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Published by: kirankumarpadmatti on Jul 29, 2011
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HISTOGRAM

When to Use: This chart graphs data distributions. It looks very much like a bar chart. One uses this graph to show frequency distributions. The chart organizes and sorts the data.Histogram One of the Total Quality Management Tools is the Histogram. It shows the data in a pictorial format. continuous data you can use the this chart. variable. . If you have numerical.

variability. . Specification limits can be used to display the capability of the process. they are grouped in value and frequency and plotted in graphical form. A histogram¶s shape shows the nature of the distribution of the data. as well as central tendency and variability. form.Histogram After the raw data are collected. process.

Histogram Commonly used to present quality improvement data. The histogram is a bar chart showing a distribution of variables . histograms work best with small amounts of data that vary considerably.

Histogram .

30 3.50 3.56 3.46 3.54 3.49 3.46 3.55 3.37 3.50 3.52 3.68 X min 3.41 3.50 3.40 3.47 3.50 3.63 3.59 3.41 3.52 3.48 3.45 3.56 3.32 3.42 3.44 3.46 3.40 3.46 3.47 3.59 3.34 3.48 3.47 3.51 3.47 3.46 3.56 3.54 3.52 3.44 3.46 3.47 3.45 3.45+ 0.56 3.Product indication: METAL BLOCK XB2 Specification: 3.46 3.46 3.30 3.43 3.46 3.46 3.41 3.54 3.48 3.47 3.48 344 3.48 3.42 3.50 3.41 3.15mm Number checked (n): 100 Date : Production stage Checked by Test values 3.37 3.32 3.47 3.48 3.49 3.46 3.46 3.31 3.56 3.56 3.34 3.50 3.54 .31 3.51 3.40 3.46 3.54 3.49 3.48 3.55 3.48 3.34 3.52 X max 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.44 3.46 3.38 3.63 3.40 3.40 3.30 3.52 3.51 3.45 3.45 3.48 3.46 3.48 3.43 3.50 3.30 3.50 3.60 3.46 3.36 3.54 3.45 3.40 3.50 3.46 3.56 3.44 3.52 3.68 3.42 3.

275 .3.425 3.3.675 3.475 3.45 3.3.325 .50 3.625 3.575 .375 3.475 .3.65 3.3.30 3.575 3.DIVISION IN CLASSES Class number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Class limits 3.3.60 3.625 .40 3.425 .525 3.375 .3.35 3.725 Class mid-marks 3.525 .675 .55 3.3.325 3.3.70 .

50 3.725 3.3.3.3.375 .70 3 3 9 32 38 10 3 1 1 .575 .3.675 3.375 3.3.3.30 3.475 .55 3.575 3.425 .275 .625 3.425 3.3.625 .65 3.40 3.675 .Frequency table Class number Class limits Class mid-marks Number n = 100 Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3.325 .35 3.525 .525 3.3.45 3.3.475 3.325 3.60 3.

15 .50 3.40 3.30 .60 40 30 20 10 0 3.3.70 Thickness in mm Specification value 3.30 3.45±0.60 3.Specified tolerance 3.

irregularity.HOW TO READ A HISTOGRAM Histogram with an isolated part. Examine cause of this irregularity. . test equipment. different inspectors. E. part. Mixed products of different machines.g.

Histogram Histogram with an interruption. Check the measuring equipment the reading methods or change the number of classes. . interruption. Possibly errors have been made during measurement of the preparation of the histogram. histogram.

Histogram Histogram with two peaks. This shows products from two manufacturing processes. . Study the subdivision of the groups and make a histogram per group.

Products have been selected before hand.Histogram Distribution cut off at the left. .

. In this situation no risk of rejects. due to small variations in the process.COMPARISON WITH THE TOLERANCE LIMITS Spec limits R Range (R) of the measured values exactly in the middle.

Histogram Spec limits R Although R is within the tolerance the mean of the process is too close to the lower limit. . A minor change in the production process will result in increased rejects.

any change in the process leads to rejects. . same.e. This situation offers no room for a change in the process i. rejects.Histogram Spec limits/ R R and the tolerance are exactly the same.

Histogram Spec limits R The tolerance is wider than R. . It is possible to reduce the specified tolerance or the accuracy of the process.

.Histogram Spec limits R The process mean is too far to the left and must be shifted to the nominal value.

.R The distribution is too wide. Change the process to limit distribution or extend tolerance.

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