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Bridge Design Manual
M 23-50

Washington State Department of Transportation

Bridge Design Manual
M 23-50 Chapters 1-7

Washington State Department of Transportation
Program Development Division Bridge and Structures

Persons with disabilities may request this information be prepared and supplied in alternate forms by calling the WSDOT ADA Accommodation Hotline collect (206) 389-2839. Persons with hearing impairments may access WA State Telecommunications Relay Service at TT 1-800-833-6388, Tele-Braille 1-800-833-6385, or Voice 1-800-833-6384, and ask to be connected to (360) 705-7097.

Engineering Publications
Washington State Department of Transportation PO Box 47408 Olympia, WA 98504-7408 E-mail: lovem@wsdot.wa.gov Phone: (360) 705-7430 Fax: (360) 705-6861 http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/fasc/EngineeringPublications/

Foreword

This manual has been prepared to provide Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) bridge design engineers with a guide to the design criteria, analysis methods, and detailing procedures for the preparation of highway bridge and structure construction plans, specifications, and estimates. It is not intended to be a textbook on structural engineering. It is a guide to acceptable WSDOT practice. This manual does not cover all conceivable problems that may arise, but is intended to be sufficiently comprehensive to, along with sound engineering judgment, provide a safe guide for bridge engineering. A thorough knowledge of the contents of this manual is essential for a high degree of efficiency in the engineering of WSDOT highway structures. This loose leaf form of this manual facilitates modifications and additions. New provisions and revisions will be issued from time to time to keep this guide current. Suggestions for improvement and updating the manual are always welcome. All manual modifications must be approved by the Bridge Design Engineer.

__________________________________________ M. MYINT LWIN Bridge and Structures Engineer Washington State Department of Transportation

V:BDM1

September 1993

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Contents
Page 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 Manual Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Chapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Numbering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Manual Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Bridge Design Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Record of Manual Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge and Structures Office Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organizational Elements of the Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Bridge and Structures Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Bridge Design Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Bridge Preservation Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Bridge Management Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Computer Applications Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Consultant Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Architect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Staff Support Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Office Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Procedures and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design/Check Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. WSDOT PS&E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Consultant PS&E — Projects on WSDOT Right of Way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Consultant PS&E — On County and City Right of Way Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design/Check Calculation File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. File of Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. To Be Included . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Not to Be Included . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Upon Completion of the Design Work, Fill Out a Design Completion Checklist . . . . . . . . . . Office Copy Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Addenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Bridge Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Sign Structure, Signal, and Illumination Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contract Plan Changes (Change Orders and As-Builts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Request for Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Processing Contract Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coordination With Other Divisions and Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Planning Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 5 1.2-1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 1.3-1 1 1 5 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 11 11 11 12 1.4-1 1

1.1.4

1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2

1.3 1.3.1

1.3.2

1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5

1.3.6

1.4 1.4.1

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information
1.4.2

Contents
1 1 1 1.5-1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1.6-1 1 1 1 1 1 1.99-1

1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3

1.6 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 1.99

Final Design Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Coordination With Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Technical Design Matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Design Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Design Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Design Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Breakdown of Project Man-Hours Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Estimate Design Time Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Monthly Project Progress Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guidelines for Bridge Site Visits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Rehabilitation Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Widenings and Seismic Retrofits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rail and Minor Expansion Joint Retrofits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Demolition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Appendix A — Design Aids 1.3-A1 Standard Design Criteria Form 1.3-A2 Exceptions to the Standard Design Criteria Form 1.3-A3 Design Completed Checklist 1.3-A4 Job File Table of Contents 1.3-A5 Office Time Report 1.3-A6 Not Included in Bridge Quantities List 1.3-A7 Special Provisions Checklist 1.5-A1 Breakdown of Project Manhours Required Form 1.5-A2 Monthly Project Progress Report Form

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August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 1.1 1.1.1 Manual Description Purpose
This manual is intended to be a guide for Bridge Designers and others involved with bridge design for the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). It contains design details and methods that have been standardized and it interprets the intent of specifications. It is not intended to govern design in unusual situations nor to unduly inhibit the designer in the exercise of engineering judgment. There is no substitute for good judgment. The following axioms are given as a reminder that simple things make a big difference. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Gravity always works — if something is not supported, it will fall. A chain reaction will cause small failures to become big failures, unless alternate load paths are available in the structure (i.e., progressive collapse). Small errors, such as a drafting error or a misplaced decimal, can cause large failures. Vigilance is needed to avoid small errors. This applies to construction inspection as well as in the design phase. A construction job should be run by one person with authority, not a committee. It has been said that a camel is a horse designed and built by a committee. High quality craftsmanship must be provided by everyone. An unbuildable design is not buildable. An obvious fact often overlooked by the architect or structural designer. Think about how forms will be built, then removed if necessary. There is no foolproof design. The best way to ensure a failure is to disregard or ignore lessons from past failures.

Manual Description

10. Many problems can be avoided by using a little loving care.

1.1.2

Specifications
The AASHTO publications Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and LRFD Bridge Design Specifications are the basic documents guiding the design of highway bridges and structures. This WSDOT Bridge Design Manual is intended to supplement AASHTO and other specifications by providing additional direction, design aids, examples, and information on office practices. Where conflicts exist between this manual and the AASHTO Standard Specifications, this manual will control. When a conflict exists that is not resolved within the manual, further guidance shall be obtained from the Bridge Design Engineer or his representative. The AASHTO publications are not duplicated in this manual. Appropriate specifications and other references are listed in Section 1.99.

1.1.3

Format
A. General The Bridge Design Manual consists of two volumes with each chapter organized as follows: Criteria or other information Appendix A (printed on yellow paper) Design Aids Appendix B (printed on salmon paper) Design Examples

August 1998

1.1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel
B. Chapters 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. General Information Preliminary Design Analysis Loads Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Structural Steel Miscellaneous Design Substructure Design

Manual Description

10. Detailing Practice 11. Quantities 12. Construction Costs 13. Construction Specifications 14. Inspection and Rating C. Numbering System 1. The numbering system for the criteria consists of a set of numbers followed by letters as required to designate individual subjects. This format is similar to that used by AASHTO. Example: 5.0 5.4 5.4.2 Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Box Girder Bridges Girder C. Shear Resistance 1. The Shear Diagram a. Shear Reinforcement (1) Placement 2. Numbering of Sheets Each section starts a new page numbering sequence. The page numbers are located in the lower outside corners and begin with the chapter number, followed by the section number, then a sequential page number. Example: 5.4-1, 5.4-2, etc. (Chapter) (Section) (Subsection)

1.1-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel
3.

Manual Description
Appendices are included to provide the designer with design aids (Appendix A) and examples (Appendix B). Design aids are generally standard in nature, whereas examples are modified to meet specific job requirements. An appendix is numbered using the chapter followed by section number and then a hyphen and the letter of the appendix followed by consecutive numbers. Example: 5.4-A1 (Box Girder Bridges) designates a design aid required or useful to accomplish the work described in Chapter 5, Section 4.

4.

Numbering of Tables and Figures Tables and figures shall be numbered using the chapter, section, subsection in which they are located, and then a hyphen followed by consecutive numbers.

Example: Figure 5.4.2-1 is the first figure found in Chapter 5, section 4, subsection 2.

1.1.4

Revisions
A. Manual Updates The Bridge Design Manual will change as new material is added and as criteria and specifications change. Revisions and new material will be issued with a Publications Transmittal Form. The form will have a revision number and remarks or special instructions regarding the sheets. The revision number shall be entered on the Record of Revision sheet in this manual. This allows the user to verify that the manual is up to date. B. Bridge Design Instruction Special instructions regarding interpretation of criteria or other policy statements may be issued using a Bridge Design Instruction (BDI). The BDI will be transmitted in the same manner as outlined above for manual revisions. The BDI should be inserted in the appropriate place in the manual and remains in effect until the expiration date shown or until superseded by a revision to the manual. A sample BDI is shown on Figure 1.1.4-1.

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August 1998

1.1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Manual Description

February 1997

BRIDGE DESIGN INSTRUCTION 5.1.1 CHAPTER 5 SUBJECT: ACTION: Use of Concrete Class 5000 and Class 4000D Place this instruction in your manual and note the instruction number in your Record of Manual Revisions, 1.1.4. There is confusion regarding the availability of Concrete Class 5000. This class of concrete is available within a 30-mile radius of Seattle, Spokane and Vancouver, Washington. “Available” means that there are concrete suppliers in these urban areas capable of supplying Concrete Class 5000 in accordance with WSDOT specifications. Outside this 30-mile radius (or near the fringe), the concrete suppliers generally do not have the quality control procedures and expertise to supply this higher strength concrete. The Construction Office or Materials Lab should be contacted for availability for project sites outside these areas. In general, Class 4000D Concrete would be specified for bridge roadway decks outside this 30 mile radius. Class 4000D Concrete specifications require a 14-day wet cure and flyash as an additive. Typically, Class 4000 Concrete would be specified for other bridge concrete members above ground. This mix was developed by the Materials Lab to be at least as durable as Class 5000 Concrete. By utilizing the above guidelines, WSDOT will receive the most durable bridge deck at the least cost.

TEXT

Approved: _________________________ C. C. Ruth Bridge Design Engineer CCR/db RTS

Figure 1.1.4-1

1.1-4

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel
C. Record of Manual Revisions In order that a ready means be available to check whether a manual is up to date, each manual holder is requested to keep his copy up to date and to record Bridge Design Instructions or Revisions as material is added or changed. The form below is intended for use in keeping this record. At any time, a manual holder will be able to check his list with the list in the “master” manual.

Manual Description

Revision Number

Entry Date

By (Initial)

Revision Number

Entry Date

By (Initial)

Revision Number

Entry Date

By (Initial)

August 1998

1.1-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.2 1.2.1 Bridge and Structures Office Organization General
The document defining the responsibilities for bridge design within the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) is the Organization Handbook. In that document, the responsibilities of the Bridge and Structures Office are stated as follows: Provides structural engineering services for the department. Provides technical advice and assistance to other governmental agencies on such matters. The WSDOT Design Manual states the following: Bridge design is the responsibility of the Bridge and Structures Office in Olympia. Any design authorized to be performed at the regional level is subject to review and approval by the Bridge and Structures Office.

Bridge and Structures Office Organization

1.2.2

Organizational Elements of the Office
A. Bridge and Structures Engineer Responsible for structural engineering services for the department. Manages staff and programs for structure design, contract plan preparation, and inspections and assessments of existing bridges. B. Bridge Design Engineer The Bridge Design Engineer is directly responsible to the Bridge and Structures Engineer for structural design and review, and advises other divisions and agencies on such matters. 1. Structural Design Units The Structural Design Units are responsible for the final design of bridges and other structures. Final design includes preparation of plans. The units provide special design studies, develop design criteria, check shop plans, and review designs submitted by consultants. Each design unit normally consists of individuals including a section supervisor and a bridge specialist. Organization and job assignments within the unit are flexible and are related to the projects underway at any particular time as well as to the qualifications of individuals. The emphasis in the design sections is on providing sound designs, checking, reviewing, and detailing in an efficient manner. A bridge specialist is assigned to each design unit. Each specialist has a particular area of responsibility. The three areas are concrete, steel, and expansion joints and bearings. The specialist acts as a resource person for the bridge office in his specialty and is responsible for keeping up-to-date on current AASHTO criteria, new design concepts, technical publications, construction and maintenance issues. The design units are also responsible for the design and preparation of contract plans for modifications to bridges in service. These include bridge rail replacement, deck repair, seismic retrofits, emergency repairs when bridges are damaged by vehicle or ship collision or natural phenomenon, and expansion joint and drainage retrofit. They review proposed plans of utility attachments to existing bridges.

August 1998

1.2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information
2. Bridge Projects Unit The Bridge Projects Engineer directs preliminary design work, specification and cost estimates preparation, falsework review, and coordinates scheduling of bridge design projects with the Bridge Design Engineer and the Design Unit Supervisors. The Preliminary Design engineers are responsible for bridge project planning from design studies to preliminary project reports. They are responsible for preliminary plan preparation of bridge and walls including assembly and analysis of site data, preliminary structural analysis, cost analysis, determination of structure type, and drawing preparation. They also review highway project environmental documents and design reports and handle Coast Guard liaison duties. The Specifications and Estimate (S&E) engineers develop and maintain construction specifications and cost estimates for bridge projects originating in the Bridge and Structures Office. They also review the specifications and cost estimates for bridge contracts prepared by consultants and other government agencies which are administered by WSDOT. They assemble and review the completed bridge PS&E before submittal to the Plans Branch. They also coordinate the PS&E preparation with the regions, Plans Branch, and maintain bridge construction cost records. The Construction Support engineers are responsible for checking the contractor’s falsework, shoring, and form plans. Shop plans review and approval are coordinated with the design sections. Actual check of the shop plan is done in the design section. Field requests for plan changes come through this office for a recommendation as to approval. As built plans are prepared by this unit at the completion of a contract. The Scheduling Engineer monitors the design work schedule for the Bridge and Structures Office and maintains records of bridge contract costs. In addition, the unit is responsible for the Bridge Design Manual, design standards, professional activities, and AASHTO support. C. Bridge Preservation Engineer Directs activities and develops programs to assure the structural and functional integrity of all state bridges in service. Directs emergency response services when bridges are damaged. 1. Bridge Preservation Unit The Bridge Preservation Unit is responsible for planning and implementation of an inspection program for the more than 3,000 fixed and movable state highway bridges. In addition, the unit provides inspection services on some local agency bridges and on the state’s 21 ferry terminals. All inspections are conducted in accordance with the National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). The unit maintains a statewide computer inventory Washington State Bridge Inventory System (WSBIS), of current information on more than 7,300 state, county, and city bridges in accordance with the NBIS. This includes load ratings for all bridges. It prepares a Bridge List of the state’s bridges which is published every two years. The unit is responsible for the bridge load rating and risk reduction (SCOUR) programs. It provides damage assessments and emergency response services when bridges are damaged or lost due to vehicle or ship collision or natural phenomenon such as floods, wind, or earthquakes.

Bridge and Structures Office Organization

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information
D. Bridge Management Engineer This Bridge Management Unit is responsible for program development, planning, and monitoring of all H-Program activities. These include HBRRP funded bridge replacements and rehabilitation, bridge deck protection, major bridge repair, and bridge painting. In addition, this unit manages the bridge deck protection program including the deck testing program and the bridge research program. It is responsible for the planning, development, coordination, and implementation of new programs (e.g., Seismic Retrofit and Preventative Maintenance), experimental feature projects, new product evaluation, and technology transfer. E. Computer Applications Engineer The Computer Support Unit is responsible for computer resource planning and implementation, computer user support, liaison with Management Information Systems (MIS), and computer aided engineer operation support. In addition, the unit is responsible for Standard Plan updates. F. Consultant Coordinator The Consultant Coordinator prepares bridge consultant agreements and coordinates consultant PS&E development activities with those of the department. G. Architect The Principal Architect is responsible for approving preliminary plans, preparing renderings, model making, and other duties to improve the aesthetics of our bridges and other structures. The Principal Architect works closely with staff and regions. During the design phase, designers should get the Architect’s approval for any changes to architectural details shown on the approved preliminary plan. H. Staff Support Unit The Staff Support Unit is responsible for many support functions, such as: typing, timekeeping, payroll, receptionist, vehicle management, mail, inventory management, and other duties requested by the Bridge and Structures Engineer. Other duties include: of field data, plans for bridges under contract or constructed, and design calculations. This unit also maintains office supplies and provides other services. I. Office Administrator The Office Administrator is responsible for coordinating personnel actions, updating the organizational chart, ordering technical materials, and other duties requested by the Bridge and Structures Engineer. Staff development and training are coordinated through the Office Administrator. Logistical support, office and building maintenance issues are also handled by the Office Administrator.

Bridge and Structures Office Organization

July 2000

1.2-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.2.3 Design Unit Responsibilities and Expertise
The following is an updated summary of design responsibilities/expertise within the Bridge Design Section. Contact the unit manager for the name of the appropriate staff expert for the needed specialty. Unit Manager K. N. Kirker Responsibility/Expertise Expansion Joint Modifications Retaining Walls (including MSE, Tie-Back, and Soil Nail) Seismic Retrofit Noise Walls Bridge Traffic Barriers Standard Plans for Prestressed Concrete Coast Guard Permits Cost Estimates Standard Plans (other than Prestressed Concrete) Bridge Design Manual Sign Supports, Light Standards, Traffic Signal Supports Repairs to Damaged Prestressed Girder Bridges Floating Bridges Special Structures

Bridge and Structures Office Organization

Y. A. Mhatre

R. T. Shaefer

J. A. VanLund P. T. Clarke

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July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.3 1.3.0 Design Procedures and Processes

Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) Process for WSDOT Bridge Designs General
A. The QA/QC process for bridge designs is a critical element of quality structure plan preparation. The overall goals of the structural design process are: • The structural design maximizes the safety of the traveling public and is in accordance with State Law. • The structural design is in accordance with the WSDOT Bridge Design Manual, AASHTO Bridge Design Specifications, good structural engineering practice, and geometric criteria provided by the Region. • Designed structures are durable, low-maintenance, and inspectable. • The structural design facilitates constructibility and minimizes overall construction costs, while exhibiting a pleasing architectural style. • The structural design contract documents are produced in accordance with customer’s needs (schedule, construction staging, and available program funding). • Structural design costs are minimized. • A well-organized and readable structure calculation record is produced. • Plan quality is maximized. • Design process allows for change, innovation, and continuous improvement. The overall goals are listed in order of importance. If there is a conflict between goals, the more important goal takes precedence. The design unit manager determines project assignments and the QC/QA process to be used in preparation of the structural design. The intent of the QC/QA process is to facilitate production efficiency and cost-effectiveness while assuring the structural integrity of the design and maximizing the quality of the structure contract documents.

1.3.1

Design/Check Procedures
A. PS&E Prepared by WSDOT Bridge and Structures Office 1. Design Team The design team, consisting of the Designer(s), Checker(s), Structural Detailer(s), and Specification and Estimate engineer are responsible for preparing a set of contractible, clear, and concise structural contract documents by the scheduled date and within the workforce hours allotted for the project. On large projects, the design unit manager may assign a designer additional duties as a Design Team Leader to assist the manager in planning, coordinating, and monitoring the activities of the design team. In this case, the team leader would also coordinate with the Region and the Geotechnical Branch. The QC/QA process will likely vary depending on the type and complexity of the structure being designed, and the experience level of the design team members. More supervision, review, and checking are required when the design team members are less experienced. In general, it is good QC/QA practice to have some experienced members on each design team. All design team members should have the opportunity to provide input for maximizing the quality of the design being produced.

July 2000

1.3-1

representative of bridge type. The bridge sheet numbering system should be coordinated with the Region design staff. 1. Design Procedures and Processes g. (1) Sufficient guidelines? (2) Deviation from BDM/AASHTO? (3) Any question on design approach? (4) Deviation from office practices regarding design and details? (5) Other differences. (4) Work with design unit manager to adjust resources. Early in the project. soil reports. A project specific design criteria should be made when appropriate. Designer Responsibility The designer is responsible for the structural analysis. errors and omissions need to be caught and corrected before subsequent checking and review of plans. h. Identify coordination needs with other designers. f. and quality of the plans. Prepare a Design Time Estimate Bar Chart (see Section 1. (3) Estimate time to complete. the designer will need to communicate with other stakeholders. The designer or team leader is responsible for project planning which involves the following: a.3-2 July 2000 . (2) Estimate percent complete. if necessary. d. which should be included in the design calculations. The designer shall provide quality control in the process of plan preparation. For projects with multiple bridges. That is. correctness. Prepare design criteria.2). Compare tasks with BDM office practice and AASHTO bridge design specifications. and utility requirements. Use Standard Design Criteria Form. Develop preliminary quantities for 90 percent complete cost estimate. 1. Meet with the Region design staff and other project stakeholders early in the design process to resolve as many issues as possible before proceeding with final design and detailing.3-A1-1 for routine projects.5. and offices. determine the number and titles of sheets. During the design phase of a project. e. b. each set of bridge sheets should have a unique set of bridge sheet numbers.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 2. A good set of example plans to follow. units. c. This includes acquiring. hydraulics recommendations. completeness. Constructibility issues may also require that the designer communicate with the Region or Construction Office. At least monthly or as directed by the design unit manager: (1) Update Project Schedule and List of Sheets. is indispensable in this regard. Identify tasks and plan order of work. finalizing or revising roadway geometrics. The bridge plans must be coordinated with the PS&E packages produced concurrently by the Region.

and include numbered pages along with a table of contents. Design calculations will be a reference document during the construction of the structure and throughout the life of the structure. (5) Coordinate all final changes. After construction. The designer shall provide documentation of the structural design deviations in the calculations. Design Calculations (1) For designs checked by an experienced checker. Archive-ready design and check calculations shall be bound and submitted to the design unit manager within 30 days of submitting the 100 percent PS&E. (2) Develop quantities and special provisions checklists that are to be turned in with the plans.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information i. Design Checker Responsibility The checker is responsible to the design unit manager for “quality assurance” of the structural design. The design calculations shall be well organized. and the Construction Office. a review and initialing of the designer’s calculations by the checker is acceptable. including review comments from the checker. (4) Enter information into the Bridge Design Record. Design Procedures and Processes July 2000 1. Computer files should be archived for use during construction. The designer should inform the design unit manager of any areas of the design which should receive special attention during checking and review. the Region. the design unit manager. clear. Following are some general checking guidelines: a. the checker may choose to perform his/her own calculations to check. If it is more efficient. Near end of project: (1) Keep track of sheets as they are completed. the Construction Support Unit. All the designer and checker calculations shall be placed in one design calculation set. These issues will generally be referred through the Bridge Technical Advisor. in the event that changed conditions arise. 3. The design calculations shall be archived. managers. The designer is also responsible for resolving construction problems referred to the Bridge Office during the life of the contract. The design calculations are prepared by the designer and become a very important record document. they shall be sent to archives. The designer shall advise and get the design unit manager’s approval whenever details deviate from the BDM office practice and AASHTO Bridge Design Specifications. The checking procedure for assuring the quality of the design will vary from project to project. which includes checking the design and plans to assure accuracy and constructibility. The design unit manager works with the checker to establish the level of checking. (3) Prepare Bar List. or the OSC Construction Unit. Calculations shall be stored in the design unit until completion of construction. It is critical that the design calculations be user friendly. (6) Meet with Region design staff and other project stakeholders at the constructibility meeting to address final project coordination issues.3-3 . specialists. properly referenced.

a more thorough check should be performed by the checker to enhance his/her understanding of structural design. k. and Details. Use cross references properly. Beware of common mistakes about placement of stirrups and ties (such as: stirrups too short. h. Check for proper grammar and spelling. For example. or a geometric program. if required. Views. (2) If assigned by the design unit manager. If the checker’s comments are not incorporated. and easy to follow and drawn to scale. Chapter 10. Plan sheets should detailed in a consistent manner and follow accepted detailing practices. Extra effort will be required to assure uniformity of details. (3) Revision of plans. etc.). including details and bar lists. i. Try to avoid repetition of information. Check reinforcement detail for consistency. Check splice location and detail. The plans shall be neat. epoxy coating not considered. 4. Use correct and consistent terminology. Avoid placing too much information into any one sheet. Structural Detailer Responsibility The structural detailer is responsible for the structural plan sheets. the design unit manager should provide the checker with a design example. In this case. particularly if multiple design units and/or consultants are involved in preparing bridge plans. geometry. Avoid reinforcing steel congestion. Use clear detailing such as “stand alone” cross sections or a framing plan to define the structure. b. The structural detailer may also assist the designer and design checker in such areas as determining control dimensions and elevations. the designation of Sections. f. for detailing practices. is the responsibility of the designer. Provide necessary and adequate information.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Design Procedures and Processes (2) For designs checked by an inexperienced checker. (3) Revision of design calculations. If there is a difference of opinion that cannot be resolved between the designer and checker. c. Refer to BDM. and calculating quantities.3-4 July 2000 . d. the unit manager shall resolve the issue. if required. On multiple bridge contracts. the structural detailing of all bridges within the contract shall be coordinated to maximize consistency of detailing from bridge to bridge. correct. e. g. effect of skew neglected. This is a critical element of good quality bridge plans. hand calculations. and welding locations. and returned to the designer for consideration. Structural Plans (1) The checker’s plan review comments are recorded on the structural plans. Provide clear and separate detail of structural geometrics. the designer should provide justification for not doing so. 1. the checker shall perform a complete check of the geometry using CADD. is the responsibility of the designer. b. j. Some detailing basics and principles: a.

3-5 . There is a specialist assigned to each of the three design sections and one to the Bridge Preservation Section. the Design Unit acts as a resource for the technical area. There are three specialty areas in the Design Section: Concrete. Tie-Back. Specialist Responsibility There are currently four specialist positions in the Bridge and Structures Office. As described in the previous Section (5. 5. each unit has a Design Specialist (Concrete. The primary responsibility of the specialist is to act as a knowledge resource for this office.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information l. In addition. each Design Unit maintains a resource of technical knowledge in several technical areas. The secondary responsibility of the Specialist is to serve as design section supervisor when the supervisor is absent. Steel. the Specialists are expected to review and initial drawings covered by their specialty area. Specialists also provide training in their area of specialty. Light Standards. Plans produced directly by Specialists in their specialty area should be prepared with their own stamp and signature. only. The Specialists maintain an active knowledge of their specialty area along with a current file of products and design procedures. Expansion Joints and Bearings). and Steel. As contract plans are prepared by other designers. and as a contact for industry and stakeholders. 6. July 2000 1. Expansion Joints and Bearings. is a list of all technical subjects for which a resource is maintained: • Coast Guard Permits • Cost Estimates • Bridge Special Provisions • Sign Supports. Design Unit Technical Responsibilities Each Design Unit is responsible for maintaining a resource of technical knowledge and leadership. Design Procedures and Processes Refer to the Bridge Book of Knowledge for current special features and details used on other projects. They also are responsible for keeping their respective chapters of the Bridge Design Manual up to date. Traffic Signal Supports • Repairs to Damaged Prestressed Girders • Expansion Joint Modifications • Retaining Walls (Including MSE. Proactive industry contacts are maintained by the Specialists. and Soil Nail) • Seismic Retrofit • Noise Walls • Traffic Barrier Retrofits/Standards • Bridge Standard Plans (BDM) The resource/leadership responsibility for these technical areas does not necessarily include responsibility for performing all of the work relating to the technical area.). Following. Specialists also assist the Bridge Engineer in reviewing and voting on amendments to AASHTO specifications. For many of the technical areas.

or seek advice or help from the design engineer. the S&E Engineer attends to the following duties. While other offices are reviewing the plan package. and constructibility. construction working day schedule. The S&E Engineer will then respond back to the PE. The S&E Engineer begins work after the design unit submits copies of the 90 percent design plans. and signed. • Compile a cost estimate file using the quantities submitted by the designers and current Unit Cost figures for the various materials used in the bridge. Revisions to the Plans or Specs are sometimes needed as a result of these questions from Contractors. This normally occurs on or before the date specified in the Bridge Design Schedule. stamped. Once the final Bridge Sheet mylars are printed. This PS&E package includes Special Provisions (BSPs and GSPs as appropriate). • Check the plans for engineering accuracy.” and a S&E Checklist are included in the PS&E package.3-6 July 2000 . Specification and Estimating Engineer Responsibilities The S&E Engineer is responsible for compiling the PS&E package for bridge and/or related highway structural components. During the Advertising period many questions are funneled into the Bridge Office by the Project Engineers and the communications are generally distributed to the S&E Engineer. construction cost estimate. Design Procedures and Processes 1. and design plans to make sure that materials specified in the plans are consistent with the current Standard Specifications. the S&E Engineer arranges for 11 by 17 paper prints for submittal to the appropriate Region PS&E contact. all comments are addressed by the designers. the S&E Engineer distributes the 90 percent design plans for review by the Region and other offices. the S&E Engineer coordinates the Bridge and Structures Office review of the Review PS&E and responds with comments to the Region. At the same time. The S&E Engineer also participates in the Region Review Roundtable Meeting. GSPs. • Create a run list of BSPs. • Inform the appropriate Region PS&E contact when the word file is complete and ready for transfer. answer the question from the Contractors. The S&E Engineer has the following responsibilities during coordination of the Final Bridge PS&E turn in. The S&E Engineer will ascertain the query. • Complete Cost Estimate and Quantity revisions to the cost estimate files. a copy of the “Not Included in Bridge Quantities. foundation report. • The S&E Engineer develops a construction working day schedule which is also based on the quantities submitted by the designers. and the design plan package.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 7. • Review the job file. completeness. As a first order of business. test hole boring logs and other appendices as appropriate. The S&E Engineer also receives all Region review comments and distributes them to the appropriate designer for action. After the Review Roundtable Meeting. and appropriate Standard Specification amendments. • Make Special Provision reviews to the Bridge Special Provision word file. The original stamped and signed mylars are turned in to the Construction Plans Unit for storage. A set of quantities. • Electronically distribute all cost estimate file revisions to the appropriate Region PS&E contact.

Activities during the course of design include: (1) Evaluate the complexity of the project and the designer’s skill and classification level to deliver the project in a timely manner. hydraulics. problems. anticipating possible problems. (7) Arrange for and provide the necessary resources and tools for the design team to do the job right the first time. The S&E Engineer attends the award meetings to justify bids and advise whether or not to award the contract. Other responsibilities included are: • Special Provisions and Estimates for Change Order Work • Cost estimates in the scoping stage of a project • Working Day information during Stage Construction planning • Initiates/Coordinates Amendment and GSP Updates • Maintains BSP Library 8. foundation information. b. and facilitating timely delivery of needed information. bridge construction. and consultants to resolve outstanding issues. (3) Review and approve design criteria before start of design. The design unit manager is responsible to the Bridge Design Engineer for the timely completion and quality of the bridge plans. (2) Assist the design team in defining the scope of the project. (5) Assist the design team with planning. identifying the tasks to be accomplished. innovative ideas and suggestions for quality improvement. schedule. Offer assistance to help resolve questions or problems.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Design Procedures and Processes Addendum’s are created to augment the original advertised document to make sure all Contractors are advised prior to Bid Openings. Always encourage forward thinking. These Addendum’s are coordinated with the Region and OSC Plans. developing a project work plan and schedule. and assigning resources to achieve delivery of the project. (4) Help lead designer conduct face-to-face project meetings. checker.3-7 . constructibility and design issues. such as: project “kick-off” and “wrap-up” meetings with Region. (6) Interact with design team regularly to discuss progress. such as geometrics. collectively identifying solutions. geotechnical staff. (8) Help document and disseminate information on special features and lessons learned for the benefit of others and future projects. analysis techniques. and structural detailer) during the design and plan preparation phases to help avoid major changes late in the design process. etc. July 2000 1. Design Unit Manager Responsibility a. Determine both the degree of supervision necessary for the designer and the amount of checking that will be required by the checker. The design unit manager works closely with the design team (designer.

g. superstructures. Generally. substructures. barriers. Fill out Office Time Report (see Appendix 1. They should adhere to the following order: layout. (4) Check the sequence of the plan sheets. miscellaneous details. Use quarterly status reports to update Region and Bridge Projects Engineer. 1. Review the following periodically and at the end of the project: (1) Design Criteria • Seismic “a” value • Foundation report recommendations. environmental. i. precise. etc. Prepare and submit to the Bridge Projects Engineer monthly time reports for each project. Any problems unique to the project? Check the final plans for the following: (1) Scan the job file for unusual items relating to geometrics. Review designer’s estimated time to complete the project. Advise Region of project scope and cost-creep. Use appropriate computer scheduling software or other means to monitor time usage and to allocate resources and to plan projects.3-A5). (2) Overall check/review of sheet #1. Review of constructibility. percent completed. footing layout. BDM. The design unit manager works closely with the design team during the plan review phase. Details should be clear. f. c. e. Also check for appropriateness of the titles. h. selection of alternates • Deviations from AASHTO. Monitor monthly time spent on the project.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Design Procedures and Processes (9) Mentor and train designers and detailers on state-of-the-art practices and through the assignment of a variety of structure types. and bar list. geotechnical. hydraulics. and whether project is on or behind schedule. Plan resource allocation to complete the project to meet the scheduled Ad Date. Arrange and plan resources to ensure a timely delivery of the project within the estimated time to complete the project. the bridge layout for: • Consistency — especially for multiple bridge project • Missing information (3) Check footing layout for conformance to Bridge Plan and for adequacy of information given. Review efforts should concentrate on reviewing the completed plan details and design calculations for completeness and for agreement with office criteria and practices. Documentation (2) Design Time d. Estimate time remaining to complete project. and dimensions tied to base reference such as survey line or defined center line of bridge.3-8 July 2000 . the field personnel should be given enough information to “layout” the footings on the ground without referring to any other sheets.

c. Encourage designer creativity and innovation. When in doubt. General Bridge Plan Signature Policy The sealing and signature of bridge plans is an important element of the Bridge QC/QA process.. Also spot check bar marks. f. and outside agencies relating to major structural design issues. and facilitator for the WSDOT QC/QA Bridge Design Process. scheduling. It signifies review and responsible charge of the design and details represented in the plans. Facilitate resolution of major project design issues. The primary focus for this responsibility is to assure that the most cost-effective and appropriate structure type is selected for a particular bridge site. 9. The Bridge and Structures Office intends to have at least one Licensed Structural Engineer seal and sign each contract plan sheet (except the bar list). This is a quality assurance (QA) function as well as meeting the “responsible charge” requirements of the laws relating to Professional Engineers. b. When the structural contract plans are sealed by the Bridge Design Engineer. The following summarizes the responsibilities of the Bridge Design Engineer relative to QC/QA: a. spot check for compatibility. seal. the Design Unit Manager (SE License) and designer with a Civil Engineer License will typically review. check compatibility between superstructures and substructure. the Design Unit Manager and the Bridge Design Engineer will typically review. (6) Use one’s training. Facilitate partnerships between WSDOT. mentor. and experience to “size-up” structural dimensions and reinforcement. for structural adequacy. Participate in coordination. Exercise leadership and direction for maintaining a progressive and up to date Bridge Design Manual. Bridge Design Engineer’s Responsibilities The Bridge Design Engineer is the coach.3-9 . Stamp and seal the plans. Review and approve the Preliminary Bridge Plans. Create an open and supportive office environment in which Design Section staff are empowered to do high quality structural design work. i. For routine bridge designs and transportation structure designs. July 2000 1. 10. e. j. seal.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Design Procedures and Processes (5) Check overall dimensions and elevations. and sign the bridge plans. g. consultant. and project-related discussions with stakeholders. customers. d. and construction industry stakeholders to facilitate design quality. common sense. etc. The leadership and support provided by this position is a major influence in assuring bridge design quality for structural designs performed by both WSDOT and consultants. prepare for a line of questioning to the designer/checker. h. and sign the contract plans (except the bar list). a structural/ constructibility review of the plans is performed. For major projects. For example. Review unique project special provisions and major Standard Specification modifications relating to structures.

Design Procedures and Processes 1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information B. Where a review is required. but it will include the following elements: • Consultant Coordinator Responsibilities Scope of Work Negotiate Contract (Task Assignments) Coordinate/Negotiate Changes to Scope of Work • WSDOT Design Reviewer/Coordinator Responsibilities Review consultant’s design criteria and standard details early in the project Identify resources needed to complete work Early agreement on structural concepts/design method to be used Identify who is responsible for what Monitor progress Facilitate communication Review for design consistency with WSDOT practices and other bridge designs in project Resolve differences Assure that consultant’s QC/QA plan was followed during design • Design Unit Manager Responsibilities Encourage/Facilitate communication Early involvement to assure that design concepts are appropriate Empower Design Reviewer/Coordinator Facilitate resolution of problems beyond ability of Reviewer/Coordinator • S&E Unit Responsibilities Prepare Specials and Estimate based on Consultant’s special provision checklist and quantities Review plans for consistency Forward Special Provisions and Estimate to consultant for review and comment • Bridge Design Engineer Responsibilities Cursory review of design plans Signature approval of S&E bridge contract package C.B). The Bridge and Structures Office Consultant Coordinator does not become involved. The Highways and Local Programs Office determines which projects are to be reviewed by the Bridge and Structures Office. The original set will be filed in the Bridge Projects Unit.3. Consultant PS&E — On County and City Right of Way Projects Consultants are frequently used by counties and cities to design bridges.1. PS&E Prepared by Consultant This section is yet to be developed. The plans with the reviewers’ comments should be returned to the Bridge Projects Unit where the comments will be transferred to a second set of plans which will be returned to Highways and Local Programs. A Review Engineer will be assigned to the project and will review the project as outlined for Consultant PS&E — Projects on WSDOT Right of Way (see Section 1. the PS&E is sent by Highways and Local Programs to the Bridge Projects Engineer for assignment.3-10 July 2000 .

Comments are treated as advisory. Calculations for revisions made during construction should be included in the design/check calculation file when construction is completed. 1. B. File Exclusions The following items should not be included in the file: 1. and year).2 Design/Check Calculation File A. An engineer from the county. Voided sheets. date (month. Geometric calculations. July 2000 1. 3. day. D. or consultant may contact the reviewer to discuss the comments. the designer should turn in to the manager a bound file containing the design/check calculations. structural analysis. Irrelevant computer information. city. Procedures After an assigned project is completed and the bridge is built. although major structural problems must be corrected. one set of moment and shear diagrams and pertinent computer input and output data (reduced to 8 1 2 inch by 11 inch sheet size). SR Number. Prints of Office Standard Sheets. 4. 4. 2. 2. construction problems arise that require revisions. List the name of the project. C. File of Calculations The Bridge and Structures Office maintains a file of all pertinent design/check calculations for documentation and future reference. and supervisor’s initials.3-11 . loadings. Design Calculations These should include design criteria. Irrelevant sketches. 3. designer/checker initials. therefore. 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Design Procedures and Processes Review is made of the Preliminary Plan first and the PS&E second.3. File Inclusions The following items should be included in the file: 1. Construction Problems or Revisions (As They Develop) Not all construction problems can be anticipated during the design of the structure. Index Sheets Number all calculation sheets and prepare an index by subject with the corresponding sheet numbers. Special Design Features Brief narrative of major design decisions or revisions and the reasons for them.

Section 10. Return plans and comments to the unit manager. particularly geometry. The Bridge Projects Engineer will evaluate the need for the addendum after consultation with the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 6.3.3-A3. Determine if any nonstandard designs are shown or specified. signs. Test hole logs. Upon completion of the design work. Return the original and an 11 × 17 reduced copy to the Bridge Project Unit who will submit the reduced copy to the Plans Branch for processing. guardrail. h. Review pertinent sections of the special provisions for consistency with the plans. Review all indexes for items related to traffic signals. i. and other structural items. submit a copy of the page with the change to the Bridge S&E Unit for processing. Standard Plans.3-12 July 2000 . and the Plans Branch. design criteria. Verify that Standard Plans and preapproved plans are called out where applicable. Review the index and verify that no bridge plans have been omitted. j. e. a structural review of them may be necessary. Note the due date to determine priority.) 1. g. b. 1. and specifications. drainage. For addenda to contract plans. and other pertinent items.3. c. Design Procedures and Processes Preliminary design calculations and drawings unless used in the final design. completeness.4 Addenda Plan or specification revisions during the advertising period require an addendum. It is normally distributed for final review for compatibility. and Bridge Office). retaining walls. Review pertinent plan sheets. a. Quantity calculations. E. illumination. Note any missing specifications. obtain the original drawing from the Bridge Project Unit. for additional information. The Bridge Design Engineer or the design unit manager must initial all addenda. Review the comments from any previous reviews of the Region PS&E and check to see if the items have been corrected. Region. etc. 8. If so.3 Office Copy Review Office Copy is the compiled contract documents (plans/specials) of all involved disciplines (Region. 1. f. Verify consistency between Region plans and bridge plans.1. traffic barrier. d.1I. For changes to specifications. (See Appendix 1. service center. See Chapter 10. and accuracy before final printing and going to Ad with the contract. Use shading to mark all changes (except deletions) and place a revision note at the bottom of the sheet (Region and Plans Branch jointly determine addendum date) and a description of the change. 7. fill out a Design Completed Checklist (Form 230-035).

Friction losses. Mark one copy of each sheet with the following. a. arithmetic.) Items to be checked are typically as follows: Check against Contract Plans. l. July 2000 1. g. hardness. d. Yellow shall be used for highlighting the checked items. etc. Fabrication — reaming. Elongation of strands in all tendons. elongations. etc. alloy and temper. Material specifications (ASTM specifications. etc. Seating loss. Center of gravity of post-tensioning (P/T) strands matches contract plans. The following items pertain only to post-tensioning shop plans: j. Strand or rebar placement. Design Procedures and Processes 3. Adequacy of details. Test data must be on file to substantiate the adequacy of internal type anchorages. (Only the red pencil marks will be copied onto the other copies to be returned to the contractor. Bridge Shop Plans 1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1. anodizing. Anchor plate size. separate elongations should be provided for each web. o.) For curved bridges where the lengths of the exterior webs vary by more than 2 percent. and ordinary lead (gray) pencil for other comments. Finish (surface finish. These will be compared with the field measurements.). n. stress calculations. painting. i. h. c. e. k.3-13 . f. jacking procedure. in red pencil or with a rubber stamp: Office Copy Contract (number) (Checker’s initials) (Date) 2. b. mark with red pencil any errors or corrections. Weld size and type and welding procedure if required. near the title block.5 Shop Plans The following is intended to be a guide for checking shop plans. Erection procedure.3.). Special Provisions. etc. Length dimensions if shown on the Contract Plans. A. (See WSDOT Construction Manual. galvanizing. drilling. check bearing stress on concrete and flexural stress in plate material. Time-dependent losses. and Standard Specifications. On the Bridge Office copy. Steel stress diagram. m. If nonstandard. and assembly procedures. Size of member and fasteners. p.

APP’D (Approved. Mark the plans Approved-As-Noted provided that the detail is clearly noted Suggested Correction — Otherwise Revise and Resubmit. No Corrections required. check with the unit manager. mark the office copy with one of three categories (in red pencil. r. Stressing sequence. Watch for sharp curvature of tendons near end anchorages (see minimum radius requirements in Chapter 6 of BDM Criteria). 6. Items Not Requiring Check: a. who may have to approve a change order and provide justification for the change order.) b. t. to the office copy using red pencil. Interference with other reinforcement. Notify Project Engineer of any approved changes to the contract plans. do not use this as the office copy. u. a. Do not mark the other copies. 4. Note: Manufacturer’s details may vary slightly from contract plan requirements but must be structurally adequate and reasonable. AAN (Approved as noted — minor corrections only. Adequate room in the concrete members for the system. 1. Strand positions in conduit in sag and summit tendon curves. Geometric details such as size of blockouts. 5.3-14 July 2000 . Project Engineer’s Copy If one copy has been marked by the Project Engineer (in green). Marking Copies When finished. An acceptable detail may be shown in red.) If in doubt between AAN and RFC. Special attention to this item if post-tensioning (P/T) supplier proposes a different number of tendons than shown on the plans. Do not place written questions on an approved as noted sheet. Design Procedures and Processes w. Length dimensions not shown on Contract Plans except for spot checking. s.) c. Offsets from soffit to bottom of conduits. Transfer his corrections.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information q. Vent conduit at all high and low points in the spans. b. lower right corner). This will be done in the Construction Support Unit. Quantities in bill of materials. v. RFC (Return for correction — major corrections are required followed by resubmittal. Also notify the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer. The reviewer may be asked to proof the other copies after they have been marked. if pertinent.

The Project Engineer’s copy may show shaft lengths where not shown on Contract Plans or whether a change from Contract Plans is required. Responses to inquiries should be handled as follows: 1. 3. and Illumination Shop Plans In addition to those instructions described under “Bridge Shop Plans.3-15 . July 2000 1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Design Procedures and Processes If problems are encountered which may cause a delay in the checking of the shop plans or completion of the contract.” the following instructions apply: 1. Signal. B. Determine if fabricator has supplied plans for each pole or type of pole called for in the contract. notify the unit manager and the Construction Support Unit. 2. but must be structurally adequate to be acceptable. 1. Designers are to inform their manager if they are contacted. Request From the Region Construction Engineer Requests from the Region Construction Engineer are to be handled like requests from the Region Project Engineer. 2. The Bridge Construction Engineer and Construction Support Unit should be informed of any changes. For projects which have been assigned a Bridge Technical Advisor. but shall clearly tell the contractor/supplier to formally submit the proposed change though the Project Engineer and that the discussion in no way implies approval of the proposed change. Alert the Construction Support Unit so that their transmittal letter may inform the Region and the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer.6 Contract Plan Changes (Change Orders and As-Builts) A. Request by Contractor or Supplier A designer. If deviations from the Contract Plans are to be allowed. For all other projects. all changes are to be channeled through the Construction Support Unit which will coordinate with the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer. or design unit manager contacted directly by a contractor/supplier may discuss a proposed change with the contractor/supplier.3. Review the shop plans to ensure that the pole sizes conform to the Contract Plans. Manufacturer’s details may vary slightly from contract plan requirements. Request From the Project Engineer Requests for changes directly from the Project Engineer to the design unit manager should be discouraged but may be acceptable when the Bridge Construction Engineer is not available. structural design change orders can be approved at the Regional level provided the instructions outlined in the Construction Manual are followed. BTA. Return all shop drawings and Contract Plans to the Construction Support unit when checking is completed. Include a list of any deviations from the Contract Plans which are allowed and a list of any disagreements with the Project Engineer’s comments (regardless of how minor they may be). a Change Order may be required. Sign Structure. Request for Changes The following is intended as a guide for processing changes to the design plans after a project has been awarded.

Construction Support Unit requires one reduced paper copy. omissions.. Request From the Design Unit Request for changes from the Design Unit due to plan error. and reviewer of the change before they are distributed. Contract No.” shall be sent to the Project Engineer who shall use it to mark construction changes and upon project completion. designer. The OSC Construction Office requires two reduced paper copies. Design Unit requires one or more reduced paper copies. Aid Proj. manager.3-16 July 2000 . Request From the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer Requests for changes from the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer or his/her assistants are usually made through the Construction Support Unit and not directly to the Design Unit. A new sheet shall be assigned the same number as the one in the originals that it most closely applies to and shall also be given a letter (e. Design Procedures and Processes 1..g.. Any revised sheets shall be sent to the OSC Construction Office with a written explanation describing the changes to the contract. To clearly identify the scope of work. the information in the title blocks of these sheets must be identical to the title blocks of the contract they are for (e. Processing Contract Revisions Changes to the Contract Plans or Specifications subsequent to the award of the contract may require a contract revision. or Local Agency Ad and Award. it is necessary to work directly with the Design Unit. sometimes. If the changes are modifications made to an existing sheet. Approved by. and the Project Name). it is often desirable to provide revised or additional drawings. request the original mylars from the Construction Support Unit’s Plans Technician and prepare revised or new original mylars. When a revision or an additional drawing is necessary. Fed. The Construction Support Unit should be informed of any decisions made involving changes to the Contract Plans. forward them to the Construction Support Bridge Plans Technician. The assigned number shall be located both at the location of the change on the sheet and in the revision block of the plan sheet along with an explanation of the change.. This process applies to all contracts including OSC Ad and Award.. the new sheet applies to the original sheet 25 of 53 so it will be number 25A of 53). shall be discussed with the Bridge Design Engineer prior to revising and issuing new plan sheets. Every revision will be assigned a number which shall be enclosed inside a triangle (e. justification for the changes. No. However. Whenever new plan sheets are required as part of a contract revision. These title blocks shall also be initialed by the Bridge Design Engineer. etc. 5. 1 ).g.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 4. B. A full size mylar of the contract revision sheet shall be stored in the Bridge Projects Unit.g. the sheet number will remain the same. Region Ad and Award.. one full-sized paper print. and a list of material quantity additions or subtractions. Send the new mylars to the Construction Support Unit’s Plans Technician. stamped “As Constructed Plans. The Designer is responsible for making the prints and distributing them. Job Number.

3-17 . • Design File • S&E File • Design Calculations Place a job file cover sticker on the file folder (see Figure 1). # _______ Figure 1 P65:DP/BDM1 July 2000 1. Fill in all fields completely. WA 98504-0238 Telephone: 360-586-4900 SR # _____ County ____________________ CS # _____ Bridge Name _____________________________________ Bridge # _______________ Contract # ________________ Contents ________________________________________ Designed by _____________ Checked by _____________ Archive Box # _____________________ Vol. the following information will be collected by the Bridge Standard Plans Engineer.3. Keep these files on site for future reference until the end of the retention period.7 Design Procedures and Processes Archiving Design Calculations. Update the file with any contract plan changes that occur during construction. and S&E Files Upon Award.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1. send the files to the Office of the Secretary of State for archiving at: Archives & Records Management 1129 Washington Street SE Olympia. Design Files. After the retention period.

Adequate communications are essential but organizational format and lines of responsibility must be recognized. However.4. Coordination With Region During this phase. However. final coordination of the bridge design with region requirements must be accomplished. barrier. A portion of the criteria for a project design may be derived from this coordination. Upon request. After contract advertisement.4 Coordination With Other Divisions and Agencies Coordination With Other Divisions and Agencies During the various phases of design. and other direct communication with other offices are necessary and appropriate. The region shall then transmit the “As Constructed Plans” to Bridge and Structures Office where they will be transferred to the original plans for permanent storage.1 of this manual for coordination required at preliminary planning phase. Bridge and Structures Office will review these plans and indicate any required changes. the region will be provided copies of these plans by Bridge and Structures Office. The region PS&E and bridge PS&E are combined by the Region Plans Branch. Region Design Engineer. specifications.2 Final Design Phase A. a written request sent through channels is required before work can be done or design changes made on projects. or Region Plans Engineer. When two or more structures are to be let under the same contract. the region shall return the original plan sheets to Bridge and Structures Office. 1. etc.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1. it is necessary to coordinate the elements of the bridge design function with the requirements of other divisions and agencies. otherwise it shall be developed by the designer subject to approval of the Bridge Design Engineer. Technical Design Matters Technical coordination must be done with the OSC Materials Laboratory Foundation Engineer and with the OSC Hydraulic Engineer for matters pertaining to their responsibilities. and other items. Details such as division of quantity items between the region PS&E and bridge PS&E become highly important to a finished contract plan set. bid items. These sheets shall be held in temporary storage until the “As Constructed Plans” for them are completed by the region.4-1 . E-mail messages.) to the Bridge and Structures Office. B.4. the region shall provide a copy of the proposed structural plans (such as retaining walls. telephone calls. the designer should make a special effort to be uniform on structural details. During the design of a project for a region level contract. This is normally done with the Region Project Engineer. necessary coordination should be accomplished before this time. then send them back to the region.1 Preliminary Planning Phase See Chapter 2. P:DP/BDM1 9807-0802 August 1998 1. 1. The region shall incorporate the changes prior to contract advertisement. large culverts.

CADD system efficiencies.5.1 Bridge Design Scheduling General The Bridge Projects Engineer is responsible for scheduling and monitoring the progress of projects. number of drawings. G. design. The hours shown are the total for the bridge as reported from the designer’s time sheets.5 1. check. F. The Bridge Projects Unit has “Bridge Construction Cost Summary” books.5-A1).BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1. The report is due by the fourth working day of the month. was used to monitor project progress. and other factors as appropriate. percentage complete. design. Preliminary design started. drafting. and adjustments required in the schedule. The times given include preliminary plan. WSDOT Form 232-002 (see Appendix 1. H. list each item of work required to complete the project and the man-hours required to accomplish them. and this partial completion should be reflected in the columns “% Completed” and “Date Completed.3). These are grouped according to bridge types and have records of design time. and supervision as reported on the summary from the Accounting Office. Bridge Design Scheduling 1.5.” Formerly. and the ad date.5. A typical project would involve the following steps: A. E. Project turned in to S&E unit. Final Design Started — Designer estimates time required for final plans (see Section 1. the efficiencies of designing similar bridges on the same project.2 Preliminary Design Schedule The preliminary design estimate done by the Bridge Projects Unit is based on historical records from past projects factoring in unique features of each individual project. and S&E (see Section 1. B. The designer or team leader should research several sources when making the final design time estimate. and bridge cost. The Bridge Projects Unit estimates design time required for preliminary plans.3 Final Design Schedule A. Monthly Schedule Update — Each Design Unit Supervisor turns in to the Bridge Scheduling Engineer an updated copy of the Bridge Design Schedule showing man-months used last month. D. Certain items of work may have been partially completed during the preliminary design. designer experience. PS&E.5-1 . Breakdown of Project Man-Hours Required Using a spreadsheet.2). project design. 1. This form can still be used. man-months used to date.5. C. The “Bridge Design Schedule” is used to track the progress of a project and is updated monthly. The project is entered into the Bridge Design Schedule with start and due dates for site data preliminary plan.5. The summary is kept in the Bridge Projects Unit. Bridge site data received. Regions advise Bridge and Structures Office of an upcoming project. The following are possible sources that may be used: The “Bridge Design Summary” contains records of design time and costs for past projects. August 1998 1.

