# Introduction to Acoustics

Bruel & Kjaer Norcross, Georgia www.bkhome.com

Agenda

Introduction to Theory and Terminology The Decibel Frequency of Sound Measuring Sound Applications of Acoustics

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Sound

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com .Sound and Noise 4 www.bksv.

bksv.Terminology of Sound Active Intensity RMS Peak Statistical analysis Fast Slow Impulse Free Field/Pressure Field Percentile level Logarithmic scales Pascal RMS Leq L90 Weighting L10 Sound Pressure dB Constant percentage bandwidth 1/1 and 1/3 Octave Analysis Noise Dose 5 www.com .

Basic Parameters of Sound (cont.com .) Sound Pressure Level p2 Lp = 10 log10 2 po Receiver po = 2 ×10−5 N / m2 = 20µPa Path Sound Intensity Level Li = 10 log10 I I0 2 Io = 1pW / m Source Sound Power Level Lw = 10 log10 Wo = 1pW W Wo 6 www.bksv.

bksv.com .Pressure vs. Power Pressure p [N/m2 = Pa] Lp [dB] Analogy Temperature t [°C] Power P [W] Power P [W] Sound Source Electrical Heater 7 www.

01 = 2πr 2 2π ⋅ 1.000707 ⋅ 400 = 0.532 2 −6 2 dB Lp = 88.000707 W m2 Sound Pressure p= Ι ⋅ ρc = 0.07 ⋅ 10 − 4 = 10 log10 dB 10 −12 L Ι = 88.01 = 10 log10 −12 dB 10 = 100 dB (20 ⋅ 10 ) 0.com .5 dB LW 0.Sound Levels Under Free-field Conditions Example: r = 1.5 m Sound Power = 0.5 2 = 0.532 Pascal p2 Lp = 10 log10 2 dB p0 = 10 log10 L W = 10 log10 W dB W0 Ι L Ι = 10 log10 dB Ι0 7.bksv.5 dB LI = Lp under free-field conditions 8 www.01 Watt Sound Intensity Ι= W 0.01 Watt W p2 Ι= = 2 ρc 4πr Sound Power W = 0.

Sound Pressure Propagation Pressure [Pa] 100 000 Pascal Time 9 www.com .bksv.

com .bksv. Lp 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 [dB] www.01 0.000 01 10 Sound Pressure Level. p [Pa] 100 10 1 0.001 0.000 1 0.Range of Sound Pressure Levels Sound Pressure.1 0.

1: p = 1 Pa Lp = 20 log 20 × 10 −6 = 20 log 50 000 = 94 dB 1 Ex. 20 × 10 −6 = 20 log 1.7 Pa Lp = 20 log 317 .bksv.com . 2: p = 31.Converting Pascals to Decibels ⎛ p⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ 0⎠ Lp = 20 log dB re 20 µPa (p0 = 20 µPa = 20 × 10-6 Pa) Ex.58 × 10-6 = 124 dB 11 www.

Human Perception of dBs Change in Sound Level (dB) Change in Perceived Loudness 3 5 10 15 20 Just perceptible Noticeable difference Twice (or 1/2) as loud Large change Four times (or 1/4) as loud 12 www.bksv.com .

com .bksv.Types of Sound Sources Point source Line source r: Lp 2r: Lp − 3 dB Plane source r: Lp 2r: Lp − 6 dB r: Lp 13 2r: Lp www.

Anechoic and Reverberant Enclosures 14 www.bksv.com .

Pressure Field Loudspeaker Enclosure Microphone 15 www.bksv.com .

Sound Fields Lp Near field Far field Free field Reverberant field 6 dB Distance.bksv.com . r A1 2 × A1 16 www.

com 100 1000 10 000 Frequency [Hz] .Frequency Range of Different Sound Sources 1 17 10 www.bksv.

05 10 20 50 100 200 500 1k 2k 5k 10 k Frequency.2 0.com .bksv.Wavelength and Frequency c λ= f λ λ Wavelength. λ [m] 20 10 5 2 1 0.1 0. f [Hz] 18 www.

bksv.com .Why Make a Frequency Analysis B C Amplitude Amplitude A A Time B DE C E D Sound Frequency 19 www.

7 × f0 ≈ 70% L B = 1/3 Octave 1/3 Octave f2 = 3 2 × f1 = 1.bksv.1/1 and 1/3 Octave Filters L B = 1/1 Octave 1/1 Octave f2 = 2 × f1 f1 = 708 f0 = 1000 Frequency f2 = 1410 [Hz] B = 0 .com .2 3 × f 0 ≈ 2 3 % 20 www.25 × f1 f1 = 891 f2 = 1120 f0 = 1000 Frequency [Hz] B = 0 .

