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LABORATORY
EEE- 551: ELECTRO-MECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION II

Note: The minimum 8 experiments are to be performed from the following, out of which there
should be at least two software based experiments.

1. To perform no load and blocked rotor tests on a three phase squirrel cage induction motor and
determine equivalent circuit.
2. To perform load test on a three phase induction motor and draw:
(i) Torque -speed characteristics
(ii) Power factor-line current characteristics
3. To perform no load and blocked rotor tests on a single phase induction motor and determine
equivalent circuit.
4. To study speed control of three phase induction motor byKeeping V/f ratio constant
5. To study speed control of three phase induction motor by varying supply voltage.
6. To perform open circuit and short circuit tests on a three phase alternator and determine voltage
regulation at full load and at unity, 0.8 lagging and leading power factors by (i) EMF method (ii)
MMF method.
7. To determine V-curves and inverted V-curves of a three phase synchronous motor.
8. To determine Xd and Xq of a three phase salient pole synchronous machine using the slip test and
draw the power-angle curve.
9. To study synchronization of an alternator with the infinite bus by using:
(i) dark lamp method (ii) two bright and one dark lamp method

Software based experiments (Develop Computer Program in C language or use MATLAB or
other commercial software)

10. To determine speed-torque characteristics of three phase slip ring induction motor and study the
effect of including resistance, or capacitance in the rotor circuit.
11. To determine speed-torque characteristics of single phase induction motor and study the effect of
voltage variation.
12. To determine speed-torque characteristics of a three phase induction motor by (i) keeping v/f ratio
constant (ii) increasing frequency at the rated voltage.
13. Draw O.C. and S.C. characteristics of a three phase alternator from the experimental data and
determine voltage regulation at full load, and unity, 0.8 lagging and leading power factors.
14. To determine steady state performance of a three phase induction motor using equivalent circuit.

EEE 552: CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY

Note: The minimum of 10 experiments are to be performed from the following, out of which at
least three should be software based.

1. To determine response of first order and second order systems for step input for various values of
constant K using linear simulator unit and compare theoretical and practical results.
2. To study P, PI and PID temperature controller for an oven and compare their performance.
3. To study and calibrate temperature using resistance temperature detector (RTD)
4. To design Lag, Lead and Lag-Lead compensators using Bode plot.
5. To study DC position control system
6. To study synchro-transmitter and receiver and obtain output V/S input characteristics
7. To determine speed-torque characteristics of an ac servomotor.
8. To study performance of servo voltage stabilizer at various loads using load bank.
9. To study behaviour of separately excited dc motor in open loop and closed loop conditions at
various loads.
10. To study PID Controller for simulation proves like transportation lag.

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Software based experiments (Use MATLAB, LABVIEW software etc.)
11. To determine time domain response of a second order system for step input and obtain
performance parameters.
12. To convert transfer function of a system into state space form and vice-versa.
13. To plot root locus diagram of an open loop transfer function and determine range of gain k fir
stability.
14. To plot a Bode diagram of an open loop transfer function.
15. To draw a Nyquist plot of an open loop transfer functions and examine the stability of the closed
loop system.
Reference Books:
1. K.Ogata,Modern Control Engineering Prentice Hall of India.
2. Norman S.Nise, Control System Engineering, John Wiley & Sons.
3. M.Gopal, Control Systems: Principles & Design Tata Mc Graw Hill.

EEC -509 : ANALOG INTEGRATED ELECTRONICS LAB

1. To determine CMRR of a differential amplifier.
2. To study op-amp based inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, voltage comparator and zero
crossing detector.
3. To study op-amp based Adder and integrator circuits.
4. To study RC low pass and high pass active filters and draw outlput voltage waveform for square
wave input.
5. To study Op-Amp based triangular wave generator.
6. To study operation of IC74123 as monostable multivibrator.
7. To design and fabricate Op-Amp. Base astable multivibrator and verify experimentally frequency
of oscillation.
8. To study operation of IC NE/SE 566 voltage controlled oscillator and determine output frequency
for various voltage levels.
9. To study Op-Amp. Based V to I and I to V converters.
10. To study a PLL circuit and determine the free running frequency.
11. To study Op-Amp. based sample and hold circuit.
12. To study Instrumentation Amplifier circuit.
13 to15 The Institute /college may add three more experiments at its level.



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ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION-II LAB
EEE-551

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. TO DETERMINE THE REGULATION AND EFFICIENCY OF AN ALTERNATOR
FROM OC / SC TEST.

2. TO PERFORM NO LOAD AND BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON THREE PHASE
INDUCTION MOTOR AND
FIND OUT THE EQUIVALENT PARAMETERS OF THREE PHASE
INDUCTION MOTOR.

3. TO PERFORM NO LOAD & BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON A SINGLE PHASE
INDUCTION MOTOR.

4. SPEED CONTROL OF SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTOR, USING ROTOR
RESISTANCE STARTER.

5. TO DETERMINE HOW SPEED, EFFICIENCY, POWER FACTOR, STATOR CURRENT,
TORQUE AND SLIP OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR VARY WITH LOAD. (LOAD
TEST).

6. TO DRAW THE V-CURVE OF A SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR.


7. TO STUDY THE SPEED CONTROL OF A THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
USING CASCADE CONNECTION.

8. TO STUDY (I) DOL STARTER (II) STAR-DELTA STARTER (III) AUTO-
TRANSFORMER STARTER

9. TO STUDY SPEED CONTROL OF A THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR BY
VOLTAGE VARIATION.

10. TO DETERMINE SUB TRANSIENT DIRECT AXIS (X
D
) AND QUADRATURE AXIS
(X
Q
) REACTANCES OF AN ALTERNATOR.

11. TO STUDY THE SYNCHRONIZATION OF A THREE-PHASE ALTERNATOR WITH
ANOTHER THREE-PHASE ALTERNATOR.

12. DRAW O.C. AND S.C. CHARACTERISTIC OF A THREE PHASE ALTERNATOR FROM
THE EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND DETERMINE VOLTAGE REGULATION AT FULL
LOAD, AT UNITY, 0.8 LAGGING AND LEADING POWER FACTORS.(SOFTWARE
BASED)

13. TO DETERMINE STEADY STATE PERFORMANCE OF A THREE PHASE INDUCTION
MOTOR USING EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT. (SOFTWARE BASED)





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EXPERIMENT NO -1

OBJECT: To determine the regulation and efficiency of an alternator from OC / SC Test..

THEORY: The variation of terminal voltage from no load to full load of an alternator is called as the
voltage regulation of an alternator.

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:-
This test is carried out when the alternator is running at rated rpm. and at no load. The field current is
varied and terminal voltage is recorded for about 120 % of the rated value. The characteristics
showing the relationship between field current and emf is known as open circuit curve (OCC).

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST: -
This test is performed when the alternator is running at rated speed. The armature terminals are short
circuited with a very low excitation current. Armature current up to rated value is recorded for various
values of field current. The graph between the armature current and field current is called as the Short
circuit characteristics (SCC). Since the emf generated on open circuit may be regarded, as being
responsible for circulating short circuit current through the synchronous impedance is taken as the
ratio of the open circuit voltage per phase to the short circuit current per phase for a particular field
current. The dc resistance of the stator can be determined with the multimeter but the value of ac
resistance can be calculated by multiplying a factor of 1.3 to calculate the ac resistance. The
synchronous reactance can be calculated as X
s
= (Z
2
s
- X
2
s
)
1/2


CALCULATION FOR REGULATION:
The relation ship between terminal voltage and induced emf for a lagging/ leading power factor load
is given by the following expression:-

E = (( V cos + Ia Ra )
2
+ (V sin + Ia Xs)
2
)
1/2

Where, cos = Ra / Zs
% regulation = (E V)* 100 %
V
CALCULATION FOR EFFICIENCY:-

In open circuit test, the input to the alternator i.e the power required to drive the alternator is spent
as, friction and windage loss and iron loss. If the field of the alternator is kept unexcited, the input to
the alternator will be equal to the friction and windage loss of the alternator. Input to the alternator can
be calculated by measuring the input to the motor driving the alternator and by knowing the efficiency
of the driving motor.
Input to the alternator = (Input of the driving motor)/ (Efficiency of the driving motor)
Since output of the driving motor is equal to the input to the alternator.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make















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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:




OBSERVATION:

FOR OPEN CIRCUIT TEST

S.No. I
f (amp)
V
oc (Volts)












FOR SHORT-CIRCUIT TEST:


















CALCULATION:




RESULT: The value of regulation for an alternator is _____________ %.