Supervisor time related to checking (estimate 10 percent of design check time). 2 Project coordination. Estimate Design Time Required The designer or design team leader shall determine an estimate of design time required to complete the project. Checking design at maximum stress locations. Supervisor time related to design (estimate 10 percent of design time). Activity No. the following completion percentages (percent of the total project time) from Form 232-002 are applied on Form 232-003 for the following activities: Activity No. Activities 8 and 9 are estimates dependant on individual circumstances. Design calculations (including time for Load Rating). 4. Geometric computations. Activity No. The use of a spreadsheet. 1. Complete check of all plan sheets by the designer. Additional checking required. 1 2 3 4 5 7 Percentage 40 20 25 5 5 5 Bridge Design Scheduling Completion percentages for Activities 4. Microsoft Project.3. and 7 are approximately 5 percent of the project total. The individual activities include the specific items as follows under each major activity. 3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information B. Checking major items on the drawings. 5. In the past. 2. WSDOT Form 232-003 was used. 4. Note: Activities 1 through 5 and Activity 7 make up 100 percent of the design time required to complete the job. 5. Activity 6 is separate from design time required by needs to be included to determine the completion date.1A3 — Includes: 1. 1 Design — Includes: 1.5-2 August 1998 . 2. 3. Design Check — As defined in Section 1. or other means is encouraged to ensure timely completion and adherence to the schedule. including geometrics. Typically.

Revisions resulting from the supervisory review. some behind. “Man-hours Used to Date” indicates the total number of hours used for each activity during the current period added to the total shown on the last report done. Preparing special provisions checklist. Adjustments.2-1 and 2 for sample Bar Chart problem and corresponding progress report form. Assemble backup data covering any unusual feature. Any discrepancies between actual progress and the project schedule must be determined. Check quantities. In the past.5. 8 Other Jobs — Includes: 1. Some activities will probably be ahead of schedule. 9 Leave — Includes: 1. 2. sick. Activity No. 2. See Figures 1. Activity No. Interruptions. 7 Review — Includes: 1. Activity No. It is here that major discrepancies should be noticed and adjustments made as described above. 4 Revisions — Includes: 1. Activity No. Compute quantities including bar list. either by revising the workforce assigned to the project. Annual. Bridge Design Scheduling Quantities — Includes: 1. should be made accordingly. Activity No. and other leave. Activity No. 3 Drawings — Includes: Preparation of all drawings. “% of Total Time Used” is the number of hours used for the activity divided by the current number of hours assigned to the activity from the “Current Estimate of Time to Complete” on Form 232-003.5-3 .5-A2) was used to monitor the progress of the project design. C. Supervisor’s review. 2. and others on schedule. Monthly Project Progress Report The designer or design team leader is responsible for determining monthly project progress and reporting the results to the Unit Supervisor. 6 S&E — Includes: 1. the project schedule. “% of Activity Complete” and “% of Total Project Complete” are estimates.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Activity No. August 1998 1. 5 Revisions resulting from the checker’s check. WSDOT Form 232-004 (see Appendix 1. The Design Unit Supervisor is required to update a copy of the bridge design schedule each month using information from the designer or design team leader. hours assigned to activities or.

P:DP/BDM1 9807-0802 1. percent plan details completed. Other tools include using an Excel spreadsheet listing bridge sheet plans by title.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Bridge Design Scheduling The designer may use a computer spreadsheet. percent design check. A spreadsheet with this data allows the designer or design team leader to rapidly determine percent of project completion and where resources need to be allocated to complete the project on schedule. and percent plan details checked. to track the progress of the project and as an aid in evaluating the percent complete. bridge sheet number. percent design complete.5-4 August 1998 .

1982 (anticipated completion date) Bridge Design Scheduling Washington State Department of Transportation SR No. Job No. and this will give you the number of working days to completion date. (Man Hours) Layout Check Layout Man Hours Bar Chart Activity Scale: 1" = __________ Man Hours 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Design Design Check Drawings Revisions Quantities S&E Reviews 8 9 Other Jobs Leave Totals DOT 232-003 (formerly C1M4) Rev 3/91 August 1998 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 Subtotals 100% Remarks Figure 1.475 +84 6.5 + 1. Time from Activities 8 and 9 will not enter into job manpower estimates.2-1 1. but will affect the estimated completion date.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Design Estimate Bar Chart Sample Criteria The designer estimates that 792 man-hours will be required to complete the design phase of the project.5-5 . To compute the “Anticipated Completion Date.” scale from the “zero-line” to the farthest block on the right and to this add Activities 8 and 9 (in effect extending the completion time). Enter the percentage amount in column three. The number of working days in conjunction with the Working Day Calendar (see Bridge Projects Unit) will give the completion date.2) × 100 × 1/8 = 84 working days August 2. 2.5. For this example. 1982 — Start Date Number of working days = = 6. this will be: (5. Project Design Time Bar Chart Drawn By Design Start Date Scheduled Completion Date Anticipated Completion Date Designed By Design Checked By Current Estimate of Time to Complete Original Estimate to Complete Layout By Completion Percentage (Man Hours) Activity No. The hours are distributed among Activities 1 through 7 and entered in the first column of the Bar Chart Form. Using a convenient scale. Estimate the time for Activity 8 (approximately 5 percent of subtotal) and for Activity 9 (approximately 8 percent of subtotal).559 (from working day calendar) Dec. Multiply this number by the scale you are using and divide by 8. draw the bar chart.

5.2-2 1.5-6 August 1998 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Bridge Design Scheduling Sample Progress Report Form Figure 1.

they should be properly documented. Region. There is good information regarding the condition of existing bridges at the Bridge Preservation Office (Mottman). included in the job file and noted on the special provisions checklist. it is critical that the design team know as much as possible about the bridge that is to be rehabilitated. the Condition Survey Unit and the region should be contacted to determine if there are any unique site conditions or safety hazards. The decision to perform an in-depth inspection should include the Unit Supervisor. 1. a site visit is recommended. If unique site restrictions are observed. There is good information regarding the condition of existing bridges at the Bridge Preservation Office (Mottman). a site visit would help the design team determine if there are unique sit restrictions that could affect the demolition. field measurements. video records with spoken commentary. 1. At least one bridge site visit is necessary for this type of project. a site visit is recommended. it is important to obtain as much information as possible. As-built drawings and contract documents are also helpful. Bridge Design Scheduling 1.1 Bridge Rehabilitation Projects (excluding rail and minor expansion joint rehabilitation projects) For this type of bridge project. However. 1. and the Bridge Design Engineer.6-1 . and field notes are appropriate forms of field information. Pictures. if the new bridge is a replacement for an existing bridge. if there is any doubt about the adequacy of the available information or concern about accelerated deterioration of the structure elements to be retrofitted. As-built drawings and contract documents are also helpful. an in-depth inspection with experienced condition survey inspectors would be appropriate.6 Guidelines for Bridge Site Visits The following guidelines are established to help all staff in determining the need for visiting bridge sites prior to final design. These guidelines should apply to consultants as well as to our own staff.3 Rail and Minor Expansion Joint Retrofits Generally. However. pictures and site information from the region are adequate for most new bridge designs.6.6.6. particularly if the bridge to be widened has unique features or is other than a standard prestressed girder bridge with elastomeric bearings. it is important that the design team is familiar with the features and condition of the existing bridge.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1. In all cases. but may not necessarily be accurate. When making a site visit. particularly if the project requires staged removal of the existing bridge and/or staged construction of the new bridge. pictures and site information from the region along with as-builts and condition survey information are adequate for most of these types of projects. In some cases.4 New Bridges Generally. the associated region should be made aware of the site visit so that they would have the opportunity to participate.5 Bridge Demolition If a bridge demolition is required as part of a project.6. Region participation would be especially useful if a preliminary bridge plan is involved.2 Bridge Widenings and Seismic Retrofits For this type of bridge project.6. 1. Before making a site visit. A site visit is recommended for this type of project. but may not necessarily be accurate. A written or pictorial record should be made of any August 1998 1. Proper safety equipment and procedures should always be incorporated into any site visit.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Bridge Design Scheduling observed problems with an existing bridge or obvious site problem. it is important to make appropriate site visits part of the consultants’s scope of work. P:DP/BDM1 9807-0802 1.6-2 August 1998 . This information will be a valuable asset in preparing constructable and cost-effective structural designs. When negotiating with consultants for structural design work. The site visit data would then be incorporated into the job file.

4. 5. WSDOT Design Manual. Washington State Department of Transportation. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). WSDOT Construction Manual.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.99-1 . Latest Edition and Interims. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Organization Handbook. Latest Edition and Interims. 2.99 Bibliography 1. Bibliography P:DP/BDM1 9807-0802 August 1998 1. 3. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.

O. ITEM STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA FOR THIS STRUCTURE 1 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES AASHTO_________TH EDITION. FOUNDATION DATA FROM SOILS PILE/SPREAD ALLOWABLE SOIL p MAXIMUM DESIGN SOIL p OR PILE LOAD DESIGNER GROUP CHECKER GROUP 1 2 3 4 5 6 August 1998 1. STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD. 3 OTHER__________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10 PRESTRESSED GIRDERS: SERIES.O. M31 M31 GRADE 60_______________ GRADE 40______________ 9 CONCRETE: F'C = 4000 PSI (CLASS AX) F'C = 3000 PSI (CLASS B) F'C = _________ PSI (LIGHTWEIGHT) DENSITY = ________________ LBS.3 FT. WITH REVISIONS TO 19___________ OTHER_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ DESIGN BY: LOAD FACTOR____________________________________________________________________________________ WORKING STRESS________________________________________________________________________________ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 STEEL REINFORCING BARS: A. 19____________(IF USED) STATE OF WASHINGTON. MINIMUM CONCRETE STRENGTH AT STRAND RELEASE = _______________________________PSI MINIMUM CONCRETE STRENGTH AT 28 DAYS = ________________________________________PSI 11 PIER NO.T.S. AND MUNICIPAL CONSTRUCTION WITH REVISIONS TO 19____________ BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL.H. BRIDGE. A. PER FT. __________________________________ SPECIAL.A.S.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Standard Design Criteria Form STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA PROJECT SR MADE BY CHECKED BY DATE SUPV.H.3-A1-1 . BRIDGE. VOLUME_____________.3 STANDARD CONCRETE DENSITY = ___________________________ LBS. STANDARD PLANS FOR ROAD._________________________________ / / FT. AND MUNICIPAL CONSTRUCTION.T. LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE DENSITY = _______________________________LBS.A. 19__________ STATE OF WASHINGTON. 19___________ INTERIM SPECIFICATION.

A.S. A.H.A.A.S.S.3-A1-2 August 1998 .H.T.T. A.S.A.A.O.O. OTHER MMMMMROLLERS CASTINGS 13 SPECIAL CRITERIA: SEE FORM ENTITLED “EXCEPTIONS TO THE STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA“ DOT Revised 1/89 230-030 1.H.T.T.O.T.S.O.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Standard Design Criteria Form ITEM STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA FOR THIS STRUCTURE 12 STEEL STRUCTURES: INDICATE BY SPECIFICATION THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STEEL USE A.A.O.H.H. A.

Gen.3-A2 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Exceptions to the Standard Design Criteria Form Project SR No. Area Addition or Modification App’d By DOT 230-032 (formerly C1M3) Rev 3/91 August 1998 1. Made By Check By Supervisor Date EXCEPTIONS TO THE STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA No.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Design Completed Checklist August 1998 1.3-A3 .

3-A4 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Job File Table of Contents Job File Table of Contents Item Date Who Subject August 1998 1.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Office Time Report Bridge and Structures Office Time Report _______________ Region PRELIMINARY PLAN: L-Number ___________ Design Unit Staffing Level estimate __________ Start Date: ____________________ Completion Date: _______________ TIME CHARGED Design ____________ Check ____________ Drafting ___________ Review ___________ Total _____________ Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Standard _______________ DESIGN AND DETAIL Design Unit Staffing Level estimate __________ Start Date: ____________________ Completion Date: _______________ TIME CHARGED Design ____________ Check ____________ Drafting ___________ Review ___________ Total _____________ Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Standard _______________ August 1998 1.3-A5 .

7. 8. 14. 17. DOT Form 230-038 EF Revised 2/97 August 1998 1.3-A6 . 3. 15. specifications and estimates. 6. 4. 1. 11. 2. 9. 13.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Not Included in Bridge Quantities List Not Included In Bridge Quantities List Environmental And Engineering Service Center Bridge and Structures Office SR Designed By Type of Structure Job Number Checked By Project Title Date Supervisor The following is a list of items for which the Bridge and Structures Office is relying on the Region to furnish plans. 5. 16. 12. 10.

3-A7-1 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Special Provisions Checklist August 1998 1.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Special Provisions Checklist 1.3-A7-2 August 1998 .

3-A7-3 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Special Provisions Checklist August 1998 1.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Special Provisions Checklist 1.3-A7-4 August 1998 .

3-A7-5 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Special Provisions Checklist August 1998 1.

3-A7-6 August 1998 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Special Provisions Checklist 1.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Breakdown of Project Manhours Required Form DOT 232-002 (formerly C1M5) Rev 3/91 1.5-A1 .Appendix A By % Completed Hours Required By % Completed Hours Required By % Completed Hours Required By % Completed Hours Required 1 2 Date Completed Date Completed Date Completed Date Completed August 1998 Washington State Department of Transportation Breakdown of Project Manhours Required Made By Date Job No. SR Project General Information Design Drawing or Item Check Draw Check Drawing Comments No.

Monthly Project Progress Report As of Reference No. Project As of Reference No. Washington State Department of Transportation As of Reference No. DOT 232-004 (formerly C1M4) Rev 3/91 7 % of Total Project Complete % of Activity Complete % of Total Time Used Man Hours Used to Date % of Total Project Complete % of Activity Complete % of Total Time Used Man Hours Used to Date 6 5 4 3 2 1 Activity No. Man Hours Used to Date SR As of Reference No.Monthly Project Progress Report Form BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL General Information Appendix A August 1998 Totals 9 8 987654321 98765432 987654321 987654321 1 987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 654321098765432 6543210987654321 1 6543210987654321 9 987654321 8765432 987654321 987654321 1 987654321 6543210987654321 654321098765432 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 1 6543210987654321 987654321 98765432 987654321 987654321 1 987654321 6 1 6543210987654321 54321098765432 654321098765432 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 1 6543210987654321 9 987654321 8765432 987654321 987654321 1 987654321 7 76543210987654321 654321098765432 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 1 76543210987654321 1.5-A2 % of Total Project Complete % of Activity Complete % of Total Time Used Job No. % of Total Project Complete % of Activity Complete % of Total Time Used Man Hours Used to Date .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approvals . . . . . . . .2-1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 2. . General Factors for Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . Site Reconnaissance . . . . .1 2. . . Bridge Design . . . . .2 2. . . C. Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. . . . . . .0 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aesthetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concept Approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2. E. . . . . . . . . . . . Consideration of Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type. . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Project Recommendations (Existing Bridges) . . . . . . . . .2. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Job File . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydraulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Preliminary Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . Other Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TS&L General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Architect . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of the Preliminary Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Contents Page 2. . . E. . . . . . . . . . Request for Preliminary Foundation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . A. . D. . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . Region . . .2.2 2. . . . . . . Request for Preliminary Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reviews and Submittal . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . Environmental . . . . . . . TS&L Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. . . . and Location Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Site Data . Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Site Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspection and Maintenance Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Value Engineering Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .5 August 1998 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Economic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . C. . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coast Guard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-i . . . . . . Designer Recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structural . . . . . Interdisciplinary Design Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Project Recommendations (New Bridges) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Report or Design Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . .

. B. . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 2. . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . End Slopes . . Bridge Width . . . . . . . . Determination of Bridge Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pier Protection . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic Restrictions . . . . Bridge Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highway Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of Structure Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Widenings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crash Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determination of Bridge Length . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End Slopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railroad Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Deck Protective Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pedestrian Crossings . . . B. . . . . Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab . . . . . . . Travelers . . .1 Preliminary Plan Criteria . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . Safety Cables . . . . B. . .5 2. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . .4-1 1 1 1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Criteria . . . . . . . . . Retaining Walls and Noise Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . Scour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-ii August 1998 . . .8 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforced Concrete Tee Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Live Load . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . Inspection and Maintenance Acces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detour Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Contents Page 2. . . . . . . . . E. . . Horizontal Clearances . . . . Bridge Deck Drainage . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Determination of Bridge Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction Access and Time Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-A1 Standard Superstructure Elements 2. . . Aesthetic Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 2. .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Contents Page C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1 1 1 1 1 2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . .2 2. . . . . . J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1 1 1 1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. .2-A1 Bridge Site Data General 2. . . . . . .4-A1 Bridge Selection Guide 2. . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-A4 Preliminary Plan Checklist 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plain Surface Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steel Truss . . . . . . . . . . .6. .6. . . . . . . . Wall Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-A2 Bridge Site Data Rehabilitation 2. . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intermediate Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Barrier and Wall Surface Treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-A2 Bridge Redundancy Criteria 2. . Pigmented Sealer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structure Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Composite Steel Plate Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . Segmental Concrete Box Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-A3 Bridge Site Data Stream Crossings 2. . Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Elements . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prestressed Concrete Sections . . . . . . Reinforced Concrete Box Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . Post Tensioned Concrete Box Girder . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . Fractured Fin Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salvage of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Visual Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2. . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . A. . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WSDOT Standard Highway Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handling and Shipping of Precast Members and Steel Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railroad Bridges . . . . . .99 Appendix A — Design Aids 2.0-iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-A1 Bridge Stage Construction Comparison 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . C. . Wing Walls . . . Slope Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-A2 Standard Pier Elements August 1998 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Composite Steel Box Girder . . L. . . . . . . . . H. . . . . . . .99-1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-B1 Preliminary Plan Bridge Replacement 2.0-iv August 1998 .2-B3 Preliminary Plan New Bridge Contents P:DP/BDM2 2.2-B2 Preliminary Plan Bridge Widening 2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Appendix B — Design Examples 2.

0 2. The IDT members and the support groups serve to give an objective analysis and review of the various design alternatives for the region’s project. either as support contacts or as VE team members. and outside agencies. The VE team seeks to define the most cost-effective means of satisfying the basic function(s) of the project. When a region starts a design for such a project. the Service Center. Special inspections of certain portions of the structure may need to be scheduled to determine the load capacity of the existing bridge. and evaluate these alternatives on how well they satisfy these basic functions. Service Center.1. brainstorm to develop other alternatives to serve the same function(s). It involves review of the inspection and condition reports from the Bridge Preservation Section and a site visit with the region and other project stakeholders. they will request by an Inter-Departmental (IDC) memorandum that the Bridge and Structures Office make Preliminary Project recommendations.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2. 2.2 Value Engineering Studies Value Engineering (VE) is a process of review and analysis of a project. what types of rehabilitation work need to be done.” A typical recommendation consists of two parts.3 Preliminary Project Recommendations (Existing Bridges) Projects that call for the rehabilitation of an existing bridge require that the existing condition of the bridge be reviewed and a recommendation the existing bridge be prepared. ranging from “do nothing” to “replacement. an Interdisciplinary Design Team (IDT) may be established by the region. and outside agencies. Occasionally a VE study examines a project with a completed PS&E. The second part is an IDC to the region discussing the overall project in general terms mentioning any particular items of concern to the region and a summary of the preferred alternatives with recommendations. This work will often culminate in the publication of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The IDT is composed of members of different expertise and backgrounds. The region should be given the opportunity to review a draft report and IDC and provide input prior to finalization. They will seek to decide the basic function(s) that are served by the project.1-1 . selected from regions.1. and to develop various alternatives with cost estimates for comparison. Bridge Design Engineers are often asked to be a part of this process. The Team Facilitator will lead the team through the VE process. This will provide them with a scope of work and a cost estimate for the project. The first is a report to the file providing detailed information related to the bridge rehabilitation and a summary of the various alternatives considered and an itemized list of the rehabilitation work with the associated costs. Usually a VE study takes place before or during the time that the region is working on the design. The VE team will present their findings in a presentation to the region. A VE team is typically made up of members of different expertise and backgrounds. They contribute ideas and participate in the selection of design alternatives. the extended life span achieved by certain types of rehabilitation work. The region is then required to investigate these findings further and address them in the design.1. selected from the region.1 Preliminary Design Preliminary Studies Interdisciplinary Design Studies As part of the preparation for a major project. either as a support resource or as a member of the IDT itself. The team will review the project as defined by the project’s design personnel. Bridge Design Engineers are often asked to be a part of this process. The process usually involves three to five days. August 1998 2. Preliminary Studies 2.1 2.

Size. such as long viaducts. and major structures with deck areas greater than 125. Compare the advantages.4 Preliminary Project Recommendations (New Bridges) Projects that call for a new bridge require that a recommendation for the new structure be prepared. Approval of the TS&L study by FHWA is the basis for advancing the project to the design stage. and Location (TS&L) study. This is a guideline only. they will seek assistance from the Bridge and Structures Office by writing an IDC. TS&L preparation need not wait for Environmental document approval. In order to find the preferred structural alternative. FHWA expects specific recommendations on the foundation type. and show justification for the selection of the preferred alternative. An IDC to the region will provide recommendations and information. 2. Develop a list of all the feasible alternatives. Brainstorming with supervisors and other engineers can help bring out fresh and innovative solutions.5 Type. In order to have foundation information. or drawings can be requested. The bridge site data should be scrutinized so that additional data. At this stage of the process. 2. This request could range from confirmation of construction cost data to consideration of various structure designs or staging alternatives. the FHWA should be contacted for conformation. Size. disadvantages.1. TS&L General In order to become familiar with the project. Smaller bridges that are unusual may also require a TS&L study while some. may not. the range of alternatives should be kept wide open. describe the proposed structure and other design alternatives considered. A. maps. However. A face to face meeting with the region project staff is recommended.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.1. Visit the project site with the region and Geotech Branch. Preliminary Studies 2. and costs of the remaining alternatives to determine the preferred alternative(s). The TS&L cannot be submitted to FHWA until after the Environmental documents have been submitted. 4. At the end of this step. After reviewing the history of the project. the Materials Lab must be contacted early. the designer should: l. The Environmental and Design Reports should be reviewed. 5. the designer should first review its history. 3. there should be no more than four alternatives. Question restrictive constraints and document their bases. Perform preliminary level design calculations for unique structural problems to ensure that the remaining alternatives are feasible. The preparation of the TS&L study is the responsibility of the Bridge and Structures Office. and Location Studies It is the policy of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) that major or unusual bridges must go through the preparation of a Type. The Materials Lab will submit a detailed foundation report for inclusion as an appendix to the TS&L study. a meeting with region and a site visit should be arranged. While a region is preparing a design for a project. movable bridges. unusual structures. Eliminate the unusable alternatives by applying the constraints of the project. The FHWA requires a TS&L study for tunnels. The TS&L study will outline the project. but may begin as soon as the bridge site data is available. As early as possible in the Project Development stage.1-2 August 1998 . See Chapter 1110 of the Design Manual for the type of information required for a bridge site data submittal.000 square feet.

TS&L Outline The TS&L study should describe the project. The Olympia Service Center Hydraulics Unit will submit a report for inclusion as an appendix to the TS&L study. a memorandum request for a Hydraulics Report should be made to the Olympia Service Center Hydraulics Unit. 3. Cost backup data is needed for any costs used in the TS&L study. A vicinity map should be shown. Photographs There should be enough color photographs to provide the look and feel of the area. and Contents These should identify the project and the contents of the TS&L. It is a good idea to coordinate the quantities submitted are in a form compatible with the estimator’s cost breakdown method. Examples of this would be the temperature loading used for segmental bridges or areas defined as wetlands. FHWA expects TS&L costs based on estimated quantities. loading.. Care should be taken to describe the project adequately but briefly. and give reasons why the bridge type. 1. This data is to be included in an appendix to the TS&L study. Introduction The introduction describes the report and references other reports used to prepare the TS&L study. August 1998 2. and location were selected. 2. Besides the AASHTO specifications and assorted AASHTO guide specifications. B. Cover.1-3 . Title Sheet. Design Criteria Design criteria states to what code. the proposed structure. The Bridge Architect at the Bridge and Structures Office should be consulted early on and throughout the study process “Notes to the file” should be made documenting the aesthetic requirements and recommendations of the Architect. size. • Design Reports and Supplements • Environmental Reports • Architectural or Visual Assessment Reports • Hydraulic Report • Geotechnical Reports 4. etc. The following reports should be listed if used. The prints should be numbered and labeled and the location indicated on a diagram. other criteria are sometimes used. These criteria should be listed. FHWA expects specific information on scour and backwater on both falsework and permanent piers.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Studies After piers have been located. 5. Project Description The project description is intended to summarize the preferred alternative of the project design so that the TS&L study clearly defines the project. the bridge will be constructed.

For projects where alternative designs are specified as recommended alternatives. and the Preliminary Plan drawings signed by the Bridge Architect. The FHWA Bridge Engineer should be invited to provide input. The project and structure description should be given. who can decide if the Bridge Design Engineer needs to be consulted. The following considerations should be addressed.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 6. For instance. “Because the geometry required a 200-foot span. Executive Summary The executive summary should be able to stand alone as a separate document. the Bridge Design Engineer. size. A peer review meeting with the Bridge Design Engineer should be scheduled at 50 percent completion. Supplemental drawings showing special features. approved. the Bridge Projects Engineer. Structural Studies The structural studies section documents how the proposed structure type.” 7. The TS&L study is submitted with a cover letter to FHWA signed by the Bridge and Structures Engineer. C. all major decisions should be discussed with the unit supervisor. and typical section. elevation.1-4 August 1998 . prestressed concrete girders could not be used” or “Restrictions on falsework placement forced the use of self supporting precast concrete or steel girders. The final report must be reviewed. Reviews and Submittal While writing the TS&L study. Show how each constraint eliminated or supported the alternatives. are often provided to clearly define the project. • Aesthetics • Cost Estimates • Geometric constraints • Project staging • Foundations • Hydraulics • Feasibility of construction • Structural constraints • Maintenance This section should have a narrative style describing how these factors point to the preferred alternative. and the Bridge and Structures Engineer. Preliminary Studies 2:DP:BDM2 2. Preliminary Plans for each of these structure types shall be included. Drawings Preliminary Plan drawings of the recommended alternative are included in the appendix. and location were determined. Present the recommended alternative with its cost and include a summary of considerations used to choose or eliminate alternatives. such as complex piers. The drawings show the plan. 8.

hydraulic.3) apply to a particular site. financial. the designer should brainstorm. geotechnical. questions. During the region’s preparation of the highway design. D. and for constructibility. This includes seeking input from various WSDOT units and outside agencies. develop. staging. Site Reconnaissance The site data submitted by the region will include a video and photographs of the site. and structural requirements and conditions that exist at the site. checker. Information that must be included as part of the bridge site data submittal is outlined in Chapter 1110 of the Design Manual. Preliminary Plan 2.2-1 . detailing practice. and details not shown in the Preliminary Plan shall be documented in the job file. the number of alternatives will usually be limited to only a August 1998 2. The primary design engineer is responsible for developing a Preliminary Plan for the structure that is compatible with geometric. Consideration of Alternatives In the process of developing the Preliminary Plan. Upon receipt of the bridge site data from the region. and supervisor are as specified in Chapter 1 of the Bridge Design Manual. and evaluate various design alternatives. Even for minor projects. and Geotech Branch should be arranged with the knowledge and approval of the Bridge Projects Engineer. Any omissions or corrections are to be called to the region’s attention immediately. Region submits the bridge site data to the Bridge and Structures Office which initiates the start of the Preliminary Plan. the supervisor can make adjustments to the schedule or manpower assignments. verifying that it is in compliance with the site data as provided by the region and as corrected in the job file. The preliminary plan shall be drawn using current office CAD equipment and software by the Engineer or Detailer. and approvals concerning the project. The plan shall be compared against the Preliminary Plan checklist to ensure that all necessary information is shown. C Coordination The designer is responsible for coordinating the design and review process throughout the project. The designer must keep the job file up to date by documenting all conversations.2. Should problems develop. Depending on how the General Factors for Consideration (Section 2. For most bridge projects. Design. they also begin work on the bridge site data. aesthetic. The checker shall give an independent review of the plan.1 Development of the Preliminary Plan A Responsibilities In general. the designer shall review it for completeness and verify that what the project calls for is realistic and structurally feasible. B. meetings.2 Preliminary Plan The Preliminary Plan is the most important phase of bridge design as it sets the groundwork for the final design. the responsibilities of the designer. The intent is to completely define the bridge geometry so final roadway design by the regions and the structural design by the Bridge and Structures Office can take place with minimal revisions. detailer.2. this may not be enough information for the designer to work from in developing the Preliminary Plan. Notes to the designer. requests. The supervisor shall be kept informed of progress on the preliminary plan so that the schedule can be monitored. The checker is to review the plan for consistency with office design practice. Site visits with region project staff and other project stakeholders such as Hydraulics. site visits are necessary.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan few for most projects. Large complex projects. an approximate number of intermediate piers (if applicable). preliminary quantities. Based on test holes from previous construction in the area. as well as cost estimates. and documentation of all approvals. Bridge Site Data All Preliminary Plans are developed from site data as submitted by the region. the job file continues to serve a useful purpose as a communications and documentation depository for all pertinent project-related information during the design process. and appropriate attachments as specified by Chapter 1110 of the Design Manual. This official job file serves as a depository for all communications and resource information for the job. design alternatives merit development and close evaluation. C. For some smaller projects and most major projects. a job file is created. the presentation.2-2 August 1998 . The Materials Lab responds by IDC giving an analysis of what foundation conditions arc likely to be encountered and what types of substructure are best suited for these conditions. Scheduling and time estimates are logged in this file. This submittal will consist of a memorandum IDC. Concept Approval For some projects. the design engineer should consult with the Bridge Preservation Section for input. E. in “E” above. Job File When a memorandum IDC. should be presented to the Bridge Design Engineer for his concurrence before plan development is completed. Designer Recommendation Once the designer has done a thorough job of evaluating the needs and limitations of the site. 2. When the Preliminary Plan is completed.2. B. he should be able to make a recommendation for the optimum solution. 2. Inspection and Maintenance Access In the process developing the Preliminary Plan. Request for Preliminary Foundation Data A Request for Preliminary Foundation Data is sent to Geotech Branch to solicit any foundation data that is available at this preliminary stage. The process of considering and rejecting design alternatives provides documentation for the preferred alternative. it should be reviewed for completeness so that missing or incomplete information can be noted and requested. and soil surveys. analyzed all information and developed and evaluated design alternatives for the project. F. and approximate stations for beginning and end of structure on the alignment. to the Bridge Projects Engineer will satisfy the need for concept approval. geological maps. The Geotech Branch is provided with approximate dimensions for overall structure length and width.2 Documentation A. projects of unique design. or projects where two or more alternatives appear viable. transmitting site data from the region is received by the Bridge and Structures Office. When this information is received. G. For unique or complex projects a presentation is made to the Bridge and Structures Office Peer Review Committee. Based on this recommendation. the designer should discuss the recommendation with the Bridge Projects Engineer.

bicyclists Inspection and Maintenance Access (UBIT clearances) (see Figure 2. The Hydraulics Office is provided with the contour plan and other bridge site data. A. state funds only. These resources can provide additional background for the development of the Preliminary Plan. Seal vent elevations. Other Resources For some projects. It serves to document the design standards and applicable deviations for the roadway alignment and geometry. ice pressure. Safety Feasibility of falsework (impaired clearance and sight distance) Density and speed of traffic Detours or possible elimination of detours by staging construction Sight distance Horizontal clearance to piers Hazards to pedestrians. safety and traffic data. F. and flows (Q). It is also an excellent reference for project history. G. preliminary studies or reports will have been prepared. Design Report or Design Summary Some bridge construction projects have a Design Report or Design Summary prepared by the region. E.2. pier configuration. local developer funds) Funding level August 1998 2. Preliminary Plan 2. It defines the scope of work for the project. 100-year flood and 500-year flood elevations. This is a document which includes design considerations and conclusions reached in the development of the project. skewed) Vertical profile and superelevation Proposed or existing utilities B. scour depth and minimum footing cover. Notes if meetings with Regions and other project stakeholders shall be included in the documentation. and minimum clearance to the 100-year flood elevation are provided in an ºIDC response from the Hydraulics Office. Request for Preliminary Hydraulics A Request for Preliminary Hydraulics data is sent to the Hydraulics Office to document hydraulic requirements that must be considered in the structure design. curved. Some of the more common of these are listed in general categories below.3.2-3 . minimum waterway channel width.3 General Factors for Consideration Many factors must be considered in preliminary bridge design. environmental concerns. These factors will be discussed in appropriate detail in subsequent portions of this manual. riprap requirements.10-1) C. and other information. Economic Funding classification (federal and state funds. normal water.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design D. Site Requirements Topography Alignment (tangent.

Aesthetic General appearance Compatibility with surroundings and adjacent structures Visual exposure and importance G. width. A determination of whether a bridge requires a permit is known before the bridge site data is received. tidal-influenced waterways and waterways used for commercial navigation will require Coast Guard permits. Environmental Site conditions (wetlands. This is handled by the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer in the Bridge Projects Unit of the Bridge and Structures Office. However.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design D. The 2. Construction Ease of construction Falsework clearances and requirements Erection problems Hauling difficulties and access to site Construction season Time limit for construction H. some waterways may qualify for an exemption from a permit if certain conditions apply including the exclusion of use by vessels larger than 21 feet long. environmentally sensitive areas) EIS requirements Mitigating measures F. Coast Guard As outlined in Chapter 240 of the Design Manual. skew. Structural Limitation on structure depth Requirements for future widening Foundation and groundwater conditions Anticipated settlement E.2-4 August 1998 . Generally.2. the Bridge and Structures Office is responsible for coordinating and applying for Coast Guard permits for bridges over waterways. Hydraulic Bridge deck drainage Stream flow conditions and drift Passage of flood debris Scour. Other Prior commitments made to other agency officials and individuals of the community Recommendations resulting from preliminary studies Preliminary Plan 2. number of columns) Bank and pier protection Consideration of a culvert as an alternate solution Permit requirements for navigation and stream work limitations I.4 Permits A. effect of pier as an obstruction (shape.

a print of the revised plan. The region will send back a print of the plan with any comments noted in red (additions) and green (deletions) along with responses to the notes to the region. The Architect will review the print and signify his approval by signing it.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan process of getting this exemption. from FHWA. Region Prior to the completion of the preliminary plan the designer should meet with the region to discuss the concept and get their input. multiple bridge projects. it is ready to go to the Bridge Design Engineer and the Bridge and Structures Engineer for approval. This print is placed in the job file. They will work to answer any notes to the region that have been listed on the plan. This is done prior to the job going to the checker. When the Preliminary Plan and the “Not Included in Bridge Quantities List” along with the preliminary plan transmittal IDC. The Architect should be presented with a reduced print of the plan by the designer. or his representative. The architectural concept for a project corridor is generally developed in draft form and reviewed with the project stakeholders prior to finalizing. shall be placed in the job file. B. the Bridge Architect should be contacted for development of a coordinated architectural concept for the project corridor. If future plan revisions change elements of aesthetic importance. signed by the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer. Bridge Architect For all preliminary plans.5 Approvals A. the Architect should be aware and involved when the designer is first developing the plan. The region will review the plan for compliance and agreement with their original site data. This box regarding Coast Guard permit status is located in the center left margin of the plan. C. the Architect should be asked to review and approve. For large. The work on developing the permit application should be started such that it is ready to be sent to the Coast Guard eight months before the project ad date. the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer is required to initial the Preliminary Plan as to whether a Coast Guard permit or exemption is required. Bridge Design When the Preliminary Plan has been checked by the checker and signal by the Bridge Projects Engineer. the permit target date will also be noted. B. If a permit is required. 2. August 1998 2.2. When this review is complete. The Coast Guard Liaison Engineer should be asked to check with the region and the Coast Guard to confirm the situation on a case by case basis.2-5 . the Regional Administrator. The reduced print. The Coast Guard Liaison Engineer should be given a copy of the Preliminary Plan from which to develop the plan sheets that are part of the permit. The Bridge and Structures Office may be asked to provide information to the region to assist them in making applications for these permits. Other All other permits will be the responsibility of the region. For all waterway crossings. will sign the plan. not the Coast Guard. by signature. is the responsibility of the region.

who then sends a copy to the railroad involved for their comments and approval. A copy of this letter is then routed to the Bridge and Structures Office and is placed in the job file. the Right of Way Accommodation Engineer of the Design Office must be involved during the plan preparation process. Preliminary Plan P:DP/BDM2 2. Railroad When a railroad is involved with a structure on a Preliminary Plan.2-6 August 1998 . The railroad will respond with approval by letter to the Right of Way Accommodation Engineer. A copy of the Preliminary Plan is sent to the Right of Way Accommodation Engineer.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design D.

a bridge which carries traffic on SR 5 over Hamilton Road would be called Hamilton Road Overcrossing. The required column size may be such that it would infringe on the shoulder of the roadway. 1. or a city street is called an undercrossing. Relative importance between state highways is indicated by functional classification. A highway crossing is further categorized as either an undercrossing or an overcrossing. Actual horizontal clearances shall be shown in the plan view of the Preliminary Plan (to the nearest 0. C.3-1 . Bridge Width The bridge roadway channelization is provided by the region with the Bridge Site Data. Bridge piers and abutments ideally should be placed such that the minimum clearances can be satisfied. Barrier or Preliminary Plan Criteria August 1998 2. For city and county arterials.3 2. or a city street is called an overcrossing.3. the roadway geometrics are controlled by Chapter IV of the Local Agency Guidelines. Overcrossing A bridge which carries traffic on a state highway over a less important state highway. a bridge included as a part of an interchange involving SR 182 (Interstate) and SR 14 (Principal) and providing for passage of traffic on SR 182 under SR 14 would be called SR 14 I/C Undercrossing. a county road.3. When bridge end slopes fall within the recovery area. Chapter 710 of the Design Manual outlines clear zone and recovery area requirements for horizontal clearances without guardrail or barrier being required. see Chapter 440 of the Design Manual. the best span arrangement requires a pier to be within clear zone or recovery area.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2. Criteria for minimum horizontal clearances to bridge piers and retaining walls are outlined in the Design Manual. There are instances where it may not be possible to provide the minimum horizontal clearance even with guardrail or barrier. 2. For example. Horizontal Clearances Safety dictates that fixed objects be placed as far from the edge of the roadway as is economically feasible. B. General A highway crossing is defined as a grade separation between two intersecting roadways. See Figure 2. the New Jersey barrier shape would be incorporated into the shape of the column. For example. a county road. For details.1-1. For state highways. However. Undercrossing A bridge which provides for passage of a state highway under a less important state highway. then guardrail or barrier can be used to mitigate the hazard. An example would be placement of a bridge pier in a narrow median. the roadway geometrics are controlled by Chapters 430 and 440 of the Design Manual. if for structural or economic reasons.1 foot).1 Preliminary Plan Criteria Highway Crossings A. In such cases. the minimum horizontal clearance should be provided for a vertical distance of 6 feet above the fill surface. Minimum horizontal clearances to inclined columns or wall surfaces should be provided at the roadway surface and for a vertical distance of 6 feet above the edge of pavement.

and the type and rate of end slope used. and existing site conditions are all important. For the general case of bridges in cut or fill slopes. right of way availability. The approximate location of the minimum vertical clearance is noted in the upper left margin of the plan. End slope protection may be required at certain highway crossings. For city and county arterials. D. This situation would most likely occur in an urban setting or where right of way is limited. Soil conditions and stability. For structures crossing divided highways. The region should have made a preliminary determination based on these factors during the preparation of the bridge site data. roadway alignment and functional classification. This should be compared to the rate recommended in the Roadway Section and to existing site conditions (if applicable). End Slopes The type and rate of end slope used at bridge sites is dependent on several factors. Determination of Bridge Length Establishing the location of the end piers for a highway crossing is a function of the profile grade of the overcrossing roadway. E. as spelled out in Chapter 1120 of the Design Manual. For state highways. the controlling factors are the required horizontal clearance and the size of the abutment.3-2 August 1998 . this is as outlined in Chapter IV of the Local Agency Guidelines. Actual minimum vertical clearances are shown on the Preliminary Plan (to the nearest 0. The reduced clearance to the pier would need to be approved by the region.3. For the general case of bridges on wall type or “closed” abutments. the back of pavement seat. The types of end slopes and the conditions for which each are applicable are spelled out in Chapter 640 of the Design Manual. 2. the minimum vertical and horizontal clearances required for the structure. F. the control point is where the cut or fill slope plane meets the bottom of ditch or edge of shoulder as applicable.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria guardrail would need to taper into the pier at a flare rate satisfying the criteria in Chapter 710 of the Design Manual. Vertical Clearances The required minimum vertical clearances are established by the functional classification of the highway and the construction classification of the project.1 foot). The Materials Lab will recommend the minimum rate of end slope. minimum vertical clearances for both directions are noted. Following the requirements of Standard Plan H-9.1-2. From this point. this is as outlined in Chapters 430 and 440 of the Design Manual. See Figure 2. The side slopes noted on the Roadway Section for the roadway should indicate the type and rate of end slope. fill height or depth of cut. Examples of slope protection are shown on Standard Plan D-9. the fill or cut slope plane is established at the recommended rate up to where the slope plane intersects the grade of the roadway at the shoulder. end of wing wall or end of retaining wall can be established at 3 feet behind the slope intersection.

3.3-3 .3.1-2 August 1998 2.1-1 Bridge Pier in Narrow Median 1990 Figure 2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria Horizontal Clearance to Inclined Piers 1990 Figure 2.

Bridge Redundancy Design bridges to minimize the risk of catastrophic collapse by using redundant supporting elements (columns and girders). C. the railing to be used. Criteria The initial Preliminary Plan shall be prepared in accordance with the criteria of this section to apply uniformly to all railroads.3-A2 for details.3. the provisions of Section 2. after a Preliminary Plan has been provided for their review. Requirements for railroad separations for both undercrossings and overcrossings may involve negotiations with the railroad company concerning clearances. overhead enclosure requirements. A bridge which provides highway traffic over the railroad is called an overcrossing. Width and clearances would be as established there and as confirmed by region. Collision protection or design for collision loads for piers with one or two columns. 2. handrail requirements. Note: Any deviation from the above guidelines shall have a written approval by the Bridge Design Engineer.2 Railroad Crossings A. will be based on the completed Preliminary Plan. Unique items to be addressed with pedestrian facilities include ADA requirements. Three columns minimum for roadways over 40 feet to 60 feet. See Appendix 2. utilities. Four girders (webs) minimum for roadways over 32 feet. General A railroad crossing is defined as a grade separation between an intersecting highway and a railroad. The railroad’s review and approval. and maintenance roads. Bridge Width For railroad overcrossings. when necessary.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design G. H. B. For superstructure design use: Three girders (webs) minimum for roadways 32 feet and under. Details for railroad undercrossings will depend on the specific project and the railroad involved. geometrics.1 pertaining to bridge width of highway crossings shall apply. and profile grade requirements for ramps and stairs.3. For substructure design use: One column minimum for roadways 28 feet wide and under. Two columns minimum for roadways over 28 feet to 40 feet.3-4 August 1998 . Pedestrian Crossings Pedestrian crossings follow the same format as highway crossings. A bridge which provides highway traffic under the railroad is called an undercrossing. Variance from this criteria will be negotiated with the railroad. Preliminary Plan Criteria 2. Geometric criteria for pedestrian facilities are established in Chapter 1020 of the Design Manual.

The approximate location of the minimum vertical clearance is noted in the upper left margin of the plan.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design D.1 foot). satisfactory sight distance. because of the heavy live loading of railroad spans. For railroad undercrossings skewed to the roadway.3. piers may be placed up to the outside edge of 8-foot (minimum) shoulders if certain conditions are met (structural requirements.. H. the provisions of Section 2. For railroad overcrossings. For railroad overcrossings.1 foot).2-1. encroaching within 10 feet of the center of the track requires the approval of the railroad. excavation.1 pertaining to horizontal clearances for highway crossings shall apply. August 1998 2. Any cofferdams. For railroad overcrossings.3. Special Considerations For railroad overcrossings. The actual minimum horizontal clearances are shown in the Plan view of the Preliminary Plan (to the nearest 0. Crash Walls Crash walls. etc. The footing face shall not be closer than 10 feet to the center of the track. shall be designed to conform to the criteria from of the AREA Manual. it is advantageous to reduce the span lengths as much as possible. Horizontal Clearances For railroad undercrossings. F. E. When the track is on a curve. the minimum bridge length shall satisfy the minimum horizontal clearance requirements. G.3-5 .3. the minimum horizontal clearance shall be increased at the rate of 11/2 inches for each degree of curvature. the provisions of Section 2. However.1 pertaining to the determination of bridge length shall apply. the top of footings for bridge piers or retaining walls adjacent to railroad tracks shall be 2 feet or more below the top of tie.1 pertaining to vertical clearances of highway crossings shall apply. satisfactory aesthetics. The actual minimum vertical clearances are shown on the Preliminary Plan (to the nearest 0. when required. Vertical Clearances For railroad undercrossings.3. An additional 8 feet of clearance for off-track equipment shall only be provided when specifically requested by the railroad. the provisions of Section 2. footings. minimum horizontal clearances are as noted below: Railroad Alone Fill Section Cut Section 14 feet 16 feet Preliminary Plan Criteria Horizontal clearance shall be measured from the center of the outside track to the face of pier. Determination of Bridge Length For railroad overcrossings.). The minimum bridge length shall generally satisfy the requirements of Figure 2. etc. the minimum vertical clearance shall satisfy the requirements of Chapter 1120 of the Design Manual.

The roadway profile and the bridge superstructure depth must accommodate this. where applicable. Falsework openings shall be checked to verify that enough space is available for falsework beams to span the required horizontal distances and still provide the minimum vertical falsework clearance. the centerline of the navigation channel and the horizontal clearances (to the nearest 0. and environmental concerns are all important.3-6 August 1998 . they will determine a minimum vertical clearance for the 100-year flood. and other factors. Communication with the Coast Guard will be handled through the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer. Horizontal Clearances Water crossings over navigable waters requiring clearance for navigation channels shall satisfy the horizontal clearances required by the Coast Guard. The actual minimum vertical clearance to the 100-year flood is shown (to the nearest 0. Soil conditions and stability. Minimum vertical openings of less than 22 feet 6 inches may be negotiated with the railroad through the Utilities-Railroad Engineer. Bridge Width The provisions of Section 2. existing channel conditions. nature of the site. Determination of Bridge Length Determining the overall length of a water crossing is not as simple and straight forward as for a highway crossing.3 Water Crossings A.3. flood and scour potential. In accordance with the flood history. As with highway crossings. and Materials Lab will make preliminary recommendations as to the type and rate of end slope. character of drift. the minimum horizontal construction opening is 8 feet 6 inches to either side of the centerline of track. D.1 foot) to the piers or the pier protection are shown on the Plan view of the Preliminary Plan. Vertical Clearances Vertical clearances for water crossings must satisfy floodway clearance and. End Slopes The type and rate of end slopes for water crossings is similar to that for highway crossings. C. navigation clearance. and the approximate location of the minimum vertical clearance is noted in the upper left margin of the plan. The approximate location of the minimum vertical clearance is noted in the upper left margin of the plan. fill height.3. Bridges over navigable waters must satisfy the vertical clearances required by the Coast Guard.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria For railroads. The minimum vertical construction opening is 22 feet 6 inches above the top of rail at 6 feet offset from the centerline of track. The Hydraulics Office will also review the Regions’s recommendation for slope protection. location of toe of fill.1 foot) on the Preliminary Plan. E. 2. The actual minimum vertical clearance (to the nearest 0. 2.1 pertaining to bridge width for highway crossings apply here. Floodway requirements and environmental factors have a significant impact on where piers and fill can be placed. The clearance shall be shown to the water surface as required by the Coast Guard criteria. the region. B. Floodway vertical clearance will need to be discussed with the Hydraulics Office.1 foot) for the channel span is shown on the Preliminary Plan. For bridges over navigable waters. Communication with the Coast Guard will be handled through the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer.

They will recommend pier shapes to best streamline flow and reduce the scour forces. and alignment of all bridge piers in the floodway and the subsequent effect they will have on the base flood elevation. it will be known by the time the Preliminary Plan has been started. G.3-7 . closure walls between pier columns. This determination is based on the horizontal clearance provided for the navigation channel and the type of navigation traffic using the channel. shape. riprap.3. The Coast Guard will determine whether pier protection is required. H. pier alignment to stream flow. Environmental studies and the Design Report prepared by the region will document any restrictions on fill placement. Pier Protection For bridges over navigable channels. August 1998 2.). These must be considered during preliminary plan preparation. The overall bridge length may need to be increased depending on the span arrangement selected and the change in the flood backwater. or justification will need to be documented. The Hydraulics Office will need to review the size. Scour The Hydraulics Office will indicate the anticipated depth of scour at the bridge piers. etc. piers adjacent to the channel may require pier protection. F. pier arrangement. Construction Access and Time Restrictions Water crossings will typically have some sort of construction restrictions associated with them. They will also recommend measures to protect the piers from scour activity or accumulation of drift (minimum cover to top of footing.2-1 If a water crossing is required to satisfy floodway and environmental concerns.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria Determination of Bridge Length for a Railroad Undercrossing Figure 2. and overall floodway clearance.

Construction requirements and staging can be sufficient reason to justify designing for a higher live load. It is important to meet with the region project staff to assure that the construction staging and characterization of traffic during construction is constructible and minimizes the impact to the traveling public. temporary barriers. Construction Sequence Using the traffic restriction data in the bridge site data. shy distances. In most cases. Depending on the time limitations. 2. the width to be provided by the widening will be what is called for by the design standards. closure pours. 2. and overall roadway widths for detour structures are determined by the Region. C. all detour structures shall be designed for an AASHTO HS 15 live load. This information should be checked to be certain that the existing bridge width. Bridge Width The provisions of Section 2. Traffic Restrictions Bridge widenings inherently involve traffic restrictions on the lanes above and where applicable on the lanes below.1 pertaining to bridge width for highway crossings shall apply. and construction room for the contractor. Live Load Unless otherwise justified. Projects with several bridges being widened at the same time should have sequencing that is compatible with the region’s traffic plans during construction and that allow the contractor room to work. The bridge site data submitted by the district should contain information regarding temporary lane widths and staging configurations. a bridge with fewer piers or faster pier construction may be more advantageous even if more expensive. a construction sequence shall be developed. B. 2. Shore areas supporting certain plant species are sometimes classified as wetlands.3-8 August 1998 . and the requirements of traffic flow on and below the structure. In order to work in or gain access through such areas. Such a sequence shall take into account necessary steps for construction of the bridge widening (substructure and superstructure). unless a deviation is approved. The temporary lane widths and shy distances on the roadway beneath the bridge being widened should also be checked that adequate clearance is available for any substructure construction. Work trestles may also be necessary for bridge removal as well as new bridge construction.4 Bridge Widenings A. shy distances.3. Contractor access to the water may also be restricted.3.3. These temporary lane widths and shy distances are noted on the Preliminary Plan. Bridge Width The lane widths. a work trestle may be necessary. Checks shall be made to be certain that girder spacings.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria The time period that the contractor will be allowed to do work within the waterway may be restricted by regulations administered by various agencies. and the bridge roadway width during the intermediate construction stages of the bridge are sufficient for the lane widths. any construction work off of and adjacent to the structure.5 Detour Structures A. and removal work are all compatible with the traffic arrangements. B. Review and approval of detour roadway widths is done by the Traffic Office.

