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EHU-501 : ENGINEERING & MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS

Unit-I Introduction : Meaning, Nature and Scope of Economics, Meaning of Science, Engineering and Technology. Managerial Economics and its scope in engineering perspective. Unit-II Basic Concepts Demand Analysis, Law of Demand, Determinates of Demand, Elasticity of Demand-Price, Income and cross Elasticity. Uses of concept of elasticity of demand in managerial decision. Unit-III Demand forecasting Meaning, significance and methods of demand forecasting, production function, Laws of returns to scale & Law of Diminishing returns scale. An overview of Short and Long run cost curves – fixed cost, variable cost, average cost, marginal cost, Opportunity cost. Unit-IV Market Structure Perfect Competition, Imperfect competition – Monopolistic, Oligopoly, duopoly sorbent features of price determination and various market conditions. Unit-V National Income, Inflation and Business Cycles Concept of N.I. and Measurement. Meaning of Inflation, Type causes & prevention methods, Phases of business cycle.

Reference Books

1. Koutsoyiannis A : Modern Microeconomics, ELBS.

2. Managerial Economics for Engineering : Prof. D.N. Kakkar

3. Managerial Economics : D.N. Dwivedi

4. Managerial Economics : Maheshwari.

EEC-508 : FUNDAMENTALS OF E.M.THEORY

Unit I Review of Vector analysis, Rectangular, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinates and their transformation, divergence, gradient and cvrl in different coordinate systems, Electric field intensity, Electric Flux density, Energy and potential. Unit-II Current and conductors, Dielectrics and capacitance, Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations. Unit-III Steady magnetic field, magnetic forces, materials and inductance, Time varying field and Maxwell’s equation. Unit-IV Uniform Plane waves, Plane wave reflection and dispersion

Text Books:

1. Mayt, W.H. and Buck, J.A., “Engineering Electromagnetic” Tata Mc.Graw Hill Publishing

Reference Books:

1. Jordan E.C. and Balmain K.G., “Electromagnetic Wave and radiating Systems” Prentice Hall International ,

2nd Edition.

2. Kraus, F. “Electromagnetic” Tata Mc. Graw Hill 5th Edition

Ramo S, Whinnery T.R. and Vanduzer T, “Field and Waves in Communication Electronics” John Wiely and Sons 3rd Edition

EEE-501: ELECTRO-MECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION - II

UNIT-I Synchronous Machine I Constructional features, Armature winding, EMF Equation, Winding coefficients, equivalent circuit and phasor diagram, Armature reaction, O. C. & S. C. tests, Voltage Regulation using Synchronous Impedance Method, MMF Method, Potier’s Triangle Method, Parallel Operation of synchronous generators, operation on infinite bus, synchronizing power and torque co-efficient

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UNIT-II Synchronous Machine II: Two Reaction Theory, Power flow equations of cylindrical and salient pole machines, operating characteristics Synchronous Motor: Starting methods, Effect of varying field current at different loads, V- Curves, Hunting & damping, synchronous condenser UNIT-III:

Three phase Induction Machine – I Constructional features, Rotating magnetic field, Principle of operation Phasor diagram, equivalent circuit, torque and power equations, Torque- slip characteristics, no load & blocked rotor tests, efficiency, Induction generator & its applications. UNIT-IV Three phase Induction Machine- II Starting, Deep bar and double cage rotors, Cogging & Crawling, Speed Control (with and without emf injection in rotor circuit.) UNIT-V Single phase Induction Motor:

Double revolving field theory, Equivalent circuit, No load and blocked rotor tests, Starting methods, repulsion motor AC Commutator Motors:

Universal motor, Single phase a.c. series compensated motor, stepper motors

Text Books:

1. D.P.Kothari & I.J.Nagrath, “Electric Machines”, Tata Mc Graw Hill

2. Ashfaq Hussain“Electric Machines” Dhanpat Rai & Company

3. Fitzerald,A.E.,Kingsley and S.D.Umans“Electric Machinery”, MC Graw Hill.

Reference Books:

4. P.S.Bimbhra, “Electrical Machinery”, Khanna Publisher

5. P.S. Bimbhra, “ Generalized Theory of Electrical Machines”, Khanna Publishers

6. M.G.Say, “Alternating Current Machines”,Pitman & Sons

EEE-502: CONTROL SYSTEM

Unit-I The Control System:

Open loop & closed control; servomechanism, Physical examples. Transfer functions, Block diagram algebra, Signal flow graph, Mason’s gain formula Reduction of parameter variation and effects of disturbance by using negative feedback Unit-II Time Response analysis:

Standard test signals, time response of first and second order systems, time response specifications, steady state errors and error constants Design specifications of second order systems: Derivative error, derivative output, integral error and PID compensations, design considerations for higher order systems, performance indices Unit-III Control System Components: Constructional and working concept of ac servomotor, synchros and stepper motor Stability and Algebraic Criteria concept of stability and necessary conditions, Routh-Hurwitz criteria and limitations. Root Locus Technique:The root locus concepts, construction of root loci Unit-IV Frequency response Analysis: Frequency response, correlation between time and frequency responses, polar and inverse polar plots, Bode plots Stability in Frequency Domain: Nyquist stability criterion, assessment of relative stability: gain margin and phase margin, constant M&N circles Unit-V Introduction to Design: The design problem and preliminary considerations lead, lag and lead-lag networks, design of closed loop systems using compensation techniques in time domain and frequency domain. Review of state variable technique: Review of state variable technique, conversion of state variable model to transfer function model and vice-versa, diagonalization, Controllability and observability and their testing.

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Text Book:

1. Nagrath & Gopal, “Control System Engineering”, 4th Edition, New age International.

2. K. Ogata, “Modern Control Engineering”, Prentice Hall of India.

3. B.C. Kuo & Farid Golnaraghi, “Automatic Control System” Wiley IndiaLtd, 2008.

4. D.Roy Choudhary, “Modern Control Engineering”, Prentice Hall of India.

Reference Books:

5. Norman S. Mise, Control System Engineering 4th edition, Wiley Publishing Co.

6. Ajit K Mandal, “Introduction to Control Engineering” New Age International,2006.

7. R.T. Stefani, B.Shahian, C.J.Savant and G.H. Hostetter, “ Design of Feedback Control Systems” Oxford

University Press.

8. N.C. Jagan, “ Control Systems”, B.S. Publications,2007.

EEE-503: ELEMENTS OF POWER SYSTEM

Unit-I Power System Components:

Single line Diagram of Power system, Brief description of power system Elements: Synchronous machine, transformer, transmission line, bus bar, circuit breaker and isolator Supply System Different kinds of supply system and their comparison, choice of transmission voltage Transmission Lines:

Configurations, types of conductors, resistance of line, skin effect, Kelvin’s law.Proximity effect Unit-II Over Head Transmission Lines Calculation of inductance and capacitance of single phase, three phase, single circuit and double circuit transmission lines, Representation and performance of short, medium and long transmission lines, Ferranti effect. Surge impedance loading Unit-III Corona and Interference: Phenomenon of corona, corona formation, calculation of potential gradient, corona loss, factors affecting corona, methods of reducing corona and interference. Electrostatic and electromagnetic interference with communication lines Overhead line Insulators:

Type of insulators and their applications, potential distribution over a string of insulators, methods ofequalizing the potential, string efficiency Unit-IV Mechanical Design of transmission line:

Catenary curve, calculation of sag & tension, effects of wind and ice loading, sag template, vibration dampers Insulated cables: Type of cables and their construction, dielectric stress, grading of cables, insulation resistance, capacitance of single phase and three phase cables, dielectric loss, heating of cables Unit-V Neutral grounding:

Necessity of neutral grounding, various methods of neutral grounding, earthing transformer, grounding practices Electrical Design of Transmission Line: Design consideration of EHV transmission lines, choice of voltage, number of circuits, conductor configuration, insulation design, selection of ground wires. EHV AC and HVDC Transmission: Introduction to EHV AC and HVDC transmission and their comparison, use of bundle conductors, kinds of DC links, and incorporation of HVDC into AC system

Text Books

1. W. D. Stevenson, “Element of Power System Analysis”, McGraw Hill,

2. C. L. Wadhwa, “Electrical Power Systems” New age international Ltd. Third Edition

3. Asfaq Hussain, “'Power System”, CBS Publishers and Distributors,

4. B. R. Gupta, “Power System Analysis and Design” Third Edition, S. Chand & Co.

5. M. V. Deshpande, “Electrical Power System Design” Tata Mc Graw Hill.

Reference Books

6. M. V. Deshpandey, “Elements of Power System Design”, Tata McGraw Hill,

7. Soni, Gupta & Bhatnagar, “A Course in Electrical Power”, Dhanpat Rai & Sons,

8. S. L. Uppal, “Electric Power”, Khanna Publishers

9. S.N.Singh, “ Electric Power Generation, Transmission& distribution.” PHI Learning

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EEC :509 ANALOG INTEGRATED ELECTRONICS

Unit-I Frequency response & stability of an Op-Amp:

Frequency response, compensating Networks, Frequency response of internally compensated and uncompensated Op-Amps, High frequency Op-Amps. Equivalent circuit, stability in constant GBP Op- Amp. Circuits. Unit-II Op-Amp Circuits: Applications Current to voltage converters, V to I converters, current amplifier, difference Amplifiers, Instrumentation Amplifiers, integrators and differentiators. Unit-III Active filters & Converters: First and second order low pass & High pass filters, Band Pass & Band-Reject filters, All-Pass filter, Filter using MATLAB. Voltage to Frequency and Frequency to voltage Converters, Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog Converters. Unit-IV Non Linear Circuits & Regulators: Voltage Comparators, Precision Rectifiers, Schmitt Triggers, Analog Switches, Peak detectors, Sample and Hold circuit, Square and Triangular Wave Generators, Linear Regulators, Switching Regulators. Unit-V Non Linear Amplifiers & Phase-Locked Loops: Log/Antilog Amplifiers, Analog Multipliers, Operational Trans conductance Amplifiers, Phase-Locked loops, Monolithic PLLs,Noise in integrated circuits.

Text Books:

1. Franco Sergio, “Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits” Tata McGraw-Hill

2. Ramakant A. Gayakwad, “Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits” Prentice Hall of India.

Reference Books :

1. James M.Fiore,“Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits: Theory and Applications” Thomson Asia Pvt. Ltd.

Singapore

2. Millman J.&Halkias C.C., “Integrated Electronics Analog and Digital Circuits & Systems” McGraw Hill.

3. Soclof,S.,“Application of Analog Integrated Circuits” Prentice Hall of India.

4. Bell, David A., “Operational Amplifiers & Linear ICS” Prentice Hall of India.

LABORATORY EEE- 551: ELECTRO-MECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION – II

Note: The minimum 8 experiments are to be performed from the following, out of which there should be at least two software based experiments.

1. To perform no load and blocked rotor tests on a three phase squirrel cage induction motor and determine

equivalent circuit.

2. To perform load test on a three phase induction motor and draw:

(i) Torque -speed characteristics

(ii) Power factor-line current characteristics

3. To perform no load and blocked rotor tests on a single phase induction motor and determine equivalent

circuit.

4. To study speed control of three phase induction motor byKeeping V/f ratio constant

5. To study speed control of three phase induction motor by varying supply voltage.

6. To perform open circuit and short circuit tests on a three phase alternator and determine voltage regulation at

full load and at unity, 0.8 lagging and leading power factors by (i) EMF method (ii) MMF method.

7. To determine V-curves and inverted V-curves of a three phase synchronous motor.

8. To determine Xd and Xq of a three phase salient pole synchronous machine using the slip test and draw the

power-angle curve.