PRECAUTION:
S.No. I
f
(Amp) Isc






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EXPERIMENT NO -2

OBJECT: To perform no load and blocked rotor test on three phase induction motor and find out the
equivalent parameters of three phase induction motor.

THEORY:
NO LOAD TEST:
The induction motor is made to run at rated voltage and frequency. The no load slip S
nl
is very small,
therefore r
2
/S
nl
is very large as compared to X
2
in equivalent circuit of induction motor. In this context,
resultant of parallel branches jX and r
2
/ S
nl
is equivalent to jX
For delta connection of the windings
If V
nl
= stator voltage at no load
I
nl
= input current in load
P
nl
= input power at no load
Z
nl
= 3V
nl
/ I
nl

stator input at no load
Stator no load resistance
R
nl
= P
nl
/3 (I
nl
/3)
2

X
nl
= (Z
nl
2

- R
nl
2

BLOCKED ROTOR TEST:
Blocked rotor test of induction motor is similar to short circuit test on transformers. It is performed on
induction motor to calculate leakage impedance. For performing this test rotor shaft is blocked by
external means. Now voltage is applied to the stator terminal through a three phase variac. The
applied voltage is adjusted till rated current flows in stator windings. In this case
Slip will be S
br
= ( Ns-Nr)/Ns= (Ns-0)/Ns = 1
If V
br
= applied voltage in blocked rotor
I
br
= input current in blocked rotor
P
br
= Input power in blocked rotor
Blocked rotor impedance , Z
br
= V
br
/ (I
br
/3)
Blocked rotor resistance, R
br
= P
br
/3(I
br
/3)
2
Blocked rotor reactance

, X
br
= (Z
br
2
-R
br
2
)
Generally for slip ring induction motor x
1
=x
2


Hence x
1
=x
2
= X
br
/2
X

= X
nl
x
1

R
br
= r
1
+r
2

(X

/ X
2
)
2

So r
2
= (R
br
- r
1
)*(X
2
/X

)
2
where X
2
= X

+ x
2



APPARTUS REQUIRED :

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make



















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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:








PROCEDURE:







OBSERVATION:

NO LOAD TEST:

S.NO. V
nl
I
nl
W
1
W
2







BLOCKED ROTOR TEST:

S.NO. V
br
I
br
W
1
W
2







CALCULATION:








RESULT: The No Load and Blocked Rotor tests are performed on the 3 phase induction motor and
parameters of its equivalent circuit are found to be as follows:



PRECAUTIONS:
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EXPERIMENT NO -3

OBJECT: To perform No Load & Blocked Rotor Test on a single phase induction motor.

THEORY:
A capacitor start single phase induction motor is provided with a centrifugal switch placed on the
rotor shaft and connected in series with the starting winding . This switch is closed when the motor is
at rest and thus the starting winding is in the circuit and as such the motor can be started as split phase
motor. This switch gets opened and disconnects the starting winding , when the speed of the motor
approaches to approx. 75% of the rated speed.
For performing no load test , the range of the voltmeter should be higher than the rated voltage of the
machine i.e. 300 V and the range of the ammeter should be nearly equal to half of the full load current
of the motor i.e. 5A. As such the range of the wattmeter should be 5A, 250V.
For performing block ed rotor test , the range of the voltmeter could be approx. 40% of the rated
voltage i.e. 150V and the range of ammeter more than the full load current of the motor i.e. 10A .

APPARTUS REQUIRED :

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make







CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:




PROCEDURE:


OBSERVATION:

S.
No.
(a) No Load Test (b) Block Load Test (c) Measurement of
resistance
Vo Io Wo Vsc Isc Wsc Vm Im R
dc













CALCULATION:

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT:



RESULT: The No Load and Blocked Rotor tests are performed on the single phase induction motor
and parameters of its equivalent circuit are found to be as follows:

PRECAUTIONS:
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EXPERIMENT NO -4

OBJECT: Speed control of slip ring induction motor, using rotor resistance starter.

THEORY:
The simplest method of starting slip ring induction motor is by means of external resistance in the
rotor circuit. This helps in..
a) Decreasing starting current
b) Increasing starting torque
c) Improving its starting power factor.
In rotor resistance starter, the terminals of the rotor winding are connected to a three phase variable
resistor through slip rings . Resistances are fully in the circuit at starting . The external resistance in
the rotor circuit is gradually cut out, as the motor speeds up and finally the rotor winding is short
circuited during normal running condition.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make












CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:





PROCEDURE:


OBSERVATION:

S.No. Resistance () Speed (rpm)








RESULT: The speed control of 3 phase induction motor using rotor resistance starter is studied and
speed is found to be -------------- with decrease in rotor resistance.

PRECAUTIONS:
- 10 -
EXPERIMENT NO -5

OBJECT: To determine how speed, efficiency, power factor, stator current, torque and slip of an
induction motor vary with load. (Load Test)

THEORY:
The slip ring induction motor is mechanically loaded by ponney brake mechanical loading
arrangement consisting of CI drum pulley (D = 205mm for 5HP & 3HP) suitable for water cooling,
CP wheels for tightening the belt and measuring the load directly on longitudinal spring balance
through which direct load can be read.

EFFECT ON SPEED: When the motor is on no load, the speed is slightly below the synchronous
speed. The current due to induced emf in the rotor winding is responsible for production of torque
required at ni load. As the load is increased, the rotor speed is slightly reduced. The emf induced in
the rotor and hence the current increases to produce higher torque required.

EFFECT ON SLIP: Slip is expressed as the difference of the speed of the rotor relative to that of the
rotating magnetic field which rotates at synchronous speed.
S = Ns Nr x 100
Ns

EFFECT ON STATOR CURRENT: Current drawn by the stator is determined by two factors. Its
one component is the magnetizing current required to maintain the rotating field. The second
component produces a field which is equal and opposite to that formed by the rotor current .

EFFECT ON POWER FACTOR: Power factor of an induction motor on no load is very low
because of the high value of magnetizing current. With load the power factor increases because the
power component of the current is increased. Low power factor operation is one of the disadvantage
of an induction motor. An induction motor draws a heavy amount of magnetizing current due to
presence of air gap. To reduce this magnetizing current the air gap is kept small.
Tan = 3 (W1-W2) /( W1+W2)
TORQUE: In mechanical loading a brake drum is coupled to the shaft of the rotor and the load is
applied by tightening the belt, provided on the brake drum. The net force exerted at the brake drum in
kg is obtained from the readings of S1 & S2.
Output Power= Torque x Speed

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make











CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:




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PROCEDURE:

OBSERVATION:

S.
No.
Applied
Voltage-
Vs
(volts)
Stator
Curren
t- Is
(Amp)
Wattmeter
Reading
(Watt)
Speed
Nr
(rpm)
S1 S2 %
Slip
To
rq
ue
Power
input- Pin
(W1+W2)
(Watt)
Out
put
Power
Po
(Watt)

W1 W2





















CALCULATION:





















RESULT: The variation of speed, efficiency, power factor, stator current, torque and slip of 3 phase
induction motor with load is studied and the graph between torque and slip is plotted.

PRECAUTIONS:
- 12 -
EXPERIMENT NO -6

OBJECT: To draw the V-curve of a synchronous motor.

THEORY: When the synchronous machine is operated at constant load, it follows the equation:
E
f
Sin = Pe Xs
V
f

When E
f
varies varies such that E
f
Sin is constant.
Also, V
f
I
a
Cos = P
e
= constant
I
a
Cos = P
e
= constant
V
f

It means that the projection of the current phasor on V
f
must remain constant. The excitation voltage
corresponding to unity power is normal excitation.
With constant mechanical load on the synchronous motor, the variation of field current changes the
armature current drawn by the motor and also its operating power factor, As such the behavior of the
synchronous motor is described below under three different modes of field excitation

NORMAL EXCITATION:
The armature current is minimum at a particular value of field current, which is called the normal field
excitation. The operating power factor of the motor is unity at this excitation and thus the motor is
equivalent to a resistive type of load

UNDER EXCITATION:
When the field current is decreased gradually below the normal excitation the armature current
increases and the operating power factor of motor decreases. The power factor under this condition is
lagging. Thus the synchronous motor draws a lagging current, when it is under excited and equivalent
to an inductive load.

