddleWelsh:byrr(GPCbyr)
MiddleBreton:berr(OBret.),MBret.berr
Cornish:ber
Gaulish:Birrus[PN],(GalloLatin)birrusor
birrum'shortcloak'

Notes:TheconsonanttinBritishisepenthetic,
cp.PCelt.*gsslo'surety,hostage'>Wgwystl

ProtoCeltic:*bitu'world'[Noun]
OldIrish:bith[um]
MiddleWelsh:bid[m](OW),MWbyd[m]
MiddleBreton:bit(OBret.),bet
Cornish:bitgl.mundus,bys
Gaulish:Bituriges[Ethnonym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwiHtu'life'
PageinPokorny:41
IEcognates:Lat.uta'life',OCSiti'tolive'
Notes:Theshort*iinthisCelticwordis
probablytheresultofthegeneralizationofthe
rootshape*gwi,whichwasregularbefore
resonantsfollowedby*o.Itisalsopossible
thatwearedealingwiththesameshorteningas
inPCelt.*wiro"man"(OIr.fer,etc.)fromPIE
*wiHro(Lith.vyras,etc.).Whethersuch
shorteningsdependonthepositionoftheaccent
inPIE(theallegedDybo'slaw)isamatterof
dispute.
References:LEIAB54,GPCI:360f.,DGVB
84,DeBernardoStempel1999:288,Delamarre
76f.,Falileyev15,Campanile1974:14.
ProtoCeltic:*biwo'alive'[Adjective]

References:LEIAB42,GPCI:364,DGVB82,
Lambert1994:188.,Delamarre76.

OldIrish:beo[o]

ProtoCeltic:*bis(s)li'gall'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:byw'living,alive';'life'[m]

MiddleWelsh:bisl(OW),MWbystyl

MiddleBreton:beu

MiddleBreton:bistlougl.humoresnigri
(OBret.),Bret.bestl

Cornish:biugl.uita,byw,bew
Gaulish:Biuonia[PN]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 31

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwiHwo'alive'

Cornish:blodon(OCo.),bledzhan

PageinPokorny:468

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhleh3'blossom,
flower'

IEcognates:Lat.uus,OCSiv,Lith.gyvas
References:LEIAB37,GPCI:369,EIEC356,
Delamarre77,Campanile1974:14,Schrijver
1995:246
ProtoCeltic:*bw'pitch'[Noun]
OldIrish:bi[?f]

PageinPokorny:122
IEcognates:Lat.fls,OHGbluot
Notes:Gaul.PNBlatunaiisprobablyderived
fromthesameroot(Meid2005:187),cp.also
thetoponymBlatomagus.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwiHu'pitch'

References:LEIAB58,GPCI:384,De
BernardoStempel1999:289,Meid2005:187.

PageinPokorny:482

ProtoCeltic:*blwo'yellow'[Adjective]

IEcognates:Arm.kiv(Gen.kvoy)

OldIrish:bla[o]

Notes:TheOIr.wordistooshortandtoopoorly
attestedforthisetymologytohaveanydegree
ofcertainty.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhleh2?'blue'

References:LEIAB45f.

IEcognates:Lat.fluus,OHGblao'blue'

ProtoCeltic:*bled'wolf,?largepredator'
[Noun]

References:LEIAB55,DeBernardoStempel
1999:213

OldIrish:bled[f]'monster,largeanimal'

ProtoCeltic:*bldan'year'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:bleidd[m]'wolf'(GPCblaidd)

OldIrish:bliadain[f]

MiddleBreton:bleid(OBret.),Bret.bleiz

MiddleWelsh:bloidin(OW),MWblwyddyn[f]

Cornish:bleitgl.lupus(OCo.)

MiddleBreton:blid,blidan,bliden(OBret.),
MBret.blizen

Notes:Anotherderivativefromthesamerootis
OIr.blesc[f]'prostitute'<*bledsk,cp.
LEIAB59.Thesemanticmotivationisthe
sameasinLat.lupa'prostitute'fromlupus'wolf'
(theOIr.wordmightactuallybeacalqueofthe
Latinword).
References:LEIAB58,GPCI:283,DGVB85,
Campanile1974:14.
ProtoCeltic:*bltu'flower'[Noun]
OldIrish:blath[um]
MiddleWelsh:blawd[m]
MiddleBreton:bleuzff

PageinPokorny:160

Cornish:bli?en(OCo.)
Notes:ThecorrespondencebetweenOIr.and
MWallowsustoreconstructanstemfor
PCelt.However,thereisalsoWblwydd,OBret.
blid,Bret.bloaz'year',presumablyfroman
underived*bld.WblyneddandOBret.
blenedpointtothezerograde*blidni.
References:LEIAB59,GPCI:291,DGVB
85f.,DeBernardoStempel1999:79,85
ProtoCeltic:*bodaro'deaf'[Adjective]
OldIrish:bodar[o]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 32

MiddleWelsh:byddar
MiddleBreton:bodaran(OBret.),MBret.
bouzar
Cornish:bothargl.surdus,bodhar
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhodHro'deaf'
PageinPokorny:112
IEcognates:Skt.badhira'deaf'
References:LEIAB64f.,GPCI:362,DGVB
87,EIEC148.,Campanile1974:16.
ProtoCeltic:*bodwo'crow'[Noun]
OldIrish:bodb[omandf](DILbadb)'crow,
wargoddess'
MiddleBreton:bodougl.ardea(OBret.)
Gaulish:Boduus[PN],Boduognatus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhodhwo'battle'

References:LEIAB113,EIEC85,Delamarre
63
ProtoCeltic:*bolgo'sack,bag,stomach'
[Noun]
OldIrish:bolg[om]
MiddleWelsh:bol,boly,bola;boliau,byly[p]
MiddleBreton:bolc'h'cossedelin'
Gaulish:*bulga(bulgasGallisacculosscorteos
appellant,P.Fest.31.25)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bholg'h'skinbag,
bolster'
PageinPokorny:125
IEcognates:Av.bar zi'bolster,cushion',OE
belg'stomach',Sloveneblazina'featherbed'
References:LEIAB66f,GPCI:296,EIEC45,
Delamarre94

PageinPokorny:114

ProtoCeltic:*bondyo'(arm)ring,circlet,
bracelet'[Noun]

IEcognates:OEbeadu'fight,battle'

OldIrish:buinne[io]

Notes:Theoriginalmeaningoftheroot*bhodh
ispresumably'topierce,tofight',hence
*bhodhwo'battle,fight'.Themeaning'crow'in
Celticmustbesecondary(thecrowisthebird
symbolizingthecarnageinbattle).

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhendh'bind'

References:DGVB88,Delamarre81,De
BernardoStempel1999:215,Birkhan1970:
502ff.

References:LEIAB115,LIV,EIEC64,196

ProtoCeltic:*bodyo'yellow'[Adjective]
OldIrish:buide[io]
Gaulish:(?)Bodiocasses[Ethnonym],Baius
[PN]

PageinPokorny:127
IEcognates:Skt.bandh,Go.bindan

ProtoCeltic:*bonu'foundation,base,butt'
[Noun]
OldIrish:bun[um]
MiddleWelsh:bon[m](GPCbn)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bod(h)yo

References:LEIAB115f.,GPCI:298,De
BernardoStempel1999:249,Schrijver1995:
36.

PageinPokorny:92

ProtoCeltic:*bost'palm,fist'[Noun]

IEcognates:Lat.badius'bay,chestnutbrown'

OldIrish:bos,bas[f]
MiddleWelsh:bos(OWandMW)[f]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 33

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwosto'branch'

Notes:ThemeaningofOIr.buaidirisnot
completelyclear(itiscompatiblewiththe
meaning'confusion').Cp.alsoOIr.buiadre
'trouble,confusion'.

PageinPokorny:382,480

References:LEIAB108,GPCI:344

IEcognates:MHGquast'branch',Alb.gjethe

ProtoCeltic:*bowdi'booty,victory'[Noun]

Notes:Frenchboisse'measureofgrain'canbe
derivedfromGaul.*bosti.Somelinguists
derivetheseCelticwordsfromnonIEsources,
comparingthemto,e.g.,Basquebost'five'*cp.
Pokorny,ZCPXVIII111).

OldIrish:buaid[in]'victory,gain,profit'

References:LEIAB20f.,GPCI:302,Falileyev
17.

Gaulish:Boudilatis,Boudicca[PN]

MiddleBreton:boz

ProtoCeltic:*bowkoli'cowherd,herdsman'
[Noun]
OldIrish:buachaill[im]
MiddleWelsh:bugeil(GPCbugail)

MiddleWelsh:budd[m]'profit,advantage'
MiddleBreton:budgl.bradium(OBret.)

Notes:Germanicforms,suchasGermanBeute
'booty',areprobablyloanwordsfromCeltic.In
OWthereisacompoundfromthisroot,budi
caul'victor,conqueror',exactlyparallelto
OBret.budicol.

MiddleBreton:buguel,bugel

References:LEIAB107,GPCI:345,DGVB
91,Lambert1994:59,Delamarre83f.,Falileyev
20,Schmidt1987:268,Meid2005:188.

Cornish:bugel

ProtoCeltic:*brag(y)o'fart'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwowkwolo'shepherd'

OldIrish:braigid;bebraig[Pret.]

PageinPokorny:639

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhreHg

IEcognates:Gr.boukolos

PageinPokorny:165f.

Notes:AsinGreek,thesecondlabiovelarwas
dissimilated(*kw>*k)inCeltic.

IEcognates:Lat.fragrre'smell',OHGbracko
'Sprhund'

References:LEIAB107,GPCI:347,LP44,
Uhlich2002:417

Notes:AnotheretymologyinLIV91f,where
thesewordsarerelatedtoPIE*bhreg'break'.

ProtoCeltic:*bowdro'dirty'[Adjective]

References:KPV232f,Schrijver1995:170f.,
LEIAB77

OldIrish:buaidir

ProtoCeltic:*braxsman'fart'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:budr

OldIrish:broimm[nn]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwewd'excrement,
defecate'

MiddleWelsh:bram[f]

PageinPokorny:484

MiddleBreton:bramm

IEcognates:Skt.guvati'cacat',OEcwead
'dirt'

Cornish:bram
Seealso:*brag(y)o'tofart'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 34

References:LEIAB95,GPCI:308,De
BernardoStempel1999:412,Stber1998:52.
ProtoCeltic:*bragno,*bragni'rotten,faul'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:bren[o]
MiddleWelsh:braen'putrid,corrupt'
MiddleBreton:brein
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhreHg
PageinPokorny:165f.
Seealso:*brag(y)o'tofart'
References:Schrijver1995:170f.,GPCI:305,
DeBernardoStempel1999:252,258
ProtoCeltic:*brano'raven'[Noun]
OldIrish:bran[om]
MiddleWelsh:bran[f](GPCbrn);brain[p]
MiddleBreton:morbran(OBret.),Bret.bran

ProtoCeltic:*bratto,*brattino'mantle,cloak'
[Noun]
OldIrish:bratt[om]
MiddleWelsh:brethyn[m]'cloth'
MiddleBreton:brothracgl.taxam(OBret.),
Bret.broz'dress
Notes:Wbrat'cloak'isaloanwordfromIrish
(thefinaltcannotbeoriginal).Fleuriot
(DGVB)believesOBret.brothracalsotobea
loanwordfromOIr.,andadducesIr.brothrach'a
richgarment'.Forpossible(butnotvery
convincing)PIEetymologyofthesewordssee
Lane1931.
References:LEIAB81,GPCI:320f.,DGVB
91,DeBernardoStempel1999:351,513,519,
Lane1931.
ProtoCeltic:*brawon'quern,millstone'
[Noun]
OldIrish:brao,bro[nf]
MiddleWelsh:breuan[f]
MiddleBreton:breo

Cornish:bran
Gaulish:Branodunum[PN]
References:LEIAB77,GPCI:309,DGVB89,
Delamarre85

Cornish:brougl.mola
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwreHwn'quern'
PageinPokorny:447

ProtoCeltic:*brasso'great,violent'
[Adjective]

IEcognates:Skt.grvan,Arm.erkan,Go.
qairnus,Lith.girnos[p]

OldIrish:bras[o]'great,boastful,defiant'
MiddleWelsh:bras'fat,thick'

References:LEIAB92,GPCI:321,LP12,
EIEC474,DeBernardoStempel1999:105,
Campanile1974:18,Stber1998:94f.

MiddleBreton:braz'great'

ProtoCeltic:*brendo'spring,well'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwrosto

OldIrish:doeprannat'flowaway'[3pPres.]<
*tueksbrendo;dobre[3sSubj.]<*tubrend
so;dobibuir[3sFut.]<*tubibrandso;
bebarnatar[3pPret.]

PageinPokorny:485
IEcognates:Lat.grossus'fat'
References:LEIAB79,GPCI:308f.,Schrijver
1995:55

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhrend(h)
PageinPokorny:167f

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 35

IEcognates:Lith.bri,sti
References:KPV232ff,LIV95,LEIAB103f.,
D122,LP347

References:LEIAB90,GPCI:323,De
BernardoStempel1999:30
ProtoCeltic:*brikko'speckled'[Adjective]

ProtoCeltic:*brig'hill'[Noun]

OldIrish:brecc[o]

OldIrish:bri[gf]

MiddleWelsh:brych

MiddleWelsh:bre[f]

MiddleBreton:brec'h'variola'

MiddleBreton:bre

Cornish:brygh

Cornish:bre

Gaulish:Briccus[PN]

Gaulish:briga[inToponyms],Brigantes
[Ethnonym]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*prk''speckled'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bherg'h'behigh,
mountain'
PageinPokorny:140f.
IEcognates:Av.b r z,OHGberg
Seealso:*brig

PageinPokorny:820f.
IEcognates:Skt.prsni,Gr.perknos
Notes:Theinitial*bfromPIE*pis
unexplained.Adifferentetymologyisproposed
byEIEC514,relatingtheCelticformstoHitt.
parkui'clean',whichisunconvincing.
References:LEIAB82,GPCI:338,EIEC514.

Notes:TheCelticformscanbederivedfromthe
zerogradeofthePIEroot*bherg'h.OIr.
preserveswhatseemstohavebeenanoldroot
nounPCelt.*brigs,Gen.*brigos,whilethe
Brit.andGaul.formspointtoaderivative
*brig.

ProtoCeltic:*brisko'weak,fragile'[Adjective]
OldIrish:brisc[o]
MiddleWelsh:brysgar'vivid,busy,quick'

References:LEIAB87,GPCI:313,LP30,
LIV63,EIEC269,Lambert1994:20,37,
Delamarre87.

MiddleBreton:bresq'fragile'

ProtoCeltic:*brig'might,power'[Noun]

Notes:ItisdoubtfulwhetherWbrysgarbelongs
here.GPCI:340derivesitfrombrysgarand
comparesWbrys'haste,speed,hurry'

OldIrish:bri[f]
MiddleWelsh:bri[m]'prestige,authority'
MiddleBreton:bry'respect'
Cornish:bry'respect,honor'
Seealso:*brig

Seealso:*brissV

References:LEIAB90f.,GPCI:340,De
BernardoStempel1999:278.
ProtoCeltic:*brissV'fight,combat'[Noun]
OldIrish:bres[f]
MiddleWelsh:Conbresel[PN]

Notes:NotethatthegendersofWandGoidelic
donotmatch.Maybeweshouldreconstructa
PCelt.rootnoun*brgs,Gen.*brgos,from
thesamerootas*brig'hill'.

MiddleBreton:brezel'war'
Cornish:bresel'war'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 36

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bherst'break'

OldIrish:brocc[om]

IEcognates:OEberstan

MiddleWelsh:broch[m]

Notes:InOIr.thereisthedenominativeverb
brissid'break'fromthisroot.

MiddleBreton:broc'h

References:LEIAB86,B91
ProtoCeltic:*briti'carrying,judgement'
[Noun]
OldIrish:brith,breth
MiddleWelsh:bryd[m]'thought,mind,intent,
aim'
Cornish:brys'thought'
Gaulish:Britus[NP]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhrti'carrying'
PageinPokorny:130
IEcognates:Skt.bhrti
Seealso:*bero

Cornish:brochgl.taxo
Gaulish:Brocomagus[PN]
References:LEIAB94,GPCI:330,LHEB
567,Lambert1994:191,Delamarre90,
Campanile1974:18.
ProtoCeltic:*brozdo'point,tip'[Noun]
OldIrish:brot[om]
MiddleWelsh:brath[m]'bite,stab,wound'
Cornish:brathkygl.molossus
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhrosdhh1o
PageinPokorny:110
IEcognates:OEbrord'point'
References:LEIAB98,GPCI:310

References:LEIAB86f.,GPCI:338,
Delamarre89.
ProtoCeltic:*brixto/u'magicalformula,
incantation'[Noun]
OldIrish:bricht[un]
MiddleWelsh:brithinlledfrith'magical
charm'

ProtoCeltic:*brugno'sadness,pain'[Noun]
OldIrish:bron[om]
MiddleWelsh:brwyn[m]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwrugwhno'heavy
blow'(compound)

Gaulish:brixtia,brixtia(Chamalieres)

Notes:ThisCelticwordcannotbederivedfrom
PIE*gwhrewHg'h'bite'(Pokorny486),asGr.
brykh,Lith.grauiu,etc.clearlypointtoa
laryngeal,ofwhichthereisnotraceinCeltic.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhergh'enlighten'

References:LEIAB96,GPCI:336

PageinPokorny:139

ProtoCeltic:*brusniyo'faggot,(bundleof)
firewood'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:brith(OBret.)

IEcognates:ONbragr'poetictalent'
References:LEIAB89,Delamarre90,Lambert
1994:154
ProtoCeltic:*brokko'badger'[Noun]

OldIrish:brosnae[iom]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhrews'break'
PageinPokorny:171

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 37

IEcognates:Lat.brustum'piece',German
brausen'makenoise'
Notes:Wbryn[m]'heap,mound'mightbe
related,butthesemanticsareweak.

MiddleWelsh:bryw'lively,strong,powerful'

References:LEIAB97,GPCI:339

Notes:DIL(s.v.bro)treatsbro'multitude,
densemass'asthesamewordasbro'quern',
whichmightbecorrect,inwhichcasethis
etymologyiswrong.

ProtoCeltic:*bruson'abdomen,womb'[Noun]

References:LEIAB93,GPCI:342

OldIrish:bru[nf]

ProtoCeltic:*brgant'neck,throat'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:bru[m]'womb,belly',bron[f]
'breast'

OldIrish:bragae[tf]

MiddleBreton:bronn(OBret.)'breast',Bret.
bronn
Cornish:bron'breast'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhrews'belly'(?)
PageinPokorny:170f.
IEcognates:OEbreost'breast',Russ.brjux
'belly,paunch'
References:LEIAB100,GPCI:334,DGVB
90,EIEC561,DeBernardoStempel1999:100
ProtoCeltic:*brutu'fermentation,(boiling)
heat'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:breuant[f](cp.OWabal
brouannou'Adam'sapples')
MiddleBreton:Brehant(Dincat)[PN](OBret.)
Cornish:briansen
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwerh3'swallow'
PageinPokorny:476
References:LEIAB76,GPCI:321,EIEC64,
Falileyev2
ProtoCeltic:*brtu'judgement'[Noun]
OldIrish:brath[um]

OldIrish:bruth[un]

MiddleWelsh:braut(OW),MWbrawd[f];
brodiau[p]

MiddleWelsh:brwd'hot',OWbrutgl.animus

MiddleBreton:breut'debate'

MiddleBreton:brot'heat'(OBret.)

Cornish:bres

Cornish:brediongl.coctio

Gaulish:bratou(?inthededicatoryformula
bratoudekantem)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bherw'ferment,brew'
PageinPokorny:145
IEcognates:Lat.dfrutum'boiledwine',OHG
briuwan'brew'
References:LEIAB106,GPCI:334,DGVB
91,LP38,LIV65.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwrHtu'proclamation'
PageinPokorny:478
IEcognates:Lat.grtus'thankful'
References:LEIAB80,GPCI:311,Lambert
1994:43,52,DeBernardoStempel1999:291f.,
Delamarre85f.,Falileyev18

ProtoCeltic:*bruwo'quantity,multitude'
[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*brtr'brother'[Noun]

OldIrish:bro'multitude,densemass'

OldIrish:brathir[rm]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 38

IEcognates:Skt.bhr,Gr.ophrys,OEbru
MiddleWelsh:brawt(GPCbrawd)[m];brodyr,
broder,brodorion[p]

References:LEIAB75,EIEC188

MiddleBreton:brotr(OBret.),MBret.breuzr

ProtoCeltic:*bud(y)'satisfaction'[Noun]

Cornish:broder.l.braudgl.frater

OldIrish:buide[if]'thanks,satisfaction'

Gaulish:Bratronos(PN)

MiddleWelsh:bodd[m]'will,goodwill'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhreh2tr'brother'

MiddleBreton:bodlongl.contentus(OBret.)

PageinPokorny:163f.

Cornish:both'wish'

IEcognates:Skt.bhrt,Lat.frter,Lith.bro
lis

Notes:Ifailtoseethesemanticconnectionto
theroot*bhudh'wake,beconscient'(Skt.
budhyate,etc.)proposedbysomelinguists.

References:LEIAB80f.,GPCI:311,DGVB
91,RIGII.1L6,Campanile1974:18.
ProtoCeltic:*brtr'word'[Noun]
OldIrish:briathar[f]
MiddleWelsh:brwydr[f]'fight,combat'

References:LEIAB113f.,GPCI:294,DGVB
87
ProtoCeltic:*bundo'proclaim,givenotice'
[Verb]

PageinPokorny:166

OldIrish:adboind<*adbundeti;atbois[2s
Subj.];adbuib[3sFut.];atbobuid<*ussbu
bud[3sPret.]

Notes:Onthesemanticconnectionbetweenthe
OIr.andtheWwords,seeLEIAB88

MiddleBreton:dogurbonnue(OBret.)<*to
worbunde[3sPres.Subj.]

References:LEIAB88,GPCI:336

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhewdh

ProtoCeltic:*brw'bridge'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:150152

Gaulish:briogl.ponte(Vienne),briua(in
toponyms,e.g.Briuodurum>Biare.

IEcognates:Skt.bodhati'heawakes',OE
bodian'announce'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhreh1wo
PageinPokorny:173

Notes:Themeaningandetymological
connectionoftheOBret.formdogurbonnueare
notfullyascertained,cp.KPV237.

IEcognates:OEbrycg'bridge',Croat.brv'large
plank'

References:KPV236f,LIV82f,LP347,LEIA
B69,Delamarre81,McCone1991:43

References:Delamarre90f.

ProtoCeltic:*bungo'break'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*br'brow'[Noun]

OldIrish:boing'break,cut,reap';ba[Subj.],
dombibsat<*tubibugso[3pFut.];com
bobig[Pret.];bocht[Pret.Pass.]

OldIrish:bru(forbru)[uf]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhrewH'brow'
PageinPokorny:172f.

MiddleWelsh:diwung'attack'<*dbungo[3s
Pres.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhewg

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 39

PageinPokorny:152f.

MiddleBreton:bodingl.manus(OBret.)

IEcognates:OEbgan'tobend',Russ.bgat'

Gaulish:*budn>LateLatinbodina'frontier'

Notes:AttemptstorelateGaulishbogioin
nameslikeAdbogios,Combogiomarustothis
Celticetymonaredoubtful(Meid2005,
Delamarre81),becausetherootvocalismdoes
notagree.

References:LEIAB114,GPCI:362,DGVB
87,DeBernardoStempel1999:459,Schrijver
1995:24,Delamarre93

References:KPV238ff,LIV85f,LEIAB70ff,
McCone1991:43

OldIrish:boc[o]

ProtoCeltic:*buyo'be,become'[Verb]
OldIrish:biid'iswonttobe'[consuetudinal
Pres.];be[Subj.];bieid,bia[Fut.];boi
[Pret.];both[Pret.Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:bot(GPCbod);bez[3sPres.];
bit[3sPres.];bei[Impf.Subj.];bu[3sPret.]
MiddleBreton:bout;bei(OBret.)[3sImpf.
Subj.];boe,boue[3sPret.]
Cornish:bos;beth[3sPres.];be[3sImpf.
Subj.];bue[3sPret.]
Gaulish:biiete[2pImpv](Inscriptionfrom
Lime)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhewh2
PageinPokorny:146150
IEcognates:Skt.bhavati,Lat.fu'Iwas',OCS
byti
Seealso:*es

ProtoCeltic:*buggo'soft,tender'[Adjective]

MiddleBreton:bucgl.putris(OBret)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhewg'bend'
PageinPokorny:152
IEcognates:Skt.bhujati'bends',Go.biugan
References:LEIAB62,EIEC62,LIV68.
ProtoCeltic:*bukko'goat'[Noun]
OldIrish:boc[om]
MiddleWelsh:bwch[m]
MiddleBreton:bouch
Cornish:bochgl.caper.l.hyrcus(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhug'o'goat,buck'
PageinPokorny:174
IEcognates:Av.bza,Arm.buc'lamb',Ebuck
Notes:TheCelticformsmightbeloanwords
fromGermanic.

Notes:Theseformsaresuppletiveto*es'be';
OIr.biid(disyllabic)'iswonttobe'andGaul.
biietepointtoPCelt.*biye<*bhwiye(<
*bhuh2i(H)ye),cp.Lat.fio'become,be'.
References:KPV241256,GPCI:292,LP
325331,LEIAB46f,McCone1991:115135,
RIGII.2:269280,MorrisJones1913:346353.
ProtoCeltic:*budn'troop,host'[Noun]
OldIrish:buiden[f]
MiddleWelsh:byddin[f]

References:LEIAB62f.,GPCI:351,EIEC98,
229,Campanile1974:15.
ProtoCeltic:*bunno'owl,bittern'[Noun]
OldIrish:bonnan[om]'bittern'
MiddleWelsh:bun,bwn[m]
MiddleBreton:bonngl.grus.i.auis(OBret.)
References:LEIAB70,DGVB88

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 40

ProtoCeltic:*bundo'soleoffoot,base,floor'
[Noun]
OldIrish:bond[om]

Cornish:bod,bos

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bhundo'bottom'

Notes:ThereisapossibleconnectiontoLith.bu
tas'home,house'<*bhuto,butthismightbe
accidental.

PageinPokorny:174

References:LEIAB74,GPCI:293,DGVB88.

IEcognates:Skt.budhna,Lat.fundus,OHG
bodam

ProtoCeltic:*buzdo'tail,penis'[Noun]

References:LEIAB69
ProtoCeltic:*burro'inflated,swollen'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:borr[o]

OldIrish:bot[om]
MiddleWelsh:both[f]'umbo,nave,bossof
shield'
Gaulish:buuton(?)'penis'
References:LEIAB73

MiddleWelsh:bwrr,bwr'fat,strong,big'
Cornish:borgl.pinguis(OCo.)
References:LEIAB73,GPCI:354,Campanile
1974:16.
ProtoCeltic:*bussu'lip'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*b'die'[Verb]
OldIrish:ba;bebaid[Fut.];bebais[Pret.];
bath[Pret.Pass.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gweh2'tread'
PageinPokorny:463f.

OldIrish:bus
MiddleWelsh:gwefus

IEcognates:Skt.jigati'steps,goes',Arm.kam
'stand',Lith.dial.goju,goti'go'

MiddleBreton:gweuz

References:LIV205,KPV214ff.

Cornish:gueusgl.labia

ProtoCeltic:*bd'dive,drown'[Verb]

Gaulish:Bussumaros[PN]

OldIrish:baidid,baidi,badfid[Fut],ba
ided[Pt.Pass.]'submerge,drown'

Notes:OIr.busisnotwellattested(itbelongsto
thepoeticlanguage,berlanafiled).Itsstem
andgenderareunknown.Meid2005:129
adducesalsoGaul.BussugnatafromPannonia,
andassumesthemeaning'kiss'fortheelement
bussu.
References:LEIAB118,Delamarre95,Meid
2005:128f.
ProtoCeltic:*but'place,dwelling,hut'[Noun]
OldIrish:both[f]'hut'
MiddleWelsh:bod[f]'dwelling,place'
MiddleBreton:Bot(inplacenames)

MiddleWelsh:boddi
MiddleBreton:beuziff
Cornish:buthy,bedhy
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gweg'h'tread,wade'
PageinPokorny:465
IEcognates:Skt.ghate'wade'
Notes:TheCelticformationscanbeinterpreted
ascausativesoriteratives,derivedfrom
*gwg'heye(cp.Croatiangaziti'tread,wade').

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 41

Adifferent,lessconvincingetymologyis
proposedbyEIEC160.

OldIrish:beimm[nn]

References:LEIAB6,GPCI:294f.,EIEC160

MiddleBreton:boemm

ProtoCeltic:*bno'white,shining'[Adjective]

Cornish:bom

OldIrish:ban[o]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bheyH'hit,strike'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*bheh2n'shine'

PageinPokorny:117f.

PageinPokorny:104

IEcognates:OCSbiti'hit'

IEcognates:Skt.bhti'shine',Gr.phain
'show,appear'

Seealso:*bina

References:LEIAB13,EIEC115,513,LIV
54.

Notes:InOIr.beimmistheverbalnounofthe
verbbenaid.Itsgendercannotbeestablished
withfullcertainty,itmighthavebeenvariable.

ProtoCeltic:*brego'morning'[Noun]

References:LEIAB27,Stber1998:63.

OldIrish:barach[o?]'tomorrow'

ProtoCeltic:*bto,*biwato'food'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:bore[m]'morning';boreau,
boryau,boreuau[p]

OldIrish:biad[on]

MiddleBreton:beure

MiddleWelsh:bwyd[m]
MiddleBreton:boued

Cornish:bore
Notes:Foratempting,thoughdifficult
etymology,seeMeid,StudiaCelticaIV,72.

Cornish:buitgl.cibusvelesca(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwyeh3to,*gwih3
uHto

References:LEIAB16,GPCI:301,Meid,
StudiaCelticaIV,72

PageinPokorny:468

ProtoCeltic:*bsso'death'[Noun]

IEcognates:Lat.uta'life',Lith.gyvata

OldIrish:bas[on]

Notes:OIr.biadisattestedasabisyllablein
earlysources,whichimpliesthattheprotoform
was*biwato<*gwiHuHto;theBritish
wordscanbederivedfrom*bto,ultimately
form*gwey(H)to.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gweh2'go'
PageinPokorny:480
Seealso:*b'die'
Notes:OIr.basisactuallytheverbalnounto
baid'die'.AnotherpossibilityistorelateOIr.
bastoPIE*(s)gwes'putout'(OCSgasiti,G
sbennymietc.).
References:LEIAB20,Schrijver1995:406,
409.
ProtoCeltic:*bsman'blow'[Noun]

References:LEIAB47f.,GPCI:358,LIV
192f.,Hamp,MelangesPalmer88f.
ProtoCeltic:*datl'assembly,meeting'[Noun]
OldIrish:dal[f]
MiddleWelsh:dadl,dadyl[m]
MiddleBreton:dadlgl.concio(OBret.),MBret.
dael'dispute'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 42

Cornish:datheluurgl.concionator

ProtoCeltic:*dakro'tear'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dheh1'make,put'

OldIrish:der[on]

PageinPokorny:237

MiddleWelsh:deigr[m],deigryn[Singulative];
dagrau[p]

IEcognates:Lat.facio,Gr.tithmi
Notes:OIr.dal'assembly'issometimestreated
asthesameetymonasdal'share,part',butthis
hasacompletelydifferentetymology(see
*dlo).Etymologyof*datlisdisputed,butit
maytheroot*dheh1'puttogether,make'(Lat.
facio,etc.),andthesuffix*tlo.Gaul.
hydronymCondate(whichmeant'confluvium')
hasalsobeenrelatedtothisroot(PCelt.*kom
dati?).
References:LEIAD16f.,Falileyev40,
Schrijver1995:80,GPCI:870,Delamarre
123f.,DGVB127.
ProtoCeltic:*dafn'poem'[Noun]
OldIrish:duan[f]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dapno'offering'

MiddleBreton:dacrlon'fulloftears'(OBret.),
MBret.dazrou[p]
Cornish:dagrow[p]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dh2ek'ru'tear'
PageinPokorny:23
IEcognates:Hitt.ishahru,Lat.lacrima,OE
tar,Gr.dakry
References:Stokes140,LEIAD53f.,GPCI:
921,DGVB126,LP42,EIEC567,De
BernardoStempel1999:237,Hamp,Eriu
22/1971:181ff.
ProtoCeltic:*daln'comeintobeing,turninto
something'[Verb]

PageinPokorny:176f.

MiddleWelsh:deillyau(GPCdeillio)'emanate,
proceed,derive,comeabout,originate'

IEcognates:Lat.daps

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhh2elh1

Notes:AnotherpossibilityistorelateOIr.duan
toPIE*dhewg'h'beuseful'(Pokorny271,Gr.
tykh'success'etc.),cp.EIEC614

PageinPokorny:234

References:EIEC614,DeBernardoStempel
1999:255f.,Watkins1970.

Seealso:*dolisko

ProtoCeltic:*dago'good'[Adjective]

IEcognates:Gthall'blossom'[Verb],Alb.dal

References:KPV257f,GPCI:922,LIV132
ProtoCeltic:*dallo'blind'[Adjective]

OldIrish:dag
MiddleWelsh:da
MiddleBreton:da(OBret.),MBret.da

OldIrish:dall[o]
MiddleWelsh:dall
MiddleBreton:dall(OBret.),MBret.dall

Cornish:da
Gaulish:Dagomarus[PN]
References:Stokes140,GPCI:866,LEIA
D7f.,DGVB126,Delamarre134,Campanile
1974:35,Meid2005:82.

Cornish:dalgl.cecus(OCo.)
Notes:ProbablyrelatedareGaul.PNTridallus,
Dallo(cp.Delamarre135,Meid2005:192).
ThePIEetymologyoftheseCelticwordsis

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 43

uncertain(butseePokorny266;therelationship
withOHGtolseemsprobable).

MiddleWelsh:dafad[f]'sheep';defaid,
defeidiau[p]

References:LEIAD18,GPCI:882,DGVB
128,LP11,Delamarre135,Campanile1974:
35,Meid2005:192.

MiddleBreton:dan~vad

ProtoCeltic:*damna'subdue,breakahorse'
[Verb]

Gaulish:Damona(?)[Theonym]

OldIrish:damnaid,damna'bind,subdue'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*demh2'subdue,tame'
PageinPokorny:199f.
IEcognates:Hitt.damaszi'press,push',Skt.
dmyati'istame',Lat.domo
Seealso:*damo
References:EIEC565,LIV99f.
ProtoCeltic:*damyo'allow,permit,endure'
[Verb]
OldIrish:daimid,daim;dama[Subj.];didam
[Fut.];damatar[3pPret.];det[Pret.Pass.]

Cornish:dauatgl.ouis(OCo.)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*domh2o'thetamedone'
PageinPokorny:199f.
IEcognates:Skt.damya'youngbulltobe
tamed',Alb.dem'bull,steer'
Notes:TheCelticavocalismisbestexplained
bystartingfromaprotoform*dmHo,with
vocalic*m.TheBrit.formspointtoaderivative
*damatoratherthan*damo>OIr.dam.
References:LEIAD19f.,GPCI:878,EIEC
136,Campanile1974:36,DeBernardoStempel
1999:43,47
ProtoCeltic:*danto'tooth[Noun]
OldIrish:det[om]

MiddleWelsh:goddef'suffer,permit'

MiddleWelsh:dant[m]

MiddleBreton:gouzaff'suffer,permit'

MiddleBreton:dant(OBret.),Bret.dant

Cornish:godhaff'suffer'

Cornish:dansgl.dens(OCo.)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*demh2

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1dont'tooth'

PageinPokorny:199f.

PageinPokorny:289

IEcognates:Hitt.damaszi'forces',Skt.dama
yati'forces,tames',Lat.domre'totame'

IEcognates:Lat.dns,Gr.odn,Lith.dantis,
OHGzand

Notes:Thesimplex*damyoisattestedonlyin
OIr.,theBrit.formspointingtoPCelt.*wo
dam,cp.alsoOIr.fodaim,fodaim'suffer,
endure'<*wodamyo

References:Stokes154,GPCI:889f.,DGVB
128f.,EIEC594,Campanile1974:35,De
BernardoStempel1999:432

References:KPV260ff,LIV116f.,LP357,
LEIAD10f,GPCII:1425,McCone1991:30,
159163
ProtoCeltic:*damo,*damato'bull'[Noun]
OldIrish:dam[om]

ProtoCeltic:*dar(y)o'bull'[Verb]
OldIrish:dairid;daraid[Subj.];dart[Pret.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dherh3'bespringen'
PageinPokorny:256
IEcognates:Gr.thrsk'mates'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 44

MiddleWelsh:das(OW),MWdas[fandm]
References:KPV264f,LIV146f.,LP357,
LEIAD13,McCone1991:30,McCone1996:
53
ProtoCeltic:*darno'piece,part'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:darn[m]
MiddleBreton:darn
Cornish:darn
ProtoIndoEuropean:*drHno'torn'
PageinPokorny:206ff.
IEcognates:Gr.deir'tear',Lith.dial.dirti
References:Stokes147,GPCI:896,PedersenI:
52,LIV104
ProtoCeltic:*daru'oak'[Noun]
OldIrish:daur,dair[uf]
MiddleWelsh:dar(GPCdr)[f];deri,deiri
[p]

MiddleBreton:desi(OBret.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dheh1
PageinPokorny:238
IEcognates:Lat.facio,Gr.tithmi
Notes:TheIrishwordisattestedlate,andits
originalstemformationisuncertain,butitwas
probablyanistem.ThePCelt.word*dasto
shouldbederivedfromthezerograde*dhh1
sti.
References:LEIAD13f.,DGVB136,Falileyev
40,DeBernardoStempel1999:268.
ProtoCeltic:*dawyo'kindle,burn'[Verb]
OldIrish:doud[VerbalNounDat.s]'burning'
MiddleWelsh:deifyaw(GPCdeifio)
MiddleBreton:devi
Cornish:dewy,dywy

MiddleBreton:dar(OBret.)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*deh2u'burn,kindle'

Cornish:dargl.quercus(OCo.)

PageinPokorny:179f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*doru'tree,wood'

IEcognates:Skt.dunoti,Gr.dai,ToBtu

PageinPokorny:214ff.

References:GPCI:920,EIEC87,LIV88.

IEcognates:Hitt.tru,Gr.dory'tree,trunk,
spear',ToABor'wood',Av.duru

ProtoCeltic:*dedmV'rite,ceremony,usage'
[Noun]

Seealso:*derwo'firm,true'

OldIrish:deidmea[Gen.s]'law,
usage'dedmto:MWdeuawt,defawt
`ceremony,rite;law',dedfawd`law',OBdomot
gl.ritum;PCl.*dedmi:OIr.deidmea[gen.sg.]
`law,usage',MWdedyf`law'.(Schrijver1995:
37).x

Notes:TheOIr.istemdairisyoungerthanthe
oldustemdaur.Itwasreshapedsincefeminine
ustemsareotherwiseexceptionalinCeltic.The
avocalismoftheCelticformsisunexplained.
References:Stokes148,GPCI:891f.,DGVB
129,EIEC598,Campanile1974:35,De
BernardoStempel1999:237
ProtoCeltic:*dasti'heap,pile'[Noun]
OldIrish:daiss[?if]

MiddleWelsh:deuawt,defawt'rite,ceremony';
deddf[f]'rite,decree,ordinance,law'
MiddleBreton:domotgl.ritum(OBret.)
Notes:Someattestedforms(e.g.OBret.domot)
pointtoPCelt.*dedmto,whileOIr.deidmea,
ifitistheGen.s.ofanistem,mustimply

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 45

PCelt.*dedmi.OutsideCeltic,aprobable
cognateisGr.thesmos'custom'<PIE
*dhedh(h1)mo.
References:GPCI:912,Schrijver1995:37.
ProtoCeltic:*damna'subdue,breakahorse'
[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:dafad[f]'sheep';defaid,
defeidiau[p]
MiddleBreton:dan~vad
Cornish:dauatgl.ouis(OCo.)
Gaulish:Damona(?)[Theonym]

OldIrish:damnaid,damna'bind,subdue'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*domh2o'thetamedone'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*demh2'subdue,tame'

PageinPokorny:199f.

PageinPokorny:199f.

IEcognates:Skt.damya'youngbulltobe
tamed',Alb.dem'bull,steer'

IEcognates:Hitt.damaszi'press,push',Skt.
dmyati'istame',Lat.domo
Seealso:*damo
References:EIEC565,LIV99f.
ProtoCeltic:*damyo'allow,permit,endure'
[Verb]
OldIrish:daimid,daim;dama[Subj.];didam
[Fut.];damatar[3pPret.];det[Pret.Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:goddef'suffer,permit'
MiddleBreton:gouzaff'suffer,permit'
Cornish:godhaff'suffer'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*demh2
PageinPokorny:199f.
IEcognates:Hitt.damaszi'forces',Skt.dama
yati'forces,tames',Lat.domre'totame'
Notes:Thesimplex*damyoisattestedonlyin
OIr.,theBrit.formspointingtoPCelt.*wo
dam,cp.alsoOIr.fodaim,fodaim'suffer,
endure'<*wodamyo

Notes:TheCelticavocalismisbestexplained
bystartingfromaprotoform*dmHo,with
vocalic*m.TheBrit.formspointtoaderivative
*damatoratherthan*damo>OIr.dam.
References:LEIAD19f.,GPCI:878,EIEC
136,Campanile1974:36,DeBernardoStempel
1999:43,47
ProtoCeltic:*danto'tooth[Noun]
OldIrish:det[om]
MiddleWelsh:dant[m]
MiddleBreton:dant(OBret.),Bret.dant
Cornish:dansgl.dens(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1dont'tooth'
PageinPokorny:289
IEcognates:Lat.dns,Gr.odn,Lith.dantis,
OHGzand
References:Stokes154,GPCI:889f.,DGVB
128f.,EIEC594,Campanile1974:35,De
BernardoStempel1999:432

References:KPV260ff,LIV116f.,LP357,
LEIAD10f,GPCII:1425,McCone1991:30,
159163

ProtoCeltic:*dar(y)o'bull'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*damo,*damato'bull'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dherh3'bespringen'

OldIrish:dam[om]

PageinPokorny:256

OldIrish:dairid;daraid[Subj.];dart[Pret.]

IEcognates:Gr.thrsk'mates'
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 46

MiddleWelsh:das(OW),MWdas[fandm]
References:KPV264f,LIV146f.,LP357,
LEIAD13,McCone1991:30,McCone1996:
53
ProtoCeltic:*darno'piece,part'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:darn[m]
MiddleBreton:darn
Cornish:darn
ProtoIndoEuropean:*drHno'torn'
PageinPokorny:206ff.
IEcognates:Gr.deir'tear',Lith.dial.dirti
References:Stokes147,GPCI:896,PedersenI:
52,LIV104
ProtoCeltic:*daru'oak'[Noun]
OldIrish:daur,dair[uf]
MiddleWelsh:dar(GPCdr)[f];deri,deiri
[p]

MiddleBreton:desi(OBret.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dheh1
PageinPokorny:238
IEcognates:Lat.facio,Gr.tithmi
Notes:TheIrishwordisattestedlate,andits
originalstemformationisuncertain,butitwas
probablyanistem.ThePCelt.word*dasto
shouldbederivedfromthezerograde*dhh1
sti.
References:LEIAD13f.,DGVB136,Falileyev
40,DeBernardoStempel1999:268.
ProtoCeltic:*dawyo'kindle,burn'[Verb]
OldIrish:doud[VerbalNounDat.s]'burning'
MiddleWelsh:deifyaw(GPCdeifio)
MiddleBreton:devi
Cornish:dewy,dywy

MiddleBreton:dar(OBret.)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*deh2u'burn,kindle'

Cornish:dargl.quercus(OCo.)

PageinPokorny:179f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*doru'tree,wood'

IEcognates:Skt.dunoti,Gr.dai,ToBtu

PageinPokorny:214ff.

References:GPCI:920,EIEC87,LIV88.

IEcognates:Hitt.tru,Gr.dory'tree,trunk,
spear',ToABor'wood',Av.duru

ProtoCeltic:*dedmV'rite,ceremony,usage'
[Noun]

Seealso:*derwo'firm,true'

OldIrish:deidmea[Gen.s]'law,
usage'dedmto:MWdeuawt,defawt
`ceremony,rite;law',dedfawd`law',OBdomot
gl.ritum;PCl.*dedmi:OIr.deidmea[gen.sg.]
`law,usage',MWdedyf`law'.(Schrijver1995:
37).x

Notes:TheOIr.istemdairisyoungerthanthe
oldustemdaur.Itwasreshapedsincefeminine
ustemsareotherwiseexceptionalinCeltic.The
avocalismoftheCelticformsisunexplained.
References:Stokes148,GPCI:891f.,DGVB
129,EIEC598,Campanile1974:35,De
BernardoStempel1999:237
ProtoCeltic:*dasti'heap,pile'[Noun]
OldIrish:daiss[?if]

MiddleWelsh:deuawt,defawt'rite,ceremony';
deddf[f]'rite,decree,ordinance,law'
MiddleBreton:domotgl.ritum(OBret.)
Notes:Someattestedforms(e.g.OBret.domot)
pointtoPCelt.*dedmto,whileOIr.deidmea,
ifitistheGen.s.ofanistem,mustimply

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 47

PCelt.*dedmi.OutsideCeltic,aprobable
cognateisGr.thesmos'custom'<PIE
*dhedh(h1)mo.
References:GPCI:912,Schrijver1995:37.
ProtoCeltic:*damna'subdue,breakahorse'
[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:dafad[f]'sheep';defaid,
defeidiau[p]
MiddleBreton:dan~vad
Cornish:dauatgl.ouis(OCo.)
Gaulish:Damona(?)[Theonym]

OldIrish:damnaid,damna'bind,subdue'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*domh2o'thetamedone'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*demh2'subdue,tame'

PageinPokorny:199f.

PageinPokorny:199f.

IEcognates:Skt.damya'youngbulltobe
tamed',Alb.dem'bull,steer'

IEcognates:Hitt.damaszi'press,push',Skt.
dmyati'istame',Lat.domo
Seealso:*damo
References:EIEC565,LIV99f.
ProtoCeltic:*damyo'allow,permit,endure'
[Verb]
OldIrish:daimid,daim;dama[Subj.];didam
[Fut.];damatar[3pPret.];det[Pret.Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:goddef'suffer,permit'
MiddleBreton:gouzaff'suffer,permit'
Cornish:godhaff'suffer'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*demh2
PageinPokorny:199f.
IEcognates:Hitt.damaszi'forces',Skt.dama
yati'forces,tames',Lat.domre'totame'
Notes:Thesimplex*damyoisattestedonlyin
OIr.,theBrit.formspointingtoPCelt.*wo
dam,cp.alsoOIr.fodaim,fodaim'suffer,
endure'<*wodamyo

Notes:TheCelticavocalismisbestexplained
bystartingfromaprotoform*dmHo,with
vocalic*m.TheBrit.formspointtoaderivative
*damatoratherthan*damo>OIr.dam.
References:LEIAD19f.,GPCI:878,EIEC
136,Campanile1974:36,DeBernardoStempel
1999:43,47
ProtoCeltic:*danto'tooth[Noun]
OldIrish:det[om]
MiddleWelsh:dant[m]
MiddleBreton:dant(OBret.),Bret.dant
Cornish:dansgl.dens(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1dont'tooth'
PageinPokorny:289
IEcognates:Lat.dns,Gr.odn,Lith.dantis,
OHGzand
References:Stokes154,GPCI:889f.,DGVB
128f.,EIEC594,Campanile1974:35,De
BernardoStempel1999:432

References:KPV260ff,LIV116f.,LP357,
LEIAD10f,GPCII:1425,McCone1991:30,
159163

ProtoCeltic:*dar(y)o'bull'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*damo,*damato'bull'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dherh3'bespringen'

OldIrish:dam[om]

PageinPokorny:256

OldIrish:dairid;daraid[Subj.];dart[Pret.]

IEcognates:Gr.thrsk'mates'
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 48

MiddleWelsh:das(OW),MWdas[fandm]
References:KPV264f,LIV146f.,LP357,
LEIAD13,McCone1991:30,McCone1996:
53
ProtoCeltic:*darno'piece,part'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:darn[m]
MiddleBreton:darn
Cornish:darn
ProtoIndoEuropean:*drHno'torn'
PageinPokorny:206ff.
IEcognates:Gr.deir'tear',Lith.dial.dirti
References:Stokes147,GPCI:896,PedersenI:
52,LIV104
ProtoCeltic:*daru'oak'[Noun]
OldIrish:daur,dair[uf]
MiddleWelsh:dar(GPCdr)[f];deri,deiri
[p]

MiddleBreton:desi(OBret.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dheh1
PageinPokorny:238
IEcognates:Lat.facio,Gr.tithmi
Notes:TheIrishwordisattestedlate,andits
originalstemformationisuncertain,butitwas
probablyanistem.ThePCelt.word*dasto
shouldbederivedfromthezerograde*dhh1
sti.
References:LEIAD13f.,DGVB136,Falileyev
40,DeBernardoStempel1999:268.
ProtoCeltic:*dawyo'kindle,burn'[Verb]
OldIrish:doud[VerbalNounDat.s]'burning'
MiddleWelsh:deifyaw(GPCdeifio)
MiddleBreton:devi
Cornish:dewy,dywy

MiddleBreton:dar(OBret.)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*deh2u'burn,kindle'

Cornish:dargl.quercus(OCo.)

PageinPokorny:179f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*doru'tree,wood'

IEcognates:Skt.dunoti,Gr.dai,ToBtu

PageinPokorny:214ff.

References:GPCI:920,EIEC87,LIV88.

IEcognates:Hitt.tru,Gr.dory'tree,trunk,
spear',ToABor'wood',Av.duru

ProtoCeltic:*dedmV'rite,ceremony,usage'
[Noun]

Seealso:*derwo'firm,true'

OldIrish:deidmea[Gen.s]'law,
usage'dedmto:MWdeuawt,defawt
`ceremony,rite;law',dedfawd`law',OBdomot
gl.ritum;PCl.*dedmi:OIr.deidmea[gen.sg.]
`law,usage',MWdedyf`law'.(Schrijver1995:
37).x

Notes:TheOIr.istemdairisyoungerthanthe
oldustemdaur.Itwasreshapedsincefeminine
ustemsareotherwiseexceptionalinCeltic.The
avocalismoftheCelticformsisunexplained.
References:Stokes148,GPCI:891f.,DGVB
129,EIEC598,Campanile1974:35,De
BernardoStempel1999:237
ProtoCeltic:*dasti'heap,pile'[Noun]
OldIrish:daiss[?if]

MiddleWelsh:deuawt,defawt'rite,ceremony';
deddf[f]'rite,decree,ordinance,law'
MiddleBreton:domotgl.ritum(OBret.)
Notes:Someattestedforms(e.g.OBret.domot)
pointtoPCelt.*dedmto,whileOIr.deidmea,
ifitistheGen.s.ofanistem,mustimply

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 49

PCelt.*dedmi.OutsideCeltic,aprobable
cognateisGr.thesmos'custom'<PIE
*dhedh(h1)mo.
References:GPCI:912,Schrijver1995:37.
ProtoCeltic:*degwi'flame,blaze'[Noun]
OldIrish:daig[if]
MiddleWelsh:goddeith[mandf]'bigflame,
blaze'(GPCgoddaith)

References:KPV271ff.,GPCI:881f.,DGVB
134,Schrijver1995:142f.,RIGII.2:152155.,
LEIAC150
ProtoCeltic:*delgo'pin,needle'[Noun]
OldIrish:delg[om]
MiddleWelsh:dala[m]'sting'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhelg

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhegwh'burn'

PageinPokorny:247

PageinPokorny:240f

IEcognates:Lat.falx'curvedblade,hook',OE
dalc'bracelet',Lith.dilgus'stinging,smarting',

IEcognates:Skt.dahati,Lat.febris'fever',
ToABtsak'burn',Alb.djeg'burn'
Notes:Wgoddeith<*wodegwt.
References:GPCII:1425,EIEC87,LIV115f.,
DeBernardoStempel1999:64ff.,Schrijver
1995:140,McCone1996:23,111ff.

References:LEIAD48,GPCI:880,EIEC424,
DeBernardoStempel1999:141
ProtoCeltic:*delw'form,appearance,image'
[Noun]
OldIrish:delb[f(lateralsoum)]

ProtoCeltic:*dekos'honor'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:delu(OW),MWdelw[f]

OldIrish:dech[Comparativeofmaith'good]

Cornish:del

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dek'os'honor'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*del'carve,split'

IEcognates:Lat.decus,Arm.tasanem'see',
Avest.dasa'goods,possessions'

PageinPokorny:194ff.

Notes:TheindeclinablesuperlativedechinOIr.
isbesttakenasthepetrifiedformofoldneuter
nounmeaning'honor'.
References:EIEC271,DeBernardoStempel
1999:128,241
ProtoCeltic:*delgo'hold,contain'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:daly,dala'hold'(GPCdal,dala,
daly)

IEcognates:Lat.dolo'hew',Lith.dalyti
'divide',Alb.dalloj'cut'
References:Stokes150,LEIAD47f.,GPCI:
972,EIEC143,Falileyev42,LHEB387,De
BernardoStempel1999:216
ProtoCeltic:*demi'dim,dark'[Adjective]
OldIrish:deim[i]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhem'dim,dark'

MiddleBreton:delgim(OBret.)

PageinPokorny:148

Gaulish:delgu[1sPres.]

IEcognates:Edim,Norwegiandaam

Notes:InOIr.thereisapossiblecognatein
coindelg[oand,nandf]'contract,
comparison]<*komdelgo(cp.alsoWcynnal
'maintain')

Notes:MIr.deimisnotwellattested,butthere
isalsothederivativedeime<*demy
'darkness'.Thiswordisattestedonlyin
GermanicandCeltic,otheretymologiesin

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 50

Pokorny247f.aredoubtfulonsemanticgrounds
(root*dhemH'smoke')

Gaulish:Dervo[Toponym];*derwo>OFrench
dervee'oakwood'

References:Stokes147

ProtoIndoEuropean:*derwo'oak'

ProtoCeltic:*dergo'red,bloodred'
[Adjective]

PageinPokorny:214f.

OldIrish:derg[o]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dherg'dark'
PageinPokorny:251
IEcognates:OEdeorc,Lith.dargana'bad
weather'
Notes:Delamarre(140)mentionsthepossibility
thatthePNAndergus,attestedinLusitania,is
relatedtothesamePCelt.root.
References:LEIAD57,Delamarre140.
ProtoCeltic:*derk'see'[Verb]

Seealso:*daru'oak'
Notes:ThesemanticdevelopmentinOIr.was
'firmasanoak'>'firm,strong'>'true',as
explainedbyBenveniste,VocabulaireI,8.OIr.
derb2'vessel'isafemininestem,derivable
from*derw'madeofoakwood',thefeminine
collectiveof*derwo.
References:LEIAD12,54f.,GPCI:932f.,
EIEC36,DeBernardoStempel1999:216f.
ProtoCeltic:*dexs(i)wo'right,south'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:dess[o]
MiddleWelsh:dehau,deheu(GPCdeau,de)

OldIrish:darc,atchondarc<*adkomdark
[1sPres.];adchondairc[3sPret.relative]

MiddleBreton:dehou(OBret.),Bret.dehou

ProtoIndoEuropean:*derk''glanceat'

Cornish:dehow,dyghow

PageinPokorny:213

Gaulish:Dex(s)iua[Theonym]

IEcognates:Skt.dars,Gr.derkomai,OE
torht'bright,clear',Alb.drite'light'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dek'swo'right'

Seealso:*kwiso
Notes:Thisstemformedsomesuppletiveforms
totheroot*kwiso'see',cp.KPV270.From
thesamerootisOIr.drech'face',Wdrych
'appearance'(PCelt.*drik).
References:KPV270f.,LEIAD55f.,LIV122,
EIEC505
ProtoCeltic:*derwo'firm(asanoak)'
[Adjective];'oak'[Noun]
OldIrish:derb[o]

PageinPokorny:190
IEcognates:Lat.dexter,Gr.deksiteros,OCS
desn,Alb.djathte
Notes:TheInsularCelticformsarederivable
from*dexswo,whiletheGaulishname
Dexsiuapointsto*dexsiwo,whichisthe
expectedform,inlightofthecognatesinother
IElanguages(cp.alsoGr.deksios<
*dek'siwo).Themeaning'south'isderived
fromthemainprincipleoforientationinCeltic
byfacingtherisingsun(cp.alsoOIr.tuath
'left,north'.

MiddleWelsh:derwen[Singulative]'oak';derw
[p]

References:Stokes145,GPCI:999,DGVB
133,LEIAD61f.,EIEC458,LHEB535,De
BernardoStempel1999:212,Delamarre143.

MiddleBreton:daeru(OBret.),Bret.deru'oaks'

ProtoCeltic:*degwi'flame,blaze'[Noun]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 51

OldIrish:daig[if]
MiddleWelsh:goddeith[mandf]'bigflame,
blaze'(GPCgoddaith)

MiddleWelsh:dala[m]'sting'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhelg

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhegwh'burn'

PageinPokorny:247

PageinPokorny:240f

IEcognates:Lat.falx'curvedblade,hook',OE
dalc'bracelet',Lith.dilgus'stinging,smarting',

IEcognates:Skt.dahati,Lat.febris'fever',
ToABtsak'burn',Alb.djeg'burn'
Notes:Wgoddeith<*wodegwt.
References:GPCII:1425,EIEC87,LIV115f.,
DeBernardoStempel1999:64ff.,Schrijver
1995:140,McCone1996:23,111ff.

References:LEIAD48,GPCI:880,EIEC424,
DeBernardoStempel1999:141
ProtoCeltic:*delw'form,appearance,image'
[Noun]
OldIrish:delb[f(lateralsoum)]

ProtoCeltic:*dekos'honor'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:delu(OW),MWdelw[f]

OldIrish:dech[Comparativeofmaith'good]

Cornish:del

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dek'os'honor'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*del'carve,split'

IEcognates:Lat.decus,Arm.tasanem'see',
Avest.dasa'goods,possessions'

PageinPokorny:194ff.

Notes:TheindeclinablesuperlativedechinOIr.
isbesttakenasthepetrifiedformofoldneuter
nounmeaning'honor'.
References:EIEC271,DeBernardoStempel
1999:128,241
ProtoCeltic:*delgo'hold,contain'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:daly,dala'hold'(GPCdal,dala,
daly)

IEcognates:Lat.dolo'hew',Lith.dalyti
'divide',Alb.dalloj'cut'
References:Stokes150,LEIAD47f.,GPCI:
972,EIEC143,Falileyev42,LHEB387,De
BernardoStempel1999:216
ProtoCeltic:*demi'dim,dark'[Adjective]
OldIrish:deim[i]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhem'dim,dark'

MiddleBreton:delgim(OBret.)

PageinPokorny:148

Gaulish:delgu[1sPres.]

IEcognates:Edim,Norwegiandaam

Notes:InOIr.thereisapossiblecognatein
coindelg[oand,nandf]'contract,
comparison]<*komdelgo(cp.alsoWcynnal
'maintain')

Notes:MIr.deimisnotwellattested,butthere
isalsothederivativedeime<*demy
'darkness'.Thiswordisattestedonlyin
GermanicandCeltic,otheretymologiesin
Pokorny247f.aredoubtfulonsemanticgrounds
(root*dhemH'smoke')

References:KPV271ff.,GPCI:881f.,DGVB
134,Schrijver1995:142f.,RIGII.2:152155.,
LEIAC150
ProtoCeltic:*delgo'pin,needle'[Noun]
OldIrish:delg[om]

References:Stokes147
ProtoCeltic:*dergo'red,bloodred'
[Adjective]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 52

OldIrish:derg[o]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dherg'dark'
PageinPokorny:251
IEcognates:OEdeorc,Lith.dargana'bad
weather'
Notes:Delamarre(140)mentionsthepossibility
thatthePNAndergus,attestedinLusitania,is
relatedtothesamePCelt.root.
References:LEIAD57,Delamarre140.
ProtoCeltic:*derk'see'[Verb]

Notes:ThesemanticdevelopmentinOIr.was
'firmasanoak'>'firm,strong'>'true',as
explainedbyBenveniste,VocabulaireI,8.OIr.
derb2'vessel'isafemininestem,derivable
from*derw'madeofoakwood',thefeminine
collectiveof*derwo.
References:LEIAD12,54f.,GPCI:932f.,
EIEC36,DeBernardoStempel1999:216f.
ProtoCeltic:*dexs(i)wo'right,south'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:dess[o]
MiddleWelsh:dehau,deheu(GPCdeau,de)

OldIrish:darc,atchondarc<*adkomdark
[1sPres.];adchondairc[3sPret.relative]

MiddleBreton:dehou(OBret.),Bret.dehou

ProtoIndoEuropean:*derk''glanceat'

Cornish:dehow,dyghow

PageinPokorny:213

Gaulish:Dex(s)iua[Theonym]

IEcognates:Skt.dars,Gr.derkomai,OE
torht'bright,clear',Alb.drite'light'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dek'swo'right'

Seealso:*kwiso
Notes:Thisstemformedsomesuppletiveforms
totheroot*kwiso'see',cp.KPV270.From
thesamerootisOIr.drech'face',Wdrych
'appearance'(PCelt.*drik).
References:KPV270f.,LEIAD55f.,LIV122,
EIEC505
ProtoCeltic:*derwo'firm(asanoak)'
[Adjective];'oak'[Noun]
OldIrish:derb[o]
MiddleWelsh:derwen[Singulative]'oak';derw
[p]
MiddleBreton:daeru(OBret.),Bret.deru'oaks'
Gaulish:Dervo[Toponym];*derwo>OFrench
dervee'oakwood'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*derwo'oak'

PageinPokorny:190
IEcognates:Lat.dexter,Gr.deksiteros,OCS
desn,Alb.djathte
Notes:TheInsularCelticformsarederivable
from*dexswo,whiletheGaulishname
Dexsiuapointsto*dexsiwo,whichisthe
expectedform,inlightofthecognatesinother
IElanguages(cp.alsoGr.deksios<
*dek'siwo).Themeaning'south'isderived
fromthemainprincipleoforientationinCeltic
byfacingtherisingsun(cp.alsoOIr.tuath
'left,north'.
References:Stokes145,GPCI:999,DGVB
133,LEIAD61f.,EIEC458,LHEB535,De
BernardoStempel1999:212,Delamarre143.
ProtoCeltic:*dolisko'seaweed,Palmaria
palmata'[Noun]
OldIrish:duilesc[om]

PageinPokorny:214f.

MiddleWelsh:delysc[m]'fucuspalmatus,
edibleseaweed,stuffwhichiscastupbythe
sea'(BPCdelysg,dylysg,dylusg)

Seealso:*daru'oak'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhh2elh1

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 53

PageinPokorny:258
PageinPokorny:234
Seealso:*daln
References:KPV257,GPCI:928f.,LEIA
D216f.,D220
ProtoCeltic:*dorro'harsh,rough'[Adjective]
OldIrish:dorr[o]
PageinPokorny:206ff.
IEcognates:Etarse
Notes:ThereislittledoubtthatOIr.dorrisfrom
thePIEroot*der'tear',butparallelswiththe
suffix*sarefew,andlimitedtoGermanic.
AnotherderivativefromthesamerootinOIr.is
doirr[originallyf]'anger',whichmaygoback
to*dorseh2.
ProtoCeltic:*dowsant'arm,hand'[Noun]
OldIrish:doe,doe[ntf]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dows
PageinPokorny:226
IEcognates:Skt.dos,Latv.paduse'armpit'
References:LEIAD133,EIEC26,Thurneysen
208,DeBernardoStempel1999:433
ProtoCeltic:*dragen'sloetree,blackthorn,
Prunusspinosa'[Noun]
OldIrish:draigen[f]

IEcognates:OHGdirnbaum,Russ.deren
'cornelcherry'
References:Stokes155,LEIAD189f.,GPCI:
1080,EIEC528,DeBernardoStempel1999:
145,447,Delamarre148,Campanile1974:40.
ProtoCeltic:*dringo'climb,advance'[Verb]
OldIrish:dringid,dring;dreisi[2sSubj.];
dreblaing[Pret.]
MiddleWelsh:dringo(GPCdringo,dringio,
dringad)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dregh
PageinPokorny:212f.,254
IEcognates:Av.draaite'holds',Gr.dra
ssomai,Russ.derat'
References:KPV285f.,GPCI:1085,DGVB
152,LIV126,LP359,LEIAD196,McCone
1991:47
ProtoCeltic:*drik'face,appearance'[Noun]
OldIrish:drech[f]'face'
MiddleWelsh:drych[m]'spectacle,mirror,
aspect'
MiddleBreton:dre(h)(OBret.)
Seealso:*derko'see'
References:DGVB152,GPCI:1091,Morris
Jones1913:76

MiddleWelsh:draen,drain[mandf]
'thornbush,brambles,briars';draenen
[Singulative]

ProtoCeltic:*dristi'bramble,thornbush'
[Noun]

MiddleBreton:draen

OldIrish:driss[if]gl.vepres

Cornish:draingl.spina(OCo.)

MiddleWelsh:drissi[p](OW),MWdryssi,
drissi[p](GPCdrysi,drys)

Gaulish:Draganes[PN],*drageno>French
dial.dren'raspberry'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhergh'sloetree,
blackbush'

MiddleBreton:drisocgl.drumentum(OBret.),
Bret.drez
Cornish:dreisgl.vepres(OCo.)