9. To study synchronization of an alternator with the infinite bus by using:

(i) dark lamp method (ii) two bright and one dark lamp method

Software based experiments (Develop Computer Program in ‘C’ language or use MATLAB or other commercial software)

10. To determine speed-torque characteristics of three phase slip ring induction motor and study the effect of including resistance, or capacitance in the rotor circuit. - 4 -

11.

To determine speed-torque characteristics of single phase induction motor and study the effect of voltage

variation.

12. To determine speed-torque characteristics of a three phase induction motor by (i) keeping v/f ratio constant

(ii) increasing frequency at the rated voltage.

13. Draw O.C. and S.C. characteristics of a three phase alternator from the experimental data and determine

voltage regulation at full load, and unity, 0.8 lagging and leading power factors.

14. To determine steady state performance of a three phase induction motor using equivalent circuit.

EEE – 552: CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY

Note: The minimum of 10 experiments are to be performed from the following, out of which at least three should be software based.

1. To determine response of first order and second order systems for step input for various values of constant

’K’ using linear simulator unit and compare theoretical and practical results.

2. To study P, PI and PID temperature controller for an oven and compare their performance.

3. To study and calibrate temperature using resistance temperature detector (RTD)

4. To design Lag, Lead and Lag-Lead compensators using Bode plot.

5. To study DC position control system

6. To study synchro-transmitter and receiver and obtain output V/S input characteristics

7. To determine speed-torque characteristics of an ac servomotor.

8. To study performance of servo voltage stabilizer at various loads using load bank.

9. To study behaviour of separately excited dc motor in open loop and closed loop conditions at various loads.

10. To study PID Controller for simulation proves like transportation lag.

Software based experiments (Use MATLAB, LABVIEW software etc.)

11. To determine time domain response of a second order system for step input and obtain performance

parameters.

12. To convert transfer function of a system into state space form and vice-versa.

13. To plot root locus diagram of an open loop transfer function and determine range of gain ‘k’ fir stability.

14. To plot a Bode diagram of an open loop transfer function.

15. To draw a Nyquist plot of an open loop transfer functions and examine the stability of the closed loop

system. Reference Books:

1. K.Ogata,“Modern Control Engineering” Prentice Hall of India.

2. Norman S.Nise, “Control System Engineering”, John Wiley & Sons.

3. M.Gopal, “Control Systems: Principles & Design” Tata Mc Graw Hill.

EEC -509 : ANALOG INTEGRATED ELECTRONICS LAB

1. To determine CMRR of a differential amplifier.

2. To study op-amp based inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, voltage comparator and zero crossing

detector.

3. To study op-amp based Adder and integrator circuits.

4. To study RC low pass and high pass active filters and draw outlput voltage waveform for square wave input.

5. To study Op-Amp based triangular wave generator.

6. To study operation of IC74123 as monostable multivibrator.

7. To design and fabricate Op-Amp. Base astable multivibrator and verify experimentally frequency of

oscillation.

8. To study operation of IC NE/SE 566 voltage controlled oscillator and determine output frequency for various

voltage levels.

9. To study Op-Amp. Based V to I and I to V converters.

10. To study a PLL circuit and determine the free running frequency.

11. To study Op-Amp. based sample and hold circuit.

12. To study Instrumentation Amplifier circuit.

13 to15 The Institute /college may add three more experiments at its level.

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COURSE PLAN

ENGINEERING AND MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS EHU- 501

Course description: this course is designed to familiarize the students of B.Tech programme , with the basic principles and theories of economics which will prepare them for their roles as future managers.

Unit

   

No of

Tech./lear.

Book & pg no.

no.

Competencies

Contents

Lect.

Acti.

 

1 The objective of this unit is to provide a basic understanding of economics and how economic decisions are made. The unit also deals with the concept of science, engg and their role in economic development

Introduction:

06

Orientation

KK

A brief historical perspective, definitions and classification of economics Nature and scope of economics Significance of economics Role of economics in managerial decision making Meaning of science, engineering and technology. Principles of Economics Managerial economics and its scope in engineering perspective Economic development and growth

dewett

Lectures

Page no

and

3-8

Classroom

discussion

KK

dewett

Page no

640-651

 

2 The objective of the unit is to provide the understanding of basic concept of demand. The unit attempts to explain the meaning and significance of elasticity of demand

Basic concepts Demand analysis

8

Lectures

KK

Concept of needs, wants, demand and supply

and

dewett

Classroom

Page no

Law of demand and demand determinants

discussion

77-91

Reasons for shape of demand curve

Exception to the law of demand

Types of demand

Concept of elasticity of demand and supply

Price, income, cross and advertising elasticity

   

Measurement of elasticity of demand. Law of supply

 

3 This unit attempts to explain meaning and methods of demand forecasting and

Demand forecasting

10

Lectures

 

Meaning and significance of demand forecasting

and

DN

Classroom

dwivedi

Methods of demand forecasting

discussion

Page no

Production- meaning and production function

213-239

   

Factors of production

production and cost concepts

Law of production

Law of return to scale

Law of diminishing returns scale

Cost concepts

DN

dwivedi

Page no

252-277

Short run and long run cost curves

DN

dwivedi

Fixed cost, variable cost, average cost, marginal cost, opportunity cost etc.

Page no

293-317

Theory of firm

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4

The aim of this unit is to provide a thorough knowledge of market structure and pricing under different market structure.

Market structure

10

Lectures

DN

Perfect competition meaning and features

and

dwivedi

Classroom

Page no

Price determination under perfect competition

discussion

361-417

Imperfect competition

Monopolistic – meaning and features

 

Price determination under monopolistic

oligopoly – meaning and features

Price determination under oligopoly

Monopoly –meaning and features

Price determination under monopoly

5

The basic aim of the unit is to give an idea about the national income, and the various methods to measure it . this unit also tell about

National income, inflation and business cycle

6

Lectures

KK

and

dewett

Definition of national income

Classroom

Page no

Methods of measuring national income

discussion

394-406

Meaning of inflation

Types of inflation

Causes of inflation

Theories of inflation

the inflation and business cycle.

Prevention of inflation

Introduction of business cycle

Phases of business cycle

Theories of business cycle

DN

dwivedi

Page no

217-525

564-571

Remedial measures

Reference Books:

Koutsoyiannis A : Modern microeconomics,ELBS

Managerial economics for engineering : Prof. D.N.Kakkar

Managerial economics :D.N.Dwivedi

Managerial economics: Maheshwari

Modern economic theory: KK dewett

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ENGINEERING AND MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS EHU- 501

UNIT 1

TUTORIAL SHEET

1. Discuss the development and classification of economics?

2. Should economics be treated as a science or art?

3. How is economics useful for mangers?

4. Discuss the nature and scope of economics.

5. “Managerial economics is the discipline which deals with the application of economic theory to business management” discuss

UNIT 2

1. State and explain the Law of demand .what are its exceptions?

2. Why does a demand curve slope downward? Can a demand curve slope upward to the right under any condition?

3. Discuss the concept of price elasticity of demand along with its various types.

4. Define cross elasticity of demand and state its formula. How does such elasticity differ in case of substitutes and complementary goods?

5. Explain the various uses of concept of elasticity of demand.

UNIT 3

1. Discuss briefly the various methods of demand forecasting and point out their limitations. What are the criteria of a good forecasting method?

2. Explain the concept of ‘production function’ and point out its managerial uses.

3. Explain the concept of law of diminishing returns.

4. Discuss briefly different cost concept relevant to managerial decision of planning and control.

5. The long run average cost curve is L- shaped. Does this means that the economies of Scale does not exist.

UNIT 4

1. Why is a firm under perfect competition regarded as ‘price taker’ and not a ‘price maker’.

2. What is meant by price discrimination? State the necessary condition for price discrimination.

3. Explain various types of market structure and compare their characteristics.

4. What is meant by monopolistic competition? How does a firm take it pricing and output decision in it?

5. Define ‘oligopoly’. Explain how price and output decision are taken under oligopoly.

UNIT 5

1.

Define national income and Differentiate between gross National product (GNP) & Net National Product (NNP).

2.

Describe the various methods of measuring national income.

3.

Explain the concept of business cycle and point out its different phases. How is a business enterprise affected during those phases?

4.

What is inflation? What are the causative facture to the inflation?

5.

Enumerate some of the important theory of business cycle & explain any of them pointing its main features?

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COURSE PLAN FUNDAMENTALS OF E.M.THEORY

EEC-508

         

TEAC.

 

NO

COMPETENCIES

CONTENTS

H

 

BOOK

LEAR.

EVA.

 

ACT

   

Review of Vector analysis

1

1.1TO 1.7

Lecture

Test

cum

Paper &

Rectangular, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinates and their transformation,

2

1.8,1.9

Discussion

Oral

Question

divergence, gradient and curl in different coordinate systems

2

APPENDIX

l

UNIT-1

-A

Electric field intensity,

1

2.1

TO 2.6

Electric Flux density

1

3.1

TO 3.7

Energy and potential.

1

4.1

TO 4.8

   

Current and conductors

2

5.1

TO 5.6

Lecture

Test

 

cum

Paper &

Dielectrics and capacitance

2

6.1

TO 6.7

Discussion

Oral

ll

UNIT-2

 

Question

Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations.

4

7.1

TO 7.6

   

Steady magnetic field

2

8.1

TO 8.7

Lecture

Test

 

cum

Paper &

magnetic forces

1

9.1

TO 9.4

Discussion

Oral

 

Question

lll

UNIT-3

materials and inductance

2

9.5

TO 9.10

Time varying field and Maxwell’s equation.

3

10.1

TO

10.5

     

4

12.1

TO

Lecture

Test

iv

UNIT-4

Uniform Plane waves

12.5

cum

Paper &

Plane wave reflection and dispersion

4

13.1

TO

Discussion

Oral

   

13.8

Question

Text Books:

1. Hayt, W.H. and Buck, J.A., “Engineering Electromagnetic” Tata Mc.Graw Hill Publishing

Reference Books:

1. Jordan E.C. and Balmain K.G., “Electromagnetic Wave and radiating Systems” Prentice Hall International ,

2nd Edition.

2. Kraus, F. “Electromagnetic” Tata Mc. Graw Hill 5th Edition

3. Ramo S, Whinnery T.R. and Vanduzer T, “Field and Waves in Communication Electronics” John Wiely and

Sons 3rd Edition

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ELECTROMAFNETIC FIELD THEORY EEC - 508 TUTORIAL SHEET -1

1.

2.

4. Find the divergence of vector function.

3.

State and prove Gasuss’s law and discuss its application.

Discuss the vector representation of the a surface.

Prove the following

. B = 0 , B being magnetic flux density.

A = x 2 a x + (xy) 2 a y + 24 x 2 y 2 z 3 a z

A = x 2 + y 2 + z 3

5. Find the gradient of the function A given by

6.

Determine the vector A directed from (2,-4) to (0,-2,0) in Cartesian coordinates and determine the unit vector

a A = - a x +a y a z

Ans.

7.

(a)

(b)

(c)

8. Discuss the difference between dot product and cross product.

9. What is Stoke’s theorem? State and prove it.

10. State and explain the divergence theorem.

Write the following expression explicitly in Cartesian coordinates.

Grad div. E Curl E Div curl E.

TUTORIAL SHEET -2

1. Under what circumstances are the vectors A x (B x C) & B x (A x C) equal.

2. In free space, let Q 1 = 10nC be at P 1 (0,-4,0) & Q 2 = 20nC be at P 2 (0,0,4). Find E at the origin.

3. For the above values where should be 30 n c point charge be located 80 that E = 0 at the origin.

4. A point charge Q A = 1 µ c is at A (0,0,-1) and Q B = -1 µ c is at B (0,0,-1). Find E r , E 0 , E( at P (1,2,3). Ans. 554,225,0 v/m

5. Eight point charges of 1 nc each are located at the crones if a cube in free space that is 1 m or a side. Find E 1

at the center of cube.