OVER EXCITATION:
When the field current is increased gradually beyond the normal excitation the armature current again
increases and operating power factor increases. How ever the power factor is leading under this
condition. Hence the synchronous motor draws a leading current, when it is over excited and it is
equivalent to a capacitive load.

If the above variation of field current and the corresponding armature current are plotted for a constant
mechanical load, a curve of the shape V is obtained and are known as V curves. Such a
characteristics curve plotted between input power factor and the field current for a constant
mechanical load on the motor is of the shape of inverted V and are known as inverted V curves.
For increasing the constant mechanical load on the motor the curve bodily shift upwards.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make

















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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:








PROCEDURE:



OBSERVATIONS:
AT NO LOAD

S.No. W
1
W
2
Vs Ia I
f
V
dc
I
dc













AT HALF LOAD

S.No. W
1
W
2
Vs Ia I
f
V
dc
I
dc












CALCULATION:

RESULT: The variation of armature current with change in field current is observed and hence V-
Curve is plotted
PRECAUTIONS:
- 14 -
EXPERIMENT NO -7

OBJECT: To study the speed control of a three phase induction motor using cascade connection.

THEORY: Cascading connection is a special method of speed control in which the slip
frequency emf induced in the rotor of the main induction motor is fed to the stator of another
induction motor. The main motor must be a wound rotor motor because its slip rings have to be
connected to stator of auxiliary motor; the slip frequency of main motor is f
2
and is equal to s
1
f
1
.
Auxiliary motor may be a cage motor or a wound rotor motor. If auxiliary motor is wound rotor
motor, its slip rings must be short circuited or connected to a resistance. this resistance is
generally used during starting conditions. During operation the slip rings of auxiliary motor are
short circuited.
Let P
1
and P
2
be the number of poles of main and auxiliary motors and f
1
& f
2
is the frequencies of
supply to stators of main and auxiliary motors respectively, then
N
1
is the synchronous speed of main motor = 120f
1
/P
1

N
2
is the synchronous speed of auxiliary motor = 120f
2
/P
2

There are two methods of cascade of two induction motor.
1. Cumulative cascading is the type of cascading the synchronous speed is reduced since here
resultant poles is sum of poles of two induction motor. Resultant Ns = 120 f/(P
1
+P
2
)
2. Differential cascading is the type of cascading the synchronous speed is increased since here
resultant poles is difference of poles of two induction motor. Resultant Ns = 120 f/(P
1
-P
2
)

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make






CIRCUIT:





PROCEDURE:


OBSERVATION:
FOR CUMULATIVE CASCADE CONNECTION:
S.No. Speed of Main motor
(rpm)
Speed of auxiliary motor
(rpm)
Speed After
cascading
(rpm)






RESULT: The speed control of a three phase induction motor using cascade connection is studied
and speed of main motor is --------------- after cascading.

PRECAUTIONS:
- 15 -
EXPERIMENT NO -8

OBJECT: To study (i) DOL starter (ii) Star-Delta starter (iii) Auto-Transformer starter

THEORY:
DOL starter: In the direct on line method of starting cage motors, the cage motor is connected by
means of a starter across the full supply voltage. It consist of a coil operated contactor controlled by
the stop and start pus button which may be installed at convenient places remote from the starter. On
pressing the start push button, the contactor coil energized from two line conductors. The three main
contacts and the auxiliary contact close and the terminal are short-circuited. The motor is thus
connected to the supply. When the pressure is released, it moves back under spring action. Even then
the coil remains energized, thus the main contacts remain close and the motor continues get supplied
for this reason, contact is called hold on contact.
When the stop push button is pressed the supply through the contactor coil is disconnected. Science
the coil is de energized; the main contact and auxiliary contact are opened. The supply to motor is
disconnected and the motor stops.

Star-delta Starter:
A star-delta starter is used for cage motor designed to run normally on delta connected stator winding.
When the switch is in start position, the stator windings are connected in star, when the motor picks
up speed, say 80 % of its rated value, the change over switch is thrown quickly to the run position
which connect the stator winding in delta, the line current drawn by the motor at starting is reduced to
1/3 as compared to starting current with the windings connected in delta. At the time of starting when
the stator windings are star connected, each stator phase gets voltage VL/3 where VL is the line
voltage. Since the toque develop by an induction motor is proportional to the square of the applied
voltage, star- delta starting reduces the starting torque to one third that obtain by direct delta starting.
Auto transformer Starter:
In this method, the starting current is limited by using a three-phase autotransformer to reduce the
initial stator applied voltage. The autotransformer is provided with a no. of tapings. In practice starter
is connected to one particular tapping to obtain the most suitable starting voltage. A double through
switch is used to connect the autotransformer in the circuit for starting. When the handle of the switch
in the start position, the primary of the autotransformer is connected to the supply line and the motor
is connected to the secondary of the transformer. When the motor picks up the speed say to about 80%
of its rated value, the handle is quickly moved to the run position. The autotransformer is
disconnected from the circuit and the motor is directly connected to the line and gets its full rated
voltage. The handle is held in the run position by the under voltage relay. In case the supply voltage
fails/falls below a certain value , the handle is released and return to the off position. Over load
protection is provided by thermal overload relays.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make
















CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



- 16 -
OBSERVATION:










RESULT:






PRECAUTIONS:


- 17 -
EXPERIMENT NO -9

OBJECT: To study speed control of a three phase induction motor by voltage variation.

THEORY: The speed of induction motor depends upon slip frequency, slip, and number of poles
N= 120 f/P. Varying the supplied stator voltage can vary slip. If the voltage is reduced, torque is
reduced as square of voltage. If stator voltage reduced from V to 0.9 V the torque reduced from T to
0.81 T. Since the torque is reduced to 81 % ,the rotor speed decreases to N
1
i.e. its slip will increase
until the increased rotor current will make up for reduced stator voltage and produce required load at a
lower speed N
1
.
This method of speed control is rarely used for industrial three-phase induction motor because the
requirement of additional costly voltage changing auxiliary equipment. For small induction motor
used in home appliances, the voltage control method of speed control is often used.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make
















CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:








PROCEDURE:



OBSERVATION:
S.No. Voltage Speed Slip












RESULT:

PRECAUTIONS:
- 18 -
EXPERIMENT NO -10

OBJECT: To determine sub transient direct axis (X
d
) and quadrature axis (X
q
) reactances of an
alternator.

THEORY: When both the field and armature MMF waves are almost stationary with respect to each
other, then the reactance associated with armature are positive sequence reactances. Any two phases
of three phase machine are connected in series and a single phase voltage is impressed across them as
shown in figure. The rotor is at standstill. The impressed voltage is adjusted to pass sufficient current
in the two series connected armature windings. Now the rotor position is adjusted with hand to get
maximum deflection of the ammeter placed in the field winding circuit. Under these conditions,
d-axis sub transient impedance Z
d
is given by
Z
d
= V/(2I
max
)
Here V & I
max
are the voltmeter & ammeter readings respectively. If the wattmeter records P watts,
then
Cos = P/ (V I
max
)
Sin = [1- (P/ V I
max
)
2
]
d-axis sub transient reactance, X
d
= Z
d
Sin
= V/(2I
max
) [1- (P/ V I
max
)
2
]
= [(VI
max
)
2
P
2
] / I
max
2


Note that induced current in the short circuited field winding is maximum only when field winding
axis (i. e. polar or direct axis) is along the direction of resultant armature m.m.f. as shown in fig. Since
the resultant armature m.m.f. is pulsating in nature, the conditions illustrated in fig. are identical for
which X
d
has defined.
If the rotor shaft is rotated by hand through a half a pole pitch, then peak of resultant armature
m.m.f. coincides the q axis. These conditions are those for which X
q
has been defined. Since the field
winding axis is 90
0
away from the resultant armature m.m.f. axis, the armature in field winding should
record minimum reading. In view of this, for measuring X
q
the rotor position is adjusted so as to get
minimum value of induced field current. Under these conditions, the instrument reading reading
gives,
X
q
= Z
q
Sin
= V/(2I
min
) [1- (P/ V I
min
)
2
]
= [(VI
min
)
2
P
2
] / I
min
2

When resistance is neglected,
X
d
= V/(2I
max
)
X
q
= V/(2I
min
)

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S. No. Name of Apparatus Range Quantity





CKT. DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:










OBSERVATION:










RESULT: The values of direct axis and quadrature axis sub transient reactances are found to be


PRECAUTIONS:














- 19 -
The values of direct axis and quadrature axis sub transient reactances are found to be

The values of direct axis and quadrature axis sub transient reactances are found to be
- 20 -
EXPERIMENT NO -11

OBJECT: To study the Synchronization of a three-phase alternator with another three-phase
alternator.