The Bridge and Structures Office is responsible for Preliminary Plans for all nonstandard walls (retaining walls and noise walls) as spelled out in Chapter 1130 of the Design Manual. The most common types of walls are outlined in Section 9. If low points of sag vertical curves or superelevation crossovers occur within the limits of the bridge.4. The type of overlay to be used should be noted in the bridge site data submitted by the region. the locations of any and all bridge drains shall be noted. With this information. August 1998 2. and superelevation diagram are shown on the plan.3. 2.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.7 of the Bridge Design Manual. This includes temporary lane widths and shy distances. the Hydraulics Office will provide details to handle drainage with bridge drains on the structure. the region should be asked to revise their geometrics to place these features outside the limits of the bridge. a reduced print shall be provided to the Hydraulics Office for their review.7 Bridge Deck Drainage The Hydraulics Office provides a review of the Preliminary Plan with respect to the requirements for bridge deck drainage. As soon as the Preliminary Plan has been developed to the point that the length and width of the structure.3-9 . 2. For work with existing structures. Preliminary Plan Criteria 2. The plan and elevation views define the overall limits and the geometry of the wall.4. They will furnish any details or modifications required for special drains or special situations. The most commonly used systems are described in Section 8.9 Construction Clearances Most projects will involve construction in and around traffic.3. allowable or necessary alignment shifts. The Hydraulics Office will determine the type of drains necessary (if any) and their location and spacing requirements.3. New construction will generally be System 1 (21/2-inch concrete cover plus epoxy-coated rebars).2 of the Bridge Design Manual and Chapter 1130 of the Design Manual. the designer can establish the falsework opening or construction opening. The bridge condition report will indicate the preference of the Bridge and Structures Office and the Deck Systems Specialist in the Bridge and Structures Office. and any special minimum vertical clearances. The section view will show general structural elements that are part of the wall and the surface finish of the wall face.6 Retaining Walls and Noise Walls The requirements for Preliminary Plans for retaining walls and noise walls are similar to the requirements for bridges. Both traffic and construction have to be accommodated. profile grade. Construction clearances and working room must be reviewed at the Preliminary Plan stage to verify the constructibility of the project.8 Bridge Deck Protective Systems The Preliminary Plan shall note in the lower left margin the type of deck protective system to be utilized on the bridge. System 2 (MC overlay) and System 3 (ACP overlay) are to be used on new construction that require overlays and on widenings for major structures. If such revisions cannot be made. the region shall supply the necessary traffic staging information with the bridge site data. Any other pertinent information (such as locations of drainage off the structure) should be given to them also. For construction clearances for roadways.

a minimum of 2 feet shall be assumed for the interior support. This limits the stresses in the new structure from the construction and concrete pouring sequences. For multispan openings. This interior support shall also have 2 feet shy on both sides to the two 2-foot temporary concrete barriers that will flank it. either the minimum vertical clearance for the falsework shall be reduced or the horizontal clearance and span for the falsework shall be reduced. the falsework span is measured parallel to the bridge alignment. For railroads see Section 2. bucket trucks.2H.3. The space available for the falsework must be enough for whatever depth is necessary to span the required horizontal opening. (see Figure 2. plus two 2-foot temporary concrete barriers. Maintenance forces need to access damaged members and locations that may collect debris. Under Bridge Inspection Truck (UBIT).3. and under bridge travelers are just a few of the most common methods. The inspectors are required to access the bridge components to within 3 feet (1 meter). While the falsework or construction openings are measured normal to the crossroad alignment. 2. This review should take place prior to finalization of the preliminary bridge plan. Safety cables. General Bridge inspection is required by the FHWA a minimum of every two years. Once the construction clearances have been determined the designer should meet with the region to review the construction clearances to assure compatibility with the construction staging. Preliminary designers need to be aware of these requirements to assist the inspectors efforts over the life of the bridge.10 Inspection and Maintenance Access A. plus 2 feet shy behind these barriers. If the necessary depth is greater than the space available.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria The horizontal dimension of the falsework or construction opening shall be the sum of the temporary traffic lane widths and shy distances. ladders.3-10 August 1998 . Preferably.10-1). This is accomplished by using many methods.3. The vertical clearance shall normally be 14 feet 6 inches minimum. 2. the falsework span shall not exceed 38 feet. Access should be considered throughout the Preliminary Plan TS&L stages.

the inspection of the top flange and top lateral connections becomes difficult.10-1 B.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria Figure 2. large gusset plates (3 feet or more wide) are difficult to negotiate around. This way inspectors can utilize bottom lateral gusset plates to stand on while traversing around the main truss gusset. At these locations. can be considered on large steel structures. when the girders become more than 8 feet deep. Cable are best run on the exterior of the bridge except at large gusset plates. it is not feasible for the inspectors to stand on the bottom flanges. Safety Cables Safety cables strung on steel plate girders or trusses allow for walking access. When the girders are less than 5 feet deep. placed on rails that remain permanently on the bridge. 4:P:BDM2 August 1998 2. C. Travelers Under bridge travelers. On large trusses. This is an expensive option but it should be evaluated for large bridges with high ADT as access to the bridge would be limited by traffic windows that specify when a lane can be closed. However. Care must be given to the application and location.3. Some bridges are restricted to weekend UBIT inspection for this reason.3-11 . Built-up plate girder bridges are detailed with a safety cable for inspectors walking the bottom flange. cables or lanyard anchors should be placed on the inside face of the truss.

Correction for anticipated falsework settlement must be included in the dead load camber curve because of the single concrete pour.4-1 . Variable depth Adjust ratios to account for change in relative stiffness of positive and negative moment sections. the Bridge Design Manual will govern. Reinforced Concrete Tee-Beam 1. Depth/Span Ratios a.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2. Depth/Span Ratios a. 2. Constant depth Simple spans Continuous spans b. Has been used for longer spans with inclined leg piers. Reinforced Concrete Slab l. Use Used for simple and continuous spans up to 60 feet. Do not use the length between points of dead load contraflexure as noted in AASHTO for design. A.1 Selection of Structure Type Bridge Types The following superstructure depth to span ratios have been determined from past experience to be reasonable and economical and are in some cases less than the minimum depth recommended by AASHTO. Characteristics Design details and falsework relatively simple. Use Used for continuous spans 30 feet to 60 feet. Constant depth Simple spans Continuous spans b. In this situation. 1/13 1/15 1/22 1/25 Selection of Structure Types August 1998 2.4. Characteristics Forming and falsework is more complicated than flat slab. Shortest construction time for any cast-in-place structure. 3. 3. 2. B. The length of span used to determine superstructure depth shall be the length between centerline of bearings. Variable depth Adjust ratios to account for change in relative stiffness of positive and negative moment sections.4 2. Construction time is longer than for a flat slab.

Variable depth Two span structures @ Center of span @ Intermediate pier Multispan structures @ Center of span @ Intermediate pier 1/25 1/12. Characteristics Construction time is somewhat longer due to post-tensioning operations. a larger depth/span ratio may be necessary. 3. Post-Tensioned Concrete Box Girder 1. Reinforced Concrete Box Girder 1. Depth/Span Ratios* a. Use Normally used for continuous spans longer than 130 feet or simple spans longer than 110 feet. Use Used for continuous spans 50 feet to 130 feet. High torsional resistance makes it desirable for curved alignments.5 1/36 1/18 1/20. D. 2. Characteristics Forming and falsework is somewhat complicated.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design C. 2. Constant depth Simple spans Continuous spans b. *If the configuration of the exterior web is sloped and curved. Depth/Span Ratios* a. Variable depth Adjust ratios to account for change in relative stiffness of positive and negative moment sections. Maximum simple span 110 feet to limit excessive dead load deflections.4-2 August 1998 . a larger depth/span ratio may be necessary. Should be considered for shorter spans if a shallower structure depth is needed. 2. Constant depth Simple spans Continuous spans b. High torsional resistance makes it desirable for curved alignments. Construction time is approximately the same as for a tee-beam.5 1/25 1/18 1/20 Selection of Structure Types *If the configuration of the exterior web is sloped and curved. 3.

W50G. 2. d. 12-inch.4-3 . F. b. Little or no falsework is required. 3. W74G. Relatively low dead load when compared to a concrete superstructure makes this bridge type an asset in areas where foundation materials are poor. They are versatile enough to cover a wide variety of span lengths. Prestressed Concrete Sections 1. WSDOT standard girders are: a. and 26-inch precast prestressed slabs requiring an ACP overlay roadway surface. Characteristics Construction details and forming are fairly simple Construction time is comparatively short. Constant depth Simple spans Continuous spans b. Use For simple spans up to 260 feet and for continuous spans from 120 to 400 feet. c. 1/40 1/20 1/22 1/25 August 1998 2. W58G. W53DG. Use Local precast fabricators have several standard forms available for precast concrete sections based on WSDOT standard girder series plans. Composite Steel Plate Girder 1. Relatively low dead load when compared to a concrete superstructure makes this bridge type an asset in areas where foundation materials are poor. Shipping and erecting of large sections must be reviewed. 18-inch. Current cost information should be considered because of changing steel market conditions. concrete I-girders requiring a cast-in-place concrete roadway deck. concrete decked bulb tee girders requiring an ACP overlay roadway surface. Depth/Span Ratios a. and W35DG prestressed. Construction time is less than for a cast-in-place bridge. 2. Cost of maintenance is higher than for concrete bridges. and W42G prestressed. 26-inch precast prestressed tribeam requiring an ACP overlay roadway surface. Variable depth @ Center of span @ Intermediate pier G.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design E. Use For simple spans up to 260 feet and for continuous spans from 120 to 400 feet. Composite Steel Box Girder 1. Selection of Structure Types Characteristics Construction details and forming are fairly simple.

Constant depth Simple spans Continuous spans b. 2. Depth/Span Ratios a. Characteristics Construction details are numerous and can be complex. Shipping and erecting of large sections must be reviewed. Through trusses are discouraged because of the resulting restricted horizontal and vertical clearances for the roadway.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2. Tight geometric control is required during construction to ensure proper alignment. Use For simple spans up to 300 feet and for continuous spans up to 1. Used where vertical clearance requirements dictate a shallow superstructure and long spans or where terrain dictates long spans and construction by cantilever method. Characteristics Use of travelers for the form apparatus facilitates the cantilever construction method enabling long-span construction without falsework. Precast concrete segments may be used. Simple spans 1/6 Continuous spans @ Center of span @ Intermediate pier I. Depth/Span Ratios Variable depth @ Center of span @ Intermediate pier 1/50 1/20 1/18 1/9 2.200 feet. Steel Truss 1. Current cost information should be considered because of changing steel market conditions. Use For continuous spans from 200 to 700 feet. Used where site dictates long spans and construction by cantilever method. 3. b. Variable depth @ Center of span @ Intermediate pier 1/40 1/20 1/22 1/25 Selection of Structure Types Sloping webs are not used on box girders of variable depth. Characteristics Construction details and forming are more difficult than for a steel plate girder. Segmental Concrete Box Girder 1. Cantilever construction method can facilitate construction over inaccessible areas.4-4 August 1998 . 2. 3. H. Depth/Span Ratios a. 3.

suspension. arch. Depth/Span Ratios Constant depth Simple spans Continuous two span Continuous multi-span K. and aesthetic requirements and other considerations relevant to a specific site. Railroad Bridges 1.2 of the Bridge Design Manual. Usually used for detour bridges and other temporary structures. Characteristics The heavier loads of the railroad live load require deeper and stiffer members than for highway bridges. 1/10 1/12 1/14 1/12 1/14 1/15 Selection of Structure Types 2. A detailed listing of the common wall types and their characteristics can be found in Section 9.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design J. 3. 2:-4DTP:BDM2 August 1998 2.4. 2. 3. Preliminary design studies will generally be done when these types of structures are considered.2 Wall Types The process of selecting a type of retaining wall should economically satisfy structural. Piers should be normal to the railroad to eliminate skew loading effects.4. functional. and floating bridges have special and limited applications. Use For railroad undercrossings. tied arch. most railroad companies prefer simple span steel construction. Characteristics Excellent for short-term duration as for a detour. Through girders can be used to reduce overall structure depth if the railroad concurs. Depth/Span Ratios Constant depth Simple span – Timber beam Simple span – Glulam beam Continuous spans L. Their use is generally dictated by site conditions. Timber 1. Other Bridge types such as cable-stayed. Simple design and details. Use Generally used for spans under 40 feet.4-5 . This is to simplify repair and reconstruction in the event of derailment or some other damage to the structure. 2.

5.2 End Piers A.5. Slope Protection The region is responsible for making initial recommendations regarding slope protection. These guidelines shall be used with engineering judgment and with the review of the Bridge Architect. August 1998 2. Generally a visit to the bridge site with the Bridge Architect and the region will be made as well. will help the designer determine the appropriate structure. for example). Stepped walls are often used to break up the height. The type selected shall be shown on the Preliminary Plan. along with the video and/or pictures submitted. visually. It shall be noted on the “Not Included in Bridge Quantities” list. B.1 Aesthetic Considerations General Visual Impact A bridge can be a strong feature in any landscape. The Bridge Architect should be contacted early in the preliminary bridge plan process for input. This simplifies design and provides a convenient breaking point between design responsibilities if the retaining walls happen to be the responsibility of the region. It should be compatible with the site and should match what has been used at other bridges in the vicinity. right of way. In this way. and alignment dictate the use of high exposed wall-type abutments for the end piers. The Design Report. the joint in the retaining wall stem can coincide with the joint between the abutment footing and the retaining wall footing. However. However. and allow for landscape planting. Bridges that are well proportioned structurally using the least material possible are generally well proportioned. and crossbeams require special attention to ensure a structure that will enhance the general vicinity. It can be revised under design to satisfy the intent of having the wall joint coincide with the end of the abutment footing. C. the details such as pier walls. EIS. columns. with the depth and type of superstructure used. Aesthetic Considerations 2. and bridge site data submitted by the region should each contain a discussion on the aesthetic importance of the project site. For example. This commentary. Aesthetics is a very subjective element that must be factored into the design process in the otherwise very quantitative field of structural engineering. The length shown for the curtain wall dimension is an estimated dimension based on experience and preliminary foundation assumptions.5 2. Wing Walls The size and exposure of the wing wall at the end pier should balance. a prestressed girder structure fits best visually with a 15-foot wing wall (or curtain wall/retaining wall). It is less expensive for bridges of greater than 40 feet of overall width to be designed with wing walls (or curtain wall/retaining wall) than to use a longer superstructure. A curtain wall runs between the bridge abutment and the heel of the abutment footing. Retaining Walls For structures at sites where profile.5-1 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2. retaining walls that flank the approach roadway can be used to retain the roadway fill and reduce the overall structure length. there are instances where a 20-foot wing wall (or curtain wall/retaining wall) may be used with a prestressed girder (maximizing a span in a remote area. Steps must be taken to assure that even the most basic structure will complement rather than detract from its surroundings.

1.4 Barrier and Wall Surface Treatments A. the exterior webs can be sloped. Column spacing should be proportioned to maintain a reasonable crossbeam span balance. Column spacing should not be so small as to create a cluttered look.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2. This dimension should be balanced between what looks good for aesthetics and what is possible with a reasonable slab thickness and reinforcement. They must be correctly sized and detailed to efficiently handle the structural loads required by the design and shaped to enhance the aesthetics of the structure.5.5. C. Fabrication and constructibility of the formwork of the pier must be kept in mind.5 Superstructure The horizontal elements of the bridge are perhaps the strongest features. DP:BDM2 2.3 Intermediate Piers The size. The particular hue can be selected to blend with the surrounding terrain. The amount of slope should not exceed l1/2: l for structural reasons. Most commonly. The slab overhang dimension should approach that used for the structure depth. Haunches or rounding of girders at the piers can enhance the structure’s appearance. for example. Skewed bridges and bridges with steep profile grades or those in sharp vertical curves will require special attention to detail. shape. Fractured Fin Finish This finish is the most common and an easy way to add a decorative texture to a structure. The sizing of the structure depth based on the span/depth ratios in Section 2. Variations on this type of finish can be used for special cases. The specific areas to receive this finish should be reviewed with the Bridge Architect. the primary view will be a section normal to the roadway.5. This primary view should be the focus of the aesthetic review.5-2 August 1998 . B. This may not always be the same view as shown on the Preliminary Plan as with a skewed structure. Pigmented Sealer The use of a pigmented sealer can also be an aesthetic enhancement. For box girders. Aesthetic Considerations 2. Sloped webs should only be used in locations of high aesthetic impact. A bridge in a remote area or a bridge among several existing bridges all having a plain finish would be examples. this would be considered in urban areas.4. Crossbeam ends should be carefully reviewed. 2. The selection should be reviewed with the Bridge Architect and the region. will generally produce a balanced relationship. Plain Surface Finish This finish will normally be used on structures that do not have a high degree of visibility or where existing conditions warrant. Tapers and flairs on columns should be kept simple and structurally functional. The amount of haunch should be carefully reviewed for overall balance from the primary viewing perspective. and spacing of the intermediate pier elements must satisfy two criteria. The use of such features should be kept within reason considering fabrication of materials and construction of formwork. The primary view of the pier must be considered. For structures that cross over another roadway.

6 2. The Condition Survey Section of the Bridge and Structures Office should be consulted for limitations on hauling lengths and weights. the material being removed should be reviewed for anything that WSDOT may want to salvage. steep grades.6. the cost range assumed shall be based on the amount of information available. The cost data would be adjusted for inflation to the current date. The region should be asked if such items are to be salvaged since they will be responsible for storage and inventory of these items. Likely routes to the site must be adequate to handle the truck and trailer hauling the beams.1 Miscellaneous Structure Costs Historical bridge and structure cost data is outlined in Chapter 12.6.6.. Avoid narrow roads with sharp turns. engineering. sign structures. or contingencies. The site should be reviewed for adequate space for the contractor to set up the cranes and equipment necessary to pick up and place the girders. and steel beams should be identified for possible salvage. pile foundations) for cost analysis. Both the size and the weight of the beams must be checked. 2. An estimate contingency of 10 percent (minimum) staff be added to all preliminary bridge plan estimates.2 Handling and Shipping Precast Members and Steel Beams Bridges utilizing precast concrete beams or steel beams need to have their access routes checked and sites reviewed to be certain that the beams can be transported to the site. and/or load-rated bridges which may prevent the beams from reaching the site. Unless foundation conditions are known. and the accuracy of the estimate is ±15 percent. For small projects or remote areas. Miscellaneous 2. DP:BDM2 August 1998 2. Items such as aluminum rail. the worst case conditions would be assumed (e.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.6-1 . When using this data for cost estimates. luminaire poles. The reach and boom angle should be checked and should accommodate standard cranes. high-range costs would be used.3 Salvage of Materials When a bridge is being replaced or widened. It must also be determined that they can be erected once they reach the site.g. Estimates include mobilization but not sales tax. future inflation.

W74G spans up to about 132″. Exposed faces of wingwalls. following the criteria established in Section 2. Intermediate piers use the following details: “Semi-drop” Crossbeams: The crossbeam below the girders is designed for the girder and slab dead load. (Standard Cadd File DIA63A5.1 WSDOT Standard Highway Bridge Design Elements The following are standard design elements for highway undercrossings and overcrossings. General Fractured Fin Finish shall be used on the exterior face of the traffic barrier. Modification of some elements may be required. A. (Standard Cadd File TB.7. The crossbeam and the hinge diaphram together are designed for all live loads and composite dead loads. Stub abutment wall with vertical face. End Diaphrams: “End Wall on Girder” type. Miscellaneous August 1998 2.1 H. Prestressed Girders: Girder spacing will vary depending on roadway width and span length. Superstructure Concrete Slab: 7 1 2 ″ minimum thickness.FGB). C. W58G spans up to about 110′. clean looking bridges. and abutments shall be vertical. and construction loads. B. (Standard Cadd File W58G.3. Traffic Barrier: New Jersey face barrier. Bridges with roadway widths of greater than 28′-0″ shall have two or more columns. and to reduce design and construction costs. Dimensions are constant full height with no tapers. Substructure End piers use the following details: 15′-0″ wingwalls (Standard Cadd File WW15_21. They are meant to provide a generic base for consistent. Round Columns: Columns shall be 3′-0″ or 4′-0″ in diameter. The slab overhang dimension is approximately half of the girder spacing. The exterior face of the traffic barrier and the end of the intermediate pier crossbeam and diaphram shall have a 1:12 backslope. Intermediate Diaphrams: Locate at the midspan for girders up to 80′ long.FGB). depending on site conditions. pile type (if required).FGB).FGB). and setback dimension are determined from recommendations in the WSDOT Materials Laboratory Foundation Report. with the top mat being epoxy coated steel reinforcing bars.FGB).FGB). columns. Girder spacings typically range between 6′-0″ and 8′-0″. (Standard Cadd File W74G.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.7-1 . Footing elevation. Locate at third points for girders over 80′ long. Bridges with roadway widths of 28′-0″ or less will generally be single column piers.7 2. (Standard Cadd File DIA63A5. This should be determined on a case-by-case basis during the preliminary plan stage of the design process. All other surfaces shall be Plain Surface Finish. The crossbeam shall be 3′-0″ minimum depth.

7-A1 and A2 detail the standard design elements of a standard highway bridge.FGB). Exterior face is flush with the end of the crossbeam and matches the 1:12 slope of the crossbeam face. Sidewalk: 6″ height at curb line.FGB). D. they do have some modifications to the standard. Outside face slopes 1:12 outward. However. (Standard Cadd File TO BE DEVELOPED). SR 17 Undercrossing 395/110 Mullenix Road Overcrossing 16/203E&W DTP:BDM2 Contract 3785 Contract 4143 2. BP Rail: 3′-6″ overall height for pedestrian traffic.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Miscellaneous Hinge Diaphram: Full width of crossbeam between girders and outside of the exterior girders. (Standard Cadd File BPRAIL. The following bridges are good examples of a standard highway bridge. 4′-6″ overall height for bicycle traffic.FGB).01′ per foot towards the curb line. Transverse slope of -. (Standard Cadd File PED_BAR. Sidewalk barrier: Inside face is vertical. Examples Appendices 2.7-2 August 1998 . (Standard Cadd File PED_BAR.

1990) contains the criteria pertaining to Type.1 (dated December 24. Local Agency Guidelines (M 36-63). and Location studies. Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Design Manual (M 22-01). Subsection 1. 5. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. Chapter 6. Volume 6. FHWA Order 5520. Section 2. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) publication Federal Aid Highway Program Manual. American Railway Engineering Association (AREA) Manual for Railroad Engineering.99-1 . 6. Size. DTP:BDM2 August 1998 2. Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission Clearance Rules and Regulations Governing Common Carrier Railroads. 2. Note: This is the criteria which we follow except as superseded by FHWA or WSDOT criteria. This manual is used as the basic design and geometric criteria by all railroads. 3. Bibliography 4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.99 Bibliography 1. Attachment 1 (Transmittal 425) contains the criteria pertaining to railroad undercrossings and overcrossings.

and elevations of existing roadways Photographs and video tape of structure site.2-A1 . which line and how much? Will bridge be contracted before. buildings. utilities. adjacent existing structures and surrounding terrain DOT Form 235-002 EF Revised 6/97 August 1998 2. Highway Section Structure width between curbs ? What are expected foundation conditions? Will the structure be widened in a contract subsequent to this contract ? Which side and amount ? Yes No N/A When can foundation drilling be accomplished? Is slope protection or riprap required for the bridge end slopes? Will the roadway under the structure be widened in the future? Yes N/A N/A Are sidewalks to be provided? If Yes. which side and width? Will sidewalks carry bicycle traffic? No No N/A N/A Yes Stage construction requirements ? No No Yes Yes Should the additional clearance for off-track railroad maintenance equipment be provided? Can a pier be placed in the median? Yes N/A Will signs or illumination be attached to the structure? No No No N/A N/A N/A Yes No What are the required falsework or construction opening dimensions ? Are there detour or shoofly bridge requirements? (If Yes.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Preliminary Design Bridge Site Data General Bridge Site Data General Region Made By Date Bridge Information SR Bridge Name Section. offsets. powerlines. sign support structures. What is the available depth for superstructure? Are overlays planned for a contract subsequent to this contract ? Yes Can profile be revised to provide greater or less clearance? If Yes. etc. including your recommendations? Yes Before Vicinity Map Bridge Site Contour Map With After N/A Attachments Specific Roadway sections at bridge site and approved roadway sections Vertical Profile Data Horizontal Curve Data Superelevation Transition Diagrams Tabulated field surveyed and measured stations. with or after approach fill? No No N/A N/A Any other data relative to selection of type. such as retaining walls. attach drawings) Yes Yes Will utility conduits be incorporated in the bridge? Yes No No N/A N/A What do the bridge barriers transition to? Can the R/W be adjusted to accommodate toe of approach fills? Yes What is the required vertical clearance? Furnish type and location of existing features within the limits of this project. Township & Range Control Section Datum Project No.

modified. ACP w /membrame. ACP w /membrane.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Preliminary Design Bridge Site Data Rehabilitation Bridge Site Data Rehabilitation Region Made By Date Bridge Information SR Bridge Name Section. normal to skew. other? Proposed overlay (ACP. other) Existing drains to be plugged. to existing joints Existing Vertical Clearance Proposed Vertical Clearance (at curb lines of traffic barrier) After Rail Replacement @ C roadway L Inch Inch @ curb line Inch Attachments Video tape of project Sketch indicating points at which joint width was measured. Roadway deck elevations at curb lines (10-foot spacing) DOT Form 235-002A EF Revised 3/97 2. Township & Range Control Section Datum Project No. moved. epoxy. curb to curb Left of C L Left of C L Right of C L Right of C L Thickness Existing wearing surface (concrete. Existing deck chloride and detamination data. Photographs of existing joints. Estimate structure temperature at time of joint measurement Type of existing joint Describe damage.2-A2 August 1998 . epoxy) Is bridge rail to be modified? Existing rail type Proposed rail replacement type Will terminal design “F” be required? Will utilities be placed in the new barrier? Yes Yes No No With Rail Replacement Yes No Thickness Will the structure be overlayed with or after rail replacement? Condition of existing joints Existing joints watertight? Yes No @ curb line Measure width of existing joint. Highway Section Existing roadway width. LMC. curb to curb Proposed roadway width. ACP. LMC. if any.

Township & Range Tributary of Control Section Datum Project No. 7.) DOT Form 235-001 EF Revised 3/97 August 1998 2. USGS.e. USC and GS.e. upstream and downstream) Photographs Character of Stream Banks (i. (@ date of survey) Stream Velocity (fps @ date of survey) Depth of Flow (@ date of survey) Max Highwater Elevation Normal Highwater Elevation Normal Stage Elevation Extreme Low Water Elevation Amount and Character of Drift Streambed Material Datum (i.. requirements of riprap. etc.e.) / Location of Solid Rock Other Data Relative to Selection of Type and Design of Bridge.00 Highway Hydraulic Manual) Highway Alignment and Profile (refer to map and profiles) Streambed: Profile and Cross Sections (500 ft. etc. rock.) @ Date @ Date @ Date @ Date Attachments Site Contour Map (See Sect. Highway Section Name of Stream Elevation of W. Including your Recommendations (i.2-A3 .. permission of piers in channel.02.S.. etc. silt.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Preliminary Design Bridge Site Data Stream Crossings Bridge Site Data Stream Crossings Region Made By Date Bridge Information SR Bridge Name Section.) Manning’s “N” Value (Est.

Junction Boxes. widened) ___Section. Rt of Survey Line ___End Slope Rate ___Slope Protection ___Pier Stations and Grade Elevations ___Profile Grade Vertical Curves ___BP/Pedestrian Rail ___Barrier/Wall Face Treatment ___Construction/Falsework Openings ___Minimum Vertical Clearances ___Water Surface Elevations and Flow Data ___Riprap ___Seal Vent Elevation ___Datum ___Grade elevations shown are equal to … ___For Embankment details at bridge ends … ___Indicate F. (to be removed. Range ___City or Town ___North Arrow ___SR Number ___Bearing of Piers.2-A4 August 1998 . and Location ___Luminaires. Size. and Location ___New utilities . or note if radial MISCELLANEOUS ___Structure Type ___Live Loading ___Undercrossing Alignment Profiles/Elevs. Plan by _____ Check by _____ Date_____ PRELIMINARY PLAN CHECKLIST PLAN ___Survey Lines and Station Ticks ___Survey Line Intersection Angles ___Survey Line Intersection Stations ___Survey Line Bearings ___Roadway and Median Widths ___Lane and Shoulder Widths ___Sidewalk Width ___Connection/Widening for Guardrail/Barrier ___Profile Grade and Pivot Point ___Roadway Superelevation Rate (if constant) ___Lane Taper and Channelization Data ___Traffic Arrows ___Mileage to Junctions along Mainline ___Back to Back of Pavement Seats ___Span Lengths ___Lengths of Walls next to/ part of Bridge ___Pier Skew Angle ___Bridge Drains. Conduits ___Bridge mounted Signs and Supports ___Contours ___Top of Cut: Toe of Fill ___Bottom of Ditches ___Test Holes (if available) ___Riprap Limits ___Stream Flow Arrow ___R/W Lines and/or Easement Lines ___Points of Minimum Vertical Clearance ___Horizontal Clearance ___Exist. Township. or E at abutments and piers TYPICAL SECTION ___Bridge Roadway Width ___Lane and Shoulder Widths ___Profile Grade and Pivot Point ___Superelevation Rate ___Survey Line ___Overlay Type and Depth ___Barrier Face Treatment ___Limits of Pigmented Sealer ___BP/Pedestrian Rail dimensions ___Stage Construction Lane Orientations ___Locations of Temporary Concrete Barrier ___Closure Pour ___Structure Depth/Prestressed Girder Type ___Conduits/Utilities in bridge ___Substructure Dimensions LEFT MARGIN ___Job Number ___Bridge (before/with/after) Approach Fills ___Structure Depth/Prestressed Girder Type ___Deck Protective System ___Coast Guard Permit Status ___Railroad Agreement Status ___Points of Minimum Vertical Clearance ___Cast in Place Concrete Strength RIGHT MARGIN ___Control Section ___Project Number ___Region ___Highway Section ___SR Number ___Structure Name 2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Checklist Project__________________ SR______ Prelim. Bridge No. or Inlets off Bridge ___Existing drainage structures ___Existing utilities Type/Size. H.Type. ___Superelevation Diagrams ___Curve Data ___Riprap Detail ___Layout Approval Block ___Notes to Region ___Names and Signatures ___Not Included in Bridge Quantities List ___Inspection and Maintenance Access ELEVATION ___Full Length Reference Elevation Line ___Existing Ground Line x ft.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Preliminary Design Bridge Stage Construction Comparison January 1991 2.3-A1 .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sidesway . . . . . . . . . Member and Frame Factors .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Analysis Contents Page 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . Castiglano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of F. . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . Finite Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Analysis Problems by Bridge Type . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Fixity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . List of Programs Available . . . Trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . Footing Deflections and Rotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . .7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Skew . . . . . . . . . . Dynamic Analysis . .2-1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Appendix A 3. . .0-i . .5 3. . . . . . . .0-A1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suspension bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-A6 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Stayed Bridges . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . .9 3. . . . . . . . . . . Frame Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influence Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 1 1 1 * * * 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . .E. . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .0 3. . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-A8 Concentrated Load Coefficients — General Concentrated Load Coefficients — Case I Fixed End Moment Coefficient Chart Influence Lines — Two Equal Spans Coefficients and Factors for Double Tapered Members Stiffness Factors for Tapered Members Carry Over Factors for Tapered Members Fixed End Moments for Tapered Members *Indicates sections not issued to date. . . . . . . . . . . Computer Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Buckling Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Analysis Methods . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-A5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . .0-A3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. Philosophy of Analysis Procedures . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . .s and Distribution . .M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Discussion of Computer Analysis .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-A7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Theory . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-A2 3. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . .2 3. . 3-CON:V:BDM3 July 1994 3. . . . . . Analysis Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .2 Analysis . . Virtual Work . . . . . . .0-A4 3. . . . General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . .6 3. . . .

1. In lieu of including the transformed area of steel for columns or other compression members.1 3.2 Analysis Methods The maximum live load deflection computed shall be in accordance with AASHTO except that the maximum live load deflection in a span shall not exceed 1/1000 and for a cantilever 1/375.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Analysis 3.1-1 . in distribution of moments. 3-1:V:BDM3 July 1994 3.1 Analysis General Considerations Philosophy of Analysis Procedures For the design of concrete bridges. 120 percent of the gross moment of inertial of columns and other compression members may generally be used. regardless of whether the bridge is used by pedestrians. General Considerations 3.1.0 3. generally use the gross moment of inertia of the concrete superstructure.

This shall hold for footings with or without seals.2 3. or lateral stiffness of the superstructure.2-1 . fixed at the footing. For design of structures with large diameter shafts see Section 9.2. with no allowance for torsional.8 For one column piers assume the footing fully fixed in the direction transverse to the roadway. For frame analysis. For loads on one column piers assume the pier acts transversely as a simple cantilever.1 3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Analysis 3. assume 50 percent fixity of footings except footings on rock shall be 100 percent fixed. the piles shall be assumed pinned at the tops.2. the point of fixity shall normally be taken to be at the approximate center line of footing. For flat slab bridges supported on piling. For column design. Frame Analysis 3-2:V:BDM3 July 1994 3.2. Volume 2 Sheets 9-220 through 9-225 shall be consulted. for analyses of the structure the piles may be assumed fixed at a point 5 feet to 10 feet in the ground.3 Theory (Vacant) Member and Frame Factors (Vacant) Partial Fixity In general. Where superstructures are supported directly on piles.

0-A1 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Concentrated Load Coefficients — General July 1994 3.

0-A2 July 1994 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Concentrated Load Coefficients — Case I 3.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Fixed End Moment Coefficient Chart July 1994 3.0-A3-1 .

0-A3-2 July 1994 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Fixed End Moment Coefficient Chart 3.

0-A4 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Influence Lines — Two Equal Spans July 1994 3.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Coefficients and Factors for Double Tapered Members July 1994 3.0-A5-1 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Coefficients and Factors for Double Tapered Members 3.0-A5-2 July 1994 .

0-A6 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Stiffness Factors for Tapered Members July 1994 3.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Carry Over Factors for Tapered Members 3.0-A7 July 1994 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Fixed End Moments for Tapered Members July 1994 3.0-A8-1 .

0-A8-2 July 1994 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Fixed End Moments for Tapered Members 3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-B1 Basic Truck Loading 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stiffness Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . Loads . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . 4. .3. Thermal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distribution to Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 1 1 3 4. . . . . . Floating Ice. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1 1 1 4 4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-A2 Peak Ground Acceleration Map Appendix B 4. . . . . . . . . .4 Foundation Modeling . . . . . . .2 Load Factor Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Other Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . Lateral Spring Input from P-Y Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . .3 Service Load Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dead Loads . . . . . and Drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-B2 Common Response Modification Factors 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-B3 Seismic Analysis Example 4. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Wind Loads . . . . . . . . . Lateral Spring Input to Dynamic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Combination of Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .4-B1 Spring Constants Evaluation Example 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . Shrinkage. . A. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. Centrifugal . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . Appendix A 4. . . . B. . . GPILE Computer Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Dead Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 4. .2. . . . . . . . .2 Spread Footings . . . . 4. . .1. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Springs . . . . . . . .99 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Loads and Loading . . . . .3 Wind Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Prestressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Pile Foundations . . C. . . . . . Force from Stream Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distribution to Substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Procedure Summary . . . . .0-i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Earthquake Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99-1 P:DP/BDM4 August 1998 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .4 Wind on Live Load . . . . . . . E. .4-A1-1 Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Application of Loads . . . . 4. . . . . . .5 Earthquake Loads . . . . . . .1-1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 4. . . . . . . .4-1 1 1 1 1 4 7 8 8 4. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .2 Live Loads . . . . . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Contents Page 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 Live Loads A. Use fractional lanes. The Bridge Projects Unit determines this criteria using the following guideline: • HS 25 — New bridges on the interstate or state system and bridge widenings involving addition of substructure. Forms in Top Slab of Concrete Box Girders — 5 pounds per square foot of cell area. B. See Figure 4. Loads 4.) The AASHTO Specifications should be used for Rib Deck Bridges and the beam types listed therein.1-1 .2. Concrete Box Girders The value for the number of traffic lanes to be used in the concrete box girder superstructure design shall be determined by dividing the entire roadway slab width by 14. and Double Tee bridges shall be as determined through use of the “DISTBM” computer program.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4.2-2 and 3 for “L” value to use in the formula in Section 4. General Live load design criteria is specified in the lower right corner of the bridge preliminary plan sheet. Distribution to Superstructure 1.3.3. D.1 Loads Dead Loads Use values in AASHTO except as herein modified: Reinforced Concrete — 160 pounds per cubic foot. See Figures 4.L. • HS 15 — Detour bridges. Integral Deck Precast Sections The Live Load Distribution factor for Bulb Tee.0 Loads and Loading AASHTO loading specifications shall be the minimum design criteria used for all bridges. rounding to the nearest tenth of a foot.2-2 for illustration. Figure 4. Examples of beam types are shown on Figure 4. (See Bridge Computer Programs Manual. For Rib Deck Bridges use a K value of 2.3.25. No reduction factor will be applied to the superstructure for multiple loadings. The loading consisting of two 24K axles at 4-foot centers sometimes governs for short span bridges. if applicable. 4. • HS 20 — Bridge widenings with no addition of substructure. Use values described in AASHTO. August 1998 4. For beams and girders.2.1. See Figure 4.1 4. 2.2-1. Roadway slab widths of less than 28 feet shall have two design lanes. Single Tee. For cantilevers.2-2 illustrates determination of the “L” length of the member under consideration.3.3.2-1 for illustration of this “alternative” loading.1. Design for HS25 loading by multiplying HS20-44 axle loads by 1. use length from center of support to farthest load on cantilever.1. use span length center to center of supports.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Loads Beam Types Figure 4.1-2 August 1998 .2-1 4.1.

and 40 psf on substructures. Appendix 4. and is assumed to act when live load is present. 10 percent Probability of Exceedance in 50 Years) to obtain an acceleration coefficient for preliminary design. and round to the nearest 1 percent of gravity (g). represented by a live load acting 6 feet above the roadway surface. A moderate wind pressure of 6 psf is used for Groups III and VI. The Single Mode Spectral Method may be used in certain cases. or a 70 percent reduction from basic) is included in Groups III and IV. C. d. V.4 Wind on Live Load A moderate wind force is assumed to act on the live load itself. The basic wind loads result from 100 mph wind. A reduction factor will be applied in the substructure design for multiple loadings in accordance with AASHTO. This wind is assumed to act on the structure when live load is not present. Seismic Design of the 1996 AASHTO Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. The GTSTRUDL dynamic analysis system is capable of handling a larger range of structures. In general. for Groups II. August 1998 4.5 Earthquake Loads a. and IX. When using Appendix 4.3 Wind Loads AASHTO load combinations for wind are based on probability of simultaneous load occurrence.1. The project Foundation Report will contain the acceleration coefficient to use in the final design of a bridge. which produces 75 psf on trusses and arches. both transversely and longitudinally.1-3 . 4.1.4-A2. Use the USGS Peak Ground Acceleration map (Appendix 4.4-A2. Distribution to Substructure The value for the number of traffic lanes to be used in the substructure design shall be determined by dividing the entire roadway slab width by 12. The force is applied at the windward quarter point of the transverse superstructure. 4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 3. Other Types See AASHTO Specifications. Design for earthquake shall be in accordance with Division 1-A. b. 50 psf on girders and beams. This force is computed by multiplying the bridge length tributary to a particular member by 0. The Multimode Spectral Method of dynamic analysis described in the AASHTO Specifications shall be used for most continuous bridges.1 for transverse and 0. No fractional lanes shall be used.1.04 for longitudinal direction. The forces tending to overturn a structure are represented by an upward high wind pressure of 20 psf acting on the plan view area. as described in the AASHTO Specifications. interpolate between contours to find the value to use for particular site.4-A2 can also be used for c. The following percentages of the resulting live loading shall be used: Number of Lanes Loaded Two Lanes Three Lanes Four Lanes or More Percent 100 90 75 Loads 4. A 30 mph wind (0. The SEISAB computer program can be used to analyze most common bridges. Roadway slab widths of less than 24 feet shall have a maximum of two design lanes.3 × 100.

Movements due to temperature changes are calculated using coefficients of thermal expansion of 0.0000065 ft/ft per degree for steel. Reinforced concrete shrinks at the rate of 0. See AASHTO for force equation. e. It is recommended that temporary (detour) structures shall be designed for a seismic acceleration coefficient equal to 0.1. both for designing piling for uplift and for realizing economy in footing design. B. and 9 for guidance on computation and application of these force types.0002 ft/ft.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Loads bridge seismic retrofit designs. All other requirements of the AASHTO Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges shall apply.6 Other Loads A. f. Seismic Performance Category shall be based on the magnitude of the reduced acceleration coefficient. Centrifugal Centrifugal forces are included in all groups which contain vehicular live load.000006 ft/ft per degree for concrete and 0. The Geotechnical Engineer should be consulted when determining the soil type to be used in the seismic analysis. Refer to AASHTO and Bridge Design Manual Chapters 6. They are radial forces induced by moving trucks. C.5 x the acceleration coefficient for a permanent structure. Shrinkage. 8. 4. the Bridge Design Engineer should be consulted for direction. However. They act 6 feet above the roadway surface and are significant where curve radii are small or columns are long.1-4 August 1998 . 4. Thermal. Buoyancy The effects of submergence of a portion of the substructure is to be calculated. In these situations. seismic evaluation and retrofitting of older bridges can sometimes result in excessive costs (the retrofit costs are not consistent with the benefit gained). and Prestressing Member loadings are induced by movements of the structure and can result from several sources.

1. Floating Ice. the maximum values of D and E shall be 10 feet and 50 feet.1-5 .6-1 DP:BDM4 August 1998 4.S. Velocity of water (ft/sec) Pressure on drift (psf) = 1. Water depth and pier spacing will partly determine drift areas.38 V2 Pressure on pier (psf) = KV2 In the absence of other data. a reasonable area of drift or floating ice must be determined. considering the stream or river characteristics (check with the Hydraulics Unit). flow C equals the width of the column normal to the stream flow. Loads W. Force from Stream Current. respectively. and Drift In designing for stream flow force on piers.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading D. Water Related Forces Figure 4. Where the pier is skewed to the stream. = SF Ad Ap V Pd Pp = = = = = = Water surface as defined by the Hydraulics Unit PdAd + PpAp Area of drift or floating ice = D x E Area of pier below ice = B x C.

2.1 Load Combinations Combination of Loads Group numbers represent various combinations of loads and forces which may act on a structure. Terms in the general equation that do not contribute to a particular combination are represented by zeros in the table. only) Buoyancy Wind Load on Structure Wind Load on Live Load — 100 pounds per linear foot of span Longitudinal Force from Live Load Centrifugal Force Rib Shortening Shrinkage Temperature Earthquake Stream Flow Pressure Ice Pressure Load Combinations *PS = Forces and moments transferred from members containing post-tensioning steel to other members upon application of the post-tensioning force. The 30 percent increase in design load represented by the factor is intended to account for variations in weight. Table 4. γ and β.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4. Its common value is 1. The γ factor is applied for stress control. which enables use of 77 percent of the ultimate capacity. August 1998 4.2 4.2. Group loading combinations for both Load Factor and Service Load Design are defined by the following equation: Group (N) = γ[βd D + βp PS + βL (L+I) + βc CF + βE E + βD B + βs SF + βw W + βwL WL + βL LF + βR (R + S + T) + βEQ EQ + βICE ICE] where: N γ βN D PS L I E B W WL LF CF R S T EQ SF ICE = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Group Number General Factor Specific Factor Dead Load (including overburden) Prestress Load* Live Load Live Load Impact Earth Pressure (Lateral. 4. The β factor is a measure of the accuracy of load prediction and the probability of simultaneous application of loads in a combination.2 Load Factor Coefficients LFD requires basic design loads or related internal moments and forces to be increased by specified load factors. structural behavior.2-1 contains the terms and factors required to meet AASHTO Load Factor Design. and calculation of stress.2-1 .3. reinforcement placement.2.

1A3.0 MT are used. Group 1A load combination shall be applied only with live loadings less than HS 20 or H 20.5. 2.0 Footing Stability and Sliding βD = 0.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Load Combinations Column Design βD = 0.75 or βD = 1.2-2 August 1998 .75 or βD = 1. whichever governs.0. βE = 0. See AASHTO. Check stability for all group loadings in accordance with BDM Section 9.0 βE = 1.5. Flexural and Tension Members βD = 1. *Applies if design loads are already factored.b.75 or bD = 1.3 ML + 1.0. whichever governs. whichever governs.4.0 βE = 1.1A3. Notes: 1. see BDM Section 9. such as in cases where MDes = 1.2. For rigid frame design. Table of Coefficients γ and β For Load Factor Design Table 4.a. 4.0 ML + 0. 3.3 MT or MDes = 0.3.3.4 or βE = 1.2-1 4. For footing design. check Basic Loading Combination in accordance with BDM Section 9.0 Footing Bearing Pressure and Internal Footing Stresses βD = 0.E.

Notes: 1. 2. Load Combinations Footing Bearing Pressure and Internal Footing Stresses βE = 1.3-1 contains the terms and factors required to meet AASHTO Service Load Design. For culvert loading.2. see AASHTO. whichever governs.0 Footing Stability and Sliding βE = 0. No increase in allowable unit stresses shall be permitted for members or connections carrying wind load only.3 Service Load Coefficients Table 4.2-3 .5 or βE = 1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4. Table of Coefficients γ and β For Service Load Design Table 4.2. The allowable percentage of the basic unit stress is given in the right hand column of the table.2.0.3-1 4-2:P:BDM4 August 1998 4.

truck loading governs for maximum moment in simple spans shorter than 145 feet and lane loading controls for longer spans.2-2 and 4. Figures 4. In continuous spans.3.3. The alternative loading represents certain heavy military vehicles. for span lengths of over about 110 feet. The loading type governing the design depends on the structure configuration. Impact is figured using the following formula: I= 50 L + 125 Where L is the loaded portions of the spans.3. Alternative loading governs in certain short span situations. Appendix 4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4. in which truck loading will govern.3.3 4.2-1 August 1998 4. lane loading governs for maximum negative moment. except for spans shorter than 45 feet. Application of Loads 4.2-3 illustrate application of loads to produce maximum stresses in various span arrangements. The lane load consists of combinations of uniform and concentrated loads which represent three lighter trucks spaced close together.2 Live Loads The three types of live loadings ordinarily applied to a bridge when checking for maximum stresses in its components are illustrated in AASHTO and Figure 4. For example.3. Alternative (Military) Loading Figure 4. The maximum positive moment in continuous spans is usually produced by using lane loading.3-B1 illustrates calculation of reactions and maximum moments in a simple span.1 Application of Loads Dead Loads Dead load is commonly applied to supports by assuming that it acts along each girder line. The standard H-S truck represents common vehicles.2-1.3.3-1 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Application of Loads Application of Loads Figure 4.3-2 August 1998 .2-2 4.3.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Application of Loads Application of Loading Figure 4.2-3 August 1998 4.3-3 .3.

• Multi-column bents.3 1. Taking advantage of the ductility or redundancy of the structure to absorb the energy released in an earthquake and keep the structure intact. Application of Loads 4.0 (MDL + MEQ/R) The Guide Specification lists values for “R” for various structural components and types of supports. less ductile than single column bents.8.3-4 August 1998 .0 ML ML + + 0. See Appendix 4. Higher values are used than for columns and crossbeams because below ground structural damage is difficult to spot and repair. • Wall-type piers. • Footings. It appears in the factored loading equation: Mu = 1. considered ductile and redundant. 2. 4. • Bearing type connections and stops. Two typical AASHTO load case equations are: MEQ MEQ = or = 1. The SEISAB computer program prints out solutions to the two equations as load cases 3 and 4.3. R = 0. the height of which usually consists of the girder depth and traffic barrier height. so that some economy may be realized. due to lack of ductility and redundancy and because they serve to prevent large displacements. often having R = 2 for transverse behavior and R = 3 longitudinally. Some common examples are: • Single column bents.4 Earthquake Loads Bibiography 1 through 4 contain several examples of applying earthquake loads to bridges. This section serves to amplify some analysis concepts. Plastic hinging moments are often less than those produced using an R of 1.3-B2-1 and 2 for illustrations of common piers and appropriate factors to apply to the members.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4.0 1. Concept 2 is handled through use of the “R” factor. considered ductile but nonredundant. Full utilization of the elastic capacity of a particular element or member. R = 5 both ways.3. Load factors applied in the Group VII combination are based on two concepts: 1.0 MT MT Where the moments are: MEQ ML MT = = = Earthquake Longitudinal Transverse These equations are intended to satisfy concept 1. R = 1 for seismic performance Categories C and D and R = Rcol for SPC B.3 Wind Loads Wind loads acting on the superstructure are based on the profile presented to the wind. R = 3 for both directions.

3-B3-1 through 3 for a general discussion of a seismic analysis. the following factors need to be considered: • The proximity of the site to known active faults and the historical record of activity. • The seismic response of the soil at the site.3-5 . • The dynamic response characteristics of the total structure.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Application of Loads In order to design structures to survive the forces and strains resulting from earthquake motion. See Appendix 4. 4-3:P:BDM4 August 1998 4.

Assuming a shear wave velocity value.4-B1 through 4 illustrate a procedure to determine soil spring constants for spread footings. adjust the springs. especially when determining loads to apply to a substructure. Foundation Modeling 4. August 1998 4. consult a Foundation or Geotechnical Engineer for an appropriate value. b. multiply the forces from the fully fixed model by 0. Realistic models will likely produce savings in material. Apply efficiency factors. Appendix 4. Analysis is an iterative process which converges to an acceptable design.E. If information is not available. piles. use the fully fixed forces for the trial. Then determine soil spring constants using the footing plan area and depth of embedment. see Section 4.2.4.85 for the initial trial design. If the support is not founded in rock. The spacing between pile centers is often about 4 times the pile diameter (D). use the following table to estimate values. which means that each pile in the group may deflect more than if it were acting alone. etc. as applicable to the type of support. 4.4.1 Procedure Summary Following is a workable procedure for analysis: a.4. c. if provided on the soils report. f. b. P-Y curves from the foundation report may be input to the LPILE1 computer program to derive the initial spring constants. g.1A) to an assumed footing and pile configuration. to quantify that difference.4. Determine a preliminary footing size. Redesign the footing. You may apply load factor column moments from groups other than Group VII and column plastic hinging moments for a first trial footing configuration. If pile support is being used.4 Foundation Modeling Proper foundation modeling for earthquake loads is necessary because misinterpreted AASHTO Specifications can lead to a wide range of member sizes. pile size.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4. e. Rerun the dynamic model with springs included. Assume the foundation as fixed (unless you know otherwise).4.3. until tolerable convergence is attained. Compare loads and deflections using the same range used to determine the springs.2 Spread Footings a.4. d.. and arrangement. 4. Determine foundation springs as outlined in this section and Section 4.4-1 . Use SEISAB or GTSTRUDL to perform a dynamic analysis to determine initial loading.3 Pile Foundations A. Otherwise. Lateral Spring Input from P-Y Curves Spring constants that represent pile supports may be obtained using a procedure which begins by applying moments (as described in Section 4.

4. To obtain generated curves.e..5) = 31. multiply the P-Y values from the soils report by the efficiency factor. 4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling Efficiency Factor Table 4.4. Read across from the reduced value to obtain the adjusted friction angle (31°). i. the following factors apply: Contact the Olympia Service Center Materials Lab to verify any assumptions. Read across to the normalized resistance (61).3-1. 5. The LPILE1 computer program will generate P-Y curves. 3. For a typical soil.4-2 August 1998 . Input the φ value to LPILE1. and a soil shear strength (C) which are the values taken from the soils report multiplied by the efficiency factor. 61 (0. input a modulus of subgrade reaction (K). Begin at the coordinate of the natural friction angle (36°). The friction angle could be adjusted for efficiency and input to LPILE1 by following these steps: 1.4. To figure P-Y curves for input. the relationship between its normalized resistance value and friction angle is defined by the curve in Figure 4. 2. or the user can input them.3-1 For driven piles. Multiply the resistance by the efficiency reduction factor.

4-3 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling Friction Angle (φ) PS = Ka (tan8B-1) + Ko tan φ tan 4B bγx PS b g X N B Ka Ko = = = = = = = = Soil Resistance on Pile Element Pile Width Soil Unit Weight Depth to Pile Element Step in Example 45° + φ/2 tan2(45° – φ/2) 1 – Sin φ Figure 4.4.3-1 August 1998 4.

3-2(A). Lateral Spring Input to Dynamic Analysis Lateral spring constants can be generated for input to SEISAB (or GTSTRUDL) by using LPILE1 and two types of loading. Vary axial loads. SEISAB results). A moment (M) is also induced. The spring constants are defined as slopes of the curves. Apply a lateral load (F) to the model of a pile.3-2(A). and restrain its top against rotation. Figure 4.4. restraining the pile top against translation.3-2(B).BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading B. F and M may be plotted against ∆ to produce two curves. A rapid way to approximate the slope of any curve is to select a point at half of the ultimate lateral force or moment capacity of the pile.4. Calculate the pile top rotation (φ) from the LPILE1 output by dividing the deflection at the bottom of the top increment (∆1) by the increment length (H1). Case 2 — Applied Moment — See Figure 4.e. Note that the off-diagonal terms must be equal and opposite in sign.. Make enough LPILE1 runs to define a linear range along the lateral force versus a deflection curve. Case 1 — Applied Lateral Load — See Figure 4. Include negative axial loads to represent anticipated tension due to uplift effects. and they are calculated using the equations in Figure 4.4. The load produces a deflected shape with the top deflection being ∆.4. and their calculation and SEISAB nomenclature are given by the equations in Figure 4.4. Foundation Modeling 4.3-2(B). Apply a moment (M) to the pile model.4-4 August 1998 . to bracket the values expected from the dynamic analysis (i.3-3 contains examples of spring calculation from LPILE1 output. The spring constants are defined as slopes of the curves.

4-5 .3-2B August 1998 4.4.3-2A Figure 4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling Figure 4.4.