6. For same, a face

7.For same, an edge

Ans. 5,6,7 = 0,19.57 v/m , 25.7 v/m.

8. For x,y and z positive, let ( v = 40 xyz c/m 2 .find the total charge with in the region defined by 0 ( x,y,z ( z.

9. Express Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations in various co-ordinate system.

10. State and explain the coulomb’s law.

TUTORIAL SHEET -3

1. A radio antenna 1cm diameter conductor is stretched horizontally 10 meter above the ground .Determine the capacitance of the antenna /unit length.

Ans - c=6.707pf

2. A thunder cloud above the earth setup a vertical electric field of 50 volt /meter. In this field there is a rain drop carrying charge of 0.3 µm. What is the electrostatic force on this rain drop? Ans- F=15x10 -6 N

3. Two point charges of 1 coulomb each and the same sign arte separated 1mm apart calculate the magnitude of

repulsive force.

Ans-F=9x10 15 N

4. Find out the force between two charges 1 c, when they are separated 1 m distance in air.

Ans-F=9x10 15 N

5. Calculate electric field intensity at a distance of 0.20 m from a charge 2.4 c in vacuum. Ans-E=4.5x10 2 KV/m.

6. A parallel plat capacitor consists of two sheets of copper foils each of area 0.1m 2 separated by 2.0mm thick seat of plastic having a relative permittivity of 2.1.What is capacitance .

Ans-C=924x10 -12 F

7. Calculate the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor having two dielectrics ε r1 = 1.5 & ε r1 = 3.5 ,each comprising one half space between plates but the interface is parallel to the plates, given A = 2m² & d = 1m. Ans.C 1 = 53.124x10 -9 F, C 2 =123.95 x10 -9 F, v q = 37.18x 10 -9 F.

8. Explain energy stored in magnetic fields.

9. Ampere’s law of force and its application.

10.Faraday’s law and its application.

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TUTORIAL SHEET -4

1. A point charge of 6 µc is located at the origin line charge dencity of 180nc/m lies the x axis and a uniform sheet of charge equal to 25nc/m 2 lies in the z=0 plain .Find D at A (0,0,4).

2. Find D at B (1, 2, 4) for above.

3. For same calculate the total electric flux leaving the serface of a sphere of 4m radius center at origin. Ans 1, 2, 3 # 47.5 a z nc/m², 4.96 a x +12.79 a y +38.1 a z nc/m²,8.70 µC respectively.

4. Calculate the divergence of Cc at P (2,-3,4) if Cp = x a x + y a y +z a z

5. For same C1 = pa 1, D=?

Ans 4,5,6 # 3,2,88.2 Ans -4.19

8. & 9. Determine the capacitance of each of the capacitor shown below, taking Єr 1 =4,Єr 2 =6,d=5 mm

6. For same C1 = 6r²sin θa r +2r²cosθa θ

7. Let the D=x a x & find the value of ø s u D.ds or the surface of sphere r= 1

,s=30cm²

Ans c=26.5

9. .Determine the capacitance of a capacitor consisting of two parallel metal plates 0.30x0.30m surface area ,separated by 5 mm in air what is the total energy stored by the capacitor if the capacitor is charged to a potential difference of 500v.What is the energy intensity

TUTORIAL SHEET -5

1. Obtain H due to an infinitely long straight filament of current I, using ampere’s law

2. The magnitude of H at a radius of 1 m from long linear conductors is 1 A/m. calculate the current.

3. A square of edge a carrier, a current I. Show that the value of V at the center is given by B = 22 µI / π 9 .

4. If the magnitude of H in a plain wave is 1A/m, what is the magnitude of E for a plane wave in free space?

5. The electric field intensity of an electromagnetic wave in free space is given by E x = 0, Ez = 0, Ey = E0 cos ω (t-z/v), Define the expression for the components of magnetic strength H, using Maxwell equation.

6. Explain the nature of magnetic material.

7. Define magnetic boundary conditions.

8. Write a brief note on Inductance.

9. Write the Maxwell equation as per laws.

10. Explain retarded potential.

TUTORIAL SHEET -6

1. In fig10.1 of W.H. Hayt, replace the uniform B field by B= 2e -50y az. Find v12 (t) if d= 4 cm and v= 65 ay

mi/h with y=0 at t=0

Ans—2.33e -1453t

2. let us assume that the sliding bar of fig 10.4,( W.H. Hay) is fixed at position at x=1 m with a rail separation

of 8 cm. find Vab (t) if Bz = 2 cos 10 8 t µT.

Ans-

-16 sin 10 8 tV

3. For same if Bz = 2 cos (108 t – x/3)µT.

4. Let B= 0.5xaz t in fig 10.4 the position of the sliding bar is given by x=4t-2t2 if the separation of the radius is 10 cm. find voltmeter reading Vab at t=0.55.

Ans-15.93 cos (108 t – 99.5)V

Ans- - 0.15V

5. calculate same for x=1 m,

6. State explains biosavart law for static, magnetic field as applied to different types of current distribution.

7. find J if H= 31 X + 7y 1y +2X 1z A/m

8. find J if H= 6 RLr +2 r L ø + 51z A/m

9. Find magnetic vector potential A due to an infinity plane current sheet of uniform density K fig. 6.13 of S.P.Sethi.

10. Magnetic field intensity in free space is given by –H= 20 (X1x + Y1y)/ (x2 + y2) A/m, show that

Ans-

-0.1414V

. B=0

- 11 -

TUTORIAL SHEET -7

1. Explain the mechanism of wave motion on free space.

2. Describe in brief the wave motion in perfect dielectrics.

3. Explain the plain wave in losy dielectrics.

4. What is poynting vector?

5. Explain in detail for what purpose the pointing vector is used.

6. Explain the spin effect?

7. Explain how reflection of uniform plain wave takes place.

8. Describe the standing wave ratio.

9. By integrating the pointing vector over the cross-section of a co-axial cable. Show that the total power carried by the cable is VI, Where V is the voltage and I is current.

10. Find the velocity of a plain wave in a lostless medium having a relating permittivity of 5 and relative

permeability of unity.

TUTORIAL SHEET -8

Ans.3x10 8

1. Derive the relation between E and H in uniform plane wave.

2. Derive the expression for α and β in a conducting medium.

3. VSWR and the reflection indicate the matching condition between networks. Justify it.

4. The poynting theorem gives the energy balance in asystem. Justify it by obtaining necessary relation.

5. A wave propagation in a loss less dielectric has the components, E =500cos(10 7 t- (z) ax v/m and H = 1.1cos(10 7 t- (z) ay A/m.If the wave is traveling a V=0.5c. Find out (a) ( r , (b) Є r, ( c) ( Ans - 2.41, 1.659, 0.0667 rad/m

6. For the above question also calculate (

& Moh

Ans - 94.2 rad/m, & 455

7. A uniform plane wave in free space is given by Es=200e j0.1z ax v/m. Find the instantaneous value of poyniting vector at t = 0,z = 0,15,30 & 45.

Ans 10.62 a z, 0.531a z ,014.1a z & 4.72a z w/m 2

8. A brass pipes (r = 10 7 ) with inner and outer radius of 1.7 and 2 cm carriers a total current of 100A dc. Find the E, H and p with brass.

Ans- 0.0287 a z v/m,[(143400/ ρ)-41.4 ρ] a Φ A/m, [(-4110/ ρ)+1.18 ρ] a

p

(/m 2 .

9. A nonmagnetic good conductor support a uniform plane wave traveling at a velocity of 2.5x10 5 m/s with a

wavelength of 0.25mm.Find the frequency and conductivity. Ans - 14Hz,1.6x10 5 moh/m.

- 12 -

MODEL PAPER ELE CTRO MAGNETIC FIELD THEORY

Time : 3 Hours

Total Mark s : 100

Note : Attempt all the questions

1)

Attempt any four of the fo llowing

Write down gradient of any scal ar & divergence and curl of any vector :

of any scal ar & divergence and curl of any vector : in dif ferent co-ordinate

in dif ferent co-ordinate System

(a)

If
If

= α

= 4 α

: in dif ferent co-ordinate System (a) If = α = 4 α x + 2

x + 2

dif ferent co-ordinate System (a) If = α = 4 α x + 2 y +

y + 10

co-ordinate System (a) If = α = 4 α x + 2 y + 10 z

z and

System (a) If = α = 4 α x + 2 y + 10 z and

x + 8

(a) If = α = 4 α x + 2 y + 10 z and x

y -1 0

α = 4 α x + 2 y + 10 z and x + 8 y

z find out the value of

10 z and x + 8 y -1 0 z find out the value of for

for which two vec tor become perpendicular

(b) Given Points A(x=2, y=3 ,z=-1) and B(ρ =4 , Φ = -50 o , z=2) find the dista nce A to B

(c) State the word statement of Coulomb’s law of forces . Three point charge s q1 = 10 -6 C , q2 = -10 - 6 C and q3 = 0.5 X 10 -6 C

are located in air at the c orners of an equilateral triangle of 50 cm side . Determine the magnitude and direction of the force q3

(d) Two uniform line charge

of density

ρe = 4 nc/m lie in the x= 0 plane at y= 4m

Find

of density ρ e = 4 nc/m lie in the x= 0 plane at y= 4m

at (4 , 0 , 10) m

(e) Charge distributed throu ghout a volume V with density ρ gives rise to an

electric field with energy

density ρ gives rise to an electric field with energy content W E = permittivity of

content W E = permittivity of the mediu m

. Show that its equivalent is W E =

of the mediu m . Show that its equivalent is W E = where ε is

where

ε

is the

2)

Attempt any four of the fo llowing

(a) Explain convection curre nt and conduction current. Derive ohm’s law in p oint form?

(b) The electric field intensi ty in polystyrene ( ε r =2.55) filling the space bet ween the plates of parallel

calculate: (1) the surface

plate capacitor is 10 kV /m. the distance between the plates is 1.5 mm. charges on the plates (2) the potential difference between the plates.

(c) Derive dielectric-dielectr ic boundary condition?

(d) Two conducting cones (θ =П/10 and θ =П/6 ) of infinite extent are seprated bty an infinitesimal gap r=0 . If V(θ =П/10) = 0 and V(θ =П/6) = 50V F ind V and E between the cones

(e) The electric field intensit y at a point on the surface of a conductor ia given

by

(f)

y at a point on the surface of a conductor ia given by (f) = 0.2

= 0.2

x +0.3 x +0.3

the surface of a conductor ia given by (f) = 0.2 x +0.3 y + 10

y +

10

of a conductor ia given by (f) = 0.2 x +0.3 y + 10 z V/m

z

V/m . Find the surface charge density a t the point

+ 10 z V/m . Find the surface charge density a t the point Determine in

Determine in spheri cal co-ordinates from poisson’s equation assum ing a uniform a uniform charge density ρ

3)

Attempt any two of the fol lowing:

a) A charge particle of mass 2 k g and charge IC starts at the origin with velocity 3â y m/s and travels in the region of uniform magnetic field B=10â z Wb/m 2 .At t=4s , Calculate:ф (i) The velocity and acceleration of the particle. (ii) The magnetic force on it. (iii) Kinetic energy and location.

- 13 -

b)Define Bio Savart Law and Amperes Law(in detail).

c)A long ,straight conductor cross section with radius ‘a’ has a magnetic field

strength H=( Ir/2Πa 2 ф with in the conductor(r<a) and H(I/Π2r)â ф for (r<a).find J in both the region?