THEORY: Synchronization of an alternator is the process of switching on an incoming alternator to
the bus bar, so that it can operate in parallel with another alternator already connected to the bus bar to
share the load on the generating station.
For proper synchronization of alternator three conditions mostly satisfied
a) Terminal voltage of incoming alternator must be equal to the bus bar voltage.
b) The speed of incoming alternator must be such the its frequency = PN/120 equal to the bus
bar frequency.
c) The phase sequence of a incoming alternator voltage must be same as bus bar voltage.
Adjusting the field current of incoming alternator satisfy condition (a).
Adjusting the filed current of a dc motor, which is prime mover satisfy the condition (b).
For condition (c) to be satisfied two bright and one dark lamp method , in this method lamp L1 is
connected between R and R , L2 between Y and B and L3 between Band Y.
Where R,Y,B are phase terminal of bus bar and RYB are phase terminal of second alternator.
These two sets of star vector all rotate at unequal speed, if the frequency of machines is different. If
the incoming alternator is running faster, this voltage star RYB will appear to rotate anti clock wise
with respect to bus bar voltage star RYB at speed corresponding to difference between their
frequencies. Lamp will glow up in particular order. Otherwise lamps will glow up in reverse order.
When R coincides with R, B will coincides B,Y will coincides Y. In that case L1 will be dark, and
L2, L3 will be bright.
This is the moment we have to synchronize the incoming alternator.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make




















CIRCUIT:





PROCEDURE:

OBSERVATION:



RESULT:
PRECAUTION:
- 21 -
EXPERIMENT NO -12

OBJECT: Draw O.C. and S.C. characteristic of a three phase alternator from the experimental data
and determine voltage regulation at full load, at unity, 0.8 lagging and leading power factors.

THEORY:








APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S. No. Name of Apparatus Range Quantity


CKT. DIAGRAM:









PROCEDURE:





OBSERVATION:





RESULT:

PRECAUTIONS:

- 22 -
EXPERIMENT NO -13

OBJECT: To determine steady state performance of a three phase induction motor using equivalent
circuit.

THEORY:












APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S. No. Name of Apparatus Range Quantity


CKT. DIAGRAM:







PROCEDURE:



OBSERVATION:






RESULT:

PRECAUTIONS:
- 23 -
CONTROL SYSTEM LAB
EIC-551

EXPERIMENT LIST

1. To study the performance characteristics of a DC motor speed control system.
2. To study the performance characteristics of an angular position error detector using two
potentiometers.
3. To study P,PI and PID temperature controller for oven and compare the result.
4. Measurement of temp. by RTD
5. To study the performance characteristics of a dc motor angular position control system.
6. To design, implement and study the effect of different cascade compensation networks for a
given system
7. To study the time response of a variety of simulated linear system and to correlate the studies
with theoretical results.
8. To study the dynamic characteristics of a system with an intentional non-linearity viz a
simulated relay.
9. To study the speed torque characteristics of AC servomotor.
10.To determine time domain response of a second order system for step input and obtain
performance parameters (software based).
11 To plot a Bode diagram of an open loop transfer function. (software based).
12.To draw a Nyquist plot of an open loop transfer function and examine the stability of the closed
oop system (software based).







- 24 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 1

OBJECT: To study the performance characteristics of a DC motor speed control system.

THEORY: Speed control is a very common requirement in many industrial application such as
rolling mills, paper factories etc. in this experiment we will study the speed characteristics of DC
motor (armature controlled ) as open loop close loop system under varying condition of gain and we
will observe the steady state condition of the system and hence the speed characteristics which
depends upon the system i.e. Km, KA , KT . At the same time the speed characteristics is observed in
the presence of disturbance which is simulated by the breaking ( eddy current braking ) at different
level by varying the system gain i.e. KA keeping Km and K
T
constant.


APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make















CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:






PROCEDURE:



OBSERVATION:
Motor and tachogenerator Characteristics

S.No. Ka N Vt Vm











- 25 -
CLOSED LOOP PERFORMANCE
STEADY STATE ERROR

S.No. Ka N Vt Ess











SYSTEM TIME CONSTANT

S.No. Ka Vt Teff










DISTURBANCE REJECTION:


Brake Setting 1 2 3 4
Open loop speed
Closed loop speed at
different gain




CALCULATION:
Km = ss / Vm
Kt = Vt /ss
T= (Vs/Vt)/(KaKmKt/2f)
Steady state error
e
ss =
1/(1+KaKmKt)
Transient error
T
eff
= (Vs/Vt) (Ka Km Kt)/(Ka Km Kt +1)


RESULT:



PRECAUTIONS

- 26 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 2


OBJECT: To study the performance characteristics of an angular position error detector using two
potentiometers.

THEORY: Error detectors detect the difference between the desired input and actual value of the
controlled variable or output and produce a signal proportional to the difference.
The simplest type is a potentiometer type error detector, which produce voltage signal, proportional to
the difference of the input and out put signals. The potentiometers may be rotary or linear type,
depending on the type of motion. If input is r and out put c, two identical rotary potentiometers
would be connected. The voltage will depend on the difference r and c would be zero if the
positions of the two were identical.
Error detector:
The basic error detector consists of two servo-potentiometers with calibrated dials 1 degree mounted
on the panel. A common ac/dc (selected by switch ) signal is internally connected to these and the
potentiometer output are permanently wired to a unit gain instrumentation amplifier . the out put of
the instrumentation amplifier is brought out on the panel. This constitutes the error detector
Demodulator:
This block is needed during the ac operation of the potentiometer. The ac out put of the potentiometer
may be connected to the demodulator input and output obtained is a phase sensitive dc signal.
Ke = voltage applied volts/ maximum angular span, radians



APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make










CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:










PROCEDURE:









- 27 -
OBSERVATION:

With DC excitation
Pot 2 fixed at 2 =180
0

S.No. Pot1 position 1 e = 2- 1 Output Vo volts

























With AC excitation
Pot 2 fixed at 2 =180
0

S.No. Pot1 position 1 e = 2- 1 Output
Vo (mili volts )
V(DEM) form
DVM , volts
Output
Vo (mili volts)



















RESULT:




PRECAUTIONS
- 28 -
OBSERVATION: (A) MANUAL OPERATION OF THE POSITION CONTROL.
KD = 0
KA = 5

S.No.
R R o o R -
o
VR Vo VR -
Vo




(B) STEP RESPONSE OF THE POSITION CONTROL WITH OUT
TECHOGENERATOR FEED BACK
KD = 5
VS = 2.5 V
S.No. K Mp tr tp







(C) STEP RESPONSE OF THE POSITION CONTROL WITH TECHOGENERATOR FEED
BACK
KA = 7
VS = 2.5 V
S.No. KD Mp Tr tp







CALCULATION:
ess= Vs-Vo
Mp = (Vp Vo)/Vo
Mp = exp (-)/(1-
2
)
1/2

tp = /w
n
(1-
2
)
1/2


RESULT:

PRECAUTIONS:
- 29 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 3

OBJECT: To study P,PI and PID temperature controller for an oven and compare the result.