04″ = H f = Tan–1 H = Tan–1 1 = = = = Moment Lbs-In 4 0.04 or = 0.4-6 August 1998 .67″ KF1F1 = KF3F3 = K 25K = 112 (2.00 Deflection In ********** 0.391D+07 in-lbs = 391 K-in applied 0.04 Deflection In ********** 0.189D+05 -0.383D+07 0.000D+00 -0.392D+11 0.250D+05 =25K 0.67in / 12 in / ft ) ft Foundation Modeling = = = = Moment Lbs-In 2 0.48426° 28.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Loading Number 1 Boundary condition code Lateral load at the pile head Slope at the pile head Axial load at the pile head X In ***** 0.392D+11 ∆1 0.00 28.392D+11 (A) Loading Number 1 Boundary condition code Deflection at the pile head Moment at the pile head Axial load at the pile head X In ***** 0.186D+05 0.103D+06 lbs Shear Lbs Soil Reaction Lbs/In Total Stress Lbs/In**2 Flexural Rigidity Lbs-In**2 ********** ********** ********** 0.000D+00 in/in 0.267D+01 =2.270D+05 0.4.281D+05 0.250D+05 lbs = 25 K applied 0.247D+05 0.208D+02 ********** ********** 0.340D+07 0.000D+00 0.758D+05 lbs Shear Lbs Soil Reaction Lbs/In Total Stress Lbs/In**2 Flexural Rigidity Lbs-In**2 ********** ********** ********** -0.3-3 4.391D+07 0.237″ = ∆1 28.000D+00 in 0.237D+00 0.237 = 0.000D+00 ********** ********** 0.00845 rad (B) Sample LPILE1 Output Figure 4.

Kv (or KF2F2) can be calculated from the following equations: Point bearing pile: Kv = where. A E L = = = Cross sectional area Young’s modulus Length AE L Foundation Modeling Pile having constant skin friction: Kv = 2AE L Pile linearly varying skin friction: Kv = 3AE L Pile partially embedded in the soil: AE 1 − F  L Kv =  2 AE 1 − 2 F  L Kv =  3 1. 2. August 1998 4.4-7 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading C. Vertical Springs Vertical spring constants.

to converge on an acceptable pile configuration. Note that the two have opposite signs. GPILE can be used in conjunction with the plastic hinging moments. which forms a {6 × 6} matrix as shown below: F1 F1 F2 F3 M1 M2 M3 KF1F1 F2 0 KF2F2 F3 0 0 KF3F3 M1 0 0 -KF3M1 KM1M1 M2 0 0 0 0 KM2M2 M3 KF1M3 0 0 0 0 KM3M3 "Symmetrical" KF1M3 is cross-coupling term P/φ. -KF3M1 is cross-coupling term M/d. GPILE Computer Program If a large number of piles is required per footing. The torsional resistance is given by the following equation: M/φ where.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling Torsional (M/φ) spring constants for individual piles are based on the strength of the pile only. E. The program also computes individual pile loads and deflections from a set of input loads. G J L = = = 0. The output will contain a {6 × 6} stiffness matrix for the pile group which can be used to model the foundation in SEISAB. transmitted from the column. GPILE input includes pile configuration and spring constants.4 E Torsional Moment of Inertia length of pile = T/φ = JG/L D.4-8 August 1998 . Stiffness Matrix Eight individual pile stiffness terms should be put into Seisab. 4-4:P:BDM4 4. individual springs can be used in the GPILE computer program. to reduce Seisab input/output.

Documentation of Computer Program LPILE1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4. Engineering Computer Corporation. AASHTO. Washington State Department of Transportation. 8. 7. February 1989. Imbsen & Associates. Manual on Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations. Pile Foundation Modeling for Bridge Dynamic Response Analysis. Seismic Design and Retrofit Manual for Highway Bridges. Reese. Washington State Department of Transportation. 1996. FHWA-86/103. 1983. Bridge Computer Programs Manual. 5. report for Ensoft. unpublished paper available in WSDOT Bridge and Structures Design. Seattle Access. 6.. 9. May 1987.. Bibliography 10. Division 1-A Seismic Design. 4-99:P:BDM4 August 1998 4. Hart Crowser. 3. GPILE and DISTBM. DOT-FH-11-9426. Seismic Design of Highway Bridges Training Course Participant Workbook. June 1986. Volume 111. Standard Specifications for Design of Highway Bridges. R. L. Subsurface Explorations and Design Phase Geotechnical Engineering Study. October 1984 and August 1985. Chen. December 1983. The University of Texas at Austin. 1996. April 1987. R. Imbsen. Mapping Project. 4. J-712-50.99 Bibliography 1. Workshop Manual. FHWA/RD-83/007 Seismic Retrofitting Guidelines for Highway Bridges. 1996. January 1981. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. SEISAB-I. Inc. Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. FHWA Workshop Manual. FHWA. Federal Highway Administration. 11. Bridge Design Practice. 12. A. Vol. FHWA-IP-87-6. Revision 1..99-1 . 14. 1985. Lymon C. FHWA-DD-66-1. USGS National Seismic Hazards. SR 90. Seismic Design of Highway Bridges.. 15. 2. AASHTO. California Department of Transportation. II: Example problems and Sensitivity Studies. September 1986. 13.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart August 1998 4.4-A1-1 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart 4.4-A1-2 August 1998 .

4-A1-3 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart August 1998 4.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart 4.4-A1-4 August 1998 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart August 1998 4.4-A1-5 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart 4.4-A1-6 August 1998 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart August 1998 4.4-A1-7 .

4-A1-8 August 1998 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart 4.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart August 1998 4.4-A1-9 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart 4.4-A1-10 August 1998 .

4-A2 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Peak Ground Acceleration Map August 1998 4.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Basic Truck Loading Basic Truck Loading HS25 August 1998 4.3-B1 .

3-B2-1 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Common Response Modification Factors August 1998 4.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Common Response Modification Factors 4.3-B2-2 August 1998 .

3-B3-2 was used to load the bridge. divided by R = 5. Since the column reinforcement may yield when the 0.50 g. see Figure 4. CS. An acceleration coefficient of 0.5 in this case) The period of vibration of the bridge. The results which SEISAB calculated for the first 6 modes of oscillation appear in Appendix 4. The 0.50 g applied. Design shears would be the lesser of the values produced by 0.25 g and the bridge receives about 0.50 g and the shears associated with plastic hinging moments.3-B3-3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Seismic Analysis Example A recent analysis of a bridge on I-90 in the Mercer Slough area near Bellevue provides the following example: The deep soft soil at the site is classified as “Type III” from the AASHTO Specifications. the ground sends 0. P:DP/BDM4 August 1998 4.5-1. The acceleration spectrum shown in Appendix 4. the energy remaining will be redistributed to the remainder of the bridge.22AS /3 T where: A S T = = = The acceleration coefficient The soil profile coefficient (1. In this case. was selected as appropriate. the elastic seismic response coefficient. the time it takes for one cycle of oscillation In an undamped.1 g level is reached. single degree of freedom system.3-B3-1 . is the percentage of a gravity force which is applied to the bridge for a particular mode. The main column reinforcement must be adequately confined by ties or spirals to allow redistribution to occur while maintaining structural integrity. The CS values in the table relate directly to the response periods of the various modes as solutions to the equation: CS = 1.25. The participation factors indicate that modes 1 and 3 contribute most heavily to the design forces. translates to 0.1 g when figuring design moments for a multiple column bent.1. the natural period is defined as: T= π where: M K = = The mass involved The spring constant M K See Bibliography 1 and 7 for further comments and procedures.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Seismic Analysis Example Example Seismic Analysis 4.3-B3-2 August 1998 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Seismic Analysis Example Example Seismic Analysis (Continued) August 1998 4.3-B3-3 .

0 2.18 ßZ = 2.44 10.13 × 8385 18 × 15 = = 438.20 15 120 lb/ft 3 (1.4-B1-1 . L/W = 1. 500 ft/sec) 2 1.14 2.0 2.82 KZ = β Z G LW K 2.9.0 2.33 = µ • Soil density – 120 pcf = σ • VS = shear wave velocity = 1.13 3.5 2.0 2.65 August 1998 4.000 1− µ ft 1 − 0.0 2. ßZ .2 ft/sec 2 1000 Lb/ K ( ) Vertical Stiffness L/W.27′ π H 6 ro = 9.33 Embedment Factor ro = KW =.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Spring Constants Evaluation Example Given Data • Cohesionless soil – Poisson’s ratio = 0.12 18 = 1.500 ft/sec Solution: Shear Modulus G= °Vs2 = 32.27 = 0.26 5.

33) 18 × 15 = 185.) KX = ßX (1 – µ) = 2.36 × 438.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Spring Constants Evaluation Example Vertical Stiffness — Modified KZH = 1. Horizontal Stiffness — Modified KXH = 1.000 K/ft Assuming that the horizontal embedment effect is the same as the vertical.85 × 105 1.000 kips/ft = KFY Horizontal Stiffness L = 1.4-B1-2 August 1998 .0 (1 – 0.20 < 5 W ßx = 2.000 = 596.5 × 105 K/ft = KFX = KFZ 4.0 G LW 8385 (See page 6-37 of Bilbliography 2 for explanation.36 = 2.36 KZ = 1.

d = 1.36 (3.5 0.0 0.5 2.52 × 8 × 8385 × 7. ßψ.8 6.4 × 107) = 3.2.33 K − ft rad Kψ H = 1.7 × 107 3 3 rad K − ft = KMY rad Kθ H = 1.45 2 d = 9′ 0.2 × 107) = 4.52 + 9 2 ) 6π 16 16 K − ft Gre3 = × 8385 × 9.52 1 − 0.83 d ßψ = 0.0 × 107 Appendix 4.33 K − ft = KMZ rad KH = 1.52 0.5 × 9(7.5 × 9 2 = 3.4-B1-4 depicts the footing from the example in spring matrix form.36 (3.0 0.36 (2.4-B1-3 .0 1.3 × 107 Torsional Stiffness rc = Kθ = 4 16cd(c 2 + d 2 ) 6π =4 16 × 7.2 0.0 0.4 1.4 × 107 K − ft rad Kψ = ßψ (8G)dc 2 1− µ = 0.2 × 107 rad 1 − 0.0 0. The nomenclature is general.48 × 8 × 8385 × 9 × 7.5′ ßψ = 0.2d contains a similar matrix using SEISAB nomenclature).6 4.20 c Spring Constants Evaluation Example c = 7. August 1998 4.7 × 107) = 5.48 = 2. and is used for GTSTRUDL input (GTSTRUDL 4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Rocking Stiffness Long Direction R= R.3 × 107 Short Direction R= c = 0.95 8.1 Kψ = ßψ (8G cd ) 1− µ = K − ft 0.423 = 3.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Spring Constants Evaluation Example Spring Matrix 4.4-B1-4 August 1998 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforcing Steel Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1 1 1 1 3 3 4 4 7 7 11 13 13 13 14 14 16 16 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strength of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Contents Page 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Reinforced Concrete Superstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Web Reinforcement . . . . Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grout . . . . . . . . Construction Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-i . . . . . . . . . Fabrication Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strut-and-Tie Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bottom Slab Reinforcement . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percentage Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . General . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Geometry . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete and Grout . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . .0 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . B. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strut-and-Tie Method . . . . . . . . . Girder Spacing and Basic Geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforcement . . . . Serviceability . . . . Classes of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . Working Stress Design Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 1 1 1 2 2 7 7 7 7 8 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crossbeam . . . . . . . . . . Deflection . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intermediate Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 9 9 10 10 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Shear and Torsion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Top Slab Reinforcement . Design Philosophy . . . E. .3. . . . . . . . Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges . . . . Load Distribution . . . . . . . . Bends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . Dead Load Deflection and Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforcing Steel Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . ACI Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . Girder Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 July 2000 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear and Torsion. . . . . . . . . . . Design Methods . . . . Strength Design Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99-1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utility Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Widenings . . . . . Removing Portions of the Existing Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 11 19 20 20 21 5. . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hanger Tension Design . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Widening Falsework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 17 17 19 19 19 19 19 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . B. . . . . . . . Flexural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability of Widening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review of Existing Structures . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . Final Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effective Bridge Temperature and Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seismic Design Criteria for Bridge Widenings . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-ii July 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local Failure Modes . . . . . . . . . . . .7 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis and Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . Bearing Strength Check . . Expansion Joints . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Existing Bridge Widenings . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . Drain Holes . . . . . . . Confined Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 5. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Friction Design . . .5 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attachment of Widening to Existing Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Possible Future Widening for Current Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . .8 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . References . . . Differential Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1 1 4 5 6 7 8 5. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Original Contract Plans and Special Provisions . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Contents Page 5.6 Thermal Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . A. . . . . . Original Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. Punching Shear Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. Access Hole and Air Vent Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hinges . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . . . Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-A1 ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 3.2-B3 Strut-and-Tie Design 5.000 psi fy = 60.000 psi fy = 60.3-A7 Slab Design — Traffic Barrier Load Appendix B Design Examples 5. Bar Spacing 5.1-A7 Minimum Development Length and Minimum Lap Splices of Deformed Bars in Compression 5.2-A3 ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 5.1-A1 Reinforcing Bar Properties 5.2-B1 Slab Design 5.3-A4 Adjusted Negative Moment Case II (Design for M @ 1/4 Point) 5.3-A1 Positive Moment Reinforcement 5.3-A3 Adjusted Negative Moment Case I (Design for M @ Face of Effective Support) 5.1-A4 Tension Development Length of Straight Deformed Bars 5.000 psi 5.2-B2 Slab Design for Prestressed Girders 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Appendix A Design Aids 5. Number of Bars 5.3-A2 Negative Moment Reinforcement 5.000 psi 5.1-A5 Tension Development Length of Standard 90° and 180° Hooks 5.000 psi fy = 60.1-A3 Bar Area vs.3-A5 Load Factor Slab Design fc′ = 4.000 psi 5.000 psi 5.3-A6 Load Factor Slab Design fc′ = 5.000 psi 5.1-A6 Tension Lap Splice Lengths of Grade 60 Uncoated Bars 5.2-A2 ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 4.2-B4 Working Stress Design Contents P65:DP/BDM5 July 2000 5.0-iii .1-A2 Bar Area vs.

1. 5. 2. arches. approach slabs. General 5. and structurally sound. The service life of some of these early bridges can be extended by widening their decks to accommodate increased traffic demand or to improve safety.1 Concrete and Grout A.0 5. box culverts. wing walls. Many of the bridges built before 1960 are functional. curtain walls. B. durable. CLASS 4000D Used in bridge concrete decks. Standard specifications require two coats of curing compound and a continuous wet cure for 14 days. footings.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5. This chapter addresses special requirements for widenings. Use of CLASS 5000 or higher requires approval of the Bridge Design Engineer. Place documentation in job file. The 28-day compressive design strengths (fc′) in pounds per square inch (psi) are: July 2000 5. CLASS 3000 Used in large sections with light to nominal reinforcement. CLASS 4000P Used for cast-in-place pile and shaft. Classes of Concrete 1. gutters. 4.1-1 . slab and T-beams. curbs. Strength of Concrete 1. CLASS 5000 or Higher Used in CIP post-tensioned concrete box girder construction or in other special structural applications situations. sidewalks. CLASS 4000W Used underwater in seals. The design aids in this chapter can also be utilized in the design of nonprestressed reinforcement in prestressed structural elements and reinforced concrete substructures. and nonstructural concrete guardrail anchors. mass pours. 3. slabs for all types of steel bridges. retaining walls. luminaire bases.1 Reinforced Concrete Superstructures General Prior to precast pretensioned and post-tensioned concrete members introduced in the early 1960s. Examples of reinforced concrete superstructures are: flat slabs. 6. CLASS 4000 Used in traffic and pedestrian barriers. the Olympia Service Center. and crossbeams. and box girders. all short and medium span bridges were built as cast-in-place (CIP) reinforced concrete superstructures. and Materials Lab. columns.

1-1. placed. Temperature affects the rate at which the chemical reaction between cement and water takes place. If the concrete has been cured under continuous moist curing at an average temperature. Section 6-02. Loss of moisture can seriously impair the concrete strength. For instance. 4000D 4000W 5000 6000 4000P f c′ 2300 3000 4000 2400* 5000** 6000 3400*** General *40 percent reduction from CLASS 4000. If test strength is above or below that shown in Table 5. steel reinforcement shall be used.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Class COMMERCIAL 3000 4000. Table 5. and cured as recommended by the manufacturer. c. 2.1-1 is intended to supply this information. It is used under steel base plates for both bridge bearings and luminaire or sign bridge bases. and bulb-tees. the time it takes to reach the design strength can be determined as follows: Let x = relative strength to determine the age at which the concrete will reach the design strength b. can be assumed to be equal to or greater than that of the adjacent concrete. 5. if the relative strength at 10 days is 64 percent instead of the minimum 70 percent shown in Table 5. Occasionally. the design strength should be reached in 40 days. if properly cured. For design purposes. construction problems will arise which require a knowledge of the relative strengths of concrete at various ages. Grout Grout is usually a prepackaged cement based grout or nonshrink grout that is mixed.1-1 shows the approximate values of the minimum compressive strengths of different classes of concrete at various ages. concrete suppliers do not have the quality control rocedures and expertise to Supply Control Class 5000. Outside this 30-mile radius. tri-beams. For example.1-2 July 2000 . Curing conditions of the concrete (especially in the first 24 hours) have a very important influence on the strength development of concrete at all ages. d. x = 110 70 64 From Table 5. ***15 percent reduction from CLASS 4000 for all drilled shafts.1-1.3(17)J of the Standard Specifications discusses the time at which falsework and forms can be removed to various percentages of the concrete design strength. the age at which the design strength will be reached can be determined by direct proportion. it is necessary to determine the strength of concrete at various stages of construction. Relative Compressive Concrete Strength a.1-1. the strength of the grout. C. Nonshrink grout is used in keyways between precast prestressed deck slabs. **Concrete Class 5000 is available within a 30-mile radius of Seattle. During design or construction of a bridge. Should the grout pad thickness exceed 4 inches. Spokane. it can be assumed that these values have been developed. Table 5. x 100 = Therefore. and Vancouver.

and #11 bars have diameters that provide areas equal to 1″ x 1″ square bars.1-A3 in Appendix A. show the sizes. B. Tables 5. main bars are always deformed. Grade 60 (ASTM A-615 Grade 60) with a 60. Reinforcing bars conform to either the requirements of AASHTO M31.1.1-3 . Plain bars are used for spirals and ties. July 2000 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures General The following chart shows approximate relative strength of concrete and compressive strength of different classes of concrete at various ages based on continuous moist curing at an average temperature. 11/8″ x 11/8″ square bars and 11/4″ x 11/4″ square bars respectively. the #14 and #18 bars correspond to 11/2″ x 11/2″ and 2″ x 2″ square bars.1-A1 through 5. Relative and Compressive Strength of Concrete Table 5. The #9.2 Reinforcement A.000 psi yield strength or in the case of bars in portions of concrete members where plastic hanging can occur during an earthquake or which are to be spliced by welding. In Washington State. #10.1-1 Relative Age Strength (Days) (%) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 35 43 50 55 59 63 67 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 Class 5000 (psi) 1750 2150 2500 2750 2950 3150 3350 3500 3650 3750 3850 3950 4050 4150 4250 4350 4450 Class 4000 (psi) 1400 1720 2000 2200 2360 2520 2680 2800 2920 3000 3080 3160 3240 3320 3400 3480 3560 Class 3000 (psi) 1050 1290 1500 1650 1770 1890 2010 2100 2190 2250 2310 2370 2430 2490 2550 2610 2670 Relative Age Strength (Days) (%) 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 91 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 102 110 115 120 125 129 131 Class 5000 (psi) 4550 4650 4700 4750 4800 4850 4900 4950 5000 5100 5500 5750 6000 6250 6450 6550 Class 4000 (psi) 3640 3720 3760 3800 3840 3880 3920 3960 4000 4080 4400 4600 4800 5000 5160 5240 Class 3000 (psi) 2730 2790 2820 2850 2880 2910 2940 2970 3000 3060 3300 3450 3600 3750 3870 3930 5. number. and various properties of the types of bars used in Washington State. For bars up to and including #8.1. Sizes Reinforcing bars are referred to in the contract plans and specifications by number and vary in size from #3 to #18. respectively. Grades Steel reinforcing bars are manufactured as plain or deformed bars (which have ribbed projections that grip the concrete in order to provide better bond between steel and concrete). Similarly. ASTM A 706 Specifications for Low-Alloy Steel deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. the number of the bar coincides with the bar diameter in eighths of an inch.

Appendix A. lap splices. ld. The values shown in Table 5. End hooks on compression bars are not effective for development length purposes.2-1 show the minimum embedment lengths necessary to provide 2 inches of cover on the tails of 90 and 180 degree end hooks. Standard End Hook Development Length.000 psi. ldh. show the tension development length for both uncoated and epoxy coated Grade 60 bars for normal weight concrete with specified strengths of 3. in Tension Standard end hooks. Development of bars in tension involves calculating the basic development length. show the tension development lengths for normal weight concrete with specified strengths of 3. Lap splicing of reinforcing bars is the most common method.2-1 and 5.1-A4 and 5. type of aggregate. The development length. 1. top bar effect. mechanical splices. in Compression The basic development lengths for deformed bars in compression are shown in Table 5.1. 3. ldb.1-A5 in Appendix A. 2. cover.1-4 July 2000 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures C.1-A7. enclosing transverse reinforcement. ld. in Tension Development length or anchorage of reinforcement is required on both sides of a point of maximum stress at any section of a reinforced concrete member. Development Length. Splices Three methods are used to splice reinforcing bars. Figures 5. Epoxy coating does not affect the tension development lengths. These values may be modified for ratio of required area vs. B. D.1. Lap Splices — Tension Many of the same factors which affect development length affect splices.1. for either tension or compression bars. General 5. However.2-2 and Table 5. Lap splices are not permitted for bars larger than #11. Consequently. and C.000 to 6.000 psi. There are three classes of tension lap splices: Class A. which is modified by factors to reflect bar spacing. Tables 5. Development Length. the minimum development length is 1 foot 0 inches (office practice). See Section 8. and ratio of required area to provided area of reinforcement to be developed. ld (including all applicable modification factors) must not be less than 12 inches. ld. Appendix A. tension lap splices are a function of the bar’s development length. and welded splices. are used to develop bars in tension where space limitations restrict the use of straight bars. provided area of reinforcement. Designers are encouraged to splice bars at points of minimum stress and to stagger lap splices along the length of the bars. utilizing 90 and 180 degree end hooks. ldh.1-1A5. No lap splices. epoxy coating.000 to 6. shall be less than 2 feet 0 inches (office practice).3(24)D Standard Specifications for additional splice requirements.32 of the Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and Section 6-02. of standard 90 and 180 degree end hooks. Development 1. or for bars enclosed in a 1/4 inch diameter spiral at 4 inch maximum pitch. The Contract Plans should clearly show the locations and lengths of lap splice.

1.1-5 .2-1 Special Confinement for 180° and 90° End Hooks Figure 5.1.2-2 July 2000 5.1.2-1 #3 6″ #4 7″ #5 9″ #6 10″ #7 1′-0″ #8 1′-2″ #9 1′-3″ #10 1′-5″ #11 1′-7″ #14 2′-10″ #18 3′-7″ General Standard 180° and 90° End Hooks Figure 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Minimum Embedment Lengths to Provide 2-inch Cover to Tail of Standard 180° End Hooks Table 5.

1-6 July 2000 .2-2 General 5.1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Recommended End Hooks Table 5.

2-3 July 2000 5.1-7 .1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures General Figure 5.

2-4 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures General (a) (b) (c) Figure 5.1-8 July 2000 .1.

000 psi. Mechanical Splices A second method of splicing is by mechanical splices.3 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and Section 8. shows tension lap splices for both uncoated and epoxy coated Grade 60 bars for normal weight concrete with specified strengths of 3. Note that the maximum spacing of the transverse reinforcement (i. see Section 8. Fabrication Lengths Reinforcing bars are normally stocked in lengths of 60 feet. On modifications to existing structures. column ties) over the length of the splice shall not exceed the smaller of 4 inches or 1/4 of the minimum column plan dimension. Section 8.1-A7 (right-hand column) in Appendix A. Note that when two bars of different diameters are lap spliced.4.2 and 8. which are proprietary splicing mechanisms.3(24)F of the Standard Specifications. Note that the tail lengths are greater for the 135° seismic tie hook than for the regular or nonseismic 135° tie hook.1A6 in Appendix A.3 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. 4.4..000 to 6. the lap splices for longitudinal column bars are permitted only within the center half of the column height and shall not be less than the lap splices given in Table 5. the compression lap splices should be increased by one third. For field bending requirements.4.32. For Seismic Performance Categories C and D.32. 3. see Section 6-02.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures General Table 5. If the concrete strength is less than 3. Bends For standard hooks and bend radii.1(F) of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges.3(24)E of the Standard Specifications describes the requirements for welding reinforcing steel.1-9 .3(24)A of the Standard Specifications. 2. Sections 8.1-15.000 psi.1-A6 in Appendix A. Welded Splices Welding of reinforcing bars is the third acceptable method of splicing reinforcing bars.1(F) of the Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges for additional welded splice requirements. are for concrete strengths greater than 3. Lap Splices — Compression The compression lap splices shown in Table 5.3 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. E. welding of reinforcing bars may not be possible because of the non-weldability of some steels.32.000 psi. The requirements for mechanical splices are found in Section 6-02. See Sections 8.1(F) of the Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. or 60 bar diameters whichever is greater. the length of the lap splice shall be the larger of the lap splice for the smaller bar or the development length of the larger bar.32.32. see Table 5. For additional requirements. They can also be fabricated in longer lengths. Section 6-02. July 2000 5.e. and Section 8.2 and 8. F.

Other Minimum Reinforcement Requirements For minimum shear reinforcement requirements. Compression For columns.04 of the gross area. see Section 8. H. additional details may be required in the contract plans showing how to handle the interference and placement problems. #14. ASTM A 706 reinforcing should be pecified to improve durability. a reduced effective area may be used.5 √fc′ .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures The maximum overall bar lengths to be specified on the plans are: Bar Size #3 #4. AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. Sometimes it may be necessary to make a large scale drawing of reinforcement to look for interference and placement problems. This requirement may be waived if the area of reinforcement provided is at least one-third greater than that required by analysis. see Section 8. the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement should not exceed 0. 5. the overall lengths of bar size #3 has been limited to 30 feet and bar sizes #4 and #5 to 40 feet. weight.4. 3. Ag. If a ratio greater than 0. of the section. For column reinforcing. #9.18. For additional minimum reinforcement required. to ensure constructibility and placement of concrete. #10 #11. Flexure The reinforcement provided at any section should be adequate to develop a moment at least 1. 2.1-10 July 2000 . Preferably. Placement Placement of reinforcing bars can be a problem during construction.20. If interference is expected. the designer should ensure that reinforcing bars can be placed. 1. Reinforcing bars are more than just lines on the drawing. If for architectural purposes the cross section is larger than that required by the loading.08 nor be less than 0.2 times the cracking moment calculated on the basis of the modulus of rupture for normal weight concrete. Percentage Requirements There are several AASHTO requirements to ensure that minimum reinforcement is provided in reinforced concrete members. #7 #8. the area of longitudinal reinforcement shall not exceed 0. AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.1(D).19 and for minimum temperature and shrinkage reinforcement. Because of placement considerations.17. Additional lateral reinforcement requirements are given in Section 8. The modulus of rupture for normal weight concrete is 7. See Table 5.1-A1 in Appendix A. specify lengths 60 feet and less for bar sizes #8 through #18. and for plastic hinge zones. The reduced effective area shall not be less than that which would require 1percent of the longitudinal area to carry the loading. the designer should verify that concrete can be placed.04 is used. #5 #6. #18 Maximum Length 30′-0″ 40′-0″ 60′-0″ 60′-0″ 60′-0″ General Where possible. To use longer lengths. the designer should make sure that the bars can be placed and transported by truck. G. they have size. AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. see Section 8. and volume. see Section 8.01 of the gross area. AASHTO Standard Specifications for the Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. Ag. In confined areas.

From Eq (7) or Tables 5.124 h2 √ f c′ ) where h = slab thickness (6) From AASHTO 8. The structural members are then proportioned to provide the design ultimate strength. From Eq (6) determine As min.1 Design Methods Strength Design Method A.3725 Mu fc′ (b) ) where Mu = kips – in fc′ = ksi (5) Similarly. were prepared based on Eq (4) to quickly determine the amount of reinforcing steel required. An alternate approach is to solve directly for As required from: As required = 0. From Eq (5) or Tables 5. As min can be found from: As min = 0. Design Philosophy In the strength design method or ultimate strength method. July 2000 5.2-A3 in Appendix A. b.59 (ρ) fy/fc′] Tables 5. -A2.85 fc′ (b) fy ( √ d – fc ′ fy d2 – 0.1 and 8.85 if fc′ ≤ 4 ksi and β1 = 0. B.6375 β1 (b) (d) where ( 87 87 + fy ) (7) β1 = 0.2-A1. which are excellent sources [1. if a As(fy)/(0. and -A3. As max can be found from: As max = 0.3. Several textbooks listed in the bibliography.2.16.2.3. 2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5. determine As max. As required.65 Tension reinforcement should be designed in the following order: 1.2Mcr for Mu. and d are known.2.2.2-A3 in Appendix A. the service loads are increased by load factors to obtain the ultimate design load. Flexure The basic strength design requirement can be expressed as follows: Design Strength ≥ Required Strength or φ Mn ≥ Mu (1) Design Methods For design purposes.2-1 .1.85)(fc′)(b) and ρ = As/(b)(d) Equation (2) can be expressed as: Mu/φ (b) (d)2 = ρ (fy) [1 – 0.16. substituting 1.2-A1 through 5. fy. fc′.85 – 0. determine As required. the area of reinforcement for a singly reinforced beam or slab can be determined by letting: Mu = φ Mn = φ [As (fy) (d – a/2)] However.2 5.3]. but not less than 0.2-3 in Appendix 5.2-1 through 5. when Mu.05 (fc′ – 4) if fc′ > 4 ksi.85 fc′ (b) fy (4) (2) (3) ( √ d – d2 – 31. 3.2-A1 through 5.

an interface between dissimilar materials. If As required > As max.2-B1 and 5. The required widths of compression struts and tension ties shall be considered in determining the geometry of the truss. Design Methods See Appendix 5.33 As required.1-1 for a deep beam.9 Tension 5.33 As required.6]. such as: an existing or potential crack. Structural Modeling The structure and a component or region. Pn. If 1.16.16.6. 2.7 Compression ϕ = 0. use As ≥ 1. Always use As ≤ As max.33 As required < As min. If As max > As required > As min. but is discussed in Section 11. Pu′ = ϕ Pn where: Pn = nominal resistance of strut or tie (KIP) ϕ = 0. C. use As ≥ As required. increase the member’s dimensions.of struts and ties shall be taken as that of axially loaded components. ACI 318-89 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary.4) are applied to transfer shear across a plane.2-B2 for design examples. The truss model does not necessarily need to conform to structural stability as a real truss would. or at a construction joint between two sections of concrete placed at different times. The strut-and-tie model should be considered for the design of deep footings and pile caps or other situations in which the distance between the centers of applied load and supporting reaction is less than twice the member thickness. Shear The AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges addresses shear design of members in Section 8. If As required < As min < 1. The shear design for deep beams is not addressed in the AASHTO Standard Specifications. Strut-and-Tie Model 1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 4.5. Shear friction provisions (Section 8. use As ≥ As min. may be modeled as an assembly of steel tension ties and concrete compressive struts interconnected at nodes to form a truss capable of carrying all the applied loads to the supports as shown in Figure 5. thereof.2-2 July 2000 . The factored resistance. General Strut-and-tie models may be used to determine internal force effects near supports and the points of application of concentrated loads [16].6.8. D.2. and ACI-ASCE Committee 343 Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures [4.

Limiting Compressive Stress in Strut The limiting compressive stress.2. shall be taken as: fcu = for which: ε1 = εs + (εs + 0. and 5.1-2(d). as shown in Figures 5. c. 5.1-2(b). Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut The value of Acs shall be determined by considering both the available concrete area and the anchorage conditions at the ends of the strut.2.1-2(a). Strength of Unreinforced Strut The nominal resistance of an unreinforced compressive strut shall be taken as: Pn = fcuAcs where: Pn = nominal resistance of a compressive strut (kips) fcu = limiting compressive stress (ksi) Acs = effective cross-sectional area of strut (in2) b.2. the nominal resistance of the strut shall be taken as: Pn = fcu Acs + fy Ass where: Ass = area of reinforcement in the strut (in2) fc ′ 0. as shown in Figure 5. fcu. When a strut is anchored by reinforcement.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 3.8 fc′ Design Methods July 2000 5. the effective concrete area may be considered to extend a distance of up to six bar diameters from the anchored bar.1-2. Reinforced Strut If the compressive strut contains reinforcement that is parallel to the strut and detailed to develop its yield stress in compression as shown in Figure 5. Proportioning of Compressive Struts a.2-3 .1-2(c).2.2.002) cot2 αs where: as = the smallest angle between the compressive strut and adjoining tension ties (DEG) εs = the tensile strain in the concrete in the direction of the tension tie (in/in) fc′ = specified compressive strength (ksi) d.8 + 170ε1 ≤ 0.

2.1-1 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Design Methods Strut-and-Tie Model for Deep Beam Figure 5.2-4 July 2000 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Design Methods Influence of Anchorage Conditions on Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut Figure 5.1-2 July 2000 5.2.2-5 .

The spacing of the bars in these grids shall not exceed 12.003 in each direction. or mechanical anchorages. except for slabs and footings. hooks. Strength of Tie Tension tie reinforcement shall be anchored to the nodal zones by specified embedment lengths. Proportioning of Tension Ties a. 5. located within the tension tie.0 inches. = = = = total area of longitudinal mild steel reinforcement in the tie (IN2) area of prestressing steel (IN2) yield strength of mild steel longitudinal reinforcement (KSI) stress in prestressing steel due to prestress after losses (KSI) Design Methods Anchorage of Tie The tension tie reinforcement shall be anchored to transfer the tension force therein to the node regions of the truss in accordance with the requirements for development of reinforcement as specified in Article 5. The tension force shall be developed at the inner face of the nodal zone.2-6 July 2000 . The nominal resistance of a tension tie in KIP shall be taken as: Pn = fy Ast + Aps [fpe + fy] where: Ast Aps fy fpe b.75 ϕ fc′ • For node regions anchoring tension ties in more than one direction: 0. 6. 5.2C. the node regions shall be designed to comply with the stress and anchorage limits. the concrete compressive stress in the node regions of the strut shall not exceed: • For node regions bounded by compressive struts and bearing areas: 0. In addition to satisfying strength criteria for compression struts and tension ties.7 resistance factor for bearing on concrete The tension tie reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed over an effective area of concrete at least equal to the tension tie force divided by the stress limits specified herein. shall contain an orthogonal grid of reinforcing bars near each face. The ratio of reinforcement area to gross concrete area shall not be less than 0.85 ϕ fc′ • For node regions anchoring a one-direction tension tie: 0. which have been designed in accordance with the provisions strut-and-tie model.65 ϕ fc′ where: ϕ = 0. Crack Control Reinforcement Structures and components or regions thereof.1. may be considered as part of the tension tie reinforcement. Proportioning of Node Regions Unless confining reinforcement is provided and its effect is supported by analysis or experimentation.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 4. Crack control reinforcement.

Seviceability In addition to the deflection control requirements described above. Deflection Flexural members are designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections or any deformations which may adversely affect the strength or serviceability of the structure at service load plus impact.16.8.P.4 AASHTO Specifications). When this is done. The value z shall be 130 kips per inch for girder and crossbeam reinforcing bars in negative moment regions. The design for shear and torsion is based on ACI 318-95 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary (318F-95) and is satisfactory for bridge members with dimensions similar to those normally used in buildings. See Appendix 5. pp. G.3. H. Strut-and-Tie Method According to Hsu [7].16. Shear and Torsion.8.6 may also be used for design of sections subjected to shear and torsion. Collins and D.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures E. To control cracking of the concrete. AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. The values of dc and A are defined in Section 8.2-B2 which shows the flexural reinforcement at a pier location placed equally in top and bottom layers. the designer can refer to the paper by M. Collins and Mitchell [8] propose a rational design method for shear and torsion based on the compression field theory or strut and tie method for both prestressed and non-prestressed concrete beams. ACI Method The AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges does not address the design of reinforced concrete members for torsion.3) and for distribution of tension reinforcement when fy for tension reinforcement exceeds 40.4 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. Shear and Torsion.6 fy (dc x A) The requirements for control of cracking apply to superstructure elements only The calculated service load stress is calculated utilizing Working Stress Design (WSD) principles described below. Note that this check is for distribution of flexural reinforcement to control cracking.8. The AASHTO LRFD Specifications Article 5.2-B3 for a strut and tie design example for a pier cap.2 and deflections shall be computed in accordance with Section 8. 32-100 [8]. F.9.13. For recommendations and design examples for beams in shear and torsion. See Appendix 5. These methods assume that diagonal compressive stresses can be transmitted through cracked concrete. shall be less than the value computed by: z 1/ fs = 3 ≤ 0. the total slab thickness can be used in computing A. In addition to transmitting these diagonal compressive stresses.000 psi (Section 8. A value of 170 kips per inch shall be used for all other positive moment regions. PCI Journal. The minimum superstructure depths are specified in AASHTO Table 8.8. service load stresses shall be limited to satisfy fatigue (Section 8. fs in ksi. shear stresses are transmitted from one face of the crack to the other by a combination of aggregate interlock and dowel action of the stirrups. tension reinforcement at maximum positive and negative moment sections shall be chosen so that the calculated service load stress. and all deck reinforcing bars.2-7 . Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and Non-Prestressed Concrete Beams. Mitchell.16. September-October 1980. Design Methods July 2000 5. utilizing ACI 318-89 for members is awkward and overly conservative when applied to large-size hollow members.

2].BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.2-8 July 2000 .2. Design aid for working stress design method for Class 3000 and 4000 concrete is provided in Appendix B4. Design Methods P65:DP/BDM5 5. fs. and Mcr. Working Stress Design principles are used to compute the tensile stress. Many design aids were produced as a result. the working stress design (WSD) method was used to design bridges. which are used to check crack control and minimum flexural reinforcement respectively. AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. introduced in the 1973. is a publication that was widely used by designers and several textbooks have sections devoted to WSD [1.2 Working Stress Design Method Prior to the strength design method. The ACI Publication SP-3. Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook Working Stress Method [9].

5″ without overlay. Top Slab Thickness.5″ (normally 6. Girder Spacing The most economical web spacing for ordinary box girder bridges varies from about 8 to 12 feet. A deck overhang of approximately one-half the girder spacing generally gives satisfactory results.0″ — vertical Minimum T3 = 10. This procedure usually results in a more aesthetic as well as a more economical bridge.3. b.3. This section is a guide for designing: Top slab Bottom slab Girder stem (web) For design criteria not covered. transverse post-tensioning shall be used. Bottom Slab Thickness. Fewer girder stems reduces the amount of form work required and a lower cost. T1 (includes 1/2″ wearing surface) T1 = 12 x (S+10)/30 but not less than 7″ with overlay or 7. Near Supports Thickening of girder stems is used in areas adjacent to supports to control shear requirements.C.1.3 Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges A typical box girder bridge is comprised of top and bottom concrete slabs connected by a series of vertical girder stems. The number of girder stems can be reduced by cantilevering the top slab beyond the exterior girders. 2.2-8).3.3-1 . Near Center Span T2 = 12 x (Sclr)/16 but not less than 5. T2 a.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.1 Girder Spacing and Basic Geometries A. July 2000 5. but the cost of the additional concrete can be offset by decreasing the total number of girder stems. Transition slope = 24:1 (see T2′ in Figure 5. Near Center Span Minimum T3 = 9. 3. Near Intermediate Piers Thickening of the bottom slab is often used in negative moment regions to control compressive stresses that are significant.0″ — if sloped b. Basic Dimensions (Figure 5.1-1) 1.4. B. see Section 2. Girder Stem (Web) Thickness. Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges 5. T3 a.0″ is used). For girder stem spacing in excess of 12 feet or cantilever overhang in excess of 6 feet. Greater girder spacing requires some increase in both top and bottom slab thickness.

0″ maximum Transition length = 12 x (T3) in inches Basic Dimensions Figure 5.1-1 5.3. Maximum T3 = T3+4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Changes in girder web thickness shall be tapered for a minimum distance of 12 times the difference in web thickness.3-2 July 2000 .

and utility weight if applicable. intermediate diaphragm.3-3 . Skew and curvature effects have been considered. 7. c. Construction Considerations Review the following construction considerations to ensure that: 1. 3. For curved bridge with R < 800 feet T4 = 8. Load Distribution 1. T4 and Diaphragm Spacing a.) b. per sq. The potential for falsework settlement is acceptable. of span. 8. — 10 lbs. per sq. 4.0″ Diaphragm spacing shall be as follows: For 600′ < R < 800′at 1/2 pt. d. When a reinforced box girder bridge is designed as an individual girder with a deck overhang.L. the entire slab width shall be assumed effective for compression. if web spacing > 10′−0″. For R < 400′ at 1/4 pt. Bottom slab is parallel to top slab (constant depth). the positive reinforcement is congested in the exterior cells. of the area. Unit Design According to the AASHTO specifications. Construction joints at slab/stem interface or fillet/stem interface at top slab are appropriate. For tangent and curved bridge with R > 800 feet T4 = 0″ (Diaphragms are not required. D. The unit design method permits distributing all girder reinforcement uniformly throughout the width of the structure. 2. Dead load deflection and camber to nearest 1/8″. July 2000 5. Girder stems are vertical. Dead Loads a. b. Box dead loads. C. For 400′ < R < 600′ at 1/3 pt. 6. All construction joints to have roughened surfaces. ft. 2. This always requires added stirrup reinforcement in sloped outer webs. It is both economical and desirable to design the entire superstructure as a unit rather than as individual girders. Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Intermediate Diaphragm Thickness.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 4. 5. D. of span. of span. ft. of top deck forms — 5 lbs. Traffic barrier. Thermal effects have been considered. Overlay.

2-4).2 Reinforcement This section discusses moment reinforcement for top slab. the transverse bars are normal to bridge center line and the areas near the expansion joint and bridge ends are reinforcement by partial length bars. Transverse Reinforcement It is preferable to place the transverse reinforcement parallel to the X-Beam and end diaphragm on skews up to 25 degrees or less. of lanes = slab width (curb to curb) / 12 Fractional lane width will be ignored For example.3.” Near Intermediate Piers Figure 5.6fy. 5.83.2-3 illustrates the reinforcement requirement near intermediate piers. b. 2. A.0 c.14. Longitudinal reinforcement to resist negative moment (see Figure 5.3.2-1 shows the reinforcement required near the center of the span and Figure 5. Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges 5. 58 roadway / 14 = 4.2-2 shows the overhang reinforcement. The bottom transverse slab reinforcement is discontinued at the X-Beam (see Figure 5. 3. Near Center of Span Figure 5. a.3. Superstructure No.3. c. of lanes = 4. Bottom longitudinal “distribution reinforcement” in the middle half of the deck span (Seff) to aid in distributing the wheel loads. Where skew angles exceed 25 degrees. Overload if applicable. bottom slab. 58 roadway / 12 = 4.2-B2 for design of longitudinal deck reinforcement. Top longitudinal “temperature and shrinkage reinforcement.3. Substructure No.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 3.3. “Distribution of flexure reinforcement” to limit cracking (see Figure 5. Top Slab Reinforcement 1. b. Bar Patterns a. of lanes = 4. then no. a.3-4 July 2000 .2-3). then no. See Appendix 5.14 b. Transverse reinforcing same as center of span. and intermediate diaphragms in box girders. Live Load a. of lanes = slab width (curb to curb) / 14 Fractional lane width will be used For example. Allowable fs = z/(dc x A) 1/ 3 ≤ 0. Transverse reinforcing in the top and bottom layers to transfer the load to the main girder stems shall be equal in size and spacing.2-3). where z = 130 kips per inch. c.

3. Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Partial Section Near Center of Span Figure 5. Longitudinal Reinforcement For longitudinal reinforcing bar patterns.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures b. see Chapter 6.2-1 Overhang Detail Figure 5.3-5 .2-2 July 2000 5.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Top Slab Flexural Reinforcing Near Intermediate Pier Figure 5.2-3 Partial Plans at Abutments Figure 5.2-4 5.3-6 July 2000 .3.3.

Near Center of Span Figure 5.3. Vertical Stirrups (see Figure 5. Allowable fs = z/(dc x A) d. A b Minimum v = 50 w (#5 bars @ 1′-6″). Longitudinal Reinforcement For longitudinal reinforcing bar patterns.2-1. Check “distribution of flexure reinforcement” to limit cracking (see Figure 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures B. 3. See Figure 5. C.3.2-5). Minimum longitudinal “temperature and shrinkage reinforcement. Figures 5. see Chapter 6. Add steel for construction load (sloped outer webs).3.3.2-2. Near Intermediate Piers Figure 5. of girder stems (T3). and 5.005 x flange area with 1/2 As distributed equally to each surface. Add steel for construction load (sloped outer webs). Minimum transverse “distributed reinforcement. Web Reinforcement 1. where bw = no.004 x flange area with 1/2 As distributed equally to each face.” As=0.2-8) The web reinforcement should be designed for the following requirements: Vertical shear requirements. the tail will be 1′-0″ and for sloping exterior web 2′-0″ minimum splice with the outside web stirrups.” As=0.2-5 shows the reinforcement required near the center of the span.2-3.3. Bottom Slab Reinforcement 1.3.3. c. b. s fy July 2000 5. a. For vertical web.2-7. Out of plane bending on outside web due to live load on cantilever overhang. c.6fy. b. Horizontal shear requirements for composite flexural members. Minimum transverse reinforcement same as center of span.2-6 shows the reinforcement required near intermediate piers. All bottom slab transverse bars shall be bent at the outside face of the exterior web.3. where z = 170 kips per inch. Bar Patterns a. b.3-7 . Longitudinal “main reinforcement” to resist positive moment. 2. 5. Transverse Reinforcement See top slab bar patterns. 1/ 3 Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges ≤ 0. a.

3. The area of skin reinforcement Ask per foot of height on each side face shall be ≥ 0. Reinforcing steel spacing < Web Thickness (T3) or 12″.2-5 Bottom Slab Reinforcement Near Intermediate Pier Figure 5.3.3.3. Where As = Total required area of longitudinal reinforcing steel. This moment about the bottom corner of the web is due to tributary load from the top slab concrete placement plus 10 psf form dead load.2-6 5.012 (d – 30).2-8) If the depth of the side face of a member exceeds 3 feet. Bottom Slab Reinforcement Near Center of Span Figure 5. Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Web Longitudinal Reinforcement (see Figure 5.2-10 for typical top slab forming. The total area of longitudinal skin reinforcement in both faces need not exceed one half of the flexural tensile reinforcement. Such freinforcement may be included in strength computations if a strain compatibility analysis is made to determine stresses in the individual bars or wires. The maximum spacing of skin reinforcement shall not exceed the lesser of d/6 and 12 inches.3-8 July 2000 . longitudinal skin reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed along both side faces of the member for a distance d/2 nearest the flexural tension reinforcement.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 2. increase inside stirrup reinforcement and bottom slab top transverse reinforcement as required for the web moment locked-in during construction of the top slab. See Figure 5. For cast-in-place sloped outer webs.

2-7 July 2000 5.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Figure 5.3-9 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Figure 5.3-10 July 2000 .3.2-8 5.

2. 3. Notes: July 2000 5. Intermediate Diaphragm (see Figure 5.3-11 .2-9 Intermediate diaphragms are not required for bridges on tangent alignment or curved bridges with an inside radius of 800 feet or greater.3.2-9) Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Figure 5. The reinforcement should have at least one splice to facilitate proper bar placement.3. the horizontal dimension should be 4″ shorter than the slab width. Notes: 1. If the bar is not spliced. (Caution: Watch for the clearance with longitudinal steel). Stirrup hanger must be placed above longitudinal steel when diaphragm is skewed and slab reinforcement is placed normal to center of roadway.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures D.

The diagonal brace supports web forms during web pour.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges 1. Increase Web Reinf.2-10 5. and the web attracts load from subsequent concrete placements. the web is stiffer than the brace. The tributary load includes half the overhang because the outer web form remains tied to and transfers load to the web which is considerably stiffer than the formwork.3-12 July 2000 . After cure. for Locked-In Construction Load Due to Typical Top Slab Forming for Sloped Web Box Girder Figure 5. 2.

Top Reinforcement Provide negative moment reinforcement at the 1/4 point of the square or equivalent square columns (see Appendix 5.3-1 and 5.3-13 .3 Crossbeam A. assuming the deck slab acts as a flange for positive moment and bottom slab a flange for negative moment.3. The effective overhang of the flange on a cantilever beam shall be limited to six times the flange thickness. To avoid cracking of concrete. When Skew Angle < 10 Degrees If the bridge is tangent or slightly skewed and the deck reinforcement is parallel to the cross beam.3.3. Normally.3-1). interim reinforcements are required below the construction joint in diaphgragms and crossbeams. The bottom slab thickness is frequently increased near the crossbeam in order to keep the main box girder compressive stresses to a desirable level for negative girder moments (see Figure 5. Basic Geometry For aesthetic purposes. B. b. When Skewed Angle > 10 Degrees When the structure is on a greater skew and the deck steel is normal or radial to the longitudinal centerline of the bridge. Although the depth of the crossbeam may be limited. the negative cap reinforcement should be lowered to below the main deck reinforcement (see Figure 5. Reinforcement must be epoxy coated if the location of reinforcement is less than 4″ below top of deck.3. it varies from 3 feet to the depth of box but is not less than column sizes to utilize the column reinforcement (see Figure 5.3-A1 and 5. it is preferable to keep the crossbeam within the superstructure so that the bottom slab of the entire bridge is a continuous plane surface interrupted only by the columns.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.2-8). This can be a problem especially when round columns with a great number of vertical bars must be meshed with a considerable amount of positive crossbeam reinforcement passing over the columns.3-2). c.3-2). 1. the negative cap reinforcement can be placed either in contact with top deck negative reinforcement or directly under the main deck reinforcement (see Figure 5. This bottom slab flare also helps resist negative crossbeam moments. Reinforcing Steel Details Special attention should be given to the details to ensure that the column and crossbeam reinforcement will not interfere with each other. the width can be made as wide as necessary to satisfy design requirements. Consideration should be given to flaring the bottom slab at the crossbeam for designing the cap even if it is not required for resisting main girder moments.3. The interim reinforcements shall develop a moment capacity of 1.2 Mcr where Mcr may be given as: Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges July 2000 5. a. Crossbeams on box girder type of construction shall be designed as a T beam utilizing the flange in compression.3-A4).

3.85 fc′ b fy √ f c′ Mn = 1.3-14 July 2000 .25 bh2 0.3-4). In this case.4 End Diaphragm A. Skew Angle ≤ 10° Crossbeam Top Reinforcement Figure 5. number of jacks.3.5 √ fc′ Mcr = 1.3-3).5 bh2 √ fc′ As = d – ( √ d2 – 31. Lift point locations.3.3. and maximum permitted lift should be shown in the plan details.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Mcr = fr Ig yt Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges fr = 7. Basic Geometry Bearings at the end diaphragms are usually located under the girder stems and transfer loads directly to the pier (see Figure 5.2Mcr = 1.3-1 5. Designer should provide access space for maintenance and inspection of bearings. the diaphragm width should be equal to or greater than bearing sole plate grout pads (see Figure 5. jack capacity.3725M fc ′ ) 5. Allowance should be provided to remove and replace the bearings.

3.3-15 . and Maximum Lift Permitted at End Diaphragm Figure 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Skew Angle > 10° Crossbeam Top Reinforcement Figure 5. Lift Points.3. Jack Capacity.3-3 July 2000 5.3-2 Bearing Locations.

It is used on bridges with an overall or out-to-out length less than 400 feet. the width should be enough to accommodate the embedment length of the reinforcement. The multipliers for estimating long-term deflection and camber for reinforced concrete flexural members may be taken as shown in Table 1. When the structure is on a skew greater than 10 degrees and the deck steel is normal or radial to the center of the bridge. The dimensions shown here are used as a guideline and should be modified if necessary. This end diaphragm is used with a stub abutment and overhangs the stub abutment.3. If the overall length exceeds 400 feet.5 Dead Load Deflection and Camber Camber is the adjustment made to the vertical alignment to compensate for the anticipated dead load deflection and the long-term deflection caused by shrinkage and creep. 5.3.3-6.3. Reinforcing Steel Details Typical reinforcement details for an end diaphragm are shown in Figure 5. an “L” abutment should be used.3-5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges “L” Abutment End Diaphragm Figure 5. The most commonly used type of end diaphragm is shown in Figure 5.4-1 The end diaphragms should be wide enough to provide adequate reinforcing embedment length.3-16 July 2000 . B. 5.3.

3. Proper temperature expansion provisions are essential in order to ensure that the structure will not be damaged by thermal movements. Effective Bridge Temperature and Movement Fluctuation in effective bridge temperature causes expansion and contraction of the structure.3. B. Temperature effects result from time-dependent variations in the effective bridge temperature and from temperature differentials within the bridge superstructure. in turn. see Chapter 8. workmanship. computation of stresses and movements resulting from the vertical temperature gradients is not included in this chapter.6 Thermal Effects Concrete box girder bridges are subjected to stresses and/or movements resulting from temperature variation.00 1. July 2000 5.3-17 . type and quality of materials and support conditions. For more details. detrimental effects caused by temperature differential within the superstructure have occurred only in prestressed bridges.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Multipliers for Estimating Long-term Deflection and Camber of Concrete Members Table 5.5-1 Multiplier Coefficient Girder Adjacent to Existing/Stage Construction Deflection (downward) — apply to the elastic deflection due to the weight of member Deflection (downward) — apply to the elastic deflection due to superimposed dead load only Girder Away From Existing/Stage Construction Deflection (downward) — apply to the elastic deflection due to the weight of member Deflection (downward) — apply to the elastic deflection due to superimposed dead load only 2. Therefore. A. 5.70 3. and result in horizontal movement of the expansion joints and bearings. The amount of this takeup is dependent upon the type and design of the falsework. These movements. The camber should be modified to account for anticipated takeup in the falsework. induce stresses in supporting elements such as columns or piers.20 In addition to dead load deflection.90 2. Differential Temperature Although time-dependent variations in the effective temperature have caused problems in both reinforced and prestressed concrete bridges. forms and falsework tend to settle and compress under the weight of freshly placed concrete. see AASHTO Guide Specifications. Thermal Effects on Concrete Bridge Superstructures (1989). For more details.