4)

Attempt any two of the following:

a)

How the wave propogation takes place in dispersive medium?Light is incident from air to glass at Brewsters angle.Determine the incident and transmitted angles?

b)

Determine the polarization.State of plane wave with electric field E(z,t)= â x 3cos(wt-kz+30˚)- â y 4sin(wt-

kz+45˚)mV/m.

c)

A lossy dielectric has an intrinsic impedance of 200ے30˚ohm at a particular frequency.If at that frequency the plane wave propogating through the dielectric has the magnetic field component H=10exp(-α x )cos(wt-1/2x) â y A/m. Find E, α and skin depth

5)

Attempt any two of the following

a) Derive Transmission line differential equation.Derive the condition of loss less transmission line from it?

b) (i) A 50 ohm lossless transmission line is terminated by a load impedance Z L =(50-j75)ohm.If the incident power is 100 mW. Find the power dissipated by the load? (ii) A transmission line operating at 500 MHz has Z0 = 80 ohm,α=0.04 Np/m ,β=1.5rad/m.Find the line parameters?

c) Using the concept of Maxwells equation explain how wave propogates in guided waves?

- 14 -

COURSE PLAN ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION-II

EEE-501

Course Description: The course is designed to impart knowledge of AC machines, mainly 3-phase synchronous machine and 3-phase and 1-phase induction motors. Theory, operation, controls and applications of these machines are to be discussed. 1-phase AC commutator motors and stepper motors are also included.

Unit No.

Competencies

Contents

H

Ref.

1.

Student may learn

Constructional features, Armature winding

2

1 & 2

Synchron

operation,

 

EMF Equation, winding coefficients.

1

ous

windings, basics,

Armature Reaction, Equivalent circuit & phasor diagram

2

Machine-

phasor diagram,

 

O.C. and S.C Test and Voltage regulation

1

I

regulation and related calculations as generator

Voltage Regulation using Synchronous impedance method, MMF method, Potier’s Triangle method

2

Parallel operation of Synchronous generators

1

 

Operation on infinite bus

1

Synchronising power and torque coefficient

1

2.

Students may learn the operation of salient pole generator and 3- phase synchronous

Two reaction theory

1

1 & 2

Synchron

Power flow equation of Cylindrical and Salient pole machines

1

ous

Operating characteristics of Synchronous machines

1

Machine-

Starting method for Synchronous motors

1

II. and

Effect of changing field current at different loads & V-Curves

1

Synchron

motors including

Hunting & damping

1

ous

applications

 

Synchronous Condensor

1

Mohrs

3. Three

Student

may

Constructional feature and rotating magnetic field

2

1 & 2

phase

become

familiar

Principal of Operation and Phasor diagram, Equivalent circuit

2

Induction

with

theory

and

Torque and power equations, Torque-slip Characteristics

2

Machine-

operation

of

3-

No load and blocked rotor tests & efficiency

1

I

phase

Induction

Induction generator

1

motors

 

Student will be

 

Starting and starting methods.

2

 

4-

familiar with

Three

starting & speed

Double cage and Deep bar rotor

1

phase

control methods

 

Induction

and crawling &

Cogging & crawling

1

1 & 2

Machine

cogging

–II

phenomenon in 3 phase Induction motor

Speed control and its methods

2

5-

Students will learn

Double Revolving field theory

2

1 & 2

Single

the Principal of 1-

Equivalent circuit

1

phase

phase Induction

 

No-load & Block rotor tests

1

induction

motor and

Repulsion Motor

1

motor

Reputation motors.

A.C.

Students will learn principal of A.C. Commutator Motor and Stepper Motors and their applications

Modification in D.C. Series motor for A.C. operation

1

1 & 2

Commut

Compensated A.C. Series

1

ator

Universal motor

1

And

Stepper Motors

1

Stepper

Motors

 

- 15 -

Text Books:

1- D.P.Kothari & I.J. Nagrath, “Electric Machine”, Tata Mc Graw Hill

2- Ashfaq Hussain “Electric Machine” Dhanpat Rai & Company

Reference Books:

1-

P.S.Bimbhara “Electrical Machine” , Khanna Publisher P.S.Bimbhara “Generalized theory of Electrical Machine” ,

2-

Khanna Publiser

3-

M.G. Say “alternat “Alternating Current Machine” , Pitman & Sons

4-

O.C. Taylor, “The performance & desing of A.C.Commutator Motors” , A.H. Wheeler & Co(P) Ltd.

5-

Fitzerald A.E., Kingsley and S.D.Umans “Electric Machinery” , Mc Graw Hill.

- 16 -

ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION-II

EEE-501

NOTE: Every Student must submit each tutorial sheet within three days of completion of the unit for its evaluation. Each tutorial sheet is of 10 marks .

TUTORIAL SHEET-1

1-

An Alternator Armature core has 36 slots. A 4-pole 3-phase, 60 0 phase spread winding is placed in the stator (a) in single layer (b) in double layers. Each coil has 12 turns. The winding is short pitched by one slot.

(i)

Draw developed winding diagram showing start and finish of each phase

 

(ii)

Connection scheme for star and delta connections

 

(iii)

Find winding factor.

(iv)

Find emf. Induced per phase at 1500 rpm, talking flux per pole=0.12 Wb

 

2-

A 20-pole, 50 Hz, 3 Phase star connected salient pole Alternator having 20 slots with 72 conductors per slot, in two layers in its full pitched, concentrated coil stator winding. The sinusoidally distributed flux per pole is 25 m Wb. Calculate, (i) speed (ii) winding factor (iii) per phase emf and (iv) Line emf. generated

3-

A 10-pole, 3 Phase star connected Alternator has 6 slots per pole with 10 conductors per slot in its two layers stator winding The winding is of 150 0 Coil span. Speed of Alternator is 600 rpm. Calculate (i) Frequency (ii) Slot angle (iii) Distribution factor (iv) Pitch factor (v) Per phase emf. And (VI) line emf.

4-

A 2000 kVA, 11 kV, 3 Phase star connected Alternator has a resistance of 0.3 and reactance of 5 per phase. It delivers full load current at 0.8 lagging power factor and normal rated voltage. Calculate power angle and no load voltage, if excitation remains constant.

5-

A 3 phase synchronous generator has d-axis synchronous reactance 0.8 p.u and q-axis synchronous reactance 0.5 p.u. The generator is supplying full load at 0.8 p.f. Lagging at 1:0 p.u. terminal voltages. Calculate (i) Power Angle and (ii) the no load voltage, if excitation remains unchanged.

6-

The table gives date for OCT and SCT on a 6-pole, 440V, 50Hz, 3 Phase star connected Alternator. The effective Ohmic resistance between any two terminals of the armature is 0.3

 

Field current(A)

2

4

6

7

8

10

12

14

 

O.C. Terminal voltage (V)

156

288

396

440

474

530

568

592

S.C. line current (A)

11

22

34

40

46

57

69

80

Find regulation at full load current of 40 A with (i) 0.8 p.f. lagging (ii) 0.8 p.f. leading, by Synchronous Impedance Method.

7-

For question No.6, find regulation at full load current of 40 A with (i) 0.8 p.f. lagging (ii) 0.8 p.f. leading, by MMF method.

8- The table gives data for OC and ZPF test on a 6-pole, 440V, 50Hz, 3 Phase star connected alternator. The effective Ohmic resistance between any two terminals of the armature is 0.3 .

Field current(A)

2

4

6

7

8

10

12

14

16

18

O.C. Terminal

156

288

396

440

474

530

568

392

---

---

voltage (V)

ZPF voltage (V)

---

---

---

0

80

206

341

398

460

504

Find regulation at full load current of 40 A with (i) 0.8 p.f. lagging (ii) 0.8 p.f. loading,

Potier method.

using

9- A 1000 kVA, 3 Phase star connection alternator has a rated Terminal voltage of 3.3kV.The resistance and synchronous reactance per phase are 0.4 and 6 respectively .Estimate voltage regulation at 0.8 p.f. lagging and Draw the phase diagram.

- 17 -

10-

Two identical Alternators of rating 2 MVA each are operated in parallel to share

3 MW load

at unity p.f. For the 1 st machine the uniform frequency drops from 50 Hz at no load to 48Hz at full load and for the 2 nd machine, it is from 50Hz to 47.5Hz. Find (a) how will the two machines share the total load? (b) What will the maximum load that can be delivered at unity power factor, without overloading either machine? 11- A 3 Phase star connected alternator having per phase resistance and reactance 0.4 and 6 respectively delivers 300A at 0.8 p.f. to a constant frequency 10kV busbar. Find the percentage change in e.m.f. necessary to rais the power factor to unity, if steam supply is unchangd and change in losses ignored. 12- A 2 MVA, 3 Phase star connected 8-pole, 750 rpm Alternator is operating on 6kV busbars. Synchronous reactance is 6 per phase, Find synchronizing power and torque per mechanical degree of displacement for full load 0.8 p.f. lagging.

TUTORIAL SHEETS-2

1- A 1200 kVA, 1100 V, 3 Phase 50 Hz star connected salient pole Synchronous generator has

reactance, X d =1.8 and X q =1.2per phase. Find the excitation voltage when it is operated at 0.85 power factor lagging. Neglect the losses.

2-

A 400V, 50Hz delta connected Alternator has a X d =0.1and X q =0.07per phase. The Alternator is supplying 1000A at 0.8 lagging power factor. The armature resistance is negligible. Find the excitation emf. :

(i)

Neglecting the saliency and assuming X s = Xd

(ii)

Taking the saliency into account

3-

A Synchronous generator has X d =0.8 pu. and X q =0.5 pu. lt is supplying full load at 0.8 p.f. lagging

Calculate the excitation emf.

(i)

Without ignoring X q

(iii)

Ignoring X q and assuming X s = X d

(iv)

Also find power angle with and without X q

4-

A 3 phase Alternator has X d =0.8 pu. and X q =0.4 pu. Calculation per unit excitation voltage per

phase when the alternator is supplying rated load at 0.8 p.f. lagging at rated voltage. Neglect R a . Also find the Power Angle. 5- A 3 phase 400V, 50 Hz, 4 pole synchronous motor has negligible armature resistance and synchronous reactance 6 per phase. Its field excitation is adjusted so that the power factor becomes unity, when the motor draws 3 kW from the supply. Calculate:

(i)

The excitation voltage and power angle.

(ii)

Mechanical power developed.

(iii)

The maximum torque the motor can deliver, if field excitation is constant and the shaft load is slowly increasing.

6- A 1500kW, 3.3kV, 3 phase star connection synchronous motor has reactances X d =4.01and X q =2.88per phase. All losses may be neglected. Calculate (i) excitation emf. when the motor is supplying rated load at unit power factor (ii) the maximum power the motor can supply with excitation held fixed at this value. 7- A 3 phase 11kV star connected synchronous motor takes 50A input current. The effective resistance and synchronous reactance per phase are 1and 30respectively. Calculate (i) the induced emf. for (a) 0.8 leading (b) .8 lagging p.f. and (ii) power supplied to the motor.

8-

A 6600V, 3 phase star connected synchronous motor draws 80A full load current at 0.8 p.f. lagging. The armature resistance and synchronous reactance are 2.2and 22per phase respective. If stray losses of the machine are 3200W, determine (i) emf. included (ii) output power and (iii) the efficiency

9-

A 150HP, 2300V, 1000RPM, 50Hz, 3 phase star connection cylindrical rotor synchronous motor has a synchronous resistance. Of 34 per phase and negligible armature resistance. It is operating with an input power of 60KW at a generated voltage of 1800V per phase. Determined (i) power angle (ii) motor input and (iii) power factor.

