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BUILD YOUR VOCABULARY, MAKE USEFUL PHRASES, CORRECT YOUR OWN ERRORS, AND MORE.
Instead. At the back of the booklet. How How How How How How How How to to to to to to to to build your vocabulary make useful phrases use past tenses correctly use future forms correctly choose the correct preposition use phrasal verbs compare and contrast things correct your own errors In each section you will find . we can identify ‘patterns’ which may be true most of the time. This booklet is full of tips to help you improve your English and exercises to help you practise what you’ve learnt.Welcome Welcome to the BBC World Service Learning Guide. 3. a short exercise to encourage you to think about the patterns of the language. 7. How to use the Learning Guide The Learning Guide is divided into eight sections. you will find guidelines on these patterns for each section as well as answers to the exercises. . • • • • • an example of the language point being discussed. 1.* a learning tip to help make your learning more effective. * It is important to remember when you are learning English that there are very few ‘rules’ which are true in all situations... 5. 8. 6. 2. an explanation of the language point. follow-up tasks to help you practise the language of the section. 4.
d) ‘Is this an_____________________time to call you?’ ‘Not at all. ir-.’ e) This poem was written by an_____________________poet. always try to identify any prefixes or suffixes. verb or adjective? I love listening to BBC World Service. If you are using a dictionary to help you. It is_____________________. In English. Look at the passage below.They are often divided from the word stem by a hyphen (e. we often use prefixes (letters added to the beginning of a word) and suffixes (letters added to the end of a word) to change or add to the word’s meaning. Learning tip When learning a new word. but then it went (cloud) and now it’s raining! 1 .This will help you focus on the word stem. impossible illegal unreal untidy irrational incomplete immovable imprecise irrelevant illiterate Can you notice a pattern in how we use these prefixes? Suffixes Different suffixes can give words different meanings.g. How to build your vocabulary How can I learn new words? It seems impossible – there are so many. un-. I love food which is hot and (spice). in- convenient legible replaceable known passable Complete the following sentence with one of the words with its prefix from exercise 1.1. I bought my radio six months ago. Link the words below to the appropriate prefix: im-. It was sunny this morning. Word attack skills involve looking for the stem (or root) of the word – the part which never changes – then working out how the prefix or suffix has changed the meaning. Prefixes These often give a word a negative or opposite meaning. I wish I knew who he was! 2. we create a word family. -ish or -able.The news is very reliable and the music programmes are good for trendy. Choose -y. so it is (new). youngish people. -y and -ish mean? What type of word do we add each suffix to – noun. a) b) c) d) Add a suffix to the words in brackets below to complete the sentences. Can you identify what the suffixes -able. a) My brother’s handwriting is terrible. Look at the adjectives below. im-possible). Word attack skills The easiest way to extend your vocabulary is to improve your word attack skills. always take a note of the prefixes and suffixes listed in the dictionary entry. It’s so_____________________that his teacher refused to mark his English composition! b) Many mountain roads are_____________________in winter because they are blocked by snow. Learning tasks 1. il-. simply a few tips to help me learn easily.The programmes are usually shortish – between 15 and 30 minutes. In this way. I want a manageable system to help me build my vocabulary – nothing unrealistic or trendy. and always understandable. c) Anna was very upset when she lost her necklace because she will never find another one like it. I’m not busy at the moment. The weather in London is very (rain) in winter so the streets are often wet. It’s always easy to find something to listen to because World Service broadcasts on so many frequencies.