3.4-3 5.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges End Diaphragm With Stub Abutment Figure 5.3-18 July 2000 .4-2 Typical End Diaphragm Reinforcement Figure 5.

3. E.” • In the “Special Provisions Check List.3. Drain Holes Drain holes should be placed in the bottom slab at the low point of each cell to drain curing water during construction and any rain water that leaks through the deck slab.7 Hinges Hinges are one of the weakest links of box girder bridges subject to earthquake forces and it is desirable to eliminate hinges or reduce the number of hinges.e. and number of jacks should be shown in the hinge plan details. drainage through the bottom slab is difficult and other means shall be provided (i. Air vents are required when access holes are used. etc. B.. Access Hole and Air Vent Holes Access holes with doors should be placed in the bottom slab if necessary to inspect utilities inside cells (i. Allowance should be provided to remove and replace the bearings. pipelines. Designer should provide access space or pockets for maintenance and inspection of bearings.e. vaults. maximum lift permitted. Figure 5. storage tanks. and open-topped spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as pits. In some instances. The designer should provide for the following: • A sign with “Confined Space Authorized Personnel Only. tubes. utility vaults.8-2 and 5.. July 2000 5. Confined spaces include but are not limited to pontoons.3-19 . Additional drains shall be provided as a safeguard against water accumulation in the cell (especially when waterlines are carried by the bridge). For more details on the design of hinges. cells over large piers and where a sloping exterior web intersects a vertical web). ventilation or exhaust ducts. Lift point locations.” alert and/or indicate that a special provision might be needed to cover confined spaces. see Section 5. restrainers.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5. C.8-1 shows drainage details for the bottom slab of concrete box girder bridges.3.).3. Figure 5.3. Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges 5. jack capacity. box girder bridges. tunnels. waterline. a horizontal drain should be provided through the vertical web.4.8 Utility Openings A.8-3 shows access hole and air vent hole details.Q. and vessels. Confined Spaces A confined space is any place having a limited means of exit which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants or an oxygen deficient environment. In this case. conduits.

3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Figure 5.8-1 P65:DP/BDM5 5.3-20 July 2000 .

8-2 July 2000 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Figure 5.3-21 .3.

8-3 5.3-22 July 2000 .3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges Figure 5.

4-1 . Continuous hinge shelves (both top and bottom projecting shelves) and continuous ledges of inverted T-beam pier caps. vertical tensile forces (hanger tension) act at the intersection of the web and the horizontal hinge shelf or ledge. These are: shear friction failure.4-3 shows these local failure modes and potential cracks. Provide minimum shelf or ledge support lengths (N. For the bearing strength check. passage of live loads may also cause reversing torsional stresses which together with conventional longitudinal shear and bending produce complex stress distributions in the ledges [10. and N2) and provide positive longitudinal linkage (e. punching shear failure of the horizontal hinge shelf or ledge.g.85. except for the bearing strength check. Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps Continuous Hinge Figure 5. A. earthquake restrainers) [12] in accordance with the current AASHTO seismic design requirements. In each case. Local Failure Modes In addition to conventional longitudinal bending and shearing forces. hanger tension failure. use φ=0.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.. which support girders. N1.11].4-1 July 2000 5. there are several local modes of failure which should be addressed in the design [10. are shown in Figures 5. flexural failure. Figure 5. use φ=0.7 [13]. and spalling under the bearing.4-1 and 5.4-2 respectively.11].4 Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps Hinges and inverted T-beam pier caps require special design and detailing considerations. For all conditions. In the ledges of inverted T-beam pier caps.

4-2 5.4-2 July 2000 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps Inverted T-Beam Pier Cap Figure 5.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps The forces acting on the hinge shown in Figure 5. can be avoided by reducing the bearing stress or allowing more edge distance. Mu. Vu. Nuc. (1) (2) (3) h-d The horizontal tensile load.4-3 July 2000 5. Vu. necessitates hanger reinforcement. horizontal tensile force. Failure Modes and Potential Cracks Figure 5.4-3 . and shall include the thermal movement of the reaction. is due to indeterminate causes such as restrained shrinkage or temperature stresses and is considered a live load [13]. In addition. but less than 1. Nuc. and moment. = Moment arm for the horizontal load. service load conditions should also be checked for deflections and crack control.2Vu. could lead to a punching shear failure.4-3 are: shear. Vu Nuc Mu where: af = Factored Shear (Dead Load + Live Load + Impact) ≥ 0. Nuc.0Vu = Vu(af) + Nuc(h-d) = Flexural moment arm is the distance from the reaction to the centerline of the hanger reinforcement. Crack 1 Crack 2 Crack 3 Crack 4 could lead to a flexural or shear friction failure mode.

Interior Bearing Figure 5.2fc′)(W+4av)(d) When (W+4av) > S > 2c.85 800 psi Effective shelf width 1.. where c = Distance from the end of the hinge or ledge to the center of the exterior bearing.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures B.2fc′ W+4av µ Avf = = = ≤ = = Distance from the reaction to the vertical face Depth from compression face to tensile reinforcement 0. check: Vu ≤ φ (0. no construction joint) = Shear friction reinforcement (4) (5) (6) Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps When W+4av > S. check: Vu ≤ φ (0. equation (6) shall be satisfied. Avf is distributed over 2c.0 Vu ≤ φ (0. (10) (9) (8) (7) 5.2fc′)(S)(d) In addition.2fc′)(2c)(d) When S > (W+4av) < 2c.4-4 July 2000 . check: Vu ≤ φ (0. whichever is less. Shear Friction Design 1. check: Vu ≤ φ (0. S = Center-to-center of girders or hinge seat bearings. or S.2fc′)(S)(d) 2. The ratio av/d shall satisfy equation (4) and the factored shear force (including shelf dead load) shall satisfy both equations (5) and (6) [13]: av/d ≤ 1. monolithic construction. Bearing at End of Hinge or Ledge When S > 2c < (W+4av).4 for cast-in-place concrete (e.4-4 shows the effective shelf width used to compute the allowable shear strength.2fc′)(W+4av)(d) Vu ≤ φµ (Avf)(fy) where: av d φ 0.g. W+4av.

As.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps Shear Friction Design Figure 5.5(As-An) shall be uniformly distributed within two thirds of the effective depth adjacent to As [13].4-5) The primary reinforcement. whichever is less. or W+5af. Flexural Design (Figure 5. S. If the effective width W+5af≥S place the reinforcement over distance S. (11) (12) (13) July 2000 5.04(fc′/fy) Af = Flexural reinforcement required for Mu Avf = Shear friction reinforcement An = Tensile reinforcement = Nuc/φ(fy) In addition. and (13). At the ends of the hinge or ledge. for the shelf or ledge shall be determined from equations (11).4-5 .4-4 C. closed stirrups or ties parallel to As with a total area Ah of not less than 0. (12). distribute the reinforcement over distance 2c. whichever is greater [13]: As ≥ Af + An As ≥ 2(Avf)/3 + An As ≥ ρmin (W+5af)(d) where: ρmin = 0.

4-6 5. Ahr.4-6 July 2000 .4-6) The hanger tension reinforcement. Hanger Tension Design (Figure 5.5fy)(W+3av) where: Ahr = Hanger reinforcement in square inches s = Spacing of the hanger reinforcement V = Service load reaction W+3av = Effective width for hanger reinforcement-Serviceability Strength Serviceability (14) (15) Hinge Hanger Reinforcement Figure 5.4-5 D.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps Flexural Design Figure 5. shall satisfy both of the following strength and serviceability equations: Vu ≤ φAhr/s)(fy)(S) V ≤ (Ahr/s)(0.

width parallel to the centerline of bearings) L′ = Length from face of hinge or ledge to back of bearing = L+c (18) (17) July 2000 5. check: Vu ≤ φ (4 √ fc′ )(W + 2L′ + 2d)(d) For an exterior bearing at the end of a hinge or inverted T-beam cap. check: Vu ≤ φ (4 √ fc′ )(W + L′ + d)(d) where: 4 √ fc′ = Allowable tensile strength of concrete for punching shear W = Width of the rectangular bearing perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bridge (e.g. it is not necessary to add the stirrup reinforcement for conventional shear and torsion to the hanger reinforcement.4-7 .4-7 E. punching shear of the horizontal shelves of hinges and ledges of inverted T-beam pier caps should be checked. the following equation shall also be satisfied for inverted T-beam pier caps (see Figure 5. Ensure that the stirrup reinforcement satisfies either the conventional longitudinal shear and torsion reinforcement requirements or the hanger reinforcement requirement. If S>(W+2df). If S<(W+2df). (16) Inverted T-Beam Hanger Reinforcement Figure 5.4-7): 2Vu ≤ 2[2φ √ fc′ bfdf] + φ(ahr/s)(fy)(W+2df) where bf = Width of bottom flange of inverted T-beam df = Distance from top of ledge to center of longitudinal cap reinforcement near the bottom flange of the inverted T-beam W+2df = Effective width for hanger reinforcement for inverted T-beam.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps In addition to equations (14) and (15). it will be necessary to add the required hanger reinforcement to that required for shear and torsion [11]. For an interior bearing.4-8. Punching Shear Check As shown in Figure 5. whichever is greater..

the bearing stress should not exceed 0. Bearing Strength Check To prevent spalling under the bearing.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps Punching Shear at Interior Bearing Figure 5.4-8 F. parallel to the direction of traffic).70 L = Length of the rectangular bearing parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bridge (e.85(φ)(fc′) [13]: Vu ≤ 0..g.4-8 July 2000 .85(φ)(fc′)(W)(L) where: φ = 0. (19) P65:DP/BDM5 5.

member sizes and geometry. 2. 4. The special provisions may include pertinent information that is not covered on the plans or in the Standard Specifications. which are stored in State Archives and can be retrieved by Bridge Records personnel. T-beam. This information may not be available in any existing plans. see ACI Committee Report. 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5. These will not include the “As-Built” plans. B. flat slab. Current field data on Supplemental Site Data Form (including current deck elevations at interface of widening and existing deck. This is particularly important if piers have been constructed with different skews. Reduced copy of “As-Built”contract plans from our microfilm records in Bridge Records. so field trips may be necessary to determine actual details.5 Widenings This section provides general guidance for the design of bridge widenings. Records Control.5. 7. General Obtain the following documents from existing records for preliminary review. Change Order files to the original bridge contract in Records Control Unit. allowable design soil pressure. Original and current Foundation Reports from the Materials Lab or from the Plans Vault. The actual stresses in the structural members. For additional information. Check with the Bridge Preservation Unit for records of any unusual movements/rotations and other structural information. Included are additions to the substructure and the superstructure of reinforced concrete box girder. Original design calculations. which will be affected by the widening. C. Reduced copy of original contract plans and special provisions.1 Review of Existing Structures A. should be reviewed. Office of Bridges and Structures. and test hole data are given on the plans. Current field measurements of existing pier crossbeam locations are recommended so that new prestressed girders are not fabricated too short or too long. Backup microfilm records are also maintained by Engineering Records (Plans Vault). since they are made prior to receiving the “As-Built” plans from the Project Engineer. details. Original Contract Plans and Special Provisions Location and size of reinforcement. design. 3. July 2000 5. Widenings 5. and precastprestressed girder bridges. 5. Original contract plans can be more legible than the microfilm copies. Guide for Widening Highway Bridges [15]. This may affect the structure type selected for the widening. Records Control. as well as cross slopes). but the “As-Built” plans may not be current. location of construction joints.5-1 . Original Calculations The original calculations should be reviewed for any “special assumptions” or office criteria used in the original design. are obtained from District. which can be obtained from Engineering Records (Plans Vault). and plan preparation: 1.

5. Indicate in the plans a suggested stage construction plan to avoid misinterpretation. cover panels. A typical construction sequence may involve placing the deck concrete. Load Distribution and Construction Sequence The members of the widening should be proportioned to provide similar longitudinal and transverse load distribution characteristics as the existing structure. Materials Preferably. and Municipal Construction. Sometimes the piles indicated on the original plans were omitted.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures D. The construction sequence and degree of interaction between the widening and the existing structure. Where precast-prestressed girders are used to widen an existing cast-in-place concrete box girder or T-beam bridge. 1. Final Records are available from Records Control or Bridge Records (Final Records on some older bridges may be in storage at the Materials Lab).5. the Final Records should be reviewed particularly for information about the existing foundations and piles. shall be fully considered in determining the distribution of the dead load for design of the widening and stress checks for the existing structure. Widenings 5. and placing the concrete for the traffic barrier. Where possible and appropriate. Final Records For major widening/renovation projects. or other aesthetic treatments.” When this is not possible. revised. after completion.5-2 July 2000 . paint. placing the concrete for the closure strip. General Each widening represents a unique situation and construction operations may vary between widening projects. Normally this can be achieved by using the same cross sections and member lengths that were used in the existing structure. the structure’s appearance should be improved by the widening. 5. Bridge. materials used in the construction of the widening shall have the same thermal and elastic properties as the materials used in the construction of the original structure. The guidelines in this section are based on over 20 years of WSDOT design experience with bridge widenings. The distribution of live load shall be in accordance with the AASHTO specifications.2 Analysis and Design Criteria A. The method of design for the widening shall be by load factor design methods even though the original design may have been by service load design. The construction sequence or stage construction should be clearly shown in the plans to avoid confusion and misinterpretation during construction. Appearance The widening of a structure should be accomplished in such a manner that the existing structure does not look “added on to. 3. or required preboring. consideration should be given to enclosure walls. 4. 2. the live load distribution factor for interior girder(s) shall be S/5. removing the falsework. Specifications The design of the widening shall conform to the current AASHTO Specifications and the state of Washington’s Standard Specifications for Road.

July 2000 5. 8. HS25 shall be used to design the widening. Overlay It should be established at the preliminary plan stage if an overlay is required as part of the widening.. if used. or closure strips). Longitudinal joints. For structures that were originally designed for less than HS20. columns. crossbeams. Class 5000 may be specified only if necessary to meet structural requirements and if facilities are available. For narrow widenings where the Plans and Specifications require that the falsework be supported from the original structure (e. Strength of the Existing Structure A review of the strength of the main members of the existing structure shall be made for construction conditions utilizing AASHTO Load Factors. Concrete with a greater strength may be used. 6. Strength of Concrete The allowable stresses shown in the latest AASHTO Specifications are to be used. should be located out of traveled lanes or beneath median barriers to eliminate potentially hazardous vehicle control problems.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5. with consultation and approval of the Bridge Design Engineer. For projects located in urban areas and having a volume of concrete greater than 30 cubic yards. Geometrical Constraints The overall appearance and geometrical dimensions of the superstructure and columns of the widening should be the same or as close as possible to those of the existing structure. If significant demolition is required on the existing bridge. 7. consult your supervisor or in the case of consultants. For structures that were originally designed for HS20 loading. there should be no external rigid supports such as posts or falsework from the ground. The existing structure may still be in service. This is to ensure that the widening will have the same appearance and similar structural stiffness as the original structure. This requirement eliminates the transmission of vibration from the existing structure to the widening during construction.5-3 . d. contact the Consultant Liason Engineer for appropriate guidance. use Class 4000 (fc′ = 4000 psi) and Grade 60 reinforcement. c. 9. The Standard Specifications do not permit falsework to be supported from the existing structure unless the Plans and Specifications state otherwise. For concrete structures located in rural areas or where the volume of concrete is less than 30 cubic yards. there are no additional girders. Supports from the ground do not permit the widening to deflect Widenings b. A check of the existing main members after attachment of the widening shall be made for the final design loading condition. if needed. consideration should be given to requesting concrete strength testing for the existing bridge and including this information in the contract documents.g. If the existing structural elements do not have adequate strength. Where large cambers are expected. a longitudinal joint between the existing structure and the widening may be considered. Special Considerations a. consideration should be given to replacing the structure instead of widening it.

Check the need for longitudinal earthquake restrainers and transverse earthquake stops.g. Seismic Design Criteria for Bridge Widenings 1. It should be noted that for some structures. In this case. the Bridge Design Engineer should be consulted for possible structure replacement instead of proceeding with widening the structure. Adequacy of Existing Structure Early in the project. This method is useful when the horizontal or vertical clearances during construction are insufficient to build cast-in-place members. or 4) that are widened with additional columns and substructure. It is important that these deficiencies be determined as soon as possible so that remedial/retrofitting measures can be evaluated. Check the support shelf length required at all piers. and is located in SPC or C (LRFD Seismic Zone 2. This causes the uncured concrete of the widening to crack where it joins the existing structure.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings with the existing structure when traffic is on the existing structure. existing columns should be considered for retrofitting unless calculations or column details indicate that the existing columns have adequate ductility. Superstructure Widening Without Adding Substructure No seismic analysis is necessary for this condition. determine the need to retrofit the existing columns as part of the widening as follows: a. the widening may not be structurally or economically feasible. If the existing structure is supported by single column piers. B. g. 3. or other obstructions. 3. determine whether earthquake loading poses any problems for the structural adequacy of the existing structure (e. For existing bridges in SPC B or C (LRFD. When using battered piles. original unwidened structure).5-4 July 2000 . 3. 2. or 4). Nonductile existing columns will likely not be able to carry vertical load if they experience the inelastic deflection that a new (ductile) column can tolerate. Differential dead load deflection during construction should be given consideration. The amount of reinforcement and structural detailing of older structures may not meet the current AASHTO seismic design requirements. Also check that there is sufficient clearance between the existing structure and the pile driving equipment. utilities.. The alignment for diaphragms for the widening shall generally coincide with the existing diaphragms. Superstructure Widening by Adding Column(s) and Substructure Use the AASHTO/BDM seismic design criteria with appropriate R factors to design and detail the new columns and footings for the maximum required capacity. e. 5. If the existing structure is supported by multiple column piers. estimate the pile tip elevations and ensure that they will have ample clearance from all existing piles. Analyze the widening and the existing structure as a combined unit. because of deterioration and/or inadequate details. f. Precast members may be used to widen existing cast-in-place structures. Zone 2. the existing columns should be retrofitted if the existing column does not have adequate ductility to meet current standards.

All elements of the structure shall be analyzed and detailed to account for this differential settlement especially on spread footing foundations. C. and other similar conditions. The Hydraulics Engineer should be consulted concerning potential problems related to scour and drift on all widenings at water crossings. Consider present bridge site conditions when determining new foundation locations. b. Check support width requirements. Experience in past earthquakes in California has shown that bridges with columns (only) retrofitted have performed quite well. Other Criteria a. If it is not possible to use larger footings because of limited space. Added substructure elements may also increase the possibility of trapping drift. The current AASHTO seismic design criteria may result in columns with more reinforcement and larger footings for the widened portion than those on the existing structure. Widenings Only the columns should be retrofitted. The conditions include: overhead clearance for pile driving equipment. f. Approval for retrofitting existing multiple column piers is subject to available funding and approval of the Bridge Design Engineer. working room. Scour and Drift Added piles and columns for widenings at water crossings may alter stream flow characteristics at the bridge site. Retrofitting the foundations supporting existing columns is generally too expensive to consider for a widening project. pile batters. d. horizontal clearance requirements. if there is a need for earthquake restrainers on the existing structure as well as the widened portion. When strutted columns (horizontal strut between existing columsn) are encountered. c. Substructure 1. Selection of Foundation a. b. The typical column retrofit is steel jacketing with grouted annular space (between the existing column and the steel jacket). e. The relative stiffness of the new columns compared to the existing columns should be considered in the combined analysis. an alternate design concept such as drilled shafts may be necessary. remove the strut and analyze the existing columns for the new unbraced length and retrofit. If recommended in the foundation report. Refer to WSDOT Research Report on Strutted Columns (nearing completion). be careful to isolate any added potential stiffening elements (such as traffic barrier against colmuns). if necessary. The type of foundation to be used to support the widening should generally be the same as that of the existing structure unless otherwise recommended by the Geotechnical Engineer. 4. When modifications are made near or on the existing bridge.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures b. existing embankments. 2. utility locations. c. they shall be included in the widening design. channel changes.5-5 . This may result in pier scouring to a greater depth than experienced with the existing configuration. the superstructure widening with new substructure shall also be checked for differential settlement between the existing structure and the new widened structure. The effects of possible differential settlement between the new and the existing foundations shall be considered. July 2000 5.

since it is essential that the deck grades match [15]. the camber of the girder adjacent to the existing structure shall be adjusted for the difference in camber between new and existing structure. a T-beam bridge was originally constructed on falsework and the falsework was released after the slab concrete gained strength. eminating from the bottom of the stem opened. 2.5-6 July 2000 . This overstress resulted in a lower load rating for the newly rehabilitated bridge.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures D. Without the slab. 3. wide cracks. Reinforcement. how the rehabilitated structure is to be constructed.4A7. As part of a major rehabilitation project. A linear interpolation may be used to adjust the camber of the girders located away from the existing structure. To obtain a smooth transition in transverse direction of the bridge deck. indicating that the reinforcement was overstressed. The multipliers for estimating long-term delfection and camber for bridge widening may be taken as 2. Closure Strip Except for narrow deck slab widenings (see Section 5. After the new slab was placed. The existing stem reinforcement was not originally designed to support the weight of the slab without shoring.5.5.A9b. see Section 5. Superstructure 1.5.0 times the elastic deflection due to the superimposed loads. Camber Accurate prediction of dead load deflection is more important for widenings than for new bridges. closure strips are required unless the mid-span dead load deflection is 1/2 inch or less. Widenings 5. the stems behave as rectangular sections with a reduced depth and width. The width shall be the minimum required to accommodate the necessary reinforcement and for form removal. and the need for shoring in existing structural members during rehabilitation projects. When large cambers are expected.2. All falsework supporting the widening shall be released and formwork supporting the closure strip shall be supported from the existing and newly widened structures prior to placing concrete in the closure strip. For example. Because of deck slab cracking experienced in widened concrete decks. deflections. and the cumulative stress levels and deflections in the structure from the time of original construction through rehabilitation. Shear shall be transferred across the closure strip by shear friction and/or shear keys. This example shows the need to shore up the remaining T-beam stems prior to placing the new slab so that excessive deflections do not occur and overstress in the existing reinforcing steel is prevented. the bridge was closed to traffic and the entire slab was removed and replaced without shoring. It is necessary to understand how the original structure was constructed.2. which extends through the closure strip shall be investigated in accordance with Section 5.7 times the elastic deflection due to the weight of the member and 3. Stress Levels and Deflections in Existing Structures Caution is necessary in determining the cumulative stress levels.A9c) a closure strip is required for all cast-in-place widenings.

shall the saw blade cut or nick the main transverse top slab reinforcement. A minimum of two webs is generally recommended for box girder widenings. district personnel should check the feasibility of removing the sidewalk. symmetry about the vertical axis should be maintained because lateral loads are critical during construction. use pile cap connections. General 1. it may not always be possible to splice to existing reinforcing bars and spacing limitations may make it difficult to use mechanical splices. Where a clean break line is required. 5. the first choice is to utilize existing reinforcing bars by splicing new bars to existing. When greater depths of slab are to be removed. Lap and Mechanical Splices To attach a widening to an existing structure. When symmetry is not possible. Often the width of the closure strip can be adjusted to accomplish this. In no case. for the limiting case for the maximum allowable removal. For T-beam widenings that require only one additional web. Hydromilling is preferred where reinforcing bar cover is shallow and can effectively remove delaminated decks because of the good depth control it offers. Stability of Widening For relatively narrow box girder and T-beam widenings.3 Removing Portions of the Existing Structure Portions of the existing structure to be removed shall be clearly indicated on the plans. Widenings 5. The plans should include a note that critical dimensions and elevations are to be verified in the field prior to the fabrication of precast units or expansion joint assemblies.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures E. the web should be centered at the axis of symmetry of the slab. Prior to design.” Figure 5. However.4 Attachment of Widening to Existing Structure A. particularly when the removal affects the existing frame system.5-1. In cases where an existing sidewalk is to be removed but the supporting slab under the sidewalk is to be retained. Lap splices or mechanical splices should be used.5. however. Careful consideration shall be given to the construction conditions. special consideration should be given to securing exposed reinforcing bars to prevent undue vibration and subsequent fatigue cracks from occurring in the reinforcing bars. or special falsework. The special provisions shall state that care will be taken not to damage any reinforcement which is to be saved. a 3/4″ deep saw cut shall be specified for a slab with normal wear and a 1/2″ deep saw cut for worn roadway slabs. district personnel should make recommendations on acceptable removal methods and required construction equipment. In extreme situations. The plans and specifications should then be prepared to accommodate these recommendations. The current General Special Provisions should be reviewed for other specific requirements on slab removal. July 2000 5.5.5-7 . See “Slab Removal Detail. preloading by jacking is acceptable to control stresses and deflections during the various stages of removal and construction. This will ensure the constructibility of plan details and the adequacy of the specifications. lateral connections. Removal of the main longitudinal slab reinforcement should be kept to a minimum. Removal of any portion of the main structural members should be held to a minimum.

If it is necessary to drill through reinforcing bars or if the holes are within 4 inches of an existing concrete edge.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 2. Table 5. core drilling shall be specified. Dowel spacing and edge distance affect the allowable tensile dowel loads [14]. will remain.5-8 July 2000 . If it is not possible to obtain these embedments.5-2 lists dowel embedment lengths when the dowel spacing is less than 6 inch. Dowel bars shall be set with an approved epoxy resin. These clearances should be noted in the plans. the drilled holes are 1 /8 inch in diameter larger than the dowel diameter for #5 and smaller dowels and 1/4 inch in diameter larger than the dowel diameter for #6 and larger dowels. In special applications requiring drilled holes greater than 11/2″ inch diameter or deeper than 2 feet.5-2 the edge clearance is equal to or greater than 3 inch. 3. Allowable tensile loads. which acts as a bond breaker and reduces the load capacity of the dowel. and are shown for both uncoated and epoxy coated dowels. The existing structural element shall be checked for its adequacy to transmit the load transferred to it from the dowel bars. the chemistry of the reinforcing steel must be analyzed and acceptable welding procedures developed. Welding Reinforcement Existing reinforcing steel may not be readily weldable. a dowel spacing greater than 6 inch. b. 4. If welding is the only feasible means. and drilled hole sizes for reinforcing bars (Grade 60) used as dowels and set with an approved epoxy resin are shown in Table 5. Widenings 5.5-1. These holes should also be intentionally roughened prior to applying epoxy resin. Generally. core drilling should be specified. These values are based on an edge clearance greater than 3 inch. dowel bar embedments. Drilling Into Existing Structure It may be necessary to drill holes and set dowels in epoxy resin in order to attach the widening to the existing structure. If this is not done. Core drilled holes should have a minimum clearance of 3 inches from the edge of the concrete and 1-inch clearance from existing reinforcing bars in the existing structure. the allowable load on the dowel shall be reduced by the ratio of the actual embedment divided by the required embedment. such as for traffic railing dowels into existing deck slabs. Dowelling Reinforcing Bars Into the Existing Structure a. Mechanical splices should be used wherever possible. because this is the minimum edge clearance for a drilled hole from a concrete edge. chipping should be specified to expose the main reinforcing bars. Core drilled holes shall be roughened before resin is applied. a dried residue. Note that in Table 5. When drilling into heavily reinforced areas.

5-1 Bar Size 4 5 6 7 8 9 Allowable Design Tensile Load. T* (kips) 12. Le** Uncoated Epoxy Coated (in) (in) 7 8 9 11 13 16 8 9 10 12 141/2 171/2 /8 /4 1 11/8 11/4 13/8 *Allowable Tensile Load (Strength Design) = (fy)(As)..BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures c.0 Drill Hole Size (in) 5 3 Required Embedment. and Spacing ≥ 6 in. In cases where concrete cover is not removed. Gr 60 Reinforcing Bars. **Based on removed cover. the designer should add the cover thickness to the required embedment. but is expensive. In cases where concrete cover is not removed. Edge Clearance ≥ 3 in.0 47. T* (kips) 12.5-1 and -2 are based on dowels embedded in concrete with fc′=4.5-2 Bar Size 4 5 6 7 8 9 Allowable Design Tensile Load.4 36.000 psi.[14] Table 5. Allowable Tensile Load for Dowels Set With Epoxy Resin fc′=4.[14] Table 5.000 psi. July 2000 5.4 60. Widenings The embedments shown in Table 5.4 60. Allowable Tensile Load for Dowels Set With Epoxy Resin fc′=4. the designer should add the cover thickness to the required embedment. Shear Transfer Across a Dowelled Joint Shear should be carried across the joint by shear friction on an intentionally roughened surface instead of depending on the dowels to transmit the shear force.0 18.0 47.5-9 . and Spacing < 6 in. **Based on removed cover.6 26.000 psi.0 Drill Hole Size (in) 5 3 Required Embedment.0 18.4 36.. Edge Clearance ≥ 3 in. 5. Le** Uncoated Epoxy Coated (in) (in) 91/2 101/2 111/2 131/2 161/2 20 101/2 111/2 121/2 15 18 22 /8 /4 1 11/8 11/4 13/8 *Allowable Tensile Load (Strength Design) = (fy)(As). Gr 60 Reinforcing Bars. Chipping shear keys in the existing concrete can also be used to transfer shear across a dowelled joint.6 26.

shear friction. For crossbeams longer than 30 feet. or otherwise undesirable old concrete should be removed.5-10 July 2000 . porous. subject to the approval of your supervisor. subject to approval by your supervisor. external post-tensioning should be considered. Unsound. 8. dirty. temperature and shrinkage. Rock bolts may be used to transfer connection loads deep into the existing structure. damaged. and distribution reinforcing bars should be bent into the closure strip. and intentionally roughened to ensure proper bond between the old and new concrete surfaces. transverse reinforcing bars should be spliced to the existing reinforcing bars in a blocked-out area which can be included in the closure strip. The use of wire rope or sleeved reinforcement may be acceptable. Control of Shrinkage and Deflection on Connecting Reinforcement Dowels that are fixed in the existing structure may be subject to shear as a result of longitudinal shrinkage and vertical deflection when the falsework is removed. For an example of this application. When connecting the transverse reinforcing bars across the closure strip is unavoidable. free of laitance. and the remaining concrete surface should be clean. an existing crossbeam can be core drilled for post-tensioning if it is less than 30 feet long. Bellevue Transit Access — Stage 1. Nominal.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 6. refer to Contract 3846. Post-Tensioning Post-tensioning of existing crossbeams may be utilized to increase the moment capacity and to eliminate the need for additional substructure. Generally. 7. Preparation of Existing Surfaces for Concreting See “Removing Portions of Existing Structure” in the General Special Provisions for requirements. Widenings 5. These shear forces may result in a reduced tensile capacity of the connection. The amount of drift in the holes alignment may be approximately 1 inch in 20 feet. Where possible. the interaction between shear and tension in the dowel or reinforcing bar should be checked.

5.5-11 .-1 July 2000 5. They are informational and are not intended to restrict the designer’s judgment. Connection Details The details on the following sheets are samples of details which have been used for widening bridges.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures B. Widenings Slab Removal Detail Figure 5.

Box Girder Bridges Figures 5.5-2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 1.5-2 5. and -5 show typical details for widening box girder bridges. -4.5-12 July 2000 . -3. Widenings Box Girder Section in Span Figure 5.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings Box Girder Section Through X-Beam See Box Girder Section in Span for additional details.5-2. provide a sufficient embedment depth for moment connection bars into existing structure that will provide the required moment capacity in the existing structure.5-13 .5-1 or 5. It shall be allowed only when the bars to be welded are free from restraint at one end during the welding process. See Table 5. Figure 5.5-3 Welding or mechanical butt splice are preferred over dowelling for the main reinforcement in crossbeams and columns when it can be done in the horizontal or flat position. **If bars are to be dowelled. July 2000 5.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings Box Girder Section in Span at Diaphragm Alternate I Figure 5.5-4 5.5-14 July 2000 .

5-5 July 2000 5.5-15 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings Box Girder Section in Span at Diaphragm Alternate II Figure 5.

5-6 for “Flat Slab — Section through X-Beam.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 2. For the moment connection details.5-16 July 2000 . Flat Slab — Section through X-Beam Figure 5. see Figure 5. The transverse slab reinforcement for the widening may be dowelled directly into the existing structure without meeting the normal splice requirements.” Widenings Note: Falsework shall be maintained under pier crossbeams until closure pour is made and cured 10 days.5-6 5. because the transverse slab reinforcement is only distribution reinforcement. Flat Slab Bridges It is not necessary to remove any portion of the existing slab to expose the existing transverse reinforcing bars for splicing purposes.

Widenings T-Beam — Section in Span Figure 5.5-17 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 3.5-7 July 2000 5.5-7 for slab connection detail. T-Beam Bridges Use details similar to those for box girder bridges for crossbeam connections. See Figure 5.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 4.5-8 5.5-8 for connecting to the slab. Widenings Prestressed Girder — Section in Span Figure 5. Prestress Concrete Girder Bridges Use details similar to those for box girder bridges for crossbeam moment connections and use details similar to those in Figure 5.5-18 July 2000 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.5 Expansion Joints The designer should determine if existing expansion joints can be eliminated.5-9 July 2000 5.1 “Expansion Joints.5-19 . For expansion joint design. Widenings Expansion Joint Detail Shown for Compression Seal — Existing Reinforcing Steel Saved Figure 5.5-10 show details for rebuilding joint openings for compression seal expansion joints.5-9 and 5.5.4. the expansion joint may have to be raised. see Section 8. If a widening project includes an overlay. It will be necessary to determine what modifications to the structure are required to provide an adequate functional system when existing joints are eliminated. Figures 5.” Very often on widening projects it is necessary to chip out the existing concrete deck and rebuild the joint. modified or replaced. See the Joint Specialist for plan details that are currently being used to modify or retrofit existing expansion joints.

Figure 5. This will normally pertain to flat slab bridges or where the sidewalk width exceeds the slab cantilever overhang. crossbeams. The reason is that the ground support will not allow the widening to deflect the existing bridge when traffic is on the bridge. or closure pours.6 Possible Future Widening for Current Designs For current projects that include sidewalks (and where it is anticipated that the structure may be modified or widened in the future). 5.5-20 July 2000 . columns. There should be an external support from the ground.7 Bridge Widening Falsework For widenings which do not have additional girders.5.5. provide a smooth rather than a rough construction joint between the sidewalk and the slab. 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings Expansion Joint Detail shown for compression seal with new reinforcing steed added. Designer should contact the bridge construction support unit regarding fasework associated with widenings.5-10 5. This will cause the “green” concrete to crack where it joins the existing bridge. flasework should be supported by the existing bridge.

S. Widened with P. 9267 9353 9478 9548 9566 Type of Bridge Ps.5. Box Girder P.C. combined footings.C. Gir. Multiple widen structures. Lightweight concrete.8 Existing Bridge Widenings The following listed bridge widenings are included as aid to the designer. Unusual Features Pier replacements Widenings Blakeslee Jct. Tight constraints on substructure. Units. Bridge replacement. Pier shaft. E/W B-N O’Xing SR 536 LE Line over Yakima River SR 18 O-Xing Hamilton Road O-Xing Dillenbauch Creek Longview Wye SR 432 U-Xing Klickitat River Bridge Skagit River Bridge B-N O-Xing at Chehalis Bellevue Access EBCD Widening and Pier 16 Modification Totem Lake/NE 124th I/C Pacific Avenue I/C SR 705/SR 5 SB Added Lane Mercer Slough Bridge 90/43S Spring Street O-Xing No.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5. shafts. Complex parallel skewed structures. added enclusure walls. Unbalanced widening section support at diaphragms until completion of closure pour. Post-tensioned X-beam. Bridge NE 8th Street U’Xing Higgins Slough ER17 and AR17 O-Xing SR 538 O-Xing B-N O’Xing SR 405 536 5 5 5 Contract No. there is no substitute for the designer’s creativity or ingenuity in solving the challenges posed by bridge widenings. Tapered widening of box girder with hingers. Widening of existing P. Flat Slab Box Girder T-Beam Box Girder Middle and outside widening.S. Girder Steel Truss Similar to Contract 9548. 5/545SCD Fishtrap Creek Bridge 546/8 Columbia Drive O-Xing 395/16 5 18 9638 9688 9696 T-Beam and Box Girder Box Girder T-Beam Box Girder P. Units Steel Girder Deep. single web. soft soil.5-21 . 3845 3661 3379 July 2000 5. Girders. Widening/Deck replacement using standard rolled sections. and diaphragms not in line with existing jacking required to manipulate stresses.S. Skew = 55 degrees. These should not be construed as the only acceptable methods of widening. Stradle best replacing single column. Girder P. Flat Slab CIP Conc. 90 405 5 5 3846 3716 3087 3345 3846 Flat Slab and Box Girder T-Beam Box Girder Box Girder CIP Conc. Rail modification. 90 90 5 5 5 142 5 5 9806 9823 9894 Bridge lengthening. Precast girder in one span. X-beams.S. Girder T-Beam Flat Slab P. Replacement of thru steel girder span with stringer span. Tapered widening of flat slab outrigger pier.

O-Xing No. Widening constructed as stand alone structure. 5/714 NE 8th St. Post-tensioned Box CIP Post-tensioned Box Widenings Bridge S 74th-72nd St.C. Box Girder CIP Conc. P. Box Girder CIP Conc. Pier replacement — widening. SE 232nd St. Tee Beam Prestressed Girders Prestressed Girders CIP Conc. 5/332 Tye River Bridges 2/126 and 2/127 SR 20 and BNRR O-Xing No. 405/43 So. U’Xing SR 167 SR Unusual Features Haunched P.5-22 July 2000 . Tee Beam CIP Conc. Stage construction with crown shift.T. Widening column designed as strong column for retrofit. 212th St. Sidewalk widening with pipe struts. Longitudinal joint between new and existing. SR 18 5801 Obdashian Bridge 2/275 N/A 1999 P65:DP/BDM5 5. 5/426 Pacific Avenue O-Xing No. 3207 3087 3565 9220 9267 3967 Type of Bridge CIP Haunched Con. Widened with prestressed girders raised crossbeam. Longitudinal “link pin” deck joint between new and existing to accommodate new creep.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Contract No. Skew = 50 degree. Bath Tub girder sections. U’Xing No.

3. John Wiley & Sons.. American Concrete Institute. 1978. Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures. 30. 1980. G. 8.. ACI-ASCE Committee 343.. D. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. December 1988. Final Report WA-RD 168. American Concrete Institute.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5. AASHTO.. Guide for Widening Highway Bridges. and Furlong. D. D. 2nd Edition. AASHTO. AASHTO LRFD Specifications.G. 4..W. C... ACI 318-89. J. Collins. PCI Journal. C. 16. 1988. 7. pp. 6. Washington. 1989. 1998. and Salmon. and Pauley. 5. M. T. PCI Journal. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC). Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary. 918 pp. S.. ACI Structural Journal. pp. 14-16. Ghosh. 1990. 507 pp. pp. 12. 13.C. 516 pp. Torsion of Reinforced Concrete. D.. 3. Vol.. Hsu. R.353. 5th ed. T. Bending/Straightening and Grouting Concrete Reinforcing Steel: Review of WSDOT’s Specifications and Proposed Modifications.A. 3rd Ed.C. Mirza. Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook — Working Stress Method. No. Publication SP-3. pp. McCormac. AASHTO. 1996. 31. American Concrete Institute. New york. 1st Ed. 157-163. C.99 Bibliography 1. September-October. 16th Edition. and Rabbat. M. Bibliography 10. Wang. N. G. pp.. 271 pp. 162 pp. Park. May-June 1986. Washington.1. R. 451-466. Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and Non-Prestressed Concrete Beams. C. K. Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. New York. Rabbat. Reinforced Concrete Design.. Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Inverted T Beams for Bridge Structures. S. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete with Design Applications.C. P. Editors.. P65:DP/BDM5 July 2000 5. 1st ed. 769 pp. 4. PCI Journal.. Portland Cement Association. July-August 1985. July/August.. T. Harper & Row. 15. Design of Reinforced Concrete. and Hawkins. ACI Committee 345.. 32-100. 3rd Ed. 1st Ed. 1984. ACI Committee 317. 11. No. 1992. Reader Comments Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete inverted T Beams for Bridge Structures. Babaei.. Supplement A. Vol. 14... B. 1991. 112-136. pp. B. Notes on ACI 318-89.99-1 . 1975. Washington. 9. 75 pp. 2. 1979. 1965. Harper & Row.-K. New York. Reinforced Concrete Design.. New York. K. and Mitchell.

48 4. See Chapter 5.13 (11/8″) 1.20 40′ 40′ #5 1.600 2.313 1. get your supervisor’s approval before using them.668 1 0. area and weight are based on the decimal diameter.11 Maximum Bar Length (ft) 40′ Normal Bar Length (ft) 30′ / 8″ / 2″ / 8″ / 4″ / 8″ #4 0.376 Nominal Diameter* (in) 3 Outside Diameter (in) 0.96 0.56 90′** 60′ #14 7.83 0.00 72′** 60′ #10 4.650 1.1-A1 July 2000 5.303 1.400 1.27 72′** 60′ #11 5.25 90′** 60′ #18 13.26 (11/4″) 1.00 90′** 60′ *Normally 1/8 per bar size number. Note: For sizes > #9.24 1.44 60′ 60′ #7 2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforcing Bar Properties Size #3 Weight (lbs/ft) 0.27 (11/4″) 1.1.69 (13/4″) 2.31 60′ 40′ #6 1.41 (13/8″) 1.60 60′ 60′ #8 2.1-A1 .70 0.86 2.42 Area (in2) 0. Table 5.55 1.56 0.043 5 0.40 1.044 7 0.670 1″ 1. **Requires large special order.79 72′** 60′ #9 3. Since these lengths may pose problems in transporting and handling.502 3 0.10 0. Section 5.2F.

44 0.32 1.11 1.65 2.91 1.44 0.50 1.35 1.58 1.72 1.00 7.83 0.86 6.12 2.03 1.33 1.08 1.60 3.48 0.19 1.88 0.18 0.52 1.37 0.39 0.30 0.88 2.33 5.90 2.51 1.64 0.20 1.01 0.44 0.00 5.26 1.96 0.99 0.80 4.92 0.26 0.84 2.37 2.18 3.26 3.41 1.51 0.53 2.54 2.35 8.00 1.59 0.52 1.06 1.57 3.80 0.20 0.40 6.34 0.60 1.34 0.87 1.93 0.88 0.21 3.69 1.12 1.13 0.34 2.38 0.24 1.11 #4 0.26 1.70 0.59 3.41 1.06 1.86 3.70 4.82 2.40 4.40 2.33 4.11 2.69 1.00 5.31 1.06 0.46 2.29 2.95 0.03 0.60 1.05 4.18 2.56 0.82 3.38 6.04 3.23 0.80 0.23 2.92 1.70 2.47 0.39 1.94 3.38 3.36 4.71 0.96 0.67 2.21 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #14 #18 1.46 0.27 0.17 1.32 0.81 3.86 0.24 0.68 4.32 1.35 0.63 6.53 2. Bar Spacing (Reinforcing Bars AASHTO M31) Bar Size #3 Spacing 3″ 3 1 /4 3 1 /2 3 3 /4 4 4 1 /4 4 1 /2 4 3 /4 5 5 1 /4 5 1 /2 5 3 /4 6 6 1 /2 7 7 1 /2 8 8 1 /2 9 9 1 /2 10 101/2 11 111/2 0.79 1.09 2.13 0.14 1.63 2.28 0.35 2.22 0.40 5.50 0.50 4.65 0.37 1.44 1.77 2.00 2.81 0.15 0.25 0.74 0.74 0.22 0.65 5.78 1.60 0.17 0.14 4.16 0.56 0.85 0.80 1.05 2.17 As Per Foot of Bar Table 5.42 0.57 0.62 0.66 0.60 1.50 2.90 0.00 2.65 1.19 0.72 0.50 0.53 0.00 0.28 0.46 1.57 2.57 4.69 0.29 0.70 1.23 0.1-A2 July 2000 .31 0.20 2.40 3.14 1.91 4.37 0.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Bar Area vs.25 0.68 5.75 0.33 0.35 8.67 2.09 1.90 0.20 3.45 1.53 0.1-A2 5.14 0.12 0.05 1.41 0.69 0.25 1.41 0.15 3.35 0.45 2.24 0.97 1.00 1.62 0.53 0.90 1.11 1.85 1.74 3.39 3.40 0.65 0.20 1.18 2.16 3.78 0.71 1.68 0.48 0.76 0.81 1.

00 104.80 6.55 1.60 0.20 16.64 13.48 14.29 35.81 5.60 2.70 13.22 0.40 3.75 54.33 22.1-A3 July 2000 5.20 #7 0.00 13.78 19.60 10.12 22.13 25.20 10.00 5.94 29.19 3.06 11.00 3.00 16.93 1.00 40.74 5.00 24.51 17.00 1.28 21.00 32.88 12.43 14.75 33.20 0.85 12.00 56.00 24. Number of Bars #3 0.00 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Size No.00 44.11 0.00 3.00 80.68 6.21 1.30 #4 0.59 17.40 4.75 20.79 1.00 25.20 2.40 4.95 4.00 96.80 9.44 0.37 8.08 29.00 9.00 12.00 40.40 12.00 4.20 3.40 5.04 7.00 20.53 2.80 14.54 21.00 36.88 37.30 #6 0.32 35.84 5.34 4.16 18.53 6.76 1.00 68.13 7.25 58.37 3.60 5.65 1.20 1.50 24.00 30.20 32.51 6.40 24.05 20.27 5.40 6.80 5.50 #18 4.40 0.24 9.10 #11 1.25 13.00 112.00 100.60 13.17 2.12 43.01 15.80 9.56 11.00 21.20 13.54 1.91 23.20 7.16 11.00 19.67 27.00 16.60 16.25 22.88 0.44 11.00 23.00 56.25 31.36 8.68 8.60 1.40 15.00 12.72 4.75 18.40 9.00 28.00 11.70 #9 1.00 14.72 20.75 27.20 4.75 45.56 36.00 8.25 40.80 4.60 3.00 2.20 6.32 1.08 6.86 2.25 4.84 23.00 5.80 8.60 7.64 2.40 18.08 3.04 15.00 9.24 1.00 11.50 6.44 7.00 116.59 22.92 8.55 0.22 15.16 6.50 51.00 10.66 0.00 12.00 17.40 2.72 6.00 88.89 6.28 5.62 8.42 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Bar Area vs.60 4.86 2.25 49.32 21.10 1.75 63.00 15.75 9.27 2.99 9.54 3.48 31.43 1.40 3.68 10.00 2.00 38.79 3.56 3.20 2.88 1.03 4.24 46.50 15.80 3.52 3.62 0.43 12.33 0.65 4.00 15.68 45.80 2.24 7.52 28.16 3.99 1.75 36.00 27.75 2.38 18.44 39.80 5.76 13.36 10.40 26.97 3.48 2.80 2.20 5.60 17.00 47.00 60.00 65.24 16.60 7.00 6.50 33.58 5.00 48.96 5.64 3.00 22.35 7.00 29.00 120.75 8.00 84.76 2.98 2.00 Areas for Various Bar Sizes and Number of Bars Table 5.64 31.00 8.58 2.80 17.11 7.50 42.00 7.80 16.76 34.00 29.06 8.96 19.12 4.97 15.20 1.1-A3 .87 1.32 7.86 24.80 1.96 4.00 #8 0.83 38.92 12.50 60.00 18.96 26.44 0.00 52.00 92.31 0.00 72.89 10.32 12.80 #14 2.00 26.21 30.41 3.00 4.08 3.27 11.00 108.00 76.20 2.31 2.80 11.77 0.82 7.48 7.00 3.56 42.00 20.40 1.10 3.00 20.69 9.00 #5 0.00 28.02 34.00 64.60 4.20 4.25 67.17 18.00 #10 1.12 10.60 1.90 8.09 2.48 10.00 11.32 1.

000 psi Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in fc′ = 5.000 psi Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18 1′-5″ 1′-5″ 1′-9″ 2′-3″ 3′-1″ 4′-1″ 5′-2″ 6′-6″ 8′-0″ 10′-11″ 14′-1″ 1′-0″ 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 1′-8″ 2′-3″ 2′-11″ 3′-8″ 4′-8″ 5′-9″ 7′-10″ 10′-1″ 1′-5″ 1′-5″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-8″ 3′-6″ 4′-6″ 5′-8″ 6′-11″ 9′-5″ 12′-3″ 1′-0″ 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 1′-6″ 1′-11″ 2′-6″ 3′-2″ 4′-1″ 5′-0″ 9′-9″ 8′-9″ 1′-5″ 1′-5″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-6″ 3′-2″ 4′-0″ 5′-1″ 6′-3″ 8′-5″ 10′-11″ 1′-0″ 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 2′-3″ 2′-10″ 3′-8″ 4′-5″ 6′-1″ 7′-10″ 1′-5″ 1′-5″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-6″ 2′-11″ 3′-8″ 4′-8″ 5′-8″ 7′-9″ 10′-0″ 1′-0″ 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 2′-1″ 2′-7″ 3′-4″ 4′-1″ 5′-6″ 7′-2″ Tension Development Length of Epoxy Coated Deformed Bars fc′ = 3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Tension Development Length of Uncoated Deformed Bars fc′ = 3.8.000 psi Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in fc′ = 5.000 psi Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in fc′ = 6.000 psi Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18 1′-9″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-9″ 3′-9″ 4′-11″ 6′-3″ 7′-11″ 9′-9″ 13′-3″ 17′-1″ 1′-6″ 1′-6″ 1′-11″ 2′-5″ 3′-4″ 4′-4″ 5′-6″ 7′-0″ 8′-7″ 11′-8″ 15′-1″ 1′-9″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-7″ 3′-3″ 4′-3″ 5′-5″ 6′-10″ 8′-5″ 11′-6″ 14′-10″ 1′-6″ 1′-6″ 1′-11″ 2′-3″ 2′-11″ 3′-9″ 4′-9″ 6′-1″ 7′-5″ 10′-1″ 13′-1″ 1′-9″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-7″ 3′-0″ 3′-10″ 4′-10″ 6′-2″ 7′-6″ 10′-3″ 13′-3″ 1′-6″ 1′-6″ 1′-11″ 2′-3″ 2′-8″ 3′-5″ 4′-3″ 5′-5″ 6′-8″ 9′-1″ 11′-8″ 1′-9″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-7″ 3′-0″ 3′-6″ 4′-5″ 5′-7″ 6′-11″ 9′-4″ 12′-1″ 1′-6″ 1′-6″ 1′-11″ 2′-3″ 2′-8″ 3′-1″ 3′-11″ 4′-11″ 6′-1″ 8′-3″ 10′-8″ Top Bars are so placed that more than 12″ of concrete is cast below the reinforcement.1-A4 July 2000 .000 psi Bar Size Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in fc′ = 4.000 psi Side Cover Side Cover < 21/2″ Cover >= 21/2″ Cover on Tail < 2″ on Tail >= 2″ Side Cover Side Cover Side Cover Side Cover < 21/2″ Cover >= 21/2″ Cover < 21/2″ Cover >= 21/2″ Cover on Tail < 2″ on Tail >= 2″ on Tail < 2″ on Tail >= 2″ fc′ = 6.1-A4 Tension Development Length of Standard 90° and 180° Hooks fc′ = 3. Modification Factor for Spacing >=6″ and side cover >=3″ = 0.000 psi Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in fc′ = 6.1-A5 5.000 psi Bar Size Side Cover Side Cover < 21/2″ Cover >= 21/2″ Cover on Tail < 2″ on Tail >= 2″ 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18 0′-9″ 0′-11″ 1′-2″ 1′-5″ 1′-8″ 1′-10″ 2′-1″ 2′-4″ 2′-7″ 3′-1″ 4′-2″ 0′-6″ 0′-8″ 0′-10″ 1′-0″ 1′-2″ 1′-4″ 1′-6″ 1′-8″ 1′-10″ 3′-1″ 4′-2″ 0′-8″ 0′-10″ 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 1′-5″ 1′-7″ 1′-10″ 2′-1″ 2′-3″ 2′-9″ 3′-7″ 0′-6″ 0′-7″ 0′-9″ 0′-10″ 1′-0″ 1′-2″ 1′-3″ 1′-5″ 1′-7″ 2′-9″ 3′-7″ 0′-7″ 0′-9″ 0′-11″ 1′-1″ 1′-3″ 1′-5″ 1′-8″ 1′-10″ 2′-0″ 2′-5″ 3′-3″ 0′-6″ 0′-7″ 0′-8″ 0′-9″ 0′-11″ 1′-0″ 1′-2″ 1′-3″ 1′-5″ 2′-5″ 3′-3″ 0′-6″ 0′-8″ 0′-10″ 1′-0″ 1′-2″ 1′-4″ 1′-6″ 1′-8″ 1′-10″ 2′-3″ 2′-11″ 0′-6″ 0′-7″ 0′-7″ 0′-8″ 0′-10″ 0′-11″ 1′-1″ 1′-2″ 1′-4″ 2′-3″ 2′-11″ Table 5.000 psi fc′ = 4.75 Table 5.000 psi Bar Size Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in fc′ = 4.000 psi fc′ = 5. Modification Factor for Reinforcement Enclosed in Spiral = 0. Minimum Development Length = 12″.