10- A 200 MVA 11kV, 3phase delta connection synchronous motor has synchronous impedance of 15 /phase .Iron, friction and windage losses are 1200kW. Find (i) value of the unity p.f. current drawn by the motor at 15MW shaft load (ii) what will be the excitation emf under this condition?

- 18 -

(iii) If the excited emf. is adjusted to 15.5kV(line) and the shaft is so adjusted that the motor draws unity power factor current, find net motor output. 11- A 3 phase synchronous motor absorbing 60kW is connected in parallel with a factory load of 240kW having 0.8 p.f. lagging. Determine the value of leading kVAr supplied by the motor and the p.f. at which the motor is working. 12- A small industrial load of 500kW at 0.6 p.f. lagging supplied from a 3.3 kW, 3 phase, 50Hz system. It is desired to raise the p.f. of the entire system to 0.8 lagging by means of a synchronous motor which is also driving a pump taking 10kW from the line. Determine the kVA rating of the synchronous motor.

TUTORIAL SHEET-3

1-

A 3phase induction motor runs at a speed of 1485 rpm at no-load and at 1350 rpm at full load at 50 Hz, 3phase line. Find : (i) No. of pole in the motor. (ii) Percentage slip at no-load and at full-load. (iii)

Rotor e.m.f frequency at no-load and full load. (iv)Speed of rotor field with respect to rotor conductors at no-load and at full load. (v)Speed of rotor field with respect to the stator at no-load and at full load.

(vi)

Speed of rotor field with respect to the stator field at no-load and at full load.

2-

A 3phase slipring induction motor has induced e.m.f of 40V between open circuited sliprings at normal voltage applied to the stator winding. The rotor resistance and standstill reactance per phase are 0.5 and 3 respectively. Calculate: (i)Rotor current and rotor power factor at standstill.(ii)Rotor current and rotor power factor, if 4+j3 impedance per phase is added in the rotor circuit at standstill.(iii)Rotor current and rotor power factor at normal running with 4% slip.

3-

A 6 pole, 50 Hz, 3phase induction motor running at full load gives 150N-m useful torque at 1.5 Hz rotor e.m.f. frequency. If mechanical torque lost in friction and winding is 10N-m and stator losses are 700W, calculate: (i)Shaft power output (ii)Rotor copper loss (iii) Mechanical power developed (iv)Efficiency of the motor.

4-

A 1000V, 6-pole, 50Hz, 3phase star connected induction motor have slipring rotor resistance 0.02 and standstill reactance 0.03 per phase. In the motor full load torque is obtained at 970rpm. Calculate: (i) the ratio of maximum torque to full load torque (ii) the speed at maximum torque and (iii) the ratio of starting torque to full load torque

5-

A 400V, 50Hz, 4-pole, 3phase star connection induction motor is having stator impedance (0.15+j0.4)

, equivalent rotor impedance referred to sartor (0.16+j0.4) , magnetizing reactance, X o =20 , core loss equivalent resistance, R o =200 and slip 3% at load. Draw equivalent circuit for the motor and calculate: (i) Effective rotor impedance referred to stator. (ii) Total input impedance of the motor. (iii) Stator current (iv) Rotor current (v) Mechanical power output and (vi) Input power to the motor.

6-

A 6-pole, 500V, 50Hz, 3phase induction motor running at full load with 4% slip, develops 14.92kW at 0.86 lagging p.f. The stator copper and iron losses are 1620W and friction and winding losses are 200W. Calculate: (i)Rotor copper losses (ii) Rotor power input

(iii)

Mechanical power developed (iv) Input power to the motor (v) Line current and

(vi) Efficiency of the motor.

7-

A 6-pole, 200V, 50Hz, 3phase star connection squirrel cage induction motor is having rotor resistance and standstill rotor leakage reactance per phase 0.1 and 0.8 respectively . The ratio of rotor to stator turns is 0.65 at 5% slip, calculate: (i) rotor current (ii) rotor power input (iii) Mechanical Power developed by the rotor (iv) Torque developed in the rotor. Also calculate for maximum torque condition (i) the slip (ii) Rotor copper loss (iii) Mechanical power (iv) Rotor speed and (v) Maximum Torque

8-

A 6-pole, 400V, 50Hz, 3phase induction motor having 0.15 stator winding resistance per phase, is tested as below:

No Load test (line value) :

Block rotor test (line value) :

400V, 20A, 2080W

133V, 100A 8085W

Determine (i) Equipment circuit of the motor referred to stator side (ii) Losses in the motor and (iii) Efficiency at full load.

9-

A 4-pole, 50Hz, 3phase induction motor develops a maximum torque of 100N-m at 1360 rpm. The star connected rotor is having 0.25 /phase. Calculate the value of resistance per phase to be added in each phase to produce starting torque equal to half of the maximum torque in the motor.

10-

A 4-pole, 50Hz, 3pahse star connection induction motor is operated at 200V line voltage. The rotor resistance and standstill rotor reactance per phase are 0.1 and 0.9 The ration of rotor turns to stator turns is 0.67, Calculate, (a) total torque at 4% slip (b) maximum torque (c) speed at maximum torque (d) maximum mechanical power developed. Stator impedance is neglected.

- 19 -

11- A 4-pole, 400V, 50Hz, 3phase squirrel cage induction motor runs at 1450 rpm at 0.85 p.f lagging developing 11kW power. The stator losses and the Mechanical losses are 1.1kW and 400W respectively. Determine (i) Slip (ii) Rotor copper loss (iii) Rotor frequency (iv) line current and (v) Efficiency 12- The following test result are obtained on a 7.5kW, 4-pole, 400V, 50Hz, 3phase delta connection induction motor, having per phase stator resistance 2.1 :

No Load: 400V, 5.5A, 410W, Rotor Blocked: 140V, 20A, 1550W. Obtain approximate Equivalent circuit Also find the breaking torque developed when the motor running with a slip of 0.05 has two of its line terminal suddenly interchanged.

TUTORIAL SHEET-4

1. A 5 kW, 400V, 50Hz 3phase delta connected induction motor is started with the help of a star-delta starter. The short circuit line current of the motor at 100V is 15A. I f full load efficiency of the motor is 85% at 0.8 p.f. lagging, calculate:

(i) Starting line current and (ii) the ratio of starting to the full road current.

2. A 400V, 50Hz 3 phase delta connected squirrel cage induction motor draw 25A phase current, when started at the rated source. Determine :(i) Starting line current at DOL starting. (ii)Starting line and phase current at star delta starting (iii) Starting line and phase current at Auto transformer starting with

60% tapping.

3. A 400V, 50Hz, 3phase delta connected squirrel cage induction motor has short circuit current, 5 time of its full load current with 5% full load slip. Find the starting torque in terms of full load torque at:

(i) DOL starting (ii) Star-delta starting and (iii) Auto transformer starting, when starting current is

limited to twice the full load current.

4. A cage type 3phase induction motor when started by star-delta starter talks 180% of full load line current and develops 35% of full load torque at starting. Calculate the starting torque and current in

terms of full load values, if an autotransformer with 80% lapping was employed.

5. A 8-pole, 50Hz, 3phase induction motor develops a maximum torque of 150N-m at 650 rpm. The rotor resistance per phase is 0.6. Find torque at 4% slip. Neglect stator resistance.

6. A 400V, 4-pole, 50Hz, 3phase star connected induction motor has following parameters refered to stator .r 1 =0.15,x 1 =0.44 ,r 2 =0.12 ,x 2 =0.44 , x m =30, core loss equivalent resistance neglected. Find:

(i) Stator current and (ii) Power factor at rated voltage and 4% slip.

7. The rotor of a 6-pole, 50Hz slip-ring induction motor, having per phase resistance 0.25, runs at 960 rpm at full load .Determine the value of external resistance to be added per phase to reduce its speed to 800 rpm at the some torque.

8. A 400V, 4-pole, 50Hz, 3phase delta connected two cage induction motor have respective standstill per phase impedance (2+j8) and (9+j2) ohms referred to stator. Calculate the total torque developed

(i)

At standstill

(ii)

At 1450 rpm. Also find total stating torque at star-delta starting. Neglect stator impedance.

9. A 8-pole, 50Hz, 3phase induction motor develops a maximum torque of 150N-m at 650 rpm. Find

(a)

torque at 4% slip, if motor resistance per phase is 0.6and stator impedance is neglected.

(b) A 3phase induction motor has starting torque of 100% and maximum torque of 200% of the full

load torque Determine: (i) Slip at the maximum torque and

(ii) Full load slip.

10. A 4-pole, 400V, 50Hz, 3phase delta connected induction motor has a leakage impedance (0.3+j5.5+0.25/s) ohms/phase (delta-phase) refered to the stator. The external resistance to be insisted in each star- phase of the motor winding such that the motor develops a gross torque of 150 N-m at a speed of 1250 rpm. Neglect the no-load current.

11. A 4-pole, 50Hz, 3phase inductions motor is having per phase rotor resistance and standstill rotor reactance 0.04and 0.16respectively. Calculate the value of external rotor resistance per phase to be inserted to obtain 70% of the maximum torque at starting.

12. A 3phase, 6-pole, 50Hz, induction rotor having per phase motor resistance 0.2, runs with 3% slip at full load. Find the value of series resistance per phase to be added in rotor circuit to reduce its speed by 10%. Neglect the leakage reactance.

- 20 -

TUTORIAL SHEET-5

1. A 230,50Hz,4-pole,1phase split phase induction motor is tested as below:

No Load Test

:

230V, 6.4A, 220W

Block Rotor Test

:

82.5V, 9.3A, 500W

The main winding resistance of the motor is 2.5.

Determine equivalent circuit parameters and draws the equivalent circuit.

2. A 230V, 50Hz 4-pole 1phase split phase induction rotor having equivalent circuit parameters as:

R 1 =2.5, X 1 =3.362, X m =60.945R 2 =3.28and X 2 =3.365.

The motor is running at 1420 rpm at motor voltage. Determine: (i) Input current and power factor (ii)

Input power (iii) Torque developed (iv) Mechanical power developed (v) Rotor copper losses and (vi)

Air-gap power.

3. The equivalent circuit parameters of a 230V 50Hz, 1phase induction motor having friction, winding and core losses 50W, are given below:

R 1 =2.4, X 1 =3.2, X m =90 , R 2 =4.7and X 2 =2.8

At 4% slip, calculate (i) input current (ii) power factor (iii) developed power (iv) Output power and (v) Efficiency

4. A 220V, 6-pole, 50Hz single winding single phase induction motor has following equivalent circuit

parameters as refered to the stator:

R 1 =3, X 1 =5, R 2 =1.5and X 2 =2

Compute the ratios of E m ƒ/E m b, Tf/Tb and the gross total torque, when the motor runs at 97% of the synchronous speed. Neglect the magnetizing current.

5. A 230V, 4-pole, 50Hz, 1phase induction motor has an effective rotor resistance and leakage reactance of 0.5and 0.5respectively. It is running at a speed of 1350rpm. Determine:

(i)

Frequencies of forward and backward rotor current components.

(ii)

Relative magnitudes of forward and backward fluxes.

Neglect magnetizing current and stator impedance

6. Determine the parameters of equivalent circuit of a 220V, 1phase induction motor from the following

test results:

No- load test

:

220V, 4A, 100W

Blocked-rotor test

:

110V, 10A, 400W

Also find iron and mechanical losses. Assume rotor resistance refered to stator side equal to the stator resistance.