When I got home. I have a pen and paper so I can take notes and remember the new words I hear. or verbs and nouns. Verb and noun collocations Do we use do. I_____________an exam tomorrow. thick Complete the text using the adjectives below. simply ‘go together’. except in the north where it will be sunny. I used the notes to study when I had English exams – they were really useful! Recognising collocations There are many groups of words – or phrases – in English which seem to have no rules about how they are formed. the milk had gone sour and the eggs were rotten.To do this. I went on holiday last week and I forgot to clean my fridge. always check to see if the words you are learning ‘go with’ – or collocate with – other words. but only b)_________showers in the south and west. of course.2. Tomorrow morning will start with c)_________cloud everywhere. we know that someone who smokes a lot is a heavy smoker but did you know that we can also have heavy drinkers? Learning tasks 1. Last year. but it’s a bit difficult!’ Weather collocations 2. a) b) c) d) Complete the dialogues below with do. For example.’ ‘I can’t. have. I also found some week-old bread which was stale. These groups of words are called collocations and by learning to recognise and use collocations you can make your English much richer. ‘Have you_____________dinner yet?’ ‘Have you_____________the washing up?’ ‘Would you like to go to the cinema this evening?’ ‘Can you_____________this exercise?’ ‘No. or by nouns which share the same adjective. we will have a)_________rain in the east.Try to identify patterns in collocations to help you remember phrases rather than single words. group vocabulary by subject.Whenever I switch on BBC World Service. some of these nouns can take two different verbs. light heavy This evening. 2 . your homework some exercise some tea an examination your bed a bath the housework a mess a test dinner trouble a decision a walk the washing-up the cleaning Can you see a useful ‘pattern’ to help you remember these collocations? Adjective & noun collocations In this passage. Certain words – for example adjectives and nouns. Expect d)_________snow over the weekend and e)_________fog at the coast. What do these adjectives have in common? Learning tip: When you are learning new vocabulary. Some adjectives can be used more than once.’ ‘Yes. How to make useful phrases I like to make the most of the programmes I hear on the radio. What would you like to eat?’ ‘Not yet. or make. underline all of the adjectives associated with food. have or make with the following nouns? Put the words below into the correct circle but remember. And the fish… Everything had gone off.
. he decided (e) to call a taxi to take him home. When he woke up. In this group. So he decided (h) to walk. Professor Brown groaned. A man snarled. Exhausted. Professor Brown was worried. the past continuous (or progressive) tense.3. Learning task Put the following sentences in the correct order to make a story. Professor Brown finished work at five o’clock and took the 5.30. How to use past tenses correctly One day. he heard a voice. The story begins: It was a stormy afternoon. The first one has been done for you. Using past tenses When we talk about the past – for example.These are used to emphasise that an action took place before the main events of a story.’ It sounded familiar. The thunder was crashing and the wind was howling through the trees. It was from a penfriend of mine and she had written in to the BBC to ask a question about English grammar. He had been working (c) late and had missed (d) the last bus. when we are telling anecdotes or stories – we use a collection of tenses known as narrative tenses. I was listening to the radio when I heard a letter being read out. like the foreground of a picture. It was a dark evening but the street lamps were shining (i) brightly. He waited (f) and waited but the taxi never arrived (g). a) is used to give the main events of the story? b) is used to describe the background details but not the important actions? c) are used to give information about actions which happened before the main events of the story took place? Learning tip Take care not to overuse the past perfect tenses. ‘but the men who have my briefcase aren’t. We have your wife. Give me your briefcase or you will never see her again. he phoned his wife to ask her to meet him there. All there is inside is… . He turned around but couldn’t see anybody. He was sure he had heard the voice before.’ he said. ‘Hello Professor Brown. In order to use them accurately. I was so surprised! That’s what I like about the World Service – it brings people closer together through learning English. and the past perfect. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) ‘Are you OK?’ she whispered. He decided to walk home in the rain.30 train home. He began (j) the long walk home.’ What do YOU think was inside the briefcase? 3 . The man took his briefcase. Identifying tenses Read the passage below and identify the tense of each. then hit Professor Brown very hard on the head. ‘I’m fine. Which tense(s) .. we find the past simple tense. It was raining (a) heavily when Jim arrived (b) home. While he was walking through the park. then fell to the ground. c). Suddenly..The past continuous tense can give lots of background detail – like the background in a picture – whilst the past simple tells the story. When he arrived at the station. His wife was usually home by 5.. The phone rang and rang but nobody answered it. he was in hospital and his wife was standing beside his bed. he thought he heard a scream. we must recognise the function of each tense within the story or narrative.