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 54

Notes:TheseCelticwordswerecomparedto
Gr.drios'bush,coppice',butSchrijver(1995:
410)callsthis'amerepossibility'.Inanycase,
intheabsenceofcomparandafromotherIE
languages,itisdifficulttoreconstructaPIE
etymon(perhaps*dris).
References:LEIAD197,GPCI:1096,
Falileyev50,Schrijver1995:410
ProtoCeltic:*droko'wheel'[Noun]
OldIrish:droch[om]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhrogho'wheel'
PageinPokorny:273
IEcognates:Gr.trokhos,Arm.durgn'potter's
wheel'
Notes:TheCelticformmightbeanindependent
formationfromPIE*dhregh'run'(Gr.trekh,
etc.).Itisusuallyinterpretedasathematic
derivativeofthephorostype,butitsvoiceless
velarisunexplained(wewouldexpectPCelt.
*drogo).Therefore,Ithinkoneshouldstart
fromthePIErootnoun*dhrohgs(or*dhrghs)/
Gen.*dhroghos,andCelticsimplygeneralized
thevoicelessvelarrealizedintheNom.before
final*s.
References:LEIAD199,LIV135,EIEC640,
DeBernardoStempel1999:45,Uhlich2002:
416.
ProtoCeltic:*druko'bad'[Adjective]
OldIrish:droch
MiddleWelsh:drwg
MiddleBreton:drouk
Cornish:drog
Gaulish:Druca,Drucco[PN]
References:LEIAD198,GPCI:1087,
Delamarre149
ProtoCeltic:*drungo'detachment,troop'
[Noun]
OldIrish:drong[om]

MiddleWelsh:dronn[f]'multitude,throng,
host'(GPCdron)
MiddleBreton:drogn(OBret.)gl.cetus(coetus)
Seealso:*dringo
Notes:TheseCelticwordsarepresumablyearly
borrowingsfromGermanic,assuggestedby
Pokorny(252ff.),cp.OEdryht'companion',
OHGtruht'troop'(otherwisetheuintheroot
isunexplained).TheGermanicwordsare
relatedtoOCSdrug'companion',Lith.
draugas,etc.Thenasalinfixmightbeduetothe
influenceoftheverb*dringo'advance'(OIr.
dringidetc.).Lat.drungus'globushostium'isa
loanwordfromGaulish(ordirectlyfromsome
Germanicsource?).
References:LEIAD201,GPCI:1086,
Delamarre150,DGVB152,Birkhan1970:
1042
ProtoCeltic:*druwid'priest,druid'[Noun]
OldIrish:drui[dm]
Gaulish:druides[Nom.p]
Notes:Thesecondelementofthiscompoundis
therootoftheverb*weyd'see,know'(Skt.ve
da,etc.).ThefirstelementispresumablyPIE
*derw,*dru'oak'whichmetaphoricallyalso
meant'strong,firm'.*druwidisthereforethe
priestwith'stronginsight'.TheWelshform
derwyddandOBret.dorguidgl.pithonicusare
actuallyparallelformations(<*doarewid).
References:LEIAD202f.,EIEC598,
Delamarre149
ProtoCeltic:*dubno'deep'[Adjective],'world'
[Noun]
OldIrish:domain'deep'[i],domun[om]'world'
MiddleWelsh:dwfn'deep'
MiddleBreton:doun
Cornish:down
Gaulish:Dumnorix[PN]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 55

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhewb'deep'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhewbh

PageinPokorny:267f.

PageinPokorny:264

IEcognates:OEdop,OCSdno'bottom',
ToBtapre'high',Alb.det'sea'

IEcognates:Gr.typhlos'blind',Go.daufs

Notes:OntherelationshipofOIr.domun'world'
anddomain'deep'seeUhlich1995.
References:Stokes153,LEIAD163f.,GPCI:
1104,EIEC154,Delamarre152,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:70,Meid2005:141f.,Uhlich
1995.
ProtoCeltic:*dubro'dark,unclean'[Adjective]
OldIrish:dobur[o]'black,unclean'
MiddleWelsh:dwfr,dwr[m]'water'
MiddleBreton:dour
Cornish:dour
Gaulish:Dubra,Uernodubrum[Toponym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhubh'black'
PageinPokorny:263ff.
IEcognates:Go.daufs'deaf',Gr.typhlos'blind'
Notes:OIr.hasalsothesubstantivizedadjective
dobur'water'(DILD218),whichpresumably
developedfromthesyntagm'darkwater'.A
similardevelopmentalsooccurredinBritish
and(probably)Gaulish.
References:Stokes153,LEIAD123,GPCI:
1103f.,Delamarre152,DeBernardoStempel
1999:228f.
ProtoCeltic:*dubu'black'[Adjective]
OldIrish:dub[u]

Notes:TheGaulishformsiniarebestderived
fromafeminine*dubwbuilttothestemin*
u.
References:LEIAD210f.,EIEC115,DGVB
153,LHEB275,Delamarre152f.,Falileyev51,
Campanile1974:41.
ProtoCeltic:*du(s)bwuyo'gloom,grief'
OldIrish:dubae[?ion]
MiddleWelsh:dyfydd[m]
References:GPCI:1128,Uhlich2002:419
ProtoCeltic:*duko'lead,carry'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:dwyn(GPCdwyn,dygyd,
dygu),dygaf[1sPres.];dwc[3sPres.];duc
[Pret.]
MiddleBreton:do(u)en'carry'
Cornish:doen'take,bring,steal'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dewk
PageinPokorny:220f.
IEcognates:Lat.dco'lead',Go.tiuhan'pull'
References:KPV286ff,LIV124,GPCI:1129f.
ProtoCeltic:*dunno'dark,brown'[Adjective]
OldIrish:donn[o]
MiddleWelsh:dwn
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhews'dark'

MiddleWelsh:Dub(OW),Wdu
MiddleBreton:du(OBret.),Bret.du,duff
Cornish:duwgl.niger

IEcognates:Lat.fuscus,furuus,OEdox
Notes:GaulishnameslikeDunnius,Dunnonia
mightberelated(Delamarre154).OIr.donn
'noble'(Pokorny121)isadifferentword.

Gaulish:Dubis[Hydronym]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 56

References:LEIAD171,GPCI:1105,
Delamarre154.
ProtoCeltic:*durno'fist'[Noun]
OldIrish:dorn[om]
MiddleWelsh:dwrn[m]
MiddleBreton:durn(OBret.),Bret.dourn
Gaulish:Dagodurnus[PN]
Notes:OldFrenchdor,Occitandorn'fist'are
presumablyGaul.loanwords.TheIEetymology
oftheseCelticwordsinPokorny203isnot
persuasive.
References:Stokes148,LEIAD177f.,GPCI:
1106,DGVB153,Delamarre156
ProtoCeltic:*dus'bad,ill'[Prefixed
adjective]
OldIrish:do,du(e.g.dochla'inglorious')
MiddleWelsh:dy(e.g.dyfydd'gloomy')
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dus'ill,mis'
PageinPokorny:227
IEcognates:Skt.dus,Lat.difficilis'difficult'
<*dusfacilis
ProtoCeltic:*dweno'strong'[Adjective]
OldIrish:de(i)n[o]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dweno'good,
favourable'
PageinPokorny:218f.
IEcognates:Skt.duvas'worship,reverence'
OLat.duenos,Lat.bonus'good'
References:LEIAD49,EIEC650,De
BernardoStempel1999:454
ProtoCeltic:*dissmi'something,anything,a
smallquantity'[Pronoun]
OldIrish:dimgl.quippiam

MiddleWelsh:dim'thing,anymatter,aught'
Seealso:(?)*dus'bad'
Notes:TheOIr.wordisscarcelyattested(inthe
Ml.glosses)anditmightbeaborrowingfrom
Brit.PCelt.*dissmi,ifthisisthecorrect
reconstruction,couldhavebeendissimilated
from*dussmi'somethingbad'.
References:GPCI:1018
ProtoCeltic:*dwor,*duro,*dworestu'door'
[Noun]
OldIrish:dorus[um],Dor,Duir[Toponyms]
MiddleWelsh:dor(OW),MWdor[f](GPC
dr),drws[m]
MiddleBreton:dor
Cornish:dor,darat
Gaulish:Augustodurum[PN]('Forum
Augusti')
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dwwor'door'
PageinPokorny:278
IEcognates:Lat.fors,Gr.thyr,ToBtwere
Notes:TheCelticformsareactuallynoteasyto
subsumeunderasingleetymon.Wemightbe
dealingwithaPCelt.ablautingparadigm,Nom.
s*dwr,Acc.*dworan(fromwhichwehave
theBritishformsand,withasuffix,OIr.dorus,
Wdrws<*dworestu),Gen.s*duros(from
whichwecanderiveGaul.durumandtheOIr.
toponymsDor,Duir
References:LEIAD173,GPCI:1089,EIEC
98,168,DeBernardoStempel1999:145,447,
Delamarre156,Falileyev49,Matasovic2004:
103,117
ProtoCeltic:*dwosyo'humanbeing'[Noun]
OldIrish:doe,dae[io?m]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhwes'breathe'
PageinPokorny:268ff.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 57

IEcognates:Lith.dsiu,OCSdyati,German
Tier'animal'

OldIrish:dal[on]

Notes:MiddleIrishdoeisattestedchieflyin
poetictexts.ApossibleparallelinGaul.is
Dusios'akindofdemon,incubus',attestedin
theworksofLat.writers(e.g.Augustine).See
Delamarre158.

MiddleWelsh:daul[m](OW)

References:LEIAD14,Delamarre158,
Lindeman1999.

IEcognates:Skt.dayate'divides',Gr.daiomai

ProtoCeltic:*dwflo'double'[Adjective]
OldIrish:diabul[o]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*dweyplo'double'
PageinPokorny:228ff.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*deh2'divide'
PageinPokorny:175f.

Notes:OWdaulisahapax.
References:LEIAD16,LIV87,Falileyev41
ProtoCeltic:*dmo'retinue'[Noun]
OldIrish:dam[om]

IEcognates:Go.tweifls,Lat.duplus

MiddleWelsh:daum(OW)'client',Wdaw[m]
'soninlaw'(GPCdaw,dawf)

References:GOI139

MiddleBreton:deuff'soninlaw'

ProtoCeltic:*dwtu'loss,destruction'[Noun]

Cornish:dofgl.gener(OCo.)

OldIrish:dith[u?n,m]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*domh2o'household,
home'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhweh1'die'
PageinPokorny:260
IEcognates:Lat.fnus'burial',OHGtauwen
'die',OCSdaviti'strangle'
References:LEIAD100,EIEC150,De
BernardoStempel1999:292
ProtoCeltic:*dyo'ail,trouble'[Verb]
OldIrish:dathair,daas[relative]
MiddleWelsh:dawr[3sPres.]

PageinPokorny:198f.
IEcognates:Lat.domus'home',Gr.domos
Notes:TheOWhapaxdaumhasanalternative
readingdauu(Falileyev,41).Asshownby
McCone1992,theCelticformscontinuePIE
vrddhibuiltfrom*domh2o;theoriginal
meaningwas'belongingtothehousehold',
whence'retinue'(collectively).Another
derivativefromthesamePIEwordisOIr.deis
[im]'client',buildfromthePIEGenitive
*demsi.

MiddleBreton:deur'isimportant'[3sPres.]

References:Stokes142,GPCI:906,LP6,
Falileyev41,McCone1992.

Cornish:duer[3sPres.]

ProtoCeltic:*dnu'gift'[Noun]

Notes:Thisverbwasconfusedwith*t'be,
findoneself'<PIE*steh2,seeKPV266ff.

OldIrish:dan[um]'gift,bestowal,skill'
MiddleWelsh:dawn[mandf]

References:KPV266ff.,LP164,MorrisJones
1913:373.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*deh3r/*deh3nos'gift'

ProtoCeltic:*dlo'share,part'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:225

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 58

IEcognates:Lat.dnum,OCSdar,Arm.tur
Seealso:*d

ProtoIndoEuropean:*deyh1'fly,move
swiftly'
PageinPokorny:187

References:LEIAD22,GPCI:906,LIV105,
EIEC185,DeBernardoStempel1999:249,353
ProtoCeltic:*dww'two'[Numeral]

IEcognates:Skt.dyati'fly',Gr.diemai
'hasten'

OldIrish:dau,dou,do[m,Aspirating];di,di
[f,Aspirating];da,da[n,Nasalizing]

Notes:TheOIr.formcanberegularlyderived
fromPIE*deyh1no,with(DeSaussure's)loss
ofthelaryngealbefore*Ro

MiddleWelsh:dou(OW),MWdeu(GPCdau);
dwy[f]

References:LEIAD68,EIEC208,LIC91,De
BernardoStempel1999:252,372

MiddleBreton:dou,dau(OBret.),MBret.dou

ProtoCeltic:*d'from,of'[Preposition]

Cornish:dow,dew

OldIrish:di,de[aspirating,+Dat.],di

ProtoIndoEuropean:*d(u)weh3'two'

MiddleWelsh:di(OW),di

PageinPokorny:228f.

MiddleBreton:di(OBret.)

IEcognates:Lat.duo,OEt,Lith.du,Arm.
erku,ToBwi

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2deh1

References:LEIAD6,GPCI:905,DGVB151,
EIEC399,Falileyev49f.,Schrijver1995:331
ProtoCeltic:*dwyo'slow'[Adjective]
OldIrish:doe[io]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*deh2w'far'
PageinPokorny:219f.
IEcognates:Gr.dn'far'(Adv.),Lat.ddum
'sometimeago'
Notes:IfthePCelt.reconstructioniscorrect,it
wouldappearthatOIr.doeisfromPIE
*dwoh2yo,buttheogradeofthisrootis
unattestedelsewhere.Italsoappearspossibleto
deriveitfrom*deh2wyo,withthesame
suffixasinSlavic,cp.Croat.davni'veryold,
ancient'.

PageinPokorny:181ff.
IEcognates:Lat.d
Notes:TherootinthisItalicandCeltic
prepositionispresumablythesameasin
*h2ed,butwithadifferentsuffix(or
instrumentalcaseending)*eh1.
References:Stokes143,GPCI:943,EIEC37,
Falileyev43LEIAD27,GOI504f.,Delamarre
143,DGVB136
ProtoCeltic:*dberg'robbery,brigandage'
[Noun]
OldIrish:diberg[f]
MiddleWelsh:difer[m]'treason,betrayal'
Notes:InOIr.,thereisalsothesimplexberg[
f]'robbery',butitsetymologyisunclear.

References:LEIAD204,DeBernardoStempel
1999:204

References:LEIAB41,GPCI:980,De
BernardoStempel1999:314.

ProtoCeltic:*dno'fast'[Adjective]

ProtoCeltic:*dbina'takeaway'[Verb]

OldIrish:dian[o]

OldIrish:doben'takeaway'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 59

MiddleWelsh:dibyn'break'

MiddleBreton:diochi(OBret.),Bret.diek

Seealso:*bina

Cornish:diocgl.piger(OCo.)

References:KPV228,GPCI:957

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1k'u'swift'

ProtoCeltic:*dwedo'stop'[Verb]

PageinPokorny:775

OldIrish:doruid[3sPerf.Relative]

IEcognates:Gr.kys,Lat.cior'swifter'

MiddleWelsh:dywedd(u)(GPCdiweddu,
diwedd)

Notes:Theexistenceofthiscompound(withthe
prefix*d)presupposesthesimplexmeaning
'swift';parallelsinotherIElanguagespointto
anustem,butthiscannotbedemonstratedfor
Celtic.

Seealso:*wedo,*dwedo'end'
References:KPV656ff.,GPCI:1056
ProtoCeltic:*dwedo'end'[Noun]
OldIrish:diad[on,laterf](DILdead)
MiddleWelsh:diued(OW),MWdiued,diwet
[m](GPCdiwedd)
MiddleBreton:diued(OBret.),MBret.divez
Cornish:deweth

References:LP6,GPCI:1026,Falileyev43f.
ProtoCeltic:*dy(w)o'day'[Noun]
OldIrish:die(DILdia)
MiddleWelsh:did[m](OW),MWdit,dyt,
dyd(d)(GPCdydd)[m];dyddiau,dieuoedd[p]
MiddleBreton:ded,did(OBret.),Bret.deiz
Cornish:det(OCo.)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dwedh
PageinPokorny:1115f.
Seealso:*wedo
References:LEIAD29,GPCI:1056,DGVB
145,Falileyev48
ProtoCeltic:*dwiko'punish,avenge'[Verb]
OldIrish:dofich,dich
MiddleWelsh:difwyn,diwyn(GPCdifwyno)
'spoil,defile,pollute,violate';diwc[3sPres.]
'improve,paywergeld'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*diyew'day'
PageinPokorny:184f.
IEcognates:Lat.dis,Arm.tiv
Notes:Cp.alsoOBret.diumercer'Wednesday',
Wheddiw'today',OIr.indiu'today';weshould
probablyreconstructanablautingparadigmfor
PCelt.*diyws/*diywos
References:LEIAD64,GPCI:119f.,DGVB
138,LHEB351,Falileyev45
ProtoCeltic:*dno'fort,rampart'[Noun]

Seealso:*wiko

OldIrish:dun[on]

References:KPV683ff.,GPCI:987

MiddleWelsh:din[minToponyms],dinas[m
andf]

ProtoCeltic:*dkV'lazy,lit.unswift'
[Adjective]
MiddleWelsh:diaucgl.segnem(OW),MW
diawg(GPCdiog)

MiddleBreton:dingl.arx(OBret.)
Gaulish:dunum(inLatinauthors),dunum[in
PN]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 60

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhuHno'enclosure'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1edwol/n'pain,evil'

PageinPokorny:260

PageinPokorny:287ff.

IEcognates:OEdn'down,moor,height'

IEcognates:Hitt.idlu'evil',Gr.odyn
'pain',Arm.erkn'birthpangs'

Notes:Etown,GermanZaunetc.presumably
representPGerm.*tno,whichisanold
loanwordfromCeltic.Foraratherspeculative
rootetymologyseeEIEC210.
References:Stokes150,LEIAD222f.,GPCI:
1019,EIEC210,LHEB318f.,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:149f.,Delamarre154f.,Birkhan
1970:232.

References:EIEC413,DeBernardoStempel
1999:115,Matasovic2004:123,Stber1998:
118f.
ProtoCeltic:*efiro'after'[Preposition]
OldIrish:iar[Nasalizing,+Dat.]

ProtoCeltic:*eburo'yew'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1epi,*h1opi'near,
on'

OldIrish:ibar[om]

PageinPokorny:323

MiddleWelsh:efwr'cowparsnip,hogweed'

IEcognates:Skt.api,Arm.ev'and,also',Alb.
epere'upper'

MiddleBreton:evor
Gaulish:Eburodunum[Toponym]
Seealso:*yewo'yew'
Notes:Thiswordshouldnotbeconfusedwith
PCelt.*yewo,asinEIEC654.
References:EIEC654,Delamarre159f.
ProtoCeltic:*edo'eat'[Verb]
OldIrish:ithid,ith;estair,estar[Subj.];isaid,
isa[Fut.];*aid,dofuaid<*tud
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1ed
PageinPokorny:287f.
IEcognates:Skt.admi,Gr.edomai,Lat.edo
Notes:Itispossiblethatthisverbformeda
'Narten'presentinProtoCeltic,inwhichcase
thecorrectreconstructionwouldbePCelt.*
d/*ed.SeethediscussioninKPV378ff.
References:KPV377ff.,LIV230f.
ProtoCeltic:*edwon'pain'[Noun]
OldIrish:idu[nf]'pain,birthpangs'

References:EIEC391
ProtoCeltic:*ekoro'open'[Adjective]
OldIrish:echair,eochair[iandk,f]'key'
MiddleWelsh:agor'open'
Notes:InW,theverbagorafisdeadjectival,as
wellastheMIr.nounechair,eochair,originally
'theopener'
References:Pedersen1909,I:123,GPCI:48
ProtoCeltic:*elV'swan'[Noun]
OldIrish:ela,elae[?if]
MiddleWelsh:alarch[mandf];eleirch,elyrch
[p]
MiddleBreton:alarch
Cornish:elerhcgl.olor.l.cignus
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1el'swan'
PageinPokorny:304
IEcognates:Lat.olor

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 61

Notes:TheBritishformsarederivablefrom
*elarskoaccordingtoSchrijver(1995:76).The
OIr.formmightimplyPCelt.*ely.
References:GPCI:74,EIEC558,PedersenI:
40,Campanile1974:41,Schrijver1995:76
ProtoCeltic:*elan(t)'doe,hind'[Noun]
OldIrish:elit,ailit[f]
MiddleWelsh:elain[mandf]
Gaulish:Elantia[NP]

Cornish:amanengl.butyrum(OCo.),MoCo.
manyn
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3engwen'butter'
PageinPokorny:779
IEcognates:Lat.unguen'grease',OHGancho
'butter',OPruss.anctan'butter'
References:GPCIII:3775,EIEC382,De
BernardoStempel1999:101ff.,120,Schrijver
1995:87,Stber1998:58f.,Campanile1974:3.
ProtoCeltic:*embliyon'navel'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1elh1nih2'hindelk,
adultfemaleCervuselaphus'

OldIrish:imbliu[n,morf](imliu)

PageinPokorny:303f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3nobhli'navel,nave'

IEcognates:Lith.alne,OCSlani

PageinPokorny:314f.

Notes:TheOIr.andGaul.formsarederivable
fromPCelt.*elant,whileMWelainpointsto
*elan,withclearerparallelsinotherlanguages.
Cp.alsoGaulelambiu(os)'tenthmonth(deer
month)'(Coligny),whichcontainsthesame
suffix*bhseeninGr.elaphos'reddeer,elk'

IEcognates:Skt.nbhi,Lat.umbilcus,OE
nafela
References:EIEC391,DeBernardoStempel
1999:118,331
ProtoCeltic:*enekwo'face'[Noun]

References:GPCI:1204,EIEC155,De
BernardoStempel1999:83,Delamarre161

OldIrish:enech[on]

ProtoCeltic:*emo'take'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:enep[m](OW),MWwyneb

OldIrish:arfoim'receive,allow'<*ariwo
em;arafoima<*ariwoem[3sSubj.
relative];arfoet[Pret.]

MiddleBreton:enep(OBret.)

PageinPokorny:310

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1enih3kwo

IEcognates:Lat.emo'take',Lith.imti'take'

PageinPokorny:775ff.

References:KPV290ff,LP360,LIV236,
McCone1991:162

IEcognates:Gr.ps'face',OCSoi'eyes'

ProtoCeltic:*emban'butter'[Noun]
OldIrish:imb[nn]
MiddleWelsh:ymenyn[m](GPCymenyn
(e)menyn)
MiddleBreton:amann,amannen

Cornish:enebgl.pagina(OCo.)

Notes:Anoldcompoundmeaningsomething
like'thatonwhicheyesarelocated'.
References:PedersenI:38,DGVB160,EIEC
188,Falileyev54,Campanile1974:42,De
BernardoStempel1999:36,315
ProtoCeltic:*eni'in'[Preposition]
OldIrish:i[nasalizing,+Dat.and+Acc.]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 62

MiddleWelsh:in(OW),MWyn

PageinPokorny:781f.

MiddleBreton:en

IEcognates:Lat.orbus'bereft,parentless',Gr.
orphanos,Go.arbja'inheritance'

Cornish:yn
ProtoIndoEuropean:*eni'in'
PageinPokorny:311
IEcognates:Gr.eni,en,Lat.in,Go.in
References:GOI521,EIEC290,395,
Delamarre163,DeBernardoFalileyev91,
Stempel1999:53
ProtoCeltic:*enifedo'position,place'[Noun]
OldIrish:ined(DILinad)[om]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*enipedo,from*pedo
'track,footprint'
PageinPokorny:791f.
IEcognates:Hitt.pdan'place',Lat.peda
'sole',Arm.het
References:EIEC595
ProtoCeltic:*entro'entrails,bowels'[Noun]
OldIrish:inathar[om]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1eh1tro'internal
organ'
IEcognates:Gr.tor'heart',OHGdara'vein,
p.entrails'
Notes:TheOIr.formcanbederivedfromPIE
*enh1oh1tro.

Notes:Thisetymologyisnotcompletely
ascertained;thenominalformscitedabovemust
befrom*h1orbh
References:KPV293f.Delamarre243
ProtoCeltic:*erb'fallowdeer,roedeer'[Noun]
OldIrish:erp,erb[?nf]'shegoat,doe,roe'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1er'lamb,kid'
PageinPokorny:326
IEcognates:Skt.reya'ram',Umbrianeriet
'ram',Lat.aris'ram',Gr.eriphos'younggoat'
Notes:Cp.alsoScottishGaelicearb'roedeer'.
AccordingtoDIL,OIr.erpcouldbeannstem,
butthisisnotcertain.
References:EIEC511,DeBernardoStempel
1999:77
ProtoCeltic:*eriro'eagle'[Noun]
OldIrish:irar[om](DILilar)
MiddleWelsh:eryr[mandf];eryrod,eryron[p]
MiddleBreton:erer
Cornish:er(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3er'eagle'
PageinPokorny:325f.

References:EIEC359,DeBernardoStempel
425.

IEcognates:Hitt.hras,Gr.ornis'bird',Lith.
ere?lis,OCSorl

ProtoCeltic:*erb(y)o'leave(afterdeath)'
[Verb]

Notes:Itisdifficulttoreconcilethevocalismof
theCelticwordswiththewordinitial*h3,
assuredbyHittite.WordinitialeinLithuanian
isduetoassimilation*are>*ere,butsuchan
explanationcannotholdforCeltic.Delamarre
thinksthatGaulishnamesinErnomightbe
related,butIdonotfindthisveryconvincing.

OldIrish:erbaid,erbai'entrusts,commits'
Gaulish:Orbius[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1erbh

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 63

References:GPCI:1240,EIEC173,Delamarre
166,DeBernardoStempel1999:240.

frequentformationsinCelt.*ko).Basque
izokin'salmon'isultimatelyaCelticloanword.

ProtoCeltic:*erro'back,hinderpart,
extremity'[Noun]

References:GPCI:1225,DeBernardoStempel
1999:311,Delamarre167,Campanile1974:41.

OldIrish:err[om]

ProtoCeltic:*eti'yet,still,but'[Conjunction]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1erso'rearend,
buttocks'

Gaulish:eti(LaGraufesenque)

PageinPokorny:340

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1eti'beyond'
PageinPokorny:344

IEcognates:Hitt.rra'rump',OEears'arse',
perhapsalsoLat.dorsum(iffrom*todorsom)

IEcognates:Lat.et'and',Skt.ati'beyond,over'

References:EIEC88,DeBernardoStempel
1999:77

Notes:Gaul.etic'and'(Chamalieres)isfrom
*etikwe.

ProtoCeltic:*es'be'[Verb]

References:Delamarre168

OldIrish:is[3sPres.copula]

ProtoCeltic:*ex(s)tos'except,but'
[Conjunction,Preposition]

MiddleWelsh:is(OW),MWys[3sPres.]oedd
[Pret.]

OldIrish:acht

MiddleBreton:is(OBret.)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*ek'to'out'

Cornish:os,oys

IEcognates:Gr.ektos

Gaulish:immi[1sPres.](PennesMirabeau)

References:LEIAA11

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1es

ProtoCeltic:*exsobno'fearless'[Adjective]

PageinPokorny:340ff.

OldIrish:essamin

IEcognates:Skt.asmi,Lat.sum,esse

MiddleWelsh:ehouyn(GPCeofn,eon)

References:KPV295ff.,LIV241f.,GPCIII:
3740,LP317323,RIGII.2:332f.

Gaulish:Exobnus

ProtoCeltic:*esok'salmon'[Noun]
OldIrish:eo[km]
MiddleWelsh:ehawc(GPCeog)[m]
MiddleBreton:eheuc
Cornish:ehocgl.isicius(OCo.)
Gaulish:*esoks>Lat.esox(Plinius)

Seealso:*obnu'fear'
References:LEIAO22,GPCI:1225,Meid
2005:173
ProtoCeltic:*extero'without,outside'
[Preposition]
OldIrish:echtar
MiddleWelsh:eithr,eithyr
Seealso:*exs

Notes:TheBritishformswerereshaped,andare
derivablefrom*esko(ontheanalogywiththe
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 64

References:GPCI:1203,GOI391,O
Flaithearta1997

References:LEIAA63,EIEC63

ProtoCeltic:*falna'approach,drive'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*fans'footprint'[Noun]

OldIrish:adella'visit,approach'<*adfalna;
eblaid[Fut.]

OldIrish:es[f]

MiddleWelsh:el'goes'[3sPres.]
MiddleBreton:yal'goes'[3sPres.]
Cornish:gallas'went'[3sPret.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*pelh2'approach'
PageinPokorny:801f.
IEcognates:Lat.pello'strike,drive',Gr.(Epic)
pilnamai'approach',elanem'exit'
Seealso:*ago
Notes:OIr.eblaidisthesuppletivefutureto
agid'drive';MWelisthesuppletivepresentto
mynet'go'(GPCmynd)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*peth1'broaden'
PageinPokorny:824f.
IEcognates:Lat.pando,passum'step',Gr.pi
tnmi
Notes:ThePCelt.formcanbederivedfrom
*pantt,whichpresupposesanasalpresent
comparabletoLat.pando,seeHamp1981.
References:Hamp1981.
ProtoCeltic:*farna'bestow'[Verb]
OldIrish:ernaid,ern;eraid,era[Subj.];
ebraid,ebra[Fut.];ir[Pret.];rathae,rath
[Pret.Pass.]
Gaulish:ieuru'offered'[3sPret.](Alise)

References:KPV503ff.,LIV470f.,LP359f.,
LEIAD119,McCone1991:32

ProtoIndoEuropean:*perh3'bestow,give'

ProtoCeltic:*falso'cliff'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:817

OldIrish:all[oorun]

IEcognates:Skt.prnti'gives',Lat.paro
'prepare'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*pels'stone'
PageinPokorny:807
IEcognates:Skt.psna'stone',ONfjall
'rock'
Seealso:*(f)ali
References:LEIAA70
ProtoCeltic:*falto'joint'[Noun]
OldIrish:alt[on]'joint'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*polto'fold'
PageinPokorny:802f.

References:KPV508ff.,LIV474f.,LEIA
R19f.,Delamarre188f.
ProtoCeltic:*farsko'ask,plead'[Verb]
OldIrish:arcaid,airc;reiss,re[Subj.];ibrais,
ibair[Fut.];arcair[Pret.]
MiddleWelsh:erchim(OW),MWerchi;archaf
[1sPres.]?erchis[3sPret.];erchit[Impersonal]
MiddleBreton:archaff[1sPres.]
Cornish:erghi
ProtoIndoEuropean:*prek''ask'
PageinPokorny:821f.

IEcognates:Gr.peplos'cloth(infolds)',Alb.
pale'fold',OEfealdan'tofold'
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 65

IEcognates:Lat.precor,OCSprositi,Lith.pras
yti
References:KPV511ff.,LIV490f.,LEIAA86,
GPCI:179,LHEB582,Falileyev56,Schrijver
1995:350
ProtoCeltic:*farV'prepare'[Verb]
OldIrish:aradu[nf]'preparation,disposition'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*perh2'produce,
procure'
PageinPokorny:818
IEcognates:Lat.paro'prepare'
References:LEIAA83,LIV427f.,Stber
1998:116

Notes:GPCdoesnotnotethenounarbenn,but
ithasthederivedadjectivearbennig.Cp.the
parallelformationsofWarbennig'principal,
chief'andOIr.airchinnech<*arependkos.
References:LEIAA39,GPCI:178.
ProtoCeltic:*farekomwedo'prevent,
wound'[Verb]
OldIrish:arcoat
MiddleWelsh:argyweddu'injure,damage'
Seealso:*wedo
References:KPV656ff.,GPCI:202
ProtoCeltic:*farekoro'blow,shot'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*farebero'use'[Verb]

OldIrish:airchor[om]'cast,shot'

OldIrish:arbeir'use'

MiddleBreton:ercorgl.ictum(OBret.)

MiddleWelsh:arber(OW)'partakeof',MW
aruer'use'(GPCarfer,arferu,arferyd)

Seealso:*are,*koro
References:LEIAC205

Seealso:*bero
References:KPV220,LEIAA85,GPCI:193,
Falileyev10
ProtoCeltic:*farederko'visible'[Adjective]

ProtoCeltic:*farekrini'fear,perish'[Verb]
OldIrish:arachrin'perish,pass';cria[Subj.];
ciuir[Pret.

OldIrish:airdirc

MiddleWelsh:ergrynu'tremble,fear'(GPC
ergryn,egryn)

MiddleWelsh:ardderchog'excellent,noble'

Seealso:*krini

MiddleBreton:erderh(OBret.)gl.euidentis

References:KPV420ff.,GPCI:1232f.

Seealso:*derk

ProtoCeltic:*faremerto'prepare'[Verb]

References:LEIAA41

OldIrish:airmert[on]'preparation'

ProtoCeltic:*farekwendo'end,extremity'
[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:armerth'prepare'

OldIrish:airchenn[on]'end,measureofland'
MiddleWelsh:arbenn[m]'chief'
Gaulish:arepennis'semiiugerum'
Seealso:*kwendo'head'

MiddleBreton:armerhein'preparation'
References:LEIAA47f.,GPCI:208,LP346
ProtoCeltic:*faresed'charioteer'[Noun]
OldIrish:arae[dm]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 66

Notes:Ifthisetymologyiscorrect,the
compound*aresedsmeant"theonesitting
next(tothewarrior)".Foradifferent
interpretationseeCampanile(1989).

thisPCelt.etymon,probablydoesnotexist(a
ith'dryingkiln'isadifferentword).
References:LEIAA53f.,GPCI:12,EIEC646,
Falileyev12.

References:LEIAA84,DeBernardoStempel
1999:168.

ProtoCeltic:*fatn'drinkingvessel'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*farewedo'lead,bringto'[Verb]

OldIrish:an[f]

OldIrish:arfeid

ProtoIndoEuropean:*poth2r/*pth2nos
'shallowdish,plate'

MiddleWelsh:arwein'bear,carry'(GPC
arwain,arweddu)
Seealso:*wedo
References:KPV656ff.,GPCI:214
ProtoCeltic:*farewdyo'sign'[Noun]
OldIrish:airde[ion]
MiddleWelsh:arwydd[mandf]
MiddleBreton:arouedmagl.signaculum(OW)
Seealso:*wdo
References:LEIAA41,GPCI:216

IEcognates:Hitt.pattar,Gr.patan.
Notes:Anotherpossibility,suggestedbyLEIA
A72,istoderiveOIr.anfromPCelt.*fn,
andrelateittoPIE*peh3'drink'.
References:LEIAA72,EIEC443,Matasovic
2004:116.
ProtoCeltic:*fawtu'fear'[Noun]
OldIrish:uath[u?m]'horror,fear'
MiddleWelsh:uthr'terrible'
MiddleBreton:euz'horror'
Cornish:uth'horror'

ProtoCeltic:*fatar/Gen.fatanos,fetnos'wing,
bird'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*ph2ew'fear'

OldIrish:en[om]'bird'

PageinPokorny:73

MiddleWelsh:atar(OW)'birds',MWadar[p];
aderyn,ederyn[Singulative];adein'wing'

IEcognates:Lat.paueo,pauor

MiddleBreton:attanocgl.aligeris(OBret.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*potr/*ptnos'wing'

References:LEIAU11,GPCIII:3721,
Delamarre170,DeBernardoStempel1999:
291.
ProtoCeltic:*feno'moor,swamp'[Noun]

IEcognates:Skt.patra,Gr.pteron,Lat.
penna.

OldIrish:en'water'

Seealso:*fetno'bird'

MiddleWelsh:enwyn[m]'buttermilk'

Notes:PCelt.probablypreservedtheoldPIE
heteroclytonwhichmeant'wing',butthe
meaningwaschangedto'bird'(i.e.'thewinged
one').Later,butstillinPCelt.,anewnounstem
wasformedfromtheobliquecases*fetno),
whichistheoriginofOIr.en'bird',Wedn.OIr.
aith'wing',sometimesadducedasrelatedto

Gaulish:anamgl.paludem
ProtoIndoEuropean:*pen
PageinPokorny:807f.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 67

IEcognates:Goth.fani'mud',OPruss.pannean
'moor,muddyfield'

ProtoCeltic:*feruti'lastyear'[Adverb]

Notes:MIr.enisaglossaryword,buten
'water'isattestedasafirstmemberof
compounds,e.g.englas'waterymilk'.Thereis
alsoMIr.enach[sn]'swamp'(<*fenkos).The
hydronymEnos(>InninAustria)isprobably
fromthesamePCelt.form.Gaul.anam
probablypresupposesanassimilation(*fen>
*fan).ThiscouldalsoexplainMIr.an[?f]
'water,urine'.Theetymologythatconnectsthe
nameoftheRomanprovinceofPannoniawith
thesewordsispossible,butspeculative(see
Meid2005).

OldIrish:innuraid(DILuraid)

References:GPCI:1224,Delamarre43f.,De
BernardoStempel1999:151,Meid2005:19.

References:GOI52,McCone1996:101

ProtoCeltic:*ferik'concubine'[Noun]
OldIrish:airech[f]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*perikeh2'female
servant?'
IEcognates:Avestanpairik'witch',?Lat.
Parcae'theFates'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*peruti[Loc.s]'last
year',*wet'year'
PageinPokorny:1175
IEcognates:Skt.parut'lastyear',Gr.perysi
Notes:OIr.innuraidmightreflectthePCelt.
Accusatives*feruten,ratherthanLoc./Dat.s
*feruti,ifMcCone1996:101isright.

ProtoCeltic:*fetno'bird'[Noun]
OldIrish:en[o,m]
MiddleWelsh:edn[m];ednod[p]
MiddleBreton:ezn
Cornish:hethen,ethen
Gaulish:Etnosus[Theonym]

References:LEIAA43,DeBernardoStempel
313

ProtoIndoEuropean:*pet'fly'

ProtoCeltic:*ferko'perch'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:825f.

OldIrish:erc[om]'perch,salmon'

Seealso:*fatar'bird'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*perk''color'

Notes:Thethematicstem*fetnoispresumably
generalizedfromtheobliquecasesoftheold
heterocliton*fatar/*fetnosmaybealso
*fatanos).

IEcognates:Gr.perknos'freckled,red',
Germanfarbe'color'<*pork'wo
References:EIEC113
ProtoCeltic:*ferko'salmon'[Noun]

References:KPV515,GPCI:1166f,EIEC646,
Falileyev12,Delamarre168,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:254

OldIrish:erc,orc[om]

ProtoCeltic:*feto'fly'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*perk''speckled(fish),
trout'

MiddleWelsh:ehedec<*eksfeto;ehet[3s
Pres.]

PageinPokorny:821

ProtoIndoEuropean:*pet'fly'

IEcognates:OHGferhana'trout'

PageinPokorny:825f.

References:LEIAO28,EIEC537,634.

Seealso:*fetno'bird'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 68

PageinPokorny:800
Notes:LIVreconstructsthisrootas*peth2,
KPVwithoutthelaryngeal.
References:KPV515,LIV479
ProtoCeltic:*fextu'breast'[Noun]
OldIrish:ucht[un?]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*pektu'breast'
PageinPokorny:848
IEcognates:Lat.pectus
Notes:IntheprehistoryoftheOIr.word,we
mustassumeanassimilation*fextu>*fuxtu,
whichistrivial.
References:LEIAU14f.,EIEC518
ProtoCeltic:*fibo'drink'[Verb]
OldIrish:ibid,ib;ebaid,eba[Subj.];ibaid,i
ba[Fut.];ibis,ib[Pret.];ibthe,ibed[Pret.
Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:yuet;yf[3sPres.](GPCyfed)

IEcognates:OEfela'much',Gr.polys'much'
References:EIEC3,DeBernardoStempel
1999:92,532ff.
ProtoCeltic:*fitu'food'[Noun]
OldIrish:ith[un]'grain'
MiddleWelsh:it(OW)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*peytu'food'
PageinPokorny:793f.
IEcognates:OCSpita'meal',Lith.pie?ts
'meal'
References:EIEC208,DeBernardoStempel
1999:292.
ProtoCeltic:*flengo'jump'[Verb]
OldIrish:lingid,ling;leiss,le[Subj.];iblais,
ibail[Fut.];leblaing,eblaing[Pret.];eblacht
[Pret.Pass.]

MiddleBreton:euaff,yvet

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1lengwh'move
effortlessly'

Cornish:eva,eve

PageinPokorny:660f.

Gaulish:ibetis[2pImpv.orInd.]

IEcognates:Skt.ramhate'hurry',Gr.elaphro
s'quick',OHGgilingan'succeed'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*peh3(y)'drink'
PageinPokorny:839f.
IEcognates:Skt.pibati,Lat.bibo,OCSpiti
Notes:InOWtheformibenisattested(Juv.3).
Itisthe1pimperfect.
References:KPV516ff.,GPCIII:3751,LIV
462f.,LP373,RIGII.2:349f.,EIEC98,175,
Delamarre187,Falileyev89.

Notes:KPV522ff.relatesthisverbtoPIE
*(s)prengh'jump',butIprefertofollowLIV's
attribution,inspiteofsomephonological
difficulties.ThenameoftheGaulishtribe
Lingonesmayberelatedtothisroot
(Delamarre).
References:KPV522ff.,LIV247f.,LEIA
D162.,Delamarre203
ProtoCeltic:*flenstu'light'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*filu'many'[Adjective]

OldIrish:les[um]

OldIrish:il

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)plend'shine'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*pelh1u'much'

PageinPokorny:987

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 69

IEcognates:Lat.splendeo,ToABplnt
'rejoice'

MiddleBreton:litan(OBret.),Bret.ledan;Letau
(OBret.)'Brittany'

References:EIEC514,LIV530.

Cornish:ledan

ProtoCeltic:*flini'flow'[Verb]

Gaulish:Litana(silua)[Toponym],Litaui
[Theonym]

OldIrish:dolin<*tuflini
ProtoIndoEuropean:*pleh1'befull,fill'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*plth2u'broad',
*plth2wih2'thebroadone'[f]

PageinPokorny:798f.

PageinPokorny:806,833

IEcognates:Skt.prnti'fill',Arm.lnowm

IEcognates:Skt.prthiv'earth'Gr.Plataia
[Toponym]

Seealso:*flnos'full'
Notes:InEIECtheOIr.verbisrelatedratherto
PIE*h2ley'setinmotion'(Lat.ltus'beach',
OCSliti'pour',etc.,Pokorny664ff.),whichis
alsoapossiblity.
References:KPV524f.,LIV482f.,LEIA
D161,EIEC506

Notes:ThePIEformwas*plth2um.,
*plth2wih2f.(cp.Gr.platys,platea).PCelt.
flitawdirectlyrepresentsthefeminineform,
while*flitanoisfromthederived*plth2no
(withthestem*plth2abstractedfromthe
comparative?).

ProtoCeltic:*flikk'(flat)stone'[Noun]

References:GPCII:2251,DGVB244,EIEC
98,Delamarre204,DeBernardoStempel1999:
91,532ff.

OldIrish:lecc[f]'(sepulcral)plate,stone'

ProtoCeltic:*flittV'pap,porridge'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:llech[f]'slate'

OldIrish:littiu[nf]

MiddleBreton:lec'h

MiddleWelsh:llith[m]'food,nourishment,bait'

Cornish:lehan

ProtoIndoEuropean:*polt/*pltos'pap,
porridge'

Gaulish:Arelica[Toponym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*plkeh2'flatsurface'
PageinPokorny:831f.
IEcognates:Gr.plaks'flatstone;ONfla
References:GPCII:2123,Delamarre201,De
BernardoStempel1999:178,508ff.
ProtoCeltic:*flitano,*flitaw'broad'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:lethan[o]
MiddleWelsh:llydan'broad';OWLitau
'Brittany',WLlydaw'Brittany'

PageinPokorny:802
IEcognates:Lat.puls,pultis,Gr.poltos
Notes:Iftheetymologyassumedhereiscorrect,
theCelticformsarederivedfromthezerograde
oftherootattestedinLat.puls.Thereis,
however,anotherpossibility(seeStber1998:
127).MIr.littiuissometimesspelledlichtiu,so
itcouldalsobeaderivativeofligid'licks',
PCelt.*lixtyon.Ifso,MWllithwouldbefrom
theparticiple*lixto.Ontheotherhand,the
agreementinmeaningwithLat.iscompelling,
andtheformlichtiucouldbeduetothe
analogicalinfluenceofligid.
References:GPCII:2188,EIEC441,De
BernardoStempel1999:110,512ff.,Stber
1998:127.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 70

ProtoCeltic:*flowdyo'lead'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*plh1no'full'

OldIrish:luaide[iom]

PageinPokorny:799

ProtoIndoEuropean:*plowdho'lead'

IEcognates:Skt.prna,Lat.plnus,Go.fulls

IEcognates:Lat.plumbum

References:GPCII:2112,DGVB246,EIEC
206,214,Delamarre196f.,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:388,456

Notes:TheGermanicwordsfor'lead'(OE
lad,etc.)areearlyborrowingsfromCeltic.
TheItalicandCelticwordsarepresumablyalso
loanwordsfromsomeunknownsource.
References:EIEC347,DeBernardoStempel
1999:468
ProtoCeltic:*flm'palm,hand'[Noun]
OldIrish:lam[f]
MiddleWelsh:lau[f](OW),MWllaw
MiddleBreton:lom(OBret.)
Cornish:lofgl.manus(OCo.)
Gaulish:Lamatutus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*plh2meh2'palm,hand'
PageinPokorny:73
IEcognates:Lat.palma,Gr.palam
Notes:InOBret.lomappearsonlyin
compoundsandinPNDreholom.
References:GPCII:2104,DGVB246,EIEC
255,Delamarre195,Falileyev100,Campanile
1974:73,DeBernardoStempel1999:247,532,
573

ProtoCeltic:*flro'floor'[Noun]
OldIrish:lar[on]'ground,surface,middle'
MiddleWelsh:laur(OW)'floor',MWllaur,
llawr[m]
MiddleBreton:lorgl.solum(OBret.)
Cornish:lorgl.pauimentum(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*pelh2'flat,tospread'
PageinPokorny:806
IEcognates:OEflr'floor',Lat.plnus'flat,
even'
Notes:TheclosestequivalentoftheCeltic
formsisfoundinGermanic,whereOEflris
from*flruz<*pleh2ru.Lat.plnusperhaps
pointstotheexistenceofaPIEheterocliton,
*pleh2r/*plh2nos'floor'.
References:GPCII:2118,DGVB247,
Falileyev101,LHEB287,GPC2118,
Campanile1974:74.
ProtoCeltic:*fldo'succeed'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:llwyddaw(GPCllwydd(i)o)

ProtoCeltic:*flno'full'[Adjective]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*pleyd'attempt'

OldIrish:lan[o]

IEcognates:OEfltan,OHGflzan'attempt,
tryhard'

MiddleWelsh:llawn
MiddleBreton:dacrlon'fulloftears'(OBret.)
MBret.leun
Cornish:luen,leun
Gaulish:Uisulanius[PN]

Notes:ThisverbisnotrepresentedinLIV;itis
attestedonlyinGermanicandCeltic.
References:GPCII:2242,KPV521f.
ProtoCeltic:*flto'gray'[Adjective]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 71

OldIrish:liath[o]

ProtoCeltic:*fondos'stone'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:llwyd

OldIrish:ond[sn]

MiddleBreton:loit(OBret.),MBret.loet

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)pondos'weight'

Cornish:loys

PageinPokorny:988

Gaulish:*Ltisam>Louesme[Toponym]

IEcognates:Lat.pondus

ProtoIndoEuropean:*peli'gray'

Notes:ThisisapoeticwordinOIr.,preserved
chieflyinglossaries.

PageinPokorny:805
IEcognates:Skt.palita,Lat.pallidus'pale',
Gr.pelitnos
References:GPCII:2239,DGVB246,
Delamarre200,DeBernardoStempel1999:
372,441
ProtoCeltic:*fod'foot'[Noun]
Gaulish:ades'feet'(Hesych.,presumably
Galatian)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*pod'foot'
PageinPokorny:790
IEcognates:Lat.ps,Gr.pous
Seealso:*fssu'under'

References:LEIAO23f.,DeBernardoStempel
1999:143.
ProtoCeltic:*forko'pork,youngpig'[Noun]
OldIrish:orc[om]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*pork'o'youngpig,
piglet'
PageinPokorny:841
IEcognates:Lat.porcus,Lith.paras
Notes:OIr.orcisapoeticword,attestedchiefly
inglossaries.ThenameoftheOrkneysis
probablyfromthesamePCelt.root.
References:LEIAO28,LP26,EIEC100,425,
DeBernardoStempel1999:44.

Notes:ItisdifficulttoseehowtheHesychian
glosscouldrepresentanythingelsethanthe
Galatianwordfor'foot',withtheregular
development'*pd>d.

ProtoCeltic:*fotlo'drink,actofdrinking'
[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*folno'great,vast'[Adjective]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*ph3etlo

OldIrish:oll

PageinPokorny:840

ProtoIndoEuropean:*polh1

IEcognates:Lpculum,Gr.posis'drink'

PageinPokorny:798ff.

Seealso:*fibo

IEcognates:Gr.polys'many'

Notes:Thevowel*oinCelticisunexpected,as
thePIElaryngealshouldhaveyielded*a
betweenconsonants.Itisprobablyduetoan
earlyanalogywiththefullgrade(*eh3>*>
PCelt.*).

Notes:Thelossoflaryngealinthiswordis
regularafter*oR;theogradeoftherootis
attestedinGreek.
References:LEIAO20f.

OldIrish:ol,ool[on]

References:LEIAO19,LIV417f.,De
BernardoStempel1999:302.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 72

ProtoCeltic:*fowmosn'skin'[Noun]
OldIrish:uamann[f]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*powm'bodyhair'
IEcognates:Lat.pbs'adult',Skt.pumn
'man,male',Lith.(Dial.)paustis'animalfur'
Notes:SincethiswordisveryrareinIr.
(occurringonlyinpoetictextsofratherlate
date,suchasTogailTroi),thisetymologyis
ratherspeculative.

Notes:Theattestedformscanbereconciled
withPIE*prewsonlyifoneassumesa
metathesis(*ws>*sw),buteveninthatcase
thereconstructionofthePCelt.formremains
difficult.
References:LEIAR24f.,GPCIII:3063,EIEC
287
ProtoCeltic:*frik'furrow'[Noun]
OldIrish:etarche[if]<*enterriky
MiddleWelsh:rych[mandf](GPCrhych)

References:LEIAU7,EIEC469

MiddleBreton:recgl.sulco(OBret.)

ProtoCeltic:*frato'grace,virtue,goodfortune'
[Noun]

Gaulish:*rik>OFrenchroie,Frenchraie

OldIrish:rath[on]
MiddleWelsh:rat[m](OWandMW),(GPC
rhad)
MiddleBreton:Rad(uueten)[PN]
Cornish:ras

ProtoIndoEuropean:*prkeh2'furrow'
PageinPokorny:821
IEcognates:Lat.porca,OHGfuruh
References:GPCIII:3125,EIEC215,
Delamarre257
ProtoCeltic:*frikk'fart'[Noun]

Seealso:*farna'bestow'
Notes:Thesenounsareprobablyrelatedtothe
rootof*farna'bestow'(OIr.ernaidetc.).Gaul.
PNSuratusmaycontainthesameroot.
References:LEIAR8,GPCIII:2995,De
BernardoStempel1999:442.
ProtoCeltic:*freswo'strongcold'[Noun]
OldIrish:reod,reud[om]
MiddleWelsh:rew[m]'frost,ice'(GPCrhew)
MiddleBreton:re(a)u,MoBret.rev
Cornish:reugl.gelum(OCo.),MoCo.reaw
ProtoIndoEuropean:*prews'freeze'
PageinPokorny:?846
IEcognates:Skt.prusv'hoarfrost',Lat.pru
na'hoarfrost',Go.frius'hoarfrost'

MiddleWelsh:rhech[f]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*perd'fart'
PageinPokorny:819
IEcognates:Lat.pdo,Gr.perdiks'partridge',
Eng.fart
Notes:PCelt.*frikkarosebyassimilationfrom
*pridk,whichhasthezerogradeofthePIE
root*perd'fart'.
References:GPCIII:3042
ProtoCeltic:*fritu'ford'[Noun]
OldIrish:Humarrith[Toponym]
MiddleWelsh:rit(OW),Wrhyd[m]
MiddleBreton:rit(OBret.)gl.uadum
Cornish:ridglvadum,red

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 73

Gaulish:Ritumagus[Toponym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*prtu'ford'
PageinPokorny:817
IEcognates:Lat.portus'port',OEford
References:LEIAR34,GPCIII:3126,
Delamarre259
ProtoCeltic:*friyo'free'[Adjective]
MiddleWelsh:rhydd
MiddleBreton:rid(OBret.)

IEcognates:Skt.josati'enjoy',Lat.gustre,
OHGkiosan
Notes:Thereareotherwordsderivedfromthe
root*gewsinOIr.,withdifferentprefixes:
togu,forgu,digu,etc.,butthesimplexisnot
preserved.
References:LEIAR40
ProtoCeltic:*fromo'immediately'[Adverb]
OldIrish:rom
ProtoIndoEuropean:*promo'first,leading'

Cornish:benenridgl.femina(OCo.)

IEcognates:Gr.promos'leader',Umbrian
promom[Adverb]'firstly'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*priHo'dear,free'

References:LEIAR41f.

PageinPokorny:844

ProtoCeltic:*frosso'height,elevatedland,
(wooded)hill'[Noun]

IEcognates:Skt.priya,Go.freis'free'
Notes:SomeGaul.nameswiththeelementRio
(e.g.Riotalus)mightberelatedtothisroot,
ratherthanto*rg'king'(Delamarre258).

OldIrish:ros[om]'wood,height'
MiddleWelsh:ros[f]'flatanduncultivated
land,moor'(GPCrhos)

References:GPCIII:3127,EIEC214,358,
Delamarre258f.,Benveniste,VocabulaireI,
325ff.

MiddleBreton:ros

ProtoCeltic:*froanko'reach'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*prosth2o'protruding'
(?)

OldIrish:roic,ric'reach'
MiddleWelsh:renghi,rynghu'reach,satisfy,
please'(GPCrhyngu,rhangu,rhengi)
MiddleBreton:ranquout,rencout'must'
Seealso:*anko
References:KPV200ff.,GPCIII:3139

Cornish:Rose,Roose[Toponyms]

PageinPokorny:1005
IEcognates:Skt.prastha'elevatedland'
Notes:Cp.alsoLat.postis'doorpost'<*pr
sth2i.ThesamePIErootisattestedinother
compounds,cp.OIr.iress'faith'<PCelt.*fare
sist<PIE*perisisteh2.

ProtoCeltic:*froguso'choice'[Noun]

References:LEIAR43,GPCIII:3096,Uhlich
2002:415

OldIrish:rogu[indecl.n]'choice'

ProtoCeltic:*fsteru'sneeze'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gews'taste,enjoy'

OldIrish:sreod[om]

PageinPokorny:399

MiddleWelsh:trev,ystrew[m]
MiddleBreton:strefia,strevia'tosneeze'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 74

ProtoIndoEuropean:*pster'sneeze'
PageinPokorny:847
IEcognates:Lat.sternuo,Gr.ptarnymai
Notes:Althoughthesewordsarerelated,the
exactcorrespondencesaredifficulttoascertain.
References:LEIAS185,GPCIII:3866,EIEC
133,LIV446,DeBernardoStempel1999:
451ff.
ProtoCeltic:*fulV'beard'[Noun]
OldIrish:ul[??]

References:EIEC604,DeBernardoStempel
1999:43,523
ProtoCeltic:*ftu'(grass)land,territory'
[Noun]
OldIrish:iath[un]'land,territory'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*peyh2tu'prairy,rich
grassland'
PageinPokorny:793
IEcognates:Gr.poi'grass',Lith.pieva
'meadow'

Gaulish:Ulatos[PN]

Notes:ThenameoftheGaulishtribeHeluti
couldbeacompound*felutyo'Die
Landreichen'(seeDelamarre168).

ProtoIndoEuropean:*pul'bodyhair'

References:Delamarre168

PageinPokorny:850

ProtoCeltic:*fsselo'low'[Adjective]

IEcognates:Skt.pulaka,Gr.pyligges[p]

OldIrish:isel[o]

Notes:Delamarre(323)preferstorelateGaul.
Ulatos(etc.)toPCelt.*wlti'ruler',whichis
alsoapossibility.

MiddleWelsh:isel(OWandMW)

References:LEIAU23,Delamarre323
ProtoCeltic:*fuxtak'pine'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:iselgl.imum(OBret.),MBret.
isel
Cornish:yssel

OldIrish:ochtach[f]

References:GPCII:2033,DGVB232,
Falileyev97.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*pewk's'pine'

ProtoCeltic:*fssu'under'[Preposition]

PageinPokorny:828

OldIrish:is[+Dat.]'below,under'

IEcognates:Gr.peuk,OHGfiuhta'fir',Lith.
puis

MiddleWelsh:is(OWandMW)

References:LEIAO7,EIEC428
ProtoCeltic:*fsko'fish'[Noun]
OldIrish:iasc[om]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*pi(k')sk'o'trout,fish'
PageinPokorny:796
IEcognates:Lat.piscis,OEfisc

MiddleBreton:is(OBret.),MBret.is
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ped'foot'
PageinPokorny:790
IEcognates:Skt.pd,Lat.ps,Gr.pous
Notes:ThisOIr.formisusuallyderivedfrom
PIELocativep.*pdsu,butthelengthened
gradeisunexpected.Itis,however,foundalso
inOCSpe'onfoot'andinAlb.poshte
'under'.PerhapsitisbettertoassumeaPIE

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 75

preposition*pdsValreadywiththe
lengthenedgrade.
References:GPCII:2031,EIEC208f.,DGVB
230,DeBernardoStempel1999:31
ProtoCeltic:*fweryon'earth,soil'[Noun]
OldIrish:iriu[nf]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*piHwer/n'thick,fat'
PageinPokorny:798
IEcognates:Skt.pvan'thick,fat',Gr.pn,
f.peira'fat,fruitful,rich'
Notes:TheIrish(andWelsh)nameofIreland,E
riu,WIwerddon,mightalsoberelated,but
therearedifficultieswiththisetymology,and
therearealternativeones(seeStber1998:96).
References:GPCII:2025,Schrijver1995:288,
DeBernardoStempel1999:114,Stber1998:
95ff.
ProtoCeltic:*fro'fresh'[Adjective]
OldIrish:ur[o]
MiddleWelsh:ir'verdant,green,sappy'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*puh2roo'pure,clean'
PageinPokorny:827
IEcognates:Lat.prus,Skt.pta'purified'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwhen'strike,slay'
PageinPokorny:491493
IEcognates:Skt.han,Lat.dfendo
References:KPV363ff.,LIV218f.,GPCII:
1572,LP372,EIEC549
ProtoCeltic:*gwariy[Noun]'duty'
OldIrish:goire[if]'filialduty'
MiddleWelsh:gwared[m]'deliverance,relief'
MiddleBreton:gored
Cornish:gweres'help'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwher'burn'
PageinPokorny:493ff.
Seealso:*gwero
Notes:Thesewordsareformedwiththeregular
Celticreflexofthezerogradeoftheroot
*gwer'burn'.
References:GPCII:1581f.,McCone1996:41,
Hamp1996.
ProtoCeltic:*gwedyo'ask,plead,pray'
[Verb]
OldIrish:guidid,guid;geiss,ge[Subj.];gigis,
gig[Fut.];gaid[Pret.]

References:LP26,LIV432,LEIAU26f.,
EIEC109,DeBernardoStempel1999:135,
138,229

MiddleWelsh:imguodant<*ambigwod

ProtoCeltic:*gwano'strike,kill'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwhedh'wish'

OldIrish:gonaid,goin;gonaid,gona[Subj.];
gignid,gignea[Fut.];geguin[Pret.]?getae,ge
t[Ptc.Pass.]

PageinPokorny:488

MiddleWelsh:gwan'hit,injure'?gwant[Pret.]
(GPCgwanu,gwn)

Notes:Celtiberianfamilynamekuezontikum
(BotorritaIII,IV36)mightreflecttheCeltib.
reflexofthisroot(Villar1997:908).

MiddleBreton:goanaff'punish'
Cornish:gwana'pierce'

Gaulish:uediiumi[1sPres.]

IEcognates:Gr.pothe'wish',Go.bidjan

References:KPV369ff.,LIV217,LP373,
EIEC62,98,449,Cowgill1980,Lambert1994:

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 76

150159,RIGII.2:550ff.,Delamarre309f.,
Villar1997:908.
ProtoCeltic:*gwelo'graze,eat'[Verb]

OldIrish:grs[f]
MiddleWelsh:gwres[m]'heat(ofthesun,fire)'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwhrenso'warm'

OldIrish:geilid,geil;gelaid,gela[Subj.];gilt,
gelt[Pret.]

PageinPokorny:495

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwhel

IEcognates:Skt.ghramsa'heatofthesun'

PageinPokorny:365(*gel)

Notes:ThePIEreconstructionofthisrootisnot
generallyagreedupon;Arm.klanem'swallow',
NHGKehle'throat'mightberelated,butpoint
totherootwithinitial*g(w).TheCelticforms,
however,mustbefromtherootwithinitial
*gwh.

Notes:OIr.grismustrepresentareflexof
PCelt.*gwrnso,withthelengthenedgrade
(expectedintheNom.s.ofanoriginalroot
noun).ItappearsprobablethatOIr.grian[f]
'sun'shouldbederivedfromPCelt.*gwrensn>
>ProtoIrish*gwrn.Thisfitswellwiththe
semanticsofSkt.ghramsa.ThePIErootis
*gwher'behot'(Gthermosetc.).Gaul.
Grannos(anameofApollo)probablyalso
belongshere,cp.Delamarre183.

References:KPV371f.,LIV217f.,LP369,
EIEC349

References:GPCII:1706,EIEC263,De
BernardoStempel1999:260f.

ProtoCeltic:*gwelt'grass'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*gablo'fork,forkedbranch'
[Noun]

IEcognates:Russ.glotat'

OldIrish:geilt'grazing'[,f]
MiddleWelsh:gwellt[m]'grass'
MiddleBreton:gueltiociongl.'fenosa'(OBret.)
Cornish:gwels'grass'

OldIrish:gabul[omandf]
MiddleWelsh:gafl[f]
MiddleBreton:gabl(OBret.),Bret.gaol

Seealso:*gwelo

Gaulish:(Ciuitas)Gabalum(>leGevaudon)
[Toponym]

References:GPCII:1632f.,KPV372,DGVB
188,LP28,SimsWilliams1982:228f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*ghabhlo'fork,branchof
tree'

ProtoCeltic:*gwero'warmup,heat'[Verb]

PageinPokorny:409

OldIrish:geirid,geir;geraid,gera[Subj.];
girt,gert[Pret.]

IEcognates:OEgafol'fork'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwher'heat'
PageinPokorny:493495
IEcognates:Gr.theromai,Go.brinnan'burn'
References:KPV372f.,LIV219f.,LP369
ProtoCeltic:*gwrns/*gwrenso'heat'
[Noun]

Notes:TheonlycorrespondencestotheseCeltic
wordsareattestedinGermanic.However,it
appearsprobablethatthesewordsshouldbe
relatedtoPIE*ghHbh'have,hold'.InOW
thereistheadjectivegablau'splitopen,forked'
(Falileyev59).
References:GPCII:1370,DGVB173,
PedersenI:39,EIEC209,DeBernardoStempel
1999:224,227,Delamarre172f.,Falileyev59.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 77

ProtoCeltic:*gabro'hegoat'[Noun];*gabr
'shegoat'

MiddleBreton:galar

OldIrish:gabor[om]

Cornish:glachar

MiddleWelsh:gafr[f]'goat,shegoat'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'helHro'evil,
unhealthy'

MiddleBreton:gabr(OBret.),Bret.gaor
Cornish:gauargl.capra(OCo.)
Gaulish:Gabromagus[Toponym]'Goatfield',
Gabrus[NP]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kapr'penis,hegoat'

PageinPokorny:411
IEcognates:Hitt.kallara'evil,unpleasant,
unhealthy',perhapsalsoOEgeallla'galledplace
ontheskin',Lith.ala'damage,harm'

PageinPokorny:529

Notes:ThereisnoneedforpositingPIE*ain
thisroot,asinEIEC;OIr.galarisderivable
from*gelarobyJoseph'srule.

IEcognates:Skt.kaprth'penis',ONhafr'he
goat',Gr.kapros'boar'

References:GPCII:1373,EIEC43,De
BernardoStempel1999:130,320,500

References:GPCII:1370f.,LP39,EIEC507,
Delamarre173f.,Campanile1974:48,De
BernardoStempel1999:44,Schrijver1995:
353,460

ProtoCeltic:*galbo'fat'[Adjective]

ProtoCeltic:*galn'beable'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:gallu;geill[3sPres.](GPC
gallu,gallael,gallel,gallyd)
MiddleBreton:gallout,guell[3sPres.]
Cornish:gallos

OldIrish:golb[om]'stomach,belly'
Gaulish:Galba[PN]
References:EllisEvans1967:349f.,Delamarre
174
ProtoCeltic:*galwo'call'[Verb]
OldIrish:gall(?)'swan'
MiddleWelsh:galw[mandf]'call,invitation'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gelH
PageinPokorny:351

MiddleBreton:galu(OBret.),MBret.galu
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gel/*gol'call'

IEcognates:Lith.galiu'can',Arm.kalaw
'found'

PageinPokorny:350

Notes:TheethnonymsGalliandGalatai,as
wellasGaul.PNlikeGallus,Gallius,are
probablyalsorelatedtothisetymon.

IEcognates:OEceallian'call',OCSglas
'voice',Osseticalas'sound',perhapsLat.gallus
'cock'

References:GPCII:1377,KPV324ff.,LIV
185f.,Meid2005:195f.

Notes:OIr.gall'swan'isnotwellattested.Itisa
doubtfulglossaryword(CormacY68).

ProtoCeltic:*galaro'sickness,distress,pain'
[Noun]

References:GPCII:1375,DGVB173,EIEC
89,LEIAG40

OldIrish:galar[on]

ProtoCeltic:*gal'valor,ability'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:galar[m]'grief,lament'

OldIrish:gal[f]'valor,fightingspirit'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 78

MiddleWelsh:gallu'beable'
MiddleBreton:gal(OBret.)'might,ability'

lossofthelaryngeal)>*ganyetor>*ganitor>
gainethar,or*g'nh1yetor>*gnHitor>
*ganHitor>gainethar.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gelH

References:GPCII:1380,KPV327ff.,LIV
163ff.,McCone1994:70

PageinPokorny:351

ProtoCeltic:*gansi'swan'[Noun]

IEcognates:Lith.galiu'beable'

OldIrish:geis[if]

Seealso:*galn'beable'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'heh2ns'goose'

References:EIEC3,DeBernardoStempel
1999:130,Meid2005:195f.

