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Conceptual Framework of Library System

A library is created to provide service to users. It has been transformed a lot in library service features by the effect of digital and networked environment change. The ubiquity of the Internet is used extensively in library surroundings and has a profound effect on library users. Users in every generation and in every stage have always wanted access to library resources. It has been important to know that libraries were there to be used when required, although it was not necessary to visit them very often. The question facing us today is whether the mission libraries have performed in the past is still relevant in today s world. Numerous studies have

demonstrated that the importance of library service is users oriented and the needs of meeting their demand and expectation [1-8]. The proliferation of Information technology (IT) brings users needs for timelier, convenient, speedy information delivery in recent years. Libraries have to harness the technological change and use it to fulfill their mission to provide access to information when people need it. The popular use of IT also can help libraries to know what their user s need and provide right information to the right user with plenty of resources. Library plays as an interactive role to encourage users to use resources and establish a relationship with library.

The use of computer technology in modern society has become indispensable evident in many day to day activities. The use of gadgets for implementing and upgrading the different software are now liable, including the use of bar code readers, swipe card readers and online access.

Integrating these technologies in a company s and in the different sectors operations has now become a necessity. As the school focus on serving their students the best way they can, the management also ensures the welfare of their students. To do this requires a library management system to collect manpower input, process it and output complete and accurate information of students who will borrow books.

Library is the warehouse of the information and knowledge. This is where students and teachers find books, encyclopedias, periodicals, newsletter, magazines, dictionaries, atlases, almanacs, journals, pamphlets and other printed references. It provides free services for them so they could use every reference they need. It also provides assistance from the librarian to make it easier to look for the reference that they will use. It is a place where could be informed and broaden their knowledge about everything free of charge.

To use the books, students need a library card. It contains information of the students such as the full name, student number, course, as well as the student s picture. They need to fill up on the library card the account number and the call numbers of the book together with the date they borrowed the book.

Conceptual Framework of Billing Systems in Hospital

New technologies for the management of patients, personnel, and inventory promise to streamline the efficiency and effectiveness of hospital functions. The integration of these technologies into hospital practices often results in dramatic changes in management, division of labor, and accountability. Speci cally, new technologies of monitoring, tracking, and identi cation aim to increase efficiency in hospitals but also tend to intensify the surveillance to which nurses and other hospital staff are subjected. In existing literatures on information technologies in hospitals, neither the social nor surveillance dimensions of new systems are adequately addressed. This article looks at one popular type of technological system for the management of hospital resources and personnel radio frequency identi cation (RFID) systems and provides a conceptual framework for analyzing the relationship of these systems to working experiences and power dynamics in hospitals.

RFID systems allow for the electronic tagging of assets, inventory, personnel, and patients. These systems draw upon their successful uses in factory and retail settings to offer the potential for more efficient management of resources in organizations, and they draw upon their military and security applications to offer the potential for heightened identi cation functions. Essentially, the RFID systems work by placing unique electronic identi ers on items (in the form of stickers embedded with RFID chips) or on people (in the form of bracelets or badges embedded with RFID chips). Once tagged, items and people can be identi ed, tracked, and managed through a centralized database. There are two main types of RFIDs: active and passive. Active RFIDs contain a miniature battery and actively emit radio frequencies to the system; passive RFIDs contain no battery source but instead draw the necessary power to emit a frequency through secondary reader devices such as hand-held.

Background: Radio frequency identi cation (RFID) is an emerging technology that is rapidly becoming the standard for hospitals to track inventory, identify patients, and manage personnel. Methods: Research involved qualitative methods including participant observation and interviews with hospital staff members and industry consultants. Results: Hospital staff, especially nurses, expressed concern about the surveillance potential of these tracking technologies. Additionally, nursing staff frequently experience an intensi cation of labor as a result of the implementation of RFID systems because the task of keeping the systems operational often falls upon them. Conclusions: The social and organizational factors that contribute to the success or failure of RFID systems in hospitals must be further analyzed. The implications of RFID systems, such as privacy concerns and work intensi cation for nursing and other hospital staff, should be taken into account from the outset, especially during the design and implementation of the technology.