00. I’m going to university next year to study English. First of all. 2. I’m meeting an old friend and we’re going to a new art exhibition. In the meantime. Talking about future plans Read the passage below and try to answer these questions: When and why do we use the present continuous (be + -ing)? When and why do we use be + going to + infinitive? When and why do we use might? I’m going to have a really good weekend this weekend. Surprisingly.Then. Learning task Complete the task below the verb in the correct future form. Use present continuous. 4 . I ___________ (go) to the cinema. 5. The forms of ‘the future’ We use many different forms to talk about the future in English. I don’t know about Sunday yet. and after that I might try to get a job in a company which works with people abroad. What ___________ (you / do) this evening? I don’t know. in the evening. 3. the word ‘will’ is not used as often as you might think when you talk about future plans and intentions – and the word ‘shall’ is almost never heard in this context. I’m definitely going to listen to BBC World Service! Learning tip Using will a lot in spoken English can make you sound over-formal. But. What would you like to eat? ___________ (you / listen) to the radio this evening? Anna ___________ (come) for dinner tomorrow so I ___________ (cook) something special. I’ll continue to listen to BBC World Service to improve my listening skills. I ______________(make) dinner soon.4. What time ___________ (you / leave) for the airport this evening? About six o’clock. I might go to the cinema but I’m not sure what’s on.When speaking with friends about plans for the future – whether it’s very soon or not – we more often use be + going to + infinitive. on Saturday. be + going to + infinitive or might + infinitive. 1. 4. I’m going to finish reading a wonderful book which I started last week – I really can’t wait to get to the end of the story. How to use future forms correctly I’d like to have a job which involves using English. I ___________ (meet) Jim there at 7.
the evening 1984 the 18th Century winter the morning the 1980s March B. there are two groups of words – time phrases and certain verbs and adjectives – which collocate with specific prepositions in a different way. I’m very interested in world affairs and love to hear about the way people live in other countries. Also. listening d) _________ the radio helps improve my English. a) When is New Year’s Day? b) When is the weather hottest? c) When do people in Britain have decorated trees in their houses? d) When did William Shakespeare live? e) When did you last listen to BBC World Service? f) What time is your favourite programme on? 5 . Time phrases Look at the following groups of time phrases. I’m concentrating e) _________ improving my grammar so that I can speak with fewer errors. When were you born? / I was born on . At the moment. I enjoy studying and depend a) __________ BBC World Service for English language programmes. Go to the shops.. However.40 night Christmas C. The radio’s on the table under the window. So. e. How to choose the correct preposition I always listen to the radio in the evening before going to bed.. This section will help you with these two groups. a) make sure.5. we have prepositions of place and movement. b) group words according to the preposition they use. Choosing prepositions Prepositions are the small words which you often hear between verbs and nouns. when you are looking up a word in a dictionary. Prepositions are used to show the physical relationship between objects. place e. However. last year yesterday next week two days ago at / on / no preposition / in Can you identify a pattern for the use of each preposition? Dependent prepositions Try to fill the gaps below with the appropriate preposition. Learning tip As with many points of English grammar there are no constant rules which can help you learn which preposition to use. movement e. using the correct preposition. A. Learning task Answer the following questions in complete sentences..This can help you identify patterns which make remembering the correct prepositions easier.g.. for example.g. that you note which preposition follows it. Tuesday 16th March Monday 1st May Friday morning April 21st D. I’m very interested b) __________ new technology and enjoy hearing c) _________ scientific developments around the world.g. you can help your learning if you . / Go through the park. Match each group with the appropriate preposition. six o’clock New Year 5. or actions and objects.
Using phrasal verbs A phrasal verbs (or multi-word verb) is a combination of a verb and one or two prepositions which. When I’m listening to the radio. you can often deduce the meaning of a phrasal verb by looking at the context in which it is used. unfortunately. I listen 2. e) on well in English. there are strategies which can help you. 1. c) out for new words and expressions. a) pay attention d) deduce b) review e) experiment with c) learn without studying f) make progress 6 . Which of these sentences contains a phrasal verb? a) b) c) It was a lovely night. When I’ve learnt a new word I try 5. Learning lists of verbs which take the preposition ‘up’ or all of the prepositions which the verb ‘put’ can take can be effective as a revision exercise. b) over the vocabulary and grammar I’ve learnt. f ) out the meaning of new words from the context they are in.When the programme is finished I look up any words I can remember just to make sure I understand them – then I try them out on my friends to see if they can understand them. Creating a story using five or six phrasal verbs will help make the meaning more memorable. I always try to work 6. When I find a word I don’t know I look it up in my dictionary. Learning task The following phrasal verbs are all connected with learning English. John looked up when he heard his father come in. create a new meaning for the verb. d) up new words from listening to music. can be difficult to learn because a) there are so many and b) some phrasal verbs have more than one meaning. They are a common feature of everyday speech and. Match the halves of the sentences together. Try to replace the phrasal verbs in the passage with a verb from the list which has a similar meaning. My alarm clock went off at five o’clock. How to use phrasal verbs I find listening to the radio helps me pick up new vocabulary really easily. try to learn groups which can go together to make a story. However. but this may not help you remember the meaning. I got up and put on my clothes. I go 4. I’m really getting a) it out in conversation. Every evening. What difference do these verbs make to the tone of the passage? Learning tip When learning phrasal verbs. After a quick breakfast. Identifying phrasal verbs Look at the following sentences. Remember the definition of phrasal verb above. Can you think of another way of explaining the meaning of the phrasal verb ‘look up’? Working out the meaning of phrasal verbs As with all new vocabulary.6. It was going to be a long day! arose rang suddenly and loudly dressed began a journey Try to read the passage with these verbs replacing the phrasal verbs. when they go together. Now match the phrasal verbs above with the more formal verbs or phrases which mean the same (below). We looked up at the beautiful moonlit sky. I also pick 3. I set off for work.