THEORY: In this experiment a plant i.e. oven is given. This is a thermal system whose transfer
function is determined on the basis of heat supplied to it and the way next dissipates i.e. by
conduction, convection or radiation. In this experiment the lumped parameter has been approximated
i.e. the next has been uniformly distributed through out the oven space the transfer through radiation
the conductive and convection heat transfer
= T
= Rate of heat flow
= Constant
T= temp. difference in degree centigrade
Under assumption of linearity the thermal resistance if defined as
R = T/ = 1/
Similarly the thermal capacitance of the mass is defined by
= cd T / dt
The equation of an oven now become combining the above two equation
= cdT/ dt + 1/R XT
Taking laplace transfer
T(s) / = R/ sCR +1
While experiment the following point to be taken in to account:
a) The temp rise in response to the heat input is not instantaneous. The result in a delay.
b) For steady state error
c) Ess = lim (tref- T) = Tref / (1+AR)

CONTROLLER:
As the experiment already has inbuilt transfer function of an oven we just go for the determination of
output response of the oven with different type of controller used in the industries
A controller is a controlling element, which checks the out put performance of feed back system. If it
is out of desired level. Basically there are four type of controller use in a industry for system
performance I improvement

a) On-off relay: Is a on-off switch and introduce in the system so as to control the on-off time
of a system. it is also referred to as two position controllers, consist of a simple and
inexpensive witch / relay and are therefore used very commonly ij both industrial and
domestic control systems. Typical applications include air conditioner and refrigerators,
ovens, heaters.

b) Proportional Controller: It is an amplifier of gain Kp that amplifies the error signal and
passes it to the actuator. The noise drift and bias currents of this amplifier set the lower limit
of the input signal which may be handled reliably and therefore decide the minimum possible
value of the error between the input signal and output. Also the saturation characteristic of
this amplifier sets the linear and non-linear regions of its operation.

c) PI controller:
This controller introduces a pole at the origin, i.e. increases the system type number by unity
The steady state error of the system is therefore reduced

d) PID controller: It increase the damping ratio of the system and therefore improves the
dynamic performance by reducing overshoot. The PID controller helps in reducing the steady
state error with an improvement in the transient response.


- 30 -
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make







CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:








PROCEDURE:







OBSERVATION:
S.No. Time Temperature (
o
C)


















RESULT:





PRECAUTIONS:


- 31 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 4

OBJECT : Measurement of temp. by RTD.

THEORY : This chapter explains the working principle of the RTD and associated
instrumentation in brief. It is assumed that the student has access to some standard text book
which explains the theory and working principle in detail.

RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR (RTD) :
The resistivity of metals increases with an increase in temperature (i.e. the temperature
coefficient is positive), where as in some semiconductors the resistance decreases with an
increase in temperature (i.e. the temperature coefficient is negative).
The resistance thermometer based on the above phenomenon is one of the most accurately
reproducible temperature sensing device. PT 100 is unduly used as a R.T.D.

SIGNAL CONDITIONER MODULE :
AC constant current signal is applied on the R.T.D. to make it operative. The output of the
R.T.D. is directly fed to the input of D.C. differential amplifier and then is fed to a summing
amplifier with a gain and zero adjustment to obtain the output directly in engineering unit of
temperature.The final output of the amplifier is fed to Digital Panel Meter to display the
temperature.Gain adjustment pot is given for the adjustment of amplifier gain and zero pot is
given for the zero adjustment.

VARIABLE RESISTANCE SOURCE :
A 99 to 150 ohm. variable resistance (wire wound potentiometer is provided with the set up
to calibrate the signal conditioners module for measurement of temperature directly in
0
C.
A Table for Resistance versus Temperature for PT 100 is given below :

OPERATION :
1. Place a beaker containing water.
2. Place a immersion rod in the beaker.
3. Keep the R.T.D. probe in the beaker.
4. Connect the 3, pin mains plug of the Demonstration Set Up to the mains socket.
5. Connect the O/P of the signal conditioner with the Digital Panel Meter.
6. Set output of variable resistance at 100, ohm, with a Multimeter / Ohmmeter.
7. Connect variable resistance output to the I/P of signal conditioner (Marked as RTD).
8. Adjust gain pot so that display will show 100.00 degree C.
9. Remove output of variable resistance from the I/P.
10. Set variable resistance at 138.50, ohm with a Multimeter / Ohmmeter.
11. Connect variable resistance output to I/P.
12. Adjust gain pot so that display will show 100.00 degree C.
13. Repeat step (6) to (12) two or three times for perfect calibration.
14. Remove variable resistance lead from the I/P and connect RTD probe.
15. Heat the RTD kept in water and note down the reading shown by the display after a
fixed time interval.
16. Display will show the temperature in
0
C unit.
17. Plot the graph between temperature (in
0
C) and Resistance.

- 32 -
TABLE I

Sl.No. Time (Sec.) Temperature by RTD. Resistance








RESULT:

PRECAUTIONS:
1. To get best performance you have to put instrument at dust proof and humidity free environment.
2. To get the good performance from the tutor you have to maintain room temperature.
3. Do not try to open the instrument or repair it.
4. Zero error should be removing.

- 33 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 5

OBJECT: To study the performance characteristics of a dc motor angular position control system.

THEORY: In this experiment we are going to study the performance of the closed loop system with
proportional feedback and closed loop system with combined proportional and tachogenerator feed
back. This is a second order system and the analysis of its o/p is to be carried out for its time domain
specification i.e. overshoot, peak time, rise time, damping ratio, under damped frequency and steady
state error. The response it stored and can be displayed on an CRO. The displayed output may have
imperfection due to the presence of the non-linear ties.
The card is designed to automatically store the time response of the system in a RAM whenever a
step input is given. The stored response is the displayed on the CRO. For this press the MODE switch
the unit becomes ready to capture the step response. Apply the step input now starts the storage. At
the end of storage cycle the mode automatically shifts to display and the response waveform is seen
on the CRO.
Delay time is defined as the time needed for the response to reach 50% of final value.
Rise time is the time taken for the response to reach 100% of the final value for the first time.
t
r
= (- )/w
d
= tan
-1
(1-
2
)
1/2
/

Peak time is the time taken for the response to reach the first peak of the overshoot

tp = /w
n
(1-
2
)
1/2


Setting time is the time required by the system response to reach and stay with in a prescribed
tolerance band

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make















CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:















PROCEDURE:
- 34 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 6

OBJECT: To design, implement and study the effect of different cascade compensation networks for
a given system.

THEORY: The main requirement of control system is accuracy and stability. To achieve this every
control system designed for a specific application has to meet certain performance specification and
indices i.e. max. Overshoot, rise time, delay time, phase-margin and gain margin, steady state error,
Ise , Iae etc.
Beside this the choice of plant components is dictated also by size, weight, power supply etc. In the
presence of these, the defined control system may not be accurate and stable. So it is necessary to
compensate an unstable system to make it stable or some time it may be necessary to improve the
existing system to meet the required specification. In such cases gain adjustment is the most direct and
simple way of design. But in most cases gain adjustment thus provide the desired result.
Increasing the gain reduces steady state error but result in more oscillatory transient response. But we
need both accuracy and stability. Under such circumstances it is necessary to introduce some kind of
corrective sub system to force the chosen plant to meet the given specification. The sub system are
known as compensator and connected between error detector and plant with the purpose to
compensate deficiency in the performance of the plant.
These are several method of parameter design:
(a) By P, PI, PID Controller
(b) Root locus technique
(c) Nyquist plot technique
(d) Bode plot technique
In this experiment simulated system of unknown dynamics forms the un compensated system and
transfer frequency is given by k1/(st+1)
2

A compensation network is to be designed at this stage by the most common form i.e. Cascade
compensation where the compensation acts an error signal. In the frequency domain design (Bode
Plot). We first draw a Bode Plot of uncompensated system & then design the system (adjust the
parameter) by adding the poles and zero in the plot to meet our requirement and the location of pole
and zeros depends upon system requirement. If the zero is closer to the origin than pole , this is lead
compensator .
And the third is lag lead compensator in which the both lag and lead compensator
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make




















CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


- 35 -
PROCEDURE:







OBSERVATION:
S.No. Frequency (Hz) A B Xo Yo Gain dB Phase in degree



CALCULATION:
Y
2
+ (B
2
/A
2
)X
2
2(B/A) XY cos = B
2
Sin
2

Gain = B/A = Yo/Xo, or 20 log (B/A) dB
Phase = - Sin
1
(Xo/A)= - Sin
1
(Yo/ B)

RESULT:
PRECAUTIONS

- 36 -
EXPERIMENT NO 7

OBJECT: To study the time response of a variety of simulated linear system and to correlate the
studies with theoretical results.