PageinPokorny:412

ProtoCeltic:*gando'takeplace'[Verb]

IEcognates:Skt.hamsa,Lat.nser,Gr.kh
n,OHGgans

OldIrish:rogeinn'takesplace'<*frogande
ti

References:LP24,EIEC236,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:35,77,85

MiddleWelsh:genni;gannaf[1sPres.]
'contain,findroomin'

ProtoCeltic:*garyo'call,cry'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*ghed'take,seize'
PageinPokorny:437f.
IEcognates:Lat.praehendo,Gr.khandan,
Alb.gjen'find'

OldIrish:gairid,gair;garaid,gara[subj.];ge
raid,gera[fut.];gairt,gart[pret.];grathae,
grath[pret.pass.]
MiddleWelsh:garddu'groan,creak,crush,
shake'

References:GPCII:1380,KPV330,LIV173.

MiddleBreton:gerentgl.dicunt[3pPres.]
(OBret.)

ProtoCeltic:*ganyo'beborn'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'eh2r'call'

OldIrish:gainidir,gainedar;genadar[Subj.];
gignethar[Fut.];genair[Pret.]

PageinPokorny:352

MiddleWelsh:geni;ganaf[1sPres.]
MiddleBreton:guenell
Cornish:genys[Ptc.Pass.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'enh1'beget'
PageinPokorny:373ff.
IEcognates:Skt.jan,Lat.gigno,nscor,OE
cennan
Notes:OIr.gainethar,gainedarhastheregular
reflexofsyllabic*nbeforeanyconsonant
exceptastop.Twodevelopmentsarepossible,
either*g'nh1yetor>*gnyetor(withanearly

IEcognates:Lat.garrre,Osseticzar'sing'
Seealso:*gri
Notes:Gaulishadgarion[Acc.s]mightperhaps
betranslatedas'accusatorem'(Lejeune,
Delamarre),inwhichcaseitisacognateofOIr.
adgair'summon'(Delamarre32).Theshort*a
inthisCelticetymonmightberegular,ifone
startsfromthezerograde*g'h2ryo.Thefull
gradeoftherootispreservedin*gri'call'
References:GPCII:1381,KPV331ff.,LIV
161,LP368f.,LEIAD116,DGVB175,
Delamarre32
ProtoCeltic:*garano'crane'[Noun]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 79

MiddleWelsh:garan[f]'heron,crane'
MiddleBreton:garan

MiddleBreton:garm
Cornish:garm

Cornish:garan
Gaulish:trigaranos'withthreecranes'(RIG21
165)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'erh2no'crane'
PageinPokorny:383
IEcognates:Gr.geranos,Ecrane
Notes:*era>PCelt.*arabyJoseph'srule.

Seealso:*gri
Notes:Theshortvowelisunexpectedifone
startsfrom*g'eh2rsmen.
References:GPCII:1383,EIEC89,Delamarre
176,Stber1998:65,DeBernardoStempel
1999:242
ProtoCeltic:*garwo'rough,coarse'
[Adjective]

References:GPCII:1380,PedersenI:38,EIEC
140,Delamarre175,Campanile1974:47,
Matasovic2004:86,144

OldIrish:garb[o]

ProtoCeltic:*gargo'rough'[Adjective]

MiddleBreton:garu

OldIrish:garg[o]

Cornish:garow

Gaulish:Gargenus[NP]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'her(s)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*garg'o(?)

PageinPokorny:445f.

PageinPokorny:353

IEcognates:Lat.horreo'tostare,fear,tremble'

IEcognates:OCSgroza'horror',Arm.karcr
'hard'

ProtoCeltic:*garrV'calfoftheleg'[Noun]

Notes:Thisisanexpressiveformationsimilarto
*gargo.Pokorny'sattributiontotheroot
*g'her(s)isdoubtful(maybeoneshouldbetter
relatetheseCelticwordstoPCelt.*gargo<
PIE*gerg').The(probablyGaulish)PNGarvo
attestedinPannoniamightberelated(Meid
2005:231)

OldIrish:gairr[imorf]

References:GPCII:1383,Meid2005:231.

MiddleWelsh:gar[mandf]'leg,shank'

ProtoCeltic:*gayso'spear'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:garr'leg'

OldIrish:gae[om]

Cornish:gar'leg'

MiddleWelsh:gwaew[mandf](GPCgwayw)

References:GPCII:1380

MiddleBreton:guugoiou(OBret.),MBret.goa

ProtoCeltic:*garsman'cry,shout'[Noun]

Cornish:hochwuyugl.venabulum

OldIrish:gairm[nn]'theactofshouting,
calling'

Gaulish:*?aiso>Lat.gaesum,Ariogaisus
[PN]

MiddleWelsh:garm[f]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*ghoyso'spear'

References:EIEC568,DeBernardoStempel
1999:501,Delamarre175

MiddleWelsh:garw

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 80

IEcognates:Skt.hesa'arm',OEgr
Notes:SincetheCelticwordsfor'spear'implya
protoformwith*ayratherthan*oy,PCelt.
*gaysomaybealoanwordfromGermanic,cp.
Delamarre174.
References:GPCII:1606,DGVB204,EIEC
537,Delamarre174,DeBernardoStempel
1999:314
ProtoCeltic:*gazdo'withe'[Noun]
OldIrish:gat[om]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ghasdh/*ghast'shaft'
PageinPokorny:412f.
IEcognates:Lat.hasta'spearshaft,lance',Goth.
gazds'goad'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhg'homyo'human,
earthling'
PageinPokorny:414
IEcognates:Lat.homo,Go.guma
Seealso:*gdon'earth'
Notes:TheGaulishformxtonio(inthe
compoundformteuoxtonio)shouldberead
gdonio(thealphabetofVercellidoesnot
distinguishbetweenvoicedandvoicelessstops,
cp.Delamarre176).
References:DGVB149,GPCI:1140,EIEC
174,366,Delamarre176,Campanile1974:36,
McCone1996:49.
ProtoCeltic:*gdyes'yesterday'[Adverb]
OldIrish:inde

Notes:OIr.gass'sprig'mightrepresentanother
reflexofthesamePIEroot,*ghasto(>PCelt.
*gasso).

MiddleWelsh:doe,ddoe

References:LP26

Cornish:doygl.heri(OCo.)

ProtoCeltic:*gdon'earth,place'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dhg'h(y)es(i)'yesterday'

OldIrish:du[nf]'place,spot'

PageinPokorny:41

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dheg'hm'earth'

IEcognates:Skt.hya,Gr.khthes,Alb.dje

PageinPokorny:414f.

Notes:Thereconstructedadverb*dhg'h(y)es(i)
isapetrifiedlocativeofsomeoldrootnoun
meaning'theprecedingday'

IEcognates:Hitt.tkan,Skt.ks,Lat.humus,
Alb.dhe,ToBkem
References:EIEC174,DeBernardoStempel
1999:28.
ProtoCeltic:*gdonyo'human,person'[Noun]
OldIrish:duine[iom]

MiddleBreton:dech

References:GPCI:1070,EIEC654,Campanile
1974:40.
ProtoCeltic:*gelu'leech'[Noun]
OldIrish:gil

MiddleWelsh:dyn[mandf]

MiddleWelsh:gel[fandm](GPCgelau,gele,
gl]

MiddleBreton:don,den(OBret.),MBret.den

MiddleBreton:gelaouen

Cornish:dengl.homo(OCo.)

Cornish:ghelgl.sanguissuga(OCo.)

Gaulish:xtonio(Vercelli)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'elu'leech'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 81

PageinPokorny:365
IEcognates:Skt.jalk
References:GPCII:1389,EIEC349
ProtoCeltic:*gelwo'yellow,white'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:gel[o]'white,fair,shining'
MiddleWelsh:gell'yellow'
MiddleBreton:gell'brown'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'helwo'yellow'
PageinPokorny:429f.
IEcognates:Lat.heluus'honeyyellow',OE
geolu
References:EIEC654,DeBernardoStempel
1999:46
ProtoCeltic:*genet'girl'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:geneth[f]
Gaulish:geneta,genata,gnata
ProtoIndoEuropean:*genh1'bear,givebirth
to'
PageinPokorny:373ff.
IEcognates:Lat.genitusinprimogenitus'first
born'
Seealso:*genos

OldIrish:Eogan[PN]
MiddleWelsh:Morgen[PN](OW)
MiddleBreton:gengl.ethnicus(OBret.)
Gaulish:Adgenus,Cintugenus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'enh1os'family,clan,
descendants'
PageinPokorny:373ff.
IEcognates:Skt.janas,Gr.?enos,Lat.genus
References:DGVB174,Delamarre177f.,Ellis
Evans1967:204.
ProtoCeltic:*genu'jaw'[Noun]
OldIrish:gin[um]'mouth'
MiddleWelsh:gen[f]'cheek'(GPCgn)
MiddleBreton:gengl.maxilla(OBret.),Bret.
genou[p]
Cornish:genau(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'enu'jaw'
PageinPokorny:381
IEcognates:Skt.hanu,Gr.genys,Lat.gena
'cheek',OEcinn,ToAsanwem[Dual]'jaws'
References:GPCII:1391,DGVB174,EIEC
322,DeBernardoStempel1999:95
ProtoCeltic:*gess'taboo,prohibition'[Noun]

Notes:Wgenethpointstoageminate*genett;
thisPCelt.nounisderivedwiththesuffix*eto
(cp.Oscangenetai'daughter'[Dat.s].OIr.
ingen[f]'daughter'<*enigen(Ogam
INIGENA)isanotherformationfromthesame
root,cp.alsoGaul.(Larzac)andognam'born
inside(thefamily)'andPNAndegenus.OIr.PN
Sogen(OgamGen.SOGINI)ispresumably
from*sug'enh1o'wellborn'(Skt.sujana).
References:GPCII:1393,LIV163,Delamarre
177,Uhlich2002:422.
ProtoCeltic:*genos'family,gens'[Noun]

OldIrish:geis[?f]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ghed'seize,take'
PageinPokorny:437f.
IEcognates:Lat.praehendo,Gr.khandan
Seealso:*gando
Notes:TheOIr.wordcanbederivedregularly
from*ghedtih2,butthesemanticdevelopment
issomewhatdifficult,seeHamp1981.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 82

ProtoCeltic:*glendos'valley,shore'[Noun]
References:Hamp1981.
ProtoCeltic:*glanndo'show'[Verb]
OldIrish:asgleinn'examine'<*eksglando
ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'hlendh'show,shine'
PageinPokorny:431
IEcognates:Russ.gljadet''watch'
References:KPV334ff.,LIV200
ProtoCeltic:*glano'clean,clear'[Adjective]

OldIrish:glend[sn]
MiddleWelsh:glynn[m]'glen,valley'
MiddleBreton:glann'shore'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*glend'shore'(?)
IEcognates:MLGklint,'shore'ONklettr'rock'
References:GPCII:1414,PedersenI:38
ProtoCeltic:*glina'glue'[Verb]

OldIrish:glan[o]

OldIrish:glenaid,glen;glieid,glia[Subj.];gi
ulaid,giulai[Fut.];giuil[Pret.]

MiddleWelsh:glan(GPCgln)

MiddleWelsh:glynu

MiddleBreton:glan(OBret.),MBret.glan

MiddleBreton:englenaff<*englina'stick'

Cornish:glan

Cornish:glena

Gaulish:Glanis[Hydronym],(Matrebo)
Glaneikabo[Theonym]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gleyH

References:GPCII:1400,Delamarre180
ProtoCeltic:*glasto'green,blue'[Adjective]
OldIrish:glas[o]
MiddleWelsh:glas(OWandMW)
MiddleBreton:glas
Cornish:glesingl.sandix
Gaulish:glastum'Isatistinctoria'(Pliny)
Notes:Forpossible,butinmyview
unconvincing,PIEetymologies,seeDelamarre
180,Pokorny429ff.TheCelticformscanbe
derivedfromPIE*ghlsto(paceDeBernardo
Stempel),butSkt.hari'white'andGr.khlros
'green'pointto*ghelh3(cp.alsoOCSzelen
'green').Fortheapparentpreservationof*stin
Gaul.,cp.Schrijver1995:402.
References:GPCII:1401,Delamarre180,
Falileyev61,Campanile1974:49,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:271,Schrijver1995:402.

PageinPokorny:362
IEcognates:OHGklenan'smear',Lith.dial.
gleju'smear'
References:GPCII:1414,KPV337ff.,LIV
190,LP369,LEIAD148
ProtoCeltic:*gloydo'glue,lime'[Noun]
OldIrish:gloed,glaed(DIL)
MiddleWelsh:glud[m]
MiddleBreton:glut
Cornish:glutgl.gluten(OCo.)
Seealso:*glina
Notes:ThegenderandstemformationofMIr.
glaedareuncertain.
References:GPCII:1412
ProtoCeltic:*gloywo'liquid,clear'[Adjective]
OldIrish:gle'clear,evident'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 83

MiddleWelsh:gloiu[m]gl.liquidum(OW),
MWgloyw,gloew
MiddleBreton:gloeu(OBret.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'hley'shine'
PageinPokorny:432
IEcognates:MHGglmen'toshine'

theotherhand,itisalsopossibletoderivegni
fromPCelt.*gnyeti<PIE*g'neh1yeti(thus
McCone1991:33)becauseweknowthatPCelt.
*snyeti(<PIE*sneh1yeti)yieldsOIr.sniid,
sni'spin,weave'.However,Ifindthis
explanationinherentlyimprobablebecausethe
allegedprotoform*g'neh1yetilacksany
parallelsinCelticorelsewhere.
References:KPV339ff.,LIV163ff.,LEIA
D149,McCone1991:33.

Notes:OIr.gle(ratherthan*glia)pointsto
PCelt.*glwo(ratherthan*gloywo),but
Britishformsaremoreeasilyderivedfrom
*gloywo.

ProtoCeltic:*gnina'recognize'[Verb]

References:GPCII:1411,LHEB325f.,
Falileyev62

MiddleWelsh:atnabot;atwaen[3sPres.]<
*atiwogni(GPCadwaen)

ProtoCeltic:*gniyo'beget,create,do'[Verb]

Cornish:aswonvos;aswon[3sPres.]<*atiwo
gni

OldIrish:gniid,gni'do';gneith,gne[Subj.];
genaid,gena[Fut.];genais[Pret.]

OldIrish:adgnin<*atignina;gena[Fut.];
adgensa[3sPret.relative]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'enh3'know'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'enh1'beget'

PageinPokorny:373ff.

PageinPokorny:373375

Seealso:*gniyo

IEcognates:Lat.gigno,Skt.janati'begets'

Notes:Gaul.gniiou(Chateaubleau)isprobably
1sPres.oftheverb'toknow,recognize'.Itcan
bederivedfromPCelt.*gny<PIE*g'nh3
yo.ButitcouldalsoberelatedtoPCelt.*gni
yo'beget,make'.

Notes:OIr.gniissomewhatproblematic,
becauseofitslongi.Ifitisderiveddirectly
from*gniyeti,thenwehavetoexplainwhywe
haveshorti,e.g.,inbiid'iswonttobe'<
*biyeti.Weknowthat*treyes'3'yieldsOIr.tri
(atleastwhenusedsubstantively;asan
attribute,itisproclitic,henceshortenedtotri).
Therefore,(do)gnicanbefrom*gneyeti(with
theearlylossoflaryngeal,originallybefore*y,
orfromananitformoftheroot,asinLat.
gens).Ontheotherhand,disyllabicbiid'iswont
tobe'canbefrom*biyeti<*bhuyeti,orfrom
*bhwiyeti(cp.Lat.fio).Thesameformis
attestedinGaulishbiiete(InscriptionfromLime
)<*bhuHyeteor*bhwiyete.Itappearsthat
PCelt.*iremainssyllabicbeforeglides
followedbyavowel,cp.PCelt.*biwato>OIr.
biad'food'(disyllabic).Inanycase,OIr.biid
mustbefromPCelt.*b(w)iyeti,whilegnican
befrom*gneyeti.Thiscanbetheoldcausative
formation(withthesuffix*eye)builtfromthe
zerogradeoftheroot.ThemeaningofOIr.gni
'do,make'isactuallyfullycompatiblewiththe
originallycausativeformationofthisverb.On

References:GPCI:28,Delamarre182.
ProtoCeltic:*gnto'known,usual'[Adjective]
OldIrish:gnath[o]
MiddleWelsh:gnawt
MiddleBreton:gnot(OBret.)'usual'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'enh3'know'
PageinPokorny:373ff.
IEcognates:Lat.cognsco,OCSznati,etc.
Notes:CertainGaulishcompoundswithgnatos
canbeunderstoodbothas'known'<*gnh3tos
andas'born'<*gnh1tos,seeDelamarre181f.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 84

References:GPCII:1415,EIEC337,
Delamarre181f.,DeBernardoStempel1999:
337,440
ProtoCeltic:*gnmu'work,action'
OldIrish:gnim[um]
MiddleWelsh:guorgnim'greattoil,exertion'
(OW)
MiddleBreton:imguognim(OBret.)
References:Falileyev73

Cornish:gofgl.faber
Gaulish:Gobano[PN],Cobanno[Theonym,
Dat.]gobedbi[Datp]
Notes:Cp.alsoOBret.gobailgl.officina=MW
geueil,Co.gofail.TheIEetymologyis
unknown.
References:GPCII:1428,DGVB177,
Delamarre182,Campanile1974:50,De
BernardoStempel1999:100,109,119,Schrijver
1995:182,Stber1998:172

ProtoCeltic:*gnnos'knee'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*gobbo'muzzle,snout,beak'
[Noun]

OldIrish:gln[sn]

OldIrish:gop[om]

MiddleWelsh:pen(g)lin

Gaulish:*gobbo>OFrenchgobel,gobet'bit'

MiddleBreton:pennglin

ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'oph3o'eat,masticate
(ofanimals)'

Cornish:penglingl.genu
ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'onu'knee'

PageinPokorny:382

PageinPokorny:380f.

IEcognates:OEceafl'jaw,jowl',Russ.zobat'
'masticate'

IEcognates:Skt.jnu,Gr.gony,Lat.gen

References:EIEC175,Delamarre182

Notes:ThetransformationofPIE*g'onuinto
PCelt.*gnnos>OIr.glunisdifficultto
understand,buttheetymologyisbeyonddoubt.
Long*mightreflecttheolddualendingin*
uh1,andthecluster*glarosefrom*gninthe
zerogradeofthePIEroot(thesamechange
occurred,independently,inAlbanian,cp.alb.
gju'knee'<*glun.Thefirstelementofthe
compoundattestedintheBrit.languagesisthe
wordfor'head'(*kwendo).Probably*kwendo
gnnosreferredoriginallytokneecapsonly(cf.
theparallelismwithEnglish).

ProtoCeltic:*gormo'dun,dark'[Adjective]

References:EIEC336,DeBernardoStempel
1999:144ff.,Campanile1974:86.
ProtoCeltic:*goban'smith'[Noun]
OldIrish:gobae[nm]
MiddleWelsh:gof[m]
MiddleBreton:gof

OldIrish:gorm[o]'blue'
MiddleWelsh:gwrm(GPCgwrm,gwrwm)
MiddleBreton:Uurmhaelon[PN]'withbrown
brows'
References:GPCII:1711,LP33,Schrijver
1995:348
ProtoCeltic:*gorto'fence,enclosure,pen'
[Noun]
OldIrish:gort[om,perhapsoriginallyn]'field'
MiddleWelsh:gorth,garth[m]'field,pen'
MiddleBreton:(o)rth'pen'(OBret.),Bret.garz
Gaulish:*gorti>Gorze[Toponym],French
dial.(Limousin)gorso'fence'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 85

ProtoIndoEuropean:*ghrdhs,Gen.*ghrdh
os'enclosure,garden,pen'

Gaulish:*grenno'moustache,beard'>Occitan
gren'moustache'

PageinPokorny:444

Notes:Theattestedformspointtotwodifferent
ablautgradesinPCelt.Shouldwereconstructan
ablautingparadigm*grends/*grandos?The
semanticdevelopmentofBret.grann'eyebrow'
isunclear.ThenameoftheGaulishequivalent
ofApollo,Grannos,issometimesrelatedtothis
setofforms,butheisactuallyneverportrayed
withabeard(seeDelamarre183).

IEcognates:Skt.grha'house',Lat.hortus
'garden',OHGgarto'garden',Russ.gorod
'town'
Notes:ThevoicelessstopseeninCeltic,Greek
andLatinisbesexplainedifoneassumesthat*
dhs(intheNominative)wasassimilatedto*ts,
fromwhich*twasthenextrapolatedtoother
caseforms(withgeneralizedogradefromthe
Accusative(*ghordhm),seeMatasovic2004:
99,137.Itshouldbenoted,however,thatthe
lengthenedgradeoftheoriginalrootnounis
nowherepreserved.
References:GPCII:1383,EIEC199,LP47,De
BernardoStempel1999:441,Delamarre183,
Matasovic2004:99,137
ProtoCeltic:*gowlo'charcoal'[Noun]
OldIrish:gual[omandf]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'welH'burn,glow'
PageinPokorny:399
IEcognates:Skt.jvla'flame,coal',OEcol
'glowingpieceofwood'.
Notes:ThePCelt.reconstructionofthisetymon
isuncertain,anditisdifficulttoreconcileit
withPIE*g'welH.TheGermanicformspoint
tothezerograde*g'wul.Onewouldhaveto
assume'Schwebeablaut'.Orisitpossibletostart
fromPCelt.*gwol?Thiswouldimplythatthe
reflexesofPIE*gwand*gwweredistinctin
PCelt.,whichcanhardlyhavebeenthecase.
References:EIEC87,DeBernardoStempel
1999:224
ProtoCeltic:*grando,*grendo'beard'[Noun]
OldIrish:grend
MiddleWelsh:grann[m]'chin,beard,cheek'
MiddleBreton:grann'eyebrow'

References:GPCII:1524,Delamarre183
ProtoCeltic:*gregi'herd'[Noun]
OldIrish:graig[in]'horses(coll.)'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*greg'herd'
PageinPokorny:382f.
IEcognates:Lat.grex,Gr.gargara'crowd'
Notes:ThePIErootispresumably*ger(or
*h2ger)'gather'.Wgre'herd,stud'[m],Bret.
greandCo.greareusuallyconsideredtobe
loanwordsfromLat.grex,butitisalso
conceivablethattheyareinherited.
References:DeBernardoStempel1999:503,
EIEC217,Schrijver1995:60,69,140
ProtoCeltic:*grindo'follow,drive'[Verb]
OldIrish:dogreinn<*tugrindo
MiddleWelsh:grynnyaw'push,press,thrust';
gryn[3sPres.](GPCgrynio,grynnu)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ghreydh
PageinPokorny:456f.
IEcognates:Go.grid'step',OCSgresti'tread,
step,go'
Notes:OBret.golentgl.prex(MBret.goulen)
mightbefrom*woglend,aderivativefrom
thesameroot,cp.OIr.fogliunngl.disco.
References:GPCII:1541,KPV353ff.,LIV203
ProtoCeltic:*growdos'cheek'[Noun]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 86

OldIrish:gruad[sn,latermandf]
MiddleWelsh:grudou[p](OW),MWgrudd[f
andm]
Cornish:grudgl.maxilla(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ghrowdh
PageinPokorny:462
IEcognates:OEgrada'breast'

MiddleBreton:golbin(OBret.),golbinocgl.ac
rostratam(OBret.)
Cornish:geluingl.rostrum(OCo.)
Gaulish:*gulbia>Lat.gulbia(Isidoreof
Seville)
References:GPCII:1794,DGVB178,
Delamarre184,Campanile1974:48,Falileyev
61,DeBernardoStempel1999:118,459

Notes:Thesemanticsideofthisetymologyis
ratherweak(*ghrowdowouldpresumably
denote'roundbodyparts').Theevidencethat
gruadwasansstemisnotcompletelycertain.

ProtoCeltic:*guso'choose'[Verb]

References:GPCII:1536,Falileyev63,
Campanile1974:53

ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'ews'choose,taste'

ProtoCeltic:*grno'grain'[Noun]
OldIrish:gran[on]
MiddleWelsh:grawn[p],gronyn[Singulative
m]

OldIrish:dogoa<*tuguso;dogega[3sFut.
relative];doroigu[3sPret.relative]

PageinPokorny:399f.
IEcognates:Skt.jusate'enjoy',Gr.geuomai,
Go.kiusan,Alb.desha'loved'
Seealso:*gustu

MiddleBreton:greun

References:KPV356ff.,LEIAD149,EIEC
566

Cornish:gronengl.granum

ProtoCeltic:*gustu'excellence,force'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'rHno'grain'

OldIrish:guss[um]

PageinPokorny:390f.

MiddleWelsh:Gurgust[PN](OW),Wgwst[f
andm];gystion[p]'pain,endurance,patience,
difficulty'

IEcognates:Lat.grnum,OHGkornLith.i
rnis'pea'

Gaulish:gussou[Dat.s]'?force'

Notes:IfthesewordsarederivedfromPIE
*g'erh2'ripen,age'(asassumedbyEIEC),then
thecorrectreconstructionis*g'rh2no.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'ustu'choose,taste'

References:GPCII:1526,EIEC236,
Campanile1974:52,DeBernardoStempel
1999:254Schrijver1995:183,189,211,
McCone1996:52

IEcognates:Lat.gustus'tasting',OEcost
'choice,excellence'

ProtoCeltic:*gulbV,*gulbno'beak'[Noun]
OldIrish:gulba[nf]'beak,jaw',gulban[om]
'beak,sting'
MiddleWelsh:gilbin[mandf]'point'(OW),
MWgylfin'beak'

PageinPokorny:399f.

Notes:Fortheapparentpreservationof*stin
British,seeSchrijver1995:412.
References:GPCII:1742f.,EIEC566,
Delamarre184,DeBernardoStempel1999:
290,Schrijver1995:412f.
ProtoCeltic:*gutu'voice'[Noun]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 87

OldIrish:guth[um]
Gaulish:gutuater'nameofapriest',perhaps
'fatherofinvocations'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'hewH'call,invoke'
PageinPokorny:413
IEcognates:Skt.havate'call',OEgod'god',
ToBkuw'call,invite'
References:EIEC89,Delamarre184f.
ProtoCeltic:*gyo'sinew'[Noun]

Notes:ThereconstructionofPCelt.*gyemois
basedontheassumption(Schrijver)that*gye>
*gyainBritishandGaulish.
References:GPCII:1368,LHEB359,DGVB
196,Delamarre178,Falileyev60,Campanile
51f.,Schrijver1995:108ff.,Matasovic2004:
123.
ProtoCeltic:*gri'shout,call'[Noun]
OldIrish:gair[if,perhapsoriginallyn]
MiddleWelsh:gawr[fandm];gewri,geuri,
goriau[p]
Gaulish:Garomarus[PN]

MiddleWelsh:gieu[p]'sinews',giewyn
[Singulative](GPCgiau

ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'eh2r'shout,call'

Cornish:goivengl.nervus(OCo.),MCo.gyew

PageinPokorny:352

ProtoIndoEuropean:*gwyo'sinew'

IEcognates:Gr.ge?rys'voice,call',Lat.garrio
'chatter',OEcearu'care,sorrow'

PageinPokorny:469
IEcognates:Skt.jy,Gr.bios'bowstring'
Notes:Thewordinitial*ginWpresupposes
anearlydelabializationof*gwbefore*yin
Celtic,seeMcCone1996:42

Seealso:*garsmen
References:GPCII:1385,EIEC89,Delamarre
176,DeBernardoStempel1999:66,201
ProtoCeltic:*gw'falsehood,lie'[Noun]

References:GPCII:1397,McCone1996:42

OldIrish:gau[f]

ProtoCeltic:*gyemo'winter'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:gau[m]'lie','false'

OldIrish:gam,gem(DILgaim)

MiddleBreton:gou'false,lie'

MiddleWelsh:gaem(OW),MWgayaf,gaeaf
[m]

Cornish:gow

PageinPokorny:425f.

Notes:TheIEetymologyoftheseCelticwords
isdubious,partlyalsobecauseseveralPCelt.
reconstructionsarepossible;somederivethem
fromallegedPIE*gew'bend,twist'
(Norwegiankaa,seePokorny393),but
comparisonwithLat.haud'not'seemsmore
promising.ThePIErootwouldbe*g'heh2u,
andonemightevenwanttorelateLith.at
las'hard',Avest.zrah'unrighteousness',OCS
zl'bad,wicked'(iffrom*g'huh2lo,*g'hh2u
lo).

IEcognates:Lat.hiems,OCSzima,Arm.jiun
'snow'

References:GPCII:1385,DGVB179,GOI44,
DeBernardoStempel1999:59

MiddleBreton:guoiam(OBret.),MBret.gouaff
Cornish:goyfgl.hyemps(OCo.)
Gaulish:Giamoni[]'nameofthe7thmonth'
(Coligny),Giamos[PN}
ProtoIndoEuropean:*g'hyem'winter'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 88

ProtoCeltic:*gstlo'surety,pledge,hostage'
[Noun]

Notes:AccordingtoFalileyev(91),thereading
andmeaningofOWimmetarenotcertain.

OldIrish:giall[om]'hostage'

References:Delamarre189,Falileyev91

MiddleWelsh:gwystl[mandf]'pledge,surety,
hostage'

ProtoCeltic:*isk'cleanse(especiallyof
vermin'[Verb]

MiddleBreton:guistlgl.obses(OBret.),MBret.
goestl

OldIrish:escaid[VerbalNoun]

Cornish:guistelgl.obses(OCo.)
Gaulish:Congeistlus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*gheydhdesire,waitfor'
PageinPokorny:426
IEcognates:Lith.geidiu'desire',OCS
dati'wait'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eyssk''seek'
PageinPokorny:16
IEcognates:Skt.ichati'seeks',OHGeisca
'question'
Notes:ThesemanticdevelopmentinCelticis
from'seek'to'seeklice'.However,thePCelt.
reconstructionisuncertainsinceonlytheverbal
nounescaidisattestedinIrish.

Notes:OIc.gisl'hostage',etc.areold
loanwordsfromCeltic.Wgwystlandother
Britishwordsprobablyhaveanepenthetict
(before*l),cp.Schrijver1995:404f.TheIE
etymologyoftheseCelticwordsisweakonthe
semanticside.

References:LIV231

References:GPCII:1789,DGVB204,LP23,
LIV175,Schrijver1995:405.,Campanile1974:
59.

MiddleWelsh:pallu'die,perish,bedestroyed,
runout,fail';palla[3sPres.]

ProtoCeltic:*indo'lightup'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:ennynnu<*andeindo
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eydh'burn'
PageinPokorny:11f.

ProtoCeltic:*kwalna'goaround'[Verb]
OldIrish:immcella'surround'<*ambikwal
na

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwelh1'turn'
PageinPokorny:639f.
IEcognates:Skt.carati'moves,goes',Lat.colo
'inhabit,cultivate'
References:KPV427ff.,LIV386388,LEIA
C61,GPCIII:2676

IEcognates:Skt.edhate'shines',Gr.aith
'burn'

ProtoCeltic:*kwan'wherefrom'[Particle]

References:KPV374f.

OldIrish:can

ProtoCeltic:*imbeto'greatquantity'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:pan(OWandMW)

OldIrish:imbed[on]

MiddleBreton:peban

MiddleWelsh:immet(OW)

References:LEIAC29f.,Falileyev127.

Gaulish:Imbetius,Imbetus[PN]

ProtoCeltic:*kwaryo'cauldron'[Noun]
OldIrish:coire[iom]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 89

MiddleWelsh:peir[m](GPCpair)

MiddleBreton:penn,pen(OBret.),MoBret.
penn

MiddleBreton:per(MoBret.)

Cornish:pengl.capud(OCo.),MCo.pen

Cornish:pergl.lebes(OCo.)

Gaulish:Pennoouindos[PN]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kweru'cauldron'

References:LEIAC66,GPCIII:2726f.,
DGVB283,LP45,Delamarre249,Falileyev
129,Campanile1974:86.

PageinPokorny:642
IEcognates:Skt.caru'cauldron,vase',Russ.
ara,OEhwer
Notes:Frenchdialectalwordpairol'chauldron'
isfromtheGaulishcognateofthisPCelt.word.

ProtoCeltic:*kwendso'suffer'[Verb]
OldIrish:cesaid,cesa;cesais[Pret.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwendh'suffer,be
pressed'

References:LEIAC153,GPCIII:2669,EIEC
443,Matasovic2004:114

PageinPokorny:641

ProtoCeltic:*kwaso'cough'[Noun]

IEcognates:Gr.paskh,Lith.kentu

OldIrish:casachtach[f],cosachtach(DIL)
'theactofcoughing'

References:LEIAC79f.,LIV

MiddleWelsh:pas[m]'whoopingcough'
MiddleBreton:pasgl.catarrus(OBret.),MBret.
pas,paz
Cornish:ps,pz(MoCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kweh2st'cough'
PageinPokorny:649
IEcognates:Skt.ksate'coughs',OHGhuosto,
Lith.kosti
Notes:TheCelticformsarefromthezerograde
*kwh2stofthisoriginallyonomatopoeticroot.
ThelaryngealisassuredbytheacuteinLith.
References:LEIAC215,GPCIII:2696f.,
DGVB281,Hamp,MelangesV.I.Georgiev,
1980:130134.
ProtoCeltic:*kwendo'head'[Noun]
OldIrish:cenn[on>m]
MiddleWelsh:penn[m](OWandMW)(GPC
pen)

ProtoCeltic:*kwenkwe'five'[Numeral]
OldIrish:coic
MiddleWelsh:pimp(OW),MWpymp(GPC
pump,pum,pym(p))
MiddleBreton:pemp(OBret.),MBret.pemp
Cornish:pymp
Gaulish:pempe
ProtoIndoEuropean:*penkwe'5'
PageinPokorny:808
IEcognates:Lat.quinque,Go.fimf,Lith.penki

Notes:Theordinal*kwinkwetoisregularly
derivedfromOWpimphet,Gaul.ponpetos,
MBret.pempetandOIr.coiced.
References:LEIAC142f.,GPCIII:2928f.,
DGVB283,EIEC98,100,401,Delamarre248,
Falileyev131,Schrijver1995:27,349
ProtoCeltic:*kwer'make,cause'[Verb]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 90

MiddleWelsh:peri'cause,create,make';paraf,
peraf[1sPres.]
MiddleBreton:paras[3sPret.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwer'do,make'

PageinPokorny:642
IEcognates:Lat.quattuor,Gr.tettares,Go.
fidwor

PageinPokorny:641f

References:LEIAC87,GPCIII:2710f.,
DGVB284,LP3,44,EIEC97f.,LHEB397,
Falileyev120,Delamarre250.

IEcognates:Skt.karoti'do',OCSar'magic'

ProtoCeltic:*kwezdi'piece,portion'[Noun]

Seealso:*kwritu

OldIrish:cuit[if]

Notes:ThepresentstemformationofthisPCelt.
verbalrootcannotbereconstructed.

MiddleWelsh:ped(OW),MWpeth'thing'[m
andf]

References:GPCIII:2685

MiddleBreton:pez

ProtoCeltic:*kwerkwt'bush'(?)[Noun]

Cornish:peth,pyth

OldIrish:ceirt'appletree'

Notes:MedievalLatinpetiaterrae'pieceof
land'isfromthelostGaulish*pettia(cp.also
Frenchpiece'piece',etc.)

MiddleWelsh:perth'bush,hedge'[f]
Cornish:Penberth[Toponym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*perkwu'oak'

References:LEIAC280f.,GPCIII:2789f.,
Delamarre249,Falileyev128,Schrijver1995:
261

PageinPokorny:822

ProtoCeltic:*kwiso'see'[Verb]

IEcognates:Lat.quercus,OEfurh'fir'

OldIrish:adci,aicci;accastar[Pret.Pass.];
accae[Perf.]

Notes:SinceOIr.ceirtisknownonlyfrom
glossariesandasthenameoftheOgamletterC,
thisetymologyisnotverystrong.

Gaulish:pissiumi[1sPres.](Chamalieres);
appisetu(Thiaucourt)

References:LEIAC56,GPCIII:2780

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kweys'perceive'

ProtoCeltic:*kwetwores'four'[Numeral]

PageinPokorny:637

OldIrish:ceth(a)ir[m];cetheoir[f]

IEcognates:Avest.cinahmi'determine'

MiddleWelsh:petguar(OW),MWpedwar[m];
pedeir[f]

Notes:OIr.senchae'storyteller'canbederived
fromanoldcompound*senokwoysyos
'old/ancientwitness'(McCone1995).

MiddleBreton:petguar(OBret.),MBret.peuar;
peder[f]
Cornish:peswar;pedyr[f]
Gaulish:petuar[ios][Ordinal];Petrucorii
[Ethnonym]='Perigord'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwetwores'4'

References:LIV340f.,Delamarre251,Uhlich
2002:414
ProtoCeltic:*kwo'to'[Preposition]
OldIrish:co[geminating,+Acc.]
MiddleWelsh:py

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 91

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwo
PageinPokorny:613
IEcognates:OCSk'to'
References:LEIAC133,GOI501f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwres
PageinPokorny:633
IEcognates:OEhyrst'bushes'

MiddleWelsh:pobi

References:LEIAC222f.,GPCIII:2873,
DGVB289,Schrijver1995:39,Lambert1994:
203,Delamarre252,DeBernardoStempel
1999:256f.

MiddleBreton:pibi,poba

ProtoCeltic:*kwrina'buy'[Verb]

Cornish:pobas

OldIrish:crenaid,cren;crieid,cria[Subj.];ci
uraid,ciurai[Fut.],ciuir[Pret.];crithae,cri
th[Pass.]

ProtoCeltic:*kwokwo'cook,bake'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*pekw'cook'
PageinPokorny:798
IEcognates:Skt.pacate,Lat.coquo
Notes:InCeltic,theassimilation*kw...kw<
*p...kwprecededthelossofPIE*p.

MiddleWelsh:prinit[3sPres.](OW),MW
prynu
MiddleBreton:prenaff
Cornish:prinid(OCo.),MCo.prena

References:KPV429,GPCIII:2835f.,LP3,
LIV468

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwreyh2'buy,
exchange'

ProtoCeltic:*kwolu'wheel'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:648

OldIrish:cul'partofachariot'

IEcognates:Skt.krnti,Gr.priasthai

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwolo'wheel'
PageinPokorny:639

References:KPV438ff.,LIV395f.,GPCIII:
2923,LP354,LEIAC229ff.,D117,Falileyev
133,McCone1991:11

IEcognates:Gr.polos'axis',OCSkolo'wheel'

ProtoCeltic:*kwrimi'worm'[Noun]

Notes:OIr.culisknownchieflyfrom
glossaries,sothisetymologyisuncertain.

OldIrish:cruim[?if]

References:LEIAC283

MiddleWelsh:prem(OW),MWpryf[m];
pryfed[p]

ProtoCeltic:*kwresno'wood,tree'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:preff

OldIrish:crann[on]

Cornish:prifgl.uermis(OCo.),MCo.pref

MiddleWelsh:prenn[m](GPCpren)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwrmi'worm'

MiddleBreton:pren(OBret.),MBret.prenn

PageinPokorny:1152

Cornish:prengl.lignum(OCo.),MCo.pren

IEcognates:Skt.krmi,Alb.krimb,Lith.
kirmis,Slovenecrm

Gaulish:prennegl.arboremgrandem(Endlicher
Glossary)
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 92

References:LEIAC252,GPCIII:2919f.,
EIEC649,DeBernardoStempel1999:72
ProtoCeltic:*kwritu'magicaltransformation,
shape'[Noun]
OldIrish:cruth[um]'shape,form',alsocreth
'poetry'
MiddleWelsh:pryd'form,shape,time'[m]
MiddleBreton:pred'moment'
Cornish:pritgl.hora(OCo.),MCo.prys
Gaulish:Prittius(?)[PN]
Notes:OIr.crethwasabstractedfromthe
regularGenscrethooftheoriginalustem
cruth.InW,GPCseparatespryd'time,moment'
andpryd'face,appearance'astwolexicalentries
anddoubtswhethertheiretymologiesare
identical.
References:LEIAC232,256,GPCIII:2915f.,
EIEC362,PedersenI:43,Watkins,CelticaVI
214f.,DeBernardoStempel1999:290,
Delamarre253

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwoh3kwo
PageinPokorny:645
IEcognates:OCSkak'qualis'
Notes:Unstressedformsofthiswordserveas
adjectivalpronounsmeaning'every'(OIr.cach,
cech,MWpob).ThePIEform*kwoh3kwois
acompoundconsistingoftheinterrogative
pronounstem(*kwo)andthestemoftheword
for'eye'(*h3ekw>Lat.oculusetc.).
References:LEIAC3,GPCIII:2703,EIEC
457,HampBSLat.LXVIII77ff.,Falileyev128.
ProtoCeltic:*kws'who'[Pronoun]
OldIrish:cia
MiddleWelsh:pui(OW),MWpwy
MiddleBreton:pou(OBret.),MBret.piou
Cornish:pyw
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwe/oy'who,what'

ProtoCeltic:*kwryet'earth,mud'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:635

OldIrish:cre[tf]

References:LEIAC91f.,GPCIII:2946,EIEC
456,Falileyev134,GPC2946f.

MiddleWelsh:pridd[m]
MiddleBreton:prigl.creta(OBret.),MBret.
pry,pri

ProtoCeltic:*kwsl'mind,spirit,reason'
[Noun]
OldIrish:ciall[f]

Cornish:pry
Notes:ThesewordsareprobablyrelatedtoLat.
crta'chalk',butdetailsareobscure.
References:LEIAC224,GPCIII:2883,De
BernardoStempel1999:21,173
ProtoCeltic:*kwkwo'everyone'[Pronoun]

MiddleWelsh:puil[mandf](OW),MWpwyll
MiddleBreton:poell(MoBret.)
Cornish:gurbullocgl.insanus(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kweys'perceive'
PageinPokorny:637

OldIrish:cach
MiddleWelsh:paup(OW),MWpawb

Seealso:*adkwiso

MiddleBreton:pop(OBret.),MBret.pep

References:LEIAC94,GPCIII:2948f.,
Falileyev134,Schrijver1995:224

Cornish:pup,pop,pep

ProtoCeltic:*kafno'port,haven'[Noun]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 93

OldIrish:cuan[om]

OldIrish:cacc[f]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kapno

MiddleWelsh:cach[m]

PageinPokorny:527

MiddleBreton:cauch

IEcognates:Lat.capio'take',OHGhavan
'haven'

Cornish:caugh

Notes:Theformationwiththesuffix*noin
thewordfor'haven'isanexclusiveGermanic
Celticisogloss.
References:LEIAC261,LP27,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:255
ProtoCeltic:*kago'get,receive'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:cael(GPCcael,caffael,caffu);
kehy[3sPres.]
MiddleBreton:caffout
Cornish:caf(f)os,cafes
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kh2eg(')
PageinPokorny:518
IEcognates:Lat.incohre'begin',Oscankahad
'takes'[Subj.]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kakko'defecate,
excrement'
PageinPokorny:521
IEcognates:Lat.cacco,Gr.kakka
References:LEIAC2,GPCI:374
ProtoCeltic:*kaleto'hard,cruel,strong'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:calad[o]
MiddleWelsh:caled
MiddleBreton:calet,caled
Cornish:cales,calas,calys
Gaulish:Caleti[Ethnonym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'lHeto

References:KPV386f.,LIV342,GPCI:386f.

PageinPokorny:524

ProtoCeltic:*kagyo'pen,enclosure'[Noun]

IEcognates:Av.sar ta'cold',Lith.alti'be
cold,frieze',OEhaeled'hero'.

MiddleWelsh:cae[m]

Cornish:ke

Notes:Ifthisetymology,proposedbyJoseph(E
riuXXXIII40)iscorrect,theoriginalmeaning
was'cold,frozen'>'hard'.Cp.alsotheGaulish
PNCalitixinPannonia(Meid2005:189).

Gaulish:cagiion(Cajarc),caio'breialosice
bigardio(Vienne)

References:LEIAC26,GPCI:392,Meid
2005:189.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kagho

ProtoCeltic:*kall'wood,grove'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:518

OldIrish:caill[?f]

IEcognates:OEhaga'field'

MiddleWelsh:celli[f]'grove,copse'

References:GPCI:382,Delamarre97

Cornish:kelligl.nemus(OCo.)

ProtoCeltic:*kakk'excrement'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kelh2'strike,hit'(?)

MiddleBreton:cai(OBret.),Bret.kae

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 94

IEcognates:Lat.calo,Gr.kale,OHGhaln
PageinPokorny:545f.
IEcognates:ONholt'woodyhill'

References:LEIAC12,GPCI:451,LP16,
EIEC90,112,LIV321,Delamarre98,
Campanile1974:25.

Notes:Thegeminate*llisprobablytheresult
ofassimilation,butitcannotbeascertained
whichconsonantwasoriginallyinvolvedasthe
secondmemberofthecluster.

ProtoCeltic:*kambo'crooked,twisted'
[Adjective]

References:LEIAC13,GPCI:459
ProtoCeltic:*kalmiyo'skilful,skilled'
OldIrish:calma'strong,brave'(gl.fortibus)
MiddleWelsh:celmed(OW),MWceluit,
celuyd(GPCcelfydd)
MiddleBreton:celmed(OBret.)
References:LEIAC27,GPCI:456,Falileyev
25,Schrijver1995:288
ProtoCeltic:*kalyo'spot'[Noun]
OldIrish:caile[iom]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*keh2l/*kh2lo'dirty,
spotted,dark'
PageinPokorny:548
IEcognates:Lat.calidus'withspottedforehead',
clgo'darkness',Skt.kla'darkblue'
References:LEIAC11
ProtoCeltic:*kalyko'rooster'[Noun]
OldIrish:cailech[om]
MiddleWelsh:keilyawc[m](GPCceiliog,
ceilog)
MiddleBreton:kilhog,kilheg
Cornish:cheliocgl.gallus(OCo.),colyek
Gaulish:Caliaga[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kleh1'call'

OldIrish:camm[o]
MiddleWelsh:cam'wrong,evil'(OWandMW)
MiddleBreton:cammgl.obliquus(OBret.),
MBret.kamm
Cornish:camgl.strabo,camhinsicgl.iniustus
Gaulish:Cambo[PN],Cambodunum
[Toponym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)kambo'crooked'
PageinPokorny:918
IEcognates:Gr.skambos
Notes:Thesewordsareprobablyborrowed
fromsomeancientnonIEsubstrate;itcontains
twoveryraresoundsinPIE(*band*a),bothof
whichareindicativeofloanwords.
References:LEIAC29,GPCI:396,DGVB
94f.,LP40,EIEC143,Falileyev99,Ellis
Evans1967320ff.,Delamarre100,Campanile
1974:20.
ProtoCeltic:*kano'sing'[Verb]
OldIrish:canaid,cain;canaid,cana[Subj.];
cechnaid,cechna[Fut.];cechain[Pret.]
MiddleWelsh:canam(OW),MWcanu
MiddleBreton:canaff
Cornish:kana
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kan
PageinPokorny:525f.
IEcognates:Lat.cano,Go.hana'cock'

PageinPokorny:549

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 95

References:KPV387ff.,LIV342,GPCI:408,
Falileyev21
ProtoCeltic:*kanawon'younganimal,young
dog,whelp'[Noun]
OldIrish:cana,cano[mn]'cub,whelp'
MiddleWelsh:ceneu[m](GPCcenau,cenaw)
MiddleBreton:ceneuangl.catulaster,Rikeneu
[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)ken'young,new'
PageinPokorny:564
IEcognates:Russ.enok'youngdog,
puppy',Arm.skund'youngdog'
References:LEIAC32,GPCI:461,DGVB
101,EIEC204
ProtoCeltic:*kani'good,nice'[Adjective]
OldIrish:cain[i]
MiddleWelsh:cein(GPCcain)
MiddleBreton:quen

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'nkt
PageinPokorny:523
IEcognates:Skt.sakti'spear'
Seealso:*kank
References:LEIAC52,EIEC80,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:290
ProtoCeltic:*kank'branch'[Noun]
OldIrish:gec[f]
MiddleWelsh:cainc,caing[fandm]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'o(n)kH'branch'
PageinPokorny:523
IEcognates:Skt.skh,Go.hha'plow',Lith.
aka
Notes:MWcaincrepresentsanustem,while
OIr.gec(withgbydissimilation)pointsrather
toanstem.Itisdifficulttoseewhichis
original.

References:GPCI:390,LEIAC16

References:GPCI:390,LP43,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:44,278.

ProtoCeltic:*kankt'power'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*kantabwiyo'perceive'[Verb]

OldIrish:cecht

OldIrish:cetabi'perceives'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'e(n)k'force'

MiddleWelsh:kanfot'discover'(GPCcanfod,
canffod)

PageinPokorny:522
IEcognates:Skt.sakti'force',ONhattr
Notes:Thisisnotaparticularlystrong
etymology,becausetheOIr.wordisattested
onlyasaglossaryentry.Wpybyr'strong'is
probablyunrelated.
References:LEIAC52,DeBernardoStempel
1999:285
ProtoCeltic:*kankto'plough,ploughbeam'
[Noun]

Seealso:*buyo
References:GPCI:409,KPV242
ProtoCeltic:*kantlo'song,singing'[Noun]
OldIrish:cetal[on]
MiddleWelsh:cathl[mandf]
MiddleBreton:kentel'lesson'
Seealso:*kano'sing'

OldIrish:cecht[um]
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 96

Notes:OIr.cetalistheverbalnounofcanid
'sings'.

Notes:WcerbydandOBret.cerpitare
loanwordsfromGoidelic.

References:GPCI:442,LP48

References:LEIAC40f.,Delamarre105

ProtoCeltic:*karo'love'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*kariyo(mon)'shoemaker'

OldIrish:caraid,cara;cechraid[Fut];carais
[Pret.]

OldIrish:cairem[nm]

MiddleWelsh:caru
MiddleBreton:karet

MiddleWelsh:crydd[m]
MiddleBreton:chereor,kere,kereour
Cornish:quere

Cornish:care
Gaulish:Caro[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*keh2r'love'
PageinPokorny:515

ProtoIndoEuropean:*krh1pi'shoe'
PageinPokorny:581
IEcognates:Gr.krpis,Lith.kurpe

IEcognates:Lat.crus,OHGhuor'prostitute'

References:LEIAC21,GPCI:621,EIEC514,
Matasovic2004:117

Seealso:*karant

ProtoCeltic:*karno'horn,hoof'[Noun]

Notes:Thisisadeadjectivalverbformedfrom
*karo'dear,beloved'.

MiddleWelsh:carn'hoof'[m]
MiddleBreton:carngl.ungulacaballi(OBret.)

References:LEIAC36,GPCI:422,LIV306,
EllisEvans1967:162,Delamarre107

Gaulish:karnon'Galatiantrumpet'(Hesych.)

ProtoCeltic:*karant'friend'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'rno

OldIrish:cara[ntm]

PageinPokorny:574ff.

MiddleWelsh:car[m](GPCcr)

IEcognates:Luv.zarwani(ya)'ofhorn',OE
horn,ORuss.srna'roedeer'

MiddleBreton:car
Cornish:cargl.amicus
Gaulish:Caranto[PN]
Seealso:*karo
References:LEIAC37f.,GPCI:422,DGVB
97,Lambert1994:37,Campanile1974:22.
ProtoCeltic:*karbanto'(war)chariot'[Noun]
OldIrish:carpat[om]

Seealso:*karwo'deer'
Notes:TheCelticwordsarefromananit
variantofthePIErootfor'horn'(*kerh2).
ProbablyrelatedisalsoOIr.crue'hoof'(cp.
Greene1983).GPCtreatscarn'mound'andcarn
'hoof'asoneword,whichcannotbetrue.
References:GPCI:429,DGVB97,EIEC272,
Delamarre106f.,Greene1983.
ProtoCeltic:*karno'heapofstones,tomb'
OldIrish:carn[om]

Gaulish:carpento(TitusLiviusXXXI.21.17)

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 97

MiddleWelsh:carn[mandf];carnau,cernydd,
cerni[p]
MiddleBreton:Penkarn[Toponym]
Cornish:carn'heap'
Gaulish:(?)karnitu(Todi)'erected,constructed'
(?)
PageinPokorny:532
Seealso:*karno'hoof'
Notes:TheGaulishformkarnituispresumably
adenominativeverb.IamnotsurewhetherCo.
carn'heap'existsatall.Itmightbethesame
wordasOCo.carngl.ungula,OBret.carngl.
ungulacaballi,whicharerelatedtoLat.cornu
'horn'(cp.Campanile1974:22).

PageinPokorny:576
IEcognates:Lat.ceruus'deer',Gr.keras'horn',
OCSkrava'cow'
References:PedersenI:51f.,EIEC272,
Delamarre108,Falileyev22
ProtoCeltic:*kary'mistake,sin'[Noun]
OldIrish:caire[if]
MiddleWelsh:caredgl.nota,nequitiae(OW),
MWcared,karet
MiddleBreton:carez
Cornish:cara
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ker'abuse,blame'

References:LEIAC39f.,GPCI:429,Lambert
1994:75f.,Campanile1974:22.

PageinPokorny:530

ProtoCeltic:*karro'wagon'[Noun]

IEcognates:Lat.carino,OCSukoriti

OldIrish:carr[om]

References:LEIAC20,Falileyev22

MiddleWelsh:carr[m](GPCcar);ceir[p]

ProtoCeltic:*kasnin'garlic,leek'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:carr(OBret.),Bret.carr,karr

OldIrish:cainnenn[f]

Gaulish:Karrodounon[PN](Ptolemy)

MiddleWelsh:cennin[p](OW)'leeks,
daffodils'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*krso
PageinPokorny:583

MiddleBreton:caeninn(OBret.),MBret.
quinghenn,quinhenn

IEcognates:Lat.curro'run'

Cornish:keningl.allium

References:LEIAC41f.,GPCI:421,DGVB
97,EllisEvans1967:63,Delamarre107f.,
McCone1996:49.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kesn(?)

ProtoCeltic:*karwo'deer'[Noun]

Notes:Thesewordsarepresumablyloanwords
fromsomenonIEsubstrate,seeSchrijver1995:
456.TheresemblanceoftheSlavicwordsfor
'garlic'mightbeaccidental,becausetheycanbe
relatedtotheverbalroot*kes(OCSesati'to
comb,topeel).

MiddleWelsh:caru(OW),MWcarw
MiddleBreton:caru
Cornish:caruugl.cervus(OCo.)
Gaulish:Caruus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'erh2'horn'

IEcognates:Russ.esnok'garlic'

References:LEIAC19,GPCI:464,DGVB93,
Falileyev26,Campanile1974:24,Schrijver
1995:456

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 98

ProtoCeltic:*kassar'hailshower,lightning'
[Noun]

References:LEIAC44f.,DeBernardoStempel
1999:324

OldIrish:casar[f]

ProtoCeltic:*kati'throw,spend'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:kesseir[p]'hail,hailstones'
(GPCcesair);ceseiren,ceseiryn[Singulative]

OldIrish:caithid,caithi'spend';caithfid[Fut.]

MiddleBreton:cazarc'h
Cornish:cesergl.grando
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'ad'fall'
PageinPokorny:516
IEcognates:Lat.cado,Skt.sad'falloff,fall
out(ofteeth)'
References:LEIAC46,GPCI:470,LIV282,
EIEC191Campanile1974:24.
ProtoCeltic:*kassi'hatred,hate'[Noun]
OldIrish:cais'love,hate'
MiddleWelsh:cas[m](OW),MWcas

Gaulish:cateia'projectile'
References:LEIAC24,Lambert1994:202
ProtoCeltic:*katto'cat'[Noun]
OldIrish:catt[om]
MiddleWelsh:cath[mandf]
MiddleBreton:caz
Cornish:kat
Gaulish:Cattos[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kat(t)'cat'
IEcognates:Lat.cattus,OHGkazza

Cornish:cas

Notes:Thewordfor'cat'intheEuropean
languagesisaloanwordfromsomenonIE
(maybenorthAfrican)source.InCeltic,the
intermediarymayhavebeenLatin.,

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'eh2d'hate'

References:LEIAC49f.,GPCI:440,EIEC91

PageinPokorny:517

ProtoCeltic:*katu'battle'[Noun]

IEcognates:Go.hatis'hatred',Av.sdra
'suffering'

OldIrish:cath[um]

MiddleBreton:cas

Notes:ThemeaningsofMIr.caisdependonthe
context;thebestrenditionwouldbe'strong
emotion(whetherpositiveornegative)'.The
stemandgenderofthatwordarenotstatedin
DIL
References:LEIAC22,GPCI:435,De
BernardoStempel1999:149,Falileyev22f.
ProtoCeltic:*kasso'curly,woven,twisted'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:cass[o](DILcas)
Gaulish:Cassi[PN],Bodiocasses[Ethnonym]

MiddleWelsh:cat(OW),MWcad[f];cadau,
cadoedd[p]
MiddleBreton:Catoc[PN](OBret.),cat(in
compounds,OBret.)
Cornish:cas[f]
Gaulish:Catumarus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*katu'fight'
PageinPokorny:534
IEcognates:OHGhadu'fight',OCSkotora
'fight'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 99

References:LEIAC47f.,GPCI:374,DGVB
98,EIEC201,Delamarre111,Falileyev23
ProtoCeltic:*kawanno'owl'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:cwan,cuan[f];cuanod[p]
MiddleBreton:couann,couhann(OBret.),
Bret.kaouann

Cornish:caitgl.servus(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kapto'captive'
PageinPokorny:527
IEcognates:Lat.captus,Go.hafts

Gaulish:Cauanos[PN]

Notes:Itispossiblethatthesewordsare
borrowedfromLat.captus;however,theycould
alsobeinherited.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kaw'owl'

References:LEIAC3,GPCI:384f.,EIEC90

PageinPokorny:535

ProtoCeltic:*kayko'blind'[Adjective]

IEcognates:OHGhwo'owl'

OldIrish:caech[o]

Notes:TheexistenceoftheGaul.word
cauan(n)osisconfirmedbytheVulgarLatin
loanwordcauannus(ululaeaues...quamauem
Gallicauannumuocant),seeDelamarre111.

MiddleWelsh:coeg
Cornish:cuicgl.luscusvelmonophthalmus
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kayko'blind'

References:GPCI:626,Delamarre111,DGVB
120

PageinPokorny:519

ProtoCeltic:*kawaro'hero,champion'[Noun]

IEcognates:Lat.caecus,Go.haihs

MiddleWelsh:cawr[m]'giant'

References:LEIAC6,GPCI:529,EIEC70

Cornish:caurmarchgl.camelus(OCo.)

ProtoCeltic:*kaylo'omen'[Noun]

Gaulish:Kauaros[PN]

MiddleWelsh:coil(i)ou(OW)[p]'omens,
auguries';MWcoel[mandf]'belief,omen'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'ewh2ro'strong'
PageinPokorny:592
IEcognates:Skt.savra'strong',Gr.kyrios
'lord'.
Notes:OIr.caur,Gen.curad'champion'cannot
berelateddirectlytotheseforms.
References:GPCI:443,Delamarre112,
MorrisJones1913:105,Schrijver1995:18.
ProtoCeltic:*kaxto'prisoner,slave'[Noun]
OldIrish:cacht[f]'femaleservant'

MiddleBreton:coel(OBret.)gl.haruspicem
Cornish:chuilliocgl.augur
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kh2eylo'whole,
healthy',perhapsalso'blessedwithgoodomen'
PageinPokorny:520
IEcognates:Go.hails,OCScel
Notes:OIr.cel'omen'isaloanwordfromW.
ThefirstelementofthetoponymCaeilobrigain
Spainisprobablyalsorelated.

MiddleWelsh:caeth[mandf]

References:LEIAC59,GPCI:532,DGVB
112,Falileyev33,LHEB325,Kluge364

MiddleBreton:quaez,kaez'poor,unfortunate'

ProtoCeltic:*kayto'wood'[Noun]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 100

MiddleWelsh:coit(OW),Wcoed[m]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'el'hide'

MiddleBreton:koat

PageinPokorny:553f.

Cornish:cuitgl.silva(OCo.),MCo.coys

IEcognates:Lat.occulo,OEhelan

Gaulish:Caitobrix[Toponym](Ptolemy)

References:GPCI:455,KPV394ff.,LIV323,
EIEC134

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kayto'wood,field'
PageinPokorny:521
IEcognates:Go.hai?i'field'
Notes:Thisisacorrespondencelimitedto
CelticandGermanic.TheavocalismofGaul.
toponymsCaitobrixandDiocaitusisdifficult
toaccountfor,andthediphthongaiin
Germaniccould,ofcourse,implyanoriginal
*oyaswell,inwhichcasethecorrect
reconstructionwouldbePCelt.*koyto.The
elementcetiumfoundintoponymssuchas
Anicetis,Letocetum,toketionoros
(Ptolemy)mightreflectalateGaul.reflexof
both*koytand*kayt.
References:GPCI:528,Delamarre98,
Campanile1974:33.
ProtoCeltic:*kekwor'swamp,mud'
OldIrish:cechor[>kf]gl.palus
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'okwr'excrement'
PageinPokorny:544
IEcognates:Skt.sakrt,Gr.kopros

ProtoCeltic:*keltko'fight,war'[Noun]
OldIrish:cellach[om]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kelh2'strike'
PageinPokorny:546f
IEcognates:Lat.cello'strike',OHGhilta
'fight',Lith.kalti'strike,hew'
Notes:GaulishethnonymSucellus(?'good
striker')mightberelatedtothisroot.
References:LEIAC61,LIV
ProtoCeltic:*keno'descendfrom,comeinto
being,beborn'[Verb]
OldIrish:cinid;cinis,cin[Pret.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ken'begin'
PageinPokorny:564
IEcognates:Lat.recens,Gr.kainos'new'
Notes:TheGaulishpatronymicsuffixcno(e.
g.inTRUTICNOS=Drutifilius)mightbe
etymologicallyrelatedtothisverb.

Notes:TheProtoCelticform*kekworis
actuallythecollective/pluraloftheoriginalr/n
neuterstem.

References:LEIAC103,LIV,EllisEvans
1967:182

References:LEIAC51f.

ProtoCeltic:*kenetlo'race,kind'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*kelo'hide'[Verb]

OldIrish:cenel[on]

OldIrish:ceilid,ceil;celaid,cela[Subj.];ce
laid,cela[Fut.];cilt,celt[Pret.];clethae,
cleth[Pass.]

MiddleWelsh:cenetl[f](OW);MWkenedyl
(GPCcenedl,ceneddl)

MiddleWelsh:kelu(GPCcelu)
MiddleBreton:keles

MiddleBreton:chenetl(OBret.)
Cornish:kinethelgl.generatio
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ken'begin'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 101

PageinPokorny:563f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)kend'peel'

IEcognates:Lat.recens'new',Gr.kainos
'young,new'

PageinPokorny:929f.
IEcognates:OEscinn'skin'

Seealso:*keno
Notes:OWfemininecenetlisprobablythe
originalNomAcc.p.oftheneuter*kenetlon

Notes:OIr.ceinnisnotwellattested.
References:LEIAC55,GPCI:460,Falileyev
23,Schrijver1995:36

References:LEIAC64,GPCI:461,DGVB
101,Falileyev25

ProtoCeltic:*kentu'first'[Adjective]

ProtoCeltic:*kengeto'warrior'[Noun]

OldIrish:cet

OldIrish:cing[tm]

MiddleWelsh:cynt

Gaulish:Cingetorix[PN]

MiddleBreton:cint(OBret.),MBret.quent

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kengo'tread,step,
walk'

Cornish:kyns
Gaulish:Cintugnatus[PN]

Notes:ThesamerootisprobablyfoundinPN
likeGaul.Escinga,Eskeggai(Dat.).

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kent

References:LEIAC102,Delamarre116

PageinPokorny:564

ProtoCeltic:*kengo'tread,step,walk'[Verb]

IEcognates:Lat.recens'new',Gr.kainos
'young,new',OHGhintar'behind'

OldIrish:cingid,cing;ceiss,ce[Subj.];
cichis,cich[Fut.];cechaing[Pret.]

Seealso:*keno

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)keng'limp,walk
lamely'

References:LEIAC83,GPCI:800,EIEC169,
EllisEvans1967:178,Delamarre117

PageinPokorny:930

ProtoCeltic:*kentusamno'May'[Noun]

IEcognates:Gr.skaz,OHGhinkan

OldIrish:cetamain[indecl.]

Seealso:*kengeto'warrior'

MiddleWelsh:kintevin[m](GPCcyntefin)

References:KPV397ff,LIV555,LEIAC102f,
C54,Delamarre116,Meid2005:174.

Seealso:*kintu,*samon

ProtoCeltic:*kenno'skin'[Noun]
OldIrish:ceinn'peel,rind'

References:LEIAC58,GPCI:801
ProtoCeltic:*kera'fall'[Verb]
OldIrish:docer'fell'[3sPret.]<*tukera

MiddleWelsh:ceenn[m](OW)'murex',Wcen
[m]'skin'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'erh2'break'

MiddleBreton:cennenngl.membrana(OBret.)

PageinPokorny:578

Cornish:cen

IEcognates:Skt.sar'break'
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 102

Notes:InOldIrishformsderivedfromthisroot
serveassuppletivepreteritesto*tudo'fall',see
KPV399.

MiddleBreton:cherdoran(OBret.)gl.
parasitaster
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kerd'profit'

References:KPV399,LIV327f.

PageinPokorny:579

ProtoCeltic:*kerbo'pointed,sharp'
[Adjective]

IEcognates:Gr.kerdos'gain,profit'

OldIrish:cerb[o]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)kerbho'sharp'
PageinPokorny:943
IEcognates:OEscearp,Lat.scrobis,scrobs
'ditch,trench'

Notes:Thisetymologyisbasedonthe
comparisonofjusttwobranchesofIE(Greek
andCeltic)andisthereforenotcompletely
compelling.
References:LEIAC71f.,GPCI:465,DGVB
103,LP37,EIEC139,143
ProtoCeltic:*kerk'hen'[Noun]

References:LEIAC71

OldIrish:cerc[f]

ProtoCeltic:*kerdo'put,lay'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:crychydd[m]'heron'

OldIrish:foceird'put,throw'<*wokerdo;
focerr[Subj.];focicherr[Fut.];focaird[Pret.];
focress[Pass.]