b) Which is better – my vocabulary or my grammar? Learning tip The ‘formulas’ for making comparisons given in the guidelines are easy to follow. It’s funner than our local radio stations. Studying grammar is less difficult than learning vocabulary. to make a comparison between two things. but it is more expensive to travel there. You may have learnt that. I could set aside an hour a night to go over what I’ve been learning. if I do this in the evening I know it will be less effective because I’m tired. Two good examples are the adjectives good and bad. Comparing and contrasting When making comparisons in English.. It’s not as hard as speaking English.. wet / wetter. this is only one way of showing the differences between two things or two ideas. London is colder as Paris. I think I could be more efficient in the way I study. More or less? Look at the passage at the top of the page. 8. My family enjoys listening to BBC World Service. 3. However. But remember that some adjectives are irregular. Reading is easier than… Studying early in the day is more effective than… I could be more efficient than… Complete the following ‘rules’ for making comparative adjectives: a) Adjectives with one syllable (e.. Reading is not as difficult as speaking. The signal is clearer then.7. but I really find reading and learning vocabulary easier.g. big / bigger Learning task Some of the sentences below have errors in them and some are correct. 6.g. 1. efficient)… c) Adjectives preceded by ‘less’… d) What happens to adjectives with two syllables (e. 2.g.g. remember that three-letter adjectives usually double the last letter when they make a comparative.. 7 . as . e. you should use the formula adjective + -er + than. a) Which is easier – reading or speaking? My vocabulary is as good as my grammar. For example. This exercise isn’t difficult as it seemed at the beginning. pretty. How to compare and contrast things Sometimes I find studying grammar difficult. there are a few patterns which can help make what you describe more interesting. It is better to listen to the radio in the evenings. Complete the following sentences using the information from the passage. Find and correct the errors. In winter. I’d like to visit Britain. 5. hot / hotter. lovely)? (Not) as . good bad better worse best worst Keep a separate section in your vocabulary book for noting down irregular comparative adjectives. Also. I don’t speak English as well than I write it. 7. Learning English alone is interesting but learning English by radio is more good. But. 4. tall)… b) Adjectives with three or more syllables (e.
2.The most difficult thing about English is speaking. She also loves the weather there – there is no thick rain! She had been to France last year. I would like to speak English without errors but this will take a very long time. 6. remember to . She didn’t like the owners of her hotel there – they were very unpolite! Next year.. At first. 8 .. She is interested by Spanish art and culture. To help yourself learn from your mistakes. it is important to reflect on the error and what you know about English. Check any written work twice – once to ‘hear’ how it sounds – can you improve the vocabulary you use? And a second time to check for grammatical errors. Often.8. I listen the radio every day and I do a note of some of the new words which I hear. 4. if you have a cassette recorder. You can then try to correct yourself. How to correct your own errors I know I make mistakes and this makes me very upset. errors are a result of our trying to say something before we have learnt the necessary grammar or vocabulary. Find and correct them. not how you are saying it. She might to visit the Prado art gallery when she is there. Working with errors The most important thing to realise about the mistakes which you make is that they are usually a sign of progress. Reflecting on errors Each of the following sentences contains an error related to some of the work you have done in this booklet. • • proof read anything you write carefully. it’s a lot of fun. My friend Jane is flying to Madrid at Saturday. when I was began to learn. then listen. To learn from your mistakes. however. I find studying English very enjoying. I feel that I am not making progress. I’d like to go to school to learn to speak English more fluent. 3. she goes to South America! Learning tip The most important thing to do when you are speaking is not to worry about making mistakes! Try to focus on what you want to say. you might like to have a conversation with a friend in English. How could you improve what you said? Learning task There are nine errors in this paragraph. I have made many mistakes and I was scared to speaking in English. 7. Now. In general. 1. This ‘risk taking’ is a good way of learning because it makes us experiment with the language. Listeners are generally very tolerant of grammatical errors as long as your message is clear. I find reading and grammar more easier than listening and speaking. Try to correct the errors. Record your conversation. Then I look them in my dictionary and try to use them the next day. 5.