THEORY: In this experiment, we are studying the time domain analysis of a linear first order or
second order system. A designed feedback system must be analyzed in lab for the checking of their
transient as well as steady state performance specification. Because on these specification i.e.
Maximum overshoot, rise time, delay time, settling time, damping ratio, undamped natural frequency,
steady state constant etc.the system behavior depends. The system may have large overshoot or zero
or over damped signal all totally depends upon the for best result or performance & should be
between 0.4 to 0.8. The system should be under damped. The can be checked by varying the forward
gain of the system & the effect of the forward gain can be plotted or analyzed & in turn the system
performance is improved. These systems are characterized by two poles an d up to two zeros. For the
purpose of transient response studies zeros are usually are not considered.

DELAY TIME is defined as the time needed for the response to reach 50% of final value.

RISE TIME is the time taken for the response to reach 100% of the final value for the first time.
t
r
= (- )/w
d
= tan
-1
(1-
2
)
1/2
/

PEAK TIME is the time taken for the response to reach the first peak of the overshoot
tp = /w
n
(1-
2
)
1/2

SETTING TIME is the time required by the system response to reach and stay with in a prescribed
tolerance band
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make










CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



PROCEDURE:
OBSERVATION:
S.No. K Mp t
r
t
P


w
n











CALCULATION:
Mp = exp (-)/(1-
2
)
1/2

So that = {(In Mp)
2
/
2

+(In Mp)
2
}
1/2

ts = 4/w
n




RESULT:
PRECAUTIONS:
- 37 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 8

OBJECT: To study the dynamic characteristics of a system with an intentional non-linearity viz a
simulated relay.

THEORY: An electronic circuit simulates the relay. Its parameters are adjustable through panel
controls.
Through in control system for analysis we assume the system to be linear up to some extent but there
are much practical system, which are sufficiently non linear so that the important features of their
performance may be completely overlooked if they are analyzed and desired through linear technique.
For such system there are analytical, graphical and numerical techniques, which take account of
system linearity. The non linearity generally present in a system are: saturation, dead zone, hysteresis.
And an intentional non-linearity is introduced to improve the system performance.
There are many methods of analysis of non-linear system response, there are
a) piece wise linearization technique
b) Phase plane method
c) Describing function method
In this experiment we are using describing function method of system analysis this describing
function is assumed to characterize the non-linearity system sufficiently. This method enables us to
study the stability of many non-linear control systems in the frequency. Domain irrespective of the
order of the system.


APPARATUS REQUIRED:


S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make











CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:










PROCEDURE:









- 38 -
OBSERVATION:

Relay setting
Input sine wave 100 Hz, 2 Vp-p

Hysteresis Only
Knob position D ms Knob position H ms
Dead zone Only


S.No. Xo A Yo B Gain Degree








RESULT:







PRECAUTIONS:

- 39 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 9

OBJECT: To study the speed torque characteristics of AC servomotor.

THEORY: An ac servomotor is basically two phase induction motor having two stator windings
oriented 90
0
electrically apart in phase and excited by an ac voltages which differ in time phase
by90
0
. The rotor of the servomotor is built with high resistance so that X/R in low and the torque-
speed characteristics in linear (nearly) in contrast to high non-linear characteristics with large X/R.
We use only low X/R because positive slope due to high X/R makes motor unstable.
In this experiment we have to study the speed torque characteristics of an ac servomotor. The speed
variation and measurement is archived by varying R in turn varying voltage to control winding and
the measurement is performed by photovoltaic principle. The hole in metallic disk a phototransistor
and a light source constitute the part of measurement. The no. Of pluses fever through light source
passing through light hole and disc is prop stand to revolution / sec and in form rpm is counted. In
order to measure the torque produced by the ac servomotor, a mechanically coupled dc machine in
used and a variable dc current in to be passed on through the dc motor and polarity in such that
produces an opposite torque.
For various speeds. We can note down the no load torque required to be developed by the motor and
the same can be plotted.
The rotor construction is usually of the squirrel cage or the drag cup type with no electrical access.
The diameter of rotor is made small in order to reduce the inertia and thus to improve the acceleration
characteristics.
The shape of characteristics depends on the ratio of the X/R. For a conventional induction motor, the
X/R ratio is high in order to obtain a high maximum torque.
How ever this type of curve is not suitable for feed back control systems, chiefly because of the
positive slop on the part of curve. The negative slop on the torque-speed curve if essential for
stability. Thus the rotor of two phase induction motor is built with high resistance.


APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No. Name of Equipment Range /Rating Qty Make





CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:










PROCEDURE:






- 40 -
OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.No. RPM Eb (volts)
























TABLE FOR SPEED TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS:

S.No. Ia (mA) N (RPM) E P (mW) T









CALCULATION:

T= P* 1.019*10*60 / 2pi N





RESULT:








PRECAUTIONS:
- 41 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 10

OBJECT:- TO study root locus using matlab.

THEORY:-Polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function. G(j w) is a plot of the magnitute ofG(jw)
versus the phase angle of G(jw)on the polar co-ordinates as w is varied from zero to infinity.
The locus of the root of the char equation when gain is varied from zero to infinity is called root locus.
It starts from open loop poles and terminates on open loop zero or on infinity.

PROGRAM:- Num=[16];
P
1
=[1 4 0];
P
2
=[1 4 0];
Den=com (P
1
P
2
)
rlocus (num , den);
Title (root locus plot)
RESULT:- We observed graph on matlab.

PRECAUTION:-
1 -We wrote program carefully .
2-We observed graph carefully.


- 42 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 11

OBJECT: To study frequency response (Nyquist plot, bode plot and polar plot) using mat lab.

THEORY: Nyquist stability criterion states that if the wuntous
of the open loop transfer function. plan corresponding to an wuntous in s-plan in encircle (-1+j0) Pt in
wuntous clockwise direction as many times as the right half of s- plane poles.

Nyquist Plot: Num =10;
Den =[1 4 3];
Nyquist [num, den];
Title [Nyquist plot]

RESULT: We observed the plot on mat lab.

PRECAUTION:

1. We wrote program carefully.
2. We observed characteristics carefully.


- 43 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 12

OBJECT: To study bode plot using mat lab.

THEORY: Bode plot is a graphical representation of the transfer function for determining the
stability of the control system. It consists of two plots . One is a plot of the logarithm of the mag of
sinusoidal T.F. and the other both plots are plotted against frequency.

PROGRAM: Num =10;
Den = [1 13];
Bode [num, den];
Title (Bode plot for second order system)

RESULT: We observed graph on mat lab.

PRECAUTION:
1. We wrote program carefully.
2. We observed graph carefully
























- 44 -
ANALOG INTEGRATED ELECTRONICS LAB
EEC -559

1. To determine CMRR of a differential amplifier.
2. To study op-amp based inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, voltage comparator
and zero crossing detector.
3. To study op-amp based Adder and integrator circuits.
4. To study RC low pass and high pass active filters and draw outlput voltage waveform
for square wave input.
5. To study Op-Amp based triangular wave generator.
6. To study operation of IC74123 as monostable multivibrator.
7. To design and fabricate Op-Amp. Base astable multivibrator and verify
experimentally frequency of oscillation.
8. To study operation of IC NE/SE 566 voltage controlled oscillator and determine
output frequency for various voltage levels.
9. To study Op-Amp. Based V to I and I to V converters.
10. To study a PLL circuit and determine the free running frequency.
11. To study Op-Amp. based sample and hold circuit.
12. To study Instrumentation Amplifier circuit.
13 to15 The Institute /college may add three more experiments at its level.









- 45 -
EXPERIMENT NO -1

OBJECT: Measurement Of Op-Amp parameters Gain.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
S.No. Items Qty.
1 Resistor (1K,) 1(each)
2 Op-amp (IC 741) 1
3 Regulated DC Power supply (+/- 12V) 1
4 CRO 1
5 Function generator 1
6 Connecting wires ---

THEORY:

COMMON MODE REJECTION RATIO:
It is the ratio of Differential mode voltage gain to the Common mode voltage gain. CMRR
generally expressed in dB.
CMRR = 20 log Ad / Acm
Differential mode Voltage Gain (Ad) = Vout
V1-V2
V1= Voltage applied at non- inverting pin
V2 = Voltage applied at Inverting Pin
Common mode voltage gain (Acm) = Vocm / Vcm
Vocm = Common mode O/P voltage
Vcm = Common I/P Voltage applied to the both terminal
The typical value of CMRR for IC 741C is 90 dB.
PROCEDURE:-

1. Connect the circuit of Differential amplifier according to the circuit diagram.
2. Apply the different AC/DC input voltage at pin no. 2 and pin 3.
3. Measure the O/P voltage between pin no. 6 and ground.
4. Now calculate the differential mode voltage gain.
5. Further connect the circuit in common mode configuration.
6. Applied the same AC/DC input voltage at pin no. 2 and pin 3.
7. Now calculate the Voltage gain in common mode.
8. Using formula find out the CMRR for 741 Ic.
OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.No.