MiddleBreton:corcid(OBret.)gl.ardea,
MBret.quercheiz

MiddleWelsh:kerddet'walk,go'(GPC
cerdded);kerdd[3sPres.]
MiddleBreton:cerd'movement'(OBret.),
MBret.querzet'go,run'
Cornish:kerdhes'go'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kerdh2
PageinPokorny:934f.
IEcognates:Gr.krada'swing,wave'[Verb],
Lat.card'hingeofadoororgate'

Cornish:cherchidgl.ardea(OCo.),MCo.
kerghyt,keryth
Notes:TheBritishformscanbederivedfrom
*korkiyo,itselfaderivativeof*kerk.OtherIE
languageshavesimilaronomatopoeicwords,e.
g.Skt.krkavku'cock'.
References:LEIAC71,GPCI:620
ProtoCeltic:*kern'angle,corner'[Noun]
OldIrish:cern[f]
MiddleWelsh:cern[f]'corner,jaw,cheek,side'

Notes:TheIErelationsoftheseCelticformsare
notoriouslydifficult.IpreferPokorny's
etymologytomorerecentproposals.

MiddleBreton:quern'top'

References:KPV401ff.,GPCI:465,DGVB
103,LIV353ff.,LEIAC72

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'erh2no'horn'

ProtoCeltic:*kerd'art,skill'[Noun]
OldIrish:cerd[f]'skill,art(esp.poeticart)'
MiddleWelsh:cerdd[f]'skill,poetry,music'

Cornish:Kernow'Cornwall'

PageinPokorny:576
IEcognates:Go.haurna'horn',Lat.cornu'horn'
References:LEIAC74,GPCI:468,De
BernardoStempel1999:58

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 103

ProtoCeltic:*ki/*koy[Particle]
OldIrish:ce,cedemonstrativeparticle:inbith
ce'thisworld',OgamCI,COI'this'

ProtoCeltic:*kist'(woven)basket'[Noun]
OldIrish:cess(DILces)[f]

Gaulish:koui(?)

MiddleWelsh:cest[f]gl.fiscina

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'ey'this'

MiddleBreton:kest

PageinPokorny:609

IEcognates:Gr.kist

IEcognates:Lat.cis,Lith.is

ProtoCeltic:*kiyo'fall,cry'[Verb]

Notes:BorrowingfromLat.cista(itselffrom
Gr.kist)seemsimprobable.Lat.cissium'a
kindofcarwithtwowheels'isconsideredtobe
aloanwordfromGaul.Itmaybefromthesame
Celt.root.

OldIrish:ciid,ci'cry';cieid,cia[Subj.];
cichid,cichi[Fut.];cich[Pret.]

References:LEIAC78f.,GPCI:740,DGVB
104,Delamarre117

MiddleWelsh:chiawr'fall'[3sPres.](GPC
ciawr)

ProtoCeltic:*kiwV'fog'[Noun]

References:LEIAC51,EIEC458

MiddleBreton:coezaff'fall,happen'
Cornish:koedha'fall,happen'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'ey

OldIrish:ceo[fandm]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'eyH'gray'
PageinPokorny:951

PageinPokorny:542(*keyd)

IEcognates:OEheow,hiw'appearance',OCS
siv'gray',Lith.yvas

IEcognates:Skt.syate'falls'

References:LEIAC68f.

Notes:BretonandCornishformsarefrom
PCelt.*keydo,aderivativefromthesame
verbalroot.Cp.alsoWcwyddaw'fall'.

ProtoCeltic:*klado'dig,bury'[Verb]

References:GPCI:475,KPV404ff.,LIV321,
LEIAC9,C98
ProtoCeltic:*kin'besides'[Preposition]
OldIrish:cen[+Acc.]'without'
MiddleWelsh:amgen'other,different'
MiddleBreton:quen'other,otherwise'
Cornish:ken'other,otherwise'
Notes:Itappearsthatthesewordsareconnected
tothedemonstrativebase*k'i(Lat.cisetc.),
butdetailsareunclear.
References:LEIAC64,GPCI:86

OldIrish:cladaid,claid;claiss,cla[Subj.];
cechlais,cechla[Fut.];cechlaid[Pret.];classae,
class[Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:claddu
MiddleBreton:claza
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kelh2'hit,break'
PageinPokorny:546f.
IEcognates:Lat.percello,Gr.kl,OCSklati
References:GPCI:486,KPV410ff.,LIV350,
LP352f.,LEIAC111f.
ProtoCeltic:*kladiwo'sword'[Noun]
OldIrish:claideb[om]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 104

Seealso:*kldo

Seealso:*klus

Notes:TheBritishwords(MWcledyf,MBret.
clezeff,Corn.clethe)areearlyloanwordsfrom
Goidelic.ItisusuallyassumedthatLat.gladius
wasborrowedfromCelticinprehistorictimes,
butitcouldalsobeinherited(with*kl>glas
inglria<*klowesy).

References:LIV334,EIECC127f.

References:LEIAC110f.
ProtoCeltic:*klamo'sick,sufferingfrom
leprosy'[Adjective]

ProtoCeltic:*klisso,*klissu'feat'[Noun]
OldIrish:cles[oandum]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*klisdto
IEcognates:Skt.krdati'play,dance'
References:LEIAC117

OldIrish:clam[o]

ProtoCeltic:*klit'pillar,post'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:claf

OldIrish:cli[m]andcleth[f]'housepost'

MiddleBreton:claff

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'leyt'post,trimmed
log'

Cornish:clafgl.eger
References:LEIAC112,GPCI:487,LP54,
DeBernardoStempel1999:45,Campanile
1974:27.
ProtoCeltic:*klawo'bolt'[Noun]
OldIrish:clo[om]'nail'
MiddleWelsh:clo[m]'lock,bolt'
MiddleBreton:clou(OBret.)gl.acutamenta
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kleh2w'bolt,bar,hook'
PageinPokorny:604
IEcognates:Lat.cluis'key,bolt',Gr.kleis

PageinPokorny:601
IEcognates:Skt.srit'ladder',Gr.(Hesykh.)kli
ta'cloister',OEgehlid'fence'
References:LEIAC118,EIEC441,De
BernardoStempel1999:57
ProtoCeltic:*klito'warm'[Adjective]
MiddleWelsh:clyd'warm,sheltered'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'lto'warm'
PageinPokorny:551
IEcognates:Lith.iltas,Lat.calidus
References:GPCI:515

References:LEIAC121,GPCI:501,EIEC
272

ProtoCeltic:*klokko'bell'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*klinu[Verb]

OldIrish:clocc[om]

OldIrish:rocluinethar<*froklinutori;
cloathar[Subj.];cechladar[Fut.];cualae
[Pret.];closs[Pass.]

MiddleWelsh:cloch[f]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'lew

Cornish:clochgl.clocca

PageinPokorny:605ff.

References:LEIAC122f.,GPCI:502,
Campanile1974:27f.

IEcognates:Skt.sru,Gr.kly

MiddleBreton:kloc'h

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 105

ProtoCeltic:*klowni'meadow'[Noun]

Cornish:clog

OldIrish:cluain[im]

References:LEIAC123f.,GPCI:505,De
BernardoStempel1999:471

MiddleWelsh:clun[m](OW),MWclun
Notes:Pokornyhesitatesbetweentheroots
*klep(p.603)and*k'lew(607),butneither
etymologyispersuasive.
References:LEIAC126,GPCI:510,Falileyev
33
ProtoCeltic:*klowni'thigh'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:clun[f];cluniau[p]
MiddleBreton:klun'buttock'
Cornish:clun

ProtoCeltic:*klus'hear'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:clywet,clybot(GPCclywed,
clybod)
MiddleBreton:clevet
Cornish:klywes
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'lews
PageinPokorny:605ff.
IEcognates:OHGhlosn,OCSslysati
Seealso:*klinu

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'lowni
PageinPokorny:607f.
IEcognates:Lat.clnis,OIc.hlaun,Lith.launi
s
References:GPCI:510,LP41
ProtoCeltic:*klowst'hearing,ear'[Noun]
OldIrish:cluas[f]
MiddleWelsh:clust[mandf];clustiau[p]
Gaulish:Rokloisiabo[Datp,Theonym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'lewst'hear'
PageinPokorny:606
IEcognates:OEhlyst'hearing'
References:LEIAC126f.,GPCI:510f.,
Schrijver1995:400,409,412
ProtoCeltic:*kluk'stone,rock'[Noun]
OldIrish:cloch[f]
MiddleWelsh:clog[f]'rock'
MiddleBreton:Cleguer[Toponym]

Notes:Theformsoftheverb'tohear'in
Goidelicarederivedfromtheform*k'lew.
References:GPCI:516,KPV412ff.,LIV336
ProtoCeltic:*kluto'fame'[Noun]
OldIrish:cloth[on]
MiddleWelsh:clod[mandf]
MiddleBreton:clotgl.rumoris(OBret.)
Cornish:clos
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'luto
PageinPokorny:Gklytos'famous',Lat.in
clutus
Notes:Thiswordisasubstantivizedneuter
passiveparticiple.Wclod<*klutisbest
interpretedasthereflexoftheoldneuterplural,
ratherthanasanindependentfeminineetymon.
References:LEIAC124f.GPCI:503,DGVB
109,DeBernardoStempel1999:143
ProtoCeltic:*kluwos'fame'[Noun]
OldIrish:clu[sn]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'lewos'word,fame'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 106

PageinPokorny:606
IEcognates:Skt.sravas,Gr.kleos,Lat.clur
Seealso:*klinu
Notes:Theunexpected*uinCelticis
probablyduetotheanalogywiththeparticiple
oftheverb'tohear',*kluto.Thesamerootis
attestedinGaul.personalnamessuchasVer
clovus,Verucloetius(Caesar).
References:LEIAC125f.,EIEC192,437,
Meid2005:180.
ProtoCeltic:*klro'board,plank'[Noun]
OldIrish:clar[onandm]
MiddleWelsh:claur(OW),Wclawr[m]'cover,
lid,plank';cloriau[p]
MiddleBreton:kleur'limondecharrette'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kleh2ro'plank'
PageinPokorny:545
IEcognates:Gr.kle^ros'lot,pieceofwoodfor
castinglots'
References:LEIAC113f.,GPCI:491,EIEC
431,Falileyev32,Schrijver1995:182,189
ProtoCeltic:*kldo'trench'[Noun]
OldIrish:clad[om]'holedugintheground,
trench'
MiddleWelsh:cladd[mandf]'pit,ditch'(GPC
cladd),clawd[m]'mound,ditch,pit,bulwark'
(GPCclawdd);cloddiau,cloddion[p]

Notes:Thereisalsoadenominativeverbfrom
thisroot:OIr.claidid'dig';class[Subj.];
cechlaid[Pret.],Wcladdu,Bret.klaza.MBret.
kleuzandWclawdmustbefromPCelt.*kld
withlong*.Theformswithshort*amust
somehowbeanalogical,because*klh2d(with
PIEzerograde)wouldhaveyieldedPCelt.
*kldaswell.
References:LEIAC109,GPCI:486,491,De
BernardoStempel1999:47.
ProtoCeltic:*klt'palisade,hurdle'[Noun]
OldIrish:cliath[f]
MiddleWelsh:clwyd[f]'barrier,wattle,
scaffolding,gate'
MiddleBreton:kloued
Cornish:cluitgl.clita
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'leyt
PageinPokorny:601
Seealso:*klit
Notes:Frenchclaie,Catalancledaarederived
fromGaul.*clta,theexactcorrespondenceof
theseCelticwords,seeDelamarre118.
References:LEIAC119,GPCI:513,
Delamarre118,Campanile1974:28,Schrijver
1995:224,230,241.
ProtoCeltic:*klyo'left'[Adjective]
OldIrish:cle

MiddleBreton:klz,kleuz

MiddleWelsh:cled(OW),MWcled(GPC
cledd)'left,lefthandorside'([f]whenusedasa
noun)

Cornish:cleath

MiddleBreton:cleiz

Gaulish:Vindocladia[Toponym]

Cornish:cledh

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kleh2d

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'ley

PageinPokorny:546

PageinPokorny:601

IEcognates:Lat.cldes'devastation'
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 107

IEcognates:Lat.cluis'inauspicious',Go.
hleiduma'left'

References:KPV418,LIV365,LP354,LEIA
C129

References:LEIAC115,GPCI:493,EIEC
131,159,349,Falileyev32,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:204

ProtoCeltic:*knmi'bone'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*knaw'fleece'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*konh2m'leg'

OldIrish:cnai[f]

PageinPokorny:613

MiddleWelsh:cnaif[m]'fleece,clipping,a
shearing'

IEcognates:Gr.knm'leg',OEhamm'ham'

MiddleBreton:kneau,cnev,(Vanneskaneo)
Cornish:kneu
References:LEIAC128f.,GPCI:517
ProtoCeltic:*knokko'protuberance,hill'
[Noun]
OldIrish:cnocc[om]
MiddleWelsh:cnwch[m](GPCcnwch,clwch)
MiddleBreton:cnoch(OBret.)gl.tumulus
PageinPokorny:559

OldIrish:cnaim[im]

Notes:TheOIr.wordisderivedfromthe
obliquestemofthePIEetymon,*knh2mo.W
cnaw[m]'bone,skull'isprobablyaloanword
fromOIr.
References:LEIAC129f.,GPCI:518,EIEC
349,Matasovic2004:107,Schrijver1995:182,
189
ProtoCeltic:*kn'nut'[Noun]
OldIrish:cnu[f]
MiddleWelsh:cnau[p];cneuen[Singulativef]
MiddleBreton:knoen[Singulative]
Cornish:cnyfan[Singulative]

IEcognates:OEhnecca'neck',OHGhnac'back,
top'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*knew'nut'

Notes:WcnwcisaloanwordfromIrish.

PageinPokorny:558

References:LEIAC132,GPCI:523

IEcognates:Lat.nux,OEhnutu

ProtoCeltic:*knyo'bite,chew'[Verb]

Notes:Thesewords,allderivedfromthesame
root(*knew)havedifferentsuffixes(*kinL,
*dinGermanic,?HinCeltic).Theymay
havebeenultimatelyborrowedfromsome
unknownnonIEsource.

OldIrish:immcna<*ambiknyo,cna
MiddleWelsh:cnoi;cny[3sPres.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kneh2
PageinPokorny:560
IEcognates:Lith.knoti'peel'
Notes:Cp.alsoOIr.cnaid'bites,gnaws'.The
verbalnouncnam<*knmmightbe
etymologicallyidenticaltoMWcnaw'bone'.

References:LEIAC132,GPCI:518,EIEC
405,Schrijver1995:330
ProtoCeltic:*ko(m)wari'just,rightful'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:coir,coair[i]
MiddleWelsh:couer'complete'(OW),MW
kyweircyweir'ready,equipped'(GPCcywair);

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 108

cywair[mandf]'properorder,correction,state
ofmind'

Cornish:col,colgh
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kelh2'pierce,strike'

References:LEIAC152;GPCI:828,Falileyev
35,Schrijver1995:326

PageinPokorny:545

ProtoCeltic:*kob(o)'victory'[Noun]

IEcognates:Lat.percello,OCSklati

OldIrish:cob[on(?)]

References:LEIAC157,GPCI:542,546,LP
33,Falileyev34,DeBernardoStempel1999:99

Gaulish:Uercobius[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kob

ProtoCeltic:*koligno'pup,smallanimal'
[Noun]

PageinPokorny:610

OldIrish:cuilen[om]

IEcognates:ONhapp'chance',OCSkob
'destiny'

MiddleWelsh:colwyn[m];colwynod[p]

Notes:OIr.cobisarare,poeticwordglossedas
buaid'victory'inO'Davoreen'sdictionary.It
couldbeneuter,butthisisnotcertain.The
comparisonoftheGaulishnameswiththis
elementisalsoratherspeculative.

MiddleBreton:coloinan(OBret.)gl.catulaster,
MBret.quoalen
Cornish:coloingl.catulus
References:LEIAC269,GPCI:545,DGVB
114

References:LEIAC134f.,Delamarre120,
EllisEvans1967:183.

ProtoCeltic:*kolino'hollytree'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*koldo'destruction'[Noun]

OldIrish:cuilenn[om]

OldIrish:coll[on]

MiddleWelsh:celyn

MiddleWelsh:coll[m]

MiddleBreton:quelenn

MiddleBreton:colled'destroyed'

Cornish:kelin

Cornish:colledgl.iactura

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kolino'prickytree,?
holly'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kold'strike,cut'
PageinPokorny:545
IEcognates:OEhealtian'limp'
References:LEIAC158,GPCI:546,LP37,
DeBernardoStempel1999:44
ProtoCeltic:*kolg'sword,dagger'[Noun]
OldIrish:colg,calg[flaterom]
MiddleWelsh:col,coly[m]'sting,spike,chaff';
colginngl.aristam(OW),MWcolyn[m]'sting,
pivot'

PageinPokorny:545
IEcognates:OEholegn'holly',Alb.kalli
'straw,chaff'
References:LEIAC270,EIEC367,451
ProtoCeltic:*kom'with'[Preposition]
OldIrish:co,cu[nasalizing,+Dat.]
MiddleWelsh:cyf
MiddleBreton:kev
Cornish:kev

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 109

OldIrish:conbeir'bringtogether,bear'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'om'with'
PageinPokorny:612
IEcognates:Lat.cum,OCSs
References:LEIAC133,C161,GOI502f.

MiddleWelsh:kymryt'take,receive'(GPC
kymryd,cymeryd)
MiddleBreton:quempret'take,receive',
kemeret
Cornish:kemmeres'take,receive'

ProtoCeltic:*komaltiyo'fosterbrother'
[Noun]

Seealso:*bero

OldIrish:comaltae[iom]

References:KPV219ff.,GPCI:759

MiddleWelsh:cyfeillt[m]'friend'(GPCcyfaill,
cyfaillt)

ProtoCeltic:*kombero'confluence(ofrivers)'
[Noun]

Cornish:chevalsgl.artus

OldIrish:commar[o]

Seealso:*altiyo

MiddleWelsh:cimer(OW)[m],cymer

References:GPCI:675

MiddleBreton:kemper

ProtoCeltic:*komangu'narrow'[Adjective]

Seealso:*kom,*bero

OldIrish:cumung[o]

References:LEIAC178,GPCI:759,Falileyev
30,Hamp1982:30.

MiddleWelsh:cyfyng
Notes:Cp.alsothedenominativeverbW
cyfyngu'tonarrow,distress,restrict'.
References:LEIAC292,GPCI:724,De
BernardoStempel1999:428

ProtoCeltic:*kombina'cutoff'[Verb]
OldIrish:conben'cutoff'
MiddleWelsh:kymynu'hew,cutoff'
MiddleBreton:quemenas'cut'[3sPret.]

ProtoCeltic:*komare(yo)'direction,
presence'[Noun]

References:GPCI:774

OldIrish:comair(usedasapreposition:comair
caich'infrontofeveryone')

ProtoCeltic:*komfroanko'meet,fight'
[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:cyfair[mandf]'direction,place,
spot,acre'(GPCcyfair,cyfer)

OldIrish:conric'meet'

MiddleBreton:equeffuer

MiddleWelsh:kyfreing,kyfrang[3sPres.]
'meet,fight'(GPCcyfrengi)

Cornish:kever

Seealso:*anko

Seealso:*kom,*are

References:KPV200f.,GPCI:710

References:LEIAC163,GPCI:675

ProtoCeltic:*komkoro'meeting'(?)[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*kombero'bringtogether'
[Verb]

OldIrish:cocur[om]'secret'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 110

MiddleWelsh:cynghor[m]'counsel'(GPC
cyngor)

MiddleWelsh:kynnif,kynnyddu'grow,enlarge'

Seealso:*kom,*koro

Seealso:*sniyo

References:LEIAC205,GPCI:740

References:KPV599f.,GPCI:797

ProtoCeltic:*kommen'memory'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*kondo'protuberance,
preeminence,reason'[Noun]

OldIrish:cuman,cumen(iniscumanlim'I
remember')
MiddleWelsh:cof[m],covein,cofawr[p]
MiddleBreton:com,cam(OBret.),MBret.
couff
Cornish:cof

OldIrish:conn[om]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'omdhh1o'put
together'
PageinPokorny:613
IEcognates:Lat.cond,OCSsoNd'court,
judgement'

Seealso:*manyo'think,remember'
Notes:OBret.com,camisnotadducedin
DGVB.
References:LEIAC287f.,GPCI:536,
Schrijver1995:37
ProtoCeltic:*komokti'power,wealth'[Noun]
OldIrish:cumachtae[ion]'power'

Notes:Itisnotcertainwhetherthereisonlyone
word*kondoencompassingallofthemeanings
attributabletoOIr.conn.
References:LEIAC196
ProtoCeltic:*kor(x)s'heron,crane'[Noun]
OldIrish:corr[f]
MiddleWelsh:crychydd[m]

MiddleWelsh:comoid[m]'power'(OW),MW
cyfoeth,kyuoeth'wealth'

MiddleBreton:quercheiz

Cornish:chefuidocgl.omnipotens

Cornish:crechitgl.ardea(OCo.)

References:LEIAC286,GPCI:708,Falileyev
34

Seealso:*kerk'hen'

ProtoCeltic:*komskara'divide,destroy'
[Verb]
OldIrish:conscara'cuttopieces,destroy'
MiddleWelsh:kyfsycaraf[1sPres.]'separate
(oneself)'(GPCcyfysgar)
Seealso:*skara

Notes:Thederivationisnotwithoutproblems,
sincetherootisonomatopoetic.Cp.alsoW
creyr,crehyr,MBret.querhair'heron'.
References:LEIAC212,GPCI:620,De
BernardoStempel1999:505
ProtoCeltic:*koret'palisade,(stone)wall'
[Noun]
OldIrish:cora[tf]

References:KPV576,GPCI:727
ProtoCeltic:*komsniyo'contend,strivefor'
[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:cored[f]'weir,dam'
MiddleBreton:coret(OBret.)

OldIrish:consni;consena[Pret.]
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 111

References:LEIAC206,GPCI:558,De
BernardoStempel1999:165

OldIrish:cor[om]

ProtoCeltic:*korkkyo'oats'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:gor(e.g.inagor'toopen')

OldIrish:corca,coirce[iom]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)ker'turn,curve'

MiddleWelsh:ceirch[p];ceirchyn,ceirchen
[Singulative]

PageinPokorny:935

MiddleBreton:kerc'h
Cornish:barakeirchgl.panisavena(OCo.)
Notes:OldSwedishhagre'oats'(fromwhich
Finnishkakra'id.'wasborrowed)canbederived
from*kokro;thesewordsfor'oats'were
probablyborrowedfromsomepreIEsourcein
NWEurope.
References:LEIAC208,GPCI:454,Schrijver
1995:259,283,DeBernardoStempel1999:39
ProtoCeltic:*kormi'beer'[Noun]

IEcognates:Lat.curuus'curved'Gr.kyrtos
'round'
Notes:InOIr.,thereisadenominativeverbdo
cuirethar'put,place'(<*tokoryetor)derived
fromthisroot
References:LEIAC204ff.,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:45
ProtoCeltic:*korso'pointed,protruding,
angled'[Adjective]
OldIrish:corr[o]

OldIrish:cuirm[in]

MiddleWelsh:cwrr[m]'corner,edge,end,
brim'(GPCcwr)

MiddleWelsh:curum(OW),Wcwrw[m]

References:LEIAC211f.,GPCI:646

Cornish:corufgl.ceruisia(OCo.),MCo.kor

ProtoCeltic:*koruko'(leather)boat'[Noun'

Gaulish:curmi,korma

OldIrish:curach[om]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kerm

MiddleWelsh:corwg,cwrwgl[m]

PageinPokorny:572

Notes:AconnectionofthesewordswithPIE
*(s)koro'leather'(OCSkora,Lat.corium,
Pokorny939)appearsprobable.

IEcognates:Russ.korm'fodder',?Lat.cremor
'broth,pap'
Notes:ThereconstructionPCelt.*kormiis
preferabletothealternative*kurmi,because
suchavocalismcanmoreeasilyberelatedto
thePIEroot*kerm,soGaul.curmimustbe
secondary.Lat.cerusia'beer'wasborrowed
fromaCelticformwiththeevocalism.
FalileyevdoesnotadduceOWcurum.
References:LEIAC277f.,GPCI:649f.,LP55,
EIEC82,Lambert1994:123,191,Delamarre
133,Campanile1974:31,DeBernardoStempel
1999:245

References:LEIAC294f.,GPCI:567,De
BernardoStempel1999:312
ProtoCeltic:*koryo'troop,tribe'[Noun]
OldIrish:cuire[io?m]
MiddleWelsh:cordd[f]'tribe,clan'
Gaulish:Vocorii[Ethnonym],Atecorius[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*koryo'troop'
PageinPokorny:615

ProtoCeltic:*koro'actofputting,casting
[Noun]
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 112

IEcognates:OPers.kra'people',Go.harjis
'army',Lith.ka?rias'army'
Notes:OWcasgoord'retinueofattendants'is
probablycomposedof*woekskoryo.
References:LEIAC275,GPCI:557,EIEC30,
Delamarre125,DeBernardoStempel1999:
202,Falileyev23,Meid2005:165f.
ProtoCeltic:*koslo'hazel'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*kown'litter(ofdogs)'[Noun]
OldIrish:cuan[f]
MiddleWelsh:cun'pack(ofdogs)'
References:LIEAC261,GPCI:630,De
BernardoStempel1999:257
ProtoCeltic:*kowyo'hollow'[Adjective]
OldIrish:cua'hollow'

OldIrish:coll
MiddleWelsh:collgl.corilis(OW)[coll.],MW
coll(en);cyll[p]

MiddleWelsh:keu,cau'hollow,closed'
MiddleBreton:cau'covered'(OBret.),MBret.
queu'hollow'

MiddleBreton:colguidgl.colurnus(OBret.),
Bret.kelvezan

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'ewh2'vault,hole'

Cornish:colwidengl.corillus(OCo.)

PageinPokorny:592f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kos(V)lo

IEcognates:Skt.snya'empty,hollow',Gr.
kyar'eyeoftheneedle',Lat.cauus'hollow',
ToBkor'throat'

PageinPokorny:616
IEcognates:Lat.corulus,OHGhasal
Notes:TheCelticformscanbederivedby
syncope.Bret.kelvezenandOCo.colwiden
representcompounds,withthesecondelement
*widu'wood'.Theremayhaveexistedarelated
wordcosloinGaulish(seeLEIAC158).
References:LEIAC157f.,GPCI:546,EIEC
260,Falileyev34,Campanile1974:29,De
BernardoStempel1999:44

Notes:ThereissomedoubtwhetherOBret.cau
'closed'belongshere,butsinceMWcaumeans
both'hollow'and'closed',itispossiblethatboth
meaningswerepresentinPCelt.Thisadjective
mighthavebeeninfluencedbyLat.cauus
'hollow,empty'.VariouscognatesinothePIE
languagespresupposeaPIEheterocliton,
*k'owHr/*k'uHnos
References:LEIAC258,GPCI:441,EIEC96,
DGVB98,DeBernardoStempel1999:204.

ProtoCeltic:*kowik'cuckoo'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*koxs'leg'[Noun]

OldIrish:coi[kf]

OldIrish:cos[f]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kew

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kok'so'hollowofjoint'

PageinPokorny:535

PageinPokorny:611

IEcognates:Gr.kauaks'gull'

IEcognates:Lat.coxa'hip',OHGhhsa'backof
knee',ToBkakse'loins'

Notes:Therearesimilaronomatopoeicwords
for'cuckoo'inBritish,MWandCo.cog,but
theydonotformallymatchOIr.coi,the
formationofwhichseemsmorearchaic.
References:LEIAC9

References:LEIAC214,EIEC323,Matasovic
2004:212,DeBernardoStempel1999:60
ProtoCeltic:*koylo'thin'[Adjective]
OldIrish:coil,cael[o]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 113

OldIrish:cride[ion]
MiddleWelsh:cul'narrow,lean'
MiddleBreton:cul
Cornish:culgl.macervelmacilentus(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*koyHlo
PageinPokorny:610
IEcognates:Latv.kails'naked,bold'
References:LEIAC6,GPCI:629,De
BernardoStempel1999:222
ProtoCeltic:*koymo'dear,nice'[Adjective]
OldIrish:coim,caem[o]
MiddleWelsh:cu
MiddleBreton:cunff,cuff
Cornish:cuf,cueff
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'oymo'homely,
belongingtothefamily'

MiddleWelsh:craidd[m]'center'
MiddleBreton:creis,kreiz'center'
Cornish:creys'center'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'erd'heart'
PageinPokorny:580
IEcognates:Hitt.kir,kardiyas,Lat.cor,cordis,
Lith.irdis,Arm.sirt
Notes:Thiswordwasprobablyarootnounin
PCelt.,withNom.*kred(>Wcraidd),Gen.
kridos(>OIr.cride).Ithasbeenpointedout,
however,thatWcraiddmaybeaghostword
(cp.Schrijver1995:319ff.).Ifthatisindeedthe
case,thenOIr.crideanditsBritishcognates
maygobacktoPCelt.*kridyo<PIE*k'rdyo.
References:LEIAC235f.,GPCI:578,EIEC
98,263,Schrijver1995:319ff.,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:35,202,412
ProtoCeltic:*kredd'believe'[Verb]

PageinPokorny:540

OldIrish:creitid,creiti;cretis[2sPret.]

IEcognates:OEham'home',Latv.saime
'family'

MiddleWelsh:credu

Notes:Gaul.PNCoemomightbelonghere
(Meid2005:191)

MiddleBreton:crediff,critim(OBret.)
Cornish:cresy,krysi,cregy

References:LEIAC7,GPCI:626,De
BernardoStempel1999:246,Meid2005:191.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'reddheh1'believe,
trust'

ProtoCeltic:*kre(n)xtu'wound'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:235ff.

OldIrish:crecht[im]

IEcognates:Skt.sraddh,Lat.crdo

MiddleWelsh:creith[f](GPCcraith)

Notes:ThegeminateinCelticisonly
explainableifoneassumesanoldcompound
equivalenttoSkt.sraddh.Thefirstelement
ofthatcompoundisusuallyidentifiedwiththe
PIEwordfor'heart',butfordoubtssee
Benveniste1969.

MiddleBreton:creithi[p]gl.ulcera(OBret.),
MBret.creizenn[Singulative]
References:LEIAC226,GPCI:579,Pedersen
I:123,DGVB121f.,G.S.Lane,Language13:
23f.
ProtoCeltic:*kred'heart'[Noun]

References:KPV278ff.,GPCI:586,LIV
136ff.,DGVB123,LEIAC228f.,Benveniste
1969.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 114

ProtoCeltic:*kreddm'faith,believing'
[Noun]
OldIrish:cretem[f]
MiddleBreton:critim(OBret.),MBret.R
,R?
Notes:Thisistheverbalnounof*kredd
'believe'

ProtoCeltic:*krid'shrink,growthinner'
[Verb]
OldIrish:credb(a)'shrinkage',credba(ig)id,
credbaigi'contract,growthinner'
MiddleWelsh:cryddu'shrink'
MiddleBreton:crez'stingy'

References:LEIAC228f.,DGVB123

ProtoIndoEuropean:*krdh

ProtoCeltic:*kredro/i'relic,sacredobject'

IEcognates:Skt.krdhu'short,small'

OldIrish:cretair[if],(?earliercretar[o])

Notes:OIr.credb<*kridw(stemandgender
areunknown).

MiddleWelsh:creirriou(OW)[p],MWcreir[m
andf]
MiddleBreton:kreirio[p]
References:LEIAC232,GPCI:578,Falileyev
36,DeBernardoStempel1999:231ff.

References:LEIAC227,GPCI:621,De
BernardoStempel1999:216
ProtoCeltic:*krif'body'[Noun]
OldIrish:cri[indeclinable]

ProtoCeltic:*kreto'hit,meet'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:cryf'strong'

MiddleWelsh:dygredu

MiddleBreton:creff,MoBret.kren?v'strong'

MiddleBreton:credam(OBret.)[1sPres.]

Cornish:crifgl.fortis(OCo.),MCo.creff,cref

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kret'shake'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*krep'body'

PageinPokorny:620f.

IEcognates:Skt.krp'form,shape',Lat.corpus
'body',OEhrif'guts,womb'

IEcognates:OHGredan'sift',OCSkrotiti'tame'
References:KPV419,GPCI:1132,DGVB121
ProtoCeltic:*krini'sift,shake'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:crynu'shake,tremble'
MiddleBreton:crenaff
Cornish:crenna,krena
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kreh1(y)'sift,divide'
PageinPokorny:945ff.
IEcognates:Lat.cerno,Gr.krn
References:KPV420ff.,GPCI:623,LIV366f.,
LEIAC237f.

Notes:TheOIr.formisfromtheobliquecase
stemofthePIEetymon,*krp,whileOEhrif
preservesthenominativestem(*krep).The
wordwasarootnouninPIE.TheBritishforms
arefromathematicadjective,PCelt.*krifmo.
References:LEIAC223,GPCI:621,EIEC76,
Matasovic2004:110,DeBernardoStempel
1999:31ff.
ProtoCeltic:*krissu'belt'[Noun]
OldIrish:cris[um]
MiddleWelsh:guecrissou[p](OW),MWcrys
[m]'shirt',gwregys'belt,girdle'
MiddleBreton:cres'shirt',OBret.guocris'belt'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 115

Cornish:kreisgl.camisia(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kerd'belt'
IEcognates:Russ.eres'leatherbelt'
References:LEIAC238f.,GPCI:625,
PedersenI:42f.,DGVB122f.,EIEC224,
Falileyev65,Campanile1974:32,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:262,574
ProtoCeltic:*krito'trembling,fever'[Noun]
OldIrish:crith[om]
MiddleWelsh:critgl.timore(OW),MWcrid,
cryt,cryd[m]
MiddleBreton:critgl.frenesin
Cornish:dorgryz'earthquake'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*krit
PageinPokorny:937
IEcognates:OEhria'fever'
References:LEIAC239f.,GPCI:620,
Falileyev37,DeBernardoStempel1999:287,
412

PageinPokorny:938
IEcognates:Lat.crispus,Alb.krip'hair'
References:GPCI:619,Pedersen:I:75
ProtoCeltic:*krotto'roundobject'[Noun]
OldIrish:crott[f]'harp'
MiddleWelsh:crwth[m]'roundobject,harp],
croth[f]'womb'
MiddleBreton:courzgl.uulua
References:LEIAC248,GPCI:616,De
BernardoStempel1999:510ff.
ProtoCeltic:*krowko'heap,hill'[Noun]
OldIrish:cruach[f]'stack(ofcorn),heap,
hill'
MiddleWelsh:cruc(OW),Wcrug[m]'cairn,
hillock'
MiddleBreton:crucgl.gibbus(OBret.),MBret.
krugell
Cornish:crucgl.collis

ProtoCeltic:*kritt'body,frame,shape'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*krewk

OldIrish:crett,creit[f]

PageinPokorny:938

MiddleWelsh:creth[f]'nature,appearance,
form'

IEcognates:ONhraukr'heap'

Notes:TheOIr.wordisoftenusedtoreferto
theframeofachariot.Forapossible,butnot
whollyconvincing,IEetymology,seeLEIA
C223.
References:LEIAC223f.,GPCI:592
ProtoCeltic:*krixso'curlyhaired'[Adjective]
MiddleWelsh:crych'curly,wrinkled,rough'

Notes:Relatedwords(ofGaulishorigin)are
attestedinRomancedialects(e.g.Bearnais
cruque'heap(ofearth)').SinceWcrugis
masculine,andOIr.cruachisfeminine,itis
doubtfulwhethertoreconstructPCelt.*krowk
or*krowko;Iassumethattheform*krowko
isoriginal,and*krowkisacollectivethereof.
References:LEIAC249f.,GPCI:613,DGVB
124,

MiddleBreton:crech

ProtoCeltic:*krumbo'round,curved'
[Adjective]

Gaulish:Crixus[PN]

OldIrish:cromm[o]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kripso'curlyhaired'

MiddleWelsh:crwm

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 116

IEcognates:ONhrof'roof'
MiddleBreton:crum(OBret.)'hunchback',Bret.
kromm
Cornish:crom
References:LEIAC244f.,GPCI:615,DGVB
124,DeBernardoStempel1999:281
ProtoCeltic:*krundi'round,compact'
OldIrish:cruind[i]
MiddleWelsh:crunn(OW),MWcrwn
MiddleBreton:crongl.tornatili(OBret.),Bret.
krenn'round'
Cornish:cren
Seealso:*krumbo
References:LEIAC252f.,GPCI:615,DGVB
123,Falileyev37,DeBernardoStempel1999:
258
ProtoCeltic:*krbi'devotion,religious
practice'[Noun]

Notes:ThePIEetymologyofthesewordsis
uncertainbecauseofthesemanticsoftheCeltic
cognates,whichpointstothePCelt.meaning
'round,circular'(ratherthan'covered,roof').
Greene1983relatestheCelticwordsfor
'enclosure'toOIr.cruind,Wcrwnn'round'
(PCelt.*krundi).
References:LEIAC240,GPCI:582,DGVB
123,EIEC217,DeBernardoStempel1999:25,
Greene1983.
ProtoCeltic:*krtro'sieve'[Noun]
OldIrish:criathar[om]
MiddleWelsh:cruitrgl.pala(OW),Wcrwydr
[m]'awandering'
MiddleBreton:croitir(OBret.),MBret.croezr
Cornish:croidergl.cribrum
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)kreyH'separate'
PageinPokorny:946

OldIrish:crabud[*u>om]

IEcognates:Lat.crbrum'sieve',OEhridder

MiddleWelsh:crefydd[fandm]

References:LEIAC233,GPCI:617,DGVB
123,LP46,EIEC518,Falileyev37,Campanile
1974:32,DeBernardoStempel1999:304

Notes:Wcrefyddhaseratherthanoonthe
analogywiththeverbcredu'believe'.Ithasthe
suffix*yo,whileOIr.crabudhasanother
suffix,*itu.Pokorny'setymologyofthese
words(p.617)isnotconvincing.

ProtoCeltic:*krkw'furrow,trench,
boundary'[NOun]
OldIrish:crich[f]

References:LEIAC220f.,GPCI:587,De
BernardoStempel1999:388

MiddleWelsh:crib[fandm]'comb,crest'

ProtoCeltic:*krwo'stable,enclosure'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:crib'comb'

OldIrish:cro[om]'enclosure,shed'

Cornish:cryb,cryben

MiddleWelsh:creu[m]'shed'(GPCcrau,craw)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*krek'post'

MiddleBreton:crou(OBret.)gl.hara.i.
stabulumporcorum,MBret.kraou

PageinPokorny:619

Cornish:crow'hut'

IEcognates:Russ.krokva'stake',Lith.kre?klas
'rafter'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kropo'roof'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 117

Notes:Thisetymologyisnotwholly
convincing,sinceitrequiresanunmotivated
lenghthenedgradeinCeltic(*krku)

Notes:OIr.cruaid'crude,rude'presupposesa
PCelt.*krowdi,similarinformtoLat.crdus
'raw',seeLEIAC250f.

References:LEIAC234f.,GPCI:594f.,EIEC
441,DeBernardoStempel1999:220f.

References:LEIAC248f.,GPCI:582,LP12,
EIEC98,DeBernardoStempel1999:25,
Greene1983.

ProtoCeltic:*krno'withered,dry'[Adjective]
OldIrish:crin[o]
MiddleWelsh:crin(OW)gl.ar(i)dum,MW
crin
MiddleBreton:krin(MoBret.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'reh1(y)'separate,
sieve'

ProtoCeltic:*kswib'move,recede'[Verb]
OldIrish:scibid,scibi
MiddleWelsh:chwyfu(GPCchwifio,chwyfio,
chwyfu,chwyfan)
MiddleBreton:fifual
ProtoIndoEuropean:?*ksweybh

PageinPokorny:945f.

PageinPokorny:1041(*swy)

IEcognates:Lat.cerno,OCSkroiti'cut'

IEcognates:Skt.ksipati'throw',OCSsibati
'towhip'

Seealso:*krini

References:KPV423,GPCI:852

Notes:ThesemanticconnectionoftheCeltic
formswiththoseinotherlanguagesisrather
weak,sothisetymologyisuncertain.The
alternative,adoptedbyLEIAandLIV,of
treatingthesewordsasderiveto*k'erh2'break'
(Skt.srnmi'break',Gr.keraizdestroy'),
Pokorny578isimpossible,sincetheCeltic
formsclearlypresupposes*eh1inPIE.
References:LEIAC236f.,GPCI:597,LIV
Falileyev36f.,DeBernardoStempel1999:252
ProtoCeltic:*krs'blood'[Noun]
OldIrish:cru[?n]'gore,blood'[Gen.scrou,
cro]
MiddleWelsh:creu[mandf]'blood'(GPC
crau)
Cornish:crow

ProtoCeltic:*kufsko'sleep'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:kyscu;cusc[3sPres.]
MiddleBreton:cousquet
Cornish:koska
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kewbh'lie'
PageinPokorny:589f.
IEcognates:Lat.cubo,cubre
References:KPV424f.,GPCI:813,LIV357f.
ProtoCeltic:*kukro'curved'[Adjective]
OldIrish:cuar[o]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kewk'curve'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'rewh2'gore,raw
meat'
PageinPokorny:621
IEcognates:Skt.kravi'rawmeat',Lat.cruor,G
kreas'rawmeat'

PageinPokorny:589
IEcognates:OHGhh'high',ToAkoc'high',
Lith.kau?karas'highground,hill'
References:LEIAC262,EIEC62

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 118

ProtoCeltic:*kuli'mosquito,fly'[Noun]
OldIrish:cuil[if]gl.culex
MiddleWelsh:cylion[p];cylionyn,cylionen,
[Singulative]
MiddleBreton:quelyen[p]
Cornish:kelionen[Singulative]gl.musca
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kul
PageinPokorny:626
IEcognates:Lat.culex'mosquito'
References:LEIAC268,GPCI:751
ProtoCeltic:*kulo'sin,violation'[Noun]
OldIrish:col[on]
MiddleWelsh:ciliauc(OW)gl.scelestus,MW
cwl[m]'fault,sin'
MiddleBreton:col,caul(OBret.)gl.nefariam
rem
Notes:Thesewordshavebeencomparedwith
Lat.scelus(<?PIE*(s)kel)andwithLat.culpa
(<?*kelp).Thesecondpossibilityappears
morepromising;ifthisistrue,thecorrect
reconstructioninPCelt.ispresumably*kulfo.

ProtoCeltic:*kwantyo'flathill'[Noun]
OldIrish:ceite[ioandi,mandf]'hill,open
space'
MiddleWelsh:pant'valley'
MiddleBreton:pantet(OBret.)gl.imminet
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwemt'hill'
IEcognates:Lat.cumulus'hill',OEhwamm
Notes:Thealternationbetweenanioandani
steminOIr.probablyshowsthatthiswordisa
substantivizedadjective;theoriginalmeaning
couldhavebeen'protruding'vel.sim.The
readingandthemeaningofOBret.pantetare
uncertain(somereaditasLat.pandit).
References:LEIAC58,DGVB280,De
BernardoStempel1999:273
ProtoCeltic:*kwef'pant,breathe'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:peuo
ProtoIndoEuropean:*kwep'breathe,pant'
PageinPokorny:596
IEcognates:Lith.kvepiu'breathe'
References:Fowkes1945,LIV336.

References:LEIAC155,GPCI:639,DGVB
99,Falileyev28,DeBernardoStempel1999:
69.

ProtoCeltic:*kwon'dog'[Noun](Nom.s
*kw,Gen.s*kunos)

ProtoCeltic:*kumb'valley'[Noun]

OldIrish:cu[nm]

MiddleWelsh:cwm[m];cymoedd[p]

MiddleWelsh:ci[m];cwn[p]

MiddleBreton:komm'riverbed'

MiddleBreton:ci

Gaulish:*cumba>Lat.cumba(Isidoreof
Seville)

Cornish:cigl.canis

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kumbho(?)
PageinPokorny:592
IEcognates:Skt.kumbha'pot'
References:GPCI:640,Delamarre131f.

Gaulish:Cunopennus'Doghead'[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'(u)wn'dog'
PageinPokorny:632
IEcognates:Skt.sv,Lat.canis,Toch.Aku,
Arm.un

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 119

References:LEIAC257f.,GPCI:474,EIEC
98,168,Delamarre132,Campanile1974:27,
Matasovic2004:53,88,DeBernardoStempel
1999:27ff.
ProtoCeltic:*kwti'chaff,husks'[Noun]
OldIrish:caith[if]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)kweh1t
PageinPokorny:632
IEcognates:Lat.quatio'agitate,disturb',OHG
scutten'shake'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*keh2/3g'n
IEcognates:OCSkazn'punishment'
Notes:Anotherpossibleetymology(fromPCelt.
*kaxni<*kapni)isfoundinEIEC563.OIr.
cainid'tosatirize'couldberelatedtothisroot.
References:LEIAC16,GPCI:998,EIEC563,
O'Brien,CelticaIII172
ProtoCeltic:*klyo/*kilyo'companion'
[Noun]
OldIrish:ceile[iom]

Notes:Ifthisetymologyiscorrect,theOIr.
formwouldhavetobederivedfromPIE
*kwoh1ti,withtheograde.

MiddleWelsh:cilydd[m]'companion,other'

References:LEIAC23,LIV,EIEC113

Cornish:ygyla,egele

ProtoCeltic:*kdos'regret,anger'[Noun]

Gaulish:cele(?)'companion'(Chateaubleau)

MiddleWelsh:cawdd[m]'anger'

Notes:TheinterpretationofGaul.cele(hapax)
isdoubtful,seeDelamarre112.

MiddleBreton:cuez'regret,affliction'

MiddleBreton:egile'other'

Cornish:kueth'regret'

References:LEIAC52f,GPCI:481,
Delamarre112

ProtoIndoEuropean:*k'eh2dos

ProtoCeltic:*kno'long'[Adjective]

PageinPokorny:517

OldIrish:cian[o]

IEcognates:Gr.kdos'suffering,concern',
OHGhaz'hate'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kweyno
PageinPokorny:638

Seealso:*kassi
Notes:OIr.caisgoesbacktozerograde*kh2d
ti(attestedalsoinOWcas'hatred',MBret.cas
'hatred'),whileWcawddrepresentsthefull
grade*keh2do.

IEcognates:Go.hweila'period,time',OCSpo
iti'rest',Lat.quies'rest'
References:LEIAC94f.
ProtoCeltic:*ksr'comb'[Noun]

References:LEIAC22,GPCI:442,De
BernardoStempel1999:149,LIV

OldIrish:cir[f]

ProtoCeltic:*kgni'law,tribute'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kes'comb'

OldIrish:cain[fi]

PageinPokorny:585

MiddleWelsh:digawn[m]'plenty,abundance'
(GPCdigon,digawn);digoni[Verb]'make,
perform,beable'

IEcognates:OCSesati'tocomb',Lith.kasy
ti'toscratch'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 120

Notes:ThelengthenedgradeofOIr.ciris
unexpected,andthedevelopmentofintervocalic
*srisstilldisputed.

References:LEIAC139,GPCI:635,
Matasovic2004:108,HilmarssonKZ98/1985:
162f.

References:LEIAC105,LIV,Schrijver1995:
446

ProtoCeltic:*layo'put,laydown,throw'
[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*kk'breast'[Noun]

OldIrish:rola<*frolayo;laa[Subj.],ro
laa[Pret.]

OldIrish:cich[f]
MiddleWelsh:cig[m]'meat'
MiddleBreton:cicguangl.fuscina(OBret.),
MBret.quic
Cornish:cicgl.caro(OCo.),chic,kyk
Gaulish:Cicollus[PN]
References:LEIAC96,GPCI:477,DGVB
105,LHEB304,Delamarre116,Campanile
1974:26f.
ProtoCeltic:*klo'corner'[Noun]
OldIrish:cul[?f],cuil'corner,recess',cul
[om]'back'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*leh1'let'
PageinPokorny:?682f.
IEcognates:Lith.liautis'stop',Go.lewyan
'betray'
Notes:TheGaulishinscriptionfromVoltino
(CILat.V4883,RIGII.2:188)mightcontain
thisverb(TOMEZECLAI?'putmeup'),but
thisisverydoubtful,seeKPV442.
References:KPV442ff.,LIV399,LP354ff.
ProtoCeltic:*labro'eloquent,talkative'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:labar[o]

MiddleWelsh:cil[m]'corner,angle'

MiddleWelsh:llafar

MiddleBreton:kil

MiddleBreton:labar'talking'(OBret.),MBret.
lauaret'talk'

Cornish:chilgl.cervix(OCo.)

Cornish:lauargl.sermo(OCo.)

References:LEIAC268f.,GPCI:478,De
BernardoStempel1999:526

Gaulish:Labarus,Labrios[PN]

ProtoCeltic:*kti'sack,scrotum'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:831

MiddleWelsh:cwd[m]

Notes:InOIr.thereisalsothedenominative
deponentverblabraithir,labrathar'talks'.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*kuHti'skin'
PageinPokorny:952f.

References:DGVB236,Delamarre194f.,Meid
2005:56.

IEcognates:Lat.cutis,OHGht,TocAkc

ProtoCeltic:*lag(g)o'weak,slack'[Adjective]

Notes:MIr.codal'skin'isborrowedfromLat.
cutilia.Lat.cutishasshortuasaresultofthe
similarshorteningasin*wiHro>uir'man'(in
unaccentedposition?).

OldIrish:lac[o]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)leh2g'slack'
PageinPokorny:959f.
IEcognates:Lat.laxus,OEsleack

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 121

Notes:MWllacc'slack'isprobablyaLatin
loanword.
References:EIEC523,DeBernardoStempel
1999:509f.

Cornish:lan
Gaulish:*land>Frenchlande
ProtoIndoEuropean:*londh'openland,waste'

ProtoCeltic:*lagV'small'[Adjective]

PageinPokorny:675

OldIrish:laugu,laigiu'smaller'[Comparative]

IEcognates:OEland,OPruss.lindan'valley'

MiddleWelsh:llaw'small,sad'

References:EIEC200,Delamarre196,
Falileyev100,DeBernardoStempel1999:351,
472,McCone1994:70.

MiddleBreton:lau(OBret.)'small,bad'
Notes:ForpossibleIEetymologiesseeEIEC
353,forapossibleparallelinGaul.see
Delamarre195.OIr.laugu,laigiumightbe
derivablefrom*legwys,thePCelt.
comparativeofanadjectiveformedfromthe
root*legw(itcouldhavebeenanustem
originally).SimilarcomparativesareMWllei,
Co.le'smaller'.Theseformsmightbederivable
fromPIE*h1legwh'light,swift'(Gr.elakhys,
Lat.leuis,etc.,Pokorny660f.),buttheBritish
vocalism(witha)isdifficulttoexplain

ProtoCeltic:*lati'liquid,fluid'[Noun]

References:DGVB237,EIEC353,Delamarre
195,GOI:51.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*lat'wet'

ProtoCeltic:*lamyo'dare'[Verb]
OldIrish:rolaimethar<*frolamyo;ro
lamathar[Subj.];rolilmathar[Fut.];lamair
[Pret.];rolet[Pret.Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:llafasu
Cornish:lauasos'tobeallowed'

OldIrish:laith'ale,liquor'
MiddleWelsh:llad'drink,beer'
MiddleBreton:latgl.crapulam,Bret.leiz
Cornish:lad
Gaulish:Arelate[Toponym]=Arles

PageinPokorny:654
IEcognates:OHGletto'mud'
Notes:ConnectionofthesewordswithGr.la
taks'dropsofwinefromthebottomofawine
cup',suggestedbyPokorny,isunconvincing.
References:DGVB237,Delamarre197

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3lem'totire(oneself)'

ProtoCeltic:*laxsaro'burning,shining'
[Adjective]

PageinPokorny:674

OldIrish:lassar[f]'flame'

IEcognates:Gr.nlemes'untiring',Lith.lemti
'toordain'

MiddleWelsh:llachar'shining,shiny'

References:KPV446f.,LIV412,LP376,EIEC
81,Stber1998:135
ProtoCeltic:*land'openland'[Noun]
OldIrish:lann[f]
MiddleWelsh:lann[f]'churchyard',MWllann

ProtoIndoEuropean:*leh2p'shine'
IEcognates:Hitt.lpzi'glows',Gr.lamp,
OPruss.lopis'flame'
Notes:OIr.lassarisprobablyasubstantivized
adjective.FromthesamerootwehaveOIr.
lasaid'burn'.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 122

References:LP19,EIEC513,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:266,467
ProtoCeltic:*leg(y)o'bed,couch,place'
[Noun]
OldIrish:lige[iom]
MiddleWelsh:lle[m]'place'
MiddleBreton:le'place'(OBret.)
Gaulish:legasit'placed'[3sPret.](Bourges)

IEcognates:ONleka'leak,pouroutindrops'
References:KPV449,GPCI:1012,LP376
ProtoCeltic:*lego'tolay,liedown'[Verb]
OldIrish:laigid,laig;leiss,le[Subj.];leiss,
le[Fut.];laig[Pret.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*legh'lie'
PageinPokorny:658ff.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*legh'lie'

IEcognates:Go.ligan,OCSleti,Faliscanlecet
'lies'

PageinPokorny:658f.

References:KPV448,LIV398f.,LP375

IEcognates:Gr.lekhos'bed',Lat.lectus'bed',
ToBleke,leki,'bed,restingplace'

ProtoCeltic:*lestro'vessel'[Noun]

Notes:AlsorelatedisMBret.lech'place'<
*lexso<*leghs
References:DGVB238,EIEC57,Delamarre
199
ProtoCeltic:*lega'melt,perish'[Verb]
OldIrish:legaid,lega

OldIrish:lestar[on]
MiddleWelsh:llestr[m]
MiddleBreton:lestr
Cornish:lestergl.nauis(OCo.),MCo.lester
Notes:OIr.lestarmightbeaWloanword.

MiddleWelsh:dadleithio,dadlaith'melt'

References:GPCII:2159,Schrijver1995:400,
GOI120,178,Campanile1974:71.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*leg'drip,trickle'

ProtoCeltic:*letos'side'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:657

OldIrish:leth[sn]'side',la'with,among'
[geminating,+Acc.]

IEcognates:OEhlec'leak',Arm.li'bog'

MiddleWelsh:lled[m]'breadth,width'

Notes:TheWelshformshouldbederivedfrom
thecompound*doatelegt.

MiddleBreton:led

References:GPCI:871,EIEC207

Cornish:les

ProtoCeltic:*lego'melt'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*letos

OldIrish:legaid,lega

IEcognates:Lat.latus

MiddleWelsh:dilein'destroy'(GPCdileu,
dilein,dilain)<*dlego

Notes:TheOIr.prepositionla'with,among'
[geminating,+Acc.]representsaformofthis
noun(presumably*lets,withthesecondvowel
lostinallegrospeech).Foradifferent
etymologyseeDeBernardoStempel1999:142
(relatestheCelticwordstoPIE*plt,

ProtoIndoEuropean:*leg
PageinPokorny:657

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 123

presumably*pleh1t,butthereisnotraceof
laryngealinCeltic.
References:GPCII:2126ff.,GOI523,De
BernardoStempel1999:142.
ProtoCeltic:*lim'sharpen,polish'[Verb]
OldIrish:limaid'shapren,polish';limsat[3p
Pret.]
MiddleWelsh:llymhau
MiddleBreton:lemhaamgl.acuo(OBret.),
MBret.lemaff
Notes:Thesewordsaremostprobablyrelatedto
Lat.lma'file',OHGslman'makesmooth',etc.
ThePIErootwouldbe*(s)ley(Pokorny663),
withthesuffix*moinItalic,Germanic,and
Celtic.However,thelengthinOIr.limaidis
unexpected(butcp.theshortvowelin3pPret.
limsat).
References:GPCII:2271,DGVB239

Notes:InOBret.cp.linomgl.litturam,parallel
toOIr.lenamon'litura',bothfromthesameroot
aslenaid'adhereto'
References:GPCII:2273,KPV453ff,LP378,
DGVB243
ProtoCeltic:*ligo'lick'[Verb]
OldIrish:ligid,lig;lilis,lil[Fut.];lelaig
[Pret.]
MiddleWelsh:llyu(GPCllyfu,llyo,llyu)
MiddleBreton:leat
ProtoIndoEuropean:*leyg'h'lick'
PageinPokorny:668
IEcognates:Gr.leikh,Lat.lingo,OCSlizati
References:GPCII:2253,KPV451f.,LIV404,
EIEC351

ProtoCeltic:*linkwo'leave,let'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*lindu,*lindo'liquid,lake'
[Noun]

OldIrish:leicid,leici'leave,let,allow'

OldIrish:lind[um]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*leykw'leave'

MiddleWelsh:llynn[mandf]'drink,lake'
(GPCllyn)

PageinPokorny:669f.
IEcognates:Lat.linquo,Gr.leyp,Go.leihvan
References:KPV454ff.,LIV406ff.,LP377f.,
EIEC348
ProtoCeltic:*lina'stick'[Verb]
OldIrish:lenaid,len,'remain,adhereto,
follow';lieid,lia[Subj.];lilid,lil[Fut.];lil
[Pret.]
MiddleWelsh:llynu'smear,dirty,pollute'

MiddleBreton:lin(OBret.)'lake',Bret.lenn
'pool'
Cornish:grelingl.lacus(OCo.)
Gaulish:linda[Nom.p](Banassac)Lindiacum
[Toponym]
Notes:GPChastwodifferententries,llyn[m
andf]'lake,pool'andllyn[m]'drink,beverage'.
Itispossiblethatthisdifferencegoesbackto
PCelt.(?*lindo'drink',*lind'pool,lake').

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2leyH

References:GPCII:2272,DGVB243,
PedersenI:37,Delamarre203

PageinPokorny:662

ProtoCeltic:*lind'veil,cloak'[Noun]

IEcognates:Lat.lino,Galinein(Hesych.)

OldIrish:lenn[f]'cloak,mantle'
MiddleWelsh:lenn[f]'veil,curtain'(OW),
MWllen

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 124

MiddleBreton:esceilenngl.cortina(OBret.)
Cornish:lengl.sagum(OCo.)
References:Falileyev102,Campanile1974:71,
GPC2151
ProtoCeltic:*liro'sea,ocean'[Noun]
OldIrish:ler[om]
MiddleWelsh:lirou[p]'seas,oceans'(OW),
MWllyr[m]

References:GPCII:2192,DGVB243f.,EIEC
113,246,Delamarre205,Falileyev105,
Campanile1974:72,DeBernardoStempel
1999:178
ProtoCeltic:*liyo'charge,accuse'[Verb]
OldIrish:liid,li;lithae,lith[Pass.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sleyH
PageinPokorny:650f.
IEcognates:Lat.ls,ltis'strife'

Notes:TheIEetymologyofferedbyPokorny
(664,from*ley'flow')isunconvincing.

Notes:PerhapsrelatedisCeltib.litom(?)'what
ispermitted'(Botorrita),cp.Meid1994a:17f.

References:GPCII:2275,Falileyev104

References:KPV452,Joseph1986,Meid
1994a:17,Colera1998:85f.

ProtoCeltic:*listu'abhorrence'[Noun]
OldIrish:lius[um]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2leyt'dosomething
hateful'
PageinPokorny:672
IEcognates:OEl?'loathsome;,Gr.aloitos
'sinner'
References:EIEC259,DeBernardoStempel
288
ProtoCeltic:*liwo'color'[Noun]
OldIrish:li[o]

ProtoCeltic:*liyo'flow'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:dillydd<*deksliyo[3s
Pres.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*leyH'flow'
PageinPokorny:664f
IEcognates:OCSliti,Lith.lieti
References:KPV451f.,GPCI:1018,LIV405f.
ProtoCeltic:*loku'lake,pool'[Noun]
OldIrish:loch[un]
MiddleBreton:lagen

MiddleWelsh:liu[m](OW),MWlliw
MiddleBreton:liou(OBret.)
Cornish:liugl.color(OCo.),MCo.lyw
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)liHwo'blue'
PageinPokorny:967
IEcognates:Lat.luor,luidus,OCSsliva
'plum'
Notes:Gaul.Lionus[PN]maybederivable
fromthesameroot(Delamarre)

Cornish:lagengl.stagnum(OCo.)
IEcognates:Lat.lacus,Glakkos,OElagu,
OCSloky
Notes:Wllwch(OWlichou)andOBret.loch
'lake'areloanwordsfromGoidelic(orare
somehowanalogical).Thedifficultiespresented
bytheIEcognatescanberesolvedifonestarts
fromPIE*lokus,Gen.*lkews(Matasovic
2004:104).
References:EIEC343,DGVB244,Delamarre
206,Campanile1974:70,Falileyev103,
Matasovic2004:104

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 125

ProtoCeltic:*loman'rope,thong'[Noun]
OldIrish:loman[f]
MiddleWelsh:llyfan[fandm]
MiddleBreton:louffan[f]
Cornish:lovan

Notes:TheONwordispossiblyaloanword
fromCeltic.
References:GPCII:2210,EIEC112,LP33,De
BernardoStempel1999:60,117
ProtoCeltic:*lorgo'trace'[Noun]
OldIrish:lorg[om]
MiddleWelsh:llwrw[m]

Notes:Thereconstructionisuncertain,sinceall
oftheattestedformsmightgobackto*luman
aswellas*loman(Schrijver1995:31).
References:GPCII:2253,PedersenI:33,
Schrijver1995:31.
ProtoCeltic:*long'boat,vessel'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:lerc'h
Cornish:lergh
Notes:Pedersen(I105)comparesArm.oork
'smooth'

OldIrish:long[f]

References:GPCII:2236f.,PedersenI104f.,
Lewis1989:48.

MiddleWelsh:llong[f]

ProtoCeltic:*lowatro'bath'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:locou(OBret.)[p]

OldIrish:loathar[on]

Gaulish:Longaticum[Toponym](=Nauportus
inPannonia)

MiddleBreton:lovazr

Notes:ThiswordmaybeanoldpanCeltic
loanwordfromLatin,ifitisderivedfromLat.
(nauis)longa.However,Ibelieveitismore
probablethatwearedealingwithaninherited
Celticwordfor'vessel',withunknown
etymology.

Gaulish:lautrogl.balneo(Vienne)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*lowh1tro'bath'
PageinPokorny:692
IEcognates:Lat.laubrum,Gloetron

References:GPCII:2204,Delamarre207,De
BernardoStempel1999:270,351.

References:EIEC52,DeBernardoStempel
1999:305,Delamarre198,McCone1996:51.

ProtoCeltic:*lorg'stick,club'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*lowko'bright,light'[Adjective]

OldIrish:lorg[f]

OldIrish:luach(loch)[o]'glowingwhite'

MiddleWelsh:llory[m];llyry[p]

MiddleWelsh:llug[m]'eyesight,perception'

MiddleBreton:lorc'henn'shaft'

Gaulish:Leucus[PN]

Cornish:lorch(OCo)gl.baculus,MCo.lorgh

ProtoIndoEuropean:*lewko'bright,shining'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*lorgo'club'

PageinPokorny:687ff.

PageinPokorny:691f.

IEcognates:Lat.lx'light',Go.liuha?'light',
Gr.leukos'white',ToBlyke'light'

IEcognates:ONlurkr

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 126

References:GPCII:2235,EIEC83,Delamarre
200
ProtoCeltic:*lowtwi'ash'[Noun]
OldIrish:luaith[if]
MiddleWelsh:lludw[m](GPClludw,lludu)
MiddleBreton:ludu
Cornish:lusow
Notes:Pokorny'sconnectionofthesewordsto
PIE*lewh2'wash'(Lat.lauo)ispossible(the
originalsenseofPCelt.*lowtwiwouldhave
been'washingsubstance').
References:GPCII:2218,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:218.
ProtoCeltic:*lub/'herb,plant'[Noun]

Cornish:luirgl.luna(OCo.),MCo.lo(e)r
ProtoIndoEuropean:*lewg'tobend,twist'
PageinPokorny:685f.
IEcognates:Gr.lygiz'bend',Lith.lugnas
'twisted',Skt.rujati'breaks'
Notes:Thesemanticsofthisderivationare
somewhatstretched;however,thiscanbe
remediedifonestartsfromthemeaning'young
moon'as'twisted,bent'.Pokorny's(p.690)
connectionwiththeroot*lewk'toshine'(Lat.
lx,etc.)isimplausiblefromthephonological
pointofview(thereisnoevidenceforthe
variantofthisrootwithavoicedvelar).A
differentetymologyisoffered'asamere
possibility'bySchrijver(1995:332).Herelates
Wlloeretc.toLat.lridus'pale,yellow',froma
putativePIE*lows.

OldIrish:luib[?andf]

References:GPCII:2198,PedersenII:50,
DGVB245,Schrijver1995:233f.,332.

MiddleWelsh:luird[p]gl.horti(OW)

ProtoCeltic:*lungo'put,place'[Verb]

MiddleBreton:lub,lob(OBret.),Bret.lou

OldIrish:foloing'support';folo[Subj.];folil
[Fut.];fololaig[Pret.];folocht[Pass.]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(h3)lewbh'leaf'
PageinPokorny:690
IEcognates:OHGloub'leaf',Lat.liber'bark,
rind',Russ.lub'bark',Lith.luba'plank'
Notes:OWluirdisthepluralto*luord,whichis
thecompoundcorrespondingtoBret.luorz,
lyorz'garden',OIr.lubgort.OIr.luibinflects
mostlyasanstem,butNpluibimayindicate
thatithadbeenanoriginalstem.TheCeltic,
Baltic,andItalicformsarefromthezerograde
ofthePIEroot(*lubh),whiletheGermanic
andSlavicformscomefromtheograde
(*lowbh).IfGr.olouph'peel'(Hesych.)is
related,thecorrectPIEreconstructionis
*h3lewbh.
ProtoCeltic:*lugr'moon'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:loyr(OW),MWlloer[f]
MiddleBreton:loir,loer(OBret.),Bret.loer,
loar

MiddleWelsh:dillwng<*dekslungo'set
free'(GPCdillwng,dillyngio)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*lewg'bend'
PageinPokorny:685f.
IEcognates:Lat.luctor'wrestle',Go.galkan
'close'
References:KPV461f.,GPCI:1018,LP379,
McCone1991:42f.
ProtoCeltic:*lubo'love'[Verb]
Gaulish:lubi[Ipv.](Banassac)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*lewbh'love'
PageinPokorny:683
IEcognates:OElof,Lat.lubd'sexual
desire',OCSljubiti

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 127

Notes:Althoughthisverbisunattestedin
InsularCeltic,themeaningofGaul.forms
derivedfrom*luboarewellestablished.
References:Delamarre209,LIV372
ProtoCeltic:*lud'went'[Verb]

PageinPokorny:687
IEcognates:Skt.rocate'shines',OLat.lceo
'makelight'

OldIrish:luid'went'[Pret.]