. These events have been arranged by the speaker and involve another person. However. d) listen to e) concentrate on. a). Use on with days and dates. How to choose the correct preposition Time phrases Use in with months. longer adjectives (which come from Latin) take in. The past perfect simple and past perfect continuous both give information about things which happened before the main events of the story started. n).and shorter adjectives take un-. some exercise. h. 3. The past continuous tense gives us background details. Learning task answers 1. a) made b) done c) have d) do 2. at . However. i). decades. someone who is 19 years old can be described as twentyish. some exercise. and special times of the year. Often verbs with similar or related meanings take the same preposition. a) heavy b) light c) thick d) heavy e) thick 3. a book can be very readable. Often when we talk about plans made before the moment of speaking.Guidelines and answers 1. and words which fix a day in time (e. Use at with times. So. I’m meeting Jim there at 7. How to make useful phrases your homework. -y is added to nouns to make adjectives: tea with milk is milky tea.. ‘gone off ’.g. Do Adjectives and nouns All of the adjectives in this passage refer to food when it has gone bad – or. with dairy food. as a general rule. 2.g. ‘Time’ words such as next. the tenses are used to order information in a narrative in order of importance. It describes what was happening around the time of the events in the story. years. or which we take because they we enjoy them. e.. 5. Also focus on. an examination. b). cream When learning new adjectives. e. I might go to the cinema. i b. we cannot speak about rotten bread or sour eggs. centuries. These are plans which the speaker has made for the weekend. a decision). Remember that some words can take more than one preposition depending on the meaning you want to convey. or youngish. at . be + going to + infinitive: I’m going to have a good weekend / going to finish reading my book / going to listen to BBC World Service. Learning task answers a) New Year’s Day is on January 1st. a walk. or a song singable. Often when we talk about future arrangements we use this tense. the cleaning ‘Do’ often goes with tasks which are considered boring or which are done every day. a decision ‘Make’ is often used for things we create (e. It gives us the most important events in the story and moves the story forward. your bed.g. dinner. e) I last listened on . some tea. trouble. Dependent prepositions a) depend on. g.. d) Shakespeare lived in the sixteenth century. a) rainy b) spicy c) newish d) cloudy Present continuous: meeting an old friend / going to a new art exhibition. it is usual to use ‘might’. What time are you leaving for the airport this evening? About six o’clock. What would you like to eat? Are you going to listen to the radio this evening? Anna is coming for dinner tomorrow so I’m going to cook something special. Also speak about (discuss). the housework. also rely on. j).. if you can do a task with ease it is easy. in many cases: adjectives beginning with m or p take the prefix imadjectives beginning with the letter l take the prefix ilsome adjectives beginning with the letter r take the prefix irUn and in: These can be quite confusing. seasons – and parts of the day (except for night). I’m going to make dinner soon. This shows that we are undecided. the washing up. k). some tea. fish Stale: bread.g. c) People in Britain decorate trees at Christmas. might + infinitive: I might go to the cinema … When you haven’t decided what to do before you begin to speak. l).. 5. e. d). tomorrow) do not take a preposition. Learning task answers 1. Learning task answers c). f. e).. j d c Which tense(s)? Usually. m). h). b) The weather is hottest in summer. yesterday. How to build your vocabulary Prefixes: The prefixes attached to many adjectives to give them an opposite meaning depend on the first letter of the adjective. Suffixes have very specific meanings: a) b) c) The past simple tense is used most frequently. Each adjective can be used with only a restricted range of food: Rotten:eggs. . . How to use past tenses correctly Identifying tenses Past continuous: Past simple: Past perfect simple: Past perfect continuous a. last and ago.. a bath. f).00. b) interested in c) hear about. 2. Learning task answers 1. dinner) or things which involve mental effort (e.g. f) It’s on . Also use at with ‘night’.. What are you doing / are you going to do this evening? I don’t know. biscuits Sour: milk. a test ‘Have’ often goes with things which are given to us. -ish is added to short adjectives to show that something has some of the properties of the adjective. 4. take care to learn which nouns they go with. How to use future forms correctly -able is added to the end of verbs to make adjectives which show that something can be done. a mess. o) 4. Have an examination. a) illegible b) impassable c) irreplaceable d) inconvenient e) unknown 2. Make dinner.