I/P voltage O/P voltage Gain configuration
1


2


3


RESULT:
CMRR of differential amplifier comes out to __________dB.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Make the connection according to the circuit diagram.
2. Check the connections before on the supply.
- 46 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 2

OBJECT: - To study Op-Amp based inverting and non inverting amplifiers, voltage comparator and
zero crossing detector.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:-
S.No Equipment Range/rating Make
1. Bread Board .. Wish-102
2. Resistor 1K, 10K Carbon
3. Power supply 5V, 12V
4. OP-AM IC 741 ---------
5. Function Generator 1MHz Scientific HM-5030-2
6. C.R.O 20MHz.
7. C.R.O. Leads .
8. Connecting Wire .

THEORY:- Op-Amp is basically a differential amplifier whose basic function is to amplify the
difference between two input signals.
In inverting mode, the positive terminal is grounded and input signal VS is applied at
negative terminal through resistor R1.The negative feedback is applied through R2 from output to
input terminal. The gain of inverting amplifier is

A=V
O
/V
S
= -R
2
/R
1

In non inverting mode, the input signal VS is applied to the positive terminal while the negative
terminal is grounded through resistor R1. The gain of non-inverting amplifier is

A=V
O
/V
S
=1+(R
2
/R
1
)

VOLTAGE COMPARATOR:
A comparator circuit compares two voltage signals and determines which one is greater. The result of
this comparison is indicated by the output voltage: if the op-amp's output is saturated in the positive
direction, the noninverting input (+) is a greater, or more positive, voltage than the inverting input (-),
all voltages measured with respect to ground. If the op-amp's voltage is near the negative supply
voltage (in this case, 0 volts, or ground potential), it means the inverting input (-) has a greater voltage
applied to it than the noninverting input (+).

ZERO CROSSING DETECTOR
Zero crossing detector is used to convert sine wave or other signal into square-wave, the output should
be low if the input is negative and high if the input if positive. Many zero crossing detector use split
supply (symmetric supply), but this zero crossing detector circuit only need a single supply, thus
suitable for battery-operated circuits.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-




INVERTING MODE:-

NON INVERTING MODE:-




- 47 -
PROCEDURE:-
1. Make connection according to the circuit as shown in the fig.
2. for measuring the gain in non inverting mode, connect the function generator at pin no. 3
3. Set the function generator for .2Vpp sinusoidal voltage.
4. Measure the o/p voltage between pin no. 6 and ground.
5. Now, calculate the voltage gain in non inverting mode using formula.
6. Again, connect the ckt. for measuring the gain in inverting mode.
7. Set the function generator as above and measure the o/p voltage.
8. Using formula measure the gain in inverting mode.

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

S.No


INPUT
VOLTAGE
OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
EXPERIMENTAL
GAIN
ANALYTICAL
GAIN
TYPES OF
CONFIGURATION
1


2





RESULT:-
In case of inverting amplifier there is a voltage gain of__________and phase shift of
__________ whereas In case of inverting amplifier there is a voltage gain of__________and phase
shift of _________.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Make the connection according to the circuit diagram.
2. Check the connections before on the supply










- 48 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 3

OBJECT: To study Operational amplifier based adder and integrator ckts.

APPARATUS USED:

S.No Equipment Range/rating Make
1. Bread Board .. Wish-102
2. Resistor 1K,.10K Carbon
3. Capacitor 0.22F
4. OP-AM IC-741 ---------
5. Power supply 12V
6. Function Generator 1MHz Scientific HM-5030-2
7. C.R.O 20MHz.
8. C.R.O. Leads .
9. Connecting Wire .

THEORY:
Summer amplifier: Summer ckt. is used to add two voltage signals applied. Voltage signal may be
dc or ac if both input are given from same function generator, there will be same phase difference
between two ac signals, generated by two ac signals, generated by two different function generator.
Summing occurs, according to the formulae

+ =
2
2
1
1
R
V
R
V
R V
f O


Integrator- A ckt. Is said to be an integrator ckt. If its output voltage waveform is the integral of the
input voltage waveform.

= dt V
R
V
in
C
O
1


PROCEDURE:





1. Make connection according to the ckt. diagram
2. Apply a.c. input voltage from the function generator.
3. Observe and plot the input and output wave shapes on C.R.O
4. Plot or trace the waveform of input and output voltage.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER AS SUMMER:








CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER AS INTEGRATOR:




- 49 -
OBSERVATION TABLE FOR SUMMER

S.No Input Voltage (Volts) Output Voltage (Volts)


Observation table for Integrator

S.No Input Voltage (Volts) Output Voltage (Volts)


RESULT:
From the observation shown above, it is proved that the ckt. is working properly as a summer
and integrator ckt.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make the connection according to the circuit diagram.
2. Check the connections before on the supply.














- 50 -
EXPERIMENT NO 4

OBJECT: Study of OP-Amp based Triangular Wave Generator.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
S.N. Equipment Range Qty

1 Dual Power Supply (0- 15)V 1
2 Signal Generator (0 -1)MHz 1
3 Regulated Power Supply (0 -30)V 1
4 CRO (0 -20)MHz 1

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:





DESIGN: To design the Triangular Wave, we have to design the square wave generator and then
integrate with integrator circuit.

RC
F
2
1
0
=
Let F
0
= 1KHz Choose C = 0.05 F
6 3
10 05 . 0 10 2
1

R
= 10 K
Choose R
1
= 1.16 R
2

If R
2
= 10 K
R
1
= 11.6 K
So choose 10 K in series with a 10 K potentiometer. Now integrate with an integrator circuit.
Let R
4
= 1 M
R
4
= 10 R
3

R
3
= 100 K
Choose C
2
= 0.01 F
?
10 01 . 0 10 100 2
1
6 3
0
=

=

F
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the dual Power Supply and observe the output waveform on a CRO.
3. Adjust the potentiometer to get an undistorted waveform.
4. Calculate the frequency by using the formula
RC
F
2
1
=
5. Connect the output of the square wave generator wave generator to an integrator circuit.
6. Observe the output waveform on a CRO and determine the frequency.

RESULT: The Triangular Wave application of the OP-Amp was studied.

\



- 51 -
EXPERIMENT NO 5

OBJECT: To study operation of IC74123 as monostable multivibrator.

REQUIRED MATERIALS

Experimental Kit
CRO
Function Generator
Multimeter
CRO Probe
Patch Cord

THEORY:
Mono stable multivibrator has only one stable stage.The other syage is unstable reffered as
quasi-stable state. When an external trigger pulse is applied to the circuit the circuit goes into the
quasi-stable state from its normal stable state. After some time interval the circuit automatically
returns to its stable state. The circuit does not require any external pulse to change from quasi-stable
to stable state.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
2. Measure the time period in which the O/P remains high.
3. Further measure the time during the O/P remains low.
4. Calculate the total time period and find out the frequency that should be near the theoretical
value.
5. Trace the O/P waveform at pin no. 3 and also trace the waveform across the capacitor.
Circuit Diagram


RESULT: The Monoastable application of the OP-Amp was studied.




- 52 -
EXPERIMENT NO 6

OBJECT: To design and fabricate Op-Amp. Base as table multi vibrator and verify experimentally
Frequency of oscillation.


