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Environmental Science and Engineering course plan and matl

Environmental Science and Engineering course plan and matl

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Published by: Karuppiah Senthil Kumar on Jul 29, 2011
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SOIL AND THE SOIL ECOSYSTEMS

I. Why do we Care about Soil Erosion?

A. Erosion adversely affects soil therefore adversely affects plants, and plants are the

Course File

Year : 2010

Sem. : EVEN

One Campus One Vision Quality forever

S.K.P Institute of Technology

Tiruvannamalai ± 606 611.

base of the food chain.

B. Soil and Plants

1. Soil provides three essential factors

a. Water and water-holding capacity

b. Mineral nutrients and nutrient-holding capacity

c. Aeration

2. Two additional conditions soil provides for plants

a. Relative acidity

b. Salt content

Fig. 8.3 Soil production involves a dynamic interaction among mineral particles, detritus, and members of the detritus food web.

C. Soil Characteristics

1. Soil profiles

2. Soil classes

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Year : 2010

Sem. : EVEN

One Campus One Vision Quality forever

S.K.P Institute of Technology

Tiruvannamalai ± 606 611.

3. Soil textures

II. The Soil System - What is the Soil Ecosystem?

A. Components

1. Soil Textures

2. Detritus

3. Humus

4. Soil Organisms

Fig. 8.4 This figure shows major horizons from the surface to the parent material in an idealized soil profile.

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Year : 2010

Sem. : EVEN

One Campus One Vision Quality forever

S.K.P Institute of Technology

Tiruvannamalai ± 606 611.

Fig. 8.5 Relative proportions of sand, clay and silt are represented on each axis. Major soil classes are indicated on the triangle. Percent of
sand, clay or silt is represented on each axis.

B. What happens when the soil system is working well?

1. Topsoil buildup - humus

2. Water and nutrient holding capacity

3. Aeration

4. Soil workability

C. What happens when the soil system is not working well? - mineralization.

Course File

Year : 2010

Sem. : EVEN

One Campus One Vision Quality forever

S.K.P Institute of Technology

Tiruvannamalai ± 606 611.

Fig. 8.7 In addition to the amount and frequency of precipitation, the size of this reservoir depends on the soil's ability to allow water to
infiltrate, hold water, and minimize direct evaporation.

Fig. 8.8 A host of organisms, major examples of which are shown here, feed on detritus andburrow through the soil forming a humus-rich
topsoil with a loose clumpy structure.

Course File

Year : 2010

Sem. : EVEN

One Campus One Vision Quality forever

S.K.P Institute of Technology

Tiruvannamalai ± 606 611.

Fig. 8.13 Topsoil must be recognized as a dynamic balance between detritus additions and humus forming processes, and the breakdown
and loss of detritus and humus. If additions of detritus are not sufficient there will be a gradual deterioration of the soil.
Fig. 8.15 As wind erosion removes the finer particles, the larger grains and stones are concentrated on the surface.

Fig. 8.17 Deforestation, overgrazing and overcultivation result in the degradation of soils in every region of the world.

Course File

Year : 2010

Sem. : EVEN

One Campus One Vision Quality forever

S.K.P Institute of Technology

Tiruvannamalai ± 606 611.

Fig. 8.21 Throughout the world, overcultivation, overgrazing and deforestation are causing soil degradation in vast areas.

Course File

Year : 2010

Sem. : EVEN

One Campus One Vision Quality forever

S.K.P Institute of Technology

Tiruvannamalai ± 606 611.

Course File

Year : 2010

Sem. : EVEN

One Campus One Vision Quality forever

S.K.P Institute of Technology

Tiruvannamalai ± 606 611.

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