2 Table 5.000 psi Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-10″ 2′-6″ 3′-7″ 3′-2″ 4′-11″ 4′-4″ 6′-5″ 5′-8″ 8′-1″ 7′-2″ 10′-3″ 9′-1″ 12′-8″ 11′-2″ Lap Splices Not Allowed 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-10″ 2′-6″ 3′-4″ 3′-0″ 4′-3″ 3′-9″ 5′-7″ 4′-11″ 7′-0″ 6′-2″ 8′-11″ 7′-10″ 10′-11″ 9′-8″ Lap Splices Not Allowed 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-10″ 2′-6″ 3′-4″ 3′-0″ 3′-11″ 3′-5″ 5′-0″ 4′-5″ 6′-3″ 5′-7″ 8′-0″ 7′-0″ 9′-9″ 8′-0″ Lap Splices Not Allowed 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-10″ 2′-6″ 3′-4″ 3′-0″ 3′-11″ 3′-5″ 4′-6″ 4′-0″ 5′-9″ 5′-1″ 7′-3″ 6′-5″ 8′-11″ 7′-11″ Lap Splices Not Allowed Top Bars are so placed that more than 12″ of concrete is cast below the reinforcement.77 Modification Factor for Class C: 1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Tension Lap Splice Lengths of Grade 60 Uncoated Bars – Class B fc′ = 3.000 psi Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in fc′ = 6.1-A6 July 2000 5. Definition of Splice Classes: Class A: Class B: Class C: Low stressed bars – 75% or less are spliced Low stressed bars – more than 75% are spliced High stressed bars – 1/2 or less are spliced High stressed bars – more than 50% are spliced Class B Lap splice is the preferred and most commonly used by bridge office.000 psi Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in fc′ = 6.31 Modification Factor for 3-bar Bundle = 1.1-A5 .000 psi Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in fc′ = 5. Modification Factor for Class A: 0.000 psi Bar Size Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in fc′ = 4.000 psi Bar Size Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in fc′ = 4.000 psi Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in fc′ = 5.000 psi Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-4″ 2′-0″ 2′-11″ 2′-1″ 4′-0″ 2′-11″ 5′-3″ 3′-9″ 6′-8″ 4′-9″ 8′-6″ 6′-1″ 10′-5″ 7′-5″ Lap Splices Not Allowed 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-4″ 2′-0″ 2′-9″ 2′-0″ 3′-6″ 2′-6″ 4′-7″ 3′-3″ 5′-9″ 4′-2″ 7′-4″ 5′-3″ 9′-0″ 6′-5″ Lap Splices Not Allowed 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-4″ 2′-0″ 2′-9″ 2′-0″ 3′-3″ 2′-4″ 4′-11″ 2′-11″ 5′-2″ 3′-9″ 6′-7″ 4′-8″ 8′-1″ 5′-9″ Lap Splices Not Allowed 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-4″ 2′-0″ 2′-9″ 2′-0″ 3′-3″ 2′-4″ 3′-9″ 2′-8″ 4′-9″ 3′-5″ 6′-0″ 4′-4″ 7′-4″ 5′-3″ Lap Splices Not Allowed Tension Lap Splice Lengths of Grade 60 Epoxy Coated Bars – Class B fc′ = 3.

Reduced length noted in (1) shall also be straight bar extension.000 psi fc′ = 4.4. 4.1. 2′-0″ minimum (office practice). 2. Table 5.1-A7 5. ld 1′-0″* 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 1′-5″ 1′-7″ 1′-10″ 2′-1″ 2′-3″ 2′-9″ 3′-7″ 1′-0″* 1′-0″* 1′-2″ 1′-4″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 1′-11″ 2′-2″ 2′-7″ 3′-5″ Note: 1. *1′-0″ minimum (office practice). AASHTO Art. ld may be reduced by the ratio of required area to area provided. 3. 1991.4 Concrete Reinf. 8.000 psi Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Minimum Lap Splice 1′-0″* 1′-0″* 1′-2″ 1′-4″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 1′-11″ 2′-2″ 2′-7″ 3′-5″ 2′-0″4 2′-0″4 2′-0″4 2′-3″ 2′-6″ 2′-10″ 3′-3″ 3′-7″ 4′-3″ 5′-8″ Development Length. the lap splice shall be the larger of the minimum compression lap splice or the development length of the larger bar in compression. 8.000 psi fc′ = 6. 16th Edition Articles 8.32. ld (compression) must be developed with straight bar extension.000 psi fc′ > 3.26.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Minimum Development Length and Minimum Lap Splices of Deformed Bars in Compression Development Length of Deformed Bars in Compression and Minimum Compression Lap Splice Per AASHTO Standard Specifications. Bar Size 3&4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18 1′-0″* 1′-2″ 1′-5″ 1′-8″ 1′-10″ 2′-1″ 2′-4″ 2′-7″ 3′-1″ 4′-2″ fc′ = 3. Where excess bar area is provided.000 psi fc′ = 5.32. 5.1-A6 July 2000 . When splicing smaller bars to larger bars.

9 250.0047 0.8 740.1 ρmax 0.0117 0.8 212.1 759.8 501.0037 0.0133 0.0028 0.2 370.2 184.0 458.0053 0.2 697.0042 0.0080 0.3 405.0023 0.3 65.7 767.0 173.4 271.0140 ρ 515.0098 0.0097 0.0127 0.0156 587. ρmin should be based on 1.0136 0.0056 0.4 752.0147 547.2 100.9 763.5 244.0022 0.8 0.0090 0.0104 0.1 420.8 201.8 676.0078 0.7 111.0049 0.0111 0.2 775.0019 0.6 313.6 468.1 725.0144 533.0041 0.0 0.2 721.0132 0.1 71.9 635.7 277.0055 0.3 139.6 630.1 639.6 88.0150 560.0021 0.9 0.0026 0.7 ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 3.8 223.0142 524.85.1 496.0010 0.000 psi Mu φbd2 Mu φbd2 705. 3.0044 0.0 0.3 390.3 664.4 0.0119 0.0062 0.8 434.0145 538.4 643.1 303.2 454.0011 0.9 355.0121 0.2 0.4 506.0 689.0131 0.0013 0.0135 0.1 239. whichever is smaller.3 217.2 Mcr or 1.0158 596.0146 542.0064 0.0126 0.3 206.0112 0.0015 0.3 380.4 613.4 0.6 0.0018 0.0151 565.0 424.6 672.4 94.0 778.0113 0.0085 0.0046 0.9 Mu φbd2 298.0070 0.0153 574.4 473.0054 0.2 660. ρmax = 0.9 736.9 681.0065 0.0109 0.0031 0.0149 556.0114 0.0016 0.0063 0.8 463.2-A1 July 2000 5.4 0.0139 0.8 190.0143 529.3 0.5 771.0059 0.2 0.0 360.0087 0.0157 592.2 228.9 145.0057 0.8 162.0039 0.4 334.0048 0.0045 0.8 319.2 329.0120 0.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Mu φbd2 59.8 0.0094 0.1 693.0071 0.0052 ρ 0. Table 5.2 122.0161 based on β1 = 0.0020 0.7 344.0081 0.4 0.0092 0.0154 578.0068 0.0073 0.2 410.0079 0.3 626.2 415.000 psi fy = 60.2 477.0089 0.0134 0.0030 0.0100 0.0122 0.8 82.0 622.4 308.0103 0.0099 0.0058 0.6 292.0029 0.0074 0.4 492.1 510.0 266.6 748.0155 583.0107 0.0152 569.0141 520.9 0.0161 609.2 156.0034 0.0116 0.0160 605.0110 0.0138 0.0102 0.8 652.0159 600.6 0.0091 0.5 444.0076 0.0060 0.0123 0.0012 0.0077 0.9 0.6 179.7 439.0083 0.3 385.75ρb = 0.0040 0.6 487.2 375.2 717.0032 0.9 0.0084 0.0 76.0024 0.0043 0. Units of ρbd2 are in psi.0088 0.0051 0.9 128.2 Notes: Mu 1.1 365.0027 0.7 782.3 0.4 449.7 744.0129 0.5 ρ 0.4 168.0033 0.4 0.8 349.0061 0.0 282.5 339.0086 0.6 151.33 ρ analysis.0067 0.0035 0.2 713.0082 0.0075 0.6 647.7 261.0096 ρ 0.0050 0.0128 0.3 195.4 117.9 429.0 732.1 729.0069 0.2 701.0095 0.0108 0.0 656.5 668.0014 0.2-A1 .0101 0.0130 0.0124 0.0036 0.0066 0.0038 0.0 400.9 482.6 134.0148 551. 2.0115 0.0106 0.0 105.7 618.7 234.2 709.0125 0.3 255.3 395.0072 0.0093 0.0017 0.0025 0.3 287.0137 0.3 756.0118 0.0 685.0 324.7 0.0105 0.

0021 0.0120 0.5 629.0173 0.0181 0.0194 0.0038 0.2 845.5 870.5 995.0039 0.7 414.0166 0.0201 0.2 653.0113 0.2 586.3 667.1 862.1 242.0012 0.0 657.3 999.0066 0.2 ρ 0.6 476.0151 0.0 451.0205 0.1 522.2 383.0014 0.9 378.2 180.0068 0.0035 0.0071 0.3 634.0212 0.6 372.9 595.0022 0.0020 0.0127 0.8 983.0051 0.2 351.75ρb = 0. ρmax = 0.5 237.0130 0.0095 0.1 638.8 94.0042 0.0 1025.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures ρ 0.0158 0.7 600.3 1037.0145 0.8 643.8 0.3 956.0101 Mu φbd2 319.9 346.7 853.0085 0.0028 0.0161 0.0176 0.8 169.0128 0.0037 0.8 811.0065 0. Table 5.9 186.2 887.3 461.9 740.6 690.1 163.0190 0.0011 0.0187 0.0099 0.6 991.0079 0.4 610.000 psi Mu φbd2 771.9 758.1 425.0123 0.3 936.0 88.7 662.0108 0.0 1006.0033 0.5 175.33 ρ analysis.0093 0.7 566.3 832.0142 0.5 65. 2.0046 0.2-A2 July 2000 .2 77.0199 0.4 891.0192 0.9 146.0089 0.0084 0.2 197.9 699.0137 0.7 292.0073 0.0153 0.7 874.0045 0.0148 0.0114 0.2 928. Units of ρbd2 are in psi.9 420.0155 0.0177 0.2 Mcr or 1.0086 0.0117 0.0112 0.3 793.0044 0.0 546.4 753.0110 0.0048 0.0169 0.0026 0.6 303.7 129.0 916.9 203.9 979.0179 0.2-A2 5.4 735.0010 0.0119 0.0 975.0132 0.0092 0.0209 0.0154 0.0062 0. ρmin should be based on 1.000 psi fy = 60.6 356.0202 0.0186 0.0030 0.0067 0.0027 0.0125 0.8 281.0090 0.0060 0.0077 0.1 780.0015 0.1 972.0111 0.9 446.0183 0.0097 0.7 776.9 749.0196 0. whichever is smaller.0069 0.2 1003.6 899.0 542.0017 0.1 512.0213 ρmax 0.0076 0.3 225.0188 0.0023 0.8 767.0135 0.4 806.0103 0.0139 0.5 1018.0150 0.2 404.0143 0.85.3 762.0041 0.1 517.0052 0.0080 0.0170 0.6 1033.7 220.0096 0.5 313.9 789.0171 0.0056 0.3 1022.0063 0.6 605.1 532.2 960.0072 0.0074 0.0025 0.1 1040.0078 0.1 828.2 140.0167 0.1 83.3 866.0124 0.0136 0.0206 0.9 231.8 624.4 71.0019 0.0131 0.2 717.0102 0.0100 0.0172 0.0180 0.3 275.1 708.1 214.2 297.0214 Mu φbd2 964.1 802.0054 0.0116 0.1 308.7 440.7 798.0088 0.1 920.9 907.0144 0.6 836.0 619.3 681.0107 0.0211 0.1 590.0115 0.3 694.0185 0.0195 0.0 671.0024 0.3 952.4 466.0032 0.5 106.0036 0.5 340.5 576.7 824.0104 0.5 471.3 324.0106 0.0075 0.0210 0.5 895.2 253.9 497.1 335.7 394.0087 0.0 537.0214 based on β1 = 0.2 456.5 409.0050 0.0018 0.2 286.8 270.9 491.0165 0.8 ρ 0.0159 0.0168 0.0105 0.0070 0.0 502.0198 0.4 158.0184 0.5 209.3 940.0053 0.6 100.1 815.0193 Notes: Mu 1.6 571.0204 0.9 362.2 ρ ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 4.0203 0.0174 0.5 704.0138 0.0156 0.9 551.0141 0.0081 0.0083 0.7 152.0207 0.9 858.4 135.5 435.7 330.4 744.0082 0.7 561.4 849.3 726.0040 0.1 117.9 731.1 968.0149 0.3 430.3 944.0147 Mu φbd2 556.0152 0.0182 0.8 486.0118 0.7 481.7 676.0049 0.8 722.0164 0.5 648.0178 0.0122 0.6 713.0146 0.0 399.0059 0.0160 0.6 248.0016 0.0 507.0129 0.8 1029.9 841.0162 0.2 615.3 112.0121 0.0109 0.0140 0.7 987.0061 0.9 912.0094 0.2 924.3 581.6 192.0189 0.5 784.0064 0.0 685. 3.9 123.7 1014.0175 0.1 883.0197 0.0031 0.0091 0.0055 Mu φbd2 59.2 264.0043 0.0034 0.0126 0.0058 0.7 903.0157 0.0013 0.0047 0.7 259.3 932.1 527.0098 0.0134 0.0029 0.0208 0.0133 0.3 948.4 819.0163 0.9 ρ 0.0057 0.8 1010.4 388.2 367.0200 0.9 879.0191 0.

0012 0.0039 0.0128 0.1 718.0161 0.3 827.0179 0.8 289.0216 Notes: Mu 1. whichever is smaller.5 1238.6 1126.0177 0.0123 0.5 977.0 479.8 399.0070 0.5 608.0217 0.0098 0.0101 0.4 946.0158 0.0224 0.9 135.0066 0.9 727.80.4 1118.0 1218.0182 0.1 869.0241 0.0221 0.0097 0.4 557.0018 0.0242 0.0095 0.5 1122.1 158.9 653.1 1110.6 372.0108 0.9 1081.33 ρ analysis.6 1097.8 628.9 832. ρmax = 0.0050 0.0173 0.0232 0.2 333.5 603.4 703.0 94.7 536.8 673.7 328.0201 0.0107 0.8 261.0178 0.0119 0.0038 0.0152 0.0189 0.8 643.4 598.0069 0.0015 0.0120 0.0082 0.0159 0.3 484.0142 0.7 193.6 489.0212 0.9 1222.3 593.0110 0.9 542.0166 0.0171 0.0053 0.9 578.6 65.0131 0.2 1051.0025 0.2 221.9 227.0163 0.4 1191.0045 0.1 583.0 415.1 377.6 823.0181 0.000 psi ρ Mu φbd2 874.1 463.4 176.0112 Mu φbd2 350.0048 0.1 204.7 ρ 0.0 300.0075 0.5 71.5 382.0031 0.4 393.5 436.0246 0.0186 0.6 688.8 442.0026 0.8 572.3 1203.7 1076.0229 0.0049 0.7 426.2 901.0071 0.2 344.3 910.0079 0.0080 0.6 510.2 0.8 906.0147 0.0195 0.0218 0.9 982.0235 0.0057 0.4 1072.8 495.0139 0.0188 0.4 468.4 1179.1 1085.5 888.0223 0.0204 0.0240 0.0034 0.0088 0.0086 0.8 516.6 1234.9 924.5 1025.7 ρ 0.0143 0.6 410.0200 0.0085 0.0 547.9 187.0233 0.0116 0.6 147.2 283.4 809.6 837.4 1171.7 960.4 267.0227 0.3 878.0149 0.9 933.3 1163.0077 0.5 250.8 638.0234 0.0028 0.0 1064.0130 0.0136 0.5 1055.0133 0.0056 0.0150 0.0199 0.7 761.3 955.3 771.0022 0.0021 0.0228 0.9 100.0203 0.3 1114.0172 0.0148 0.0238 0.0094 0.0125 0.0129 0.2 1151.8 663.2 552.0040 0.5 766.7 618.0197 0.3 83.3 153.0175 0.9 818.0115 0.0068 0.9 244.0151 0.0187 0.0099 0.5 306.0058 0.0214 0.4 919.0072 0.4 1242.0064 0.0243 0.0076 0.0103 0.0160 0.8 458.8 1226.0043 0.0198 0.0169 0.2 713.3 842.0 272.7 1230.0 521.0236 0.3 708.0017 0.0036 0.6 112.2-A3 .0237 0.9 388.0154 0.0055 0.0023 0.4 999.0225 0.3 124.4 790.0016 0.0155 0.0093 0.0162 0.0 995.9 883.9 942.7 ρ 0.0027 0.0156 0.0252 based on β1 = 0.3 1199.0104 0.3 1089.1 751.0091 0.0196 0.0180 0.8 1004.8 Mu φbd2 59.0244 0.0231 0.0113 0.0106 0.0065 0.5 216.1 775.0137 0.0063 0.0084 0.8 648.0213 0.0174 0.4 928.0167 0.0060 ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 5.1 1147.8 633.0248 0.4 1187.0087 0.0109 0.4 1195.1 311.0062 0.0222 0. ρmin should be based on 1.0117 0.9 1139.6 278.4 1038.0140 0.0013 0.0208 0.0207 0.0184 0.3 1159.0041 0.0141 0.8 951.4 937.8 1017. 3.0102 0.0032 0. 2.1 500.0220 0.5 233. Units of ρbd2 are in psi.1 366.6 737.2 1207.7 1060.0122 0.5 1012.0249 0.9 164.0073 0.0135 0.0083 0.0132 0.8 658.1 892.7 567.3 747.5 531.1 813.0030 0.0081 0.0210 0.0042 0.0 722.6 851.5 452.5 1093.0209 0.4 742.0124 0.1 431.0153 0.7 804.0126 0.0020 0.8 1030.3 526.0250 0.9 1047.2 355.7 897.0164 Mu φbd2 623.0134 0.8 141.0051 0.0096 0.0251 0.7 474. Table 5.3 986.8 210.5 698.2 447.0090 0.0111 0.2-A3 July 2000 5.0074 0.0219 0.0226 0.0206 0.0239 0.0165 0.4 505.4 199.2 1155.0202 0.0121 0.0037 0.1 322.7 732.0170 0.1 1008.7 170.2 238.0247 0.9 756.4 77.0118 0.4 1175.6 693.0138 0.8 1130.0010 0.75ρb = 0.0100 0.0215 0.1 1215.9 1134.8 668.0061 0.0033 0.0146 0.0 1143.0183 0.9 915.0 846.0029 0.6 969.7 361.9 860.1 129.0205 0.6 613.0194 0.0078 0.0252 Mu φbd2 1102.0211 0.0145 0.0052 0.2 89.0035 0.0011 0.1 255.0019 0.0185 0.7 683.0114 0.9 780.0193 0.7 678.0 973.2 795.0245 0.2 181.2 1068.6 991.2 964.0024 0.7 339.0176 0.0230 0.2 Mcr or 1.4 295.0 1106.2 1211.6 317.0192 0.0014 0.000 psi fy = 60.0191 0.0067 0.7 785.3 855.5 562.4 1183.0059 0.2 588.0044 0.5 865.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures ρ 0.0089 0.0168 0.0157 0.4 1167.1 ρmax 1034.5 118.0190 0.1 1021.7 1042.0092 0.8 106.2 404.0144 0.0127 0.0 799.0054 0.0105 0.0046 0.0047 0.4 420.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Positive Moment Reinforcement Figure 5.3-A1 .3-A1 July 2000 5.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Negative Moment Reinforcement Figure 5.3-A2 July 2000 .3-A2 5.

3-A3 July 2000 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Adjusted Negative Moment Case I (Design for M @ Face of Effective Support) Figure 5.3-A3 .

3-A4 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Adjusted Negative Moment Case II (Design for M @ 1/4 Point) Figure 5.3-A4 July 2000 .

3-A5 .000 psi Figure 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Load Factor Slab Design fc′ = 4.3-A5 July 2000 5.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Load Factor Slab Design fc′ = 5.3-A6 5.000 psi Figure 5.3-A6 July 2000 .

3D + 2. Provide enough extension to the left of “A-A” to develop the As required (usually will require hooking bars).000. 2. Load Factor = (1. If #5 or #6 bars are used to furnish the As from this chart. check distribution of flexural reinforcement — AASHTO 8. 4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Slab Design — Traffic Barrier Load Notes: 1.3-A7 .4. 3. Figure 5.3-A7 July 2000 5. For Load Factor design. Section “A-A” is taken to be the critical section. Other sections ordinarily do not need to be investigated.17L).16-8. then this requirement will not have to be checked. Service Load fs = 20.

30) = 8.3. deck reinforcement 12 feet 3 inches 18 inches wide 4.2-B1 Given: Center-to-center spacing of girders = Width of top flange of steel girder = Deck concrete.000 psi 60.90 in2/ft ok AASHTO.2-B1-1 .5 inches 1. Determine Transverse Deck Reinforcement — Top Slab Reinforcement Dead Load Moment. 1989.8 impact factor = 1.50 + 10) (12) / 30 = 8.875) = 0.78) ] = 21.000 psi 2. Deck thickness. Mu: Mu = 1.25′ – 2 (18″) / (4) (12) = 11. Section 3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Example 5. Class 4000 fc′ = = Reinforcing steel.3 psi Interpolating from Table 5.1 Use same bar size and spacing for bottom slab reinforcement.875″ Mu / (φ) (b) (d)2 = 21. tmin = (Seff + 10) (12) / 30 = (11.60″ Use 83/4″ thick slab 2.04 (12.0) (0.000) / (0.875 – As req’d = 0.90 in2/ft Agrees with value previously computed by tables.2-A2.75″ / 12) (0.3 [ 1.0 inch Slab Design Determine Deck Thickness Seff = 12.160 kcf) ] (11.24. MLL+I: MLL+I = (S + 2) (Pwheel) (0. An alternate approach is to solve directly for As req’d from Eq (5).875)2 = 677.0 kips/wheel (HS25 Truck) continuity factory = 0.30 (11.30) 32 AASHTO.50′ Minimum thickness.55 + (5/3) (8.8) (1.3725 (21. MDL: MDL = (1/10) [ (8.1 where: Pwheel = 1.04) / (4) (12) ] (5) = [ 0.25 (16 kips/wheel) = 20.8) (1.3.78 kip-ft/ft 32 Factored Design Moment.75 – 2.50 + 2) MLL+I = (20.9) (12) (5.90 in2/ft Use #6 bars at 5″ ctrs. Grade 60 fy Cover to top bars = Cover to bottom bars = Analyze a 1 foot wide section of slab Find: 1. As = 1.3725 Mu / fc′ b) ] √ (5.1B: As req’d = 0.2.785)2 – 31.06 in2/ft > 0. Section 3.55 kip-ft/ft Live Load Moment + Impact.85 (fc′ / fy) (b) [ d – √d2 – (31.5 – (0. July 2000 5.01272 As req’d = ρ (b) (d) = 0.04 kip-ft/ft Determine As req’d: dtop bars = 8.50)2 = 1. 1989.24. Appendix A: ρ = 0.85 (4) (12) / 60 ] [ 5.01272 (12) (5.75) / 2 = 5. BDM Section 5.

1B: As max = 0.884 Agrees with Table 1.85) (12) (5.160 in-lbs/ft Mu / φ bd2 = 87.124 h2 √ f c′ ) 0.2.5 √ fc′ (1/6) (b) (t)2 = (1.348 fs = 24.8 psi From Table 5.75 ρb = 0.40 fc′ = 1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Check As min using Table 5.124 (8. Calculate allowable fs: fs allowable = z / [ (dc) (A) ]1/3 = 130 / [ (2.000 psi Grade 60 bars per AASHTO.15.600 psi for Conc Cl 4000 n = Es / Ec = 29.875) = (60) ( 87 + 60 ) y 1.160 / [ 0. ( 87 87 f ) + (4) 87 = 0.63 ksi > 22.2-A2. page 81.28 in2/ft < 1.875)2 – √4 ) (7) As min = 0.000 / (8) (1. interpolate ρ = 0.85 (4) (12) (60) Slab Design As min = ( √ ( √ d – d2 – 5.2-B1-2 July 2000 .600) ] = 0.875 – fc′ fy 0.06 in2/ft Check As min using Eq (6): As min = 0.2-A2. BDM Section 5. Section 8.875) (5) (5. From Table 5.06) (0.000) / Asjd Where j = l – k/3 = 0.2 fc = 0.00404 (12) (5.33 kip-ft/ft fs calc = M(12.875) = 0.2.000) / (1.1G.620.85 fc′ (b) fy 0.000 = 8.2) 7.51 in2/ft ok Check Crack Control Requirements Calculate fs due to Service Load: M service load = 1.875) = 1.00404 As min = ρ (b) (d) = 0. BDM Section 5. 1965 k = 1 / 1 [ 1 + fs/nfc] = 1 / [ 1 + 24.75)2 87.0214 As max = 0.75) ]1/3 = 29.6375 (0.5 √ 4.55 + 8.2) 7.78 = 10.285 in2/ft Check As max: Agrees with value from tables.0 fs calc = 10.884) (5.2 Mcr = 1.0214 (12) (5.875) = 22. ACI Publication SP-3 Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook Working Stress Design.517 psi Using Eq (21).875)2 ] = 233.2-A2.75)2 (6) (5. Appendix A.000 (1/6) (12) (8.52 ksi ok Eq (21) 5. ρmax = 0.33 (12.000 / 3.6375 β1 (b) (d) As max 3.51 in2/ft Check As max using Eq (7).2 fr S = (1.2. Appendix A: Mu = 1.000. Appendix A.9 (12) (5.

1 kips/in < 130 kips/in Use #6 bars at 5″ ctrs top and bottom transverse slab reinforcement. ok Eq (22) Slab Design Deck Reinforcement — Mid-Span Steel Plate Girder July 2000 5.2-B1-3 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Alternate Approach.52) [ (2.875) (5) (5. Check zcalc < 130 kips/in using Eq (22): zcalc = fs calc [ (dc) (A) ]1/3 < 130 kips/in = (22.75) ]1/3 = 98.

16 Close enough to 4.15) ] = 11. Appendix A: ρ = 0.5 – 2.92)2 = 0.8) (1.35 + (5/3) (5. July 2000 5.5″ ok 2. Chapter 6.4 psi Interpolating from Table 5.54 (12.625) = 0. MDL: MDL = (1/10) [ (7.75) / 2 = 4.54 + 2) (Pwheel) (0.15 kip-ft/ft Factored Design Moment.5″ no overlay. This thickness permits the use of #6 transverse and #5 longitudinal bars.625″ Mu / (φ) (b) (d)2 = 12.92′ Check Minimum Slab Thickness.000 psi 2.000 psi 5.2-B2 Given: Center-to-center spacing of W58G girders Width of top flange Average flange thickness Girder concrete strength fc′ Deck concrete.37″ < 7.160 kcf) ] (5.625)2 = 651.01089 As req’d = ρ (b) (d) = 0. Class 5000 fc′ Cover to top bars Cover to bottom bars Find: 1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Example 5.000) / (0.5 – (0. deck reinforcement = = = = = = = 8 feet 0 inches 25 inches wide 6 inches 7.9) (12) (4.0.5″ / 12) (0. per BDM. Determine Transverse Deck Reinforcement — Top Slab Reinforcement Dead Load Moment.30) 32 32 = 5.43 kip-ft/ft Live Load Moment + Impact. Mu: Mu = 1.24.2(a) Width of top flange/average flange thick = 4.0) (0.8) (1.61 in2/ft Use #6 bars at 8″ ctrs.3 [ 0.66 in2/ft ok Use same bar size and spacing for bottom slab reinforcement. Deck thickness.61 kip-ft/ft Determine As req’d: dtop bars = 7. use clear span for Seff Seff = Sg – W2 = 8.083′ = 5.01089 (12) (4. Seff = clear span per AASHTO 3.2-B2-1 .2-A3. tmin: tmin = (Seff + 10) (12) / 30 = (5.0′ – 2.30) = (20. As = 0. MLL+I: MLL+I = MLL+I (S + 2) (6.0 inch Slab Design for Prestressed Girders Determine Deck Thickness Minimum slab thickness = 7.92′ + 10) (12) / 30 = 6.1.5 inches 1.

000.47 in2/ft As provided = 0.000 √ 5.000 / 4.2) (2.50 (12.67 (As actual) = 0.0″: Mu / (φ) (b) (d)2 = 1. Check Crack Control Requirements — Transverse Reinforcement Calculate fs due to Service Load: Mservice load = 0.8 psi Interpolating from Table 5.50 kip-ft/ft fs calc = M (12.44 in2 > 6.5″) (2.47 in2/ft Check longitudinal distribution reinforcement so that spacing can be coordinated with the reinforcement required for negative pier girder moment: P = 220 / √ S = 220 / √ 6.3 [ 187.9) (25) (64)2 = 251.000 / (7.5 + 0.875″ ok fs allow = 130 / [ (43. Determine Longitudinal Deck Reinforcement Moments at Pier.0) = 6.2-B2-2 July 2000 .71 ksi 4.93 in2 Spacing is approximately 8.0″.125) (2.6 kip-ft/girder MLL+I = 780.07 ksi > 24.66) (0.8 kip-ft/girder Determine As req’d assume two layers of #5 with davg = 64.625) = 24.15 = 5.93 in2 Use 24-#5 (12-#5 in each layer) As = 7.000) / (0.35 + 5. As/ft = 0.6 + (5/3) (780.000) / Asjd where: j = k = fc = Ec = fs = n = l – k/3 = 1 – 0.000 psi for Concrete Class 5000 57.2 Slab Design for Prestressed Girders fs calc = 5.500 psi 24.00433 (25) (64.375 0.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 3. Appendix A: ρ = 0.000) / (0.375/3 = 0.710 psi top bar Calculate fs allowable = z / (Adc)1/3: A = (7.2-A3.875) ]1/3 = 26.500 = 7.67 (0.933.000) = 2. Negative Reinforcement: MDL = 187.000) ] = 0.40 fc′ = (0.0) ] = 1.47 in2/ft ok ok 5.000 = 4.030.875) (4.125 dc = 2.0 kip-ft/girder Service Load Moments Mu = 1.54 = 86.933.030.875 1 / 1 [ 1 + fs/nfc ] = 1 / [ 1 + 24.40) (5.75 / 2 = 2.000 psi Grade 60 bars Es / Ec = 29.70) = 0.0 percent but not to exceed 67 percent Distribution Reinforcement = 0.00433 As req’d = 0.875″) (2) / 1 bar = 43.8 (12.

56) ]1/3 dc = 2.0047) (6.000) / (7.44) (0.0″ to compute A A = (96) (7.000) / Asjd = 967.22 psi Deck Reinforcement at Intermediate Pier — Prestressed Girder Bridge Longitutdinal Deck Reinforcement is designed for the negative moment at an intermediate pier. July 2000 5.5) / 24 bars = 30.2-B1-1.0) ]2 – (0.0047) (6.75 + 0. Otherwise.625/2 = 3.210 j = l – k/3 = 0.0) = 0. Check Crack Control Requirement — Longitudinal Reinforcement 24-#5 k = k = As = 7.93 fs calc = M (12.000.44 in2 n = Es/Ec = 29.93) (64.220 psi fs allowable = z / [ (dc) (A) ]1/3 Use actual girder spacing = (8.56″ ok = 27.2-B2-3 .6 (12.0) = 26.0 in2/bar fs allowable = 130 / [ 30. the longitudinal deck reinforcement will be similar to that shown in Example 5.0) + [ (0.0′) (12) = 96.0047) (6.769.000 = 6.0 (3.000 / 4.5 + 0.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Slab Design for Prestressed Girders 5.0 √ 2 ρ n + (ρ n)2 – ρ n √ 2 (0.40 psi > 26.

4 of AASHTO’s Guide Specifications for Design and Construction of Segmental Concrete Bridges. Use Section 12.2-B3-1 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Example 5. July 2000 5.2-B3 Strut-and-Tie Design Design Loads Group I: Pu = 1600k H=0 k Group VII: Pu = 1500 H = 400k Assume crossbeam dead load is included with bearing loads. 1989.

85 × 5) Acn ≥ 2.85 fc′: 0.400 Acn ≥ 753 in2 Use the following node size at the top of column: 5.2-B3-2 July 2000 .75 (0.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Develop a Preliminary Strut-and-Tie Model: Strut-and-Tie Design Estimate node size at top of column: φb (fcn Acn) ≥ Su Assuming spiral reinforcement provides confinement. use φb = 0.75 and fcn = 0.

1″ 72″ (72″ × 12.596 Acn ≥ 873 in2 depth of node = 873 = 12.600k chord: Acn ≥ 1.2-B3-3 .85 fc′ in regions with compression only fcn = 0. Acn ≥ = 1.70 (0.7″) 72″ For 1.600 308 depth of node = = 4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Determine Truss Element Forces: Strut-and-Tie Design Group I Strut Loads Group VII Strut Loads Determine Minimum Size of Node Regions: φb (fcn Acn) ≥ Su where: φb = 0. 0.70 fc′ in regions with one tension tie At base of inclined strut.85 × 5) Acn ≥ 2.7″ (72″ × 14.5″ 72″ 915 For 915k chord: Acn ≥ (538) = 308 in2 1.3″ 72″ depth of node = July 2000 5.600 = 538 in2 0.70 (0.596 At top of inclined strut.1″) where width of crossbeam = 72″ 2.060 depth of node = = 14.70 × 5) 1.060 in2 0.75 (0.70 for bearing fcn = 0.85 × 5) 538 = 7.

45) (5) 1.600 0.9 in 72 Acs ≥ For 915k inclined compressive strut: 915 Acs ≥ (1.2-B3-4 July 2000 .6 in 72 For 1.600k compression chord: Acs ≥ 1.85 (0.45 fc′) and depth of chord = Incorporate Node and Member Sizes Into Model: 5.85) (5) = 418 in2 418 = 5.357) = 478 in2 2.45 × 5) Acs ≥ 2.357 and depth of strut = = 18.85 fc′ Acc + As′ fs′) ≥ Su For 2.596k inclined compressive strut: 0.9 (0.596k 2.357 in2 0.596 478 and depth of strut = = 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Determine Minimum Sizes of Compression Members: φv (fcu Acs) ≥ Su (inclined compressive struts) (compression chords) Strut-and-Tie Design φf (0.596 = 1.8 in 72 (fcu = 0.85 (0.

37″ = 4″ estimate x = ok 45.000 psi.5 in2 Try using 12 bundles of #14 top and #11 bot (As = 45.90 (As) (60) ≥ 2. ldh = 1′ – 5″ ok 0.8 in2 > 41.97) = 4.7 in2) Check development length of tie bars: For #14 bars with fc′ = 5.25) (3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Recalculate Truss Member Forces: Strut-and-Tie Design Group I Strut Loads Design Tie Member: φf (As fsy + A*s f*su) ≥ Su without prestress: As ≥ 41. ldh = 2′ – 5″ Development length available = 2′ – 4″ < 2′ – 5″ For #11 bars.26) + 12 (1.56) + 12 (2.2-B3-5 .240 Group VII Strut Loads Therefore.5 in2 ok ( 28 ) 29 Partial Elevation-Tension Tie at Top of Pier Cap 12 (2.7 July 2000 5. total developed steel As = 12 (1.25) As = 44.56) (5.

0″ 0. For horizontal reinforcing: where s < d or 12″ 3 For s = 12″. use 4 #6 legs at 12″ maximum spacing.37 = = 16.58 in2 1.2 and 12.76 As = 0.002 (72) (2 – #9 bars) Use #8 bars at 11″ maximum spacing on side faces.002 bw d 72 – 4.002 (72) (12) = 1.5.3: For vertical reinforcing: As fy ≥ 120 bw s d where s < or 12″ 4 120 bw s Therefore.3.2-B3-6 July 2000 .000 Assume 4 legs of #6 stirrups: As = 1.5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Strut-and-Tie Design Determine Minimum Vertical and Horizontal Steel Using Sections 12.2 in Check: Therefore. For bottom bars. As ≥ 0.58 = 11.3. As ≥ = 0.002 (72) 0. use #6 at approximately 12″ (7 – #6 bars) 5.76 in2 s ≤ 1.73 in2 Try 2 #8 bars: s ≤ As = 1.002 bw s 60.9″ 4 4 As fy ≥ 120 bw s s ≤ 12.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Example 5.2-B4 Service Load — Concrete Stresses and Constants Working Stress Design July 2000 5.2-B4-1 .

2-B4-2 July 2000 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Working Stress Design 5.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Working Stress Design July 2000 5.2-B4-3 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. Construction . . . . . . . Concrete Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . Prestressing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Prestressed Concrete Superstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . Time-dependent Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deflection and Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precast Girder Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . Losses . . . . . . . . . . Precast Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prestressing Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . B. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . Anchorages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2. Fabrication and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precast Prestressed Slabs . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prestressing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . .6 6. . . A. . . . . . . Shrinkage Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Support Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . .2. .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . Design Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prestressed Girder Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creep Rate . . . . . . . . Basic Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instantaneous Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Composite Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contract Plans . . Washington Standard Prestressed Girder Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. B. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .0-i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precast Box Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . Post-Tensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of Prestressing Strand . . . . . . . . . G. . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strength of Concrete . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6.2-1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 7 8 10 14 14 14 15 15 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .1 July 2000 6. . . . . . . . . . Precast Prestressed Tri-Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Contents Page 6. . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties . . Modulus of Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precast Prestressed Deck Bulb-Tee Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre-Tensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precast Prestressed (Short Span Bridges) . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section Geometry . . . . Criteria for Girder Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1 1 1 1 7 6. . . . . . Connections (Joints) . .

. . . Prestress Moment Curves . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . Roadway Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skew Effects . Skin Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K. . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strand and Tendon Arrangements . . . . . . . Design Parameters . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Girder Selection and Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anchorage Stresses . . . . Continuous Spans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review of Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Effects . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-ii July 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Slab Cantilevers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superstructure Shortening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repair of Damaged Bridge Girders . . . . F. . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layout of Anchorages and End Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Framing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Stress Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . .99 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . Cast-in-Place Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repair Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . Expansion Bearing Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Contents Page 6. . A. . . . . Slab Thickness . . . . . . . . . Post-Tensioning Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . A. . Bibliography . . . Steel Stress Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . Transverse Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometry and Construction Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . C. . Crossbeam Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Prestress Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 10 11 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 18 18 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 24 6. . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . I. . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99-1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tendon Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Spans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexural Stress in Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curve Effect and Flare Effect . . . . . . .3. . . Bridge Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End Block Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1 1 1 1 2 3 3 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 20 20 21 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diaphragm Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . N. . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loads . . . . . . . . . Grade and Cross Slope Effects . . M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-A1-2 W42G Girder Details 2 of 2 6.5-A13 Single Span Prestressed Girder Construction Sequence 6.4-A3-1 WSDOT Standard Girders Section Properties — Non-Composite Sections 1 of 2 6.5-A2-2 W50G Girder Details 2 of 2 6.5-A10-4 Intermediate Pier — End Wall on Girder Details 6.5-A6-3 W83G Girder Details 3 of 3 6.6-A1-1 Precast Prestressed 1′-0″ Solid Slab Details 1 of 2 6.5-A6-1 W83G Girder Details 1 of 3 6.4-A3-2 WSDOT Standard Girders Section Properties — Non-Composite Sections 2 of 2 6.5-A1-1 W42G Girder Details 1 of 2 6.1-A1 “A” Dimension for P.5-A8 End Wall on P.5-A10-3 Intermediate Pier — Hinge Diaphragm Details 6.4-A4 WSDOT Standard Girders Span Range Capacity 6.5-A7-2 W95G Girder Details 2 of 3 6.2-A1 W95G and W83G 6.5-A10-1 Intermediate Pier — Fixed Recessed-Face Diaphragm Details 6.5-A5-3 WF74G Girder Details 3 of 3 6.5-A3-2 W58G Girder Details 2 of 2 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Appendix A — Design Aids 6.S.6-A1-2 Precast Prestressed 1′-0″ Solid Slab Details 2 of 2 6.5-A2-1 W50G Girder Details 1 of 2 6. Concrete Girder — Diaphragm Details 6.5-A11 Intermediate Diaphragm Details 6.6-A3-2 Precast Prestressed 2′-2″ Voided Slab Details 2 of 2 Contents July 2000 6.5-A6-2 W83G Girder Details 2 of 3 6.6-A2-1 Precast Prestressed 1′-6″ Voided Slab Details 1 of 2 6.5-A5-1 WF74G Girder Details 1 of 3 6.5-A7-3 W95G Girder Details 3 of 3 6.6-A2-2 Precast Prestressed 1′-6″ Voided Slab Details 2 of 2 6.5-A4-1 W74G Girder Details 1 of 2 6.S.4-A1-1 WSDOT Standard Girder — Composite Sections 6.5-A3-1 W58G Girder Details 1 of 2 6.4-A1-2 WSDOT Standard Girder — Non-Composite Sections 6.4-A2 WSDOT Standard Girders Section Properties — Composite Sections 6.5-A7-1 W95G Girder Details 1 of 3 6. Concrete Bridges 6.5-A12 Miscellaneous Diaphragm Details 6.3-A1 Prestressed Girder Intermediate Hinge Diaphragm 6.0-iii .5-A14 Multiple Span Prestressed Girder Construction Sequence 6.5-A4-2 W74G Girder Details 2 of 2 6.6-A3-1 Precast Prestressed 2′-2″ Voided Slab Details 1 of 2 6.5-A5-2 WF74G Girder Details 2 of 3 6.5-A10-2 Intermediate Pier — Fixed Flush-Face Diaphragm Details 6.5-A9 Abutment Type Pier — Diaphragm Details 6.

8-A3-3 6.0-iv July 2000 . Box Girder Bridges Multiple Span P65:DP/BDM6 6.7-A3 6.8-A4-1 6.8-A3-4 6.8-A2-4 6.T.8-A4-2 6.2-B1 Notes to Designers Post-Tensioning 6. Box Girder Bridges Two Span 6.8-A5 Precast Prestressed Slab End Pier Details Precast Prestressed Slab Intermediate Pier Details Precast Prestressed Slab Layout Precast Prestressed Ribbed Tri-Beam Girder Details 1 of 2 Precast Prestressed Ribbed Tri-Beam Girder Details 2 of 2 Precast Prestressed Ribbed Tri-Beam Girder Pier Details W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2 W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2 W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2 W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2 W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2 W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2 W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2 W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2 W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details Contents Appendix B — Design Examples 6.3-B3 P.8-A3-1 6.T.7-A1-2 6.8-A1-1 6.6-A4 6. Box Girder Bridges Single Span 6.8-A1-3 6.7-A1-1 6.8-A3-2 6.8-A1-4 6.8-A4-4 6.8-A2-2 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.3-B2 P.3-B1 P.6-A6 6.8-A2-1 6.6-A5 6.8-A4-3 6.8-A2-3 6.1-B1 Post-Tensioning Anchorages 6.8-A1-2 6.T.

The minimum concrete compressive strength at release (fci′) for each prestressed girder in a bridge is to be calculated and shown in the plans. For a 28-day concrete compressive strength of 7. (2) cast-in-place post-tensioned bridges. For high strength concrete. The final strength of concrete shall be specified as required by design and shall be shown on the plans. to a maximum of 10. Concrete Stresses at Service Load Under working stress conditions. tensile stresses in the precompressed tensile zone shall be limited to zero.1. General 6. the latest ACI Code should be consulted.500 and 6. Where additional guidance is needed. WSDOT utilizes prestressed concrete in special structures such as segmental cast-in-place or precast construction. except as modified in this section. Allowable Stresses AASHTO standard specifications list the allowable stresses to be used in design except as noted below. They are (1) prestressed precast concrete girder or slab bridges. 1. and (3) combination prestressed/post-tensioned bridges. Refer to portions of Chapter 5 for information relating to concrete reinforcement and design methods used for prestressed structures. This prevents cracking of the concrete during service life of the structure and provides more allowance for overloads during the life of the bridge. This section provides criteria for these structure types and provides general guidance for other designs using prestressed concrete.000 psi shall be specified. The following strengths are normally used for design. 6.0 6.500 psi. preferably at 8. Strength of Concrete Pacific NW aggregates have consistently resulted in excellent concrete strengths. this strength can be specified.000 psi. 2. 1.1. a concrete compressive strength (at release) of between 3.1-1 . Prestressed concrete bridges shall be designed using working stress design and checked for ultimate load capacity.000 psi. For special considerations used for design of Washington State standard prestressed girders.1 Criteria A. B. Where higher strengths would eliminate a line of girders. Shear Capacity Shear in webs of prestressed bridges shall be in accordance with AASHTO specifications.2 Concrete Properties A.000 psi. General AASHTO specifications shall be used to design prestressed concrete bridges.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.000 psi in 28 days. see Subsection 6. to as much as 10. Precast Girders Nominal 28-day concrete strength (fc′) for precast girders with a cast-in-place deck is 7. the compressive strength at release shall be limited to July 2000 6.1 Prestressed Concrete Superstructures General WSDOT uses three types of prestressed concrete bridges.3.

500 psi can be achieved with extended curing for special circumstances. Release strengths of up to 8. Reference to 6. Standard Prestressed Girders The creep coefficient for standard prestressed girders may be taken as: 3. Normally.4. Cast-in-Place Post-tensioned Bridges Since conditions for placing and curing concrete on cast-in-place bridges are not controlled.1-2 July 2000 . use class 4000 concrete for post-tensioned cast-in-place bridges. 2. The specified concrete strength at release should be rounded to the next highest 100 psi. With this value. t0.99. see Reference 6. ∆ total = ∆ elastic (1+ Ct) For other factors affecting this equation. the creep coefficient for loading at 7 days for moist-cured concrete and 1-3 days for steam-cured concrete is: 22 . 2.6 Ct = 6 + fc ′ 10 + t The final deflection is a combination of the elastic deflection and the creep effect associated with given loads shown by the equation below. the structure could be designed for class 5000 concrete.2 and 6.800 √fc′.60. as they are for precast bridge sections.500 psi. Normal weight concretes used in Washington generally have weights close to 160 lbs/ft3.4 discusses methods for calculating creep effects.95 . the modules of elasticity equation simplifies to E = 66. a lower figure is used for concrete strength. 1. where w is the weight of concrete in lbs/ft3. 3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures General 7. Where significant economy can be gained and structural requirements dictate. B. C.99. Cast-in-Place Slabs Concrete class 4000D shall be used for all cast-in-place bridge decks unless otherwise approved by the Bridge Design Engineer. Ct = Ln (t + 1) 6 + f c′ Ct = creep coefficient t = time in days fc′ = ultimate strength of concrete in ksi 6. Modulus of Elasticity The modulus of elasticity for concrete strength up to 10 ksi is normally 33w3/2 √ fc′. Creep Rate The creep coefficient for standard conditions may be taken as follows: Standard conditions are relative humidity ≤40 percent and average thickness of section 6 inches.99. Cast-in-Place Girders For most designs.

Shrinkage Rate To compute the variation of shrinkage with time. July 2000 6.1. V. General Three types of high-tensile steel are used for producing prestress. low relaxation or stress relieved.S. They are: 1. Anchorages WSDOT requires approval of all multi-strand and/or bar anchorages used in prestressed concrete bridges by testing or by a certified report.4 Prestressing Systems A.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures D. General There are numerous prestressing systems.1. Type 2. Most systems combine a method of stressing the prestressing strands with a method of anchoring it to concrete. The following sources of prestress loss can influence the effective stress in the strand. 2. Parallel wires: ASTM A 421 Grade 240.L. see Reference 6. Manufacturers whose anchorages have been approved are. Bars: ASTM A 722 Grade 150. 3. Corporation Avar Construction System Dywidag Systems International 6. 3. All WSDOT designs are based on low relaxation strands using either 1/2″ or 0. B. For corrections to the shrinkage rate values including correction for initial shrinkage. B. General 6. Strands: ASTM A 416 Grade 270.1-3 . 1.1.4. Allowable Stresses Allowable stresses for design are as listed in AASHTO specifications. 6. stating that the anchorage assembly will develop the yield strength of post-tensioning steel.5 Losses AASHTO specifications outline the method of predicting prestress losses for usual prestressed concrete bridges which may be used in design except as noted below.3 Prestressing Steel A.51 x 10-3 For moist cured concrete after 7 days: 35 + t t (∑SH)t = x 0.56 x 10-3 For steam cured concrete after 1 to 3 days: 55 + t Where (∑SH)t is the shrinkage strain at any point in time.6″ diameter strands.99. use the following equations: t (∑SH)t = x 0. 2.

Anchorage slippage. Time-dependent Losses 1.6) / 6 ] Time Dependent Prestress Losses Table 6.1-4 July 2000 . 2. fcgp may be calculated on the basis of 0. This slippage is assumed to be 1/4 inch for design purposes. ksi For pretensioned member and low-relaxation strands. 2.5-1 Prestress losses due to instantaneous sources shall be added to the time dependent losses to determine the total losses.000 psi.0. These losses are due to intended cable curvature and unintended wobble coefficient. ksi N = number of identical prestressing tendons fcgp = sum of concrete stresses at the center of gravity of prestressing tendons due to the prestressing force at transfer (after jacking for posttensioned members) and the self-weight of the member at the section of maximum moment. Type of Section Rectangular Beam Box Girder I-Girder Single/Double T. 6.1. the total prestress loss may be taken as 48 ksi. For normal design in lieu of more accurate methods. Friction losses.7fpu. Instantaneous Losses 1.1. For post-tensioned members with bonded tendons.0.6) / 6 ] Bars 25 ksi 15 ksi 19 ksi 29 [ 1. Elastic shortening of concrete. General 3.20 and k = 0. For preliminary design of pretensioned prestressed girders with normal strength concrete limited to 7. ksi Eci = modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer.16 and k = 0.0002.0. fcgp may be calculated on the basis of prestressing force after jacking at the section of maximum moment. For strands against smooth polyethylene duct µ = 0.15 (fc′ . time dependent losses may be taken as given in Table 6. Steel relaxation. The loss due to elastic shortening in pretensioned members shall be taken as: PLES = (Ep / Eci ) fcgp The loss due to elastic shortening in post-tensioned members shall be taken as: PLES = [(N-1)/2N x Ep / Eci ] fcgp where: Ep = modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel. B.5-1. For strands against rigid galvanized metal duct these values are respectively µ = 0.15 (fc′ . Shrinkage of concrete. Creep of concrete.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures A.15 (fc′ .0002. Hollow Core Voided Slab Low-relaxation Strands 33 ksi 21 ksi 33 [1.6) / 6 ] 37 [ 1. 3.