REQUIRED MATERIALS:
S.NO. ITEMS QTY.
1. Resistor (5Kohm, 2.2Kohm, 3.9Kohm) 1(each)
2. Capacitor (0.1microfarad, 0.01microfarad) 1(each)
3. Op-amp (IC 555) 1
4. Regulated DC Power supply 1
5. CRO 1
6. Clock generator 1
7. Connecting wires ----

THEORY:

ASTABLE MODE: When external components are connected to a 555 timer so as to operate it as a
free running Oscillator or Astable multivibrator. Its O/P is repetitive rectangular waveform that
switches between two logic levels with time intervals at each logic level determined by the R and C
values.The time intervals T
high
and T
low
, overall period of oscillations can be determined from the
following relations.
Charging Period or T
high
= 0.693(R
a
+ R
b
) C
Discharging Period or T
low
= 0.693 R
b
C
Overall period of oscillations T= T
high
+ T
low

= 0.693(R
a
+2 R
b
) C
Frequency of Oscillations f = 1/T = 1.44/ (Ra +2 R
b
) C

PROCEDURE:
6. Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
7. Measure the time period in which the O/P remains high.
8. Further measure the time during the O/P remains low.
9. Calculate the total time period and find out the frequency that should be near the theoretical
value.
10. Trace the O/P waveform at pin no. 3 and also trace the waveform across the capacitor.



Circuit Diagram
Astable Operation:

RESULT: We can see the output waveform at pin no.3 and across the capacitor also.


PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make the connection according to the circuit diagram.
2. Check the connections before on the supply.







- 53 -
EXPERIMENT NO 7

OBJECT: To study Op-Amp. Based V to I and I to V converters.

REQUIRED MATERIALS:

S.NO. ITEMS QTY.
1. Resistor (10K) 4
2. Op-amp (IC 741) 1
3. Regulated DC Power supply 1
4. CRO 1
5. Function generator 1
6. Connecting wires ----

THEORY:

VOLTAGE TO CURRENT CONVERTER: The circuit diagram of voltage to current converter is
shown in fig (1) in which input voltage is converted into output current. In this circuit, one terminal of
the voltage is grounded and an input voltage controls load current. First determining the voltage V1 at
the non-inverting input terminal and then establishing the relationship between V1 and the load
current accomplish the analysis of the circuit.
Writing Kerchiefs law current equation at node V1,
I1 + I2 = IL
(Vin V1 / R) + (V0 V1 / R) = IL
Vin + V0 - 2 V1 = ILR
V1 = (Vin + V0 ILR) / 2
Since the op-amp is connected in the non-inverting mode, the gain of the circuit in fig(1) is 1+ R/R=
2. then the output voltage is
V0 = 2V1
= (Vin + V0 ILR)
that is, Vo = ILR
or IL = V0 / R
this means that the load current depends upon the input voltage Vin and resistor R if all the resistors
are taken equal.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



OBSERVATION TABLE:
S.No. Input Voltage Output Current
1.
2.
3.


RESULT: We can see that the O/P current changes according to the input Voltage.

PRECAUTION:
1. Make the connection according to the circuit diagram.
2. Check the connections before on the supply.




- 54 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 8

OBJECT: - To study a PLL ckt. and determine the free Running Frequency.

COMPONENT REQUIRED:-

S.No. ITEMS RANGE QTY.
1. Resistor 1k 2
2. Resistor 4.7k 1
3. Capacitor 0.01F 1
4. Capacitor 0.1 F 1
5. PLL IC NE 565 1
6. Function generator 1MHz 1
7. CRO 20MHz 1
8. Power Supply 10V 1
9. Bread Board 1
10. Connecting Wires L.S

THEORY:-
NE-565 is a 14 pin IC that can be connected to external components to form a PLL. Pins 2
and 3 are a differential input to the phase detector. Pin 4 and 5 are usually connected together. In this
way, VCO O/P becomes an I/P to the phase detector.
An external timing resistor is connected to pin 8, and an external timing capacitor to pin 9.
these two components determine the free running frequency of the VCO, given by-
F=0.3/RTCT
RT and CT are selected to produce a free running VCO frequency at the center of the i/p frequency
range.

FREE-RUNNING MODE: - If the i/p signal is disconnected, the VCO oscillator in a free running
mode with its frequency determined by its ckt. elements.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-










PROCEDURE:-

FREE RUNNING FREQUENCY:-
1. If the ac signal generator is disconnected, the 565 is in the free-Running mode of operation.
What is the VCO frequency if the wiper of the pot is all the way up? All the way down?
Record the calculated frequencies in the table
2. Connect the ckt. Of fig. with a capacitor of .2mfd.
3. Temporarily disconnected the ac signal generator to get free running mode operation.
4. With the CRO look at the VCO o/p use a vertical sensitivity of 5V/Cm and a time base of
ms/cm. vary the pot and note how the frequency changes.
5. Measure the min. and max. free running frequencies, record the measured frequencies.
6. Adjust the pot to get a centre frequency of approximately 5 KHz.

- 55 -
OBSERVATION TABLE:-


S.No.

FREQUENCIES MEASURED THEORETICAL
1

F
VCO

2

F
Lmax

3

F
Lmin
.
4

FC
+

5

FC
-



RESULT: - The value showing the free running frequency, capture range & lock-in-range for
practical & theoretical are approximately same.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Make the connection according to the circuit diagram.
2. Check the connections before on the supply























- 56 -
EXPERIMENT NO 9

OBJECT:- Study of Sample and hold circuit using Op-amp-ST2101.

EQUIPMENTS:-

1. Sampling and reconstruction kit ST-2101
2. CRO
3. Connecting links

THEORY: -

Sampling can be defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time
intervals. The rate of which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling
frequency.
It is the major parameter, which decided the quality of, reproduce signal. If signal is sampled quit
frequency (Whose limit is specified by nyquist criteria), then it can be reproduce exactly at the
receiver with no distortion.
S sampling is a process of taking the instantaneous value of the analog information at predetermined
time interval. The analog signal is first sampled according to the nyquist criteria. Nyquist criteria
states that for faithful reproduction of the limited signal are sampling rate must be at least twice the
highest frequency component present in the signal.
Sampling frequency>2fm
The sampled value is the allocated binary codes, which define a narrow range of amplitude value.
Each binary word define particular amplitude level .The sampled value is then approximated to the
nearest amplitude level.

PROCEDURE:-

1. Connect the signal of 1 KHz frequency to the input of sample & hold circuit.
2. Keep the switch on internal condition to connect the duty cycle.
3. To reconstruct the signal pass it trough second & fourth order Butterworth filter.

OBSERVATION:-

Change the frequency of sampling frequency generator and observe the effect on sampled and
hold o/p on CRO.
Changes the duty cycle from duty cycle selector switch observe the effect on sampled and hold
o/p on CRO.
The o/p of fourth order butter worth filter is smoother than second order butter worth filter.

RESULT:- The effect of sampling rate &width of the sampling pulse has been studied.

PRECAUTIONS:-

1. Dont make a loose connection.
2. Check the connections before switch on the power supply.
3. Check the all switch faults carefully.







- 57 -
EXPERIMENT NO - 10

OBJECT To study the instrumentation amplifier using OP-AMP and its applications.

APPARATUS USED: -
1. Instrumentation amplifier trainer
2. Connecting leads.
3. Multimeter.

THEORY: -
It is a device which is used to amplifier the low level output signal of the transdusers.
The importamt features of an Instrumentation amplifier are
1. High gain accuracy
2. High CMRR
3. High stability with low temperature coefficient.
4. Low DC offset.
5. Low o/p impedance.
FORMULA USED: ( )
1 2
4
3 1
0
2
1 V V
R
R
R
R
V
G

|
|

\
|
|
|

\
|
+ =
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:


PROCEDURE:
1. Connect open and of 20 K resistance of IC 3 with the o/p of IC 4.Connect both I/p with the
ground as shown in the figure. Select RG = 100 ohm.

2. Measure voltage across o/p and ground. Connect the end of 20 K resistance with the o/p of IC
4. Adjust offset null potentiometer slowly to null out the offset voltage.

3. Connect one i/p to the provided supply. as shown in figure. Adjust i/p DC voltage (10 mV)
and measure o/p voltage for different RG value.

4. Connect both i/p socket at R
G
= 2K. Note the o/p voltage before and after the short circuit and
compare the result with theoretical value as given before.


OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.no

R
G
V0 (practical) V0 (Theoretical)
1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


RESULT:
From the observation it is seen that by changing the value of R
G
, The variations in o/p voltage
are similar to the value that obtained by mathematical calculatins.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make the connection right and tight
2. Make sure that the connections are accurate before switching ON the power supply.
3. Reading were taken carefully.