Notes:FromthesamerootthereisinOWlicat
(MWllygat)'well,source',OCo.lagatgl.
oculus,MBret.lagat.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1ludh'grow,tread'

References:KPV459,LIV418,Falileyev103

PageinPokorny:684f.,306f.

ProtoCeltic:*lukot'mouse'[Noun]

IEcognates:Skt.rodhati'grows',Go.liudan
'grow',ToBlac'wentout'

OldIrish:luch[tf]

Seealso:*ting
Notes:Suppletiveaoristto*ting'go'
References:KPV456,LIV248f.,EIEC228

MiddleWelsh:llygoden[Singulative];llygod
[p]
MiddleBreton:loc(OBret.),Bret.logodenn
[Singulative]

ProtoCeltic:*lugiyo'oath'[Noun]

Cornish:logodengl.mus[Singulative](OCo.),
MoCo.logaz

OldIrish:lugae[ion]

Gaulish:Lucotios[PN]

MiddleWelsh:lllw[mandf]
MiddleBreton:le[f]

References:GPCII:2265,DGVB244,EIEC
387,Campanile1974:73,DeBernardoStempel
1999:160,388,Delamarre210

Cornish:govlya'toswearfalsely'

ProtoCeltic:*lut'dirt'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2lewg(')h

OldIrish:loth[f]

PageinPokorny:687

Gaulish:Lutomagus[Toponym]

IEcognates:Hitt.haluga'news,message',Go.
liuga'marriage'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*lewto'mud,dirt'

Notes:OBret.dilugl.detestanturprobably
containsthiswordalso.Thesemantic
connectionoftheCelticformswiththosein
otherlanguagesisweak.
References:GPCII:2233,DGVB142,KPV
650,Schrijver1995:310
ProtoCeltic:*luko'see,perceive,seteyes
upon'[Verb]

PageinPokorny:681
IEcognates:Lat.lutum
Notes:InWwehavelluddedic<*lowteto
'muddy'withthefullgradeofthesameroot.
Lith.litynas'puddle'issometimesadducedas
belongingtothesamePIEroot,butitis
probablyunrelated.
References:EIEC160,Delamarre211,Lewis
198942f.

MiddleWelsh:gorllwyn<*worluko'expect,
perceive,follow'

ProtoCeltic:*luwo'escape'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*lewk'shine'

OldIrish:asloi<*eksluwo;asloa[Subj.]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 128

ProtoIndoEuropean:*lewH'cutoff,setfree'
PageinPokorny:681f.
IEcognates:Gr.ly,Lat.luo'pay,releasefrom
debt',soluo'release'
References:KPV463,LIV417,LP379f.
ProtoCeltic:*luxsmen'drop,sip'[Noun]
OldIrish:loimm[nn]'sip,mouthful',later
'milk'
MiddleWelsh:llymaid[m]'sip,drink'
MiddleBreton:lomcollgl.sucusarboris
(OBret.),Bret.lomm,loum'drop'
References:GPCII:2269,DGVB246,Stber
1998:82f.,87

Notes:ThefirstelementintheGaulish
EthnonymLatobicimightbederivablefrom
thisCelticetymon(Delamarre198,Meid2005:
54).
References:GPCII:2106,Delamarre198,Meid
2005:54.
ProtoCeltic:*luw'louse'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:llau[p];lleuen[Singulative]
MiddleBreton:louenn
Cornish:lewen(ki)gl.pediculus(OCo.),MoCo.
low
ProtoIndoEuropean:*lewh2'louse'
PageinPokorny:692
IEcognates:OEls

ProtoCeltic:*luxtu'1.contents;2.crowd,
people'[Noun]

References:GPCII:2103

OldIrish:lucht[um]'charge,contents,people'

ProtoCeltic:*lygo'calf'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:luidt,luith[m]'tribe,lineage,
family'(OW),MWluith,llwyth

OldIrish:loeg[om]

MiddleBreton:loit(OBret.)
Cornish:leidgl.progenies(OCo.)
Gaulish:luxtos[?Gen.s]
Notes:TheetymologyinPokorny(686)
derivingtheseCelticwordsfromPIE*lewg'
'break'isnotconvincingbecauseofthe
differenceinmeaning.InCeltic,thebasic
meaningis'contents'fromwhichthemeaning
'people'developedinasimilarmannerasinLat.
plbs<*pleh1'befull'.
References:GPCII:2248f.,Delamarre212,
Falileyev107,GPC2248,LHEB405,
Campanile1974:73
ProtoCeltic:*lto'furor,ardor[Noun]
OldIrish:lath[om]
MiddleWelsh:llawd[m]'heat(ofsow),sow's
desireforboar'

MiddleWelsh:lo(OW),MWllo[m]
MiddleBreton:lue
Cornish:lochgl.vitulus(OCo.),Co.lugh
ProtoIndoEuropean:*leh2p'cattle'
PageinPokorny:654
IEcognates:Alb.lope'cow',Latv.luops
'cattle'
Notes:TheCelticetymonmustbefrom
somethinglike*leh2pego.Themonosyllabic
formfoundinMWllomusthavebeen
remodeledaftertheplurallloeau(falsely
reinterpretedaslloeau,lloiau).
References:GPCII:2196,Schrijver309f.,
Falileyev105,LHEB451,Campanile1974:73
ProtoCeltic:*lmo,*limo'elm'[Noun]
OldIrish:lem[om]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 129

MiddleWelsh:llwyfen[Singulative];llwyf[p]

References:GPCII:2175,Delamarre212,
EllisEvans1967:218.

Gaulish:Lemouices[Ethnonym]>Limoges

ProtoCeltic:*madyo'break'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1leym'elm'

OldIrish:maidid,maid;mais,ma[Subj.];
memais,mema[Fut.];memaid[Pret.]

PageinPokorny:303
IEcognates:Lat.ulmus,Eelm,Russ.ilem
'mountainelm'

MiddleWelsh:maeddu'break,win'
MiddleBreton:mezaff'knead'

Notes:OIr.lem<*limo,Wllwyfen<*lm.
ThesewordsarenotrelatedtotheBaltoSlavic
wordsfor'linden(Russ.lipa,Lith.liepa,etc.),
assuggestedbysome(Vasmer,etc.).

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mad?(*mh2d)'bewet,
becomewet'

References:GPCII:2243,EIEC178,
Delamarre199,DeBernardoStempel246

IEcognates:Lat.madeo,Gr.mada

ProtoCeltic:*lro'complete,diligent'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:leir[i]'assiduous,earnest,diligent'

PageinPokorny:694f.

Notes:ThePIEreconstructionissemantically
andformallydubious(becauseofthevowel*a).
References:KPV464f.,GPCIII:2304,LIV421

MiddleWelsh:llwyr'whole'

ProtoCeltic:*madyo'futile,useless'
[Adjective]

MiddleBreton:loirgl.diligens(OBret.)

OldIrish:madae

References:GPCII:2246,DGVB245,Walde
HofmannII:323

MiddleWelsh:madeuineneitvadeu'lostsoul';
madau(GPCmaddau)'forfeit,giveup,lose'

ProtoCeltic:*ltu'anger,power'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:invadaugl.pessum(OBret.)

OldIrish:luth[um]'powerofmotion,vigour'

Seealso:*madyo'break'

MiddleWelsh:llid[m]'anger'

References:LEIAM6,GPCIII:2303

Gaulish:Lutumarus[PN]

ProtoCeltic:*magino'stone,place'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*lewHto

OldIrish:magen[,f]'place'

PageinPokorny:691

MiddleWelsh:maen[m]'stone';main,meini,
maenau[p]

IEcognates:OCSljut'angry'
Notes:TheGaulishPNLutumarushastheexact
parallelinOIr.luthmar'powerful'.TheIEpart
ofthisetymologyissomewhatspeculative,
sinceitreliesonlyonCelticandSlavic;
moreover,theCelticformsmustbefrom
*luHtu,whileOCSljutmustrepresent
*lewHto.

MiddleBreton:main(OBret.),maen,men[m]
Cornish:men
Notes:TheOIr.forminisacollectivebuilt
from*magino,likeLat.locafromlocus
References:LEIAM9,GPCIII:2306ff.,
DGVB250

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 130

ProtoCeltic:*maglo'noble,chief'[Noun]
OldIrish:mal[om]
MiddleWelsh:mael,fael(inPN)

IEcognates:Lat.maius
Notes:OIr.maigeisarare,poeticword.

MiddleBreton:mael(inPN,e.g.Tiernmael)

References:LEIAM10,Delamarre213,Meid
2005:197f.

Gaulish:Magalos,maglus[PN]

ProtoCeltic:*mako'increase'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meg'h2'great'
PageinPokorny:709

OldIrish:doformaig<*tuwormako
'increase,add';doforma[Subj.];doformacht
[Pret.]

IEcognates:Gr.megas,Go.mikils

MiddleWelsh:magu'feed,produce,rear'

References:LEIAM13,Delamarre213

MiddleBreton:maguaff'feed,rear'

ProtoCeltic:*magos'plain,field'[Noun]

Cornish:maga

OldIrish:mag[sn]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meh2k''grow,feed'

MiddleWelsh:maessid[p](OW),MWma[m
andf],maes

PageinPokorny:709(*meg'h)

MiddleBreton:ma(OBret.),maes(OBret.and
MBret.)

IEcognates:Lat.maceo'belean',Gr.makros
'big'
Seealso:*makwos'son'

Cornish:ma
Gaulish:magus(e.g.Noviomagus,
Rigomagus(

References:KPV466,GPCIII:2316
ProtoCeltic:*makwos'son'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meg'h2'great'(?)

OldIrish:macc[om]

PageinPokorny:709

MiddleWelsh:map[m](OW),MWmap(GPC
mab)

IEcognates:Lat.magnus'great',Gr.megas
Notes:MWmaesandMBret.maesshouldbe
derivedfromaformationin*tu,i.e.PCelt.
*magestu

MiddleBreton:mab,map(OBret.),MBret.mab
Cornish:mabgl.filius(OCo.),map
Gaulish:Maponos[Theonym]

References:LEIAM8,GPCIII:2293,DGVB
249f.,LHEB445,Delamarre214,Falileyev108

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meh2k'

ProtoCeltic:*magyo'great'[Adjective]

PageinPokorny:709(*meg'h)

OldIrish:maige[io]

IEcognates:Lat.macer'meagre',Gr.makros
'great'

Gaulish:Magios[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*meg'h2
PageinPokorny:709

Seealso:*mako'grow,increase'
Notes:TheIEetymologyproposedhereis
ratheruncertain(forsemanticreasons).

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 131

References:LEIAM1f.,GPCIII:2293f.,
DGVB249,Delamarre216,Falileyev109,
Campanile1974:75.

MiddleBreton:mam(m)

ProtoCeltic:*malo'grind'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mam(m)a'mommy'

OldIrish:meilid,meil;melaid,mela[Subj.];
melaid,mela[Fut.];milt,melt[Pret.];
mlethae,mleth[Pass.]

PageinPokorny:694

MiddleWelsh:malu

Seealso:*mtr

MiddleBreton:maleticgl.contritum[Past
Participle](OBret.),MBret.malaff'grind'

Notes:Theseformsarefromthechildren's
language,whilethe'formal'wordfor'mother'is
preservedinOIr.mathir.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*melh2'grind'
PageinPokorny:716f.
IEcognates:Lat.molo,Lith.malti,Arm.
malem
References:KPV470ff.,GPCIII:2326f.,
DGVB250,LIV432f.,LP381,LEIAM32,
Schrijver1995:81f.,Hamp1973:152.
ProtoCeltic:*malno'slow,lazy'[Adjective]
OldIrish:mall[o]
MiddleWelsh:mall'evil,sick,bad,dull'

Cornish:mamgl.mater(OCo.),MCo.mam

IEcognates:Lat.mamma,OHGmuoma

References:LEIAM71f.,GPCIII:2332f.,De
BernardoStempel1999:514ff.
ProtoCeltic:*manyo'think,remember'[Verb]
OldIrish:muinithir,muinethar'think';
menaithir,menathar[Subj.];menair[Pret.];
metae,met[Pret.Pass.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*men'think'
PageinPokorny:726ff.
IEcognates:Skt.manyate,Go.munan

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mel

References:KPV473ff.,LIV435f.,LP382f.,
LEIAM35

PageinPokorny:720

ProtoCeltic:*manti,*mant'quantity'[Noun]

IEcognates:Gr.mell'belate,must',Lat.pr
mello

OldIrish:meit[f]'greatness,magnitude'

Notes:Lat.prmellere,whichmeanslitem
promovereaccordingtoLewis&Short,s.v.,is
ahapax.ThemeaningofWmallaccordingto
GPCisnotasclosetothemeaningofOIr.mall,
asimpliedbyLEIA.Asanoun,mallmeans
'plague,pestilence'inW.
References:LEIAM15,GPCIII:2331
ProtoCeltic:*mamm(y)'mother,nanny'
[Noun]
OldIrish:muimme[if]'nurse,fostermother'
MiddleWelsh:mam[f]'mother'

MiddleWelsh:pamintgl.quam(OW);MW
maint
MiddleBreton:ment(OBret.)
Cornish:myns
ProtoIndoEuropean:*meh1'measure',*mh1
nt
PageinPokorny:703
IEcognates:Skt.mti'measures',Lat.mtior
Notes:Frenchmaint'several'preservesthe
GaulishcognateofthesameCelticword,

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 132

derivedfromthePIEparticiple*mh1nt.Itis
possiblethattherootisattestedinGaul.
anthroponymy,e.g.Caramantius.
References:LEIAM31f.,DGVB254,
Falileyev111,114,Schrijver1995:175

References:KPV476,LEIAM19,PedersenI:
44.
ProtoCeltic:*marko'horse'[Noun]
OldIrish:marc[om](apoeticword)

ProtoCeltic:*manto'gums,jaw'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:march[m];meirch[p]

MiddleWelsh:mant'mandible,gums'

MiddleBreton:marh(OBret.),MBret.march,
Bret.marc'h

ProtoIndoEuropean:*ment'jaw'
PageinPokorny:726
IEcognates:Lat.mentum'jaw'
Notes:OIr.mant'gums,jaw'(attestedinCorm.
2897)isaWloanwordaccordingtoDIL,s.v.It
ispossiblethatGaul.PNssuchasMantus,
Manta,Mantusa,etc.,alsocontainthisroot.
References:LEIAM17f.,Delamarre216
ProtoCeltic:*marna'betray,deceive'[Verb]
OldIrish:marnaid,mairn;meraid,mera
[Subj.];meraid,mera[Fut.],mirt,mert
[Pret.];mrathae,mrath[Pret.Pass.]

Cornish:marchgl.equus(OCo.),MCo.margh
Gaulish:markan[Acc.s],marcosior'mayIride'
[Verb]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*marko(?)'horse'
IEcognates:OHGmarah'horse'
Notes:Thiswordisprobablya"Wanderwort"
ofeasternorigin,thatestablisheditselfinCeltic
andGermanicalongsidetheinheritedPIEword
for'horse',*h1ek'wos(OIr.ech).Attemptsto
connectittoSkt.marya'youth,foal'arenot
convincing(CelticpointstononIEavocalism
of*marko).

ProtoIndoEuropean:*merh2'crumble,
destroy'

References:LEIA19f.,GPCIII:2353,DGVB
251,EIEC274,Lambert1994:63,125,167,
Delamarre217

PageinPokorny:735f.

ProtoCeltic:*markko'horseman'[Noun]

IEcognates:Skt.mrnti'crumble',Gr.ma
rnamai'fight',ONmerja'hit'

OldIrish:marcach[om]

Notes:TheconnectionwiththePIErootis
problematiconsemanticgrounds.
References:KPV477ff.,LIV440,LEIAM21,
McCone1991:15,30
ProtoCeltic:*maro'remain'[Verb]
OldIrish:maraid,mair'last,remain';marathair,
marathar[Subj.];meraid,mera[Fut.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*merH
PageinPokorny:969f.(*(s)mer)
IEcognates:Lat.mora'delay'

MiddleWelsh:marhauc[m](OW),MW
marchawc
MiddleBreton:marcocgl.aequester(OBret.),
MBret.marhec
Cornish:marrec
Seealso:*marko'horse'
References:LEIAM20,GPCIII:2357,DGVB
251,Falileyev110
ProtoCeltic:*marwo'dead'[Adjective]
OldIrish:marb[o]
MiddleWelsh:marw

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 133

MiddleBreton:marf,maru
Cornish:marow

Notes:Gr.matis'great'(Hesych.)isuncertain
(itisnotevenascertainedthatthewordis
Greek,itmightevenbeGalatian).

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mer'die',*mrto'dead'

References:LEIAM12f.,GPCIII:2300,EIEC
235f.,Lambert1994:109

PageinPokorny:735

ProtoCeltic:*maylo'bald'[Adjective]

IEcognates:Skt.mrta,Lat.mortuus,Gr.
(poetic)brotos'mortal'

OldIrish:mael[o]

Notes:InCeltic,theoriginalPIEadjective
*mrtowasremodelledontheanalogywith
*gwiHwos'alive'(Lat.uuus,etc.).Thereare
alsoparalleldenominativeverbalformationsin
OIr.(marbaid'kills')andBrit.(MWmarw,
merwi'die',MBret.meruel,MCo.merwel),
pointingtoPCelt.*marw.
References:LEIAM19,GPCIII:2364,LP7,
EIEC98

MiddleWelsh:mail(OW),MWmoel
MiddleBreton:moal
Cornish:ml
References:LEIAM6f.,GPCIII:2474f.,
Falileyev108,McCone1996:138.
ProtoCeltic:*mazdyo'stick'[Noun]
OldIrish:maide[iom]'post'

ProtoCeltic:*marwonatu'funerarypoem,
eulogy'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*masdo

OldIrish:marbnad[f]

PageinPokorny:702

MiddleWelsh:marwnad[fandm](GPC
marwnad,marnad)

IEcognates:Lat.mlus,OIc.mastr'mast'

MiddleBreton:marvnad(MoBret.)
References:LEIAN4,GPCIII:2368
ProtoCeltic:*mati'good'[Adjective]
OldIrish:maith[i]
MiddleWelsh:mad

Notes:Cp.alsoOIr.matan'club'<*mazdano.
References:LEIAM10,EIEC441
ProtoCeltic:*mebl'shame'[Noun]
OldIrish:mebul[f]
MiddleWelsh:mefl[m]

MiddleBreton:mat

MiddleBreton:meplaom(OBret.)'beashamed'
(gl.confutari)

Cornish:mas

Cornish:meul'evil'

Gaulish:mat.(Coligny)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mebh

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meh2t

IEcognates:Gr.memphomai'toblame',Go.
bimampjan'tomock'

PageinPokorny:693
IEcognates:Lat.mnis,mnus,Mtta
'goddessDawn'

References:LEIAM26,GPCIII:2404,DGVB
254,LP39,DeBernardoStempel1999:225.
ProtoCeltic:*medo'measure,judge'[Verb]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 134

OldIrish:midithir,midethar;mestair,mestar
[Subj.];miastair,miastar[Fut.];midair[Pret.];
messae,mess[Pret.Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:meddu'think,beable,rule'
Cornish:medhes'say'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*med'measure'

References:LEIAM34,
ProtoCeltic:*melgos'milk'[Noun]
OldIrish:melg[sn]
Seealso:*mligo

PageinPokorny:705f.

Notes:OIr.melgisaglossaryword.Itis
attestedinCorm.2861.

IEcognates:Lat.medeor'heal',modus
'measure',Go.mitan'measure'

References:LEIAM33,DeBernardoStempel
1999:142,144.

References:KPV478ff.,LIV423,GPCIII:
2394,LEIAM48f.,LP381f.

ProtoCeltic:*meli'honey'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*medyo'middle'[Noun]

OldIrish:mil[if]

OldIrish:mide[iom]

MiddleWelsh:mel[m](OWandMW)(GPC
mel)

MiddleBreton:med(OBret.),MBret.mezeven
'June'(lit.'middleofthesummer'

MiddleBreton:melgl.nectare(OBret.),Bret.
mel

Gaulish:Mediolanum[Placename]>Milano

Cornish:melgl.mel(OCo.)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*medhyo'middle'

Gaulish:Melissos[PN]

PageinPokorny:706

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meli'honey'

IEcognates:Skt.madhya,Lat.medius

PageinPokorny:724

Notes:MWuet,met'middle'ispresumably
fromthesameroot,butfinaltisdifficultto
accountfor.

IEcognates:Lat.mel,Gr.meli

References:LEIAM50,DGVB252,EIEC
380,Delamarre222

Notes:British*melino'yellow'(OWmelin,
melen,MWmelyn,OBret.milingl.flauus,OC
milingl.fuluus)probablyrepresentaderivative
fromthisword.

ProtoCeltic:*meldo'mild,pleasant'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:mell[om]
Gaulish:Maldi[Ethnonym](?)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*meld'tender,mild'
PageinPokorny:718

Seealso:*melino

References:LEIAM51,GPCIII:2418,DGVB
253,LP54,EIEC271,Falileyev111,
Campanile1974:78.
ProtoCeltic:*melino'yellow'[Adjective]
MiddleWelsh:melyn

IEcognates:Skt.mrdu,Lat.mollis

MiddleBreton:milin(OBret.)gl.flauus,Bret.
melen

Notes:ThenameofGaulishMaldiispreserved
inthetoponymMeauxinFrance.

Cornish:milingl.fuluusuelflauus(OCo.),
MCo.melyn

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 135

OldIrish:menme[nm]
Gaulish:Melinus[PN]
Seealso:*meli
Notes:RomanceadjectivessuchasSardicme
linu,RhaetoRomancemelen'yellow',are
presumablyfromtheunattestedGaulishformof
thisword.
References:GPCIII:2422,DGVB257,
Delamarre224

MiddleWelsh:mynw[?m]'nature,disposition'
MiddleBreton:meno(MoBret.)'opinion,
judgement'
Gaulish:Menmandutis[Dat.pTheonym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*menmn
PageinPokorny:726

ProtoCeltic:*melso'destruction'[Noun]

IEcognates:Skt.manman'mind,thought'

OldIrish:mell

Seealso:*men'think'

IEcognates:ToBml'towound,damage'

References:LEIAM37f.,GPCIII:2539,LP
55,Delamarre224,Schrijver1995:33,Stber
1998:13,172f.

Notes:TheOIr.wordisknownmostlyfrom
glossaries,butthereisadenominativeverb
millid'todestroy',andapossiblecognatein
OBret.milin'prostitute'
References:LEIAM33,EIEC258,DGVB
257,Hamp1973:153.

ProtoCeltic:*menno'youngofananimal,kid'
[Noun]
OldIrish:menn[om]
MiddleWelsh:myn[m]'younggoat,kid'

ProtoCeltic:*menekki'frequent,abundant'
[Adjective]

MiddleBreton:menn

OldIrish:meinicc[i]

Cornish:mingl.hedus

MiddleWelsh:mynych

References:LEIAM38,GPCIII:2533

Cornish:menough

ProtoCeltic:*mentyon'thought,mention'
[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*men
PageinPokorny:730
IEcognates:OEmanig,OCSmnog
Notes:Thedouble*kkinCelticisprobably
theresultofexpressivegemination;the
comparisonofPCelt.*menekand*monogh
impliedbySlavicandGermanicformspointsto
averyunIndoEuropeanshapeoftheroot.
Thesewordsmightbeloanwordsfromsome
unknownNWEuropeansource.
References:LEIAM37,GPCIII:2540,
Schrijver1995:33f.

OldIrish:toimtiu[nf]<*tomentyon
ProtoIndoEuropean:*mentiHon
PageinPokorny:726
IEcognates:Lat.menti
Seealso:*men'think'
References:Stber1998:127.
ProtoCeltic:*menwo'small,minute'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:menb[o]

ProtoCeltic:*menman'thought,mind'[Noun]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 136

MiddleWelsh:difanw,difenwi'weaken,
decrease,diminish,abuse'[Verb]<*d
menwo
ProtoIndoEuropean:*men'small'
PageinPokorny:728
IEcognates:Oscanmenvum'diminish',Gr.
mnos<*manwos'rare'
References:LEIAM37,GPCI:980,EIEC528
ProtoCeltic:*mendo'awl'[Noun]
OldIrish:menad[om]

PageinPokorny:736
IEcognates:OHGmaro,marawi'tender,soft'
Notes:French(dial.)marv'rigid,insensible'is
fromtheGaulishcognateofthesewords,cp.
Delamarre219.Cp.also*mero'crazy'.
References:LEIAM30,GPCIII:2434,
Delamarre219.
ProtoCeltic:*mesalk'blackbird'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:mwyalch[f]
MiddleBreton:moualc'h

MiddleWelsh:mynawyd[m](GPCmynawyd,
myniawyd)

Cornish:moelh(OCo.),MoCo.mola

MiddleBreton:menauet

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mesal

Cornish:benewas,benewez

PageinPokorny:35f.

References:LEIAM36,GPCIII:2534

IEcognates:Lmerula,OHGamusla,amsala

ProtoCeltic:*mero'crazy,silly'[Adjective]

Notes:Thiswordhasalltheappearancesofa
loanwordfromsomeunknownNWEuropean
source.

OldIrish:mer[o]
MiddleWelsh:meryerid,mererid
Notes:Wmererid,meryeridisnotattestedin
GPC(merierid'pearl'isofcourseanotherword,
borrowedfromLat.margarita).Cp.alsoWmerf
<*merwo'weak,insipid,useless'.Theformal
relationoftheWforms(iftheyexist)totheOIr.
adjectiveisnotclear,buttheyarecertainlyfrom
thesameroot.Itisassumedherethatthe
formationfoundinOIr.isoriginal.Noneofthe
deeperetymologiessuggestedbyLEIA(s.v.
mer)aremorethanguesses,butaconnection
withGr.mros'stupid'appearsprobable.
References:LEIAM39,DeBernardoStempel
1999:42

References:GPCIII:2516,MorrisJones1913:
101,Schrijver1995:281
ProtoCeltic:*mesko'mixed,confused'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:mesc[o]
MiddleWelsh:mysgi[m]'trouble,confusion';
mysgu'destroy,unravel,undo'
MiddleBreton:emesk'among'
Cornish:ynmysk'among'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*meyk'mix'

ProtoCeltic:*merwi'lifeless'[Adjective]

PageinPokorny:714

OldIrish:meirb[i]

IEcognates:Lat.misceo,OHGmiscan

MiddleWelsh:merw'limp,lifeless'(GPCmerf)

Notes:TheOIr.verbmescaid'mix',anditsW
cognate,mysgu,areprobablydeadjectival.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mer'die',*merwo
'lifeless'
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 137

References:LEIAM41f.,GPCIII:2543,De
BernardoStempel1999:277.

References:KPV483,GPCIII:2391,LIV442,
LP54

ProtoCeltic:*messu'acorn'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*metelo'reaper'[Noun]

OldIrish:mess[um]'acorns,treefruit'

OldIrish:methel[f]'atroop(ofreapers)'

MiddleWelsh:mes[p]mesen[Singulative]

MiddleWelsh:medel[f]'atroop(ofreapers)'

MiddleBreton:mes

Cornish:midilgl.messor(OCo.)

Cornish:mesen

Gaulish:?Metlosedum[Placename]>French
Melun

ProtoIndoEuropean:*med
PageinPokorny:706
IEcognates:Go.mats'food'
References:LEIAM43,GPCIII:2438
ProtoCeltic:*met(t)o'decay,blight'[Noun]
OldIrish:meth[oandi,nandm]
MiddleWelsh:methu'beunsuccessful,err,fail'
MiddleBreton:mez(Vannetaismeh)'shame'
Notes:ThegeminateisimpliedbytheBritish
formsand,perhaps,byOIr.metta'timid,
cowardly'.
References:LEIAM44,GPCIII:2445
ProtoCeltic:*meto'reap,cut'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:medi
MiddleBreton:midiff
Cornish:midzhi(MoCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*met'hit,reap'
PageinPokorny:703
IEcognates:Lat.meto,OCSmetati'throw',
Lith.mesti'throw'
Notes:LIVdoesnotrelatethisPIEverbalroot
toOCSmetati,Lith.mesti'throw',butIbelieve
theybelonghere,ratherthanwithaputative
root*met'reckon'(Gr.metron,etc.).

ProtoIndoEuropean:*met'throw,reap'
PageinPokorny:704
IEcognates:Lat.meto,OCSmetati,mesti
References:LEIAM45,GPCIII:2391,LP54,
Delamarre226,DeBernardoStempel1999:
382,452.
ProtoCeltic:*mezgo'whey'[Noun]
OldIrish:medg[om]
MiddleWelsh:meidd[m](GPCmaidd)
MiddleBreton:meid(OBret.)
Cornish:meith(MoCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*mesgo'marrow'
PageinPokorny:714
IEcognates:Skt.majjan,OHGmarg'marrow'
Notes:Frenchmegue'whey'issupposedtobe
fromGalloLatin*mesga,ultimatelyfromthe
GaulishcognateofOIr.medg,etc.
References:LEIAM28,GPCIII:2322,DGVB
253,Schrijver1995:376.
ProtoCeltic:*minV'changeposition'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:tramwy'movement',tramynu<
*trasmin'ridethrough'
MiddleBreton:tremen'passby'
Cornish:tremena

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 138

OldIrish:mind[un]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*mey'change'
PageinPokorny:710
IEcognates:Skt.mayati,Latv.miju[1sPres.]
'change'
Notes:MW(suppletive)verbalnounmynet'to
go,going'isprobablyrelatedtothesewords.
References:KPV485f.,GPCIII:3555,LIV
426,LP336
ProtoCeltic:*minu'bind'[Verb]
OldIrish:dodimen<*tudminu;todemi
[Pret.]

MiddleWelsh:minn(OW)(GPCmyn)
Notes:Falileyev(s.v.minn,minnou)thinksthat
thesewordscouldbeloanwordsfromOIr.
References:LEIAM53f.,GPCIII:2533,
Falileyev113f.,DeBernardoStempel1999:94,
232.
ProtoCeltic:*mlasto'taste'[Noun]
OldIrish:mlas,blas[o]
MiddleWelsh:blas[m]
MiddleBreton:blaz

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mey'bind'

Cornish:blas

PageinPokorny:709

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mels

IEcognates:Skt.minoti,Latv.miets'stake,
pole'

PageinPokorny:725

References:KPV484,LIV426,LEIAD131f.,
McCone1991:14

IEcognates:Russ.molsat''suck'
References:LEIAM56,GPCI:284

ProtoCeltic:*mikn'shine,look'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*mligo'milk'[Verb]

OldIrish:dimicnigid'despises,condemns'do
meiccethar'despises,dishonours'<*dmikn

OldIrish:mligid,mlig;meill,mell[Subj.];
mailg[Pret.];mlechtae,mlecht[Pret.Pass.]

MiddleWelsh:edmygu'admire',myged
'admiration'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2melg''milk'

MiddleBreton:dismegans'disdain'

PageinPokorny:722f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meyk'twinkle,blink'

IEcognates:Gr.amelg,Lat.mulgeo,OCS
mlzoN

PageinPokorny:712f.

References:KPV486ff.,LIV279

IEcognates:Lat.mico,micre'twinkle,vibrate',
ULusatianmikac

ProtoCeltic:*mlixto'milk'[Noun]

Notes:Pokorny(p.713)saysthattheOIr.forms
areloanwordsfromBritish,butthereisno
evidenceforthisclaim;OIr.ccistheregular
developmentof*kn.

OldIrish:mlicht[om]
MiddleWelsh:blith'fullofmilk,milch'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2melg'

References:LEIAM26f.

PageinPokorny:719

ProtoCeltic:*mindo'crown,diadem'[Noun]

Seealso:*mligo

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 139

Notes:Thiswordisoriginallyapassivepast
participleoftheverb'tomilk',PCelt.*mligo
References:LEIAM57,GPCI:287,De
BernardoStempel1999:162
ProtoCeltic:*mlto/i'tender,soft'[Adjective]
OldIrish:mlaith[i]
MiddleWelsh:blawd[m]'flour'
MiddleBreton:bleud[m]'flour',OBret.blot
Cornish:blot[m]'flour'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*melh?2'grind'
PageinPokorny:716
Seealso:*malo
References:LEIAM56,GPCI:284,LP54,
DGVB86,DeBernardoStempel1999:293,
Hamp1973:151f.,McCone1996:52
ProtoCeltic:*mogu'servant'[Noun]
OldIrish:mug[um]
MiddleWelsh:meudwy[m]'servantofGod,
hermit'

MiddleBreton:moch(OBret.),Bret.moc'h
Cornish:mow,mogh
Gaulish:Moccos[Theonym](?),Catomocus
[PN}
Notes:OIr.muccwasoriginallyanustem,as
confirmedbytheuaffectionoftherootvowel
(GOI195).
References:LEIAM68f.,GPCIII:2468,GOI
195,DGVB258,DeBernardoStempel1999:
96f.,Delamarre228,Meid2005:149f.
ProtoCeltic:*mol'praise'[Verb]
OldIrish:molaithir,molathar(DILmolaid)
MiddleWelsh:molim[VerbalNoun](OW),
MWmoli
MiddleBreton:meuliff
References:LEIAM62,GPCIII:2479,
Falileyev114.
ProtoCeltic:*molto'ram,wether'[Noun]
OldIrish:molt[om]
MiddleWelsh:mollt[m]

MiddleBreton:mao'strong,happy'

MiddleBreton:mout,maout

Cornish:maw

Cornish:molsgl.uerues(OCo.),MCo.mols

Gaulish:Magurix[PN]

Gaulish:Moltus[PN]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*maghu'youngperson'

Notes:Frenchmoutonisderivedfromthelost
gaulishwordfor'ram'(GalloLatin*multo,
nis),whichwasetymologicallyrelatedtothe
adducedInsularCelticwords.

PageinPokorny:695
IEcognates:Go.mawi'younggirl',Av.maava
'unmarried'
References:LEIAM70f.,GPCIII:2448,EIEC
656,DeBernardoStempel1999:97f.,174
ProtoCeltic:*mokku'pig'[Noun]
OldIrish:mucc[f]

References:LEIAM62,GPCIII:2482,LP47,
Delamarre228,DeBernardoStempel1999:
442.
ProtoCeltic:*mong'mane,hair'[Noun]
OldIrish:mong'alockortuftofhair'[f]
MiddleWelsh:mwng[m]

MiddleWelsh:moch[f]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 140

MiddleBreton:mogou[p]gl.comas(OBret.),
MBret.moe

ProtoCeltic:*morwi'ant'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mong'mane'

OldIrish:moirb[if]

IEcognates:OEmanu,Danishmanke

MiddleWelsh:myr[f](GPCmyr,myrr)

Seealso:*moni'neck'

MiddleBreton:meryenenn,MoBret.merien

References:LEIAM63,GPCIII:2508,DGVB
258,LP34,DeBernardoStempel1999:60.

Cornish:mwrrian(MoCo.)

ProtoCeltic:*moni'neck'[Noun]
OldIrish:muin[if]
MiddleWelsh:mwn[mandf]
MiddleBreton:mun(OBret.)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*morwi'ant'
PageinPokorny:749
IEcognates:Skt.vamra,Avestanmaoiri,OE
myre,Gr.myrmos

PageinPokorny:747f.

Notes:ThePIEformisnotoriouslydifficultto
reconstruct.ThePIEistemimpliedbythe
agreementbetweenOIr.andAvestanis
probablyolderthanthethematicformfoundin
Skt.(whichalsoinvolvesmetathesis).

IEcognates:OHGmana'mane',Av.manaori
'neck'

References:LEIAM60,GPCIII:2542,EIEC
24,Matasovic2004:92

Seealso:*mong'mane'

ProtoCeltic:*mor'femaledemon'[Noun]

References:LEIAM72,GPCIII:2509,DGVB
261,EIEC391f.,DeBernardoStempel1999:
65,310.

OldIrish:morrigain[f]'femaledemon'

ProtoCeltic:*mori'sea'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:736

OldIrish:muir[in]

IEcognates:OHGmara,Russ.mora

MiddleWelsh:mor

References:LEIAM64,EIEC181,612,634

MiddleBreton:mor(OBret.),MBret.mor

ProtoCeltic:*moxs'early'[Adverb]

Cornish:morgl.mare(OCo.),MCo.mor

OldIrish:mos

Gaulish:Morini[Ethnonym]

MiddleWelsh:moch

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mori'sea,standing
water'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*moksu'early'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*moni'neck'

PageinPokorny:748
IEcognates:Lat.mare,OHGmari,meri,OCE
morje
References:LEIAM73,GPCIII:2485,EIEC
503,DGVB259,Delamarre229

ProtoIndoEuropean:*moreh2'femaledemon'

IEcognates:Skt.maksu,Lat.mox
Notes:OIr.moch'early'isaloanwordfrom
British.
References:LEIAM65,GPCIII:2469
ProtoCeltic:*moxto'soft,tender'[Adjective]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 141

OldIrish:mocht[o]

ProtoCeltic:*mrakno'smelly,foul,putrid'
[Adjective]

MiddleWelsh:mwyth[m]'luxury,ease,
pleasure'

OldIrish:bren[o]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mewk'soft'

MiddleWelsh:braen

PageinPokorny:744

MiddleBreton:breyn

IEcognates:Lat.mcor'mould'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*merk

References:LEIAM58,GPCIII:2525,De
BernardoStempel1999:438

PageinPokorny:739

ProtoCeltic:*moyni'treasure,preciousobject'
[Noun]
OldIrish:moin[f]
MiddleWelsh:muin[m](OW),MWmwyn
'worth,value'

IEcognates:Lat.marceo'towither,droop',Lith.
merkiu'soak'
References:LEIAB84f.,GPCI:305,De
BernardoStempel252,258
ProtoCeltic:*mraki'malt'[Noun]
OldIrish:mraich>braich[im]

MiddleBreton:moingl.dulcisamica(OBret.),
Bret.moan'thin'

MiddleWelsh:brag[m]

Cornish:muingl.gracilis(OCo.)

MiddleBreton:bragez[wheatmalt]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meyn'common'

Cornish:brag

PageinPokorny:710

Gaulish:*brakis(genusfarrisquodGalli
bracemuocant(Pliny))

IEcognates:Lat.mnus'duty,charge',Go.ga
mains'common'
Notes:ThedevelopmentofmeaninginBreton
andCornishwasfrom'beautiful'to'gracile'and
(inBreton)'thin'.TheoriginalmeaninginPIE
mayhavebeen'(precious)pieceofproperty'
References:LEIAM60,GPCIII:2519,DGVB
258,EIEC184,GPC2519,Falileyev115

IEcognates:Lat.fraces'dregsofoil',marceo'to
wither,droop,shrink'
References:LEIAM66,GPCI:306,De
BernardoStempel1999:65f.
ProtoCeltic:*mrato'deceit'[Noun]
OldIrish:mrath>brath[on]

ProtoCeltic:*moyto'tender'[Adjective]

MiddleWelsh:brad[mandf]'treachery,trick'

OldIrish:moith[i]

MiddleBreton:bratgl.seditione(OBret.),
MBret.barat

MiddleWelsh:mwydion[p]'tenderpartsof
thebody';mwydyn[m]'pulp,softinnerpart'

Cornish:bras

MiddleBreton:boedenn'marrow'

Seealso:*marna

Seealso:*meyti

References:LEIAM67,GPCI:304,DGVB89

References:LEIAM61,GPCIII:2517
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 142

ProtoCeltic:*mrixto'variegated,diversified,
painted'[Adjective]
OldIrish:mrecht

References:LEIAM68,GPCI:329f.,DGVB
90,EIEC77,Lambert1994:36,190,Delamarre
91.
ProtoCeltic:*mukV'smoke'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:brith(OW)gl.pictam,Wbrith
MiddleBreton:briz
Cornish:bruit

OldIrish:much[f]
MiddleWelsh:mwg[m]
MiddleBreton:mog,moug'hearth'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*merh2gw
PageinPokorny:733f.
IEcognates:Gr.amorbos'dark',Lith.margas
'variegated'
Notes:Cp.alsoWdenominalverbbritho
'speckle,colour'.IfthePIEsideofthis
etymologyiscorrect,thelossoflaryngealin
Celticisunexpected.TheCelticformspointto
thezerograde*mrgwto;perhapsthelossof
laryngealwasgeneralizedfromtheformswhere
itwasregular,asinGr.amorbos<*nmorgwo
withtheregularlossof*Hafter*oR.

Cornish:mok
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)mewg'h'smoke'
PageinPokorny:971
IEcognates:Gr.smykh'burninmoldering
fire',OEsmoca,Arm.mux
Notes:TheOIr.formsaredifficultinthatthey
presupposelong*,butcp.theverbalnoun
muchad(tomuchaid'stifle,quench').Thenoun
muchispoorlyattested,chieflyinglossaries.

References:LEIAM67,GPCI:326,EIEC
147,Falileyev19.

References:LEIAM69f.,GPCIII:2507f.,LP
41,EIEC529,DeBernardoStempel1999:58,
97

ProtoCeltic:*mrogi'territory,region'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*mustko'boy'[Noun]

OldIrish:mruig>bruig[im]

OldIrish:MOSAC[?Gen.s](Ogam)

MiddleWelsh:bro[f];brofydd,broedd[p]

IEcognates:Lat.mustus'young'

MiddleBreton:bro(OBret.),Bret.bro

Notes:OIr.MOSACisthetranslationofLat.
puerintheOgaminscriptionofCrickhowelin
Wales,no.327inMacalister'snotation
(TVRPILLIICIACITPVVERITRILVNI
DVNOCATI=TURPILIMOSAC
TRALLONI).Itispresumablyaderivativein*
kofromthesamerootasLat.mustus(cp.also
Lat.mustax'akindoflaurel'),butaPIE
etymologycannotbefound.Itispossiblethat
Spanishmozo'boy,servant,waiter'shouldbe
derivedfromCeltic(?Celtiberian)*musso,
fromthesamerootas*mussko(Marcus
Obaya,p.c.).

Cornish:bro
Gaulish:Brogimaros[PN];brogaeGalliagrum
dicunt(schol.Juven.8.234)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*morg''frontier'
PageinPokorny:738
IEcognates:Lat.marg'frontier,margin',Go.
marka'frontier'
Notes:TheCelticformsmustbeexplainedby
metathesis(*morgi>*mrogi).

ProtoCeltic:*musso'dirty'[Adjective]
OldIrish:mosach[o]
MiddleWelsh:mws'stinky,smelly'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 143

MiddleBreton:mous'litter,garbage'

MiddleBreton:mor(OBret.),MoBret.meur

Cornish:mousak,mosek'smelly'

Cornish:maurgl.magnus(OCo.),MCo.mur

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mewd

Gaulish:maros(inPN,e.g.Iantumarus)

PageinPokorny:742

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meh1,*moh1ro'great'

IEcognates:mysos'filth'

PageinPokorny:704

Notes:Theformsattestedactuallypresuppose
both*mussoand*mussako,cp.alsoOBret.
admosoigl.inrogaueritmaculamandOIr.
mosar'dirt'.

IEcognates:OHGmri'news;known,famous,
great',Gr.mros(incompounds)

References:LEIAM65,GPCIII:2512,DGVB
54.
ProtoCeltic:*m,*ma'if'[Conjunction]
OldIrish:ma,ma
MiddleBreton:ma(OBret.),MBret.ma,mar
Cornish:mar

Notes:AllCelticforms(andGr.mros)canbe
derivedfrom*moh1ro,whiletheegradeis
attestedinotherlanguages.ThePCelt.
superlativeofthisadjectivewassuppletive
*msamo(OIr.maam,moam,OBret.meham,
OWmuihiam,Corn.moygha.
References:LEIAM18,GPCIII:2379,EIEC
344,DGVB259,Falileyev110,Campanile
1974:81,Lambert1994:28,32,Delamarre218,
Meid2005:92f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meh2

ProtoCeltic:*mko'sack,bushel(ofgrain)'
[Noun]

PageinPokorny:966

OldIrish:miach[om]

IEcognates:Gr.mn

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meyg'(h)'barley,grain'

Notes:TheshortvowelseeninOIr.maand
MBret.macouldperhapsbeexplainedby
shorteninginmonosyllables.

IEcognates:OPr.moasis'barley',Latv.(p)mi
ei'barley'

References:LEIAM1,DGVB248ff.
ProtoCeltic:*mni'turf,peat'[Noun]
OldIrish:moin[if]
MiddleWelsh:mawn[p];mawnen[Singulative]
MiddleBreton:man(MoBret.)

Notes:Aratheruncertainetymology,sincethe
meaningsdonotmatch,andthedevoicingof*g
>*kinCelticisirregular.
References:LEIAM47,EIEC51
ProtoCeltic:*mni'mineral,metal'[Noun]
OldIrish:mein,mian'ore,metal,mineral'[if]
MiddleWelsh:mwyn[m]

References:LEIAM60,GPCIII:2378,EIEC
639

MiddleBreton:mengleuz'mine'

ProtoCeltic:*mro'great'[Adjective]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)mey'hew,cut'

OldIrish:mar,mor[o]

PageinPokorny:968

MiddleWelsh:maur(OW),MWmawr
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 144

IEcognates:Go.aizasmi?a'smith',Gr.sminys
'axe'
Notes:Frenchmine(and,ultimately,English
mine)arederivedfromaGalloLatinmina,
whichistheGaulishcounterparttoOIr.mein,
etc.
References:LEIAM29,GPCIII:2519
ProtoCeltic:*mno'wish'[Noun]
OldIrish:mian[on>m]'wish'

MiddleBreton:me
Cornish:my,me
Gaulish:mi(asverbalsuffixonly)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*m
PageinPokorny:702
IEcognates:Lat.m(d)

PageinPokorny:714

Notes:InPCelt.twoformsmustbeposited,the
stressed*mandtheclitic(andshortened)*me.
ThiscliticlaterrelengthenedtoyieldOIr.
(emphaticpronoun)me.AlreadyinPIE,this
wasthesuppletiveAcc.s.tothe1stperson
singularpersonalpronoun*eg'h2om(Lat.ego
etc.)whichleftnotracesinCeltic.

IEcognates:OEmn'meaning',ToBonmim(<
*opimeyno)'remorse'

References:LEIA25f.,GPCIII:2542,EIEC
454,Falileyev112f.,Lambert1994:66

References:LEIAM47,GPCIII:2519,EIEC
410

ProtoCeltic:*mlo'animal'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:mwyn[m]'enjoyment,delight,
profit,treasure'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*meyno'opinion'

OldIrish:mil[on]

ProtoCeltic:*mto,*meyti'fat,soft'
[Adjective]

MiddleWelsh:mil[m]

OldIrish:meth[oandi]'fat'

MiddleBreton:mil[m]

MiddleWelsh:mwyd'soft,tender'

Cornish:mil

MiddleBreton:boueden'marrow'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meh1lo'smallanimal'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mey(H)t

PageinPokorny:724

PageinPokorny:711f.

IEcognates:Gr.me?lon,OCSmal'small'

IEcognates:Lat.mtis'mild,mellow'

References:LEIAM51,GPCIII:2455,DGVB
256,DeBernardoStempel1999:44.

Notes:Pokornyassumesthatthesewordsare
relatedtowordslikeOCSmil'dear',Latv.at
mist'becomesoft',etc.,inwhichcasetheBalto
Slavicintonationwouldimplythattheroot
containedalaryngeal.

ProtoCeltic:*mros'pieceofmeat,food'
[Noun]
OldIrish:mir[sn]'morsel,pieceofmeat'

References:LEIAM44

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mmsro'meat'

ProtoCeltic:*m,*me'I'[Pronoun,Acc.s]

PageinPokorny:725

OldIrish:me,mes(s)e

IEcognates:Skt.mmsa,Lat.membrum'part
ofthebody,limb',Go.mimz

MiddleWelsh:mi

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 145

References:LEIAM55,LP22,180,EIEC
375,DeBernardoStempel1999:102,232

Notes:Cp.alsothedenominativeverbOIr.mu
naid'piss'.

ProtoCeltic:*mns'month'[Noun]

References:LEIAM74

OldIrish:mi[sm>f]

ProtoCeltic:*nadsko'bind'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:mis[m]
MiddleBreton:mis(OBret.),MBret.miz

OldIrish:nascaid,naisc;naiss,na;nenais,
nenai[Fut.];nenaisc[Pret.];nassae,nass[Pret.
Pass.]

Cornish:misgl.mensis(OCo.),MCo.mys

MiddleBreton:nasca'bind'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*meh1ns'month,moon'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*Hnedh

PageinPokorny:703

PageinPokorny:758(*ned)

IEcognates:Skt.ms,Lat.mnsis

IEcognates:Skt.nahyati

Notes:InthePIEparadigmNom.sis*meh1ns,
Gen.sis*meh?1ness(cp.Latv.mness).This
paradigmwasremodelledinCeltic.Thestem
*meh1nswasfirstintroducedtotheoblique
stem,andthencespreadtotheNom.s.Celtic
maysharethisdevelopmentwithItalic,cp.Lat.
mnsis.TheNs*mnswasthenformedby
theregulardevelopmentsof*ns>s(s)and*
>.

Notes:Schumacher'salternativereconstruction
ofthePIEroot(*neHd,KPV489)appearsless
probabletome;Lat.ndus'knot'andGermanic
*natja'net'areprobablyfromanotherPIEroot,
asassumedbyLIV.
References:KPV489ff.,LIV227,LEIAN4,
LP383
ProtoCeltic:*nak(k)i'not'[Particle]

References:LEIAM46,GPCIII:2465,DGVB
257,EIEC385

OldIrish:nacc,naicc

ProtoCeltic:*mg'conceal'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:na,nac(OW),MWna(d)

OldIrish:formuigthe'smothered,concealed'

MiddleBreton:na,nac

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mewg'cheat,deceive'

Cornish:na(g)

PageinPokorny:734f.

References:LEIAN1,GPCIII:2545,
Falileyev116.

IEcognates:Lat.muger'dicecheat',MEmicher
'thief'

ProtoCeltic:*nanti'fight,battle'[Noun]

References:EIEC154

OldIrish:neit[im]

ProtoCeltic:*mno'urine'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*nent'combat,fight'

OldIrish:mun[m,perhapsearliern]

PageinPokorny:755

ProtoIndoEuropean:*mewH'wash,make
wet'

IEcognates:Go.ananan?jan'dare',ToAnati
'might,strength'

IEcognates:Skt.mtram'urine',OCSmyti
'wash'

Notes:ItisverydoubtfuliftheTocharianforms
arerelatedtothisroot(cp.alsoToBnete'might,

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 146

strength',sincethe*nshouldhavebeen
preserved.
References:LEIAN7,EIEC201,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:284.,Lindeman1999.
ProtoCeltic:*nanto'stream,valley'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:nant[mandf]
MiddleBreton:nant
Cornish:nansgl.vallis(OCo.),MoCo.nance,
nans
Gaulish:nanto(Vienne)*nanto>Frenchdial.
nant,Nantolium[Toponym]
Notes:ConceivablyPCelt.*nantocanbefrom
*nmtoandrelatedto*nemeto'grove'

duscelinatia(Larzac),ifthecorrect
morphologicalanalysisofthisformisdusceli
natia.TheseCelt.wordscouldberelatedto
PIE*(s)neh1'sew'(Wnyddu).Thesemantic
developmentcouldbeexplainedintermsofthe
poeticmetaphor,wherebyapoemisidentified
withathread(Matasovic1996:150).Thesame
rootisreflectedinWnawdd'patronage,support'
<*nh1tu.
References:LEIAN4,GPCIII:2547,Lambert
1994:168,Matasovic1996:105.
ProtoCeltic:*naw'boat'[Noun]
OldIrish:nau[f]
MiddleWelsh:noe[fandm]'largevase,bowl'
MiddleBreton:nev(MoBret.)'vase'

References:GPCIII:2551,Delamarre231

ProtoIndoEuropean:*neh2u'boat'

ProtoCeltic:*natrik'serpent'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:755

OldIrish:nathir[kf]

IEcognates:Skt.nu,Lat.nuis,Arm.naw

MiddleWelsh:neidr[f]

References:LEIAN5,GPCIII:2592,EIEC
74,DeBernardoStempel1999:27,32,McCone
1994:73

MiddleBreton:natrolion(OBret.)[p]gl.
regulosis,Bret.(n)azr
Cornish:nadergl.viperavelserpensvelanguis
(OCo.)

ProtoCeltic:*newe'or'[Conjunction]
OldIrish:no

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)nh2tr'watersnake'

MiddleWelsh:neu,nou

PageinPokorny:747

ProtoIndoEuropean:*newe'or...not'

IEcognates:Lat.natrx,Go.nadre[Genp]

PageinPokorny:75,757

References:LEIAN4f,GPCIII:2565,LP46,
DGVB264,DeBernardoStempel1999:180ff.

IEcognates:Lat.neue,neu

ProtoCeltic:*natu'poem'[Noun]
OldIrish:nath[un,m,andf]'poem,elogy'
MiddleWelsh:nad[fandm]'clamor,cry,
poem'

References:LEIAN18,GPCIII:2574f.,
Falileyev121f.,Schrijver1997:160
ProtoCeltic:*neft'niece,sister'sdaughter'
[Noun]
OldIrish:necht[f]

Seealso:*sntu'thread'

MiddleWelsh:nith[f]

Notes:Lambert(1994:168)speculatesthatthis
PCelticwordmightbecontainedinGaulish

MiddleBreton:nithgl.nepta(OBret.),MBret.
nyz

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 147

Cornish:noitgl.neptis(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*neptih2'niece'

References:LEIAN6,GPCIII:2560,DGVB
265,Falileyev118,GOI311,Delamarre235.

PageinPokorny:764

ProtoCeltic:*nemeto'sacredplace,sanctuary'
[Noun]

IEcognates:Skt.napt,Lat.neptis,OHGnift

OldIrish:nemed[on>m]

Seealso:*neft'nephew'

MiddleWelsh:Eidnivet(OW)[PN]

References:LEIAN15,GPCIII:2584

MiddleBreton:Iudnimet(OBret.)[PN]

ProtoCeltic:*neft'nephew,sister'sson'

Gaulish:nemeton

OldIrish:nia[dm],NIOTTA(Ogam)[Gens]

Seealso:*nemos

MiddleWelsh:nei[m](GPCnai)

References:LEIAN9,EIEC248,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:455,Delamarre233f.

MiddleBreton:ny
Cornish:noigl.nepos(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*nepts'nephew,
descendant'
PageinPokorny:764
IEcognates:Skt.napt,Lat.neps,OHGnefo
References:LEIAN15,GPCIII:2549f.,EIEC
239,392,Campanile1974:83,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:166.
ProtoCeltic:*nekwo'someone'[Pronoun]
OldIrish:nech
MiddleWelsh:nepp(OW),MWneb
MiddleBreton:nep(OBret.),MBret.nep

ProtoCeltic:*nemo'poison'[Noun]
OldIrish:neim[sn]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*nemos'that,whichis
taken'
PageinPokorny:763
IEcognates:Go.niman
Notes:Vendryesrejectsthisetymologyon
semanticgrounds.
References:LEIAN7,DeBernardoStempel
1999:142
ProtoCeltic:*nemos'heaven,sky'[Noun]
OldIrish:nem[sn]
MiddleWelsh:nem[fandm](OW),MWnef

Cornish:nep
Gaulish:nepon[Acc.s](Larzac)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*nekwo
PageinPokorny:645
Notes:Indefinitepronounformedwiththe
negativeprefix.Thereisasimilarformation,
e.g.,inSlavic,cp.Croatiannetko'someone'.
ThemeaningofGaul.neponisnotcompletely
ascertained.

MiddleBreton:nem(OBret.),MBret.neff
Cornish:nefgl.celum(OCo.),MCo.nef
ProtoIndoEuropean:*nebhos'cloud,cloudy
sky'
PageinPokorny:315
IEcognates:Hitt.npis'sky',Skt.nabhas
'cloud',OCSnebo'sky'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 148

Notes:Theirregular*moftheCelticformsis
bestexplainedastheresultofassimilation
(n...bh>n...m).
References:LEIAN8,GPCIII:2561,DGVB
265,EIEC110,Falileyev118,Campanile1974:
82,DeBernardoStempel1999:140,142,148,
Campanile1974:82.

MiddleWelsh:dineu<*dnewo'flow,pour'
MiddleBreton:dinou<*dnewo'pourout'
Cornish:dynwa[3sSubj.]<*dnewo
ProtoIndoEuropean:*new

ProtoCeltic:*nero'hero'

PageinPokorny:767

OldIrish:ner[?om]'boar'

IEcognates:Lat.adnuo,Gneu

MiddleWelsh:ner[m]'chief,hero'(GPCner)

References:KPV491ff.,LIV455f.,

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2nr'man'

ProtoCeltic:*nexso'wound'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:765

OldIrish:ness'wound'

IEcognates:Gr.anr,Alb.njeri'person',Osc.
ner

MiddleWelsh:nych[m]'pain'
MiddleBreton:nec'h'pain'

Seealso:*nerto
Notes:TheCelticformshavegeneralizedthe
fullgradefromtheaccusatives(PIE*h2nerm).

ProtoIndoEuropean:*nek''die,perish'
PageinPokorny:762

References:LEIAN10,GPCIII:2571,
Matasovic2004:83

IEcognates:Skt.nasyati'perish',Lat.nex
'death'

ProtoCeltic:*nesso'closer'(comparative)
[Adjective]

Notes:TheOIr.wordisknownonlyfrom
glossaries,soitsgenderandstemformationare
unknown.

OldIrish:nessa

References:LEIAN11,GPCIII:2602

MiddleWelsh:nes(OWandMW)
MiddleBreton:nes,nessoch
Cornish:nes,nessa
Gaulish:neamon[Genp]'proximorum'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*nedso
PageinPokorny:758
IEcognates:Oscannessimas'proximae'
References:LEIAN12,GPCIII:2573,DGVB
266,LP21,Falileyev119,GPC2573.
ProtoCeltic:*newo'nod,assentto'[Verb]
OldIrish:asnoi<*eksnewo'swear'

ProtoCeltic:*nigyo'wash'[Verb]
OldIrish:nigid,nig;neiss,ne[Subj.];ninis,
nin[Fut.];nenaig[Pret.];nechtae,necht[Pret.
Pass.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*neygw'wash'
PageinPokorny:761
IEcognates:Skt.nij,Gr.niz,nipt
References:KPV493ff.,LIV450,LP358,
LEIAN16f.,D170f.
ProtoCeltic:*ninati'nettle'[Noun]
OldIrish:nenaid[if]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 149

MiddleWelsh:dynat[p](GPCdanadl);
danhadlen,dynhaden[Singulative]
MiddleBreton:linad
Cornish:linhadengl.urtica(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*neh2t/d

ProtoIndoEuropean:*newH'cry,roar'
PageinPokorny:767
IEcognates:Skt.navate,ToAnus
References:LEIAN24,LIV411.

PageinPokorny:758

ProtoCeltic:*nowameto'ninth'[Ordinal
Number]

IEcognates:OEnetele,Lith.notryne

OldIrish:nomad

Notes:Britishformsmustbeexplainedby
dissimilation(*n...n>*d...n).Correspondences
inotherIElanguages,aswellastheir
distribution,implythatthisisanoldloanword
fromsomeunknownnonIEsource.Germanic
formscanbederivedfrom*nad(ila)(cp.also
OHGnazza,nezzila),with*dinsteadof*t.

MiddleWelsh:nawfet(GPCnawfed)

References:LEIAN9f.,GPCI:886,De
BernardoStempel1999:68

Seealso:*newan'nine'

MiddleBreton:nauvet,naovet
Cornish:nawhwas(MoCo.)
Gaulish:nametos

ProtoCeltic:*nino'ashtree'[Noun]

References:LEIAN20,GPCIII:2557,
Lambert1994:132.

OldIrish:nin[om]

ProtoCeltic:*nowan'nine'[Number]

MiddleWelsh:nihn(OW)

OldIrish:noi[nasalizing]

References:LEIAN17,Falileyev120

MiddleWelsh:nauou(OW),MWnaw

ProtoCeltic:*nizdo'nest'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:nau(OBret.),MBret.nau,Bret.
nao

OldIrish:net[om,sometimesf]
MiddleWelsh:nyth[mandf]
MiddleBreton:nez
Cornish:neidgl.nidus(OCo.),MCo.nyth
ProtoIndoEuropean:*nisdo'nest'
PageinPokorny:887
IEcognates:Lat.ndus,OHGnest,Lith.lizdas
References:LEIAN12,GPCIII:2604,EIEC
393,Campanile1974:82,Uhlich2002:416.

Cornish:naw
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(h1)newn'nine'
PageinPokorny:318f.
IEcognates:Skt.nava,Lat.nouem,Gr.ennea
Notes:Britishformscanbederivedfrom
*nawan<*nowan.
References:LEIAN20,GPCIII:2555,EIEC
403,DGVB264,Falileyev118
ProtoCeltic:*noxtV'night'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*nowslo'cry,shout'[Noun]

OldIrish:innocht'tonight'

OldIrish:nuall[on]

MiddleWelsh:peunoeth'everynight',OWhe
noid'tonight'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 150

MiddleBreton:hanoez'tonight'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*nu

Cornish:haneth'tonight'

PageinPokorny:770

Gaulish:trinox(tion)'threenights'(Coligny),
decamnoctiacis(Limoges)

IEcognates:Skt.nu,Lat.nunc,Go.nu

ProtoIndoEuropean:*nokwt'night'

References:LEIAN23,Delamarre237,
Schrijver1997:160.

PageinPokorny:762

ProtoCeltic:*nmant'enemy'[Noun]

IEcognates:Hitt.nekuz(mehur)'atnight',Skt.
nakt,Gnyks,Lat.nox,Alb.nate

OldIrish:namae[tm]

Notes:MWnosisaloanwordfromLatin(nox);
theCelticformispreservedonlyinthe
adverbialform,justasinOIr.(butseeFalileyev
121foradifferentopinion:OWnos<PCelt.
noktstu).
References:LEIAN19,GPCIII:2790,EIEC
394,Falileyev82f.,DeBernardoStempel1999:
36,Delamarre237,Meid2005:58.
ProtoCeltic:*noxto'naked'[Adjective]
OldIrish:nocht[o]
MiddleWelsh:noeth
MiddleBreton:noit(OBret.),MBret.noaz
Cornish:noeth,noyth
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ngw'nakedbody',
*nogwo'naked'
PageinPokorny:769
IEcognates:Skt.nagnas,Lat.ndus,Lith.nu
ogas
Notes:OBret.noitmightbethesameword,but
themeaningofthisglossisuncertain(itmight
mean'naked').

Gaulish:Namanto,Namantius,Adnamatus
[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*nh2emnt
Notes:Ifthisetymology,whichstemsfrom
Cormac(2981),iscorrect,thisisanegated
presentparticipleoftheverbrelatedtoLat.amo
'love'.However,itlooksdangerouslylikeafolk
etymology,andtheroot*h2em(>PCelt.*am)
isunattestedinCeltic.
References:LEIAN2,Lambert1994:33,
Delamarre231,Meid2005:159f.
ProtoCeltic:*nro'noble,greathearted'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:nar[o]'modest,noble'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2enr'manlystrength'
PageinPokorny:765(*nert)
IEcognates:Lith.noras'will',Hitt.innar
'forcefully'
References:LEIAN3,EIEC548,Schrijver
1995:445f.
ProtoCeltic:*nbo'vigor,vitalspirit'[Noun]
OldIrish:niab[om]'vigor',

References:LEIAN19,GPCIII:2592,DGVB
271,EIEC45DeBernardoStempel1999:440.

MiddleWelsh:nwyf[m]

ProtoCeltic:*nu'now'[Adverb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*neybho'holy'

OldIrish:nu

PageinPokorny:760

Gaulish:nu(Lezoux)

IEcognates:OPers.naiba'good,beautiful'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 151

Seealso:*neym

ProtoCeltic:*obnu'fear'[Noun]

Notes:ThemeaningofMIr.niabissomewhat
uncertain,butcp.thedenominativeverbni
abaid'provokes,incites'.Cp.alsoOIr.noib
'holy'[o]<PCelt.*noybo.Gaul.PNNoibiois
probablyfromthesameroot.

OldIrish:omun[um]

References:LEIAN16,N20,GPCIII:2600,
Meid2005:202,DeBernardoStempel1999:
280.

Cornish:own

ProtoCeltic:*nm'brilliance,beauty'[Noun]

Seealso:*fawtu

OldIrish:niam[f]'brilliance,beauty'

Notes:PCelt.*obnocouldpossiblybederived
fromearlier*fowno,inwhichcasethese
wordsarerelatedtoOIr.uath'terror',etc.(<
PCelt.*fawtu).

ProtoIndoEuropean:*neyHm
PageinPokorny:760
IEcognates:Lat.niteo'shine'

MiddleWelsh:ofn[m]
MiddleBreton:oun

Gaulish:Exobnus<*eksobno[PN]

References:LEIAO22,GPCIII:2631,
Delamarre170,Schrijver1995:353,De
BernardoStempel1999:94.

References:LEIAN16,DeBernardoStempel
1999:246.

ProtoCeltic:*odbo'knot,bulge'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*ntu'battlefury,anger'

OldIrish:odb[om]

OldIrish:nith[umandn]

MiddleWelsh:oddf[m]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*niHtu

Notes:EIECrelatesthesewordstoSkt.adga
'knot,joint',Gr.oskhos'sucker,shoot'(PIE
*Hosgos),butdoesnotexplainthesound
developments,whichwouldbehighlyirregular.
Onecould,inprinciple,derivetheCelticand
IndoIranianformsfromPIE*h3edgwos,but
thenGreekoskhosisunrelated.Schrijver
(1995:376)followsLEIAinderivingtheCeltic
formsfrom*ostbhVandrelatesthemtoGr.
osphys'hip',whichIfindlessconvincing.