4 K 21 www.bksv. 1 2 3 4 5 6 27 28 29 30 31 32 40 41 42 43 Nominal Centre Frequency Hz 1.2 – 14.6 2 2.41 – 1.8 K 17.82 2.78 1.55 3.55 – 4.78 – 2.Third-octave and Octave Passband Band No.47 447 – 562 562 – 708 708 – 891 891 – 1120 1120 – 1410 1410 – 1780 8910 – 11200 11.2 – 22.com .15 4 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 10 K 1.25 1.1 – 17.1 14.82 2.4 K Octave Passband Hz 1.82 – 5.24 – 2.25 K 16 K 20 K Third-octave Passband Hz 1.8 – 22.24 2.5 3.82 – 3.62 355 – 708 780 – 1410 11.12 – 1.41 – 2.41 1.

com .Auditory Field 140 dB 120 100 Sound Pressure Level 80 60 40 20 0 20 Threshold in Quiet 50 100 200 500 1k 2k Frequency [Hz] 5k 10k 20 k Music Speech Threshold of Pain Limit of Damage Risk 22 www.bksv.

com .Equal Loudness Contours for Pure Tones 120 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Phon 20 Hz 23 Sound pressure level. Lp (dB re 20 µPa) 100 80 60 40 20 0 100 Hz 1 kHz Frequency 10 kHz www.bksv.

com .bksv.40 dB Equal Loudness Contours and A-Weight L p 40 dB Equal Loudness Contour normalized to 0 dB at 1kHz (dB) 40 20 0 20 Hz 40 Lp 40 dB Equal Loudness Contour inverted -20 and compared with A-weighting -40 (dB) 0 100 1 kHz 10 kHz 40 A-weighting 20 Hz 24 100 1 kHz 10 kHz www.

Frequency Weighting Curves Lp [dB] Lin. 0 D -20 A B -40 C B+C A D -60 Frequency [Hz] 10 20 50 100 200 500 1k 2k 5k 10 k 20 k 25 www.com .bksv.

com . 1/3 oct Weighting 80 RMS Peak Fast Slow Impulse 60 40 20 1/3 Octave Analysis 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k LA 87.bksv.2 26 www.The Sound Level Analyzer dB 100 1/1.

com .Time Weighting p Time Lp Lp Impulse (1.bksv.5 ) Slow (1 s) Fast (125 ms) Slow (1 s) Fast (125 ms) Impulse (35 ms) 27 Time www.

Equivalent Level.bksv.com . Leq ⎛ p(t ) ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dt ⎝ p0 ⎠ 2 Leq = 10 log10 1 T ∫0 T Lp Leq Time T 28 www.

com .bksv.Sound Power Product noise labeling Government regulations ‘Apples to Apples’ comparison of noise Can predict SPL with knowledge of sound field Z Three ways to calculate sound power: Free Field Reverberant Field Sound Intensity X 29 Y www.

Intensity Mapping Visually identify where sounds come from Rank sound power contribution of individual components Make modern art? 30 www.com .bksv.

Sound Quality L = 63 dBA L = 63 dBA L = 63 dBA Sound Quality is a parameter that sells the product Sound Quality is a parameter that sells the product A-weighted noise levels and sound power are not sufficiently A-weighted noise levels and sound power are not sufficiently sensitive to fully characterize the “quality” of product sound sensitive to fully characterize the “quality” of product sound Sound Quality is function of consumer expectations Sound Quality is function of consumer expectations 31 www.com .bksv.

bksv.com .Building Acoustics Reverberation Time Transmission Loss Leakage between rooms Impact Isolation Speech Intelligibility 32 www.

com .bksv.Environmental Noise Models Large Plane Smaller size Mid Sized Mid Sized Noise Contours Smaller 33 www.

Conclusion Clear understanding of the three basic acoustic parameters: pressure.com . intensity. power What a decibel is and why we use it in acoustics Differences between Anechoic.bksv. and Pressure sound fields How wavelengths are calculated and the importance of frequency analysis in acoustics Introduction to some different acoustic applications 34 www. Reverberant.

inceusa.aip.bkhome.org Industrial Noise and Vibration Control www.com . C.org Daniel Raichel.com The Science and Application of Acoustics asa. ed. Beranek. Acoustical Society of America Acoustical Designing in Architecture V.nonoise. Harris Acoustical Society of America 35 www.L.Principles and Practice Society of America Brüel & Kjær (188-81) Noise Control Engineering Noise and Vibration Control Sound and Vibration Magazine L. Prentice Hall Acoustics L. AIP Press www.org Irwin and Graf. L. Beranek.Literature for Further Reading References Acoustic Noise Measurements Journals and Magazines Brüel & Kjær (BT 0010-12) Journal of the Acoustical Noise Control . Dekker www.bksv. INCE Bruel & Kjaer Magazine Industrial Noise Control Websites Louis Bell. Knudsen.