7. A 230V, 500W, 4000rpm, 50Hz, 1phase series motor has total resistance of 3and total reactance of 20. For a stray power loss of 40W, determine the current and power factor when working under rated

conditions.

8. The main and auxiliary winding impedances of a 50Hz capacitor start single phase induction motor are,

Z m =(3+j2.7)and Z a =(7+j3)respectively Find the value of capacitor to be connected in series to the

auxiliary winding to get a phase difference, α=90 0 between the two winding currents at start.

9. An universal motor has a resistance of 30and an inductance of 0.5H. It runs at 2000rpm when connected to 250V d.c. at 0.8A load current. Determine the speed, torque and power factor, when connected to 250V, 50Hz a.c. for the some load current

10. A ¼ HP 110V split phase motor is having starting winding current 4A lagging 15 0 and running winding current 6A lagging 40 0 to the supply voltage, when delivering rated output Calculate: (a) Total starting current and p.f. (b)Power dissipated by starting and running windings.(c)Steady state power dissipated during running.(d) Efficiency of the motor.

11. A 220V, 1phase induction motor having 1.2d.c. stator resistance has following test results:

No-load test

Blocked-rotor test

Estimate power factor and efficiency if slip, s=5%

:

:

220V, 6V 350W 125V 15A 580W

12. The test result on a 230V, 50Hz, 1phase induction motor at stand still are:

Main winding : 125V, 2.5A 62.5W

Auxiliary winding : 90V, 1.2, A64.8W Determine the value of capacitor to get maximum torque at starting

- 21 -

COURSE PLAN CONTROL SYSTEM

EEE-502

Unit

Topic Name

Book Nos

Chapt

Page Nos

No.of

No.

er

Lect.

1

The Control System: Open loop & closed control; servomechanism, Physical examples. Transfer functions, Block diagram algebra, Signal flow graph, Mason’s gain formula Reduction of parameter variation and effects of disturbance by using negative feedback

1, 2

1, 1

2-08,

1

6-7

1

2

46-83

5

1

3

93-102

1

2

Time Response analysis:

       

Standard test signals, time response of first and second order systems, time response specifications, steady state errors and error constants Design specifications of second order systems:

1

5

194-214

3

Derivative error, derivative output, integral error and PID compensations, design considerations for higher order systems, performance indices

1

5

215-226

5

3

Control System Components:

1

4

138-142,

3

Constructional and working concept of ac servomotor, synchros and stepper motor Stability and Algebraic Criteria concept of stability and necessary conditions, Routh-Hurwitz criteria and limitations Root Locus Technique: The root locus concepts, construction of root loci

148-163

1

6

270-291

3

1

7

299-320

3

4

Frequency response Analysis:

1

8

346-365

5

Frequency response, correlation between time and frequency responses, polar and inverse polar plots, Bode plots Stability in Frequency Domain: Nyquist stability criterion, assessment of relative stability: gain margin and phase margin, constant M&N circles

1

9

376-413

3

5

Introduction to Design:

1

10

426-475

5

The design problem and preliminary considerations lead, lag and lead-lag networks, design of closed loop systems using compensation techniques in time domain and frequency domain. Review of state variable technique: Review of state

variable technique, conversion of state variable model to transfer function model and vice-versa, diagonalization, Controllability and observability and their testing

1

12

586-596,

4

599-504,

ADDITIONAL TOPICS

STEPPER MOTOR

617-625

Types; Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor, Variabl Reluct Reluctance Stepper Motor & Hybrid Stepper Motor. Use of Stepper Motor in Control system.

6

CONTROLLER Basic concepts of P, PD, PI & PID contro

2

Text Book:

1. Nagrath & Gopal, “Control System Engineering”, 4 th Edition, New age International.

2. K. Ogata, “Modern Control Engineering”, Prentice Hall of India.

Reference Books:

1. Norman S. Mise, Control System Engineering 4 th edition, Wiley

2. M.Gopal, “Control System; Principle and design”, Tata McGraw Hill.

3. M.Gopal,” Modern Control system, Tata McGraw Hill.

Publishing Co.

4. D.Roy Choudhary, “Modern Control Engineering”, Prentice Hall of India.

- 22 -

UNIT -1

TUTORIAL SHEET 1

1. Draw the Mechanical equipm ent network of the following rotational system a nd write the system equation

following rotational system a nd write the system equation 2. Draw the mechanical networ k of

2. Draw the mechanical networ k of given system and draw the electrical analogo us circuit use f-v & f-I analogy

the electrical analogo us circuit use f-v & f-I analogy 3. For the mechanical system dr

3. For the mechanical system dr aw

(a)

Mechanical equivalent ne twork

(b)

Electrical analogous circ uit

(c)

Write the system equatio n.

analogous circ uit (c) Write the system equatio n. 4. Find the transfer function ma trix

4. Find the transfer function ma trix for the system shows below assuming f 1 & f 2 as the two components of

x 2 as the two components of the position vector in the Laplace transform

input force vector and x 1 & from

Laplace transform input force vector and x 1 & from 5. Obtain C(S)/R(S) for the bloc

5. Obtain C(S)/R(S) for the bloc k diagram shows below using reduction techniqu es.

vector and x 1 & from 5. Obtain C(S)/R(S) for the bloc k diagram shows below
vector and x 1 & from 5. Obtain C(S)/R(S) for the bloc k diagram shows below

- 23 -

6.

Using mason’s gain formula, determine the ration C/R for the system reprinte d by the following block diagram.

for the system reprinte d by the following block diagram. 7. Determine the overall transfe r

7. Determine the overall transfe r function from the single flow graph shows in Fi g using the mason’s gain formula.

flow graph shows in Fi g using the mason’s gain formula. UNIT -2 TUTORIAL SHEET 2

UNIT -2 TUTORIAL SHEET 2

1. The transfer function of o n elements second order system may be given by

function of o n elements second order system may be given by Where K is the

Where K is the gain, the v alues of J & F are given respectively

as J=5.0*10 -2 Kg-Cm 2 F=2.5*10 - 4 Nm/rad/sec

(i)

Find the damping ratio and nature frequency of oscillations as a fu nction of K.

(ii)

What value of K

will make the system critically damped?

2. Consider a unity feedbac k system having transfer function

Consider a unity feedbac k system having transfer function Determine the open loop transfer function and

Determine the open loop transfer function and steady state error coefficien ts.

3. The open loop transfer fu nction of a unity feedback control system is give n by

fu nction of a unity feedback control system is give n by (i) Calculate the nat

(i) Calculate the nat ural frequency of oscillations, damped factor , da mping ration and the maximum oversh oot of a unit step input

- 24 -

(ii) It the damping

of gain SK t calculate the

tachometer cons tant K t and determine the maximum over shoo t, peak time and settling

time Black diagr am incorporating tachometer feedback is

ratio is to be made 0.75 using a tachometer

feedback is ratio is to be made 0.75 using a tachometer 4. A servomechanism is cha
feedback is ratio is to be made 0.75 using a tachometer 4. A servomechanism is cha

4. A servomechanism is cha racterized by the deferential equation

servomechanism is cha racterized by the deferential equation Find the value of dampin g ratio. What

Find the value of dampin g ratio. What information does this convey the tr ansient performance?

5. For a control system sho wn in fig, find the value of k and k t so that the da mping ratio of system is

0.6 and setting time (t s ) is

0.1 sec .use t s =3.2/wn.

and setting time (t s ) is 0.1 sec .use t s =3.2/wn. UNIT -3 TUTORIAL
and setting time (t s ) is 0.1 sec .use t s =3.2/wn. UNIT -3 TUTORIAL

UNIT -3 TUTORIAL SHEET 3

1. Determine number of roots

with positive real parts, zero real part and n egative real part for the

following polynomial equatio n using Routh Criterion Q(S) =S 4 +2S 3 +85 2 +1 0 5 +15

2. Apply Routh- Hurwitz criteri on to determine (1) number of roots with positiv e real part (iii the number

of roots with real parts (2) Th e number of roots with zero real part (3) the num ber of roots with negative real parts for the following eq uation.

S 4 +2S 3 +7S 2 +10S+10 =0

3. The open loop T.f. of certain unity feedback system is

Determine (i) Range of K f or stability (ii) Marginal val ue of K (iii)
Determine
(i)
Range of K f or stability
(ii)
Marginal val ue of K
(iii)
Location of r oots for marginal value of K.

- 25 -

4.

In the system shows in fig, K >0. Find the range of K for which we can ensure that there is no pole Of the close loop system who se real port 0>-1.

no pole Of the close loop system who se real port 0>-1. 5. Construct the root

5. Construct the root locus of th e system with open loop transfer function as,

locus of th e system with open loop transfer function as, 6. Draw the locus plot

6. Draw the locus plot for a unit y feedback system whose characteristic equation is given by S 3 +3S 2 + (K+ 2) S+5K=0

7. Sketch the root loci for H(S) =-1

2 + (K+ 2) S+5K=0 7. Sketch the root loci for H(S) =-1 8. Sketch the

8. Sketch the root locus plot of a unity feedback system with an open loop transf er function of

feedback system with an open loop transf er function of the value of K so that

the value of K so that the

dominant pair of complex po les of the system has a damping ration of 0.5. C orresponding to this value

of K determine the closed loo p transfer function in factored from.

Find the range of values of

K for which the system has damped oscillatory

UNIT -4 TUTORIAL SHEET 4

1. Draw the asymptotic bo de plot for the conditionally stable system given by

bo de plot for the conditionally stable system given by 2. The open loop transfer f

2. The open loop transfer f unction of a control system is

2. The open loop transfer f unction of a control system is (i) Plot a bade

(i)

Plot a bade plot for the given open loop transfer function

(ii)

Determine the a ppropriate value of gain & phase margin

3. A unity feedback system

has a transfer function of

margin 3. A unity feedback system has a transfer function of (i) For K=8 draw t

(i)

For K=8 draw t he bade plot and find the phase margin & gain m argin.

(ii)

What will be th e value of K for a phase margin of 30 0 and what i s the corresponding gain margin?

- 26 -

4.

Draw the polar plot of a system with

4. Draw the polar plot of a system with 5. Draw the inverse polar p lot

5. Draw the inverse polar p lot of the network shows in the following fiq

polar p lot of the network shows in the following fiq 6. Sketch the polar plot

6. Sketch the polar plot for ,

shows in the following fiq 6. Sketch the polar plot for , 7. Sketch the Nyquist

7. Sketch the Nyquist plot for open loop T.f.

plot for , 7. Sketch the Nyquist plot for open loop T.f. 8. An unity negative

8. An unity negative feedb ack system has

Sketch the nyquist plot f or it. Mark on it the important points with their v alues and corresponding ‘w’ value.

9. Sketch the Nyquist plot for the system having

value. 9. Sketch the Nyquist plot for the system having Using Nyquist criterion determine whether the

Using Nyquist criterion determine whether the closed loop system havin g the open loop transfer function is stable or not.

UNIT - 5 TUTORIAL SHEET 5

1. Closed loop transfer function of a system is given as

5 1. Closed loop transfer function of a system is given as From a state variable

From a state variable model o f the system. Is there a name for this form of stat e transition matrix?

2. Consider a system X=AX wi th X 0 =X(0)

transition matrix? 2. Consider a system X=AX wi th X 0 =X(0) Find ѳ (t) and

Find ѳ (t) and solution X for X 0 =[11] T

- 27 -

3.