PageinPokorny:760
IEcognates:Go.nei?'jealousy'
References:LEIAN17,DeBernardoStempel
1999:288,528
ProtoCeltic:*nsso'firstmilk,colostrum'
[Noun]
OldIrish:nus[oandum]

References:LEIA09,GPCIII:2618,EIEC
336,Schrijver1995:376.

MiddleWelsh:nus[?m]

ProtoCeltic:*ofib'beauty,appearance'

MiddleBreton:(leaz)lusen

OldIrish:oib[fandm]

Notes:ThevocalismsofGoidelicandBritishdo
notagree.TheBritishwordsmightbeloan
wordsfromGoidelic.Bretonhastheword
initiallbyassimilationwiththepreceding
wordinthesyntagm.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1opibheh2
PageinPokorny:104
IEcognates:abhibh'inauspiciousomen'

References:LEIAN25,GPCIII:2599
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 152

Notes:ThePIErootis*bheh2'shine'(Skt.bh
ti'shines',etc.).
References:Joseph1982a176,Uhlich2002412
ProtoCeltic:*ofibel'spark,flame'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:24f.
IEcognates:OLat.ollus'that'<*alno,OCS
lani'inthepastyear'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1opibhel

Notes:TheOIr.adverbandprepositionolis
usedincomparativeconstructions,e.g.Wb.
12a21issochrudiulaamoldosa'handismore
beautifulthanIam'.Wordinitial*oinsteadof
theexpectedaisduetoearlyassimilation
(*alo>*olo).

PageinPokorny:119

References:LEIAO18f.

Notes:Vendryes(LEIAO15)doubtsthis
etymologyandrelatestheOIr.wordtooib
'beauty,prosperity',whichdoesnotseem
convincing.

ProtoCeltic:*olyo'all,whole,every'
[Adjective]

References:LEIAO15,GPCIII:3699

MiddleWelsh:oll,holl

ProtoCeltic:*ogwno'lamb'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:holl(OBret.),Bret.holl,oll

OldIrish:uan[om]

Cornish:hol

MiddleWelsh:oen[mandf];wyn[p]

Gaulish:ollon[n](Chamalieres);Ollodagos
[PN]

OldIrish:oibell[f]
MiddleWelsh:ufel[m]

MiddleBreton:oan
Cornish:oingl.agnus(OCo.),MCo.oan,on
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2egwno'lamb'
PageinPokorny:9
IEcognates:Lat.agnus,Gr.amnos,OEeanian
Notes:Thewordinitial*oinCelticis
analogical(perhapsundertheinfluenceof*owi
'sheep').However,thischangemayhave
occurredonlyinBritish(sinceinOIr.,PCelt.
*agwnowouldlikewisehaveyieldeduan),in
whichcasethecorrectreconstructionis
*agwno
References:LEIAU7f.,GPCIII:2623,EIEC
510
ProtoCeltic:*olo'behind'[Preposition]

OldIrish:uile[io]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3olyo'all'
IEcognates:Go.alls'all,whole'
Notes:Anotheretymology,equallyviable,
relatesthesewordstoPIE*solyo'whole'(Skt.
sarva,Gr.holos<*solwo).Thiswouldhelp
explainthetracesofwordinitial*h(<*s)in
British(butinmostinstancesthatwordinitial
hcanbepurelygraphic,andpositingPCelt.*s
doesnotexplaintheGaulishforms).
References:LEIAU17f.,GPCIII:2646,
DGVB213,Delamarre241,Falileyev87,
Schrijver1995:323,McCone1996:49.
ProtoCeltic:*oln'elbow,angle'[Noun]
OldIrish:uilen[f]
MiddleWelsh:elinou[p](OW),MWelin[fand
m]

OldIrish:ol1.'beyond'2.'than'(Preposition
withcomparative)

MiddleBreton:elin

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2el

Cornish:elyn

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 153

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3eln'elbow'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3erbho'inheritance'

PageinPokorny:307

PageinPokorny:781

IEcognates:Lat.ulna,Gr.olen,Go.aleina,
ToBalyiye'palm'

IEcognates:Lat.orbus'orphan',Arm.orb

References:LEIAU18,GPCI:1206,EIEC98,
176,Falileyev53,Matasovic2004:107
ProtoCeltic:*omiyo'copper,bronze'[Noun]
OldIrish:umae[ion]
MiddleWelsh:(o)emidgl.exaere(OW),W
efydd[m]
PageinPokorny:777
Seealso:*omo'raw'
References:LEIAU24,GPCI:1172,Falileyev
53,DeBernardoStempel1999:355

References:LEIAO27f.,EIEC411,De
BernardoStempel391.
ProtoCeltic:*ordo/'hammer'[Noun]
OldIrish:ord[om]
MiddleWelsh:ord[f](OW),MWorth
MiddleBreton:ordgl.maleus(OBret.),Bret.
orz[f]
Notes:GaulishethnonymOrdoviceshasalso
beenrelatedtothisPCelt.etymon.Fora
possibleIEetymology,seeFalileyev126(to
Arm.uirn).

ProtoCeltic:*omo'raw'[Adjective]

References:LEIAO29,DGVB277,GPC
1468,Delamarre243f.,Falileyev126.

OldIrish:om[o]

ProtoCeltic:*orgo'destroy'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:of
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2mo'raw'

OldIrish:orgaid,oirg;oirr,orr[Subj.];ieirr,
iarr[Fut.];oirt,ort[Pret.];ortae,ort[Pret.
Pass.]

PageinPokorny:777

MiddleWelsh:ynyorth[ImpersonalPass.]

IEcognates:Gr.mos,Arm.hum,Khotanese
hma

Gaulish:orge[Impv.]'kill'

References:LEIAO21,GPCIII:2629,EIEC
478.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3erg'perish'
PageinPokorny:819(*perg)

ProtoCeltic:*onko'at'[Preposition]

IEcognates:Hitt.harkzi,Arm.harkanem'strike'

OldIrish:oc[+Dat.]

Notes:TheWelshsimplexoccursonlyinCanu
Aneurin(CA13.315)

MiddleWelsh:wnc,wng'near'
Seealso:*anko'reach'
References:LEIA05,GPCIII:3732,GOI
524f.
ProtoCeltic:*orbo'heir,inheritor'[Noun]
OldIrish:orb[om]

References:KPV499ff.,LIV301,LEIA030,
LP386f.,
ProtoCeltic:*oro'edge,limit'[Noun]
OldIrish:or[om]
MiddleWelsh:or[f](GPCr)

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 154

MiddleBreton:orion(OBret.)gl.oram,
MoBret.or
Cornish:or

Cornish:oirgl.frigidam(OCo.)
Gaulish:Ogron'awintermonthintheCalender
ofColigny'(fifthmonthoftheyear)

References:LEIAO26,GPCIII:2561,DGVB
277

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2owg'cold'

ProtoCeltic:*osno'ashtree'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:783

OldIrish:onn[??],uinnius[f]

IEcognates:Arm.oyc'cold'

MiddleWelsh:onn[Collective];ynn[p]
MiddleBreton:ounn,onn

References:LEIAU8f.,GPCIII:2624,
Delamarre239f.,DeBernardoStempel1999:
228.

Cornish:onnengl.fraxus[Singulative]

ProtoCeltic:*owi'sheep'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3esn'ashtree'

OldIrish:oi[m]

PageinPokorny:782

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3ewi'sheep'

IEcognates:Lat.ornus,Lith.uosis

PageinPokorny:784

References:LEIAU20,GPCIII:2649,LP24,
EIEC32,Campanile1974:84.

IEcognates:Luw.hawi,Oind.avi,OEewe

ProtoCeltic:*ow(x)selo'high,elevated'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:uasal[o]
MiddleWelsh:uchel
MiddleBreton:uchel,uhel(OBret.),Bret.huel

Notes:OIr.oiisanarchaic,poeticword,
knownchieflyfromglossariesandLaws.
References:LEIAO14,EIEC510.
ProtoCeltic:*owk'hind,doe'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:eguic(OW),Wewig[f]
Cornish:euhiggl.cerva(OCo.)

Cornish:huhel
Gaulish:Uxellodunum,Uxama[Toponyms]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3owps'high'
PageinPokorny:1107
IEcognates:Gr.hypsos'height,summit',Lat.
super'above'
References:LEIAU10,GPCIII:3693,DGVB
326,Delamarre330

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3ewikeh2'littlesheep'
PageinPokorny:784
IEcognates:Skt.avik
References:GPCI:1262
ProtoCeltic:*owxsanat'sigh'[Noun]
OldIrish:osnad[f]

ProtoCeltic:*owgro'cold'[Adjective]

MiddleWelsh:uchenaid[f];ucheneid(i)au,
uchenediau,ucheneidion[p]

OldIrish:uar[o]

MiddleBreton:huanad'sigh'

MiddleWelsh:oer

Seealso:*owxso,*ana'breathe'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 155

Notes:OBret.huan'breath'appearstopreserve
theunderived*owxsano
References:GPCIII:3697,GOI526,DGVB
214
ProtoCeltic:*owxso'above'[Preposition]
OldIrish:os[+Dat.]'above'
MiddleWelsh:uch
Cornish:(a)ugh

References:LEIAO7,GPCIII:3746,EIEC
100,402.,Falileyev124f.,153,LHEB405,
Delamarre246,Schrijver1995:350.
ProtoCeltic:*oyno'one'[Numeral]
OldIrish:oen
MiddleWelsh:un(OWandMW)
MiddleBreton:un(OBret.),MBret.un
Cornish:un
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3eyno'one'

Gaulish:(a)uz

PageinPokorny:12

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3owpso'above'
IEcognates:Gr.hypsi
References:LEIAO32,GOI527
ProtoCeltic:*owxtu'cold'[Noun]
OldIrish:uacht[um]

IEcognates:OLat.oinos,Lat.nus,Go.ains,
OCSin
Notes:OtherIElanguagesformthenumeral
'one'fromthesameroot(*h3ey),butwith
differentsuffixes,e.g.*koinSkt.eka,*
woinAvest.aiva,etc.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3ewg''becold'

References:LEIAO10f.,GPCIII:3702ff.,
DGVB327,EIEC12,Falileyev154.

PageinPokorny:783

ProtoCeltic:*oyto'oath'[Noun]

IEcognates:Lith.auti'becomecold,Arm.
oyc'cold'

OldIrish:oeth[om]

References:LEIA07,EIEC113.
ProtoCeltic:*oxt'eight'[Numeral]
OldIrish:ocht[nasalizing]
MiddleWelsh:oith(OW),MWwyth
MiddleBreton:eith(OBret.),MBret.eiz
Cornish:eath
Gaulish:oxtumetos'eighth'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3ek'toh1'eight'

MiddleWelsh:anutonau(OW)gl.periuria[p]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1oyto
PageinPokorny:295
IEcognates:OHGeid'oath',ToBaittanka
'directedtoward'.
Notes:Presumablythisisaderivativeofthe
root*h1ey'togo';theoriginalmeaningof
'oath'inCelticandGermanicwouldbe'agoing,
path'.Thiscouldbemotivatedbythecustomof
walkingbetweenpiecesofsacrificedanimalsto
giveforcetotheoath.

PageinPokorny:775

References:LEIAO12,EIEC408f.,Falileyev
8,Benveniste1969,II,ch.3.

IEcognates:Lat.oct,Gr.okt,Go.ahtau

ProtoCeltic:*rann'part'[Noun]
OldIrish:rann[f]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 156

MiddleWelsh:rann[f]'share'(OW),MWran,
rann[f](GPCrhan)

References:LEIAR4f.,GPCIII:3046,
Delamarre254

MiddleBreton:rannougl.partimonia(OBret.),
MBret.rann

ProtoCeltic:*rego'extend,stretch'[Verb]

Cornish:ran
Notes:OWhapaxguorenniou'fractions,
subdivisions'mightberelatedaccordingto
Falileyev73.OutsideCeltic,aconnectionwith
Lat.pars'part'appearsprobable,inwhichcase
thecorrectreconstructionis*frasn(Pokorny
817).
References:LEIAR7,GPCIII:3035f.,DGVB
293,Falileyev73,GPC3035,Schrijver1995:
135.

OldIrish:atraig'standup'<*eksrego;re
[Subj.],re[Fut.];recht[Pret.];recht[Pret.
Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:re'getup'[3sPres.]
MiddleBreton:gurre'rise,getup'<*worrego
(OBret.),MBret.re'leads,drives'
Gaulish:reguc[1sPres.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h3reg'o'extend,
stretch,rule'

ProtoCeltic:*razdo'scrape,scratch'[Verb]

PageinPokorny:854ff.

MiddleWelsh:rhathu(W)

IEcognates:Skt.rsti'rules',Gr.oreg
'extend',Lat.rego'rule,

MiddleBreton:rahein(Vannetais)'scrape,
shave'

Seealso:*rgs'king'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(H)reh2sdh(h1)o
'shear,scratch,shave'

Notes:Lambert1994:157givesanother
possibleinterpretationofGaul.reguc

PageinPokorny:854(*rd)
IEcognates:Lat.rdo'shave'

References:KPV530ff.,GPCIII:3042,DGVB
202,293,LIV304f.,LEIAR13f.,LP388f.,
RIGII.269f.

References:KPV528f.,LIV496,GPCIII:3040

ProtoCeltic:*regini'tough,hard'

ProtoCeltic:*rati'fern'[Noun]

OldIrish:rigin[i]

OldIrish:raith[if]

MiddleWelsh:rein,rain'stiff,rigid'(GPC
rhain)

MiddleWelsh:rhedyn[p];rhedynen
[Singulative]

Seealso:*rego'stretch'

MiddleBreton:reden,radenenn

References:LEIAR30,GPCIII:3033

Cornish:redengl.filex,MoCo.redanan

ProtoCeltic:*reko'arrange'[Verb]

Gaulish:ratis,Ratiate[PN]

OldIrish:adeirrig'repeat,makebetter'<ati
erireko

ProtoIndoEuropean:*perHt'fern'
PageinPokorny:850

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(H)rek
PageinPokorny:863

IEcognates:Skt.parpata'medicinalherb',
Lith.papartis
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 157

IEcognates:Skt.racayati'makes,prepares',
OCSresti'say'
Notes:TheIrishformsareusuallyrelatedto
PCelt.*rego'extend';IfollowKPV536f.in
attributingthemtoPIE*(H)rek.
References:KPV536f.,LIV506,LEIAR13
ProtoCeltic:*rem'place,put'[Verb]

References:LEIAR22,DeBernardoStempel
1999:93.
ProtoCeltic:*renwo'quick,fast'[Adjective]
OldIrish:renn[o]'quick',substantivizedrend,
renn'foot,leg'
MiddleWelsh:rin(GPCrhynn)'quick,
unyielding,stiff,brave,fierce'

OldIrish:foruimi,fuirmi,(laterassimplex)
fuirid<*worim

Cornish:rynny'trembling'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1rem'bestill'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*ren?'run'

PageinPokorny:864

IEcognates:OHGrinnan'run'

IEcognates:Skt.ramate'placesoneself,stops',
Gr.rema'quiet',Go.rimis'rest',Lith.rimsta
'becomesquiet'

References:LEIAR20,GPCIII:3140

References:LEIAR31

OldIrish:reithid,reith;reiss,re[Subj.];reiss,
re[Fut.];raith[Pret.];ressae,ress[Pret.
Pass.]

ProtoCeltic:*remesso'periodoftime'[Noun]
OldIrish:reimes[om]
MiddleBreton:remsy
Notes:MIr.reimse'time'(DIL,s.v.)isderived
fromreimes.

ProtoCeltic:*reto'run'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:retit[3sPres.](OW),MWredec;
red[3sPres.](GPCrhedeg)
MiddleBreton:redec
Cornish:resek

References:LEIAR17

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(H)reth2

ProtoCeltic:*remro'great,fat,thick'
[Adjective]

PageinPokorny:866

OldIrish:remor[o]

IEcognates:Lat.rota'wheel',Skt.ratha
'chariot'

MiddleWelsh:ref(GPCrhef)

Seealso:*roto'wheel'

References:LEIAR19,GPCIII:3047,De
BernardoStempel1999:233ff.

Notes:ThisPIErootisattestedonlyinCelticas
averbalroot;thereisnodoubt,however,that
thePIEwordsfor'wheel,chariot'(OIr.roth)are
derivedfromit.

ProtoCeltic:*rentu'thing,matter'[Noun]
OldIrish:ret[um]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*rent
PageinPokorny:865
IEcognates:Skt.ratna'possession,precious
object'

References:KPV538,LEIAR23,GPCIII:
3043,LIV507,Falileyev137.
ProtoCeltic:*retu'course'
OldIrish:riuth,rith[um]
MiddleWelsh:red(GPCrhed)[fandm]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 158

MiddleBreton:red[m]
Seealso:*reto'run'
References:LEIAR34f.,GPCIII:3043,De
BernardoStempel1999:95,288
ProtoCeltic:*rextu'fury,outburstofanger'
[Noun]

OldIrish:conrig<*komrigo'bindtogether';
conre[Subj.];conrir[Fut.];conreraig[Pret.];
conrecht[Pret.Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:gwarwy<*worigo'play'
(GPCgwarwy,gwary)
MiddleBreton:hoari<*worigo'play'
Cornish:guariow[p]'games'

OldIrish:recht[um]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(H)reyg(')

MiddleWelsh:rheith'booty'

PageinPokorny:861

References:LEIAR12,DeBernardoStempel
1999:288

IEcognates:Lat.rigeo'bestiff',MHGricken
'bind'

ProtoCeltic:*rina'count,sell,exchange'
[Verb]

References:GPCII:1589,KPV546ff.,LIV
503,

OldIrish:renaid'sell,exchange';rieid,ria
[Subj.];ririd,rir[Fut.];rir[Pret.];rithae,rith
[Pret.Pass.]

ProtoCeltic:*rigo'go'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2reyH
PageinPokorny:60f.(*ari)
IEcognates:Gr.arithmos'number'
Seealso:*rm'number'
Notes:Anotherpossibilityistorelatethese
wordstoOIr.ernaid'bestow'.
References:KPV551f.,LEIAR19f.
ProtoCeltic:*rendi'point,peak'[Noun]
OldIrish:rind[im]
MiddleBreton:gablrinn'fourcheapointe'
(OBret.)
Notes:TheOBret.compoundgablrinnhasthe
exactparallelinIr.gabhalrind.Itisunclar
whetherOIr.rind[in]'star'isoriginallythe
sameword,oranaccidentalhomonymwithout
etymology.
References:LEIAR232,DGVB297.

OldIrish:rigaid,riga,rega'willgo'[Fut.ofte
it'goes'];eirgg'go'[Impv.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1erg'h
PageinPokorny:326ff.
IEcognates:Gr.erkhomai,orkheomai'dance'
References:KPV549ff,LIV238f.,LP399ff.,
LEIAR15f.
ProtoCeltic:*rigo'stretch'[Verb]
OldIrish:rigid,rig'stretch';reiss,re;riris,
rir[Fut.];reraig[Pret.];rechtae,recht[Pret.
Pass.]
MiddleBreton:ren'lead'
Gaulish:regu(Lezoux)[1sPres.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(H)reyg'
PageinPokorny:862
IEcognates:OEraec(e)an'reach',Lith.reiti
'stretch'
Seealso:*rigo

ProtoCeltic:*rigo'bind'[Verb]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 159

Notes:Somelinguists,e.g.McCone(1991)
prefertoderiveOIr.rigidfromaNartentype
present(PIE*h3rg',withthelengthened
grade).Iadoptedtheetymologiespresentedin
LIVandKPV.
References:KPV543f.,LIV503,LEIAR13,
Delamarre256
ProtoCeltic:*frixtu'form,appearance'[Noun]
OldIrish:richt[um]
MiddleWelsh:rith[m](GPCrhith)'species,
form,aspect'
MiddleBreton:(ar)rithgl.penace.i.imago
(OBret.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*prep'appear'
PageinPokorny:845
IEcognates:Gr.prep'appear',Arm.erewim
'beevident,appear'
References:LEIAR29,GPCIII:3080f.,EIEC
25
ProtoCeltic:*reyatro'torrent,waterfall'
[Noun]
OldIrish:riathor[om]
MiddleWelsh:reatir[p]gl.torrentum(OW),
MWrhaeadr[fandm](GPCrhaeadr,rheadr)
Seealso:*rno
References:LEIAR28,GPCIII:2997,
Falileyev135,LHEB337,GPC2997,Schrijver
1995:258,385,McCone1996:52.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(H)roth2o'wheel',
literally'runner'
PageinPokorny:866
IEcognates:Skt.ratha,Lat.rota,OHGrad
Seealso:*reto'run'
References:LEIAR45f.,GPCIII:3083,EIEC
98,491,DeBernardoStempel1999:45,525,
Matasovic2004:114,Delamarre262
ProtoCeltic:*rowdo'red'[Adjective]
OldIrish:ruad[o]
MiddleWelsh:rud(OW),Wrhudd
MiddleBreton:rudgl.rufus(OBret.),MoBret.
ruz
Cornish:rudgl.ruber(OCo.),MCo.ruth,ruyth
Gaulish:Roudius[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1rewdh'red'
PageinPokorny:872
IEcognates:Skt.rudhira,Lat.ruber,Gerythro
s,OEread
Notes:Anotherderivativefromthisrootin
Celtic,butwithprobablyPIEpedigree,isOIr.
ruam'reddye'<PCelt.*rowdsmon,cp.
Stifter1998.
References:LEIAR47,GPCIII:3099,EIEC
481,Delamarre263,Falileyev139,Campanile
1974:91.,Stifter1998:208f.

ProtoCeltic:*roto'wheel,chariot'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*rowesy'field,openground'
[Noun]

OldIrish:roth[om]

OldIrish:roe[i,f]

MiddleWelsh:rot[f](GPCrhod)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*rewHos'openspace'

MiddleBreton:rot

PageinPokorny:874

Cornish:rs(MoCo.)

IEcognates:Lat.rs'village,countryside',
Avest.rav,OErm'space,room'

Gaulish:Rotomagus[Toponym]>'Rouen'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 160

References:LEIAR38f.,EIEC534,De
BernardoStempel1999:205.
ProtoCeltic:*royno'route,road'[Noun]
OldIrish:roen[om]

PageinPokorny:338
IEcognates:Gr.(Mycenaean)eree'row',OE
rwan,Lith.irti

MiddleBreton:run'mound'

References:KPV529f.,LIV251f.,LEIAR1f.,
LP387

ProtoIndoEuropean:*royno

ProtoCeltic:*rd'talk'[Verb]

PageinPokorny:857

OldIrish:radid,radid,radi'talk'

IEcognates:OHGrein'border'

MiddleWelsh:amraud(OW)'thought,
meditation',Wamrawdd[m]'mind'

References:LEIAR39
ProtoCeltic:*rundo'paintred'[Verb]
OldIrish:rondaid,roind;roiss,ro[Subj.];
roraid[Pret.];rossae,ross[Pret.Pass.]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(H)reh1dh'perform
successfully'
PageinPokorny:59f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(h1)rewdh'red'

IEcognates:Skt.rdh'performsuccessfully',
OCSraditi'takecareof',Go.rodjan'talk'

PageinPokorny:872f.

Seealso:*ambird'think'

IEcognates:Gr.ereuth'paintred'

References:LEIAR3,Falileyev6,GPCI:199.

Seealso:*rud'redden'

ProtoCeltic:*rno'mane'[Noun]

References:KPV553f.,LIV508f.

OldIrish:ron[om]

ProtoCeltic:*rud'redden,becomered'
[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:raun[m](GPCrhawn)

OldIrish:ruidid,ruidi
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(h1)rewdh'red'
PageinPokorny:872f.
IEcognates:Lat.rubeo'bered',OHGrotn'be
red'
Seealso:*rowdo'red'
References:KPV553,LIV508f.,Stifter1998:
210

MiddleBreton:reun
Cornish:ruen
Notes:AccordingtoPedersen(VKGI:49)OIr.
ronwasborrowedfromBritish.
References:LEIAR42f.,GPCIII:3041
ProtoCeltic:*rti'fort,rampart'[Noun]
OldIrish:rath,raith[iano,mandf]
MiddleWelsh:beddrawd'cemetery'

ProtoCeltic:*ryo'row'[Verb]

MiddleBreton:bezret'cemetery'

OldIrish:raid,ra;reraid,rera[Fut.],rerais,
rerae[Pret.]

Gaulish:ratin[Acc.]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1reh1'row'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*preh2ti'field'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 161

PageinPokorny:843

Gaulish:rda>Lat.rda'chariot'

IEcognates:Lat.prtum'field'

Seealso:*rdo

References:LEIAR9,Delamarre243,McCone
1996:52

References:LEIAR26,Delamarre256

ProtoCeltic:*rdo'ride'[Verb]
OldIrish:reidid,reid;reraid[Pret.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(H)reydh'ride'
PageinPokorny:861
IEcognates:OErdan,Lith.riedeti'roll'
References:KPV535,LEIAR26

ProtoCeltic:*rgsmen'bond'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:ruimmein(OW)[p]
Seealso:*rigo'bind'
References:Falileyev140
ProtoCeltic:*rko'tearapart'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:rwygaw(GPCrhwygo)
MiddleBreton:roegaff

ProtoCeltic:*rdsmen'movement,course'
[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1reyk''crush'

OldIrish:reimm[n]

PageinPokorny:858

Seealso:*rdo'ride'

IEcognates:Gr.ereik

References:LEIAR18,DeBernardoStempel
1999:551

References:KPV535f.,LIV504,GPCIII:3115,
LP41

ProtoCeltic:*rdi'simple,flat'[Adjective]

ProtoCeltic:*rno'largeexpanseofwater'
[Noun]

OldIrish:reid[i]'simple,easy,flat'
MiddleWelsh:ruid(OW)gl.uacuum,W
rhwydd'easy,quick'
MiddleBreton:ruet(OBret.),MBret.rouezgl.
rarus
ProtoIndoEuropean:*reyd'ride,drive'
PageinPokorny:861
IEcognates:OHGbireiti'ready'
References:LEIAR17,GPCIII:3112,De
BernardoStempel1999:70
ProtoCeltic:*rdo'theactofriding,chariot'
[Noun]

OldIrish:rian[om]'sea,course,route'
Gaulish:Rnos>Lat.Rhnus'Rhine'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*reyH'flow'
PageinPokorny:330
IEcognates:Skt.ryate'flows',OEri'stream',
Lat.rvus'river'
Notes:Gaul.rnos'river'isthesourceofOld
Frenchrhin'stream'
References:LEIAR27,Delamarre257,De
BernardoStempel1999:254
ProtoCeltic:*rgan'queen'[Noun]

OldIrish:riad[on]'riding,driving,voyage'

OldIrish:rigain[f]

MiddleWelsh:gorwydd'horse'<*wordo

MiddleWelsh:riein[f]'younggirl,virgin'(GPC
rhiain)

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 162

PageinPokorny:867
Gaulish:rigani

IEcognates:Go.rna'secret'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(H)rg'nih2'queen'
PageinPokorny:856

References:LEIAR53f.,GPCIII:3075,Ellis
Evans1967:183,Delamarre123

IEcognates:Skt.rjn,Lat.rgna

ProtoCeltic:*rsk(l)o'bark'[Noun]

References:LEIAR20,GPCIII:3065,EIEC
280,329,Lambert1994:145f.,Delamarre258,
McCone1998

OldIrish:rusc[om]

ProtoCeltic:*rm'number,count'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:rusk,ruskl'bark',ruskenn
'beehive'

OldIrish:rim[f]
MiddleWelsh:rif[m](GPCrhif)
MiddleBreton:ri(m)gl.summa(OBret.)
Cornish:ryvow[p]'numbers'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2reyH'count'
PageinPokorny:60
IEcognates:Gr.arithmos'number',OErim
'number,calculation'
Notes:PGerm.*rma'number',fromwhichOE
rimisderived,couldbealoanwordfrom
Celtic.
References:LEIAR30f.,GPCIII:3069,
DGVB296,EIEC397,LP6,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:246

MiddleWelsh:risgl[m](GPCrhisgl,rhisg)

Cornish:ruskgl.cortex(OCo.),MCo.risc
Gaulish:rusca(MLat.>Fr.ruche'beehive')
Notes:ItispossiblethatsomeoftheBritish
forms(withu)wereborrowedfromGoidelic,
orRomance,intheprehistoricperiod.The
vocalismofOIr.ruscisprobablyoriginal.Ifit
isinheritedfromPIE,thenperhapsCelt.*rsko
shouldbeanalyzedas*rskoandrelatedto
ONryja'shear(ofsheep),OCSryti'dig',Lruo,
etc.(PIE*rewH,LIV461,Pokorny868).The
originalmeaningwouldhavebeen'thatwhichis
scratched,sheared'.OIr.ruscetc.wouldthenbe
substantivizedadjectives(similarformationsare
wellattestedinCeltic,cp.*trussko'dirty',
*brisko'weak',perhapsalso*dolisko
'seaweed'.Gaul.ruscaisactuallyattestedonly
indirectly,viatheMedievalLatin(9thcentury)
loanwordrusca'beehive'.

ProtoCeltic:*rn'secret,magic'[Noun]

References:LEIAR54,GPCIII:3079,
Delamarre264.

OldIrish:run[f]'mystery,secret'

ProtoCeltic:*sagyo'seek'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:rin[mandf]'mystery,charm'
(GPCrhin)

OldIrish:saigid,saig;saiss,sa[Subj.];sieis,
sia[Fut.];siacht[Pret.];sachtae,sacht[Pret.
Pass.]

MiddleBreton:rin'secret,wisdom'
Cornish:Rinduran[PN]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*seh2g(')'search,follow
tracks'

Gaulish:Cobrunus(?)<*komrno[PN]

PageinPokorny:876f.

Lepontic:Runatis(?)[PN]

IEcognates:Gr.hgeomai,Lat.sgio,Go.
sokjan

ProtoIndoEuropean:*rewH

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 163

Notes:TheBritishparallelsaredenominatives
Whaeddu'attempt',Corn.hethy,hedhy,MBret.
dirhaes.TheGaulishethnonymTectosagiis
probablyalsorelated,aswellasthePNCurmi
sagius('beerseeker'?)attestedinPannonia
(Meid2005:152).Cp.alsoGaul.sagitiontias
(Larzac),wherewemayhavetheattestationof
the3pPres.oftheverb'toseek'inGaulish.
References:GPCII:1803,KPV555ff.,LIV
520,LEIAS9ff.,LP391f.,Delamarre265,
Meid2005:152.
ProtoCeltic:*sagro'firm,strong'[Adjective]
OldIrish:sar[om]'excess'
MiddleWelsh:haer'firm,tenacious,
importunate'
MiddleBreton:Haermael(OBret.)[PN]
Gaulish:Ambisagrus[PN]
Notes:Thesewordsareusuallyderivedfromthe
root*segh'bevictorious'(OIr.seg'force',etc.),
buttheavocalismisdifficulttoexplain.
References:LEIAS25f.,GPCII:1807,
Delamarre265

OldIrish:salann[o?]
MiddleWelsh:halen[m](GPChalen,halaen)
MiddleBreton:holen
Cornish:haloin
ProtoIndoEuropean:*seh2l'salt'(Gen.*sh2l
os)
PageinPokorny:878
IEcognates:Lat.sl,Gr.hals,OCSsol
Notes:Itisdifficulttoreconciletheattested
formswithasingleprotoform.TheBrit.words
canbederivedfromPCelt.*salno<
*saleyno,whileOIr.salannpointstoaPIE
derivedstem*sh2lHno>PCelt.salano.
References:LEIAS18,GPCII:1816,EIEC
498,DeBernardoStempel1999:130
ProtoCeltic:*salik'willow'[Noun]
OldIrish:sail[kf]
MiddleWelsh:helyg[p],helygen[Singulative]

ProtoCeltic:*sakro'ugly'[Adjective]

MiddleBreton:halek

MiddleWelsh:hagr

Gaulish:Salicogenne[Dat.PN]

MiddleBreton:hagr

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sh2elik'willow'

Cornish:hager

PageinPokorny:879

Gaulish:Sacrobena[PN]

IEcognates:Lat.salix,OHGsalaha

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sakro'consecrated'

Notes:Becauseoftheirvocalism,thesewords
aredifficulttoreconcilewithGr.helik
'willow'.Maybeoneshouldreconstruct*selik,
andderivetheWestIEwords(Celtic,
Germanic,andItalic)fromaprotoform*sl
ik,withasecondaryzerograde.Inanycase,
theshapeofthisrootappearsnonIndo
European,soitisprobablyanearlyborrowing
fromsomeunknownsource.

PageinPokorny:878
IEcognates:Lat.sacer,ToBskre'happy'
Notes:ForthesemanticconnectionoftheCeltic
wordswiththoseinotherlanguages,see
Delamarre264f.
References:GPCII:1811,Delamarre264f.,
Schrijver1995:383
ProtoCeltic:*salano'salt'[Noun]

References:LEIAS13,GPCII:1846,EIEC
643,DeBernardoStempel1999:179,
Delamarre265

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 164

ProtoCeltic:*sal'dirt'[Noun]

Seealso:*samali

OldIrish:sal[f]

References:DGVB208,GOI500f.

MiddleWelsh:halougl.stercora(OW);halauc
'dirty'(OW),Whalog

ProtoCeltic:*samo'summer'[Noun]
OldIrish:sam[om]

MiddleBreton:halocgl.(inueste)lugubri
(OBret.)

MiddleWelsh:ham(OW),MWhaf[m]

IEcognates:OEsalu'dirty'

MiddleBreton:ham(OBret.),MBret.haff

Notes:Somelinguistsderivethiswordfromthe
PIEroot*seh2l'salt',butIfindthisdubiouson
semanticgrounds.WhalogandOBret.haloc
havetheexactparallelinOIr.salach'dirty'<
*salko

Cornish:hafgl.estas(OCo.)

References:LEIAS16,GPCII:1816,DGVB
206,DeBernardoStempel1999:51,58,
Matasovic2004:130.
ProtoCeltic:*samali'similitude,description'
[Noun]
OldIrish:samail[if]
MiddleWelsh:hafal
MiddleBreton:hemel[inPN],MBret.haual
Cornish:haval'similar'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*semel
PageinPokorny:903
IEcognates:Lat.similis'similar',Gr.hamalos
'equal'
Notes:TheCelticformscouldbederivedfroma
protoform*semHlibyJoseph'srule(*ema>
*ama).

Gaulish:Samognatius[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sem'warmseason,
summer'
PageinPokorny:905
IEcognates:Skt.sam'season',OEsumor
'summer',Arm.am'year',ToAsme'summer'
References:LEIAS19,GPCII:1808,DGVB
206,EIEC504,LHEB513,Falileyev81,De
BernardoStempel1999:36,47,252,Delamarre
266,Campanile1974:61.
ProtoCeltic:*samosesk'heifer,sterilecow'
[Noun]
OldIrish:samaisc[f]
MiddleWelsh:Hafesp[Hydronym]
MiddleBreton:hanvesk,hanveskenn'sterile
cow'
References:LEIAS23
ProtoCeltic:*samoni'(feastofthe)firstmonth
oftheyear'[Noun]

References:LEIAS21f.,GPCII:1808,EIEC
499,DeBernardoStempel1999:51,499ff.

OldIrish:samain'(assemblyonthe)1stof
November'[if]

ProtoCeltic:*samalo'like,as'[Preposition]

Gaulish:samon

OldIrish:amal[aspirating,+Acc.]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*somon'reunion,
assembly'

MiddleWelsh:amal(OW),MWval,mal
MiddleBreton:hemel(OBret.),MBret.heuel

PageinPokorny:905
IEcognates:Skt.samana,Go.samana

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 165

ProtoCeltic:*sasyo'barley'[Noun]
Notes:TheGaulishform,occurringinthe
ColignyCalender,isabbreviated;itcanbe
reconstructedeitherasNom.s.*samonios,oras
*samonos(or*samonis),ifitistheGen.s.The
originalmeaningof*samoniwouldbe
'assemblyofthelivingandthedead',cp.
Delamarre267
References:LEIAS22f.,EIEC646,Delamarre
267
ProtoCeltic:*sanesto'(secret)advice'[Noun]
OldIrish:sanas[mandf]'whisper,secret
advice,counsel'
MiddleWelsh:hanes[mandf]'history,secret'
Cornish:hanas,hanys
Notes:IEetymologiesmentionedinLEIAS24
aretoospeculative.Itisprobable,however,that
theseCelticformsarerelatedtoPIEroot
*sen(H)'old';maybeweshouldstartwith
*senHsto>*senasto>PCelt.*sanasto(by
Joseph'srule)?Orshouldweassumemetathesis
*senasto>*sanesto?

MiddleWelsh:haidd[m]
MiddleBreton:heiz;heizen(n)[Singulative]
Gaulish:(s)asia(?)'rye'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sh1s
PageinPokorny:880
IEcognates:Skr.sasya'corn,fruit',Hitt.
ssa
Notes:Gaul.asiaisknownonlyfromPlyny
(secaleTaurinisubAlpibusasiamvocant),so
theexistenceofthiswordisuncertain.
Delamarredoesnotmentionit.ThePIErootis
probably*seh1'tosow',butderivationsare
difficult:theCelticformsmustbefromthe
zerograde*sh1s,Skt.sasya(andVed.sasa
'food')arefrom*sh1es,whileHitt.ssa
mightrepresent*seh1sand*sh1es.Perhaps
oneshouldstartfromaPIEneuter*sh1es/
*sh1sos.
References:GPCII:1814,Hamp1985

References:LEIAS24,GPCII:1819,De
BernardoStempel1999:51.

ProtoCeltic:*sati,*satyo'swarm,throng'
[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*sani'different'[Adjective]

OldIrish:saithe[iom]

OldIrish:sain[i]'particular,different,distinct'

MiddleWelsh:haid[f];heidiau[p]

MiddleWelsh:hangl.alium(OW),Whn[m]
'separation'.Alsousedasapreposition,OW
hanaud'fromhim',MWohanaw

MiddleBreton:hed[m]

MiddleBreton:han(OBret.)'except,different
from',Bret.ahanoff'fromme'

PageinPokorny:890

Cornish:ohanaw'fromhim'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*senH/snHi
PageinPokorny:907
IEcognates:Lat.sine'without',ToAsne,OHG
suntar'apart'
References:LEIAS14f.,GPCII:1818,DGVB
206,EIEC24,Falileyev81

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sh1ti

Seealso:*slo'seed'
Notes:ThePIErootis*seh1'sow'(Lat.sero,
etc.)
References:LEIAS16,GPCII:1813,De
BernardoStempel1999:445,527
ProtoCeltic:*saytlo'age,lifetime'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:hoedl[f](GPChoedl,hoeddl)

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 166

MiddleBreton:hoidl,hoedl(OBret.),MBret.
hoazl

MiddleBreton:hezaff'stop'

Gaulish:Setlocenia[Theonym]

Cornish:hedhi'stop'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*seh2itlo

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sed'sit'

PageinPokorny:889f

PageinPokorny:884887

IEcognates:Lat.saeculum,saeclum

IEcognates:Skt.sdati,Lat.sedeo,sdo,Go.
satjan

Notes:ThePIErootis*seh2i'link,bind'
(Watkins,'Howtokilladragon',351)
References:LEIAS12f.,GPCII:1883,
Delamarre272f.,C.Watkins,Howtokilla
DragoninPIE,Cambridge1995:351.
ProtoCeltic:*saytu'illness'[Noun]
OldIrish:saeth[um]
MiddleWelsh:hoed[m]'pain,regret'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sh2eytu
PageinPokorny:877
IEcognates:Lat.saeuus'wild,ferocious'<
*sh2eywo,OEsar'sore'<*sh2eyro
References:LEIAS6f.,GPCII:1883,EIEC
413
ProtoCeltic:*se(x)sman'nail,rivet'[Noun]

References:KPV560ff.,LIV513ff.,LEIA
S7f.,LP391
ProtoCeltic:*sedlo'seat'[Noun]
Gaulish:canecosedlon(Autun)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sedlo'seat'
PageinPokorny:885f.
IEcognates:Lat.sella,Go.sitls'throne'
References:Delamarre269
ProtoCeltic:*sedos,*sdos'tumulus
(inhabitedbysupernaturalbeings),peace'
[Noun]
OldIrish:sid[sn]
MiddleWelsh:hedd[mandf]'peace'

OldIrish:seim(m)[nn]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sds/Gen.*sedos
'seat'

MiddleWelsh:hemm[f]

PageinPokorny:885

Seealso:*sego'force'

IEcognates:Gr.hedos'seat',Lat.sds

Notes:OIr.seimmismasculineinIrish
GrammaticalTracts,andisattestedonlyin
MiddleandModernIrish.Itisbuilttotheroot
*seg'tohold'(itisprobablytheoriginalverbal
nountothatroot).

References:LEIAS106,GPCII:1834,EIEC
62,152,DeBernardoStempel1999:52,146ff.

References:LEIAS71f.,GPCII:1847,Stber
1998:66f.
ProtoCeltic:*sedo'sit'[Verb]
OldIrish:saidid,said;seiss,se[Subj.];seiss,
se[Fut.];doessaid[Pret.]

ProtoCeltic:*seg(m)eto'seed'[Noun]
OldIrish:seimed'seed,descendants'
MiddleWelsh:segeticion(OW)[p]gl.prolis,
MWse,he'scattering'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*seg'sow'
PageinPokorny:887

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 167

IEcognates:Lat.seges'cornfield,crop'

Seealso:*sekw'follow'

Notes:LIVs.v.seimedclaimsthatthiswordis
basedonLat.smen'seed'.

References:LEIAS64f.,GPCII:1830,DGVB
209,LIV526f.KPV565f.,Falileyev83.

References:LEIAS73,GPCII:1830

ProtoCeltic:*sekwos'besides,without'
[Preposition]

ProtoCeltic:*seg(y)o'sow,put'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:heu'sow'(GPCheu,hau)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*seg'attach,grasp'
PageinPokorny:887
IEcognates:Lat.seges,etis'sowingfield',Skt.
sajati'attaches'
Notes:TheetymologicalconnectiontoLat.
segesisobvious;however,theattributiontothe
PIEroot*seg'attach,grasp'isopentodoubton
semanticgrounds.
References:GPCII:1862,KPV562f.,Schrijver
1995:336

OldIrish:sech[+Acc.]
MiddleWelsh:hep(OW),MWheb'without'
MiddleBreton:ep(OBret.)gl.secus,MBret.
hep'without'
Cornish:heb
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sekw'follow'
PageinPokorny:897
IEcognates:Lat.secus'1.along;2.differently',
Skt.sac'with'

ProtoCeltic:*sekwo'follow'[Verb]

References:LEIAS60f.,GPCII:1829,DGVB
161,GOI530,EIEC646,Falileyev83,Hamp,
ECVIII402f.

OldIrish:sechithir,sechethar

ProtoCeltic:*selg'hunt'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sekw'follow'

OldIrish:selg[f]

PageinPokorny:896f.

MiddleWelsh:helgha[Impv](OW)gl.
uenando,MWhela'tohunt'(GPChel,hela,
hely)

IEcognates:Skt.sacate,Lat.sequor
References:KPV564,LIV525f.,LP394,LEIA
S62
ProtoCeltic:*sekwo'say'[Verb]
OldIrish:sechid;sich[Pret.]
MiddleWelsh:hepp[3sPres.](OW),MW
hebu
MiddleBreton:hep(OBret.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sekw'say'
PageinPokorny:895
IEcognates:Gr.ennep'tell',Lat.inseque
'say!',inquit'says',OHGsagen

MiddleBreton:emolch'tohunt'
Cornish:helghya'tohunt'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*selg''sendaway,set
loose'
PageinPokorny:900f.
IEcognates:Skt.srjati'setsloose',Gr.(Dial.)
lagasai'tosetfree'
References:LEIAS80f,GPCII:1844,LP33,
Falileyev82,EIEC481
ProtoCeltic:*selw'possession'[Noun]
OldIrish:selb[f]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 168

MiddleWelsh:helw,elw[m](arhelw'in
possessionof')
Gaulish:Luguselua[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*selh1'take,grasp'
PageinPokorny:899
IEcognates:Gr.hei?lon'Itook',Go.saljan
'offerassacrifice'
Notes:TheCelticformsarederivablefrom
*selh1wo,athematicadjectivalformation.
References:GPCI:1208,LEIAS79f,EIEC
564,Delamarre270

IEcognates:Skt.sana,Lat.senex,Go.sineigs
References:LEIAS83f,GPCII:1848,DGVB
208,EIEC98,409,Delamarre270f.,Meid
2005:205f.
ProtoCeltic:*sentu'path'[Noun]
OldIrish:set[um]
MiddleWelsh:hynt[f]
MiddleBreton:hint(OBret.),MBret.hent
Cornish:hins
Gaulish:Sentolatis[Toponym](todaySatolas)

ProtoCeltic:*semo'pour'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sent'headfor,go'

OldIrish:doessim<*tuekssemo;toesma
[Subj.];toesset[Pret.Pass]

PageinPokorny:908

MiddleWelsh:gwehynnu<*wosemo
MiddleBreton:douohinnomgl.haustum
(OBret.)<*tuwosemo
ProtoIndoEuropean:*semH'pump,draw
water'
PageinPokorny:901f.
IEcognates:Lith.semti'pump',Lat.sentna
'bilgewater'

IEcognates:Lat.sentre'feel',OHGsind'path'
Notes:Cp.alsoBritishToponymGabrosenti.
References:LEIAS98f.,GPCII:1978f.,
DGVB211,EIEC488,637,Delamarre271,De
BernardoStempel1999:45,80
ProtoCeltic:*serw'theft'[Noun]
OldIrish:serb[f]
MiddleWelsh:herw[m]'raid,outlawry'

References:KPV569f.,GPCII:1618,LIV531,
LP395,LEIAS82f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*soru/Gen.*srwo
'booty'

ProtoCeltic:*seno'old'[Adjective]

PageinPokorny:910

OldIrish:sen[o]

IEcognates:Hitt.sru'booty',Lat.seruus'slave'

MiddleWelsh:hen

References:LEIAS90f.,GPCII:1859,EIEC
77,Watkins,IEStudies2(1975):322ff.

MiddleBreton:hen(OBret.)

ProtoCeltic:*sextam'seven'[Numeral]

Cornish:hen
Gaulish:Senognatos[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*seno'old'
PageinPokorny:908

OldIrish:secht[+nasalization]
MiddleWelsh:seith(GPCsaith)
MiddleBreton:seiz

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 169

Cornish:seyth,syth

MiddleBreton:Fergant[PN]

Gaulish:sextan

Cornish:fergl.crus

ProtoIndoEuropean:*septm

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sprh1o'heel'

PageinPokorny:909

PageinPokorny:993

IEcognates:Skt.sapta,Lat.septem,Go.sibun

IEcognates:OEspor'footprint',ToBsprne
[du]'flanks'

References:LEIAS66,GPCIII:3170,EIEC
100,402,Delamarre273
ProtoCeltic:*sextameto'seventh'[Ordinal]
OldIrish:sechtmad
MiddleWelsh:seithfed
MiddleBreton:seizvet
Cornish:seythves,seythes
Gaulish:sextametos'seventh'[Ordinal]

Notes:Gr.sphyron'ankle(bone)'isprobably
related,buttheaspirateisunexpected.The
vowelymightbetheresultofCowgill'slaw(o
>ybetweenlabialsandresonants).
References:LEIAS73,GPCI:1283,EIEC
265,Schrijver1995:348,374,Campanile1974:
46,DeBernardoStempel1999:172.
ProtoCeltic:*sfondo'stick,staff'[Noun]
OldIrish:sond[om]

References:GPCIII:3216,Delamarre273

MiddleWelsh:finn[p](OW),MWffonn[f]
(GPCffon);ffyn,ffonnau[p]

ProtoCeltic:*sfelg'spleen'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sph2en'pieceofwood'

OldIrish:selg[f]

PageinPokorny:980f.

MiddleBreton:felc'h[f]

IEcognates:Lat.sponda'bedstead,bed',OE
spn'sliver,shaving',Gr.sphn'wedge'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*spelHg'hon'spleen'
PageinPokorny:987
IEcognates:Skt.plhan,Lat.lin,Lith.
blunis

References:LEIAS172,GPCI:1302,EIEC
431,Falileyev57,Schrijver1995:444,De
BernardoStempel1999:298
ProtoCeltic:*sfmi'thin'[Adjective]

Notes:IntheOWmanuscriptAngers477,there
isthehapaxfelchou[p]gl.placentarum,butitis
possiblethattheglosscontainingthiswordis
OldBreton,ratherthanOldWelsh(see
Falileyev57)

OldIrish:seim[i]

References:LEIAS81,EIEC538,Falileyev
57,Matasovic2004:106

IEcognates:Gr.spinos'thin'

ProtoCeltic:*sfer'heel'[Noun]
OldIrish:seir[f]
MiddleWelsh:ffer[fandm]'ankle'(GPCffer)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*speymi
PageinPokorny:982

References:LEIAS72
ProtoCeltic:*sido'elk,stag'[Noun]
OldIrish:sed,seg
MiddleWelsh:hydd[m]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 170

PageinPokorny:894
MiddleBreton:heizes[f]'hind,doe'
Notes:TheIrishwordisattestedscarcely,and
ratherlate.
References:LEIAS67f.,GPCII:1956.
ProtoCeltic:*siln(?)'look'[Verb]
OldIrish:sellaid,sella'look'
MiddleWelsh:syllu'stare,gaze'(GPCsyllu,
syllio)

IEcognates:Avest.hiku,Lat.siccus,Gr.
iskhnos
Notes:InPCelt.PIE*siskuwasthematized
(*siskuo>*siskwo).IdoubtwhetherGr.
iskhnosalsobelongshere,sincetheaspirated
khcannotbeexplained.
References:LEIAS96,EIEC170,De
BernardoStempel1999:290
ProtoCeltic:*sitV'long'[Adjective]

MiddleBreton:sellout

OldIrish:sith

Cornish:sellos

MiddleWelsh:hit(OW)'length',MWhyt[m
andf](GPChyd)

Notes:Alloftheseverbsareoriginally
denominative,buttheoriginalformofthenoun
fromwhichtheyarederivedcannotbe
reconstructed.,cp.OIr.sell'eye,iris'[?n].
Schrijver'sconnectionwiththewordfor'star'
(PCelt.*ster)isfarfetchedfromthesemantic
pointofview,butpossible(cp.thesemantic
developmentof*slifrom'sun'to'eye',OIr.su
il).
References:LEIAS82,GPCIII:3384,
Schrijver1995:421
ProtoCeltic:*sindo'this'[Demonstrative
Pronoun]

MiddleBreton:hit(OBret.),MBret.het
Cornish:hes
References:LEIAS120f.,GPCII:1948ff.
ProtoCeltic:*skwetlo'story'[Noun]
OldIrish:scel[on]
MiddleWelsh:chwedl[fandm](GPCchwedl,
chweddl
MiddleBreton:quehezl

OldIrish:sin

Cornish:whethel

MiddleWelsh:hinn(OW),MWhynn

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sekw'say'

Cornish:henma

PageinPokorny:898

Gaulish:sinde

IEcognates:Lat.inquam,OHGsagen,Lith.
sakyti

References:LEIAS111f.,Delamarre274
ProtoCeltic:*siskwo'dry'[Adjective]
OldIrish:sesc,seisc[oandi]
MiddleWelsh:hysp
MiddleBreton:hesp'dry,sterile'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sisku'dry'

Notes:ItisdifficulttoderivetheBritishforms
directlyfromPCelt.*skwetlo(theexpected
outcomewouldhavebeeninitial*sp).They
maybeloanwordsfromGoidelic.
References:LEIAS39f.,GPCI:846,De
BernardoStempel1999:302
ProtoCeltic:*skweyat'hawthorn'[Noun]
OldIrish:sce[dandk,f]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 171

MiddleWelsh:ispidattenn(OW)[Singulative],
MWyspidat[fandm](GPCysbyddad,
(y)sbaddad)

MiddleWelsh:yscar,ysgar(GPC(y)sgaru,
ysgar,ysgario,ysgarad)

MiddleBreton:spezadenn[Singulative]

MiddleBreton:discar<*dskara'divide,cut
off'

Cornish:spethes,spethas

ProtoIndoEuropean:*skerH

ProtoIndoEuropean:*skwys/Gen.
*skwiyos'thorn'

PageinPokorny:938ff.

IEcognates:Russ.xvoja'needlesandbranches
ofaconifer',Lith.skuja'firneedleandcone'

IEcognates:Umbriankartu[Impv.];Lith.ski
rti'cut,divide'

References:LEIAS37,GPCIII:3828,EIEC
80,DeBernardoStempel1999:159,172,183.

References:KPV576,LIV558,LEIAS33,
GPCIII:3832,LP392f.,PedersenI:44,
McCone1991:110f.

ProtoCeltic:*skamo'light'[Adjective]

ProtoCeltic:*skek'move'[Verb]

OldIrish:scam[om]'lung'(attestedonlyinthe
plural,scaim)

OldIrish:scuichid,scuichi'goaway';sceiss,
sce[Subj.];scaich[Pret.]

MiddleWelsh:ysgafn'light';zsgefeint'lung'
(GPCysgafn,ysgawn,ysgon)

MiddleWelsh:ysgogi'move,stir,tremble'
(GPCysgogi,ysgog)

MiddleBreton:scaff

ProtoIndoEuropean:*skek'movefast'

Cornish:scaff,schaff

PageinPokorny:922f.

IEcognates:OHGscamm'short'

IEcognates:OHGgiskehan'pass,happen';
OCSskociti'jump'

References:LEIAS31,GPCIII:3829
ProtoCeltic:*skanndo'jump'[Verb]
OldIrish:sceinnid,sceinn;sescaind[Pret.]
MiddleWelsh:ysgeinnyaw'disperse,spread,
scatter'(GPCysgain,(y)sgeinio,ysgeino)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*skend'jump'
PageinPokorny:
IEcognates:Skt.skandati,Lat.scando'walk,
tread'
References:KPV574,LIV554,LEIAS41,
GPCIII:3834,LP393
ProtoCeltic:*skara'divide,separate'[Verb]
OldIrish:scaraid,scara'divide,separate';
scaraid,scara[Subj.];scarais,scar[Pret.]

Notes:TheSlavicandCelticformsofthe
presentpointtoaPIEcausative*skokeye;the
originalpresentstemwiththeegradeis
preservedinGermanicandintheOIr.
subjunctive.
References:KPV580f.,LIV551f.,GPCIII:
3839,LEIAS56f.,LP393
ProtoCeltic:*skerd(y)o'scrapeoff'[Verb]
OldIrish:scerdaid,sceird;scaird[Pret.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*skerdh'cut,pierce'
IEcognates:Lith.skerdziu'Icut'
References:KPV582,LIV558,LEIAS39
ProtoCeltic:*skeyo'vomit,spew'[Verb]
OldIrish:sceid,sce

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 172

MiddleWelsh:chwydu

References:LEIAS48f.,GPCII:1894.

MiddleBreton:huedaff

ProtoCeltic:*skublo'birdofprey'[Noun]

Cornish:huedzha

MiddleWelsh:ysglyf[m](GPCysglyf,sglyf(f),
ysglyff,ysgyfl,ysgylf)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sk'ey(d)
PageinPokorny:919f.
IEcognates:Lith.skiesti'havediarrhoea',ON
skita'defecate'

MiddleBreton:scubl(OBret.),Bret.skoul
Cornish:scoulgl.milvus(OCo.)
Gaulish:Scubli[Ethnonym]

Notes:TheBrittanicformsaresecondaryverbs
derivedfromtheverbalnoun(MWchwyt),cp.
KPV579.

References:GPCIII:3837,Delamarre269

References:KPV578f.,LEIAS37f.,GPCI:
860

OldIrish:scath[on]

ProtoCeltic:*skto'shadow'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*skiyo'cut'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:ysgawd[m]'shade,darkness'
(GPCysgod)

OldIrish:scian[f]'knife'

MiddleBreton:squeut

MiddleBreton:sueiaff'cut'

Cornish:scodgl.umbra(OCo.),MCo.schus
'terror'

PageinPokorny:920
IEcognates:Lat.sacna,scna'dolabra
pontificalis',OIc.skeggia'axe'
Notes:Wysgien[f]isprobablyanIrish
loanwordcorrespondingtoOIr.scian(from
PCelt.*skno<*sk'eyno
References:LEIAS42f.,DeBernardoStempel
1999:254,Schrijver1995:107
ProtoCeltic:*skolt'fissure,cleft'[Noun]
OldIrish:scoilt,scolt[f]
MiddleWelsh:hollt[mandf]
MiddleBreton:faout
Cornish:fela'tobreak'[Verb]
Notes:ItisdifficulttoderivetheBritishand
IrishformsfromexactlythesamePCelt.
prototype,seeLEIAS48f.InIrish,scoiltis
attestedlate,onlyinModernIrish.However,
thereisadenominativeverbscoiltid'break,
split'inOIr.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*skoto'darkness,
shadow'
PageinPokorny:957
IEcognates:OEsceadu,Gr.skotos
Notes:TheCelticformsprobablyrepresenta
vrddhi,sincetheyimplyPIE*skto,whilethe
GermanicandGreekwordsarederivablefrom
*skoto.
References:LEIAS36,GPCIII:3838,EIEC
508,DeBernardoStempel1999:324,528
ProtoCeltic:*skxslo'demon,supernatural
being'[Noun]
OldIrish:scal[on]
MiddleWelsh:yscawl[m]'younghero,warrior'
(GPCysgawl)
IEcognates:Go.skhsl'demon'
Seealso:*skek'move'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 173

Notes:Wyscawlisnotverywellattestedandits
meaningisrathervaguelyestablished.
References:LEIAS30,GPCIII:3834
ProtoCeltic:*skdo'wing'[Noun]
OldIrish:sciath[om]
MiddleWelsh:ysgwydd[f]'shoulder'
MiddleBreton:scoaz,diouscoaz'shoulders'
Cornish:scuidgl.scapula(OCo.),MCo.dyw
scoth'shoulders'
Seealso:*skto'shield'
Notes:OIr.sciathhasthefinalthratherthan
dbecauseoftheinfluenceofthewordfor
'shield',OIr.sciath<*skto
References:LEIAS44,GPCIII:3851
ProtoCeltic:*skto'shield'[Noun]
OldIrish:sciath[om]
MiddleWelsh:ysgwyd[fandm]
MiddleBreton:scoed
ProtoIndoEuropean:*skoyto,*skeyto'shield'
PageinPokorny:921
IEcognates:OCStit,Lat.sctum
Notes:TherelationshipofthiswordtoPCelt.
*skoo'wing'isunclear.
References:LEIAS43,GPCIII:3852,EIEC
512,DeBernardoStempel1999:557,
Campanile1974:94.
ProtoCeltic:*skto'tired'[Adjective]
OldIrish:scith[o]
MiddleWelsh:esgud'quick,vivid'
MiddleBreton:escuit'quick'
Cornish:uskys'quick,vivid'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*skeh1tH'injure,harm'
PageinPokorny:950
IEcognates:OHGscado'harm,loss'
Notes:Gr.askths'uninjured'mightbe
related,butitsthisdifficulttoexplain.TheBrit.
formsarefromacompound*eksskto.The
vocalismofMWesgud(forexpected*esgid)is
unaccountedfor.
References:LEIAS46f.,GPCI:1245,EIEC
312
ProtoCeltic:*sladyo'hit,slay'[Verb]
OldIrish:slaidid,slaid;slaiss,sla[Subj.];
selais,sela[Fut.];selaid[Pret.];slassae,slass
[Pret.Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:ledit[3sPres.](OW);MW
lladd;lladdawd[Pret.];llas[Pret.Pass.]
MiddleBreton:OBret.ladamgl.caedo,MBret.
lazaff
Cornish:ladha,latha
References:GPCII:2079f.,KPV583f.,LEIA
S125f.,Falileyev101,LP396,Schrijver1995:
178,McCone1994:74.
ProtoCeltic:*slatt'stalk,stem'[Noun]
OldIrish:slat[f]
MiddleWelsh:llath[f]'rod,staff'
MiddleBreton:lathgl.stipite(OBret.),MBret.
laz
Cornish:lath
IEcognates:OHGlatta'plank'
References:LEIAS127f.,GPCII:2100,De
BernardoStempel1999:510f.,Schrijver1995:
431,Kluge23505
ProtoCeltic:*sligo'strike,hew'[Verb]
OldIrish:sligid,slig;sleiss,sle[Subj.];silis,
sil[Fut.];selaig[Pret.];slechtae,slecht[Pret.
Pass.]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 174

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sleyg''smear'

References:LEIAS136,GPCII:2215,DGVB
247,EIEC506,DeBernardoStempel1999:45

PageinPokorny:663f.

ProtoCeltic:*slunko'swallow'[Verb]

IEcognates:OHGslhhan'creep',OCSslzk
'slippery'

OldIrish:slucaid,slucai;sloicis[Pret.];
slogeth[Pret.Pass.]

References:KPV591f.,LIV566f.,LP396,
LEIAS133

MiddleWelsh:llyncu

ProtoCeltic:*slimono'polished,smooth'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:slemon[o]'smooth,sleek'
MiddleWelsh:limnint(OW)[3pPres.]'polish',
MWllyfn'polished,smooth'
MiddleBreton:limn(OBret.)gl.lentum,
MBret.dileffn'hard',MoBret.levn'smooth'
Cornish:leven
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sley'smear(with
grease),polish'
IEcognates:Lat.lmo'polish',OHGslmen
'polish'
References:LEIAS130,GPCII:2254,DGVB
242f.,EIEC527,Falileyev103,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:437,540
ProtoCeltic:*slowgo'troop,army'[Noun]
OldIrish:sluag,slog[om]
MiddleWelsh:llu[m]
MiddleBreton:morlu'greatarm'(OBret.),lu
(intoponyms)
Cornish:luulistrigl.classis(OCo.),MCo.lu

MiddleBreton:roluncasgl.guturicauit
(OBret.),MBret.louncaff
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)lewk
PageinPokorny:964
IEcognates:Ukrainianlykaty'swallow',
Germanschlucken'swallow'
Notes:Therootform*(s)lewkisavariantof
*(s)lewg(LIV964),fromwhichwehaveNHG
schlucken,etc.andOIr.loingid'eat'.The
variation*k/gisunexplained.
References:LEIAS139,GPCII:2273,KPV
593f.,LIV568,LEIAS139,LP396
ProtoCeltic:*slno'safe,whole,sane'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:slan[o]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*selH'favorable'
PageinPokorny:900
IEcognates:Lat.slor'comfort,relief',Go.sls
'good,kind'
Notes:Thisetymologyissomewhatweakonthe
formalside,seeEIEC236.ThePCelt.from
wouldhavetobefromthezerograde*slHno.

Gaulish:Catuslugi[Ethnonym]

References:LEIAS126f.,EIEC236,De
BernardoStempel1999:252

ProtoIndoEuropean:*slowg(h)o

ProtoCeltic:*slbos'(slippery)slope'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:965

OldIrish:sliab[sn,laterm]'mountain,moor'

IEcognates:OCSsluga'servant',Lith.slauga
'servitude'

MiddleWelsh:llwyfan[fandm]'stage,
platform'
MiddleBreton:libiriou(OBret.)gl.lapsus

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 175

OldIrish:snaidid,snaid;snaiss,sna[Subj.]
Seealso:*slimono

MiddleWelsh:naddu

References:LEIAS131,GPCII:2243f.,De
BernardoStempel1999:46,143ff.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sneH2/3dh

ProtoCeltic:*smeko'chin'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:972f.

OldIrish:smech[on]

IEcognates:OHGsnatta'scar'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*smek'ru'chin,jaw'

References:KPV594f.,LIV571,LEIAS146,
LP397

PageinPokorny:968
IEcognates:Skt.smasru,Lith.smakra,Alb.
mjeker

ProtoCeltic:*snid'nit'[Noun]
OldIrish:sned[?f]

References:LEIAS140,EIEC107,De
BernardoStempel1999:60,341,Matasovic
2004:110

MiddleWelsh:nedd,nedden[Singulative]

ProtoCeltic:*smeru'marrow'[Noun]

Cornish:nedhen[Singulative]

OldIrish:smiur[u]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*konid'nit'

MiddleWelsh:mer

PageinPokorny:608,437

MiddleBreton:mel

IEcognates:Gr.konis,OEhnitu,Russ.gnida

ProtoIndoEuropean:*smer'marrow?'

References:EIEC357,DeBernardoStempel
1999:58,Matasovic2004:89

PageinPokorny:970
IEcognates:OEsmeoro'butter,fat',Lat.
medulla<*merulla
References:LEIAS142,EIEC194,
ProtoCeltic:*sm(V)ro'blackberry'[Noun]
OldIrish:smer[?om]
MiddleWelsh:mwyar,mwyaren[Singulative]
MiddleBreton:mouar
Cornish:moyrbrengl.morus
Notes:OIr.mer,whichalsomeans'aberry,
blackberry'isaBritishloanword.
References:LEIAS141,PedersenI:67.
ProtoCeltic:*snado'hew,carve'[Verb]

MiddleBreton:nez,nezenn[Singulative]

ProtoCeltic:*snigw(y)o'snow'[Verb]
OldIrish:snigid,snig;sinis,sin;senaig
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sneygwh'snow,adhere
to'
PageinPokorny:974
IEcognates:Skt.snihyati'adheresto',Gneiphei
'itsnows',Lat.ninguit'itsnows'
Notes:WnyfisprobablyaloanwordfromLat.
(niuem)
References:KPV597f.,LIV573,LEIAS153,
LP397
ProtoCeltic:*sniyo'spin,weave'[Verb]
OldIrish:sniid,sni;senaid,sena[Fut.];se
nais,senai[Pret.];snithae,snith[Pret.
Pass.]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 176

Seealso:*sniyo
MiddleWelsh:nyddu
MiddleBreton:nezaff

References:LEIAS148,EIEC571,De
BernardoStempel1999:342,441

Cornish:nedha

ProtoCeltic:*so'this'[Demonstrative]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sneh1'spin'

OldIrish:so

PageinPokorny:973

Gaulish:sosin

IEcognates:Lat.neo,nre,Gr.nth,OHG
nen

References:LEIAS154f.