we make the passage sound more conversational. prettier. It is better to listen to the radio in the evenings. My family enjoys listening to BBC World Service. when I began to learn. lovelier).g. Often you will not find the word ‘than’ in the sentence. Learning task answers 1. In general. I’d like to go to school to learn to speak English more fluently. The signal is clearer then. but it is expensive to travel there. (See time prepositions) 2.. My alarm clock rang suddenly and loudly at five o’clock. (See past tenses) 6. 3. Because we already know about ‘speaking’ we do not need to mention it again. 6.. How to use phrasal verbs Identifying phrasal verbs: To look up something means to search for information about it. I find reading and grammar easier than listening and speaking.. Then I look them up in my dictionary. I also pick d) up new words from listening to music. When we make comparisons we can use ‘more’ and also ‘less’. After a quick breakfast. the word up shows us the direction in which people looked. How to compare and contrast things More or less? Reading is easier than speaking English. longer verb with the same meaning. 4. So. Twosyllable adjectives which end in -y usually take an -er ending in the comparative. Every evening. The tone of the passage suits the topic. Studying grammar is less difficult than learning vocabulary. however. London is colder than Paris. Funny (which means amusing) has the comparative form ‘funnier’.. usually in a book (for example. We often find comparisons being made with ideas which both speaker and listener understand but do not say. I listen to the radio every day and I make a note of some of the new words which I hear. The most difficult thing about English is speaking. I could be more efficient than I am now.g. add more + adj (e. She is interested in Spanish art and culture. we understand that the speaker is making a comparison without mentioning ‘than I am’ from the rest of the conversation. Now match the phrasal verbs above with the more formal verbs or phrases which mean the same (below). I go b) over the vocabulary and grammar I’ve learnt. The comparative is * more fun. the -y always turns to -i + -er (e. they have the same level of difficulty.g.6. and try to use them the next day.. I made many mistakes and I was scared of speaking / to speak in English. I don’t speak English as well as I write it.. She also loves the weather there – there is no heavy rain! (See collocations) 5. How to correct your own errors 1. 2. e. More or less? a) . pretty / prettier. it’s a lot of fun. a) b) c) d) e) f) pay attention review learn without studying deduce experiment with make progress to listen out (for) new words to go over new vocabulary to pick up new words to work out the meaning to try out the word to get on with English Not as . In winter. My friend Jane is flying to Madrid on Saturday. At first. add less + adj d) Where the adjective ends in -y. Learning task answers 1. • • Fun (which means enjoyable) is an irregular adjective. © British Broadcasting Corporation 2003 .g. The comparison with reading comes later. In this example. She went to France last year. When I’m listening to the radio. Working out the meaning: Usually.. Another way of saying ‘speaking is not as easy as reading’ is ‘speaking is less easy than reading’. studying in the evening is less effective and studying early in the day is more effective. Here. This exercise isn’t as difficult as it seemed at the beginning. Now. 7. I began my journey to work. Learning English alone is interesting but learning English by radio is better. as . 4.. Again. She didn’t like the owners of her hotel there – they were very impolite! (See prefixes) 7. Studying early in the day is more effective than in the evening. 5. (See future forms) 3. I’d like to visit Britain. speaking is mentioned first in the passage. It’s more fun than our local radio stations. 5. she is going to South America! (See future forms) Learning task answers I find studying English very enjoyable. 6. 8. 3. easy / easier 8. In this case.. When I’ve learnt a new word I try a) it out in conversation. 7. I arose and dressed. I listen c) out for new words and expressions. I always try to work f) out the meaning of a word from the context. She might visit the Prado art gallery when she is there. In the other sentences. taller) b) . more efficient) c) . I’m really getting e) on well in English.. 2. add -er (e. we do not have the word ‘than’ in this comparison. a) reading is easier b) vocabulary and grammar are the same: Both are difficult! Using as + adj + as shows that the two items being compared have the same level. Next year. (See dependent prepositions) 4. Often these adjectives can take either more + adj or adj + -er. It was going to be a long day! By using phrasal verbs instead of more formal verbs or phrases. a dictionary or an encyclopaedia). to find the meaning of a phrasal verb we can try to substitute a more formal.