For the system shows in fig c hoose suitable state variables and form the state

equation.

suitable state variables and form the state equation. 4. Obtain the state equations for the field

4. Obtain the state equations for the field controlled DC motor

5. Find the state model using ph ysical variable for the network shows in fig.

6. Obtain the transfer function i f

7. A linear dynamic time invari ant system represented by

f 7. A linear dynamic time invari ant system represented by Find if the system is

Find if the system is complet ely controllable

8. Find the response of the syste m

invari ant system represented by Find if the system is complet ely controllable 8. Find the

- 28 -

9. For the state matrix , find e At by any two methods. Hence obtain
9. For the state matrix
, find
e At by any two methods. Hence obtain the solution

10. Obtain the state model of the system whose transfer function is given by

model of the system whose transfer function is given by UNIT - 6 TUTORIAL SHEET 6

UNIT - 6 TUTORIAL SHEET 6

1. The fig shows Pd Controller used the system. Determine the value of Td so th at will critically damped. Calculate its setting time

2. The black diagram shows in fig represents a heat treating oven the set paint
2. The black diagram shows in
fig represents a heat treating oven the set paint (d esired temperature) is

1000 0 C what is steady state t emperature?

is 1000 0 C what is steady state t emperature? 3. Find the steady state error

3. Find the steady state error E, if T is unit step input and R=o

the steady state error E, if T is unit step input and R=o 4. Assuming r(t)=0.1t
the steady state error E, if T is unit step input and R=o 4. Assuming r(t)=0.1t

4. Assuming r(t)=0.1t and it is d esired that ess<0.005 find the range of value of specified limit for given syste m.

K for error to be with in

d esired that ess<0.005 find the range of value of specified limit for given syste m.
d esired that ess<0.005 find the range of value of specified limit for given syste m.

- 29 -

COURSE PLAN ELEMENTS OF POWER SYSTEMS EEE – 503

Unit

Topic Name

Text

Chapter

Page

No. of

No.

Book

Nos

Nos

Lectures

Nos

1

Power System Components:

1

6

155-157

 

Single line Diagram of Power system, Brief description of power system Elements:

Synchronous machine, transformer, transmission line, bus bar , circuit breaker and isolator. Supply System Different kinds of supply system and their comparison, choice of transmission voltage Transmission Lines:

2

3

2

15-25

3

3

3,4

30-39,

3

66

Configurations, types of conductors,

resistance

of line, skin effect, Kelvin’s

law.

Proximity effect

2

Over Head Transmission Lines Calculation of inductance and capacitance of single phase, three phase, single circuit and double circuit transmission lines, Representation and performance of short, medium and long transmission lines, Ferranti effect. Surge impedance loading

2

2,3

13-52

 

3

7

126-164

4

2

4

55-91

3

9,10

194-228

4

3

Corona and Interference:

Phenomenon of corona, corona formation, calculation of potential gradient, corona loss, factors affecting corona, methods of reducing corona and interference. Electrostatic and electromagnetic interference with communication lines, Overhead line Insulators:

Type of insulators and their applications, potential distribution over a string of insulators, methods of equalizing the potential, string efficiency.

       

2

6

135-146

3

3

22

468-480

1

2

6

146-148

3

2

8

169-183

3

9

78 - 88

4

Mechanical Design of transmission line:

2

7

150-167

 

Catenary curve, calculation of sag & tension, effects of wind and ice loading, sag template, vibration dampers. Insulated cables:

3

6

102-109

4

115-116

Type of cables and their construction, dielectric stress, grading of cables, insulation resistance, capacitance of single phase and three phase cables, dielectric loss, heating of cables.

2

9

184-221

4

3

4

46-73

- 30 -

5

Neutral grounding:

       

Necessity of neutral grounding, various methods of neutral grounding, earthing transformer, grounding practices. Electrical Design of Transmission Lne:

Design consideration of EHV transmission lines, choice of voltage, number of circuits, conductor configuration, insulation design, selection of ground wires. EHV AC and HVDC Transmission:

3

24

499-505

2

11

246-256

3

4 / 5

17 / 6

544-553 /

186-203

3

Introduction to EHV AC and HVDC transmission and their comparison, use of bundle conductors, kinds of DC links, and incorporation of HVDC into AC system.

4

14,15

459-461,

478-483

3

Text Books

1. W. D. Stevenson, “Element of Power System Analysis”, McGraw Hill, USA

2. C. L. Wadhwa, “Electrical Power Systems” New age international Ltd. Third Edition

3. Asfaq Hussain, “'Power System”, CBS Publishers and Distributors, India

4. B. R. Gupta, “Power System Analysis and Design” Third Edition, S. Chand & Co.

5. M. V. Deshpande, “Electrical Power System Design” Tata Mc Graw Hill.

Reference Books

1. M. V. Deshpandey, “Elements of Power System Design”, Tata McGraw Hill, India

2. 2.Soni, Gupta & Bhatnagar, “A Course in Electrical Power”, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, India

3. S. L. Uppal, “Electric Power”, Khanna Publishers, India

4. S.N.Singh, “ Electric Power Generation, Transmission& distribution.” PHI, New Delhi

- 31 -

ELEMENTS OF POWER SYSTEMS EEE -503 UNIT –I TUTORIAL SHEET-1

1. Show that the per unit impe dance of transformer referred to primary side wi ll be equal to the per unit impedance referred to the sec ondary side.

The line impedance is 5 . is pu & and in volts. Use

2. A 3-phase synchronous gene rator delivers 10MVA at a voltage of 10.5 KV.

Determine line voltage of 10 .5

the reference base as 12 MV A at 11KV.

Determine line voltage drop in the line

3. For the system shown in fig.

1 determine the generator voltage.

the system shown in fig. 1 determine the generator voltage. 4. Draw the reactance diagram f

4. Draw the reactance diagram f or the system shown in Fig2 . The specification of the components are given below.

Generator

Transformer1

Transformer2

Motor1

Motor 2

Line

13.8 KV 25MVA

25 MVA

15MVA

10MVA

X=65?

25MVA 13.2/69kVA

69/13.2KVA

13KV

13KV

X=0.15pu XL=0.11pu

XL=0.11pu

X=0.15pu

0.15pu

Determine the generator term inal voltage assuming both motors operating at 1 2KV, &%% full load and unity power factor.

of supply system on the basis of equal maxi mum potential difference

between any two conductors.

5. Compare the different kind

6. In a dc 2 –wire system a feed er is working on 250 V supplying a constant loa d. If the supply voltage is increased to 400 V with th e same power transmitted, calculate the percen tage saving in conductor material.

7. compare the relative weight of copper required for a distribution network on t he dc-3 wire, and 3-phase 4-wire system. Assume in b oth cases the same voltage at the consumers te rminals, the same copper losses, that the loads are bala nced, and unity power factor in 3-phase case, Ne glect the losses in neutral.

8. A single phase load is trans mitted by a pair of overhead conductor carried on similar insulators, but with one line operated at eart h potential. A third conductor of same cross sect ion is added and a3-phase supply is connected instead o f single phase one. Calculate the percentage incr ease in power transmitted for the same loss. The voltag e to earth for the each conductor is to be same as the voltage between lines in the single phase case. Assu me constant power factor.

in the single phase case. Assu me constant power factor. 9. Electronic power of 50 MW

9. Electronic power of 50 MW at 10.85 power factor lagging is to be transmitt ed over a 220KV 3phase,

3wire 200 KM transmission

conductor material required f or the line in the following conductors. (a) Copper conductors (b) A luminum conductors Resistivity of copper=170* 1 0 -8 OHM-m Resistivity of copper=2.85* 1 0 -8 OHM-m Resistivity gravity of copper =8.89 Resistivity gravity of Alumi num =2.71

line. The efficiency of transmission line is 0.9 . Calculate the weight of

- 32 -

10.

A 5 km long three wire dc feeder has an outer conductor of 1.5 Cm diameter. The load on the positive and negative sides is 44 km and 36 km respectively. The load voltage is 220 V. If the same power is to be supplied with a2-wire dc system for the same line loss and same voltage, calculate the weight of copper used. The middle wire is half of the cross sectional area of that outer conductor. Tale =1.73 am.

11.

12.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

`

10.

A three-phase four wire system is used for lighting. Compare the amount of conduction material required with that needed for two wire dc system with same lamp voltage. Assume the same losses and balanced load. The neutral wire has half the cross-section of the meters.

Draw and explained the line diagram of a typical transmission and distributions scheme. Indicate clearly the voltage levels used at different stages.

UNIT-1

TUTORIAL SHEET-2

Discuss the economic choice of transmission voltage for a transmission scheme.

Show that for overhead systems the ratio of volume of conductor in dc, single phase ac & 3-phase ac

are given by V1:V2:V3 = 1/2cos 2 : 2/ cos 2

Assume equal power transmitted over equal length with equal losses & maximum voltage to earth to be same in all cases.

Show that in a cable transmission scheme the ratios of volumes of

and three-phase ac are given by V1:V2:V3 = 1:2/cos 2 : 1.5/ cos 2 Where cos is the power factor of the load. Assume equal power transmitted over equal length with equal losses & maximum voltage between cable conductors to be same in all cases.

A 500v, 2-core feeder 0.8km long is required to supply a constant load of 100kw. The cost of the cable including installation charges is Rs.(6a+1.3) per meter, where a is the cross sectional area of each feeder in sq.cm. Interest and depreciation total 10%. Determine the most economical size cost of energy is 12 per unit, specific resistance of copper is 1.75 x 10 -6 /cm 2 cross sectional area and 1 cm long.

Find the best current density for a 3-phase overhead line which is use for a 2500 hours a year cost of copper per kgf = Rs.20 annual interest & depreciation = 12.5%. Weight of copper = 8.89gf/cm 2 Resistance per conductor per km length and per sq. cm = .173 cost of energy per unit = 16 paise.

One train is running from station A and is crossing another train standing at 2kms from station B The load due to running train is 500A, while standing train is taking 50A. What will be the position of running train for having minimum potential at a point in a section having distance 10km between station A & B. Both ends are maintained at equal potential.

A distributor AB is fed from both the ends as shown in fig.3 the loop resistance of the distributor is

0.5 /km. Calculate the minimum voltage point and current in each section if voltage A & B are equal to 230v.

An electric train taking a constant current of 600A moves on a section of line between two substations 8kmapart and maintain at 575 & 590 V respectively. The track resistance is 0.04 per km both go & return. Find the point of minimum potential along the track & current supplied by two substations at that instant.

A DC two wire distributor AB is 450 meter long and is feed at both ends at 250V the distributor is load as shown in figure. The resistance of each conductor is 0.05 per km. Find the point of minimum potential and its potential.

When cos is the power factor of t he load.

conductor in dc, single phase ac

B A 40m 60m 100m 250m
B
A
40m
60m
100m
250m

20 40A

A DC 3 wire distributor shown in fig. is feed at both ends A & B and has concentrated load at C, D, E

and P the resistance of each outer is 0.05 pd at each load point.

per 100m length. Calculate the

and that of neutral is 0.10

- 33 -

+

C

150m

D

200m

+

 
    30A  
 
    30A  

30A

 

20A

_

 

H

     

J

_

+

G

+ G   I 40A +
 

I

+ G   I 40A +

40A

+

   

60A

_

F

 

E

_

 

200m

 

100m

 

150m

200V

A

B

11. With the half of meat diagram. Describe the various d.c. system used in transmission & distribution

12. With the half of diagram describe the important a.c. system used in transmission and distribution

UNIT-2

TUTORIAL SHEET-1

1. A 2 conductor single phase line operate at 50Hz. The diameter of each conductor is 20mm and the spacing between the conductors is 3m. calculate (a) the inductance of each conductor per km. (b) the loop inductance of thee line per km. (c) the inductive reactance per km. (d) the loop inductance per km of the line when the conductor material is steel of relative permeability 50.