References:KPV599,LIV571f.,LEIAS151f.,
LP397

ProtoCeltic:*sodyo'seat'[Noun]
OldIrish:suide[ion]'sitting,seat'

ProtoCeltic:*sn'swim'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sodyo

OldIrish:snaid,sna

PageinPokorny:884

MiddleWelsh:nawf'swimming'

IEcognates:Lat.solium<*sodiom

MiddleBreton:neuff'swimming'

References:LEIAS200,DeBernardoStempel
1999:209.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sneh2'swim,bathe'
PageinPokorny:971f.
IEcognates:Skt.snti'bathes',Lat.no,nre

ProtoCeltic:*somo'same'[Pronoun]
OldIrish:som[emphaticparticle3sm.andn.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*somo'one,same'

References:KPV596,LIV572f.,LEIAS145f.,
LP397

PageinPokorny:904

ProtoCeltic:*snd'protect'[Verb]

IEcognates:Skt.sama'same',Go.sama

OldIrish:snadid

References:LEIAS169.

MiddleWelsh:nawdd'protection'

ProtoCeltic:*sowno'sleep'[Noun]

References:LEIAS146f.

OldIrish:suan[om]

ProtoCeltic:*snto'thread'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:hun[f]

OldIrish:snath[omorn]

MiddleBreton:hun

MiddleBreton:notenn(OBret.)gl.afilo,
MBret.neut

Cornish:hungl.letargia(OCo.),MCo.hun

ProtoIndoEuropean:*snoh1to
PageinPokorny:973
IEcognates:OEsnod'headband'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*s(w)opno'sleep'
PageinPokorny:1048
IEcognates:Skt.svapna,Ghypnos,Lat.
somnus,Arm.kcun,OEswefn

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 177

References:LEIAS197,GPCII:1910,EIEC
529,DeBernardoStempel1999:255ff.,
Campanile1974:66.
ProtoCeltic:*sowono'sun,sunlight'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*srobu'snout,beak'[Noun]
OldIrish:srub[un]

MiddleWelsh:huan[mandf]'sun'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*serbh,*srebh'suck,
absorb'

Seealso:*suwo

PageinPokorny:1001

Notes:ThisWnounisusuallyrelatedtoPIE
heterocliton*seh2wol/n'sun',butthephonetic
developmentisdifficult,andtheevidenceforl/
nheteroclisisinPIEisweak.Thereforeitis
preferabletorelatethisnountoPIE*sewh2
'turn,setinmotion'(Skt.suvati).TheVedic
theonymSavitar,whichisalsoderivedfrom
thisroot,isoftenjustanepithetoftheSun
(srya)inRV.

IEcognates:Lat.sorbeo,Lith.srebiu

References:LEIAS202,Schrijver1995:334
ProtoCeltic:*soyto'magic'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:hud[mandf]
MiddleBreton:hud
Cornish:hus
ProtoIndoEuropean:*seyH'tobind'
PageinPokorny:891f.
IEcognates:ONo.sei'magic'
Notes:Cp.alsoOCo.hudolgl.magusandW
hudol'charming,illusory'<*soytlo

References:LEIAS188,DeBernardoStempel
1999:95
ProtoCeltic:*srokn'nose'[Noun]
OldIrish:sron[f]
MiddleWelsh:ffroen[f]'nostril'
MiddleBreton:fron(OBret.),MBret.froan,
fron
Notes:TheCelticwordfor'nose'mightbe
relatedtoLat.frnum,cp.HampBSLat.LI
42f.
References:LEIAS187,DGVB172,De
BernardoStempel1999:60,258
ProtoCeltic:*srowman'stream'
OldIrish:sruaim[n]
MiddleBreton:strum(OBret.)gl.copia(lactis)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*srewm'flow,stream'

References:GPCII:1905

PageinPokorny:1003

ProtoCeltic:*spionV'foxglove'[Noun]

IEcognates:Gr.rheu?ma,OHGstroum

OldIrish:sion(DILsian)

References:LEIAS188,DGVB309,EIEC
207,486,DeBernardoStempel1999:266

MiddleWelsh:fionou[p](OW),MWffion
Notes:Thesewordsarerelatedto(orborrowed
from?)Lat.spionia'akindofgrapevine'(this
Latinwordisscarcelyattested;itisuncertainif
theowaslong(OxfordLatinDictionary)or
short(LewisandShort)).
References:LEIAS115,Falileyev57,
Schrijver1995:281.

ProtoCeltic:*sruto'stream,flow'[Noun]
OldIrish:sruth[on]
MiddleWelsh:ffrwd[m>f]
MiddleBreton:frut(OBret.)
Cornish:frotgl.alueus

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 178

ProtoIndoEuropean:*srew'flow'

PageinPokorny:1029f.

PageinPokorny:Skt.sravati,Grhe

IEcognates:Skt.strnti,Lat.sterno,Gr.sto
rnymi

Notes:OBret.frutisnotfoundinDGVB.These
Celticwordscanbederivedfromapassive
participleoftheverb*srew'flow'.Cp.also
Gaul.Phroudis[Hydronym].
References:LEIAS189,DeBernardoStempel
1999:290,448,Campanile1974:47,Schrijver
1995:441.
ProtoCeltic:*stabo'shaft,pole'[Noun]

References:KPV601f.,LIV599f.,LEIA
S93ff.,LP395
ProtoCeltic:*sterk'love'[Noun]
OldIrish:serc[f]
MiddleWelsh:serch[m]

OldIrish:sab[om]

MiddleBreton:Serchan[PN](OBret.),
MWserch'concubine'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*steh2

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sterk

PageinPokorny:1012

PageinPokorny:911

IEcognates:Skt.stambha'pillar'

IEcognates:Gr.sterg'love'

References:LEIAS3,DeBernardoStempel
1999:175

References:LEIAS91f.,GPCIII:3227,De
BernardoStempel1999:49

ProtoCeltic:*stamn'mouth'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*ster'star'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:safn[fandm]'jawbone,mouth'

OldIrish:ser

MiddleBreton:staffn

MiddleWelsh:serenn[Singulative](OW),MW
ser,syr[p](GPCser,syr)

Cornish:sawn,sawan'cleft'(MoCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*stomn'mouth,
jawbone'
PageinPokorny:1035
IEcognates:Hitt.istaman'ear',Gr.stoma,
Avest.staman'mouthofadog'
Notes:LateCo.stevnig'palate'isaderivative(<
*stamnik).
References:GPCIII:3164,EIEC387,LP20,
LHEB527,530,Schrijver1995:422
ProtoCeltic:*starna'strew,broaden'[Verb]
OldIrish:sernaid,sern;seraid,sera[Subj.];
sirt,sert[Pret.];srethae,sreth[Pret.Pass.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sterh3'broaden,extend'

MiddleBreton:sterenn[Singulative]
Cornish:steren[Singulative]gl.stella(OCo.),
MCo.ste(y)r
Gaulish:Sirona,irona[Theonym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2str'star'
PageinPokorny:1028
IEcognates:Hitt.hasterz,Gr.astr,Lat.
stlla,Go.stairno
Notes:OIr.serisahapax,itsgenderis
unknown;therefore,thePCelt.reconstructionis
uncertain.
References:LEIAS90,GPCIII:3226,LP20,
Delamarre282,Falileyev142,LHEB530,
Campanile1974:96,DeBernardoStempel

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 179

1999:47,McCone1996:51,Matasovic2004:
98
ProtoCeltic:*stlissu'side,wall'[Noun]
OldIrish:sliss[um]

Seealso:*starna'broaden,extend'
Notes:PCelt.*stratoisderivablefromthe
participle*strh3to.
References:GPCIII:3865,McCone1996:52f.

MiddleWelsh:ystlys[fandm](GPCystlys,
stlys)

ProtoCeltic:*struti'old,senior'[Adjective]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*stelH'extend'

OldIrish:sruith'old,venerable'

PageinPokorny:1018

ProtoIndoEuropean:*ster

IEcognates:Lat.ltus'broad,wide'

PageinPokorny:1037

References:LEIAS135f.,GPCIII:3863,De
BernardoStempel1999:288,295.,Schrijver
1995:438.

IEcognates:Lith.strujus'oldman'

ProtoCeltic:*stlondo'sense,meaning'[Noun]
OldIrish:slond[o?m]
MiddleWelsh:istlinnit(OW)[3sPres.]gl.
profatur
MiddleBreton:stlen'declared'
Notes:Schrijver(1995:435ff.)defendstheold
connectionofthesewordswithLat.splendor.If
thisistrue,thecorrectPCelt.reconstructionis
*sflondo.
References:LEIAS137f.,Falileyev97,
Schrijver1995:435ff.,DeBernardoStempel
1999:295.
ProtoCeltic:*strato'valley'[Noun]
OldIrish:srath[om]'grass,sward,valley'
MiddleWelsh:Strat(OW),MWYstrad[in
Toponyms],MWystrad[fandm]'valley'
MiddleBreton:strad'bottom'
Cornish:Straetneat[Toponym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sterh3'extend,strew'
PageinPokorny:1029f.
IEcognates:Skt.strnti,Lat.sterno,Gr.sto
rnymi

References:LEIAS189,DeBernardoStempel
1999:293,Schrijver1995:453.
ProtoCeltic:*stungo'bend'[Verb]
OldIrish:astoing<*eksstungo'refuse,swear
away';asto[Subj.]
MiddleWelsh:estwng,ystwng'bend,lower
oneself'
MiddleBreton:stoeaff'bend,loweroneself'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)tewg'moveabruptly'
PageinPokorny:1032f.
IEcognates:Skt.tuj,Gr.styge'hate'
Notes:InOldIrish,formsofPCelt.*tungo
'swear'wereconfusedwiththeformsderived
from*stungo'bend',seeKPV605.
References:KPV603ff.,LIV602,Schrijver
1995:419f.
ProtoCeltic:*st'be,findoneself'[Verb]
OldIrish:atta,fil'be'(substantiveverb)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*steh2'put,stand'
PageinPokorny:1004
IEcognates:Lat.sto,stare,OCSstojati
Seealso:*sista

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 180

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2op'wealth'
References:LEIAT2,EIEC468
ProtoCeltic:*sttl'heel'[Noun]
OldIrish:sal[f]
MiddleWelsh:sawdl[mandf];sodlau[p]
MiddleBreton:seuzl
Cornish:suthel,sul
ProtoIndoEuropean:*steh2tlo
PageinPokorny:1004
IEcognates:Lat.tlus'heel'
Notes:DeBernardoStempel1999:303derives
thesewordsfromPIE*sth2dhleh2,withzero
gradeandadifferentsuffix.Theconnection
withLat.tlusisalsoproblematic,sincethe
diminutivetaxillusimpliesaprotoform
*takslos,not*(s)ttlos.

PageinPokorny:780
IEcognates:Hitt.happinant'rich',Skt.apna
'wealth',Lat.opulentus'rich'
Notes:Thereis,inOIr.,theantonymdoimm
'poor'<*dusopsmi
References:LEIAS170,EIEC637
ProtoCeltic:*subi'strawberry'[Noun]
OldIrish:sub[in]
MiddleWelsh:syfi[p];syfien[Singulative]
MiddleBreton:seuuienn[Singulative];s(u)iuy
[p]
Cornish:syvyen[Singulative];sevi[p](MoCo.)
References:LEIAS197f.,GPCIII:3379,De
BernardoStempel1999:281

References:LEIAS16f.,GPCIII:3184,De
BernardoStempel1999:303,Schrijver1995:
421.

ProtoCeltic:*sukko'pig'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*su'good'[(Prefixed)Adjective]

MiddleWelsh:huch(OW),MWhwch[fandm]
'pig'

OldIrish:so,su

OldIrish:soc(c)[om]'snout'

MiddleWelsh:hy

MiddleBreton:hochgl.aper(OBret.),Bret.
houc'h

MiddleBreton:he

Cornish:hochgl.porcus(OCo.),MCo.hoch

Cornish:he

ProtoIndoEuropean:*suH'pig'

Gaulish:Sucellos[Theonym]

PageinPokorny:1038

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1su'good'

IEcognates:Lat.ss,ToBsuwo,GermanSau

PageinPokorny:1037

References:LEIAS158f.,GPCII:1928,EIEC
425,LHEB567,Falileyev87,Campanile1974:
64,DeBernardoStempel1999:35,96,519

IEcognates:OIr.su,Geu
References:LEIAS153f.,EIEC235,
Delamarre283
ProtoCeltic:*suofsmiyo'rich'[Adjective]
OldIrish:sommae[io]

ProtoCeltic:*suwo'turn,wind'[Verb]
OldIrish:soid,soi;soaid,soa[Subj.];soi
fid,soifea[Fut.]
MiddleWelsh:amheu'doubt'(GPCamau,
amheuo)

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 181

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sewh1'move,setto
motion'

Cornish:hwegergl.socrus(OCo.)

PageinPokorny:914

ProtoIndoEuropean:*swek'ruh2'motherin
law'

IEcognates:Hitt.suwezzi,Skt.suvati

PageinPokorny:1043f.

Notes:Wasseu'left'mightbederivablefrom
*adsowo,fromthesameroot.

IEcognates:Lat.socrus,OCSsvekry,Arm.
skesur

References:KPV605f.,LIV538f.,LP397f.,
LEIAS156f.,GPCI:90

Seealso:*swekrno

ProtoCeltic:*swanna'sound,play(an
instrument)'[Verb]
OldIrish:seinnid,seinn;sifais,sif(e)[Subj.];
sefainn[Pret.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*swenh2'(produce)
sound'

References:GPCI:848,LP18,Campanile66
ProtoCeltic:*swekrno'fatherinlaw'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:chwegrwn[m]
Cornish:hwigerengl.socer(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*swek'uro'fatherinlaw'

PageinPokorny:1046f.

PageinPokorny:1043f.

IEcognates:Skt.svan,Lat.sono

IEcognates:Lat.socer,Gr.hekyros

References:KPV607f.,LIV611,LP395,LEIA
S86,Watkins1963:130133.

Seealso:*swekr

MiddleBreton:huerzin

Notes:ThesuffixesinWandOCo.donot
agree.OCo.presupposes*swekrino,which
couldbeanalogical,whileWchwegrwncanbe
deriveddirectlyfromPCelt.*swekrno,which
isaregularderivativefrom*swekr'motherin
law'.

Cornish:hwerthin

References:LP18,Campanile66

ProtoIndoEuropean:*swer'sound,make
sound'

ProtoCeltic:*swelo'turn,moment'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*swaryo'laugh'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:chwerthin

PageinPokorny:1049f.
IEcognates:Skt.svarati,ONsverja'swear'

OldIrish:sel[om]
MiddleWelsh:chwyl[mandf]'turn,course,
destiny'(GPCchwyl)

Notes:TheattributionoftheseCelticformsto
thePIEroot*swerissemanticallydifficult,but
possible.SeeKPV609.

MiddleBreton:hoalat'attract'

References:KPV608f.,GPCI:843,LIV613,
LP314

Notes:Apossible,butunconvincing,IE
etymologyofthesewordscanbefoundinEIEC
63,Pokorny1041.

ProtoCeltic:*swekr'motherinlaw'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:chwegr[f]

Cornish:whel'course'

References:LEIAS77f,GPCI:861,De
BernardoStempel1999:222,EIEC63

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 182

ProtoCeltic:*swengo'thin'[Adjective]
OldIrish:seng[o]
IEcognates:MHGswanc'flexible,thin'
Notes:LEIAS85f.derivestheancientnameof
Belgrade,Singidunum,alsofromthisroot.
References:LEIAS85f.,EIEC63,De
BernardoStempel1999:42,324.

IEcognates:Skt.svasar,Lat.soror,Go.svistar,
Arm.kcoyr
References:LEIAS123,GPCI:838,
Delamarre286,DeBernardoStempel1999:
122,405,Campanile1974:66.
ProtoCeltic:*swexs'six'[Numeral]
OldIrish:se[+gemination]
MiddleWelsh:chwech,chwe

ProtoCeltic:*swergo'illness'[Noun]

MiddleBreton:hue(OBret.),Bret.c'houec'h

OldIrish:serg[om]

Cornish:whegh,whe

ProtoIndoEuropean:*swergh'beill'

Gaulish:suexos'sixth'[Ordinal]

PageinPokorny:1051

Celtiberian:sues

IEcognates:Lith.sergu'Iamsick',Alb.
dergjem'lieill',ToAsrk'illness'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*swek's

References:LEIAS92,EIEC516
ProtoCeltic:*swerwo'bitter'[Adjective]
OldIrish:serb[o]
MiddleWelsh:chwerw
MiddleBreton:hueru(MoBret.c'houero)

PageinPokorny:1044
IEcognates:Lat.sex,Gr.heks
References:LEIAS59,GPCI:846,DGVB
214,EIEC402,Delamarre285f.,Colera1998:
102,186
ProtoCeltic:*swisso'sweat'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:chwys

Cornish:wherow
References:LEIAS90,GPCI:850,Morris
Jones1913:29.

MiddleBreton:hues
Cornish:hwys

ProtoCeltic:*swesr'sister'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sweyd'sweat'

OldIrish:siur[rf]

PageinPokorny:1043

MiddleWelsh:chwaer[f]

IEcognates:Lat.sdo,Skt.svedate,Arm.
kcirtn'sweat(noun)'

MiddleBreton:hoer
Cornish:huirgl.soror

Notes:TheCelticformscanbederivedfrom
PIE*swidso

Gaulish:suiorebe[Instr.p]

References:EIEC560,LEIAA62,GPCI:864

ProtoIndoEuropean:*swesr'sister'

ProtoCeltic:*swizdo'blow'[Verb]

PageinPokorny:1051

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 183

OldIrish:doinfet<*tueniswisdo'blow,
inspire';dorinfid[3sPret.Relative];dor
infess[Pret.Pass.Relative]
MiddleWelsh:chwythu'blow,breathe'
MiddleBreton:huezaff

thesemanticdevelopment'sweat'>'swell'see
KPV609.
References:KPV610f.,GPCI:860,LIV607
ProtoCeltic:*sws'you(p)'[Pronoun]
OldIrish:si

Cornish:hwytha
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sweysd
PageinPokorny:1040f.
IEcognates:Russ.svistat'
Notes:Thesewordsareofonomatopoeicorigin,
soindepententcreationsindifferentbranchesof
IEcannotbeexcluded.
References:GPCI:865,LIV611ff.,LP395,
LEIAS100.

MiddleWelsh:hui(OW),MWchwi
MiddleBreton:hui(OBret.),MBret.huy
Cornish:why
References:LEIAS101f.,GPCI:850,GOI
254,282,Falileyev87f.
ProtoCeltic:*smo'calm,easy,pleasant'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:sam[o]

ProtoCeltic:*swdu'sweet'[Adjective]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*somo'same'

OldIrish:Sadb[PN]

PageinPokorny:902

Gaulish:Suadugena,Suadurix

IEcognates:Skt.smana'calm',ONsamr
'same'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*sweh2du'sweet'
PageinPokorny:1039
IEcognates:Skt.svdu,Gr.hedys,Lat.
suuis,ToBswre
Notes:Whawdd'easy'mightbederivablefrom
thesameroot.
References:Delamarre284,EllisEvans1967:
258,Meid2005:206f.
ProtoCeltic:*swdo'swell'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:chwyddaw(GPCchwyddo)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*sweyd'sweat'
PageinPokorny:1043
IEcognates:Skt.svedate,Gr.idi,OHG
swizzen
Notes:InOIr.thereisthedeverbalnounsiat[?
um]'inflation,swelling'<PCelt.*swdu.For

References:LEIAS20,DeBernardoStempel
1999:39
ProtoCeltic:*st'sufficiency,fill'[Noun]
OldIrish:sath,saith[f]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*seh2t
PageinPokorny:876
IEcognates:Lat.satis'enough'<*sh2ti,Lith.
sotis'sufficiency',Go.gaso?jan'satisfy'
References:LEIAS15f.,DeBernardoStempel
1999:294,527
ProtoCeltic:*swol/*sli'sun'[Noun]
OldIrish:suil[if]'eye'
MiddleWelsh:haul[mandf]
MiddleBreton:houl(OBret.),MBret.heuul,
heul

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 184

ProtoCeltic:*slo'seed,descendants'[Noun]
Cornish:heuulgl.sol(OCo.),MCo.houl
ProtoIndoEuropean:*seh2wl'sun'
IEcognates:Skt.srya,Lat.sl,Go.sauil
Notes:ThechangeofmeaninginOIr.is
understandablefromthemythologicalcontext.
'Sun'isviewedas'theeyeoftheSky'.Itappears
thattherewasstillanablautingparadigmin
PCelt.,Nom.s.*swol,Gen.*slos,from
whichOIr.suilwasabstracted.Another
possibilitywouldbetostartwith*sh2wl>
*sal(withtheregularchangeof*>*inthe
finalsyllable),thence*sl.
References:LEIAS201,GPCII:1826,DGVB
214,LP12,EIEC188,438,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:72,Campanile1974:63,
Matasovic2004:98,102
ProtoCeltic:*sbro'demon,spectre'[Noun]
OldIrish:siabar[om]
MiddleWelsh:hwyfarinGwenhwyfar[PN]=
Guinevre(Arthur'swife),OIr.Findabair

OldIrish:sil[on]
MiddleWelsh:hil[fandm]'race,lineage'
MiddleBreton:hil
ProtoIndoEuropean:*seh1'sow'
PageinPokorny:890
IEcognates:Lat.smen'seed',OEswan'sow'
Notes:Celtib.zizonti(BotorritaI)mightbethe
3pPres.oftheverb'sow'(fromPIE*seh1),
paralleltoLat.sero<*sish1.
References:LEIAS108f.,GPCII:1806,LP7,
EIEC505,DeBernardoStempel1999:224,364
ProtoCeltic:*sn'weather'[Noun]
OldIrish:sin[f]
MiddleWelsh:hin[f]
MiddleBreton:hinon'niceweather'

PageinPokorny:891

References:LEIAS112,GPCII:1867

References:LEIAS103,DeBernardoStempel
1999:230,235

ProtoCeltic:*sro'long'[Adjective]

ProtoCeltic:*s'she'[Pronoun]

OldIrish:sir[o]
MiddleWelsh:hir(OWandMW)

OldIrish:si
MiddleWelsh:hi
MiddleBreton:hi

MiddleBreton:hir
Cornish:hir
Gaulish:Sirus[PN]

Cornish:hy
ProtoIndoEuropean:*s+ih2
IEcognates:Go.si'she'
Notes:TheCelticpersonalpronounsforthe3sg.
fwereformedbyaddingthe"motionsuffix"*
ih2tothepronominalstem*s(fromwhichwe
have,e.g.,Skt.sas,Gr.ho,etc.).
References:GPCII:1864,Schrijver1997:56.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*seh1ro'late'
PageinPokorny:891
IEcognates:Skt.sya'evening',Lat.srus
'late'
References:LEIAS116,GPCII:1869,EIEC
357,Falileyev85,DeBernardoStempel1999:
229ff.,526ff.,Delamarre276
ProtoCeltic:*stl'vase'[Noun]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 185

PageinPokorny:1062
OldIrish:sithal[f]
MiddleWelsh:hidl[f]'filter,strainer,sieve'
(GPChidl,hiddl)
MiddleBreton:sizl
Notes:Itispossiblethatthesewordswere
influencedbyLat.situla'vessel'

IEcognates:OCStleti
Notes:WtalchcanberelatedtothePIEzero
grade*tlkonybyassumingthatitis
dissimilatedfrom*tlksk'o(likeWarchfrom
*prk'sk'o).
References:GPCIII:3428,LP43,LIV566

References:LEIAS120f.,GPCII:1865

ProtoCeltic:*talu'front,forehead'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*tag(t)o'strangle,choke'[Verb]

OldIrish:taul[un]'boss,protuberance'(DIL
tul)

OldIrish:tachtaid,tachta
MiddleWelsh:tagu

MiddleWelsh:tal[m](OWandMW)'forehead'
(GPCtl)

MiddleBreton:tagu

MiddleBreton:talar(OBret.),MBret.tal

Cornish:tage

Cornish:talgl.frons(OCo.),MCo.tal,taal

Notes:Forpossible,butunconvincing,IE
etymologies,seeLEIAT5,Pokorny1055.

Gaulish:Argiotalus[PN]

References:LEIAT4f.,GPCIII:3421,EIEC
518

Seealso:*talamon

ProtoCeltic:*talamon'earth,ground'[Noun]

References:GPCIII:3425,Falileyev144,
Delamarre288,Schrijver1995:84f.,Meid
2005:153.

OldIrish:talam[nm]

ProtoCeltic:*tannu'broaden,spread'[Verb]

Gaulish:Talamone,Talmun(>Talmont)
[Toponyms]

MiddleWelsh:tannu

ProtoIndoEuropean:*telh2om
PageinPokorny:1061
IEcognates:Lat.tellus'earth',OPruss.talus
'ground',OE?el'floor'

Cornish:tan[Impv]'take'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ten'broaden,stretch'
PageinPokorny:1065f.
IEcognates:Skt.tanoti,Gr.tanymai,Go.uf?
anjan

References:LEIAT22f.,EIEC247,Delamarre
288f.,DeBernardoStempel1999:107,241

References:KPV618,LIV626f.,GPCIII:3443

ProtoCeltic:*talskV'fragment,piece'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*tanawyo'thin'[Adjective]

MiddleWelsh:talch[p]'oatmeal,groats,
fragments'

OldIrish:tanae,tana[io]

Cornish:talchgl.furfures(OCo.)

MiddleWelsh:teneu(OWandMW)(GPC
tenau)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*telk'strike,hit'

MiddleBreton:tanau

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 186

Cornish:tene?engl.latus(OCo.),Co.tanow
ProtoIndoEuropean:*tenh2u'thin'
IEcognates:Gr.tanaos,Lat.tenuis,OHG
dunni
References:LEIAT26,GPCIII:3477f.,EIEC
574,Falileyev146,Campanile1974:99,
Schrijver1995:85,297,DeBernardoStempel
1999:49,91,213.
ProtoCeltic:*tangwt'tongue'[Noun]
OldIrish:tengae[m>fd]
MiddleWelsh:tauawt(OW),Wtafod[mandf]
MiddleBreton:teaut,teut

References:LEIAT38f.,GPCIII:3439,
Delamarre288f.,Falileyev144,Meid2005:
118.
ProtoCeltic:*tanno'greenoak'[Noun]
Cornish:glastannengl.quercusuelilex
Gaulish:Tannetum,Tannogilum[Toponyms]
Notes:OIr.tinne'holly,elder(?)'isprobably
related(PCelt.*tennyo),cp.LEIAT71
References:LEIAT71,Delamarre289f.
ProtoCeltic:*tant'cord,cable'[Noun]
OldIrish:tet[f]

Cornish:tauotgl.lingua(OCo.),MCo.tawes

MiddleWelsh:tantou(OW)[p]gl.fides,Wtant
[m]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*dng'huh2'tongue

MiddleBreton:tanntou(OBret.)

PageinPokorny:223

ProtoIndoEuropean:*ten'stretch'

IEcognates:Lat.lingua,OHGzunga,ToB
kantwo

PageinPokorny:1065

Notes:InCeltic,theinitial*t(insteadofthe
expected*d)isbestexplainedastheresultof
metathersis(*d...t>t...d).TheCelticformswith
stemfinal*tpresupposeanearlierstem,
*tangw(seeWidmer1997).
References:LEIAT50f.,GPCIII:3416f.,
EIEC98,594,DeBernardoStempel1999:
159ff.,Matasovic2004:108,Widmer1997.
ProtoCeltic:*tanko'peace'[Noun]

IEcognates:Skt.tan,Lat.tendo
Notes:Thisisanoldparticipleoftheverb*ten
'tostretch'
References:GPCIII:3444,LEIAT55,
Falileyev145,DeBernardoStempel1999:296
ProtoCeltic:*tan'time'[Noun]
OldIrish:tan[?f]

MiddleWelsh:tagc(OW),MWtang,tanc[m]

MiddleWelsh:tan'until,while,below'(GPC
tan,dan)

Gaulish:Tancorix

MiddleBreton:tan,dan(OBret.)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tenk'besolid,firm'

References:LEIAT25f.,GPCIII:3435,De
BernardoStempel1999:49,474,539

PageinPokorny:1068
IEcognates:Skt.tanc,Germandicht'thick'
Notes:OIr.techtaid,techta'freeze,solidify'is
adenominativeverbfromthisroot.

ProtoCeltic:*tar(r)tu'dryness,thirst'[Noun]
OldIrish:tart[um]
MiddleWelsh:tarth[m]'vapour,steam,fume'
Gaulish:Tartos(?)[PN]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 187

ProtoCeltic:*tares'across'[Preposition]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*trstu'dry'
PageinPokorny:1078
IEcognates:Lat.torrus,OHGdurri

OldIrish:tar,dar[+Acc.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*terh2'cross'
PageinPokorny:1075

Notes:ThesemanticconnectionofWtarthand
OIr.tartisnotbeyonddoubt.

IEcognates:Skt.tiras'across',Lat.trans'across'

References:LEIAT35,GPCIII:3452,EIEC
170,DeBernardoStempel1999:145,289,
Delamarre291

Notes:W(andOW)tra,Bret.treuzcanbe
derivedfromarelatedform,*trns(cp.Lat.
trans).

ProtoCeltic:*taryo'boil,burst'[Verb]

References:LEIAT28f.,GOI530f.,EIEC4,
Falileyev149.

MiddleWelsh:tarddu
MiddleBreton:tardomgl.clangor(OBret.)

ProtoCeltic:*targwo'disturb,scare'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:tarfu

Cornish:tardha
ProtoIndoEuropean:*terh2'cross,overcome'
PageinPokorny:1074
IEcognates:Hitt.taruhzi,Skt.trvati,Lat.trns
References:KPV620,LIV633f.,GPCIII:
3448,Schrijver1995:144f.
ProtoCeltic:*taratro'auger'[Noun]
OldIrish:tarathar[om]
MiddleWelsh:tarater(OW),Wtaradr[m]
MiddleBreton:tarazr,talazr
Cornish:tardar

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tergw'scare,fear'
PageinPokorny:1076f.
IEcognates:Gr.tarbe,Skt.trajati'threaten'
References:GPCIII:3449f.,LIV574f.,Frisk
II:855
ProtoCeltic:*tarwo'bull'[Noun]
OldIrish:tarb[om]
MiddleWelsh:tarw[m]
MiddleBreton:taruu(OBret.),MBret.taru
Cornish:tarow
Gaulish:taruos

Gaulish:*taratro>Lat.taratrum(Frenchtarie
re)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tawro'bull'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*terh1tro'auger'

PageinPokorny:1083

PageinPokorny:1072

IEcognates:Lat.taurus,OCStur

IEcognates:Gr.teretron,Lat.terebra(<
*terh1sro)

References:LEIAT31,GPCIII:3452,LP
12f.EIEC98,135DeBernardoStempel1999:
214,219,Delamarre291,Matasovic2004:87

References:LEIAT30,GPCIII:3447,LP46,
EIEC36,424,DeBernardoStempel1999:304,
Delamarre290,Falileyev145.

ProtoCeltic:*taws(y)o'deaf'[Adjective]
OldIrish:to[o],tuae[yo]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 188

MiddleWelsh:taw

References:LEIAT17,DeBernardoStempel
1999:272

MiddleBreton:tao

ProtoCeltic:*tazgo'badger'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*teh2ws

OldIrish:tadg'1.poet,2.hard',Tadg[PN]

PageinPokorny:1056ff.

Gaulish:Tascos[PN],Tascouanus[PN]
'badgerslayer'

IEcognates:Skt.tsnm'still,insilence',
OPruss.tusnan'quiet'
References:LIV582,GPCIII:3455,LEIA90f.
ProtoCeltic:*tawsyo'bequiet,bestill'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:tewi;tawaf[1sPres.]
MiddleBreton:teuell
Cornish:tewel
ProtoIndoEuropean:*teh2ws'bequiet,be
still'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tosko
IEcognates:OHGdahs,perhapsHitt.taku
'testicle?'
Notes:Althoughthisetymologyappearsweak
onthesemanticsideonthefirstsight,itis
actuallyquitesound,sinceOIr.Tadgisthe
nameofacertainkingwhosetotemwasa
badger.TherearealsoreflexesoftheGaulish
wordsfor'badger'invariousRomancedialects,
e.g.French(dial.)taisson,Italiantasso,Spanish
tejon,etc.

IEcognates:Hitt.tuhussiyezzi'looksquiet'

References:LEIAT5f.,Delamarre2004:292,
DeBernardoStempel1999:475,EllisEvans
1967:263ff.,Matasovic2004:88,J.Katz,KZ
111(1998):6182,Uhlich2002:417.

Seealso:*taws(y)o'deaf'

ProtoCeltic:*tefent'hot,warm'[Adjective]

Notes:TheHittiteverbisderivedfrom*tuHs
<*teh2wsbyregularmetathesis.Adifferent
reconstructionofthePIErootisofferedbzLIV
andKPV621ff.

OldIrish:te,tee[nt]

PageinPokorny:1056f.

References:KPV621ff.,LIV642f.,GPCIII:
3456,LEIAT90f.,T99,LP401
ProtoCeltic:*taysto'dough'[Noun]
OldIrish:tais,taes[o]
MiddleWelsh:toes'farinasubacta,massa
farinaria'
MiddleBreton:toas
ProtoIndoEuropean:*teh2yst'dough'
PageinPokorny:1054
IEcognates:OCSte?sto,OHGtheismo

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tep'bewarm'
PageinPokorny:1070
IEcognates:Skt.tapati'burns',Lat.tepeo'be
warm',OCStopl'warm'
References:LEIAT38,263,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:148,432,532
ProtoCeltic:*tefnet'fire'[Noun]
OldIrish:tene[dm]
MiddleWelsh:tan[m](GPCtn)
MiddleBreton:tan
Cornish:tan
ProtoIndoEuropean:*tep'bewarm'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 189

PageinPokorny:1070
Seealso:*tefent
Notes:TheCelticform*tepnetpresupposesan
earliersstem(*tepns),seeWidmer1997.

References:LEIAT39,GPCIII:3667,EIEC
488,DeBernardoStempel1999:142,Uhlich
2002:412,Meid1994a:43,Colera1998:170,
Campanile1974:100.
ProtoCeltic:*tegu'thick'[Adjective]

References:LEIAT49f.,GPCIII:3437,De
BernardoStempel1999:165,Widmer1997.

OldIrish:tiug[u]'thick,dense'

ProtoCeltic:*tegoslowgo'household'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:teu(OW),MWtew

OldIrish:teglach

MiddleBreton:teo,teu

MiddleWelsh:telu(OW)'retinue',MWteilu
[m](GPCteulu)

Cornish:tew

Cornish:teilugl.familia(OCo.)
Seealso:*slowgo
References:LEIAS137,LEIAT39,GPCIII:
3490,Falileyev146,Campanile1974:99.
ProtoCeltic:*tegos'house'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tegu'thick'
PageinPokorny:1057
IEcognates:OHGdicchi
Notes:ReflexesofthisPIErootareattested
onlyinCelticandGermanic.

OldIrish:tech[sn]

References:LEIAT76,GPCIII:3491,
Falileyev147,Schrijver1995:68

MiddleWelsh:tig(OW),Wty[m](GPCty)

ProtoCeltic:*tekwo'run,flee'[Verb]

MiddleBreton:boutig(OBret.)'stable',MBret.
ti

OldIrish:teichid,teich;teiss,te[Subj.];teiss,
te[Fut.];taich[Pret.]

Cornish:tigl.domus(OCo.),MCo.chy

MiddleWelsh:techu

Gaulish:*attegia>Lat.attegia'hut'(<*adteg
y)

MiddleBreton:techet

Celtiberian:teces(Luzaga)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*tegos'cover,roof'
PageinPokorny:1013
IEcognates:Lat.tego'cover',Gr.tegos'roof',
GermanDach
Notes:OCo.togl.tectum,WandBret.toall
presupposePCelt.*togo,anotherablautvariant
ofthesameroot.Cp.alsoOIr.tuige'cover,
protection'(DILtugae)<*togy.The
lengthenedgradeisattestedinOIr.ti'cloak'<
*(s)tgs,whichisalsocompatiblewiththe
Brit.forms.ShouldwereconstructaPCelt.
ablautingparadigm*tgs/*tegos?

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tekw'flow,run'
PageinPokorny:1059f.
IEcognates:OCStesti,Lith.teku'run'
Notes:Brittonicchisfromanoldsubjunctive
stem,cp.LP399.Theoldpresentstem,parallel
toOIr.teichispreservedinCanuAneurin
55.1418nydebit[Impf.ImpersonalRelative]
References:KPV629ff.,LIV620f.,GPCIII:
3461,LEIAT40,EIEC491
ProtoCeltic:*telmi'sling,snare'[Noun]
OldIrish:teilm,tailm[if]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 190

MiddleWelsh:telm'snare,trap'
MiddleBreton:talmoriongl.cumfunditoribus,
talm'sling;astrikeoflightning'

MiddleWelsh:tad[m]
MiddleBreton:tat

References:LEIAT10,GPCIII:3474

Cornish:tatgl.pater(OCo.),MCo.tas

ProtoCeltic:*temo,*temeslo'dark'

Seealso:*attyo

OldIrish:temel[om]'shadow,darkness',tem
'dark'

References:GPCIII:3407

MiddleWelsh:timuil(OW),Wtywyll'dark,
darkness'
MiddleBreton:temoelgl.fenicatum,MBret.
teffal
Cornish:tiwoulgou(OCo.)gl.tenebrae,MCo.
teul,tevle
ProtoIndoEuropean:*temH'dark'
PageinPokorny:1064
IEcognates:Skt.timira'dark',OHGdemar
'twilight',Lat.tenebrae'darkness'
Notes:OIr.tem(DILteim)'dark'(<*temHo)
isararewordoccurringonlyinglossaries.
References:LEIAT48,GPCIII:3686,
Falileyev147,Schrijver1995:322,De
BernardoStempel1999:46

ProtoCeltic:*tenndo'break,cut'[Verb]
OldIrish:teinnid,teinn;teiss,te[Subj.];
tethainn[Pret.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*tend'cut'
PageinPokorny:1062f.
IEcognates:Lat.tondeo,Gr.tend
References:KPV614,LIV628,LP399,LEIA
T51
ProtoCeltic:*texstu'heat'[Noun]
OldIrish:tess[um]
MiddleWelsh:tes[m]
MiddleBreton:atesgl.fotu(OBret.),MoBret.
tez
Cornish:tesgl.feruor(OCo.)

ProtoCeltic:*tandman'cutting,gnawing'
[Noun]

Gaulish:Tessignius(?)[PN]

OldIrish:teinm[?nn]

Lepontic:Ae(?)[PN](<*adtess)

MiddleWelsh:tam[m]'morsel,piece'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tep'bewarm'

MiddleBreton:tamm'piece'

PageinPokorny:1070

Cornish:tam

IEcognates:Skt.tapas'heat',Lat.tepeo'be
warm'

Seealso:*tenndo'break,cut'
Notes:Therearephonologicaldifficultiesin
equatingMIr.teinmwithWtametc.SeeStber
1998:167.

Seealso:*tefent

References:GPCIII:3434,Stber1998:167.

References:LEIAT54,GPCIII:3487,EIEC
263,DeBernardoStempel1999:146ff.,
Delamarre294,Campanile1974:100,O
Flaithearta1997,Meid2005:117f.

ProtoCeltic:*tato'father'[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*tini'melt'[Verb]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 191

OldIrish:tinaid,tin'melt,disappear'

MiddleWelsh:tlws[m]'treasure,jewel'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*teyh1'becomehot'

References:LEIAT80,GPCIII:3510f.,De
BernardoStempel1999:269

PageinPokorny:1053f.

ProtoCeltic:*tlti'weak'[Adjective]

IEcognates:Hitt.zari'boils',OE?nan
'moisten'

OldIrish:tlaith[i]

References:KPV640,LIV617,LEIAT67f.

MiddleWelsh:tlawdd'poor,sick'

ProtoCeltic:*tigerno'lord,master'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*telh2ti'support,
suffering'

OldIrish:tigern[om]
MiddleWelsh:teern,teyrn[m]
MiddleBreton:Tiarn(OBret.)[PN]
Cornish:machdeyrn'king'
Gaulish:(Castrum)Tigernum[Toponym]
Notes:ForpossibleIEetymologies,seeLEIA
T62Colera1998:207ff.mentionsthe
possibilitythatCeltib.TIGINO(Pen.de
Villastar)actuallyrepresentsTigernos,butI
findthisunconvincing.
References:LEIAT62,GPCIII:3494,
Delamarre296,DeBernardoStempel1999:
238ff.,Colera1998:207ff.

PageinPokorny:1060f.
IEcognates:Gr.talas'sad',OHGdolen'suffer'
References:LEIAT78,GPCIII:3510,
McCone1996:52f.,DeBernardoStempel
1999:293,337
ProtoCeltic:*to'to'[Preposition]
OldIrish:to,do,do
MiddleWelsh:di(OW),Wdy
MiddleBreton:do(OBret.)
References:LEIAT81f.,Falileyev42f.

ProtoCeltic:*tlina'takeaway,steal'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*towessu'leadership,actof
leading,driving'[Noun]

OldIrish:tlenaid,tlen;tlieid,tlia[Subj.];ti
uil[Pret.]

OldIrish:tuus,tus[un]'actofleading,
preceding,beginning'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*telh2'raise,support,
bear'

MiddleWelsh:tywys'lead,guide'(GPCtywys,
tywysio,tywysu)

PageinPokorny:1060f.

Seealso:*towessko,*wed

IEcognates:Lat.tollo,Go.?ulan,Toch.B
tallam

References:LEIAT188,GPCIII:3688

Seealso:*talamon'earth'

ProtoCeltic:*toleyo'sleep'[Verb]
OldIrish:tuilid,contuili;contuil[Pret.]

References:KPV641f.,LIV622f.,LP401,
LEIAT78f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)tel'bequiet,bestill'

ProtoCeltic:*tlustu'kine,riches'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:1061f

OldIrish:tlus[um]
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 192

IEcognates:OHGstillen'makestill',Lith.tyla
'quietperson'

OBrit.theonymTanaroandintheoldnameof
theriverPo,Tanarus'thundering'.

References:LEIAT170,EIEC475

References:LEIAT113,GPCIII:3447,
Delamarre290

ProtoCeltic:*tonketo'destiny'[Noun]
OldIrish:tocad[om]
MiddleWelsh:tynghet[fandm](GPCtynged)
MiddleBreton:tonquaff'presage'

ProtoCeltic:*torid'pillar,hero'
OldIrish:tuir[tmandf]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1reyd'support'

Gaulish:Togimarus(?)[PN]

IEcognates:Lat.ridica'vineprop',Gr.ereid
'support'

Celtiberian:Togoti[Dat.s,theonym],tocoitei
[Dat.Loc.s](BotorritaI)(?)

References:Joseph1982a:176,Uhlich2002:
410

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tenk

ProtoCeltic:*tworko'boar'[Noun]

IEcognates:Go.?eihan'prosper'

OldIrish:torc[om]

Notes:FortheprobablerelationtoPCelt.*tong
'swear'see,e.g.,Delamarre298,KochEC
29/1992:24961

MiddleWelsh:twrch[m]'youngpig,boar'

References:LEIAT84f.,GPCIII:3672,De
BernardoStempel1999:395,Meid2005:88f.

MiddleBreton:torch(OBret.)gl.uerres,Bret.
tourc'h
Cornish:torchgl.magalis(OCo.)

ProtoCeltic:*torano'thunder'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*twork'o

OldIrish:torann[omandf]'thunder,noise'

PageinPokorny:1032

MiddleWelsh:taran[f]'(pealof)thunder,
thunderclap'

IEcognates:Avestanw r sa

MiddleBreton:taran(OBret.)gl.tonitru,
MoBret.taran
Cornish:tarangl.tonitruum(OCo.),MCo.taran
Gaulish:Taranis[Theonym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)tenr
PageinPokorny:1021
IEcognates:OHGdonar,Englishthunder
Notes:TheGaulishwordfor'thunder'is
preservedintheGasconiandialectofFrench
(taram).TheCelticformsarebestexplainedby
ametathesis*tonaro>*torano,despitesome
doubtsexpressedbyLEIA(s.v.).The
unmetathesizedformisperhapsattestedasthe

Notes:Itisassumedherethat*twwas
preservedinPCelt.(justasPIE*dwwas
retained)butitispossiblethatthechange*tw
>*tisalreadyProtoCeltic.
References:LEIAT115,GPCIII:3661,
DGVB316,EIEC425,Campanile1974:101,
Schrijver1995:65
ProtoCeltic:*torrV'belly'[Noun]
OldIrish:tarr,tair[uori,m]
MiddleWelsh:torr(OW)gl.palma,MWtor[f]
'belly'
MiddleBreton:targl.ventrem,MBret.torr,teur
Cornish:torgl.uenter(OCo.),MoCo.torow[p]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 193

Notes:IhavesomedoubtswhetherOWtorgl.
palmaisthesamewordasWtor'belly'.Itcould
belongrathertoWtorri(MCo.terry,MBret.
torret)'break,smash'
References:LEIAT33,GPCIII:3525,
Falileyev148,DeBernardoStempel1999:262,
Campanile1974:101.
ProtoCeltic:*torrko'pregnant'[Adjective]

universallynegative.ThereforetheIEpartof
thisetymologyremainsratherconjectural.
References:LEIAT164f.,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:379
ProtoCeltic:*towt'people,tribe'[Noun]
OldIrish:tuath[f]

OldIrish:torrach[o]

MiddleWelsh:tut[m]'people,country'(GPC
tud)

MiddleWelsh:torrog

MiddleBreton:tut

MiddleBreton:toroc(OBret.)

Cornish:tus

Seealso:*torrV'belly'

Gaulish:Teutates[Theonym],Touto[PN]

References:LEIAT33,GPCIII:3534

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tewteh2'people,tribe'

ProtoCeltic:*towessko'chief,first'
[Adjective]

PageinPokorny:1084

OldIrish:toisech[o]
MiddleWelsh:tywyssawc[m]'prince',British
tovisaci[Gen.s](Ogam)(GPCtywysog)
MiddleBreton:toguisoc(OBret.)
Seealso:*wedo'lead',*towessu
Notes:Anoldderivativefromtheroot*wedh
'lead',i.e.*towedhtko
References:LEIAT100f.,GPCIII:3688,
LHEB186f.,DeBernardoStempel1999:349,
W.Cowgill,Language43/135
ProtoCeltic:*towto'left,north'[Adjective]
OldIrish:tuath[o]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*tewto
IEcognates:Lat.ttus'safe',Go.?iu?'good'
Notes:OBret.tut,whichFleuriot(DGVB)
rendersas'good,favorable',appearstobethe
sameword,cp.alsoOBret.tuthe'akindof
demon'.OIr.tuathalsomeans'bad,perverse'.It
isunclearifthemeanings'left','good',and
'magic'canbebroughttogether,sincethe
associationsofthelefthandsidearealmost

IEcognates:Go.?iuda'people',Oscantouto
'city',Lith.tauta'people',perhapsHitt.tuzzi
'army'
Notes:Gaul.Teutateswaspresumably'godof
thetribe';thisformappearsarchaic,asthe
change*ew>ow,ouiswellattestedinGaul.
References:LEIAT164,GPCIII:3651,
PedersenI:54,EIEC288,437,631,De
BernardoStempel1999:379,Delamarre295
ProtoCeltic:*toybo'side'[Noun]
OldIrish:toib,toeb,taeb(DIL)[om]
MiddleWelsh:tu[m]
MiddleBreton:tu(OBret.),MBret.tu
Cornish:tu
ProtoIndoEuropean:*teygw'side'
PageinPokorny:1015
IEcognates:Arm.tckn'shoulder'
References:LEIAT91f.,GPCIII:3648f.,
DGVB324,EIEC518,DeBernardoStempel
1999:492

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 194

ProtoCeltic:*treb'settlement'[Noun]
OldIrish:treb[f]
MiddleWelsh:tref[f],Tre(inPN)
MiddleBreton:treff.i.urbs

MiddleWelsh:trech'stronger'
MiddleBreton:trech,MoBret.trec'h'winner'
Gaulish:Trexius,Trexa,Trenus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*treg

Cornish:tre
Gaulish:Ambitrebius[PN]
Celtiberian:Contrebia(konterbia)[Toponym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*treb'settlement'
PageinPokorny:1090
IEcognates:Go.?aurp,Lith.troba'house'
Seealso:*attreb
Notes:OldProvencaltrevar'inhabit'isfromthe
lostGaulishverbofthesamemeaning.
References:LEIAT127f.,GPCIII:3572,EIEC
281,Delamarre301,Colera1998:30,108,117

PageinPokorny:1090
IEcognates:OE?raka'courage'
References:LEIAT136,GPCIII:3571,
Delamarre301,DeBernardoStempel1999:
252,258,389
ProtoCeltic:*trisano'onethird'[Numeral]
OldIrish:trian
MiddleWelsh:trean(OW),MWtrayan
MiddleBreton:troian(OBret.)
Seealso:*trs'three'

ProtoCeltic:*treget'foot'[Noun]

References:LEIAT141f.,GOI250,Falileyev
149.

OldIrish:traig[dm]

ProtoCeltic:*trowgo'sorry,sad'[Adjective]

MiddleWelsh:troet[m](GPCtroed)

OldIrish:truag,trog[o]

MiddleBreton:troat

MiddleWelsh:tru(OWandMW)

Cornish:truitgl.pes(OCo.),MCo.troys,tros

MiddleBreton:tru[ed]gl.humanitatis(OBret.),
MBret.truez'pity'

Gaulish:treide.i.pede(Vienne)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*tregh'run,walk'
PageinPokorny:1089
IEcognates:Go.?ragjan'run',Croatiantrag
'trace'
References:LEIAT123,GPCIII:3608f.,LP
29,EIEC491,DeBernardoStempel1999:167,
172,525,Delamarre300Schrijver1995:136,
Campanile1974:102f.
ProtoCeltic:*trexsno'strong'[Adjective]
OldIrish:tren[o]

Cornish:tru
Gaulish:Troucetimarus[PN]
Notes:Cp.theparallelcompoundstrocar
'merciful'<*trowgkaro,Wtrugarog,
'merciful',trugaredd'mercy'.
References:LEIAT53f.,GPCIII:3621,
DGVB324,DeBernardoStempel1999:325,
337f.,Delamarre303,Meid2005:119f.
ProtoCeltic:*trummo'heavy'[Adjective]
OldIrish:trom[o]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 195

MiddleWelsh:trumm(OW),MWtrwm
MiddleBreton:trom,trum(OBret.)gl.
inoportune
Cornish:trom

Notes:OIr.troscisalsousedasasubstantive
meaning'aleper'.PerhapsrelatedareGaulish
PNsTruxus,Troxus,Troxo,cp.Delamarre303.
References:LEIAT152,GPCIII:3628,
Delamarre303,DeBernardoStempel1999:277

ProtoIndoEuropean:*trewd'thrust,press'
PageinPokorny:1095f.
IEcognates:Lat.trdo,OCStrud'trouble',Alb.
tredh'castrate'
Notes:TheCelticformscanbederivedfrom
*trudsmo.
References:LEIAT151,GPCIII:3626f.,
DGVB324,EIEC451,Falileyev151,De
BernardoStempel1999:267,373
ProtoCeltic:*tru(n)ksko'trunk,brokenpart'
MiddleWelsh:trwch[m]'thickness,density,
wounded,broken,sad';trychiau[p]
MiddleBreton:truchgl.obtusi(OBret.),Bret.
trouc'ha'cut'
Cornish:trechgl.truncus(OCo.);MCo.trogh
'broken'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*trewk'cut'
IEcognates:Lat.truncus'1.mutilated,2.stem'
Notes:GPCdistinguishestwowords,trwch
thickness,bulk'andtrwch'sad,broken,
wounded'.Despiteformalandsemantic
problems,theconnectiontoLat.truncus'trunk',
Lith.trenkiu'hit'remainsprobable,butforms
adducedinPokorny(1074)belongtoseveral
differentroots.
References:GPCIII:3625,DGVB324
ProtoCeltic:*trussko'dirty,leprous'
[Adjective]
OldIrish:trosc[o]'leprous'
MiddleWelsh:trwsgl'rash,crude,rude,coarse'

ProtoCeltic:*trusto'noise,cry'[Noun]
OldIrish:trost[om]
MiddleWelsh:trwst[m]
MiddleBreton:trous
Cornish:tros
Notes:Thepreservationof*stinInsularCeltic
isdifficulttoaccountfor.Sincethiswordhas
noPIEetymology,maybe*tisanexpressive
suffix.
References:LEIAT152,GPCIII:3629
ProtoCeltic:*truti'starling'[Noun]
OldIrish:truit[if]
MiddleWelsh:trydw(GPCdrudw)
MiddleBreton:tred,dret
Cornish:troetgl.turdus(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*trusdo'starling'
PageinPokorny:1090
IEcognates:Lat.turdus,MHGtrostel,Croatian
drozd
References:LEIAT155,DeBernardoStempel
1999:274,519,Campanile1974:102.
ProtoCeltic:*trgi'beach,lowtide'[Noun]
OldIrish:traig[if]
MiddleWelsh:trei[m]'lowtide,draining';
treiau,treion[p]
MiddleBreton:tre

MiddleBreton:truscigl.scabiem(OBret.),
MBret.trousquenn
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 196

References:LEIAT123f.,GPCIII:3551,De
BernardoStempel1999:66,73,525
ProtoCeltic:*trtu'lengthoftime,hour'
[Noun]
OldIrish:trath[un]
MiddleWelsh:trawd[mandf]'course,voyage'
(GPCtrawd,trawdd)

Notes:OIr.trihaslongiwhenusedasa
substantive,butshortiwhenusedattributively
(shorteninginproclisis).Theordinalnumeralis
formeddifferentlyinvariousCelticlanguages:
GaulishhasTritos[PN},OIr.tris,tres<
*tristo,Wtrydydd,Bret.trede<*tritiyo.
References:LEIAT139f.,GPCIII:3591,EIEC
400,Delamarre301f.,Falileyev150.
ProtoCeltic:*tuadreto'reach,grasp'[Verb]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*trh2to'crossed,
traversed'

OldIrish:doarad'grasp,find'

PageinPokorny:1074

MiddleWelsh:daeredu'reach,come,paytaxes'

IEcognates:Skt.tarati'crosses',OCStrajati'to
last'

Seealso:*reto
References:KPV538f.

References:LEIAT124f.,GPCIII:3560,De
BernardoStempel1999:287,Schrijver1995:
188f.

ProtoCeltic:*tuariwokano'prophesize'
[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*tr'through'[Preposition]

OldIrish:doaurchain

OldIrish:tre[aspirating,+Acc.,lateralso
+Dat.]

MiddleWelsh:darogan

MiddleWelsh:trui(OW),MWtrwy,drwy
MiddleBreton:tre,dre

Seealso:*kano
References:KPV388ff.
ProtoCeltic:*tukomfarsko'ask'[Verb]

Cornish:dre
References:LEIAT126,GPCIII:3630f.,
Falileyev151,Schrijver1995:246f.
ProtoCeltic:*trs'three'[Numeral]
OldIrish:tri

OldIrish:docomairc
MiddleWelsh:dymkyueirch(withinfixed
pronounm)
Seealso:*farsko
References:KPV512

MiddleWelsh:tri;teir[f]
MiddleBreton:tri;teir[f]

ProtoCeltic:*tongo'swear'[Verb]

Cornish:try;teyr,tyr[f]

OldIrish:tongaid,toing;to[Subj.],tithis,
tith[Fut.],tochtae,tocht[Pret.Pass.]

Gaulish:tri;tires[f]

MiddleWelsh:tyngu

ProtoIndoEuropean:*treyes'three'

MiddleBreton:toeaff,touet

PageinPokorny:1090f.

Cornish:ty;tof[1sPres.]

IEcognates:Skt.trayas,Lat.trs

Gaulish:toncsiiontio[3pFut.Relative]
(Chamalieres)

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 197

ProtoIndoEuropean:*teh2g'touch'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*selh1'take'

PageinPokorny:1055

PageinPokorny:899

IEcognates:Lat.tango

IEcognates:Lat.cnsulo'gather,advice'ON
selja'sell'

Notes:TheconnectionwithLat.tango'touch'is
notbeyonddoubt.Theusualexplanationisthat
swearingwasperformedbytouchingapartof
thebody,ortheground,seeLEIAT108.KPV
650derivesthisCelticverbfromanearlier*lu
ngoandrelatesittoPCelt.*lugyo'oath';the
explanationofferedtherehowthestems*tek
and*leugbecameconfusedisrather
complicated.KPValsoclaimsthattheGaulish
formtoncsiiontioisunrelatedtotheInsular
Celticforms.

Notes:Theverbalrootisunattestedassimplex
inCeltic.
References:KPV588ff.,GPCI:932,LIV529,
LP396,LEIAS130f.
ProtoCeltic:*tudo'fall'[Verb]
OldIrish:dotuit<*tutudo;toth[Subj.];to
eth[Fut.]

References:KPV648ff.,RIGII.2:L100,LEIA
T106ff.,LP401f,GPCIII:3672,Delamarre
298.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*(s)tewd'hit'

ProtoCeltic:*tureto'approach'[Verb]

IEcognates:Skt.tudati,Lat.tundo,Go.stautan

OldIrish:doreith'hurry'

References:KPV642ff.,LIV601,LEIA
T177ff.,LP402.

MiddleWelsh:dyred'approach'

PageinPokorny:1033f.

Seealso:*reto

ProtoCeltic:*tullo'pierced,perforated'
[Adjective]

References:KPV538f.,GPCI:1146

OldIrish:toll[o]

ProtoCeltic:*tuskara'conquer,subject,strew'
[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:twll

OldIrish:doscara'conquer,subject'

MiddleBreton:tull(OBret.)gl.foramen,
MBret.toull

MiddleWelsh:dyscaraf[1sPres.]'strew'

Cornish:toll,tol

Seealso:*skara

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tewk'beat,perforate'

References:KPV576

PageinPokorny:1032

ProtoCeltic:*tusliyo'earn'[Verb]

Notes:TheCelticformsareusuallyderived
from*tukslo(withthesamesuffix*sloasin
*tkslo>OIr.tal'axe')

OldIrish:dosli;(ro)thuillisem[1pPret.
Relative]
MiddleWelsh:dyrllid(GPCderllyddu,
dyrllyddu,dyrllys,dyrllid)<*turosliyo
MiddleBreton:dellezaff<*turosliyo
Cornish:deleth[3sPres.]

References:LEIAT103,GPCIII:3658,De
BernardoStempel1999:264f.
ProtoCeltic:*tum'grow'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:tyfu

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 198

MiddleBreton:tum(OBret.)[3sPres.],MoBret.
tenvan
Cornish:adyff'grow';tyff[3sPres.]

Gaulish:Tuta[PN],Uirotuti[dPN](?)
References:Delamarre305

ProtoIndoEuropean:*twem'grow,swell'

ProtoCeltic:*tyo'stand,findoneself
(somewhere)'[Verb]

PageinPokorny:1082

OldIrish:atta<*adtyo

IEcognates:Lat.tumeo,Lith.tumeti'getfat'

MiddleWelsh:tau[3sPres.]'is'

References:KPV646f.,GPCIII:3671,DGVB
325,LIV654

MiddleBreton:to(OBret.)[3sPres.]

ProtoCeltic:*tumbo'excrescence,hill'[Noun]
OldIrish:tomm[om]'bush,bunch,hill'
MiddleWelsh:tom[fandm]'dung,heapof
dung,mound'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*tumbh'mound,hill'
PageinPokorny:1082
IEcognates:Lat.tumulus'mound'
Notes:OIr.tuaim[nn]'hill,mound'mightalso
belonghere(seeLEIAT159),butitmightalso
befrom*stowxsman(seeabove).

Cornish:otte'thereis'
Gaulish:moritex(negotiatorBritannicianus),
CILXIII8164a(Cologne)'seafarer'.
ProtoIndoEuropean:*steh2'stand'
PageinPokorny:1004f.
IEcognates:Lat.sto,stare,OCSstojati,Lith.
stoti
References:KPV623ff.,LIV590ff.,LP323f.,
LEIAT2,A90
ProtoCeltic:*ttant'thief'[Noun]
OldIrish:taid[nt,m]

References:LEIAT104,T159,GPCIII:3519,
DeBernardoStempel1999:281,315

ProtoIndoEuropean:*teh2'steal'

ProtoCeltic:*tund'wave'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:1010

OldIrish:tonn[f]

IEcognates:Skt.tju'thief',OCStat'thief',
tajiti'hide'

MiddleWelsh:ton[f]
MiddleBreton:tonngl.lympha(OBret.),
MBret.tonn
Cornish:ton

References:LEIAT7,EIEC543,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:285,355ff.
ProtoCeltic:*txslo'axe'[Noun]
OldIrish:tal[om]

Notes:PerhapsrelatedtoLat.tundo'beat',cp.
LEIAT109
References:LEIAT109,GPCIII:3519,De
BernardoStempel1999:342
ProtoCeltic:*tuto'vulva'[Noun]
OldIrish:toth[om]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tek'slo'axe'
PageinPokorny:1058
IEcognates:OCStesla,OHGdehsa,dehsala
References:LEIAT22,EIEC38,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:224

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 199

ProtoCeltic:*tgo'go'[Verb]
OldIrish:teit,tet,tiagait[3p];teis,te
[Subj.]
MiddleWelsh:ardwyaw<*aritgo'defend,
protect'(GPCardwyo)
Cornish:ymardwyaw<*ambiariteigo
'defendoneself'

ProtoCeltic:*t,*tu'you'[Pronoun]
OldIrish:tu,tussu
MiddleWelsh:ti(OWandMW)(GPCti,di)
MiddleBreton:ti,te
Cornish:ty

ProtoIndoEuropean:*steygh'tread,go'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*tuH

PageinPokorny:1017f.

PageinPokorny:1097f.

IEcognates:Gr.steikh,Go.steigan

IEcognates:Skt.t(u)vam,Lat.t,OCSty

Notes:TheCelticformsconsistentlypointto
wordinitial*t,sothesimplification(probably
originallyinsandhi)of*st>*tisalready
ProtoCeltic(cp.alsoPCelt.*tyo'stand'<
*styo).Gaul.moritexisacompoundof
*mori'sea'andPCelt.*tg'go';cp.W
mordwy'movementofthesea,seavoyage'<
*moritgV.

Notes:Twoformsofthispronounmustbe
distinguishedinPCelt.,thestressed*t(>Wti)
andtheunstressed*tu,preservedinOIr.tussu
andpresumablyrelengthenedinOIr.tu(cp.me
'I'vs.messe).

References:KPV637ff.,GPCI:184,LIV593f.,
LEIAT57ff.,EIEC228,LP399ff,Uhlich
2002:420.

ProtoCeltic:*tkn'back,bottom,arse'
[Noun]

ProtoCeltic:*tros'land,earth'[Noun]
OldIrish:tir[on]
MiddleWelsh:tir(OWandMW)[m]
MiddleBreton:tir
Cornish:tirgl.tellus(OCo.),MCo.tyr
ProtoIndoEuropean:*ters'dry'
PageinPokorny:1078
IEcognates:Lat.terra'land'(<*ters)
Notes:Thelongvowelof*tros<*trosis
exactlyparallelto*sdos<*sdos,OIr.sid
'mound'.Itmayrepresentanoldvrddhi,butit
mayalsopointtoaPIErootnoun
*trs'dryness,firmness'.
References:LEIAT74f.,GPCIII:3503,EIEC
100,170,GOI39,Falileyev148,Campanile
1974:100,DeBernardoStempel1999:144ff.

References:LEIAT156f.,GPCIII:3496,
DGVB311,313,EIEC455,Falileyev147

OldIrish:ton[f]
MiddleWelsh:tin[fandm]
Cornish:tyn
ProtoIndoEuropean:*tewHk'swell'
PageinPokorny:1080
IEcognates:OE?oh'thigh',Lith.taukas'fat'
References:LEIAT105f.,GPCIII:3498f.
ProtoCeltic:*unko'understand'[Verb]
OldIrish:doucai<*tuunko
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1ewk'getusedto'
PageinPokorny:347
IEcognates:Skt.ucyati,OCSuciti'learn',
Lith.junkti'getusedto'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 200

References:KPV652f.,LIV244f.,LEIA
U13f.,LP345

ProtoCeltic:*ulkwo'bad,evil'[Adjective]

ProtoCeltic:*udenskyo'water'[Noun]

OldIrish:olc[o]

OldIrish:uisce[iom]

Lepontic:Ulkos[PN]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wodr/uden'water'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wlkwo'wolf'

PageinPokorny:79

PageinPokorny:1178f.

IEcognates:Skt.udan,Umbrianutur,OCS
voda

IEcognates:Skt.vrka,Lat.lupus

Notes:Althoughthisetymologyisoften
repeatedinhandbooks,I'mnotpositivethatitis
correct.Thesuffixcombination*skyoseems
odd.
References:LEIAU21,EIEC636
ProtoCeltic:*ufelo'bad'[Adjective]
OldIrish:fel[o]

Notes:ThemeaningofthiswordinPCelt.could
havebeen'wolf',asinPIE.Anotheretymology,
lesspersuasiveinmyopinion,relatesOIr.olcto
Lat.ulciscor'takevengeance'(seeLP43).
References:LEIAO19f.,LP43,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:553,McCone1985,McCone
1996:44.
ProtoCeltic:*up(p)u'ouch'[Exclamation]
OldIrish:upp

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2wop'treatbadly'
PageinPokorny:1107
IEcognates:Hitt.huwapzi'harrows,despoils',
Go.ubils'bad,evil'
References:EIEC43,DeBernardoStempel
1999:410,450

MiddleWelsh:wb(GPCwb,ub)
References:LEIAU26,GPCIII:3729
ProtoCeltic:*w(u)lno'wool'[Noun]
OldIrish:olann[f]

ProtoCeltic:*ukWso,*ukWsn'ox'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:gulan[m](OW),MWgwlan
(GPCgwln)

OldIrish:oss[om]'stag,cow'

MiddleBreton:glan

MiddleWelsh:ych[m],ychen[p]

Cornish:gluangl.lana(OCo.),MCo.glan,
glawn

MiddleBreton:pennohengl.caputboum[p]
(OBret.),MoBret.oc'hen

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wlh2no'wool'

Cornish:oghan[p]

PageinPokorny:1139

ProtoIndoEuropean:*ukWsn'ox'

IEcognates:Hitt.hulana,Skt.rn,Lat.lna,
Go.wulla

PageinPokorny:1118
IEcognates:OEoxa,Av.uxan'bull',ToB
okso'draftox'
References:LEIAO34,GPCIII:3749,EIEC
135.