Shop Plans The shop plans are used to detail. and arrangement of tendons. These plans must also contain the location of anchorages. use a suitable system of keys. Shear and Alignment Keys: In order to assist shear transmission in wide joints.1-5 . Generally. General 6. web thickness for post-tensioned bridges shall be at least 12 inches. so only prestressing forces and eccentricity should be detailed.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6. C. B.1. stressing data. install. Single Key Multiple Keys July 2000 6. Contract Plans The plans should be prepared to accommodate any post-tensioning system. The first set (contract) is prepared by the design engineer (WSDOT or contracting agency) and the second set (shop) is prepared by the post-tensioning materials supplier (contractor). The shape of the keys may be chosen to suit a particular application and they can be either single keys or multiple keys. These plans must contain sufficient information to allow the engineer to check their compliance with the contract plans. they may be filled with cast-in-place concrete or grouted. Match cast joints are normally bonded with an epoxy bonding agent. and stress the post-tensioning system selected by the Contractor. Single keys are generally large and localized whereas multiple keys generally cover as much of the joint surface area as is practical.7 Connections (Joints) The connections or joints must divide the structure into a logical pattern of separate elements which also permit ease of manufacture and assembly.6 Construction A. Types of Connections (Joints): Connections or joints are either wide or match cast. Dry match cast joints are not recommended. Depending on their width.1. The concrete sections should be detailed so that available systems can be installed. Design the thickness of webs and flanges to facilitate concrete placement. The connection or joint surfaces should be oriented perpendicular to the centroidal axis of the precast element. General Construction plans for conventional post-tensioned box girder bridges include two different sets of drawings.

the deflection and camber of prestressed members may be estimated by the multipliers as given in Table 6.30 2.75 1.50 2. the joints should be lightly sand-blasted to remove laitance. Ec.20 3.00 ---2.85 1.80 1.0 ksi NonComposite Composite Deflection at Erection Apply to the elastic deflection due to the member weight at release of prestress Apply to the elastic deflection due to prestressing at release of prestress 1. accurate predictions of the deflections are difficult to determine.70 Deflection at Final Apply to the elastic deflection due to the member weight at release of prestress Apply to the elastic deflection due to prestressing at release of prestress Apply to the elastic deflection due to the Super Imposed Dead Loads Apply to the elastic deflection due to weight of slab release of prestress 2. the adjacent concrete surfaces should be roughened and kept thoroughly wet. since modulus of elasticity of concrete.1. Also. Multipliers for Estimating Long-term Deflection of Prestressed Concrete Girders Table 6.70 2.70 1. etc.45 3.20 2. Prestressing can be used advantageously to control deflections.1. When using epoxy for bonding.25 2. there are cases where excessive camber due to prestress have caused problems. Single keys are preferred for all match cast joints.8 Deflection and Camber Deflections of prestressed concrete beams can be predicted with greater accuracy than those for reinforced concrete beams.15 P65:DP/BDM6 6.00 2.75 1. varies with stress and age of concrete.1-6 July 2000 . For all types of joints. prior to construction of the joint.1. free from grease and oil. For normal design. however. For cast-in-place or other types of wide joints. Since prestressed concrete is more or less homogeneous and obeys ordinary laws of flexure and shear. the surfaces must be clean. 6. the deflection can be computed using elementary methods.80 1. an accuracy of 10 to 20 percent is often sufficient.75 2.10 2.8-1 Normal Strength Concrete fc′ <= 7.40 2. in lieu of more accurate methods. For practical purposes. Cast-in-place joints are generally preferred.85 1.75 ---2. However.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures General Single keys provide an excellent guide for erection of elements. the effects of creep on deflections are difficult to estimate.0 ksi NonComposite Composite High Strength Concrete fc′ > 7.8-1.

These are still the most efficient shapes available and variations of these girders have been adopted by other states. commonly called “Supergirders” were added to the WSDOT prestressed concrete girder standards. These tendons are usually anchored at each end of the structure and stressed to a design strength using a hydraulic jacking system. which has become bonded to the tendon.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.2-1 . The pretensioned standards are designated as WF74G.2 Post-Tensioning Post-tensioning consists of installing steel tendons into a hollow metalic duct in a structure after the concrete sections are cast. the strands are released and the concrete. Properties The properties which are needed for design of standard girders are listed in Appendix 6. and deck bulb tee standards W53DG and W35DG.3 Washington Standard Prestressed Girder Sections Washington State Standard girders were adopted in the mid-1950s.” Precast Sections 6. The precast ‘U’ sections are commonly called ‘bathtubs’ which can be joined together with “wet joint. is prestressed as a result of the strands attempting to relax to their original length. closure pours are made at the anchor heads to provide corrosion protection.3-1 gives the dimensions of the Washington State Standard Girder Sections. W42G. deeper girders. This tube is referred to as a sheath or duct and remains in the structure.2. In 1999.2. The original series was graduated in 10-foot increments from 30 feet to 100 feet. and have increased distance between strands. the end blocks are eliminated. The strand stress is maintained during placing and curing of the concrete by anchoring the ends of strands to abutments that may be as much as 500 feet apart. A. the duct is filled with grout which bonds the tendon to the concrete section and prevents corrosion of the strand. W83G and W95G and the post-tensioned standards are designated as W83PTG and W95PTG. 6. The numbers refer to the depth of the section. The new standards incorporate three major changes.1 Pre-Tensioning Pre-tensioning is accomplished by stressing high strength steel strands to a predetermined tension and then placing concrete around the strands. The abutments and appurtenances used in this procedure are referred to as pre-tensioning bed or bench. B. Finally.2 Precast Sections Precast sections are generally cast in a permanent plant or somewhere near the construction site and then erected. July 2000 6. The new standard designations are W74G. These new supergirders may be pretensioned or post-tensioned. W50G. They have a thicker web.4-A3-1 and 2. These girder shapes proved to be very efficient due to their thin webs and small flange fillets. After the concrete has hardened. Section Geometry Table 6. After the tendon has been stressed.2. while the stress is maintained. W58G. Commonly the tendons are encased in a tight metal tube.2. 6. Precasting permits better material quality control and is often more economical than cast-in-place concrete. In 1990. revisions were made to the prestressed concrete girder standards incorporating the results of the research done at Washington State University on girders without end blocks.

3-1 6.2-2 July 2000 .2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Sections Dimensions of Standard Prestressed Girder Sections Table 6.

Basic Assumptions The following basic assumptions are used in the design of these standard girders. Precast Sections Typical Prestressed Girder Span Figure 6. Figure 6.2.2.3-1 Typical Prestressed Girder Configuration Figure 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures C.2.3-2 show variations from those assumptions for a typical backwall design and a typical notched girder design.2. July 2000 6.2.5-A1 through A7 show the standard strand positions in these girders.3-1 illustrates some of the factors which are constant in the WSDOT Prestressed Girder Design computer program. Figure 6.2-3 .3-2 Figure 6.3-3 and Appendix 6.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
1. Prestress For final conditions, the designer shall assume the prestress acting on the section to be NAs (.70 fs′-PL) for stress relieved strands and NAs (.75 fs′-PL) for low relaxation strands. Where: N = number of stressed strands passing through the section

Precast Sections

As = the area of one strand, in2 fs′ = the ultimate strength in ksi PL = indicates total prestress losses in ksi in pretensioned members. For checking of stresses during release, lifting, transportation, and erection of prestressed girders, the elastic and time dependent losses shall be as follows: Release — 1 day (lifting of girders from casting beds) 1 month — 4 months (transportation and erection of girders) After 4 months 2. Strand Patterns Standard strand patterns are shown in Appendix 6.5-A1 through A7. D. Design Procedure 1. General The WSDOT “Prestressed Girder Design” computer program uses a trial and error method to arrive at solution for stress requirement and is the preferred method for final design of length and spacing. Some publications suggest various direct means for determining stress and position, but the procedures are generally quite complex. 2. Stress Conditions The stress limits as described in Table 6.2.3-2 must be met for the girder and its prestress. One or more of the conditions described below may govern design. Each condition is the result of the summation of stresses with each load acting on its appropriate section (such as girder only, composite section). Precast girders shall also be checked during lifting, transportation, and erection stages by the designer to assure that girder delivery is feasible. Impact during the lifting stage shall be 0 percent and during transportation shall be 20 percent of the dead load of the girder. Impact shall be applied either upward or downward to produce maximum stresses. computed losses 35 ksi computed losses

6.2-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Sections

Prestressed Girder Strand Locations Figure 6.2.3-3 Note: Fo may be increased in 1-inch increments to keep slope of harped strands below the slope limit. Fb may be increased in 1-inch increments in order to reduce tension at the top of the girder at harping point at time of strand release.

July 2000

6.2-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
Condition Temporary Stress at Transfer Stress Tensile Location In areas other than Precompressed Tensile Zone Precompressed Tensile Zone Compression Temporary Stress at Lifting Tensile All Locations In areas other than Precompressed Tensile Zone Precompressed Tensile Zone Compression Tempoary Stress at Shipping Tensile All Locations In areas other than Precompressed Tensile Zone Precompressed Tensile Zone Compression Final Stresses at Service Load Tensile All Locations Precompressed Tensile Zone All Locations due to: Permanent loads and effective Prestressing Load Live load, one-half permanent loads and effective prestressing load All load combinations 0.45 fc′

Precast Sections
Allowable Stress 3 √fci′ <=0.2 psi

6 √fci′

0.6 fci′ 6 √fci′

6 √fci′

0.6 fci′ 6 √fci′

6 √fci′

0.6 fc′ 0.0 psi

Compression

0.4 fc′

0.6 fc′

Allowable Concrete Stresses Table 6.2.3-2

6.2-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
E. Prestressing Strands 1. Straight Strands The position of the straight strands in the bottom flange and temporary strands for shipping and handling in top flange has been standardized for each size of flange. Those strand positions and the girder flange size are summarized in Appendix 6.5-A1 through A7. 2. Harped Strands The harped strands are bundled at the 4/10 points of the span for series W83G, W95G, WF74G and W58G and at the 1/3 points at the girders for series W50G and W42G. The harped strands are bundled at the harping points. Bundles are limited to 12 strands each. Twelve (12) and fewer harped strands are placed in a single bundle with the centroid normally 3 inches above the bottom of the girder. Strands in excess of 12 are bundled in a second bundle with the centroid 6 inches above the bottom of the girder. At the girder ends, the strands are splayed to a normal pattern. The centroid of strands at both the girder end and the harping point may be varied to suit girder stress requirements. 3. Stirrups Shear for computation of stirrup requirements is computed at a point 1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder and at the harping point. Ultimate shear is computed at these points based on 1.3 DL + 2.17 (L.L. + Impact). The portion of this shear which is carried by the concrete is given in section 9.20.2 of AASHTO. The stirrup spacing is then calculated using the formula: S= Av • fy(d) Vs where Vs = Vu / 0.85 – Vc and

Precast Sections

d is the distance from the extreme compressive fiber to the centroid of the prestressing force. For precast girders made continuous for live load, d shall be the distance from the extreme compressive fiber to the centroid of the negative moment reinforcement, i.e., d = h + A - 4.5", where h = height of the girder; A as defined in Subsection 6.3.4 A(3). Shear reinforcement are furnished by two vertical bars. Maximum spacing is taken to be 1 foot 6 inches The point where 1-foot 6-inch spacing starts is found by interpolating between the point 1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder and the harping point to find the location where the portion of the shear carried by the stirrups (Vs) yields 1 foot 6 inches Vs for 1-foot 6-inch Avfy(dmin) stirrup spacing can be found by using Vs (18) = where dmin is the smallest of the 18 d values found for the point 1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder and the harping point. The 1-foot 6-inch stirrup spacing is used throughout the rest of the girder. If the stirrup spacing at the point 1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder is smaller than about 1 foot 2 inches, further interpolation may be done to obtain a multiple step increment of stirrup spacing. 4. End Section Reinforcement The Washington State Standard Prestressed Concrete Girders are not provided with a thickened end block section, but have constant thickness webs. The end section reinforcement is detailed on the Office Standard Plans. This reinforcement is based on the requirement to resist bursting forces due to strand force development in this area. If the stirrup spacing required at the end of

July 2000

6.2-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Sections

the girder is less than shown on the Office Standard Plans, end section stirrups spacing on the Standard Plans should be altered to show this spacing. For a distance of 1.5d from the end of the girder, reinforcement shall be placed to confine the p/s steel in bottom flange. The spacing of confinement reinforcement shall not exceed 6 inch and shall be shaped to enclose the strands. F. Development of Prestressing Strand 1. General In determining the resistance of pretensioned concrete components in their end zones, the gradual buildup of the strand force in the transfer and development lengths shall be taken into account. The prestress force may be assumed to vary linearly from 0.0 at the point where bonding commences to a maximum at the transfer length. Between the transfer length and the development length, the strand force may be assumed to increase in a parabolic manner, reaching the tensile strength of the strand at the end of development length. For the purpose of this article, the transfer length may be taken as 60 strand diameters and the development length shall be taken as specified in Article 6.2.3F2. The effects of debonding shall be considered as specified in Article 6.2.3F3. 2. Bonded Strand Pretensioning strand shall be bonded beyond the critical section for development length, in inches, taken as: Ld ′ ≥ where: D = nominal strand diameter (in)

(f* –
su

2 3

fse D

)

fse = effective stress in prestressing steel after all losses (ksi) fsu = in the prestressing steel at nominal strength (ksi) * 3. Partially Debonded Strands Where a portion or portions of a pretensioning strand are not bonded and where tension exists in the precompressed tensile zone, the development length specified in Article 6.2.3F2 shall be doubled. The number of partially debonded strands should not exceed 25 percent of the total number of strands. The number of debonded strands in any horizontal row shall not exceed 40 percent of the strands in that row. Debonded strands shall be symmetrically distributed about the centerline of the member. Debonded lengths of pairs of strands that are symmetrically positioned about the centerline of the member shall be equal. Exterior strands in each horizontal row shall be fully bonded.

6.2-8

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
4. Unbonding Strands Where it is necessary to prevent a strand from actively supplying prestress force near the end of a girder, it may be unbonded. This can be accomplished by taping a close fitting pvc tube to the stressed strand from the end of the girder to some point where the strand can be allowed to develop its load. Since this is not a common procedure, it should be carefully detailed on the plans. It is important when this method is used in construction that the taping of the tube be done in such a manner that grout cannot leak into the tube and provide an undesirable bond of the strand. 5. Strand Development Outside of Girder For girders made continuous for live load, extended bottom prestress strands are used to carry positive live load, creep, and other moments from one span to another. Usually four strands per girder will provide an adequate resistance. Strands used for this purpose must be developed in the short distance between the two girder ends. This is normally accomplished by requiring strand chucks and anchors as shown in Figure 6.2.3-4. The nominal development length is normally 2 feet. For wide crossbeams, the strands may be extended straight and a 1 foot 0 inch splice used. At back walls, which are connected to the superstructure, the extended strands may be used to withstand earthquake forces and, in this case, should be developed accordingly. The number of strands to be extended cannot exceed the number of straight strands available in the girder. Designer shall calculate the exact number of extended straight strands needed to develop the required moment capacity at the end of girder. This calculation shall be based on the tensile strength of the strands, the stress imposed to the anchor, and concrete bearing against the projected area of the anchor. The appropriate strand stress available to resist ultimate load (fgu*) at this section shall be no greater than [(Ld / D -2/3 fse] where: Ld is the developed length available D is the diameter of the strand fse is the effective prestress in steel after all losses.

Precast Sections

Strand Development Figure 6.2.3-4

July 2000

6.2-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
G. Fabrication and Handling 1. Shop Plans Fabricators of prestressed girders are required to submit shop plans which show specific details for each girder that they construct. These shop plans are checked and approved by the Project Engineer’s office for conformance with the Contract Plans and specifications. 2. Special Problems for Fabricators a. Strand Tensioning The method selected for strand tensioning may affect the design of the girders. The strand arrangements shown in the office standard plans and included in the Prestressed Girder Design computer program are satisfactory for tensioning methods used by fabricators in this state. Harped strands are normally tensioned by pulling them as straight strands to a partial tension. The strands are then deflected vertically as necessary to give the required harping angle and strand stress. In order to avoid overtensioning the harped strands by this procedure, the slope of the strands is limited to a maximum of 6:1 for 1/2″ φ strands and 8:1 for 0.6″ φ strands. The straight strands are tensioned by straight jacking. b. Hold Down Forces Forces on the hold-down units are developed as the harped strands are raised. The hold-down device provided by the fabricator must be able to hold the vertical component of the harping forces. Normally a two or more hold-down unit is required. Standard commercial hold-down units have been preapproved for use with particular strand groups. c Numbers of Strands Since the prestressing beds used by the girder fabricators can carry several girders in a line, it is desirable that girders have the same number of strands where practical. This allows several girders to be set up and cast at one time and saves both time and strand material. 3. Handling and Hauling of Long Prestressed Girders a. General Considerations for handling and shipping long prestressed girders relate primarily to weight, length, height, and lateral stability. The effect of each variable differs considerably depending on where the handling is taking place: in the plant, on the road, or at the jobsite. b. In-Plant Handling The primary considerations for in-plant handling are weight and lateral stability. The maximum weight that can be handled by precasting plants in the Pacific Northwest is 200 kips. Pretensioning lines are normally long enough so that the weight of a girder governs capacity, rather than its length. Headroom is also not generally a concern for the deeper sections. Lateral stability can be a concern when handling long, slender girders. When the girder is stripped from the form, the prestressing level is higher and the concrete strength is lower than at any other point in the life of the member.

Precast Sections

6.2-10

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Sections

The WSDOT prestressed girder sections are relatively wide and stiff about their weak axes and, as a result, exhibit good stability, even at their longer pretentioned lengths. The simplest method of improving stability is to move the lifting devices away from the ends. This invariably increases the required concrete release strength, because decreasing the distance between lifting devices increases the concrete stresses at the harp point. Stresses at the support may also govern, depending on the exit location of the harped strands. Alternatively, the girder sections may be braced to provide adequate stability. Temporary prestressing in the top flange can also be used to provide a larger factor of safety against cracking. Other types of bracing have also been used successfully for many years. These systems are generally based on experience rather than theory. Other methods of improving lateral stability, such as raising the roll axis of the girder, are also an option. For stability analysis of prestressed girder during in-plant handling in absence of more accurate information, the following parameters shall be used: • Height of pick point above top of girder = 0.0 in • Lifting loop or lifting bars placement tolerance = 0.25 in • Maximum girder sweep tolerance = 0.00052 in/in c. Pick Up Points The office standard plans show pick-up points for the girders. These points are critical since the girder is in its most highly stressed condition just after strand release. In some cases, fabricators may request to move the pick-up points toward the center of the girder. The request must be reviewed carefully since a decrease in girder dead load moment near centerline span may cause overstressing of the girder. Similarly, the girders must never be supported at any point other than the centerline of bearing during storage. The girders are also very sensitive to lateral loads and accordingly must be stored in a true vertical position. d. Girder Lateral Bending Long prestressed girders are very flexible and highly susceptible to lateral bending. Lateral bending failures are sudden, catastrophic, costly, pose a serious threat to workers and surroundings, and therefore must be guarded against. The office standard plans state that girders over certain given lengths must be laterally braced and that all girders must be handled carefully. It is the fabricator’s responsibility to provide adequate bracing and provide suitable handling facilities. On unusually long girders, however, the designer should give this matter additional consideration. Published material on girder lateral bending should be consulted and used to assure the constructability of the girder design chosen (14, 17, 18, 19). e. Shipping The ability to ship deep girder sections can be influenced by a large number of variables, including mode of transportation, weight, length, height, and lateral stability. Some variables have more influence than others. As such, the feasibility of shipping deep girders is strongly site-dependent. It is recommended that routes to the site be investigated during the preliminary design phase. To this end, on projects using long, heavy girders, WSDOT can place an advisory in their special provisions including shipping routes, estimated permit fees, escort vehicle requirements, Washington State Patrol requirements, and permit approval time.

July 2000

6.2-11

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
f. Mode of Transportation Three modes of transportation are commonly used in the industry: truck, rail, and barge. In Washington State, an overwhelming percentage of girders are transported by truck, so discussion in subsequent sections will be confined to this mode. However, on specific projects, it may be appropriate to consider rail or barge transportation. Standard rail cars can usually accommodate larger loads than a standard truck. Rail cars range in capacity from approximately 120 to 200 kips. However, unless the rail system runs directly from the precasting plant to the jobsite, members must be trucked for at least some of the route, and weight may be restricted by the trucking limitations. For large number of girders construction, barge transportation is usually most economical. Product weights and dimensions are generally not limited by barge delivery, but by the handling equipment on either end. In most cases, if a product can be made and handled in the plant, it can be shipped by barge. Of course, this applies only if both the plant and jobsite are fully accessible by barge. g. Weight Limitations Girders shipped in some states have weighed in excess of 200 kips. The net weight limitation with trucking equipment currently available in Washington State is approximately 167 to 180 kips, if a reasonable delivery rate (number of pieces per day) is to be maintained. Product weights of up to 200 kips can be hauled with currently available equipment at a limited rate. Local carriers should be consulted on the feasibility of shipping heavy girders on specific projects. Some girders can be fabricated and shipped in two or more segments to reduce the weight and assembled and post-tensioned at the bridge site. However, it is more economical to fabricate and ship a single-piece pretensioned girder whenever possible. h. Length Limitations Length limitations are generally governed by turning radii on the route to the jobsite. Potential problems can be circumvented by moving the support points closer together (away from the ends of the girder), or by selecting alternate routes. A rule of thumb of 130 feet between supports is commonly used. The support points can be moved away from the ends while still maintaining the concrete stresses within allowable limits. Length limitations are not expected to be the governing factor for most project locations. i. Height Limitations The height of a deep girder section sitting on a jeep and steerable trailer is of concern when considering overhead obstructions on the route to the jobsite. The height of the support is approximately 6 feet above the roadway surface. When adding the depth of the girder, including camber, the overall height from the roadway surface to the top of concrete can rapidly approach 14 feet. Overhead obstructions along the route should be investigated for adequate clearance in the preliminary design phase. Obstructions without adequate clearance must be bypassed by selecting alternate routes.

Precast Sections

6.2-12

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Sections

Expectations are that, in some cases, overhead clearance will not accommodate the vertical stirrup projection on deeper WSDOT standard girder sections. Alternate stirrup configurations can be used to attain adequate clearance, depending on the route from the plant to the jobsite. j. Lateral Stability During Shipping Long, slender members can become unstable when supported near the ends. However, the stability of girders sitting on flexible supports is governed by the rotational stiffness of the support rather than the girder. Recommended factors of safety 1.0 against cracking, and 1.5 against failure (rollover of the truck) should be used. The control against cracking the top flange is obtained by introducing the number of temporary top strands, jacked to the same load as the permanent strands, required to provide a factor of safety of 1.0. This variable depends on the combination of girder dead load, prestressing, and tension in the top flange induced by the girder tilt. The calculated tilt includes both the superelevation and its magnification based on the truck’s rotational stiffness. For stability analysis of prestressed girders during shipping, in absence of more accurate information, the following parameters shall be used: • • • • • • • • k. Roll stiffness of truck/trailer = 40500 kip-in/rad Height of girder bottom above roadway = 72 in Height of truck roll center above road = 24 in Center to center distance between truck tires = 72 in Maximum expected roadway superelevation = 0.06 Maximum girder sweep tolerance = 0.001042 in/in Support placement lateral tolerance = 1 in Increase girder C.G. height for camber by 2%

Erection A variety of methods are used to erect precast concrete girders, depending on the weight, length, available crane capacity, and site access. Lifting long girders during erection is not as critical as when they are stripped from the forms, particularly when the same lifting devices are used for both. However, if a separate set of erection devices are used, the girder should be checked for stresses and lateral stability. In addition, once the girder is set in place, the free span between supports is usually increased. Wind can also pose a problem. Consequently, when long girders are erected, they should immediately be braced at the ends. Generally, the temporary support of the girders is the contractor’s responsibility.

l.

Construction Sequence for Muli-Span Prestressed Girder Bridges For multi-span prestressed girder bridges, the sequence and timing of the superstructure construction has a significant impact on the performance and durability of the bridge. In order to maximize the performance and durability, the “construction sequence” details shown on the attached sheets shall be followed for all new WSDOT multi-span prestressed girder bridges. Particular attention shall be paid to the timing of casting the lower portion of the pier diaphragms/crossbeams (30 days minimum after release of prestress) and the upper portion of the diaphragms/crossbeams (10 days minimum after placement of the roadway slab). The requirements apply to multi-span prestressed girder bridges with monolithic and hinge diaphragms/crossbeams.

July 2000

6.2-13

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
4. Repair of Damaged Girders This section pertains only to girders which have been damaged before becoming part of a final structure. Repair of damaged girders in existing bridges is covered in Section 6.3.6. a. Repairs to Girders Prior to Strand Release When girders suffer defects during casting or damage prior to strand release, the repair procedures are documented in reference 6.99.7. Normally, no designer action is required. In prescribing repairs for unusual situations not covered in reference 6.99.7, the designer must ensure that the required strength and appearance of the girder can be maintained. Since stressing will occur after the repair is made, normally no test loading is required; however, such a test should be considered.

Precast Sections

6.2.4

Precast Prestressed (Short Span Bridges)
General — To expedite scheduling and promote economy in building short span bridges, the WSDOT’s Bridge Design Office developed standards for short span bridges (range 12 to 70 feet for length of spans). A small bridge program was developed in 1983. A National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report (NCHRP) No. 287, entitled Load Distribution and Connection Design for Precast Stemmed Multibeam Bridge Superstructures was utilized to obtain the most effective keyway geometry between adjacent beam for shear transfer and live load distribution to the girders. These type of bridges are used only for low ADT roads. A. Precast Prestressed Slabs The slab sections utilize low relaxation prestressing strands and are connected together permanently with transverse weld tie and keyway. The following are recommendations for the type of precast slab sections to be used for various span lengths: 1. 2. 3. 12-inch depth precast section (see Appendixes 6.6-A1-1 and 2). This section is capable of spanning between 15 to 35 feet. 18-inch depth voided precast section (see Appendixs 6.6-A2-1 and 2). This section is capable of spanning between 30 to 50 feet. 26-inch depth voided precast section (see Appendixs 6.6-A3-1 and 2). This section is capable of spanning between 40 to 70 feet.

Layout, end abutment, and Intermediate Pier standards have been developed for use with the slab sections noted above (see Appendix 6.6-A4 through A6). B. Precast Prestressed Tri-Beam Tri-Beam sections are available as an option to the slab spans. Low relaxation prestressing strands are utilized which enable these sections to span 25 to 70 feet. Two standards have been developed; one for a 4 foot 0 inch minimum to 6 foot 0 inch maximum wide section (see Appendix 6.7-A1-1 and 2). Standard sheets for abutment and Intermediate pier for tri-beam sections are shown in Appendix 6.7-A3.

6.2-14

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
C. Precast Prestressed Deck Bulb-Tee Girders Deck bulb-tee girders are also available as an option to the slab sections. Precast fabricators often prefer deck bulb-tee girders because voided slabs are less efficient sections. We have developed four standard sections while working closely with local fabricator requirements or constraints. 65-inch, 53-inch, 41 inch, and a 35-inch deep bulb-tee girders are used by the state of Washington 4-foot, 5-foot, and 6-foot wide or variable width deck. For deck bulb tee girders, diaphrams and miscellaneous details, see Appendix 6.8-A1 through A5.

Precast Sections

6.2.5

Precast Box Girders
For moderate bridge spans of up to 160 feet, and where girder depth is critical, precast box girders are generally used. These are generally in the form of U-sections called bath-tubs and joined together with wet joint and post-tensioning.

P65:DP/BDM6

July 2000

6.2-15

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.3 Precast Girder Bridges
The precast prestressed girder bridge is an economical and rapid type of bridge construction. This section discusses the design of precast prestressed girder bridges.

Precast Girder Bridges

6.3.1

Criteria for Girder Design
The following criteria is described for simple span bridges. Present practice is to use simple span girder designs in continuous prestress bridges. Effects of creep and shrinkage are not considered. This is a somewhat conservative procedure, but it minimizes engineering time. For continuous structures consisting of a large number of girders, a more exact analysis could be used, as directed by the design supervisor. Additional comments concerning special problems in design of continuous bridges are added below. The design criteria for P/S girders may be summarized in Table 6.3.1-1. A. Support Conditions The prestressed girders are assumed to be supported on rigid permanent simple supports. These supports can be either bearing seats or elastomeric pads. The design span length is the distance center to center of bearings for simple spans. For continuous spans erected on falsework (raised crossbeam), the effective point of support for girder design is assumed to be the face of the crossbeam. For continuous spans on crossbeams (dropped or semi-dropped crossbeam), the design span length is usually the distance center to center of temporary bearings. See Figure 6.2.3-1. B. Composite Action 1. General The sequence of construction and loading is extremely important in the design of prestressed girders. The composite section has a much larger capacity than the basic girder section but it cannot take loads until the slab has obtained adequate strength. For assumptions used in computing composite section properties, see Figure 6.3.1-1. 2. Load Application The following sequence and method of applying loads is used in girder analysis: a. Girder Dead Load The dead load of the girder is applied to the girder section. b. Diaphragm Dead Load The dead load of the diaphragms is applied to the girder section. c. Slab Dead Load The dead load of slab is applied to the girder section. Temporary strands shall be removed prior to slab casting. d. Barrier, Overlay Dead Load, and Live Load Dead load of one traffic barrier is divided among a maximum of three girders and this uniform load is applied to the composite section. The dead load of any overlay and live load plus impact is applied to the composite section.

July 2000

6.3-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

Design Specifications Design Method

AASHTO Standard Specifications and WSDOT Bridge Design Manual Prestressed girder are designed for service load stresses and checked for the requirements of load factor design. All other elements are designed in accordance with the requirements of load factor design.

Design Assumption

Prestressed girders are designed as simple span for both simple and continuous span superstructures. BDM Articles 4.2 and 4.3 Service load Load factor design BDM Table 6.2.3-2 BDM Article 6.1.5 and Table 6.1.5-1 Shear Design may be based on one of the following: • Shear design per AASHTO Standard Specifications 9.20 • Predesigned for shear Standard Prestressed Girder plans

Load and Load Combinations

Group I Group I

Allowable Stresses Prestress Losses Shear Design

Shipping and Handling

BDM Article 6.2.3G-3

Design Criteria for Prestressed Girder Superstructures Table 6.3.1-1 3. Composite Section Properties Minimum deck slab thickness is specified as 7 1/2 inches by office practice, but may be thicker if girder spacing dictates. This slab forms the top flange of the composite girder in prestressed girder bridge construction. The properties of this slab-girder composite section are affected by specification and by physical considerations. Figure 6.3.1-1 shows some standard values to be used for design and detailing. a. Flange Width The effective width of slab on each side of the girder centerline which can be considered to act as a compressive flange shall not exceed any of the following: One-eighth of the span length. Six times the thickness of slab plus one-fourth of the girder flange width. One-half the distance to the next girder. The actual distance to the edge of slab. For effective tension flange widths, see AASHTO.

6.3-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
b. Flange Position For purposes of calculating composite section properties, the bottom of the slab shall be assumed to be directly on the top of the girder. This assumption may prove to be true at center of span when excess girder camber occurs. For dimensioning the plans, an increased dimension from top of girder to top of slab is used at centerline of bearing. This is called the “A” dimension. This dimension accounts for the effects of girder camber, vertical curve, slab cross slope, etc. See Appendix 6.1-A1 for method of computing. c. Flange Thickness For purposes of computing composite section properties, the slab thickness shall be reduced by 1/2 inch to account for wearing. Where it is known that a bridge will have an asphalt overlay applied prior to traffic being allowed on the bridge, the full slab thickness can be used as effective slab thickness. The effective slab width shall be reduced by the ratio Es/Eg. The effective modulus of composite section is then Eg. d. Section Dead Load The slab dead load to be applied to the girder shall be based on full thickness plus any overhang. The full effective pad (“A”-t) weight shall be added to that load. This assumed pad weight is applied over the full length of the girder. 4. Shear Transfer Transfer of shear forces in prestressed girder bridge design is critical in three areas. The first has been previously discussed; the section through the web at the point 1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder. The other two critical areas for shear transfer are between slab and girder and at the end connection of the girder to the crossbeam for girders in continuous bridges. Shear in these areas will normally be resisted by reinforcement extending from the girder. a. Shear Between Slab and Girder This shear represents a rate of change of compression load in the flange of simple span girders or a rate of change of tension load in the flange near the piers of continuous girders. For a simple span girder as represented by Figure 6.3.1-2, the top flange stress is the factored centerline moment divided by the section modulus of the composite girder at the centerline of the slab. The slab load is this stress times the area of the slab. The factored centerline moment can be taken as total factored moment less 1.0 times dead load applied to girder.

Precast Girder Bridges

July 2000

6.3-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

Composite Prestressed Girder Section Figure 6.3.1-1

6.3-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

Shear in Simple Girder Figure 6.3.1-2 The design composite section slab modulus is used for this shear calculation However, a full slab width should be used to compute force. As an alternate and for a more accurate analysis, a composite section can be calculated using the full slab width, but this is usually not necessary. Further explanation of this calculation and a solved example are available in reference 5.99.4, PCA Notes on Load Factor Design. This shear is resisted by the girder stirrups which extend up through the interface between the girder and the slab. The top surface of the girder top flange must be roughened. The force may be assumed to be carried uniformly over the entire girder top surface from centerline of bearing to centerline of span. All stirrups in this area can be assumed to be acting in accordance with the shear friction theory as described in Subsection 5.2.1 C. For continuous girders, the span, shear, and moment relationships are shown in Figure 6.3.1-3. Similar methods are used to analyze slab to girder shear. For positive moment resistance, only those stirrups within length Lc are considered effective in resisting the slab force due to moment. Likewise, only those stirrups within one continuous length Le are used to resist the negative moment slab force (tension) in that area.

July 2000

6.3-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

For illustrative purposes, a single concentrated load has been shown. In actual practice, the point of factored maximum moment of the actual moment diagram would be used. Other flange shear problems are described in Section 5.4. These problems also need to be considered for prestressed girder bridges.

Shear in Continuous Girder Figure 6.3.1-3 b. Shear at Girder End A continuous prestressed girder will nearly always be required to carry end reaction shears at the surface of the end of the girder. An exception to this is girders with notched crossbeams where loads must be carried across the connections which act as hinges. See Chapter 5.

6.3-6

July 2000

This anchorage requirement must be clearly shown on the plans. In this case.1-4 The usual end condition is similar to that shown in Figure 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges End Connection for a Continuous Prestressed Girder Figure 6. This program computes the deflections due to prestress.1-4.3-7 . The main longitudinal slab reinforcement is already fully stressed by girder bending moments and thus cannot be considered for shear requirements. loads consist only of the factored diaphragm dead load. The sawtoothed shear key shown on the office standard girder plans may be assumed to provide a friction factor of 1. All bars. must be properly anchored in order to be considered effective. The girder end is required by the plans to be roughened. General The computer program ‘PGSDEF’ is used to determine the amount of girder camber for prestressed girder bridges. Shear resistance must be developed using shear friction theory and assuming the G5 bars and the extended strands to be actively participating. approach slab dead load. C. The shear which must be carried along the interface A-A is the actual factored dead load and live load shear acting on the section. July 2000 6. girder dead load. including the extended strands.3. Note that similar requirements exist for connecting the end diaphragm at bridge ends where the diaphragm is cast on the girders. slab dead load. and those wheel loads which can distribute to the interface. Prestressed Girder Camber 1. however.0. and live load.3.

Diaphragm Load Deflection The load of diaphragm is applied to the girder section resulting in an elastic downward deflection. b.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 2.1. Deflection Due to Removal of Temporary Strands Removal of temporary strands results in an elastic upward deflection. c. Resisting these moments are girder section dead load moments. the girder tends to act as though it is locked in position. that once the slab is poured. Calculation Figure 6. Portions of this characteristic curve are described below. however. the deflection indicated on Figure 6.3. Final Camber It might be expected that the above slab dead load deflection would be accompanied by a continuing downward deflection due to creep. To obtain a smooth riding surface on the deck. The result is a net upward deflection.1-5 as “Screed Camber” is added to the profile grade elevation of the deck screeds. a.3. It is this deflection which is offset by the screed camber that is to be applied to the bridge deck during construction. The subparagraph numbers correspond with circled numbers on the curve. In addition. f. This effect is computed using the equation stated in Subsection 6.2C. Precast Girder Bridges 6. Many measurements of actual structure deflections have shown. d.3-8 July 2000 .1-5 shows a typical pattern of girder deflection with time at centerline span. Creep Deflection The girder continues to deflect upward due to the effect of creep. a shortening of the girder occurs due to axial prestress loading. e. Slab Load Deflection The load of the slab is applied to the girder section resulting in an elastic downward deflection. The actual position of the girder at the time of the slab pour has no effect on the screed camber. Elastic Deflection Due to Prestress Force The prestress force produces moments in the girder tending to bow the girder upward.2.

3-9 .1-5 July 2000 6.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges Prestressed Girder Camber Figure 6.

89 0.3-10 July 2000 . and shrinkage stresses in the girders. creep. If vertical clearance is no problem. Straight Spans On straight constant width roadways.2 A. At the present time. 2.00 1. all girders should be parallel to bridge centerline and girder spacings should be equal. The following general guidelines should be considered.93 0. Girder Selection and Spacing Cost of the girders is a major portion of the cost of prestressed girder bridges.25 Precast Girder Bridges Note that the small marginal cost factors between series tends to make the larger series more economical. Much care is therefore warranted in the selection of girders and in optimizing their position within the structure. The spacing of the interior girders must be considered at the same time. See Subsection 6. Girder Spacing Consideration must be given to the slab cantilever length to determine the most economical girder spacing. may be a desirable solution. Girder Concrete Strength Higher girder concrete strengths should be specified where that strength can be effectively used to reduce the number of girder lines. utilizing fewer girder lines.2 Framing A. The slab cantilever length should be made a maximum if a line of girders can be saved. The following guidance is suggested. Girder Series Selection All girders in a bridge will normally be of the same series. the positions and lengths of interior girders can be established.3. This matter is discussed in Subsection 6. Once the positions of the exterior girders have been set.1. 3.3.96 1. 1. This analysis should take into account actual live load. the following relative girder series cost factors may be used as a guide for this decision: Series W42G W50G W58G W74G WF74G W83G W95G Relative Cost Factors 0. a larger girder series. consideration should be given to using a more exact analysis than the usual design program in an attempt to reduce the number of girder lines. The wider spacings expected when using larger series girders may result in extra reinforcement and concrete but less forming cost.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6. a.B. This must be balanced with considerations such as appearance. These items must also be considered.1.2. 6.10 1.05 1. When the bridge consists of a large number of spans.

especially when combined with higher girder concrete strengths.3. and 2′-6″ for WF74G. It must be noted that for larger overhangs. Slab thickness may have to be increased in some locations in order to accomplish this. and W58G.3-11 . as described in Subsection 6. Chapter 5 Appendix. Larger curb distances may mean that a line of girders can be eliminated. c. It is critical that the exterior girders are positioned properly in this case. the curb distance will normally be no less than 1′-6″ for W42G. Geometrically Complex Spans Spans which are combinations of taper and curves will require especially careful consideration in order to develop the most effective and economical girder arrangement. W83G. which is that dimension from centerline of the exterior girder to the adjacent curb line. As many girders as possible. Tapered Spans On tapered roadways. Curved Spans On curved roadways. normally all girders will be parallel to each other. and W95G. Some considerations which affect this are noted below. for best appearance. consideration should be given to using unequal numbers of girders. 2. Slab Strength This is one of the governing conditions which limits the maximum practical curb distance. B. some prestressed girder bridges have been designed by placing the exterior girders directly under the curb (traffic barrier). Appearance In the past. live load moments which produce transverse bending in the exterior girder should be considered. Economy Fortunately. gives some guidance for cantilever design. Slab Cantilevers The selection of the location of the exterior girders with respect to the curb line of a bridge is a critical factor in the development of the framing plan. Where aesthetics of the underside of the bridge is not a factor and where a girder can be saved in a short side span. the minimum number of girder lines should be determined as if all girder spaces were to be equally flared. d.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures b. 2′-0″ for W74G. For straight bridges. 1. This location is established by setting the curb distance.2. the slab section between the exterior and the first interior girder may be critical and may require thickening. e. the largest slab overhang which is practical should be used. Number of Girders in a Span Usually all spans will have the same number of girders. the condition tending toward best appearance is also that which will normally give maximum economy. W50G. girder lengths and numbers of straight and harped strands should be made the same for as many girders as possible in each span. within the limitations of girder capacity should be placed. Normally. It should be noted that this will complicate crossbeam design by introducing torsion effects and that additional reinforcement will be required in the crossbeam. Where possible. In some cases. Precast Girder Bridges July 2000 6.B. This gives a very poor bridge appearance and is uneconomical. 3.

At the point of minimum curb distance.3-12 July 2000 . however. the curb distance must vary. Wheel loads for design shall be placed in positions so as to develop maximum moments and maximum shears. and are particularly advantageous for distribution of large overloads.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 4. During the life of the bridge. 5. say 1 foot 6 inches. other types of bridges should be considered. 2. the edge of the girder top surface should be no closer than 6 inches from the slab edge. Skewed diaphragms are connected at points of approximately equal girder deflections and thus tend to distribute load to the girders in a manner which more closely duplicates design assumptions. b. Where curvature is extreme and the difference between maximum and minimum curb distance becomes large. A large slab cantilever length may severely affect this arrangement and it must be considered when determining exterior girder location. This procedure has the following advantages: a. Bridge Curvature When straight prestressed girders are used to support curved roadways. Geometry Diaphragms shall normally be oriented parallel to skew (as opposed to normal to girder centerlines). Diaphragm Requirements 1. Where large girder spacings are to be used or other unusual conditions exist. water from bridge drains is normally piped across the top of the girder and dropped inside of the exterior girder line. the diaphragms act as load distributing elements. Diaphragms that fall within the limitations stated on the office standards need not be analyzed. special diaphragm designs should be performed. Drainage Where drainage for the bridge is required. C. diaphragms shall normally be placed on radial lines. the diaphragms provide girder stability for pouring the slab. Normally. Standard diaphragms and diaphragm spacings are given in the office standards for prestressed girder bridges. This build-up has often been ignored in design. 3. Straight girder bridges on highly curved alignments have a poor appearance and also tend to become structurally less efficient. General Diaphragms used with prestressed girder bridges serve two purposes. 6. The build-up of higher stresses at the obtuse corners of a skewed span is minimized. During the construction stage. Precast Girder Bridges On curved bridges. Design Diaphragms shall be designed as transverse beam elements carrying both dead load and live load. the maximum slab overhang at the centerline of the long span will be made approximately equal to the overhang at the piers on the inside of the curve.

Care must be taken that deck drainage details reflect the cross slope effect (see Subsection 6. Girder lengths may need to be modified to correct for added length along slope. F. When girder ends are skewed. Grade and Cross Slope Effects Large cross slopes require an increased amount of girder pad dimension (‘A’ dimension) necessary to ensure that the structure can be built. It is assumed that skew has little structural effect on normal spans and normal skews.1-A1. For short. is warranted. the angle can be specified to the nearest degree.3 Reinforcement This section discusses reinforcement requirements for resistance of longitudinal moments in continuous multi-span precast girder bridges and is limited to reinforcement in the top slab since capacity for resisting positive moment is provided by the prestressing of the girders. All short span prestressed slabs. the effect of skew on girder analysis is ignored. If this causes problems where the girder extends into the crossbeam. Skew Effects Skew in prestressed girder bridges affects structural behavior and member analysis and complicates construction. Precast Girder Bridges 6. G. Remember that the girder is a rectangle in elevation. that considers actual load application. thus. Normally. and bulb-tee girders have a skew restriction of 30 degrees. Curve Effect and Flare Effect Curves and tapered roadways each tend to complicate the design of straight girders. The designer must determine what girder spacing to use for dead load and live load design and whether or not a refined analysis. and tolerances. longitudinal slab reinforcement is not required to resist negative moments and therefore the reinforcement requirements are nominal. 1. Analysis Normally. the girder spacing at centerline of span can be used for girder design. Detailing To minimize labor costs and to avoid stress problems in prestressed girder construction. the position of the girder top corner is affected by grade. Details must account for this.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures D. This effect is especially pronounced if the bridge is on a horizontal or vertical curve.3. the ends of girders for continuous spans shall normally be made skewed.3-1 defines longitudinal reinforcement requirements for these slabs. especially in view of the conservative assumptions made for the design of continuous girders. Figure 6. July 2000 6. A. E. Always skew ends of prestressed girders shall match the piers they rest on at either end. The top longitudinal reinforcement is based on current office practice. Simple Spans For simple span bridges. tri-beams. The requirements of Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement do not apply to these bars.3-13 .2 B). the angle of the girder end should be rounded to the nearest 5 degrees. the effect of the skew on structural action should be investigated. The bottom longitudinal reinforcement is defined by AASHTO requirements for distribution reinforcement. See Appendix 6. 2. girder camber. wide spans and for extreme skews (values over 50 degrees).3. See Standard Specifications for girder tolerances.

Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement The provision of AASHTO specifications dealing with this subject is provided to limit crack width.” For unevenly spaced bars.3. Figure 6. this area can be computed as: Total Flange Area/Number of Bars. Typical arrangement of transverse and longitudinal reinforcement is shown in Figure 6. Continuous Spans 1. Prestressed Girder Bridges with Girders Designed as Simple Spans For bridges designed using the “Prestressed Girder Design” program. 3.3-1 B. At service load. they are lapped by the nominal top longitudinal reinforcement described in Subsection 6. “Distribution reinforcement” shall be accounted for in the bottom longitudinal layer as follows: a.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges Nominal Longitudinal Slab Reinforcement for Prestressed Girder Bridges With Main Reinforcement Perpendicular to Traffic Figure 6. however. “distribution reinforcement” need not be added to the area of steel required to resist the negative moments.3-3 shows typical arrangement of main reinforcement in the slab.3-2 shows the area to be used for computing “A.3A. Where these bars are cut off. 2.3-1. 6.3.3. Distribution Reinforcement Figure 6. General Longitudinal reinforcement of continuous spans at intermediate support is dominated by the moment requirement. the value of “z” for the equation fs = z/ (dc A)1/3 shall be taken as 130 k/inch regardless of whether or not a deck seal or overlay is used. The bars in the bottom layer. shall provide an area not less than that required for distribution reinforcement.3.3-14 July 2000 .3.

” see Figure 6.3.” Equal area of reinforcement shall be used in the top and bottom layers throughout the negative moment region.” The sum of the areas in both layers of longitudinal bars shall be equal to the area required to resist negative moments plus the area required by the AASHTO specification for “distribution reinforcement.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges Placement of Longitudinal Reinforcement for Negative Moment Over Piers Figure 6. See Figure 6.3-2.” (For “distribution reinforcement. additional longitudinal steel shall be provided as “distribution reinforcement.3. The total area of steel required in the bottom longitudinal layer shall not be less than that required for “distribution reinforcement.3-2 b.) July 2000 6.3. Other Prestressed Girder Bridges On bridges where the effect of continuity is taken into account to reduce moments for girder design.3-1.3-15 .

Bar Longit.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges The minimum clearance between top and bottom bars should be 1-inch .3. Bar Patterns Figure 6.3.3-3 shows two typical top longitudinal reinforcing bar patterns. Bar #4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18 #5 7 /2 1 7 /2 1 7 /2 3 7 /4 8 1 8 /2 3 8 /4 ---1 #6 -1 7 /2 3 7 /4 8 1 8 /2 3 8 /4 ----- #7 -3 7 /4 8 1 8 /4 3 8 /4 9 ----- Minimum Slab Thickness for Various Bar Sizes (Slab Without Overlay) Table 6. the minimum slab thickness shall be 7 inches when overlay is used. 3. Minimum Slab Thickness = 7 Inches Slab Thickness (Inches) Transv. Care must be taken that bar lengths conform to the requirements of Chapter 5.3-1 Note: Deduct 1/2-inch from slab thickness shown in table when asphalt overlay is used and 1 inch when concrete overlay is used. 6.3.3-16 July 2000 .3-1 shows required slab thickness for various bar combinations. Note that the reinforcement is distributed over a width equal to the girder spacing according to office practice and does not conform to AASHTO. Table 6. However.

3-4 may be used to provide an adequate splice.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges Staggered Bar Pattern Figure 6. All bars shall be extended development length beyond the point where the bar is required.3.3. the method shown in Figure 6. Bar Splice Within Moment Envelope Figure 6.3.3-17 . If the staggered bar pattern will not result in bar lengths within the limits specified in Chapter 5.3-3 The symmetrical bar pattern shown should normally not be used when required bar lengths exceed 60 feet.3-4 July 2000 6.

Design of the cantilever is normally based on the expected depth of slab at centerline of girder span. 6.3. The thickness of the slab and reinforcement in the area of the cantilever may be governed by traffic barrier loading. no more than 20 percent of the main reinforcing bars shall be cut off at one point. c. The 7-inch or 71/2 inch minimum thickness is established in order to ensure that overloads on the bridge will not result in premature slab cracking.3. The slab design span is defined Figure 6. Slab Thickness 1. The requirements for proper reinforcement clearances.3. General Slab thickness for prestressed girder bridges shall be controlled by the following limitations: a. A. The following information is intended to provide guidance for slab thickness and transverse reinforcement. an increase in this figure may be considered.4 Roadway Slab Requirements for longitudinal reinforcement of roadway slabs for prestressed girder bridges have been given in Subsection 6. 2. 1-inch clear to bottom transverse reinforcement. See Subsection 6. Where limiting this value to 20 percent leads to severe restrictions on the reinforcement pattern. Cantilever loads may govern the slab thickness just inside the exterior girder as shown by “Z” in Figure 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges In all bar patterns. Where this cannot be done without exceeding the 1-foot 0-inch maximum spacing requirement. Seven and one-half inches minimum without overlay. Normally. This is less than the dimensions at the girder ends. b. Seven inches minimum thickness when overlay is used. Two main reinforcement bars shall be carried through the positive moment area as stirrup hangers.4A. Information on deck deterioration prevention systems is provided in Chapter 8.3. Computation of Slab Strength The thickness and reinforcement requirements for usual slabs are shown in Chapter 5. The requirement of adequate reinforcement clearances: 2 inches clear to top transverse reinforcement for slabs with overlay and 21/2 inches clear to top transverse reinforcement for slabs without overlay.4-1. The requirements of strength. 6.1-1 (Composite Prestressed Girder Section).3. Wheel loads plus dead load shall be resisted by the sections shown in Figure 6.3. the reinforcement shall be well distributed between webs.3.3. See appendix sheet in Chapter 5.3-18 July 2000 .4-1. the nominal longitudinal bars may be extended through to provide the 1-foot 0-inch maximum.

4-2 July 2000 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges Depths for Slab Design at Centerline of Girder Span Figure 6. Where temporary prestressing strands at top of girder are used to control the girder stresses due to shipping and handling. and horizontal curvature.3. This must be modified to account for excess camber which may be present in the girders when the slab is poured. superelevation vertical curve. the “A” dimension shall be adjusted accordingly. Computation of “A” Dimension The distance from the top of the slab to the top of the girder at centerline bearing (A dimension) is calculated in accordance with the guidance of Appendix 6.4-1 3. Ideally the section at centerline of span will have the final geometry shown in Figure 6. Geometry for A Dimension Figure 6.3.4-2.1-A1.3.3-19 . This ensures that adequate allowance will be made for effects of excess camber.

the slab edge hooks will need to be tilted in order to place them. Precast Girder Bridges Bottom of Top Slab at Crown Point Figure 6.4-3 below. short hooked bars may be added at the slab edge to increase the reinforcement available in that area.3. Bottom transverse slab reinforcement is normally carried far enough to splice with the traffic barrier main reinforcement. the transverse slab reinforcement is placed parallel to the skew for skew angles of 10 degrees or less.3-20 July 2000 . For skewed spans. Usually. the transverse bars are placed normal to bridge centerline and the areas near the expansion joints and bridge ends are reinforced by partial length bars. For slabs with a crowned roadway. the clearance for the longitudinal bar through the hooks should be checked.3. Where skew angles exceed 10 degrees. The appendix in Chapter 5 can be used to aid in selection of bar size and spacing. Top transverse reinforcement is preferably spliced at some point between girders in order to allow the clearance of the hooks to the slab edge forms to be properly adjusted in the field. Transverse Reinforcement The size and spacing of transverse reinforcement may be governed by interior slab span design. The spacing of bars over the crossbeam must be detailed to be open enough to allow concrete to be poured into the crossbeam. see Subsection 6. On larger bars. For typical requirements.3. as shown in Figure 6.4-3 6. the bottom surface and rebar of the slab should be flat. or the requirements of traffic barrier load. For raised crossbeam bridges. Where traffic barrier load governs. Top transverse reinforcement is always hooked at the slab edge unless a traffic barrier is not used.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures B.5. the bottom transverse slab reinforcement is discontinued at the crossbeam. cantilever design.

the live load shall be considered as the truck load directly to the crossbeam from the wheel axles. the superstructure dead load shall be considered as concentrated loads to the crossbeam at girder on web locations. the live load shall be considered as concentrated loads to the crossbeam at girder locations. For concrete box girders. prestressed giders with hinged or fixed diaphragms. 1/10 of column spacing. LFD. The overhang length of the crossbeam shall be taken as the lesser of 6 times slab thickness. For prestressed girders or other type of girders sitting on the bearings. Truck axles shall be moved transversely over the crossbeam to obtain the maximum design forces for the crossbeam and supporting colums. Loads For concrete box girders. C. or 1/20 of crossbeam cantilever.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6. The rectangular section of the crossbeam shall have a minimum width of column dimension plus 6 inches. General Crossbeam shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of Load Factor Design. Geometry and Construction Requirement The crossbeam section consists of rectangular section with overhanging deck and bottom slab if applicable. the superstructure dead load shall be considered as uniformly distributed over the crossbeam.5-1 July 2000 6.3-21 . and shall satisfy the serviceability requirements for crack control.3. For prestressed girders or other type of girders sitting on the bearings. B. prestressed girders with hinged or fixed diaphragms.5 Crossbeam Design A. Precast Girder Bridges Geometry and Construction Requirements Figure 6.3.