2. A single phase line has 2 conductors separated by a distance of 3m, each conductor has a diameter of 25mm. If the line operates at 10kv 50Hz. Calculate .

a) Loop inductance per km

b) Line capacitance

c) Capacitive shunt reactance

d) Charging current per km

e) Reactive volt ampere generated per km.

3. A conductor consists of seven identical stands each having a radius r. Determine the self-GMD of the conductor in terms of r .

4. Find the GMR or self-GMD of each conductor shown below in terms of the radius of an individual stand.

shown below in terms of the radius of an individual stand. 5. Determine the inductance of
shown below in terms of the radius of an individual stand. 5. Determine the inductance of

5. Determine the inductance of 1 transmission line having the following arrangement of conductors. One circuit consists of 3-wire of 2mm dia each and the other circuit consists of two wires of 4mm dia each.

5m 2m 2m 2m A B
5m
2m
2m
2m
A
B

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6.

Determine the inductance per km per phase of 3 transmission line having two conductor per phase and arranged as shown in figure.

0.04m a a'
0.04m
a a'

12m

b b'
b b'
arranged as shown in figure. 0.04m a a' 12m b b' c c' The dia of

c

c'

The dia of each conductor is 25mm and carries 50% of the phase current.

7. A single circuit 3-phase line operated at 50 Hz is arranged as follows. The conductor diameter is 0.6cm. Determine the inductance per km.

1.5m 1.5m 3m
1.5m
1.5m
3m

8. Determine the inductance per km of a transposed double circuit 3 phase line shown im fig, each circuit of the line remains on its own side. The dia of the conductor os 2.532cm.

O

----------------7.5m------------------- O-------- 4 km

O

----------------------9.0m--------------------- O

9. What do you mean by the constants of an overhead transmission line? ?

10. The daily load cycle of a 3- phase, 33kv, 10km transmission line is as given below

2000 kva for 8 hours

2500 kva for 9 hours

1000 kva for 7 hours

Determine the most economical conductor size if the cost of line including erutim is Rs (8000+6000) per km where a is area of each conductor in cm2. The rate of interest and deprecation is 10% of cost of energy is 20 paise per unit. The line is in use for 300 working days a year. The resistance per km and per 59.cm is 0.173.

UNIT – 2 TUTORIAL SHEET-2

1. A two-conductor single-phase line operates at 50 Hz. The dia of each conductor is 2cm and are spaced 3m apart. Calculate: (a) capacitance of each conductor to neutral per km. (b) line to line capacitance. (c) Capacitive reacceptance to neutral per km.

2. Find the capacitance of a 3-phase single circuit un-transposed line.

3. Determine the capacitance and charging current per unit length of the line when the arrangement of the conductor is shown in fig.

line when the arrangement of the conductor is shown in fig. 20mm 3m 3m The operating

20mm

3m 3m
3m
3m

The operating voltage is 132kv.

4. A 3-phase double circuit line shown in fig. below. The dia of each conductor is 2cm. determine the capacitance and charging current per km length of the line. Assume that the line is transposed and the operating voltage is 220kv.

the line is transposed and the operating voltage is 220kv. 2.2 2.2 a b c c'

2.2

line is transposed and the operating voltage is 220kv. 2.2 2.2 a b c c' b'

2.2

is transposed and the operating voltage is 220kv. 2.2 2.2 a b c c' b' a'

a

b

c

c'transposed and the operating voltage is 220kv. 2.2 2.2 a b c b' a' Also determine

and the operating voltage is 220kv. 2.2 2.2 a b c c' b' a' Also determine

b'

a'the operating voltage is 220kv. 2.2 2.2 a b c c' b' Also determine the inductance

Also determine the inductance per phase per km of the line.

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5.

Describe the effect of earth on the line capacitance.

6. Determine the efficiency and regulation of a 3 phase 100 km, 50hZ transmission line delivering 20MV at a pf of 0.8 lagging and 66kV to a balanced load. The conductor are of copper, each having resistance 0.1 ohm per km, 1.5cm dia, spaced equilaterally 2M between centers. Use nominal T & nominal methods

7. In a 3-phase line with 132kV at the receiving end the following are the transmission constants.

A = D = 0.98

C = 0.0005

3 0

88 0

S

b = 110

75 0

If load at the receiving end is 50 MVA at 0.8pf lagging, determine the value of the sending end voltage.

8. The following data refer to 220kV 200km long over head line. Resistance per km per phase = .68 Shunt leakage susceptance per phase to neutral per km = 4.4*10 -6 S Shunt leakage conductance – 0 Inductive reactance per km per phase = 0.68 Calculate the general network constants and the surge impedance.

9. A single-phase load of 200kVA is delivered at 2500V over a transmission line having R = 1.4 , X = 0.8 . Calculate the current voltage and pf at the sending end when the pf of load is (a) unity (b) 0.8 leading.

10. Fig shows a quadruple- conduction of a single- circuit, three phase, 50Hz line with a horizontal spacing of 20m. Each sub conductors of the bundle has a diameter of 40mm and spacing between the sub conductors is 0.5 m each phase group shares the total current and charge equally and the line is completely transposed. Determine the inductive reactance and capacitive reactance per phase per km of the line.

UNIT –3 TUTORIAL SHEET –1

1. In a three – phase overhead line the conductors have each a diameter of 30mm and are arranged in the form of an equilateral triangle, assuming fair weather conditions, air density factor of 0.95 and irregularity factor 0.95. Find the minimum spacing between the conductors, if the disruptive critical voltage is not to exceed 230kv between lines. Break down strength of air may be assumed to be 30kv per cem(peak).

2. Find the corona characteristics of an 110kv, 50Hz, 3-phase transmission line 175km long consisting of 1cm dia stranded copper conductor spaced in 3m delta arrangement, temp. 26 0 C and barometric pressure is 74 cm, m=0.85, mv for local corona = 0.72 and mv for general corona = 0.82. Assume 0 =25 0 C.

3. Estimate the corona loss for a 3-phase 110kv, 50Hz, 150 km long transmission line consisting of 3 conductors each of 10mm dia and spaced 2.5m apart is an equilateral triangle formation, the temp. of air is 30 0 C, and atmospheric pressure is 750mm of Hg. Take the irregularity factor as 0.85. Ionization of air may be assumed to take place at maximum voltage gradient of 30kv/cm. Assume 0 =25 0 C.

4. Each conductor of a three-phase over head line has a dia of 21mm. The conductors are arranged in equilateral formation. Find the minimum spacing between the conductors, if the max. value of break down strength of air 30kv/cm, the disruptive critical voltage 230kv rms air density factor 0.98 and irregularity factor 0.95.

5. Explain the formation of corona an HV transmission line and develop an expression in terms of conductor radius, conductor spacing, and breakdown voltage of air, for the voltage at which the corona effect might be expected to appear on a symmetrically – spaced smooth conductor3-phase transmission line. Indicate other factor that might influence the value of this voltage. Discuss the importance of corona in design and operation of the line.

6. Each conductor of a 33 kV, 3 phase system is suspended by a string of three similar insulators; the capacitance of each disc is nine times the capacitance to ground. Calculate the voltage across each insulator. Determine the string efficiency also.

7. A string of eight suspension insulators is to be graded to obtain uniform distribution of voltage across the string . if the capacitance of the top units is 10 times the capacitance to ground of each unit, determine the capacitance of the remaining seven units.

8. Explain the importance of bundled conductors in EHV/UHV lines.

9. Explain critical disruptive voltage & critical visul disruptive voltage.

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UNIT –3 TUTORIAL SHEET –2

1. Explain why the voltage across the insulators of a simple insulator string is not equal and describe practical method to improve this distribution.

2. If the voltage across the unit in a two unit suspension insulator is 60% and 40% respective of the line voltage find the ratio of the cap of the insulator to that of its capacitance to the earth.

3. A string of suspension insulators consists of three similar units. The capacitance between the metal interlink is 10 times the capacitance between each interlink and earths. The flush over voltage of one insulator is 100kv. Calculate the voltage at which the string will flush over.

4. Find the voltage distribution and string efficiency of a three unit suspension insulator string if the capacitance of the link pins to earth and to the line are respectively 20% & 10% of the self capacitance of each unit. If a guard ring increases the capacitance to the line of lower link pin to 35% of the self- capacitance of each unit, find the redistribution of voltage and string efficiency.

5. In a string of 3-insulator unit, the capacitance of each unit is C, from each conductor to ground is C/3 and from each conductor to line conductor is C/5. Calculate the voltage across each unit as a percentage of the total voltage. To what value of the capacitance between the conductor of the bottom unit and the line has to be increased by a guard ring to make the voltage across the equal to that across the next higher units.

6. A string of eight suspension insulators is to be fitted with a grading ring. If the pin to earth capacitance are all equal to C, find the value of line to pin capacitances that would give a uniform voltage distribution over the string.

UNIT -4 TUTORIAL SHEET -1

1. An over head line has the following data:

Spam length 160m, conductor dia 0.95cm, weight up length of the conductor 0.66kg/m. ultimate stress 4250 kg/cm 2 , wind pressure 40kg/cm 2 of projected area. Factor of safety 5. Calculate the sag.

2. An overhead transmission line has a conductor of cross-section 2.5cm2 hard draw copper and a span length of 150m. determine the sag which must be allowed if the tension is not to exceed the fifth of the ultimate strength of 4175kg/cm 2 (a) in still air (b) with a wind pressure of 1.3kg/m and an ice coating of 1.25cms, determine also the vertical sag in the latter case.

3. An overhead line having a conductor of 10mm and a span length of 150m has sag of 3.5m at –5 0 C with 10mm thick ice coating and a wind pressure of 40kg/m 2 of projected area. E =127*104kg/cm 2 , µ = 16.6*10 -6 /C ice density 910kg/m 3 , copper density 8850kg/m 3 . Determine the temp at which the sag will remain the same under fair weather condition.

4. Determine the sag at 32.2 0 C and 65.5 0 C in an 8 SWG copper conductor erected on a 45.7 meter span length. The wind pressure is 48.82kg/m 2 of projected area at a temp. of 4.5 0 C, weight of wire is 0.1156kg/m. the working stress shall not exceed ½ the ultimate tensile strength.

5. The transmission line is designed based on worst probable conductors and not worst possible conditions. Why?

6. Describe the vibration of power conductors and explain the methods used to damp out these vibration.

UNIT – 4 TUTORIAL SHEET – 2

1. A concentric cable has a conductor diameter of 1cm and an insulation thickness of 1.5cm find the maximum field strength when the cable is suggested to a test pressure of 33kV.

2. A 66kV, 1 core metal sheathed cable is to be gvaded by means of a metallic intersheaths. Calculate the diameter of the intersheaths and the voltage at which it must be maintained in order to obtain the minimum overall cable diameter. The maximum voltage at which the insulating material can be worked is 60kV/cm. had the cable been imgnaded what will be the overall diameter of the cable.

3. An 11kV 50Hz 1 cable has a diameter of 20mm, and an internal sheath radius of 15mm. If the dielectric has relative permeability of 2.4 and a loss angle of 0.031 radian, determine for 2.5km length of cable (A) the capacitance (b) Charging current (c) the generated reactive volt-ampere. (d) Dielectric loss (e) the equivalent insulation resistance.

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4.

Find the most economical value of the diameter of single core cable to be used in 66kV three-phase system. Find also the overall diameter of the insulation if the maximum permissible stress is not to exceed 5kV/mm.

5. A single core cable 5km long has an insulation resistance of 0.4M ohms. The core dia is 20mm and the dia of the cable over the insulation is 50mm. Calculate the insulation material

UNIT – 5 TUTORIAL SHEET –1