Notes:SomeauthorsthinkthatOIr.olannisa
loanwordfromBritish(e.g.Falileyev,p.70),
whichIfindunlikely.However,thewordinitial
oinOIr.canbeexplainedifwestartfrom
*ulan,withadifferentsyllabificationthanin
British,whichreflects*wlno;weshould

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 201

probablyreconstructbothafeminine*ulanand
aneuter*wlnoforProtoCeltic(thefeminine
beinganoldcollective),seeMatasovic2005:
128.Hittitehistheresultofmetathesis;there
isnootherevidenceforthewordinitial
laryngeal.
References:LEIAO19f.,GPCII:1680,EIEC
648,Falileyev70,Campanile1974:49,De
BernardoStempel1999:254,Schrijver1995:
177,Matasovic2005:128.
ProtoCeltic:*walna'rule,govern'[Verb]

MiddleBreton:gueniongl.mitiores(OBret.),
Bret.gwan
Cornish:guangl.debilis(OCo.)
References:GPCII:1571f.,Campanile1974:
53.
ProtoCeltic:*warr'post,prop'[Noun]
OldIrish:farr[?f]'post'

OldIrish:fallnaithir,fallnathar,follnathar

MiddleWelsh:guar(OW),MWgwar[mandf]
'napeoftheneck,noddle,upperpart'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*welH'bestrong,rule'

Cornish:guargl.collum(OCo.)

PageinPokorny:1111f.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wers'top,peak'

IEcognates:Lat.ualeo,Lith.veldeti'govern,
rule',Go.waldan'rule'

PageinPokorny:1150ff.

References:KPV655f.,LIV676f.,
ProtoCeltic:*walo'prince,chief'[Noun]
OldIrish:fal'rule',Conall[PN]<*kunowalo
MiddleWelsh:Congual(OW)[PN]<*kuno
walo
MiddleBreton:Conuual[PN]<*kunowalo
ProtoIndoEuropean:*welH'rule'
PageinPokorny:1112
IEcognates:Lat.ualeo'bestrong;Go.waldan
'rule',ToAwalo'king'
Seealso:*wlati'sovereignty'
Notes:Cp.theparallelcompoundPNsGaul.
Katouualos,OWCatgual,OIr.Cathal'strongin
battle'<*katuwalo.

IEcognates:OCSvrx'top,peak',Lat.uerrca
Seealso:*werro'high'
Notes:Thesemanticconnectionbetweenthe
GoidelicandWelshformsarenotwholly
convincing.Besides,farrisattestedratherlate
inIrish.Ontheformalside,PCelt.*warrcan
bederivedfromPIE*wrseh2.
References:GPCII:1576,WaldeHoffmanII:
762
ProtoCeltic:*wasto'servant'[Noun]
OldIrish:foss[om]
MiddleWelsh:guas(OW),MWgwas[m];
gweision,gweis[p]
MiddleBreton:uuas,guas[inPN](OBret.),
Bret.gwaz'man,husband'
Cornish:guas

References:EIEC490,Delamarre306,
Untermann2002:414.

Gaulish:*uassos>MedievalLatinuassus(cp.
Frenchvassal)

ProtoCeltic:*wano'weak'[Adjective]

Notes:Apossible,butnotwhollyconvincing
etymologyderivesthesewordsfromPIE*upo
sth2o'standingbeneath',cp.Delamarre307.

OldIrish:fann[o]
MiddleWelsh:gwan

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 202

References:GPCII:1590f.,EIEC506,
Delamarre307,Falileyev65,Uhlich2002:415,
Schrijver1995:407

PageinPokorny:1115f.

ProtoCeltic:*waylo'wolf'[Noun]

IEcognates:Hitt.huett(iya)'draw,pull',Lith.
vedu'lead,marry',Go.gawidan'bind',OCS
vesti

OldIrish:fael[om]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*waylo(?)'wolf'
PageinPokorny:1110f.
IEcognates:Arm.gayl'wolf'
Notes:Thiscouldbeachancecorrespondence,
sinceitisbasedononlytwoIElanguages.
References:EIEC647,DeBernardoStempel
1999:226
ProtoCeltic:*wewlo'lip'[Noun]
OldIrish:bel[om]
MiddleWelsh:gwefl[f]
MiddleBreton:guefl'mouth'

Notes:Thewordinitiallaryngealisconfirmed
bytheHittitecorrespondence,butthisisnot
universallyaccepted(notethattheHitt.verbis
writtenwithdoublett,whichshouldbefrom
thePIEvoiceless*t).
References:KPV656f.,GPCII:1609,LIV
658f.,EIEC346,LP361f.,LEIAD140
ProtoCeltic:*wegyo'weave,compose'[Verb]
OldIrish:figid,fig;faig[Pret.];fechtae,fecht
[Pret.Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:gweu(GPCgwau)
MiddleBreton:gueaff
Cornish:(LateCornish)gwia
ProtoIndoEuropean:*weg

Cornish:gwelv
Notes:TheexactreconstructionofthisPCelt.
etymonisdifficult,buttheattestedformsare
doubtlesslyrelated.Perhapstheoriginal
*wewlowasareduplicatedform,createdafter
theCommonCelticshiftof*ew>*ow.Itis
hereassumedthattheOIr.wordistheresultofa
dissimilation(*w...w>*b...w).

PageinPokorny:1117
IEcognates:Lat.ulum'sail'<*wegslo
References:KPV660ff.,GPCII:1602,LIV
662,LP364,EIEC473,572
ProtoCeltic:*wegno'wagon'[Noun]

References:LEIAB29,GPCII:1615

OldIrish:fen[om]

ProtoCeltic:*wedo'lead,bringtogether'
[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:gwain
ProtoIndoEuropean:*weg'hno

OldIrish:feidid,feid;feiss,fe[Subj.],feiss,
fe[Fut.];faid[Pret.];fessae,fess[Pret.Pass.]

PageinPokorny:1118ff.

MiddleWelsh:gweddu'subjectoneselfto,
submit';arweddu<*arewedo'lead,bring'

IEcognates:OHGwagan,ToByakne'way,
manner'

MiddleBreton:dimiziff<*tuambiwedo
'marry'

Notes:Wgwain'car'appearsnottobeattested
inGPC(gwain'sheath'<Lat.uagnaisa
differentword).

Cornish:demmedhi<*tuambiwedo'marry'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2wedh'lead'

References:LP11,EIEC625,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:254,258

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 203

MiddleBreton:goalenn'greentwig'
ProtoCeltic:*wegro'grass'[Noun]
OldIrish:fer[on]
MiddleWelsh:gwair[m]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ewg/*h2weg'grow'
PageinPokorny:84f.
IEcognates:Lat.augeo,Go.aukan
Notes:InOWthereisthecompoundguerclaud
'meadow'.OntheIndoEuropeanside,this
etymology,althoughacceptedbyDeBernardo
Stempel(199:228,240),isweakfromthe
semanticpointofview.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wel'turn,wind'
PageinPokorny:1140ff.
IEcognates:Skt.valati,Lat.uoluo,OCSvaliti
'roll',Go.walwyan'rotate,roll',ToAwalyi
'worms'
References:EIEC607
ProtoCeltic:*welo'see'[Verb]
OldIrish:fil'thereis'
MiddleWelsh:gwelet'see'(GPCgweld,
gweled)

References:GPCII:1563,Falileyev67,De
BernardoStempel1999:228,230

MiddleBreton:guilinn[3pPret.](OBret.),
MBret.guelet

ProtoCeltic:*wekwo'speech'[Noun]

Cornish:gweles

MiddleWelsh:gwep[f]'face,aspect,grimace'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wel

MiddleBreton:goap'mockery'

PageinPokorny:1136f.

Gaulish:Uepolitanos[PN],Uepos[PN]

IEcognates:Lat.uoltus'face'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wekw'say,utter'
PageinPokorny:1135f.

Notes:OIr.file[dm]'poet'isaderivativefrom
thisroot(cp.OgamGen.sVELITAS).The
originalmeaningwas'seer'

IEcognates:Gr.epos'word',Lat.ux'voice',
ToBwek'voice'.

References:KPV669ff.,GPCII:1626,LIV
675,LP331,EIEC505,DGVB191

Notes:ThechangeofmeaninginWwouldbe
from'speech'to'mockery'to'grimace',and
finally,to'face'.Thissemanticevolutionis
complex,butpossible.Ontheotherhand,itis
difficulttoknowthemeaningoftheonomastic
elementUepoinGaulish(seeMeid2005:
245ff.).IsUepolitanos'broadfaced'or'one
withthebroadspeech?Suchdifficultiesof
interpretationcastsomedoubtonthevalidityof
thisetymology.

ProtoCeltic:*weli'blood'[Noun]

References:GPCII:1641,Delamarre313f.,
Meid2005:245ff.

OldIrish:fuil[if]
MiddleWelsh:gweli[fandm]'blood,wound'
MiddleBreton:goulyow[p]
Cornish:goly
ProtoIndoEuropean:*welh2/3'wound'
PageinPokorny:1144f.

ProtoCeltic:*welno'bend'[Verb]

IEcognates:Lat.uolnus,Gr.oul'scar'

OldIrish:fillid,filli

Notes:ThelaryngealisimpliedbyLat.ln
(from*lanbysyncope;original*lnwould

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 204

havebeenassimilatedtoll,cp.tollo'take'<
*toln).WgweliandtheotherBritishforms
cannotbederiveddirectlyfromtheprotoform
*weli,butratherpresupposesomekindof
suffix,perhaps*so(Pokorny).
References:GPCII:1627,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:65,73,EIEC650.
ProtoCeltic:*welo'good,desirable'
[Adjective]
MiddleWelsh:gwell'better'
MiddleBreton:gwell'better'
Cornish:gwell'better'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wel'want,wish'
PageinPokorny:1137
IEcognates:Lat.uolo,Go.wiljan
Notes:ItispossiblethattheGaulishphrase
Aisusscrisumiouelor,preservedinMarcellusof
Bordeaux(Dottin214),containsthe1spres.of
thedeponentverbuelor'Iwish',seeDelamarre
312.TheinterpretationofthisGaulishhealing
formulaisdifficult,though.Meid1994:44
interpretsCeltib.ernauela(Luzaga)as'good
reception'andrelatesuelatoPCelt.*welo
'good',butthisisamerepossibility(asishis
contentionthatthesameelementiscontainedin
thefirstpartoftheprobablyCelticnameVela
genus,Meid2004:126).
References:GPCII:1630,Delamarre312,Meid
1994:44,Meid2005:126.
ProtoCeltic:*werV'find'[Verb'
OldIrish:fuar(<*wewor)[Pret.];fofrith
'wasfound'[Pass.Pret.]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wreh1'find'
PageinPokorny:1160

OldIrish:ferg[f]
MiddleWelsh:gwery'active,lively'
MiddleBreton:guerggl.efficax(OBret.)
Gaulish:uergobretus'amagistrate'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*werg''anger,strength'
PageinPokorny:1169
IEcognates:Skt.rj'strength,nourishment',
Gr.org'impulse,mood,anger',
Notes:Thisetymologyissomewhatweakonthe
formalside.Skr.rjpresupposesarootin
laryngeal,*werHg';Gr.orgcouldshowthe
regularlossofthelaryngealafter*oR,butthe
lossofthelaryngealinOIr.could,perhaps,be
accountedforbysyncope.
References:GPCII:1649,EIEC208,LP33,De
BernardoStempel1999:49,Delamarre315.
ProtoCeltic:*werr/*wesn'spring'[Noun]
OldIrish:errach[om]
MiddleWelsh:guiannuin[m](OW)
Cornish:guaintoingl.ver(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wesr'spring'
PageinPokorny:1174
IEcognates:Skt.vasanta,Lat.ur,OCS
vesna,Arm.garun
Notes:TheBritishformsarederivablefrom
somethinglike*wesantno,cp.Skt.vasanta.
TheOIr.formpointsto*werrako<*wesrako.
ItseemspossiblethatthePCelt.formwasa
heteroclitoninr/n.
References:EIEC504,DeBernardoStempel
1999:135,138,Falileyev67f.

IEcognates:Gr.heurisk,Arm.gerem'take
prisoner'

ProtoCeltic:*werro'high'[Adjective]

References:EIEC202,LIV637

OldIrish:ferr[o]'better'

ProtoCeltic:*werg'anger'[Noun]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*werso'peak'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 205

MiddleBreton:guis(OBret.),MBret.guis,gues
PageinPokorny:1151f.

Cornish:guisgl.scroffa(OCo.)

IEcognates:Lat.uerrca'varus,pimple',OE
wearr'sill',Lith.virus'peak'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wets'yearling'

Seealso:*warr

PageinPokorny:1175

References:EIEC416

IEcognates:Skt.vatsa'yearling,calf',Lat.
vitulus'calf',<*wetelo

ProtoCeltic:*werdo'horse'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:gorwydd[m]'horse'
Gaulish:*verdo>Lat.uerdus'posthorse'
Seealso:*rdo'riding',*rdsmen
Notes:LateLatinparoueredus(ultimatelyfrom
Gaulish)isthesourceofGermanPferd'horse'
andFrenchpalefroi.
References:LEIAR26,GPCII:1596,
Delamarre315
ProtoCeltic:*werto'worth,price'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:gwerth[m]

Notes:OIr.feis(feis)ischieflyattestedin
archaizingpoetry.
References:GPCII:1788,DGVB193,EIEC
24,DeBernardoStempel1999:148,O
Flaithearta1997.
ProtoCeltic:*west'food,feast'[Noun]
OldIrish:feis(s),fess[?f]1.'spendingthe
night,sleeping',2.'feast,food,provisions'
MiddleWelsh:gwest[mandf];gwesti,
gweston[p]
MiddleBreton:Orguest[PN](OBret.)
Cornish:gwest'lodging'

MiddleBreton:uuert(OBret.)'worth',MBret.
guerz'sale'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wes'graze'

Cornish:guerdhe'sell'

PageinPokorny:1171

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wert'turn'

IEcognates:Hitt.wesi'pasture',OHGwist
'food'

PageinPokorny:1156ff.
IEcognates:OHGwerd'worth',Lat.uerto'turn'
Notes:SomeauthorsthinkthattheseBritish
wordswereborrowedfromGermanic,butitis
equallypossiblethattheyareinherited.
Attributiontotheroot*wert'turn'isprobableif
onestartswiththemeaning'exchange'.
References:GPCII:1646f.,DGVB329
ProtoCeltic:*wessi'sow,youngfemalepig'
[Noun]

Notes:ItisnotcertainwhethertheOIr.words
under1.and2.belongtogether.OIr.feis(s)1.is
actuallytheVNoffoaid'spendsthenight,
sleeps'.Cp.alsoOBret.guesthemisiougl.
laticlauiaandWcywestach'chambering,
sexualintercourse'
References:GPCII:1650,DGVB189,EIEC
198
ProtoCeltic:*wesu'excellent,noble'
[Adjective]

OldIrish:feis[if]

OldIrish:feib[Dat.]'inexcellence'(feb),fo
'goodness'<*wosu

MiddleWelsh:gwys[f]

Gaulish:Vesuavus,Bellovesus[PN]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 206

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wesu'excellent'
PageinPokorny:1174

Cornish:gueidgl.opus(OCo.),MCo.gweth,
gwyth'time'

IEcognates:Luw.wsu'good',Skt.vasu

ProtoIndoEuropean:*weg'hto'carried'

Notes:OIr.fiu,Wgwiw'worthy,valuable'are
alsoprobablyrelatedtothisroot.Theseforms
mightbedirectlyderivablefrom*wesu>
*wihu(>fiu,gwiw).

PageinPokorny:1118ff.

References:EIEC235,638,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:60,220,Delamarre318.
ProtoCeltic:*weto'say'[Verb]
MiddleWelsh:guetid(OW)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*weth2
IEcognates:Lat.ueto'forbid'
References:KPV679ff.,LIV694f.,LP297
ProtoCeltic:*weto'turn'[Verb]

IEcognates:Lat.uectus'carried'
Seealso:*wegno'wagon'
References:GPCII:1563
ProtoCeltic:*windo'find,experience'
[Verb]
OldIrish:rofinnadar<*frowindo;rofi
astar[Subj.];rofiastar[Fut.]
MiddleWelsh:gwybot;?wn[3sPres.]'know'
(GPCgwybod)
MiddleBreton:gouz(o)ut;goun,gon[1sPres.]
'know'

OldIrish:feithid,feith'turntosomeone,wait';
feiss,fe[Subj.];feiss,fe[Fut.];faith[Pret.];
fessae,fess[Pret.Pass.]

Cornish:godhvos'know'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wet'turnto,be
acquaintedwith'

PageinPokorny:1125f.

PageinPokorny:346
IEcognates:Skt.vat,vatema[1pPres.Opt.]
'maywebeacquaintedwith'
Notes:Thesemanticsofthisetymologyare
dubious;theoriginalmeaningofPIE*wet
wouldbe'turn(to)'(cp.PIE*wets'year')>'get
toknow'>'beacquaintedwith'
References:KPV675ff.,LIV694,LP361f.,
LEIAT57f.
ProtoCeltic:*wext'time,course,turn'[Noun]
OldIrish:fecht[f]
MiddleWelsh:gwaith[f]'1.time,course,2.
work,act'
MiddleBreton:gueid'time'(OBret.),MBret.
guez

ProtoIndoEuropean:*weyd'see,know'

IEcognates:Skt.vindati'finds',Lat.uideo,
Arm.gitem'know'
Seealso:*wdo'find'
Notes:Intheperfect,theformsofthisverb
meant'toknow',cp.OIr.rofitir'knows'
(synchronically[3sPres.]buthistoricallyfrom
theperfectstem);inBritish,thefollowingforms
arepreterites,formedfromthePCelt.perfect
stem:MWgwyr,MBret.goar,MCorn.gor[3s
Pret.]'knew';inKPV693ff.theseformsare
listedunderaseparateentry.
References:KPV690ff.,GPCII:1745,LIV
665ff.,LP364f.,Schrijver1995:152156.
ProtoCeltic:*wina'bend,enclose'[Verb]
OldIrish:immfen<ambiwina'hedgeround,
enclose,guard'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*weyh1'bend,wind'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 207

PageinPokorny:1120ff.

PageinPokorny:1127f.

IEcognates:Skt.vayati'weave',Lat.uieo

IEcognates:Skt.vidhav,Lat.uidua,OHG
wituwa

Notes:ThePIErootisreconstructedas*wyeh1
inLIV695
References:KPV688f.,LIV695f.,LP362.
ProtoCeltic:*widu'wood'[Noun]
OldIrish:fid[um]
MiddleWelsh:guid[Collective]'trees'(OW),
MWgwydd'trees'(GPCgwydd);gwydden
[Singulative]
MiddleBreton:guid(OBret.),Bret.gwez
Cornish:guiden[Singulative]
Gaulish:uidubion'sickle',(Marti)Uiduco
[Theonym,Dat.]

Notes:Thewordfor'widow'maybea
derivativefromthePIEroot*h1widh'kill'(Skt.
vidhyati).Thesemanticdevelopmentof
*widh(e)weh2wouldhavebeen'familyofthe
killedone'>'widow'.
References:GPCII:1613,Matasovic2004:84,
TichyKZ106/1993:116.
ProtoCeltic:*wiko'fight'[Verb]
OldIrish:fichid,fich;feiss,fe[Subj.],fiis,
fi[Fut.];fich[Pret.];fechtae,fecht[Pret.
Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:amwyn,amwc[3sPres.]<
*ambiwiko

ProtoIndoEuropean:*widhu'wood'

MiddleBreton:amouez<*ambiwiko'set
free'

PageinPokorny:1117

ProtoIndoEuropean:*weyk'fight,conquer'

IEcognates:OEwidu,wudu,Lith.vidus
'interior'.

PageinPokorny:1128f.

Notes:TheItaliccorrespondenceisperhapsLat.
duido'divide'(becausewoodsmarkthe
boundaryoftheinhabitedterritory).Gaul.
vidubion,vidobium'hoe'(cp.Frenchvouge)is
from*widuandtheverbalroot*bheyH'strike,
cut'(cp.theparallelcompoundOIr.fidbae'bill
hook',W.gwddyf'sickle'.
References:GPCII:1753,DGVB190,LP4,
EIEC598,Delamarre319,Falileyev68,De
BernardoStempel1999:94,476,Uhlich2002:
423.

IEcognates:Lat.uinco'conquer',ONvega
'fight,kill'
References:KPV683,LIV670f.,LP364,LEIA
D140
ProtoCeltic:*wikant'twenty'[Numeral]
OldIrish:fiche,fichit[Dat./Acc.]
MiddleWelsh:uceint(OW),MWfiggit
MiddleBreton:ucent(OBret.),MBret.ugent

ProtoCeltic:*widw'widow'[Noun]

Cornish:ugans

OldIrish:fedb[f]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wi(d)k'mtih1'twenty'

MiddleWelsh:gweddw[mandf]'widower,
widow'

PageinPokorny:1177

Cornish:guedeugl.vidua(OCo.)

IEcognates:Lat.ugint,OEtwgentig,Alb.
njezet,Arm.kcsan,ToAwiki

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1widheweh2'widow'
AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 208

References:DGVB326,EIEC404,De
BernardoStempel1999:435
ProtoCeltic:*wimpo'beautiful,comely'
[Adjective]
MiddleWelsh:gwymp
MiddleBreton:gwemp'excellent'
Gaulish:Uimpia[PN],uimpi(?)'pretty'
Notes:Morespeculativeetymologiesderive
theseformsfromPCelt.*wenkwoandrelate
themtoPIE*wenh1'desire',cp.Delamarre
320.Inanycase,sincethesewordsareattested
onlyinBritishandGaulish,analternativePCelt.
reconstructionis*winkwo(or*wenkwo).It
hasalsobeensuggestedthattheCelticwords
arerelatedtoToAwamp'decorate'andToB
wamer'jewel'(seeD.Q.Adams,Adictionary
ofTocharianB,s.v.wamer).

IEcognates:OHGwini'friend'
Notes:ThesamerootisattestedinOIr.fingal
'slayingofarelative';cp.thecompoundPNs
OIr.Finchar,OWGuncar,Gaul.Uenicarus<
*wenikaro.SomeauthorsinterpretLepontic
ueniaas'family'andderiveitfromthesame
root(cp.
References:DGVB188,Uhlich2002:413,
Schmidt1987:268,McCone1993:243f.
ProtoCeltic:*weskwero'evening'[Noun]
OldIrish:fescor[om]
MiddleWelsh:ucher[mandf]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*weskwer'evening'
PageinPokorny:1173

References:GPCII:1769f.,Delamarre320,
Schrijver1995:158

IEcognates:Lat.uesper,Gr.hesperos,Arm.
gier

ProtoCeltic:*windo'white'[Adjective]

Notes:OIr.fescorisusuallyconsideredtohave
beenborrowedfromLat.uesper,butLat.origin
isimprobableforWucher.Inlightofthat,the
OIr.wordmayhavebeeninheritedaswell.

OldIrish:find[o]
MiddleWelsh:gwynn(GPCgwyn)
MiddleBreton:guinn'white,shiny'(OBret.),
MBret.guinn'happy'

References:GPCIII:3697f.
ProtoCeltic:*wiro'man'[Noun]

Cornish:guyngl.albus(OCo.),MCo.guyn

OldIrish:fer[om]

Gaulish:Uinda,Uindus[PN]

MiddleWelsh:gur(OW),MWgwr[m](GPC
gwr);gwyr[f]

References:GPCII:1770,DGVB192,EIEC
252,DeBernardoStempel1999:46,Delamarre
320,Meid2005:210f.
ProtoCeltic:*weniy'family,kindred'[Noun]
OldIrish:fine[if]
MiddleBreton:coguenougl.indigena(OBret.),
MBret.gouen(n)
Gaulish:Uenicarus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wenh1'desire'
PageinPokorny:1147

MiddleBreton:gur(OBret.),MBret.gour
Cornish:gurgl.uir(OCo.),MCo.gour
Gaulish:Uirocantus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wiHro'man'
PageinPokorny:1177
IEcognates:Skt.vra,Lat.uir,Lith.vyras,
Go.wair
Notes:Germanic,Celtic,andItalicpointtoa
short*i,withlossofthelaryngeal,whichis

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 209

reconstructedonthebasisofLith.andSkt.
forms.
References:GPCII:1693f.,DGVB201,EIEC
355,548,LHEB337,DeBernardoStempel
1999:44,230,Delamarre321f.,Falileyev76,
Campanile1974:59.
ProtoCeltic:*wiso'poison'[Noun]
OldIrish:fi[??]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*weys/*wisos'poison'
PageinPokorny:1134
IEcognates:Skt.via,Lat.urus,Gr.ios
Notes:Thewordfiisknownonlyfromthe
MiddleIrishperiod,andisattestedchieflyin
poetictexts.DILdoesnotstateitsgenderand
stem,sothePCelt.reconstructionisonly
tentative.ThelengthofinLat.urusisbest
accountedforbypositinganoriginalrootnoun
*weys/*wisos;Lat.preservedthestemofthe
nominative,whereastheotherlanguages
generalizedthestemoftheobliquecases.
References:DeBernardoStempel1999:526,
Matasovic2004:130

MiddleWelsh:gulat[f](OW),MWgwlad
'country'
MiddleBreton:guletic'prince'(OBret.),MBret.
gloedic'count'
Cornish:gulatgl.patria(OCo.),MCo.gulas
Seealso:*walo
Notes:Gaul.PNUlattiusmightberelated,cp.
alsotheEthnonymUlatti.
References:GPCII:1676,DGVB193,EIEC
490,Delamarre306,Falileyev70,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:51,285,EllisEvans1967:
369ff.,Meid2005:207f.
ProtoCeltic:*wlid'feast,banquet'[Noun]
OldIrish:fled[f]
MiddleWelsh:guled[f](OW),MWgwledd
MiddleBreton:gloe(Gwened)
Gaulish:Ulidorix[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*weld'desire'

ProtoCeltic:*wlano'bloodred'[Adjective]

PageinPokorny:1137

OldIrish:flann[o]

IEcognates:Gr.eldomai

ProtoIndoEuropean:*welh2'hit,wound'

Notes:Thereadingoftheinscriptioncontaining
thePNUlidorixisuncertain,butthenamecould
mean'Kingoffeasts'.TheInsularCelticforms
arecompatiblewiththereconstruction*wled
aswell.

PageinPokorny:1144f.
IEcognates:Hitt.walahzi'strikes',Lat.uolnus
'wound'
Notes:LIV(619)hesitatinglyreconstructsthe
PIErootwith*h3ratherthan*h2.ThePCelt.
reconstruction*wlanois,inmyopinion,
preferabletoPokorny's*wlansno.The
developmentinOIr.issimilarto*(u)lano>
OIr.olann'wool'.
References:DeBernardoStempel1999:268,
LIV619
ProtoCeltic:*wlati'sovereignity'[Noun]
OldIrish:flaith[if,laterm]'sovereignity,ruler'

References:GPCII:1682f.,Delamarre324163
ProtoCeltic:*wlikwo'wet'[Adjective]
OldIrish:fliuch[o]
MiddleWelsh:gulip(OW),MWgulip,gwlyp
(GPCgwlyb)
MiddleBreton:gulip(OBret.),MBret.gloeb,
glueb
Cornish:gliborgl.humor

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 210

ProtoIndoEuropean:*welkwo
PageinPokorny:1145
IEcognates:OHGwelh'wet,mild',Latv.valks
'wet'
Seealso:*wolko
Notes:Wgwlithen'stye,whitlow'mayrepresent
PCelt.*wlikto,anotherderivativefromthe
sameroot(Fowkes1945),cp.alsoWgwlych
'liquid,moisture'[m]<*wlikso.
References:GPCII:1685,DGVB193,GOI64,
Falileyev70f.,Campanile1974:49,Fowkes
1945.
ProtoCeltic:*wlisk'stick,rod'[Noun]
OldIrish:flesc[f]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wleysk
PageinPokorny:1143
IEcognates:Go.wlizjan'hit',Croat.lijeska
ProtoCeltic:*wobiyo'blow,injury'[Noun]
OldIrish:fubae[ion]
MiddleWelsh:gofwy'tovisit,afflictwith
sickness,punish'(GPCgofwy,gofwyo)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*bheyH'strike,hit'
PageinPokorny:117f.
IEcognates:OCSbiti
Seealso:*bina

Seealso:*damyo'suffer'
References:KPV260ff.,GPCII:1425
ProtoCeltic:*wogniyo'serve,beuseful'
[Verb]
OldIrish:fogni
MiddleWelsh:gweini;gweinyt[3sPres.](GPC
gweini,gweinyddu)
MiddleBreton:go(u)nit
Cornish:gonis'work'
Seealso:*gniyo
References:KPV339ff.,GPCII:1621
ProtoCeltic:*wokwrina'buy,earn'[Verb]
OldIrish:focren'buy,exchange';fochiura
[Fut.];facrith[Pass.]
MiddleWelsh:gobryn'earn'(GPCgobryn,
gobrynu)
Seealso:*kwrina
References:KPV438f.,GPCII:1419
ProtoCeltic:*wokano'singalong,play'
[Verb]
OldIrish:focain'accompany(withamusical
instrument)'
MiddleWelsh:goganu'praise'(GPCgoganu,
gogan,goganyd)
Seealso:*kano

References:LIV57,GPCII:1433,Schumacher
2000:173

References:KPV388ff.,GPCII:1435

ProtoCeltic:*wodamyo'suffer'[Verb]

ProtoCeltic:*wokelo'protect,cover'[Verb]

OldIrish:fodaim

OldIrish:foceil'hide,cover'

MiddleWelsh:goddef

MiddleWelsh:goglyt'defend,protect';gogel
[3sPres.](GPCgoglyd,gogelyd,gogel,gogelu)

MiddleBreton:gouzaff
Cornish:godhaff

Seealso:*kelo

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 211

References:GPCII:1435,KPV394ff.
ProtoCeltic:*wolawto'property,wealth'
[Noun]
OldIrish:folud[on]
MiddleWelsh:golud[mandf]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*leh2ut'benefit,prize'
PageinPokorny:655
IEcognates:Lat.lucrum<*lutlo,OElan
'reward'<*lawno
Notes:Cp.alsoOIr.luag,log'prize'<*loh2u
go.
References:GPCII:1452,EIEC484,De
BernardoStempel1999:144
ProtoCeltic:*woleg'shelter,lair'[Noun]
OldIrish:foil,fail[kf]
MiddleWelsh:gwal[fandm]'lair,pigsty'
(GPCgwl)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*legh'lie'
PageinPokorny:659

References:KPV538ff.,GPCII:1582,Uhlich
2002:411
ProtoCeltic:*woskoto/u'shadow,shelter'
[Noun]
OldIrish:foscad[uandon>m]'shade,shelter'
MiddleWelsh:gwasgod'shelter'
MiddleBreton:guascotougl.frigora(OBret.),
MBret.goasquet,MoBret.gwasked
ProtoIndoEuropean:*skot'darkness'
PageinPokorny:957
IEcognates:Gr.skotos,OEsceadu'darkness'
References:GPCII:1596,LP2
ProtoCeltic:*wostarna'strew'[Verb]
OldIrish:fosern
MiddleWelsh:gwassarnu(GPCgwasarnu,
gosarnu)
Seealso:*starna
References:KPV601f.,GPCII:1593

Notes:Cp.alsoWgwely'bed'<*wolegyo

ProtoCeltic:*wowiko'commitanoffence'
[Verb]

References:GPCII:1564f.,Uhlich2002:411

OldIrish:fofich'trespass,commitanoffence'

ProtoCeltic:*woreto'help,save'[Verb]

MiddleWelsh:gowyn'insultsomeone'shonour'

OldIrish:foreith'help,takesomeone'splace'

Seealso:*wiko

MiddleWelsh:gwared'save,behelpfulto'
(GPCgwaredu,gwared)

References:KPV683ff.,GPCII:1517

Gaulish:Uoretouirius[PN]

ProtoCeltic:*wokwtlo'word'[Noun]
OldIrish:focal,focul[on]

Seealso:*reto
Notes:Cp.alsoOIr.cobair,cobuir'help'<
*komworet,OIr.toir'help'<*toworet.
Forthesemanticdevelopmentoftheverb'to
run'(*ret)withtheprefix*wo'under'cp.Lat.
sucurro'help'.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wokw'voice,word'
PageinPokorny:1135f.
IEcognates:Skt.vk,Lat.ux,OHG
giwahanem'recall',Arm.goem'call'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 212

Notes:Thesameroot(*wokw)appearsinOIr.
anocht'ametricalfault'<PCelt.*anukto,
paralleltoOInd.anukta.
References:EIEC534f.,DeBernardoStempel
1999:299

MiddleWelsh:guor(OW),MWgor,gwar
MiddleBreton:guor,gor(OBret.)
Cornish:gor

ProtoCeltic:*wolko'rain,wetweather'[Noun]

Gaulish:Vercingetorix[PN]

OldIrish:folc[om]'heavyrain'

Celtiberian:uer(Veramom)

MiddleWelsh:golchi'tocleanse,wash'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*uper'over'

MiddleBreton:guelchi,MoBret.gwalc'hi

PageinPokorny:1105

Cornish:golhy

IEcognates:Skt.upari,Go.ufar

ProtoIndoEuropean:*welk/g'wet'
PageinPokorny:1145f.

Notes:ItisnotclearwhetherPCelt.*worisa
variantof*wer<*uper,oradevelopment
thereof.

IEcognates:OCSvlaga'moisture',OHGwelk
'wet,moist'

References:GOI513,Delamarre314,Falileyev
72,Villar1997:902.

Notes:*wlikwo

ProtoCeltic:*worbwiyo'remain'[Verb]

References:GPCII:1446,LP2,EIEC639

OldIrish:forta

ProtoCeltic:*wolto'hair'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:gorfot'win,force(someone)'
(GPCgorfodi)

OldIrish:folt[om]
MiddleWelsh:?wallt[m]
MiddleBreton:guolt(OBret.)
Cornish:golsgl.cesaries
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wolt'hair'
PageinPokorny:1138
IEcognates:OCSvlat,OEweald'wood'
Notes:ThesamePCelt.etymonisperhaps
reflectedinGaul.Uoltodagae[PN],etc.See
Delamarre327f.
References:GPCII:1569,LP2,DGVB197,
Delamarre327f.

Seealso:*buyo
References:KPV245,GPCII:1479
ProtoCeltic:*workwendo'end'[Noun]
OldIrish:forcenn[on>m]
MiddleWelsh:gorffen[m]
MiddleBreton:gourffenn
Cornish:gorfen
Seealso:*kwendo'head'
Notes:ThereisalsothedenominativeverbOIr.
forcenna'putsanendto',Wgorffennu'finish
off'.Thismaybetheresultofparallel
development.

ProtoCeltic:*wor<*ufer'over,on'
[Preposition]

References:GPCII:1483,LP45

OldIrish:for[+Acc,+Dat.]

ProtoCeltic:*workano'teach'[Verb]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 213

ProtoCeltic:*wostu'dwelling'[Noun]
OldIrish:forcain

OldIrish:ifoss'atrest,athome'

MiddleWelsh:gwarchanu(GPCgorchan,
gorchanu,gwarchan)

MiddleWelsh:gwas[f]'abode,dwelling'

Seealso:*kano

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2wostu'dwelling'

References:KPV388ff.,GPCII:1463.

PageinPokorny:1170f.

ProtoCeltic:*worin'band,troop'[Noun]

IEcognates:Skt.vstu'house,dwelling',Gr.a
sty'city',ToBost'house'

OldIrish:foirenn[f]
MiddleWelsh:gwerin[fandm]'host'
MiddleBreton:gueringl.induasfactiones
(OBret.),MBret.gueryn'people'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*worino'flock,troop'
PageinPokorny:1151
IEcognates:OEwearn'troop,crowd'
References:GPCII:1642,EIEC268,De
BernardoStempel1999:372
ProtoCeltic:*woso'spendthenight,remain'
[Verb]
OldIrish:foaid,foi'spendthenight,sleep
withsomeone';fieid,fia[Subj.];fif(a)id,fi
f(e)a[Fut.];fiu[Pret.]
MiddleWelsh:kyuarhos<*komariwoso
'wait,expect'(GPCcyfaros)
MiddleBreton:gourtos<*woratiwoso
'expect,waitfor'
Cornish:gortos<*woratiwoso'waitfor'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2wes'remain,spend
thenight'
PageinPokorny:1170f.
IEcognates:Hitt.huiszi'lives',Skt.vasati
'spendsthenight,remains',Go.wisan'be,live',
Arm.goy'is'
References:KPV702ff.,GPCI:682,LIV293f.,
LP365.

References:GPCII:1591,EIEC281
ProtoCeltic:*woxsV'wasp'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:gwychi[p](GPCgwychi,
gwchi)
MiddleBreton:guohigl.fucos(OBret.)
Cornish:guhien[Singulative]gl.uespa(OCo.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wobhseh2'wasp'
PageinPokorny:1179
IEcognates:Lat.uespa,OEwaesp
Notes:OIr.foich'wasp'isaloanwordfrom
British.
References:GPCII:1607,DGVB196,LP19,
Schrijver1995:160
ProtoCeltic:*wragi'needle'[Noun]
OldIrish:fraig'sharpinstrument,?needle'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wreh2g'h'thorn'
PageinPokorny:1180
IEcognates:Gr.rakhis'spine,backbone'
Notes:ThestemandgenderofOIr.fraigare
uncertain.Thewordoccursmostlyinlawtracts,
andreferstoaphysician'sinstrument.
Therefore,thePCelt.reconstructionisamere
conjecture.
References:EIEC575
ProtoCeltic:*wrego'do,make'[Verb]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 214

MiddleWelsh:gwneuthur;goruc[3sPret.]

MiddleWelsh:gwrthdwng[m]'counteroath'

MiddleBreton:groa,gra[3sPres.]

Seealso:*tungo

Cornish:gwra[3sPres.]

References:KPV648f.,GPCII:1718

ProtoIndoEuropean:*werg''do,make'

ProtoCeltic:*writu'against'[Preposition]

PageinPokorny:1168f.

OldIrish:frith,fris,fri[+Acc.]

IEcognates:Gr.(Myc.)woze/worzei/,Go.
waurkjan

MiddleWelsh:gurt(OW),MWwrth

Notes:Theformswithgwnareduetothe
analogywiththeverb*gniyowiththesimilar
meaning.
References:KPV707ff.,GPCII:1688ff.,LIV
686ff.,LP336.
ProtoCeltic:*wrid(n)'root'[Noun]
OldIrish:fren[?f]

MiddleBreton:gurth(OBret.)
Cornish:(w)orth
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wert'turn'
PageinPokorny:1156
IEcognates:Lat.uersus,uorsus'against',ToB
wrattsai'against'

MiddleWelsh:gwraidd[m]

References:GOI514f.,DGVB203,EIEC607,
Falileyev76,Schrijver1995:158.

MiddleBreton:gruizyenn,MoBret.gwriz(ienn)

ProtoCeltic:*w(d)sko'press'[Verb]

Cornish:gwreitengl.radix(OCo.)

OldIrish:faiscid,faisci'press'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wrVd'root'

MiddleWelsh:gwascu

PageinPokorny:1167

MiddleBreton:gwaska

IEcognates:Lat.rdx,ONrt,Alb.rrenje,
Go.waurts

ProtoIndoEuropean:*wedh'push,strike'

References:GPCII:1697,DGVB179,EIEC
80,DeBernardoStempel1999:243,258
ProtoCeltic:*writbero'comeagainst,return'
[Verb]

PageinPokorny:1115
IEcognates:Skt.vadhati'strike,slay',Lith.
vedega'akindofax',ToAwac'struggle'

OldIrish:frisbeir'return'

Notes:OIr.fodb[on]probablydoesnotbelong
here,sinceitmeans'booty(usuallyofclothes)'
ratherthan'weapon',asstatedbyEIEC471.

MiddleWelsh:?wrthvryt'return'

References:LP19,EIEC471

Seealso:*bero

ProtoCeltic:*wgno/'depression,slope,
hollow'[Noun]

References:KPV220f.
ProtoCeltic:*writtungo'renounce'[Verb]
OldIrish:fristoing

OldIrish:fan[om]'slope,declivity,hollow'
MiddleWelsh:guoun[f]'meadow'(OW),MW
gwawn,gweun(GPCgwaun)

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 215

MiddleBreton:goen(OBret.),MBret.gueun
Cornish:guengl.campus(OCo.),MCo.goen,
gon,goon
Notes:Theclustergnisassuredbythe
toponymVagniacisinBritain(Itin.).Toponym
VagnainPiemontcouldbetheGaulish
equivalentofthesewords.ThegendersinOIr.
andinBritishdonotmatch,sowemustassume
both*wgnoand*wgn(OIr.fancouldalso
bederivedfrom*wagno,withshort*a,cp.De
BernardoStempel1999:255).OntheIndo
Europeanside,PCelt.*wgnohasbeen
connectedtoLat.uagus(Pokorny1120),but
thisisuncertainfrombothsemanticandformal
pointsofview.
References:GPCII:1603,Delamarre305f.,
Falileyev75,DeBernardoStempel1999:255,
258,DeBernardoStempel2000:92.
ProtoCeltic:*wri'sunrise,east'[Noun]
OldIrish:fair[??]
MiddleWelsh:gwawr[fandm]'dawn'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wsri,*wesr/n
IEcognates:Gr.ear'spring',Lat.ur'spring'
Notes:TheCelticformsappeartobevrddhi
derivativesfromPIE*wesr'spring'.ThePCelt.
reconstructionisdifficultsincethegenderand
stemofOIr.fairareunknown.Thewordis
knownonlyfromglossaries.

References:EIEC179,DeBernardoStempel
1999:271
ProtoCeltic:*wti'soothsayer,prophet'
[Noun]
OldIrish:faith[im]
Gaulish:Ouateis[p](Strabo4.4.4.)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wti'prophet'
PageinPokorny:1113
IEcognates:OEwd'inspiration',OCSveti
'prophet'
Seealso:*wtu'poeticinspiration'
Notes:Lat.vtsisprobablyanoldCeltic
loanword.
References:LP6,65f.,EIEC707,Delamarre
308,DeBernardoStempel1999:369,375
ProtoCeltic:*wtu'poeticinspiration'[Noun]
OldIrish:fath[um]'prophesy'
MiddleWelsh:gwawd[mandf]'poem,satire'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*wtu
PageinPokorny:1113
Seealso:*wti

References:GPCII:1605,LP22

References:GPCII:1603,LP6,Delamarre
308,DeBernardoStempel1999:286

ProtoCeltic:*wsto'empty'[Adjective]

ProtoCeltic:*wdo'tell,relate'[Verb]

OldIrish:fas[o]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1weh2sto'waste'

OldIrish:adfet<*adweydo;adfe[Subj.];
adfi[Fut.];adfiad[Pret.];adfess[Pret.
Pass.]

PageinPokorny:345f.

MiddleWelsh:amkawdd[3sPret.]

IEcognates:Lat.uastus,OEwste'waste,
empty'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*weyd'perceive,see'

Notes:Thewordinitiallaryngealcanbe
deducedifthesewordsarerelatedtoGr.enis
'deprived',butthisisnotcertain.

PageinPokorny:1125f.
IEcognates:Skt.vindati'finds',Lat.uideo,
Arm.gitem'know'

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 216

References:KPV664ff.,LIV665ff.,LP363f.,
LEIAD112.
ProtoCeltic:*wdo'sight,presence'[Noun]
OldIrish:fiad[Preposition]'inthepresenceof'
MiddleWelsh:gwyd'sight,presence'
Celtiberian:ueizos'?witness'

fromthesamePIErootasPCelt.*widu'wood'
(Lat.silvaticus,fromsilva'wood',alsomeans
'wild').
References:GPCII:1753,DGVB196,McCone
1987.
ProtoCeltic:*wliyo/'modesty'[Noun]
OldIrish:felegl.honestas[if]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*weyd'perceive,see'

MiddleWelsh:guiled[m](OW),MWgwyled
(GPCgwyledd)

PageinPokorny:1125f.

MiddleBreton:guiledgl.honestas(OBret.)

IEcognates:Lat.uideo

Seealso:*wlo'modest'

Seealso:*wdo

Notes:InGaulish,therearePNwiththeelement
uelio(e.g.Ueliocasses),butthelengthofthe
voweleisunknown.Therefore,theconnection
withPCelt.*wliyomustremainconjectural.

Notes:ThemeaningofCeltib.ueizosis
uncertain.ItoccursinthedativeinLuzaga
(ueizui),and,apparently,intheNom.s.in'the
Bronzeres'.Meid(1994:48)rendersits
meaningas'visitor,guest'.
References:McCone1996:15,Meid1994:48
ProtoCeltic:*wdu'wild'[Adjective]
OldIrish:fiad[um]'wildanimals,game'
MiddleWelsh:gwydd(GPCgwydd)
MiddleBreton:guoidochgl.aper(OBret.),
MBret.goez
Cornish:guitfilgl.fera(OCo.)

References:GPCII:1761,DGVB191,
Delamarre311,Falileyev68,Evans1967:
273ff.
ProtoCeltic:*wlo'modest'[Adjective]
OldIrish:fial[o]
MiddleWelsh:gwyl(GPCgwyl)
Seealso:*wliyo'modesty'
Notes:Hamp(BBCS28,1980:213)derives
thesewordsfromPIE*wey'turn'(Pokorny
1120),cp.Lat.ulis'cheap,abundant'<PIE
*weylo.

ProtoIndoEuropean:*weydh'wood,
wilderness'

References:GPCII:1760,Falileyev68

PageinPokorny:1177

ProtoCeltic:*wro'crooked'[Adjective]

IEcognates:OEw?'hunt'.

OldIrish:fiar[o]

Seealso:*widu'wood'

MiddleWelsh:gwyr(GPCgwyr)

Notes:InOIr.,thereisalsofiad'uncultivated
land'andfiadach'hunt'.Anotherderivative
fromthesamePCelt.rootisOIr.fian,denoting
atroopofyoungwarriorsandbrigands,canbe
derivedfrom*wdn(McCone1987).OEw?
'hunt'representsadifferentablautgrade,
PGerm.*waydaz.Thesewordsareprobably

MiddleBreton:goar,gwar'curved'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*weyh1ro'turned,
twisted'
PageinPokorny:1122

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 217

IEcognates:OEwr'wire'
Seealso:*wina

Notes:Wgwden<*gwydenpresupposesa
derivative*wtina(orisenapetrified
singulativesuffix?).

Notes:ThePIErootis*weyh1'turn,twist',cp.
OCSviti,Lat.uieo,etc.

References:GPCII:1607,EIEC643,De
BernardoStempel1999:285

References:GPCII:1781,LP11,DeBernardo
Stempel1999:228.

ProtoCeltic:*wro'true'[Adjective]

ProtoCeltic:*wt(t)'stream,swamp'[Noun]
OldIrish:feith[f]'marsh,swamp'
MiddleWelsh:gwyth[f]'canal,nerve,vein,
ditch'
MiddleBreton:goed'stream'(OBret.),MBret.
goaz,guez
Cornish:guidgl.vena(OCo.),MCo.gwyth,
goth
Notes:InOIr.thereisalsofeith[f]which
means'sinew',butalso'kidney';thisisprobably
justahomonymoffeith'swamp'(assuggested
byDIL).ItisprobablythesamewordasW
gwythi[p]'veins'Thesewordsareusually
derivedfromtheroot*weyh1'twist,turn'
(Pokorny1122),butthisisdubiousonsemantic
grounds.TheBrit.reflexespointtoadouble
stop(*tt)inPCelt.,buttheOIr.formis
derivablefromPCelt.*wtwithasingle*t.
References:GPCII:1790,DGVB178
ProtoCeltic:*wti'withe'[Noun]
OldIrish:feith[if]'somekindoftwiningplant'
MiddleWelsh:gwden[f]'withe'
MiddleBreton:gueden
Cornish:guidengl.circulus(OCo.),MCo.
gusen
ProtoIndoEuropean:*weyti'willow,withe'
PageinPokorny:1122
IEcognates:Skt.veta'reed',OHG.wda
'willow',Lith.vytis'willowswitch'

OldIrish:fir[o]
MiddleWelsh:gwir
MiddleBreton:guir(OBret.),Bret.gwir
Cornish:guirgl.verus,guiriongl.uerax(OCo.),
MCo.guyr,gwyr
Gaulish:Couirus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*weh1ro'true'
PageinPokorny:1166
IEcognates:Lat.urus,OHGwr,OCSvera
'belief'
References:GPCII:1666,DGVB192,EIEC
98,606,Delamarre321f.,Campanile1974:57,
DeBernardoStempel1999:42.
ProtoCeltic:*y(o)wanko'young'[Adjective]
OldIrish:oac[o],oc(DIL)
MiddleWelsh:ieuanc
MiddleBreton:yaouank
Cornish:iouenc(OCo.),MCo.yo(wy)nk
Gaulish:Iouincillus[PN]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2yuHnk'o'young'
PageinPokorny:510
IEcognates:Skt.yuvasa'young',Lat.
iuuencus'youngcow',OEgeong'young'
References:LEIAO3,GPCII:2013f.,EIEC
655f.,Campanile1974:68f.
ProtoCeltic:*yantu'zeal,jealousy'[Noun]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 218

OldIrish:et[om]'emulation,jealousy'
MiddleWelsh:addiant,addiat[m]'wish'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*yet'toplaceoneself
firmly,establishoneself'
PageinPokorny:506
IEcognates:Skt.yatate,Lat.ntor<*niyet
'tostrive',ToAyatatr'iscapable'
Notes:GaulishnameIantumarushasanexact
correspondanceinMIr.etmar'jealous'.The
nasalislostintheGaul.PNAdietumarus.Itis
probablyanalogical,introducedfromthen
presents(althoughtheverbfromthisrootis
unattestedinCeltic).Theetymologyrelating
theseCelt.wordstoSkt.yatateetc.hasbeen
doubtedonsemanticgrounds;itisnoteven
mentionedbyMayrhoferinEWAandbyLIV
(277).
References:GPCI:33,Delamarre32f.,Schmidt
1957:222f.,Meid2005:74,Evans1967:47.
ProtoCeltic:*yaro'chicken,hen'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:iar(OW),MWyar,iar[f](GPC
ir,gir);ieir,gieir[p]

Gaulish:*yagoni>Jouanne,Jogne
[Hydronyms]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*yeg'ice'
PageinPokorny:503
IEcognates:ONjaki,Wakhiyaz'glacier'
References:LEIAA28,GPCII:1994,EIEC
135,287,Delamarre185f,Matasovic2004:
130
ProtoCeltic:*yemono'twin'[Noun]
OldIrish:emon[om]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*yemono'twin'
PageinPokorny:505
IEcognates:Skt.yama,Lat.geminus
References:EIEC608,DeBernardoStempel
1999:81,Schrijver1995:108
ProtoCeltic:*yestu'boiling'[Noun]
OldIrish:es(s)[um]'cataract,stream'

MiddleBreton:yar

MiddleWelsh:ias[fandm]'boiling'

Cornish:yargl.gallina(OCo.),MCo.yar

ProtoIndoEuropean:*yes'boil'

Gaulish:Iaros[PN]

PageinPokorny:506

Notes:OIr.eirin'chicken'isrelatedtothese
words,butdetailsareunclear.Allofthese
wordsmightberelatedtoLat.pipioandderived
fromsomethinglike*pipero>PCelt.*fifero.

IEcognates:Hitt.is(sa)na'dough',Skt.yasyati
'boils',Gr.ze,ToAys'boil',OHGjesan'to
foam,ferment'

References:GPCII:2000,LP78,Delamarre
186,Falileyev89,Campanile1974:105,Stokes
1894:223,Schrijver1995:104f.

Notes:Gaul.PNIestinusmightberelatedtothis
root.

ProtoCeltic:*yegV'ice'[Noun]

References:GPCII:2001,EIEC77,De
BernardoStempel1999:287,Schrijver1995:
105.

OldIrish:aig[if]

ProtoCeltic:*yewo'shaft,yew'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:ia[m](GPCi)

OldIrish:eo[o?m]'stem,shaft,yewtree',

MiddleBreton:yen'cold'

MiddleWelsh:yw[p]'yew,yewwood';ywen
[Singulative]

Cornish:ieingl.frigus;ieygl.glacies(OCo.)

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 219

MiddleBreton:Caer'nIuguinen[Toponym]
(OBret.),MBret.ivin,iuin

PageinPokorny:283

Cornish:hiuingl.taxus(OCo.)

IEcognates:Skt.ya,Gr.hos

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1eywo'yew,Taxus
baccata'

Notes:InOIr.therelativepronounispreserved
astheaspirationoftheverbalrootinleniting
relativeclauses,chieflywithsubject
antecendents(seeSchrijver1997:105).

PageinPokorny:297
IEcognates:Hitt.GISe(y)an'?yew',OEw,
Russ.iva
Seealso:*eburo
Notes:Theseformsshouldnotbeconfusedwith
PCelt.*eburo'ivy',asinEIEC.TheGaulish
wordforyewtreeisunattested,sofarasI
know,butitisthesourceofFrenchif.Theform
iuos(Coligny)isofunknownmeaning,pace
Lambert1994.
References:GPCIII:3872,EIEC654,De
BernardoStempel1999:215,Delamarre159f.

References:GOI323f.,Schrijver1997:105ff.
ProtoCeltic:*yorko'roebuck'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:iwrch[m]
MiddleBreton:iorchgl.caprea(OBret.),Bret.
iourc'h
Cornish:yorchgl.caprea(OCo.)
Gaulish:iorkos'roebuck'(probablyGalatian)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*yorko'goat'

ProtoCeltic:*yextV'speech,language'[Noun]

PageinPokorny:513

OldIrish:icht[?um](MoIr.)'people,tribe'

IEcognates:Gr.zorks'gazelle,roedeer'

MiddleWelsh:ieith[f]'language,nation,race'

Notes:ThevowelofWiwrchisunexplained.It
wouldberegularintheplural,astheresultof
raising.

MiddleBreton:yezh[f]'language'
ProtoIndoEuropean:*yek'say,speak'
PageinPokorny:503f.
IEcognates:OHGjehan'speak',Lat.iocus'joke'
Notes:ThestemandgenderofEarlyMoIricht
areuncertain(itisarareword).Ifitwasa
feminineistem,thenthePCelt.reconstruction
*ixtiwouldbeprobable.
References:GPCII:1999,LIV276,Schrijver
1995:106.

References:GPCII:2043,EIEC155,DGVB
227,Delamarre191
ProtoCeltic:*yugo'yoke'[Noun]
OldIrish:cuing[if](<*komyungi)
MiddleWelsh:iou(OW),MWiau,yeu[fand
m]
MiddleBreton:yeu,ieo
Cornish:ieu(OCo.)

ProtoCeltic:*yo'which'[Relativeparticle]

Gaulish:Veriugus[PN]

Gaulish:dugiiontiio'whoworship(?)(AliseSt.
Reine)

ProtoIndoEuropean:*yugo'yoke'

Celtiberian:iomui[Dat.s](Botorrita)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*yo'which'

PageinPokorny:508f.
IEcognates:Hitt.iukan,Skt.yuga,Lat.
iugum,OCSigo,Arm.luc

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 220

MiddleBreton:ion,eunt(OBret.)effn
Notes:TheBritishformsmightbeborrowings
fromLat.iugum.
References:LEIAC273,GPCII:2002,LP29,
EIEC655,Falileyev94,EllisEvans1967:357f.
ProtoCeltic:*yustyo'just'[Adjective]
OldIrish:uisse[io]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*yows'right,regular'
PageinPokorny:512
IEcognates:Lat.is'justice,right',Avest.yao
References:LEIAU22,EIEC345,410
ProtoCeltic:*yutV'pap,porridge'
OldIrish:ithgl.puls
MiddleWelsh:iot(OW),MWiwt,iwd(GPC
uwd)
MiddleBreton:iod
Cornish:iotgl.puls(OCo.)
Notes:GalloRomaniutta,iottaispresumably
borrowedfromtheGaulishequivalentofthese
InsularCelticwords.ThelongiinOIr.is
analogical,probablyhavingdevelopedunder
theinfluenceofith'fat'(GOI39),orithid'eats'.
Itisnotwellattested,soitsgenderandstemare
unknown(DIL).Thealternationof*oand*uin
BritishperhapspointstoPCelt.variantforms
withvariousvowelsinthefinalsylllable.
Perhapsweshouldreconstructboth*yutiand
*yuto.Pokorny'sPIEetymology(p.507),
relatingthesewordstoPIE*yewH(Gr.zy
m,OCSjuxa,etc.)isunconvincingfrom
bothformal(notraceoflaryngealinCeltic)and
semanticpointofview.
References:GOI39,LHEB55,Campanile
1974:68,Falileyev93f.
ProtoCeltic:*yno'true,noble'[Adjective]
OldIrish:an[o]'true,just'
MiddleWelsh:iawn'true,just'

Cornish:eunhinsicgl.iustus(OCo.),MCo.
ewn
Notes:OIr.an'ardent,splendid'mightormight
notbeadifferentword.InOBret.botheuntand
ionarefoundwiththesamemenaning;ion
seemstobetheolderform.Forpossible
cognatesinotherIElanguages,seeLEIAA72.
References:LEIAA72,GPCII:2003,DGVB
169,227.
ProtoCeltic:*ynt'place'[Noun]
OldIrish:ait[?f],aitt(DIL)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*yeh2'ride,go'
PageinPokorny:296
IEcognates:Skt.yti'goes,rides',Lith.joti
'ride'
Seealso:*ytu
Notes:TheusualderivationofOIr.aitfrom
PIE*pntH'bridge,path'isnotconvincing,
sincethelong*isunjustified.Theetymology
proposedhereisalsoprovisory,becauseof
semanticdifficulties.PCelt.*yntwouldbe
thefeminineformoftheactiveparticipleofthe
verb*yeh2,sotheoriginalmeaningwouldbe
'theonewhogoes(f.)'(cp.OIr.birit'sow'<
*bherontih2).
References:LEIAA52
ProtoCeltic:*ys'chariot'[Noun]
OldIrish:a
ProtoIndoEuropean:*yeh2'ride,go'
PageinPokorny:296
IEcognates:Skt.yti'goes,rides',Lith.joti
'ride'
Notes:Ifthisetymologyiscorrect,OIr.aisan
archaicrootnounderiveddirectlyfromthePIE
verbalroot*yeh2'togo'.
References:Watkins1978,LIV275,LEIAA4

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 221

ProtoCeltic:*ytu'ford'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:arenn[f]'kidney,testicle,stone'
(GPCaren)

OldIrish:ath[um]

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eh2r'kidney'

ProtoIndoEuropean:*yeh2'ride,go'

IEcognates:Hitt.hahri,?Lat.rns[Nomp],
ToArin?c'heart'

PageinPokorny:296
IEcognates:Skt.yti'goes,rides',Lith.joti
'ride'
References:LEIAA99,DeBernardoStempel
1999:290

Notes:IfLat.rnsbelongshere,itprobably
representsthezerograde*h2h2ren.Fora
differentetymologyseeStber1998:177f.She
comparesGoth.akran'fruit',whichisnot
convincingsemantically.

ProtoCeltic:*ysko'soup,broth'[Noun]

References:LEIAA92,GPCI:191,EIEC329,
Matasovic2004:112,Stber1998:177f.

OldIrish:usc,usca'lard,fat'

ProtoCeltic:*s'mouth'[Noun]

MiddleWelsh:isgell[m]'soup'

OldIrish:a

Cornish:iskelgl.ius(OCo.),MCo.isgal

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1oh1s

ProtoIndoEuropean:*yuHs'broth'

IEcognates:Hitt.ais,Skt.s,Lat.s

PageinPokorny:507

Notes:TheOIr.wordaisknownonlyfrom
poetryandglossaries.Itsgenderisuncertain.
ThecorrectreconstructionofthePIEetymonis
amatterofdispute;anotherpossibilityis
*h3eh1s.

IEcognates:Skt.ys,Lat.is,OCSjuxa
Notes:TheBrit.wordsmightbeloanwords
fromLat.(GPC,butLat.*iscellum,thealleged
sourceofthesewords(GPC),isnotattested.
Theclosestmatchisiusculum(OLD,s.v.)
whichmeans'broth'andisscarcelyattestedin
thewholeLat.corpus.
References:GPCII:2037,LEIAU30,EIEC84
ProtoCeltic:*g'fear'[Verb]
OldIrish:agadar,niagathar
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2egh
PageinPokorny:7
IEcognates:Go.ogan'fear',probablyalsoGr.a
khos'pain'
References:LP337,LEIAA23,KPV206
ProtoCeltic:*ron'kidney'[Noun]
OldIrish:aru[nf]'kidney,gland'

References:LEIAA4,EIEC37,313,De
BernardoStempel1999:26,Matasovic2004:
110.
ProtoCeltic:*ti'furnace,oven'[Noun]
OldIrish:aith[if]
MiddleWelsh:odyn[f]'kiln'
Cornish:Odencolc[Toponym]
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2eh1t'burn'
IEcognates:Palaichri'behot',Lat.ra'altar',
trium
References:LEIAA54,GPCII:2618
ProtoCeltic:*wyo'descendant,grandchild'
[Noun]
OldIrish:aue>ua,o[iom],OgamAVI[Gen
s]

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 222

Cornish:evitergl.patruus<*awontro

Notes:Themasculineformofthispronounis
unattestedinGaul.InInsularCeltic,the
feminineform(*,or*y)wasreplacedby
thepronominalstem*sih2>OIr.si'she'.

Gaulish:aua(Cavaillon)'granddaughter'

References:EIEC399,Delamarre161

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2ewh2o'grandfather'

ProtoCeltic:*skyo'moon'[Noun]

IEcognates:Hitt.hhha,Lat.auus
'grandfather',OIc.ae,Arm.haw.

OldIrish:escae,esca[ion,laterm]

MiddleBreton:eontr<*awontro

Notes:MWewythr'maternaluncle',MBret.
eontr,andMCo.eviter<PCelt.*awontro,
anotherderivativefromthesamePIEroot.
PCelt.*wyo,impliedbyOIr.aue(and
perhapsbyMWwyr'descendant')isavrddhi
derivativetoPIE*h2ewh2o'grandfather'.
References:LEIAA103f.,U1,EIEC237,
Schrijver1995:301.,Delamarre60f.
ProtoCeltic:*wyo'egg'[Noun]
MiddleWelsh:ui(OW),MWwy[m]
MiddleBreton:uy
Cornish:uygl.ovum(OCo.),MCo.oy
ProtoIndoEuropean:*h2wyo
PageinPokorny:783
IEcognates:Lat.uum,Arm.ju,OHGei

ProtoIndoEuropean:*h1eysk
PageinPokorny:16f.
IEcognates:OCSiskra'spark',Lith.aikus
'bright',Russ.jaska'brightstar'
Notes:InOIr.thiswordreplacedtheearlier
wordformoon,luan(see*lowxsn).ItsBaltic
andSlaviccognatesareusuallyderivedfrom
PIE*h2eysk,butonmeagreevidence.
Actually,itisequallypossibletoreconstructan
ablautingroot*h1eysk>PCelt.*sk,*h1isk
>OCSiskra,*h1oysk(or*h1ysk)>Russ.ja
ska,Lith.aikus.
ProtoCeltic:*kk,*iakk'cure,treatment,
salvation]
OldIrish:icc[f]
MiddleWelsh:iach'healthy'
MiddleBreton:iac(OBret.)gl.suspite,Bret.
yac'h'healthy'

Notes:TheOIr.wordfor'egg',ogprobablydoes
notbelonghere.PIE*h2wyoisavrddhi
derivativefrom*h2ewi'bird'(Lat.auis,etc.).

Cornish:iachgl.sanus(OCo.),MCo.yagh

References:LEIAO13,GPCIII:3739,EIEC
176,Falileyev153,Campanile1974:104,
Schrijver1995:300ff.

Notes:ThevocalismofOIr.icccanbe
explainedifonestartswithavariant*yiyekk.
SincethisOIr.wordisactuallyaVNoftheverb
iccaid'heal',onemightassumeanoriginal
reduplicatedpresent*yiyekkofromwhich
*yiyekkwasabstracted(for*yek>*yakcp.
OIr.aig'ice'<*yegi).TheseCelticwordsare
usuallyconnectedtoGr.akos'cure,medicine',
butphoneticsoftheseetymologyaredifficult.
Perhapsakosisfromapsiloticdialect,inwhich
caseitcouldbederivedfromPreGreek*yakos.

ProtoCeltic:*'this,that'[Pronoun]
OldIrish:e,he'he'
Gaulish:eia'she'[f](Larzac)
ProtoIndoEuropean:*(h1)ey'that'

Gaulish:Iaccus[PN]

IEcognates:Lat.is,OHGer,Lith.jis

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 223

References:GPCII:1994,EIEC262,DGVB
217,DeBernardoStempel1999:579,
Delamarre185,Campanile1974:67.
ProtoCeltic:*sarno'iron'[Noun]
OldIrish:iarn(n)[on,laterm]
MiddleWelsh:haearn[m]
MiddleBreton:hoiarn(OBret.),MBret.houarn
Cornish:hoern(OCo.),MCo.horn

Gaulish:Isarnus[PN]
Notes:ThisCelticwordwasborrowedinto
Germanicinprehistorictimes(cp.Go.eisarn,E
iron,etc.),cp.Birkhan1970:128f.Fora
possiblePIEetymologyseeCowgill
IndogermanischeGrammatikI/1,68(fromPIE
*h1sh2rno'bloody',cp.Hitt.eshar'blood').
References:GPCII:1801,EIEC314,DGVB
213,Delamarre192,DeBernardoStempel
1999:136ff.,256f.,Birkhan1970:128f.
Campanile1974:64.,Benveniste1956.

AnetymologicallexiconofProtoCeltic(inprogress)Metasovic - 224