Moderate Damage If damage is moderate. The following are general categories of damage and suggested repair procedures. see Section 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges Crossbeam is usually cast to the fillet below the top slab.2 Mcr D. The following repair procedure is recommended to assure that as much of the original girder strength as possible is retained: a.2.3.3G. It is probable that some prestress will have been lost in the damaged area due to reduction in section and consequent strand shortening or through loss of strands. The damage may range from spalling and minor cracking of the lower flange of the girder to loss of a major portion of a girder section. General This section is intended to cover repair of damaged girders on existing bridges.5 √ fc′ Yt Mu > = 1. Determine Condition Sketch the remaining cross section of the girder and compute its reduced section properties. Ig Where. Skin Reinforcement If the depth of crossbeam exceeds 3 feet. Determine the stress in the damaged girder due to the remaining prestress and loads in the damaged state. To avoid cracking of concrete on top of the crossbeam. The damage is most often inflicted on the exterior or first interior girder. one or more strands may be broken. For repair of newly constructed girders.2 times the cracking moment Mcr. Repair Procedure The determination of degree of damage of a prestressed girder is largely a matter of judgment. 1. repair may be accomplished by replacing damaged concrete areas with concrete grout. calculations can aid in making this judgment decision. The total amount of construction reinforcement shall be adequate to develop an ultimate moment at the critical section at least 1. Minor Damage If the damage is slight and concerns only spalling of small areas of the outside surface of the concrete.012 (d-30) The maximum spacing of skin reinforcement shall not exceed d/6 or 12 inches whichever is less. Where the flange area has been reduced or strands lost. action must be taken to restrict loads on the 6. longitudinal skin reinforcement shall be provided on both sides of the member for a distance of d/2 nearest the flexural reinforcement. 6. Overheight loads are a fairly common source of damage to prestressed girder bridges. a repair procedure must be developed using the following guidelines.3-22 July 2000 . and then coated with epoxy. Mcr = 7. If severe overstresses are found. The design moment for construction reinforcement shall be the factored negative dead load moment due to the weight of crossbeam and adjacent 10 feet of superstructure. construction reinforcement shall be provided at approximately 3 inches below the construction joint. Occasionally.6 Repair of Damaged Bridge Girders A. consisting of loss of a substantial portion of the flange and possibly loss of one or more strands. B. 2. dried. The area where new concrete is to be applied shall first be thoroughly cleaned of loose material. The area of skin reinforcement per foot of height on each side shall be Ask >= 0.

the shear stress with the load (P) applied should also be computed. the effective composite section. determine the stress in the bottom fiber of the girder as originally designed due to DL + LL + I + Prestress. Extra bracing of the girder at the time of slab pour should be required. 3. July 2000 6. This has been done several times. the procedure consists of cutting through the existing slab and diaphragms and removing the damaged girder. The effect of this load is to restore lost prestress to the strands which have been exposed. and repaired with grout equal in strength to the original concrete. Adequate exposed reinforcement steel must remain to allow splicing of the new bars. High early strength grouts and concretes should be considered. etc. Determine the additional load (P) that. If the strand loss is so great that AASHTO prestress requirements cannot be met with the remaining strands. Test Load Consideration should be given to testing the repaired girder with a load equivalent to 1.3-23 .5(LL + I). In general.0DL + 1. when applied to the damaged girder in its existing condition. Methods of construction should be specified in the plans that will minimize inconvenience and dangers to the public while achieving a satisfactory structural result. Restore Prestress If Needed If it is determined that prestress must be restored. It is important that the camber of the new girder be matched with that in the old girders. b. extreme cracking. or dimensional changes. c. and any reduced prestress due to strand loss. New slab and diaphragm portions are then poured. Take into account the reduced girder section. Specify that this load is to remain in place until the grout has obtained sufficient strength. d. The new girder and new reinforcement is placed and previously cut concrete surfaces are cleaned and coated with epoxy. Pouring the new slab and diaphragms simultaneously in order to avoid overloading the existing girders in the structure should be considered. will result in this same stress. the girder may need to be replaced.. consideration should be given to replacing the girder. Excessive camber in the new girder can result in inadequate slab thickness. Girder camber can be controlled by prestress. Severe Damage Where the damage to the girder is considered to be irreparable due to loss of many strands. curing time. consideration should be given to coupling and jacking them to restore their prestress. Prepare a Repair Plan Draw a sketch to show how the above load is to be applied and specify that the damaged area is to be thoroughly prepared. Where strands are broken. Should the damage occur outside of the middle one-third of the span length. (This will normally be about zero psi).BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges structure until the repair has been completed. but involves some care in determining a proper repair sequence. coated with epoxy.

12/432 Repair (Simple Span) C-9593 16th Avenue IC-Br. Miscellaneous References Some of the girder replacement contracts which have been completed are: C-9593 Columbia Center 1C Brs. Precast Girder Bridges P65:DP/BDM6 6.3-24 July 2000 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures C. 12/344 Repair (Continuous Span) C-9446 Mae Valley U-Xing (Simple Span) KD-2488 13th Street O-Xing 5/220 (Northwest Region) KD-2488 SR 506 U-Xing 506/108 (Northwest Region) SR 12 U-Xing 12/118 (Northwest Region) C-5328 Bridge 5/411 NCD (Continuous Span) KD-2976 Chamber of Commerce Way Bridge 5/227 KD-20080 Golder Givens Road Bridge 512/10 KD-2154 Anderson Hill Road Bridge 3/130W These and other similar jobs should be used for guidance.

However. a prestressed cast-in-place bridge can have a smaller depth-to-span ratio than the same bridge with conventional reinforcement. The following are some examples of other bridge types: Kitsap County Multi-Span Slab C-9788 Covington Way to 180th Avenue SE Widening Two-Span Box Girder Longitudinal Post-Tensioning C-4919 Snohomish River Bridge Multi-Span Box Girder Longitudinal Post-Tensioning C-4444 Chapter 2 of this manual should be consulted when selecting the structure type. This is an important advantage where minimum structure depth is desirable.9 of the Bibliography.1 Cast-in-Place Bridges Design Parameters A.4 6. The Post-Tensioned Box Girder Bridge Manual published by the Post-Tensioning Institute in 1978 is recommended as the guide for design.4-B1 for a comprehensive list of box girder designs. However. B. General Post-tensioning is generally used for cast-in-place construction since pretensioning is generally practical only for fabricator-produced structural members. Bridge Types Post-tensioning has been used in various types of cast-in-place bridges in this state with box girders predominating. designers should note certain requirements unique to prestressed concrete such as special f-factors. The following recommendations are intended to augment the PTI Manual and the AASHTO Code and point out where current WSDOT practice departs from practices followed elsewhere. post-tensioned cast-in-place slabs are usually more expensive than when reinforced conventionally.99. In general. and shear provisions. Slab Bridge Structure depth can be quite shallow in the positive moment region when post-tensioning is combined with haunching in the negative moment region. Designers should proceed with caution when considering post-tensioned slab bridges because severe cracking in the decks of bridges of this type has occurred. See reference 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6. load factors (see Chapters 4 and 9 of this manual).4-1 . The AASHTO criteria for reinforced concrete apply equally to bridges with or without posttensioning steel.4. but the methods apply equally well to other types of bridges. Cast-in-Place Bridges July 2000 6. See Appendix 6. 1. This manual discusses longitudinal post-tensioning of box girder webs and transverse post-tensioning of box girder slabs.

the beam cross-section properties in the negative moment regions need to be considerably larger than the properties in the positive moment regions to resist compression. The entire superstructure section (traffic barrier excluded) shall be considered when computing the section properties. This thickening should be accomplished by raising the top surface of the bottom slab at the maximum rate of 1/2-inch per foot. The cost of a prestressed box girder bridge is practically the same as a conventionally-reinforced box girder bridge. combined with slope-leg columns. T-Beam Bridge This type of bridge. particularly when the spacing of the beams and the columns are the same. the width of beam webs should generally be equal to the width of the supporting columns. 3.2 B. if possible. Web spacing should normally be 8 to 11 feet and the slab overhang over exterior girders should be approximately half the girder spacing unless transverse post-tensioning is used. If this type of construction is used in a multispan. and some haunching at the piers. but larger pier elements. Cast-in-Place Bridges 6. Box Girder Bridge This type of bridge has been a popular choice in this state. for an example. can be structurally efficient and aesthetically pleasing. Since longitudinal structural frame action predominates in this type of design. however. more closely spaced beams and fewer. by adding a fillet or haunch. The apparent visual depth of box girder bridges can be reduced by sloping all or the lower portion of the exterior web. Larger section properties can be obtained by gradually increasing the web thickness in the vicinity of intermediate piers or. but not less than required for shear and for concrete placing clearance. longer spans and shallower depths are possible with prestressing.1.5 feet. see Subsection 4. A T-Beam bridge can also be a good choice for a single-span simply-supported structure. The slab overhang over exterior webs should be roughly half the web spacing. Top and bottom slab thickness should normally meet the requirements of Subsection 5. Union Avenue O’Xings.1B.3.1D). the preferred solution may be smaller. Box Girders The superstructure shall be designed as a unit. Providing 21/2-inches of clear cover expedites concrete placement and consolidation in the heavily congested regions adjacent to the post-tensioning ducts. continuous bridge.41. For other types of T-Beam bridges. Generally. 2.5 feet . T-Beams When equally spaced beams and columns are used in the design. C. Web thickness should be 12 inches minimum. but not less than required by stress and specifications. Webs should be flared at anchorages. All slender members subjected to compression must satisfy buckling criteria. resulting in an efficient center of gravity of steel line throughout. If the latter is done. 3.3. See SR 16. the bottom slab would require thickening at the interior piers of continuous spans.50 feet .4-2 July 2000 . Section Requirements 1 Slabs The Olalla Bridge (Contract 9202) has spans of 41. a midspan structure depth of 15 inches.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 2. For criteria on distribution of live loads. the overall structure depth may have to be increased (for clearance requirements see Subsection 2. crossbeams at intermediate piers can be relatively small and the post-tensioning tendons can be placed side-by-side in the webs.

With such systems. and the design should utilize a combination of these commonlystocked items. Strand and Tendon Arrangements The total number of strands selected should be the minimum required to carry the service loads at all points. the stress existing in the steel at the coupled end after stage 1 stressing should not be exceeded during stage 2 stressing (see Figure 6. Layout of Anchorages and End Blocks Consult industry brochures and shop plans for recent bridges before laying out end blocks. Duct sizes and the number of strands they contain vary slightly.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures D. unless specifically approved by the Bridge Design Engineer and the Design Unit Supervisor. 19. E. To avoid local crushing of concrete and/or grout. To encourage bids from a wider range of suppliers. 27.5 times the net area of the prestressing steel. try to accommodate the large square bearing plate sizes common to several systems. a design requiring 72 strands per web would be most economically satisfied by two standard 27-strand tendons and one standard 19-strand tendon containing 18 strands.1-5).4-3 . torsion in continuous. couplers can be added. However. After stage 1 stressing. The most economical tendon selection will generally be the maximum size within the range. For example. the duct placement patterns indicated in Figure 6.4. In general. a supplier will offer several duct sizes and associated end anchors. For example. Some systems offer couplers which make possible stage construction of long bridges.1-1 through -4 should be used. multigirder bridges on a curve can be counter-balanced by applying more prestress in the girders on the outside of the curve than in those on the inside of the curve. In the regions away from the end anchorages. Although post-tensioning steel normally takes precedence in a member. as determined by the designer. sufficient room must be provided for other essential mild steel and placement of concrete. and 31 1/2-inch strands. steel installed. A less economical choice would be three standard 27-strand tendons containing 24 strands each. Commonly-stocked tendons include 9. and shop drawings of the recent post-tensioned bridges kept on file in the Construction Plans Section offer guidance to strand selection. each of which will accommodate a range of strand numbers up to a maximum in the range. depending on the supplier. More prestress may be needed in certain portions of a continuous superstructure than elsewhere. The duct area should be at least 2. and the designer may consider using separate short tendons in those portions of the spans only. concrete cast and stressed in additional spans. in particular near diaphragms and cross-beams. 12. Present WSDOT practice is to indicate only the design force and cable path on the contract plans and allow the post-tensioning supplier to satisfy these requirements with tendons and anchors.6-inch strand units. forms can be constructed and concrete cast and stressed in a number of spans during stage 1. Cast-in-Place Bridges July 2000 6. Tendons should not be larger than (31) 1/2-inch strand units or (22) 0. the savings on prestressing steel possible with such an arrangement should be balanced against the difficulty involved in providing suitable anchoring points and sufficient room for jacking equipment at intermediate locations in the structure.4. Chapter 2 of the PTI Post-Tensioned Box Girder Bridge Manual.

4-4 July 2000 .1-1 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges Tendon Placement Patterns Box Girder Bridges Figure 6.4.

4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges Tendon Placement Patterns Box Girder Bridges Figure 6.4-5 .1-2 July 2000 6.

1-3 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges Tendon Placement Patterns Box Girder Bridges Figure 6.4-6 July 2000 .4.

1-4 July 2000 6.4-7 .4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges Tendon Placement Patterns Box Girder Bridges Figure 6.

4.4-8 July 2000 .1-5 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges Figure 6.

4-9 .1-6 July 2000 6.4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges Plan at Exterior Girder (Roadway Slab Not Shown) Figure 6.

99. or slab bridge. This will generally be true in structures containing rigid frame elements.4. and diaphragms in bridges without prestressing steel are appreciably affected by post-tensioning of the main girders. Single-span bridges have been provided with a hinge at one pier and longitudinal slide bearings at the other pier.2. see Chapter 2. the bearings at piers 3 and 5 were converted into fixed bearings to help resist large horizontal loads such as earthquakes. provided the structure can be idealized as a plane frame. For a discussion of the radial component of force in a curved cable. Examples are bridges with sharp curvature. The vertical loads are 6.1.3. In general.8 and Subsection 9.2 Analysis The procedures outlined in Section 2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges Sufficient room must be allowed inside the member for mild steel and concrete placement and outside the member for jacking equipment. The size of the anchorage block in the plane of the anchor plates should be large enough to provide a minimum of 1-inch clearance from the plates to any free edge. the layout of end blocks. Note that in long-span box girder superstructures requiring large bearing pads. see Chapter 4-7 of reference 6.99. F. all the end block widening must be on the inside. After posttensioning.1-6).5 of reference 6. bearing pads.4-10 July 2000 . those effects should be included in the design.8 for computation of stress in single and multispan box girders can be followed for the analysis of T-beams and slab bridges. This can be accomplished with suitable transverse shear corbels or bearings allowing motion parallel to the bridge only. Superstructures which are allowed to move longitudinally at certain piers are typically restrained against motion in the transverse direction at those piers. and curtain walls at exterior girders become extremely difficult (see Figure 6.1 through 2.99. See Subsection 9. the center pier (pier 4) was built monolithic with the superstructure. An analysis method in Chapter 10 of reference 6. or slope-leg intermediate piers.1 for continuous prestressed beams is particularly well adapted to the loading input format in STRUDL. severe skew. For further discussion. Superstructure Shortening Whenever members such as columns.3.4. T-beam. On the six-span Evergreen Parkway Undercrossing structure. 6. The casting length for box girder bridges shall be slightly longer than the actual bridge layout length to account for the elastic shortening of the concrete due to prestress. To lessen the risk of tendon break-out through the side of a thin web. For further information. Two-span bridges have been detailed with longitudinal slide bearings at the end piers and a monolithic middle pier.2E of this manual. crossbeams. the forces exerted by cables of parabolic or other configurations are converted into equivalent vertical linear or concentrated loads applied to members and joints of the superstructure. Past practice in the state of Washington regarding control of superstructure shortening in posttensioned bridges with rigid piers can be illustrated by a few examples. and all the other piers were constructed with slide bearings. the end block should be long enough to accommodate a horizontal tendon curve of 200 feet minimum radius. Note that if the exterior face of the exterior girder is in the same plane throughout its entire length. When the piers of box girder or T-beam bridges are severely skewed. see the program user instructions. In the method. as well. varying superstructure width. The BDS program available on the WSDOT system will quickly perform a complete stress analysis of a box girder. The STRUDL program is recommended for complex structures which are more accurately idealized as space frames. the end block dimensions must meet the requirements of the AASHTO Code.99. the end block should be somewhat wider than the bearing pad beneath to avoid subjecting the relatively thin bottom slab to high bearing stresses.6 of reference 6.

the effects of elastic shortening and secondary moments are properly reflected in all output listings. Forces exerted by anchor plates at the cable ends are coded in as axial and vertical concentrated forces combined with a concentrated moment if the anchor plate group is eccentric. applied moments are calculated at ultimate load levels. the equivalent section properties should be calculated in terms of either the stronger or weaker material. use the properties of the entire superstructure regardless of the type of bridge being designed. bonded reinforcement should be interpreted to mean bonded auxiliary (nonprestressed) reinforcement in conformity with Article 8. Preliminary Stress Check In accordance with AASHTO. flexural stresses in prestressed members are calculated at service load levels. the first objective should be to satisfy the allowable flexural stresses in the concrete at the critical points in the structure with the chosen cross-section and amount of prestressing steel. A. For frame analysis. stirrups. For stress analysis of slab bridges. The long-hand formulas for computing time-dependent losses in steel stress given in the code should be used only when a more thorough investigation is deemed necessary. To minimize concrete cracking and protect reinforcing steel against corrosion for bridges. previous designs are a useful guide in making a good first choice.4-11 . For stress analysis of T-beam bridges. stirrups. With correct input (check thoroughly before submitting for computation).1. calculate loads and steel requirements for a 1-foot wide strip. During preliminary design. See Figure 2.0 through 2. see the calculations for SR 90 West Sunset Way Ramp (simple). For box girders.2A of this manual. moment capacities vs. Since the prestress force varies along the spans due to the effects of friction. the concrete strength should be limited to the values indicated in Subsection 6. and ultimate moment capacity can be readily met with minor or no modifications in the cross-section. In the AASHTO formulas for allowable tensile stress in concrete.1.5-1.8. July 2000 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges considered positive when acting up toward the center of tendon curvature and negative when acting down toward the center of tendon curvature. Note that when different concrete strengths are used in different portions of the same member. and the prestress moments printed out are the actual resultant (total) moments acting on the structure. Shear stresses. For T-beam and slab bridges.6 of the 1995 ACI Code for Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures.99. Normal practice is to use the time-dependent prestress loss from Table 6. the allowable concrete stress under final conditions in the precompressed tensile zone should be limited to zero in the top and bottom fibers. SR 5 Nalley Valley Viaduct (complex). use the procedures outlined in the AASHTO specifications. Section Properties As in other types of bridges. the design normally begins with a preliminary estimate of the superstructure cross-section and the amount of prestress needed at points of maximum stress and at points of cross-section change. then the requirements for shear stress.5 of Reference 6. In general. B. and the STRUDL manuals. the difference between the external forces applied at the end anchors at opposite ends of the bridge must be coded in at various points along the spans in order for the summation of horizontal forces to equal zero. For examples of the application of STRUDL to post-tensioning design. girder webs can be thickened locally near piers to reduce excessive shear stress. For example.

try one or more of the following remedies: Adjust tendon profiles.) line.99.c. thicken slabs.4. Then repeat calculations as necessary. Tendon Layout After a preliminary estimate has been made of the concrete section and the amount of prestressing needed at points of maximum applied load.c. the tendon profile (eccentricity) shall be based on the span requirement.g. The main advantages of the tendon profile and c.2-1 In case of overstress. but is not necessary for superstructures having constant cross. plot are: 6. revise strength of concrete of top slab. For continuous bridges with unequal span lengths.4-12 July 2000 .g. add more short tendons locally. The most efficient tendon profile from the standpoint of steel stress loss will normally be a series of rather long interconnected parabolas. etc. but other configurations are possible. C.1): Figure 6. The tendon profile and c. This steel can be computed as in the following example (also see Chapter 9-5 of Reference 6.g. This results in an efficient post-tensioning design. it may be advantageous in multispan bridges to draw a tendon profile to a convenient scale superimposed on a plot of the center of gravity of concrete (c. extra mild steel (auxiliary reinforcement) should be added to carry the total tension present.section and symmetrical spans.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges In all cases where tension is allowed in the concrete under initial or final conditions. add or subtract prestress steel. line plot is strongly recommended for superstructures of variable cross-section and/or multiple unsymmetrical span arrangements.c.

line to center of gravity of steel (c.g.g.s. ultimately. E. Fs’ denotes ultimate strength of strands in ksi. Possible conflicts between prestressing steel and mild steel near end regions. All values are in ksi and pertain to 270 ksi either stress relieved or low relaxation strands. to develop the resultant total prestress moment curve. Steel Stress Curve Steel stresses may be plotted either as the actual values or as a percentage of the jacking stresses. and diaphragms may become apparent. A steel stress diagram for a typical two-span bridge is shown below. In the special cases where sharp curvature cannot be avoided. extra horizontal and vertical ties should be added along the concave side of the curve to resist the tendency to break through the web. horizontal curvature of the tendons as well as horizontal and vertical roadway curvature should be included in the summation. and relaxation of steel) shall be as indicated in Subsection 6. Prestress Losses Friction losses occurring during jacking and prior to anchoring. In general. creep. July 2000 6. camber in bridges with unequal spans can be balanced by adjusting tendon profiles. This system is at present available from several large suppliers. For purposes of design. See stirrup calculations for SR 2. for a suggested method of calculating this additional steel.g. line diagram should also contain a sketch of how the end bearing plates or anchors are to be arranged at the ends of the bridge. D.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 1.c. The recommended minimum radius (horizontal or vertical) of flared tendons is 200 feet. 3. 2. Cast-in-Place Bridges The primary prestress moment curves (prestress force times distance from c.5.4-13 . EU-Line O’Xing. Possible design revisions may be indicated.10 times the span length or 20 feet as the minimum flare zone length. All other losses (those due to shrinkage.c.20 and K = 0. Spans are symmetrical about pier 2 and the bridge is jacked from both ends.) lines) at all points throughout all spans are quickly obtained from this plot and will be used to develop the secondary moment curves (if present) and. To avoid the substantial friction loss caused by sharp tendon curvature in the end regions where the tendons flare out from a stacked arrangement towards the bearing plates. For example. Such a sketch can be useful in determining how large the end block in a girder bridge will have to be and how much space will be required for mild steel in the end region. elastic shortening. depend on the system and materials used.0002. use 0. crossbeams.1. this office has specified a rigid spiral galvanized ferrous metal duct system for which µ shall be 0. the arrangement of anchor plates should be the same as the arrangement of the ducts to which they belong to avoid problems with duct cross-overs and to keep end blocks of reasonable width. When summing the α angles for total friction loss along the structure. The tendon profile and c.

30 ksi for structures of usual design and normal weight concrete. the stress for design purposes at the jacked end should be limited to 0.81 x fs′ for low relaxation strands as allowed by the AASHTO Code in case friction values encountered in the field turn out somewhat greater than the standard values used in design. the normal slippage during anchoring in most systems. Yield Stress for Stress-Releive Strands = 0. At the high points on the initial stress curve.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges Losses due to creep. If these values are exceeded.85 Yield Stress for Low-Relaxation Strands = 0.79 x fs′ or 213 ksi for 270 ksi low relaxation strands. Stress loss at jacked end should be calculated from the assumed anchor set of 1/4 inch. the maximum allowable jacking stress value of 0.75 x fs′ for stress relieved or 0. In these cases.75 x fs′ low relaxation strands after sealing of anchorage. When the total tendon length (L) is less than the length of cable influenced by anchor set (x) and the friction loss is small.70 x fs′ value governs. as in short straight tendons.75 x fs′ or 202 ksi for 270 ksi stress relieved strands or 0.4. shrinkage.90 Figure 6.70 x fs′ for stress relieved strands or 0. and relaxation of prestressing steel are 33. This would permit the post-tensioning contractor to jack to the slightly higher value of 0.2-2 Accurate plotting of steel stress variation due to local curvature is normally not necessary. When tendons are continuous through the length of the bridge.77 x fs′ for stress relieved strands or 0. the stress should not exceed 0. and straight lines between intersection points on the diagram are usually sufficient. See the following sketch: 6. the 0. the jacking stress can be lowered or alternately the specified amount of anchor set can be increased.78 x fs′ for low relaxation strands cannot be used and a slightly lower value should be specified.4-14 July 2000 .

Y.4-15 . The primary prestress moment curve is not necessary for calculating concrete stresses in single-span simply supported bridges. or a serious error could result. the effect of elastic shortening should be calculated. In the longer multispan bridges where the tendons experience greater friction losses. if the single span is rigidly framed to supporting piers. As the secondary moment can have a large absolute value in some structures. above for single span bridges. Single-Span Bridges. Lin’s equivalent vertical load method used in conjunction with the STRUDL program. Since there is no secondary prestress moment developed in the span of a single span. the primary and secondary prestress moment curves must be added algebraically at all points in the spans. The same would be true when unexpected high friction is developed in bearings during or after construction. Jacking at both ends need not be done simultaneously. since final results are virtually the same whether or not the jacking is simultaneous.4. If unsymmetrical two-span structures are to be jacked from one end only. F. it is very important to obtain the proper sign for this moment. jacking from both ends will usually be necessary. Multispan Continuous Bridges The primary prestress moment curve for all spans is developed as in 1. 2. Simply Supported The primary prestress moment curve is developed by multiplying the initial steel stress curve ordinates by the area of prestressing steel times the eccentricity of steel from the center of gravity of the concrete section at every tenth point in the span. To obtain the total prestress moment curve used to check concrete stresses. the primary prestress moment curve is equal to the total prestress moment curve in the span.2-3 In single-span. July 2000 6. simply supported superstructures friction losses are so small that jacking from both ends is normally not warranted. However. With the exception of T. simply supported bridge which is free to shorten. the jacking must be done from the end of the longest span. none of the methods described in the following take into account the elastic shortening of the superstructure due to prestressing. Prestress Moment Curves 1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges Figure 6.

though straightforward.99.4-16 July 2000 . In single-span simply supported superstructures with parabolic tendon paths. and near the span ends where shear stress is likely to be maximum (see Subsection 6. Equivalent Vertical Load See discussion in Subsection 6.2. Shear). and fixed-end moments will be obtained. flexural stresses at service load levels need to be investigated at the span midpoint where moments are maximum. For certain bridges. investigate flexural stress at service load should be at points of maximum moment (in the negative moment region of box girders. The initial condition occurs just after the transfer of prestress when the concrete is relatively fresh and the member is carrying its own dead load. For tendon paths other than parabolic. however.2 of this manual. such as when prestressing and falsework release are done in stages and when special construction loads have to be carried. Lin’s equivalent vertical load method and is a relatively quick way to manually compute prestress moments in bridges of up to five spans. check at the quarter point of the crossbeam). Since the secondary moment effect due to vertical support reactions is included in the coefficients listed in the tables. Slope Deflection See Section 2. Distribution of the fixed-end moments in all spans will yield the secondary moments at all piers. The final condition occurs after all the prestress losses when the concrete has gained its full ultimate strength and the member is carrying dead load and live load. See Subsection 2. flexural stress should be investigated at other points in the span as well. mild steel should not be used to supplement the ultimate moment capacity.99.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges A discussion of methods for calculating secondary prestress moments follows: WSDOT BEAMDEF Program If the primary prestress moment values at tenth points are coded into this program. At points of maximum moment.4. This method is similar to T. Y.5 of Reference 6. Flexural Stress in Concrete Stress at service load levels in the top and bottom fibers of prestressed members should be checked for at least two conditions that will occur in the lifetime of the members. the support moment computed is the total moment at that point.8 for a discussion. Table of Influence Lines See Appendix A. 6. span stiffness factors.2. other intermediate loading conditions may have to be checked.4. carry-overs. etc. In multispan continuous superstructures. G.4. at points where the cross section changes.8 of Reference 6.B of this manual. Normally. The secondary moments will be zero at simply supported span ends and cantilevers.3. It may be necessary. at points where the cross-section changes.99. and at points where shear is likely to be maximum. maximum and minimum steel percentages and cracking moment should be checked.I. In addition. is time consuming. to determine the partial temperature and shrinkage stresses that occur prior to post-tensioning and supply mild steel reinforcing for this condition. the ultimate moment capacity of the section should exceed or equal the applied ultimate moment.8. The concrete stresses shall be within the AASHTO allowables except as amended in Subsection 6. The method.8 for a discussion.1 of Reference 6.

In statically indeterminate continuous bridge beams. The most critical zones are those which have the lowest compressive stress reserve in the bottom fibers under prestress plus dead load. per cubic foot). a temperature rise at the upper surface produces positive flexural moments which cause tensile stresses in the bottom fibers. deep bridge members in localities with large temperature fluctuations. Studies have shown that temperature is the most important tension-producing factor.0d on either side of the intermediate support proved to be particularly crack-prone. It is assumed that movements at the expansion devices will generally relieve any induced stresses. considerable temperature gradients are set up within the cross-section of superstructures. a thermal stress investigation should be considered. a box girder can exhibit a DT=30°C. The superstructure box girder shall be designed longitudinally for a top slab temperature increase of 20°F with no reduction in modulus of elasticity. When the temperature gradient is constant over the entire length of a continuous beam superstructure.3 to 2.) The coefficient of thermal expansion used is 0. Modulus of Elasticity Wc1. 1. such stresses can be substantial in massive.) The superstructure box girder shall be designed transversely for a temperature differential between inside and outside surfaces of ±15°F with no reduction in Modulus of Elasticity (Maximum Daily Variation).000006. Temperature Effects* Most specifications for massive bridges call for a verification of stresses under uniform temperature changes of the total bridge superstructure.4-17 . Stresses due to temperature unevenly distributed within the cross-section are not generally verified. Fritz Leonardt. however. depending on the type of cross-section and direction of solar radiation. Computation of stresses induced by vertical temperature gradients within prestressed concrete bridges can become quite complex and are ignored in typical designs done by WSDOT. Solar radiation produces uniform heating of the upper surface of a bridge superstructure which is greater than that of the lower surface. Precast Segmental Box Girder Bridge Manual. (Maximum Seasonal Variation. If the structure being designed falls within this category. An inverse temperature gradient with higher temperatures at the lower surface occurs rarely and involves much smaller temperature differences. A Mean temperature 50°F with Rise 45°F and Fall 45°F for longitudinal analysis using one-half of the Modulus of Elasticity. √ fc′ (W=weight of concrete in lbs. even when the temperature difference is only 10°C between the deck and bottom of the beam.4.5 33 Cast-in-Place Bridges 3. *From “Conclusions Drawn from Distress of Prestressed Concrete Bridges” by Dr. Subsection 3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures H. The zone at a distance of about 0. See Reference 6. Normally. However. (In accordance with Post-Tensioning Institute Manual.3. these are the zones near the interior supports where additional tensile stresses develop in the bottom fibers due to (1) a concentrated support reaction and (2) insufficient curvature of prestressed reinforcement. In practice.99. positive flexural moments are induced in all spans. especially in two-span continuous beams in the vicinity of intermediate supports. 2. Such temperature differences are mostly of a very complex nature. In reality. July 2000 6.10 and the following temperature criteria for further guidance. These moments are of equal constant magnitude in the interior spans and decrease linearly to zero in the end spans.

20. does not apply.20.4. intentionally roughened. The distance between these two forces approximately equals the structural depth d. refer to Section 11.3. Therefore. Vnh-c. It is shown below that the equation in Section 9. The vertical shear capacity corresponding to the concrete horizontal resistance is Vnh-c. the moment gradient is. essentially.20. horizontal shear requirements will control the stirrup design.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures I. of width bv. At elastic stress levels. Instead.01·bv·s)]·bv·s/(bv·d) = 0. Hence. The vertical shear capacity corresponding to the horizontal resistance of the stirrup steel is Vnh-s. maximum stirrup spacing. free of laitance. The moment gradient produced by vertical shear causes this horizontal stress. Horizontal shear design is relatively straightforward. Shear Concrete box girder and T-beam bridges with horizontal construction joints (which result from webs and slabs being cast at different times) should be checked for both vertical and horizontal shear capacity. Vs. Additional stirrups in a quantity exceeding the specified minimum provide additional vertical shear capacity. developed as a couple. the horizontal concrete shear capacity should not be augmented by Vp. the steel reinforcement being in tension and the concrete slab being in compression. between two interconnected surfaces of a composite structural member.4 of the ACI 318-95 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary. The use of an electronic spreadsheet simplifies the repetitive and detailed nature of these calculations. Minimum stirrup area. This stress can be resisted by a combination of 1) interlock of the two concrete surfaces and 2) shearfriction resulting from stirrups being placed across the interface. and has a minimum quantity of stirrup reinforcement of 50bvs/Fy. of (350 psi) bvd.4-18 July 2000 .4·Fy·Av Cast-in-Place Bridges 6.4 of the AASHTO specifications is somewhat confusing in that it deviates from the standard load factor format. VQ/(Ibv).20. Horizontal shear stress acts over the contact area. The AASHTO procedure differs somewhat from the ACI 318-95 procedure which refers directly to shear-friction design. where s is the longitudinal spacing between adjacent stirrups. Generally. For further explanation. Vertical concrete shear capacity for prestressed or post-tensioned structural members is calculated as the lesser of Vci or Vcw as outlined in Section 9. This corresponds to a concrete vertical shear capacity. the resulting horizontal shear stress at the interface can be shown to approximately equal Vu/(bvd). Vnh-s. τ·bv·s = Vnh-s·bv·s/(bv·d) = [(160·Fy·bv·d/40000)·Av/(. When the concrete interface is clean.2 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.3(d) of the AASHTO specifications for additional shear capacity provided by these stirrups is equivalent to designing for the additional horizontal shear force by mobilizing shear friction using a m value of 0. this shear stress is generally expressed as t=VQ/(Ibv).4. The post-tensioning force does not subject the horizontal interface to compression along the full span length. Chapter 27 of Notes on ACI 318-95 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete with Design Applications presents two excellent example problems for vertical shear design. the AASHTO specifications allow a concrete ultimate horizontal shear stress of 350 psi. and maximum stirrup capacity. based upon Q and I of the uncracked section. the presentation in Section 9. as is done when calculating the vertical concrete shear capacity Vcw. However. Because the concrete section is generally cracked at the full factored load level. are further subject to the limitations presented in Section 9.

See Figure 5. and Section 2. In load factor notation.1. July 2000 6.82 of Reference 6.20.Vnh-c)/(Fy·d) The horizontal shear requirements of the AASHTO specifications can be satisfied using either of two methods: (1) Stirrup spacing is designed to satisfy the shear capacity requirement at each and every point along the span (AASHTO Section 9.2 for typical top slab forming.99.99.3. except that the slab steel is figured in a horizontal instead of a vertical plane.4. End Block Stresses The highly concentrated forces at the end anchorages cause bursting and spalling stresses in the concrete which must be resisted by vertical and horizontal reinforcement.4. The anchorage zones of slab bridges will require vertical stirrups as well as additional horizontal transverse bars extending across the width of the bridge.Vnh-c Vnh-c = (350 psi)·bv·d Vnh-s = 0.20. See Appendix 6. Note that the procedures for computing horizontal bursting and spalling steel in the slabs of box girders and T-beams are similar to those required for computing vertical steel in girder webs. these relationships can be expressed as follows: Vu ≤ φ·Vnh = φ·Vnh-c + φ·Vnh-s Vnh-s ≥ Vu/φ . In box girders. this slab steel should be placed half in the top slab and half in the bottom slab.4). For cast-in-place sloped outer webs. The horizontal spalling and bursting steel in slab bridges shall be placed half in a top layer and half in a bottom layer. resulting in an increased minimum stirrup spacing.4·Fy·d) ≥ 50·bv/Fy + 2. The second method permits the designer to average the stirrup spacing over one tenth the span.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges The total stirrup quantity required is the sum of the minimum 50 bv s/Fy and the additional required amount to mobilize shear friction.5·(Vu/φ .5·Vnh-s/(Fy·d) ≥ 50·bv/Fy + 2. This moment about the bottom corner of the web is due to tributary load from the top slab concrete placement plus 10 psf form dead load. the use of an electronic spreadsheet can simplify these repetitive computations. Again.3.4·Av·Fy·d/s (Av/s)total ≥ 50·bv/Fy + Vnh-s/(0.8.4-19 . see Chapter 7 of Reference 6. or (2) Stirrup spacing is designed to transfer the change in flange axial force over a segment length not exceeding one tenth of the span (AASHTO Section 9. For precast tub outer webs. increase inside stirrup reinforcement and bottom slab top transverse reinforcement as required for the web moment locked-in during construction of the top slab. 6.3). For a better understanding of this subject. increase the stirrup and bottom slab steel as required by moment induced by falsework overhang brackets supporting concrete plus 10 psf overhang deck load.4-A1 for typical box girder end block reinforcement details. J.99.

AVAR.1-6 indicates expansion bearing offsets for the partial effects of elastic shortening. At no time during the stressing operations will more than 1/6 of the total prestressing force be applied eccentrically about the centerline of the structure. The final prestressing force shall be distributed with an approximately equal amount in each web and shall be placed symmetrically about the centerline of the bridge. The bearing should be designed for the full range of anticipated movements: ES+CR+SH+TEMP. If jacking is done at both ends of the bridge. the square anchor plates used by three suppliers (VSL.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures K. and shrinkage. When calculating strand elongation. elastic and time-dependent losses. L. deviation of ±7 percent between measured and theoretical elongations. prestress forces. 6. false work construction and removal. use Es = 28. In order to calculate the net bearing plate area pressing on the concrete behind it. In all sizes up to the 31-strand tendons. friction coefficients. See Appendix 6. Assume for simplicity that the concrete bearing stress is uniform. Anchorage Stresses The average bearing stress on the concrete behind the anchor plate and the bending stress in the plate material should satisfy the requirements of the AASHTO Code. Camber The camber to be shown on the plans should include the effect of both dead load and final prestress and may be taken as given in Table 6. Cast-in-Place Bridges Sidewalks and traffic barriers are normally cast after post-tensioning.1. 2. N.2-B1 for typical post-tensioning notes for plans. anchor set. The tendons shall be jacked in a sequence that avoids causing overstress or tension in the bridge. assume that the trumpet associated with the equivalent size square plate will be used.4. the minimum strand elongation due to the specified jacking load for the end jacked first as well as the end jacked last should be indicated. tendon jacking sequence.4-A3 for preapproved anchorages for post-tensioning. No more than one half of the prestressing force in any web may be stressed before an equal force is stressed in the adjacent webs. Expansion Bearing Offsets Figure 6. M. strand elongations. Post-Tensioning Notes The design plans shall contain the following information for use by the post-tensioner and state inspector: Strength of concrete in superstructure.4-20 July 2000 . Bending stress in the steel should be checked assuming bending can occur across a corner of the plate or across a line parallel to its narrow edge. duct type.8-1. The initial offset shown is intended to result in minimal bearing eccentricity for the majority of the life of the structure. The following notes for the sequence of stressing of longitudinal tendons should be shown in the plans: 1. creep. and detailing end blocks to accommodate these plates is the recommended procedure. In the cases where nonstandard (rectangular) anchor plates must be specified because of space limitations. The calculated strand elongations at the ends of the bridge are compared with the measured field values to ensure that the friction coefficients (and hence the levels of prestressing throughout the structure) agree with the values assumed by the designer.000 ksi. the trumpet size can be scaled from photos in supplier brochures. Stronghold) meet the AASHTO requirements. See Appendix 6.

Check that the number of PT strands in a tendon proposed by the contractor do not exceed the number allowed by the contract (i. or may be post-tensioned prior to lifting the girder from the form..” F.4-21 . and preferably after the diaphragms are cast and cured. Check that the manufacturer provides a “lift off” force as required in Standard Specifications. D. A.8 of the Construction Manual. E.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6. Check that the allowable tendon stress at anchorages and along the tendon are not exceeded. C.e. These strands must be cut before the deck slab concrete is placed. The maximum size of a post-tensioned tendon should be 31-1/2 inch strands or 22-0.4.6 in diameter). Use of a larger tendon requires the approval of the Bridge Design Engineer and the Design Unit Supervisor.2.3 Review of Shop Plans See also section on Review of Shop Plans in Chapter 1 of this manual as well as Section 6. review should mark “Not Approved” with a note indicating that “the tendon size exceeds the maximum tendon size specified in the contract plans. Temporary strands may be required for shipping. and lower the release strength. B. reducing camber. 31-1/2 inch diameter or 22-0. These strands may be pretensioned or post-tensioned and are bonded only for the end 10 feet of the girder. Cast-in-Place Bridges P65:DP/BDM6 July 2000 6. If the post-tensioning shop drawings show a PT tendon larger than the size specified in contract plans.6 inch strands.

10. 7. Transportation Research Board Report No. 15. “New Deep WSDOT Standard Sections Extend Spans of Prestressed Concrete Girders. Leonhardt (in WSDOT Library) Prestressed Concrete Vol.C. 1. 14. January-February 1989.J. Shrinkage. Chicago. Damage Evaluation and Repair Methods for Prestressed Concrete Bridge Members. 1999. 1997. Washington. LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. 3. April 1974 Preapproved Repair Procedures WSDOT Manual for Repair of Concrete Post-Tensioned Box Girder Bridge Manual Post-Tensioning Institute 301 West Osborn. May 1978 11. I and II Guyon Wiley Designing for Effects of Creep. Precast and Prestressed Concrete. Part 1.99 Bibliography 1. Transportation Research Board Report No. 16. 8. No. PCI Design Handbook. R.99-1 .” PCI JOURNAL. Lin Wiley Prestressed Concrete Design and Construction F. 13.F. 92-119. California Copyright 1969 Analysis & Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures ACI Committee 443 Report 71-14 ACI Journal. IL. 2. D. 17. Guidelines for Evaluation and Repair of Prestressed Concrete Bridge Members. 34-53.. 9. Y. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Seguirant. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. July 2000 6. No.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6. PCI Bridge Design Manual. Phoenix. Mast.Design & Construction Manual of WCRSI 1499 Bayshore Highway. Ontario. Prestressed Concrete Structures T. 5. pp.” PCI JOURNAL. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. Burlingame. AASHTO.1 Design 1 1971 (WSDOT Library) Post-Tensioned Bridges . 34. Fifth Edition. and Temperature ACI SP 27 620. 280 titled. July-August 1998. Arizona Cracking of Voided Post-Tensioned Concrete Bridge Decks Ministry of Transportation and Communications Toronto. S. Canada Bibliography 6. 4. 4. V. 43. pp. 12. 226 titled.. Chicago. Design of Concrete Bridges for Temperature Gradients ACI Journal. V. “Lateral Stability of Long Prestressed Concrete Beams. IL.

AASHTO LRFD Specifications. pp. 1. No. G. “Lateral Stability of Long Prestressed Concrete Beams. V.F.” PCI JOURNAL.. No. 19.” PCI JOURNAL. 70-88. 21. and Laszlo. for WSDOT Standard Prestressed Girders. “Handling and Shipping of Long Span Bridge Beams.R. January-February 1993. Standardization of Shear Reinf. November-December 1987. 6. V. 32.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Bibliography 18.99-2 July 2000 . R. R. pp.. Second Edition 1998. P65:DP/BDM6 6. 86-101.. 20. Imper. Mast. 38. Part 2.

Bridges) “A” Dimension for P. Curve Effect = 100L =+ (Normally 81/4″) =+ * =+ =+ = {+ for Sag Vert. at time of slab pour.5 S m R GS2 Vert. to use for design. = “X” (not for design). Curve Effect = 1.S.” “A” Dimension (At Piers only) Slab Thickness + 3/4″) fillet 1 Excess Girder Camber Allowance m Top Flange Width Effect = W × 2 2 Horiz. July 2000 6.) Vertical curve length (ft. Note in left margin of Layout: “A” Dimen. exceeds the screed camber.for Crown Vert. * Use 2. or .) Algebraic diff.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures (For Simple Span or Continuous P. in profile tangent grades (%) Horizontal curve radius to girder per next sheet (ft. Concrete Bridges Definitions: S = L = G = R = W= m = Span length (ft.1-A1-1 .) Girder top flange width (inches) Deck crown or super slope (ft. Use “A” = 9″ Min.) Note: The following assumes that sag breaks in curb line profiles due to super transitions will occur @ Piers so as not to require any increase “A.S. This provides that the actual girder camber could exceed the calculated value by 13/4″ before the top of the girder would start interfering with the slab steel./ft.) Total “A” Round “A” to nearest 1/4″ (See minimums below) May make shorter span critical. Effect) Min. Use value from deflection program results to determine “A” Dimen.50 @ preliminary plan stage to determine vertical clearance. + / Flange Width { Use “A” = (Slab thicknessDrain″) + Topcrosses girder. where Type 5 3 4 The basic attempt is to have the top of girder not higher than 3/4″ below the bottom of slab at the center of the span. 1 Allowance for the amount the girder camber.

) H × m (inches) Vertical Curve Effect: Algebraic difference in profile tangent grades = G (%) Vertical curve length = L (ft) Span Length = S (ft) K = 100G 2L a=K × S2 × 12 = G × S2 × 12 400 2L 40.01746 × S × 12 4R 2 1.5 × S2 R (approx.000 a = 1.1-A1-2 July 2000 .01746 400R (approx.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Horizontal Curve Effect: “A” Dimension for P.) tan 1° H = 573Sm × 0.S.730Sm × 0.730 × S × m 400 R tan φ = 5. Concrete Bridges φ = 5.5 × G × S2 (inches) 100 L 6.

and G is the girder camber at the time of slab pour. The effect of girder cambers which are less than the calculated values tends to add to this error. Concrete Bridges Pad at C span (A C = top of slab to top of girder at C span) L L L A C =A+a+C-G L where a is the vertical curve effect as calculated on Appendix 6.S.1-A1-3 . This is a problem on bridges with spans in excess of 100 feet and a total grade change of 10 percent on a 900-foot vertical curve. “A” Dimension for P.1-A1-1. A value for “G” of 1 inch less than that shown on the deflection program output should probably be used to accommodate the worst case of camber variation. A correction should be made to the stirrup lengths if the value of A C exceeds A by more than 2 inches. C is the screed camber.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Check for excess pad at C span L For bridges which are on sharp crowned vertical curves. L P65:DP/BDM6 July 2000 6. the pad at C span can become excessive to the point L where the girder and diaphragm stirrups (based on the “A” dimension) are too short to bend into the proper position.

The design strength shall be specified as the calculated maximum of 1) the required transfer strength.00 ksi. These strands must be cut before the cast-in-place deck is placed. • Concrete Strengths: • Deck strength fc′ shall be 4. and preferably after the diaphragms are cast and cured. Design is to be in accordance with the current edition of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications13. • Deck wearing surface is to be assumed as 1/2 inch. the age at cylinder testing shall be specified at 56 days. The U. For design strengths less than or equal to 9.00 ksi minimum and 10.00 ksi and 10.10 ksi.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures W95G and W83G Notes to Designer for Pretensioned “Deep” Standard Girders — W95G and W83G Section Dimensions and Properties 1. Customary version of the Washington State Girder sheet in Appendix A. 2. Customary units.00 ksi. Girder section dimensions and properties of the W95G and W83G are based on hard metric units as shown on the metric version of the Washington Standard Girders sheet in Appendix A. the age at cylinder testing shall be specified at 28 days. rounded up to the nearest 0. Transfer strengths higher than 8.10 ksi. 2) the strength required at shipping (see section on girder shipping) and.50 ksi maximum. Girder transfer strength shall be determined by analysis (see section on girder handling). 2.6 inch diameter. Transfer strengths less than or equal to 7. 270 ksi. For transfer strengths between 7. Girder section dimensions and properties of other standard girders are based on U. These strands shall be considered in the design to reduce the required transfer strength. segmental sections (W83PTG and W95PTG) to allow for alternate bid proposals.S. 3) the strength required in service.S. For design strengths between 9.50 ksi minimum and 7. Transfer strengths between 7.50 ksi shall not be specified. Customary units as shown on the U.00 ksi and 8. These design assumptions and requirements apply to pretensioned girders only. Design Assumptions and Requirements 1. the girders shall be designed as pretensioned.00 ksi maximum. These strands may be pretensioned and bonded only for the end 10 feet of the girder. • Girder design strength fc′ shall be 7.0 ksi (Class 4000D Concrete). Metric versions of other standard girders are conversions from U.S.50 ksi can be achieved with extended curing time.00 ksi can be achieved on a daily turn around schedule.50 ksi. Customary unit dimensions of the W95G and W83G are conversions from metric units. • Girder strength at transfer of pretension force fci′ shall be 3. The maximum calculated value shall be rounded up to the nearest 0.00 ksi. low-relaxation strand. and the following requirements: • Deck thickness is to be 9 inches minimum unless a thinner deck can be justified by analysis or by the space necessary to place the deck reinforcement with the required clearances and cover. • Temporary strands in the top flange of the girder will most likely be required for shipping (see section on girder shipping). AASHTO M 203.S. July 2000 6. The design strength shall not be specified higher than 10. • Prestressing: • The prestressing strand shall be 0. or may be post-tensioned prior to lifting the girder from the form. but the substructure shall be designed for the heavier post-tensioned. and to reduce the “A” dimension. to provide stability during shipping.2-A1-1 .50 ksi and 8.

The strain compatibility method given in Section 8.60 fc′ ft = 7. 3. • The jacking stress fpi = 0. They generally rely on high strength concrete to be effective for the spans expected as a single piece. • Simple spans shall be assumed for positive moment flexural design. it has been determined14 that AASHTO LRFD Article 5. • Allowable Stresses: • At Service: Tension Sustained compression Total compression Tension Compression = zero (0) fc = 0. In addition to the effective area of the deck. • The W83G and W95G girders shall not be used for bridges with skew angles that exceed 30o.7. • The slope of the harped strands shall not be steeper than 8 horizontal to 1 vertical. harped at 0. the top flange of the girder and the mild reinforcement in the deck and the top flange of the girder should be included in the analysis.75fpu = 202.45 fc′ fc = 0. • The maximum number of straight strands is 46 in the bottom flange of the girder.2-A1-2 July 2000 . • The center to center strand spacing is 2 inches. • The harped strand exit location at the girder ends shall be held as low as possible while maintaining the concrete stresses within allowable limits.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures • The maximum number of harped strands is 22.5√ fc′ (psi) fci = 0.5 of the PCI Bridge Design Manual15 is recommended for this analysis. Maximum girder length is based on a single piece weight not to exceed 200 kips.2.60 fci′ W95G and W83G • At Release: • For flexural strength. The W95G and W83G sections are high performance girders. The approximate range of maximum span lengths for practical minimum and maximum girder spacings are as follows: Girder W83G W83G W95G W95G Spacing (ft) 5 10 5 10 Span (ft) – 155 – 164 Girder Length (ft)* 185 (maximum) – 172 (maximum) – *Design may be controlled by 200 kips maximum hauling weight.2.40 of the span length.3 underestimates the strength of the composite deck-girder system. 6.5 ksi.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Handling
The designer shall specify the lifting device locations and the corresponding concrete transfer strength that provides an adequate factor of safety for lateral stability. The calculations shall conform to Article 5.2.9 of the PCI Design Handbook, Precast and Prestressed Concrete, Fifth Edition16, or other approved methods. Other references14,15,17,18,19 provide the derivation of the theory and design examples. Temporary top strands may be used to improve the stability of the girder during handling, and to reduce the required concrete transfer strength.

W95G and W83G

Shipping
1. The designer shall assure that the girders can be reasonably delivered to the site as part of the preliminary design. The girder weight shall not exceed 200 kips. Vertical and horizontal clearances along the selected delivery route shall be verified. The designer shall check the lateral stability of the girder during shipping14,18,19. Temporary top strands shall be used to provide a minimum factor of safety against cracking of 1.0. In the absence of more accurate information on the properties of the truck, the following may be used: 1) the truck rotational spring stiffness Kq = 41,000 kip-in./radian, 2) the height of the roll center above the road hr = 24 in., 3) the height of the top of the truck support above the road = 6 ft, 4) the distance from the center of truck to the center of dual tires zmax = 36 in. and, 5) the maximum distance between truck supports = 130 ft. The maximum superelevation along the selected route shall be used in the analysis.

2.

Shear Reinforcement in End Region
1. 2. The end region is considered to be about 1.5 times the depth of the girder, h, from the end of the girder. The vertical reinforcement shown on the standard plans provides for the maximum bursting (splitting) demand at the end of the girder for the maximum number of straight and harped strands plus six temporary strands in the top flange of the girder (46 + 22 high + 6 respectively). This need not be changed unless the number of strands is increased. Generally the maximum number of strands is limited to 68 plus 6 temporary by the maximum concrete transfer strength of 8.50 ksi. The vertical bursting (splitting) reinforcement is located within approximately h/5 from the end of the girder and closely approximates 4 percent of the applied prestressing force at transfer (AASHTO LRFD 5.10.10). Other reinforcement shown in the end region accounts for vertical shear for the span configurations above and four (4) support conditions, • Lifting with no reaction at the end region, i.e. lifting devices located interior from the end of the girder, • Girder plus three intermediate diaphragms plus 20 psf supported on oak bunking block, • Bridge reactions on elastomeric bearings introducing compression into the end region, and • Bridge reactions at the end face of the girder (End Types C and D). The designer shall investigate any additional vertical reinforcement for reaction forces, in the direction of the applied shear, along the vertical end face of the girder. This applies to girder End Types C and D, where all loads are eventually transferred to the face of the hinge diaphragm or crossbeam. Adequate vertical shear reinforcing is required to take the reaction back up to the top of the girder near the diaphragm interface.

3.

July 2000

6.2-A1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures W95G and W83G

Shear Reinforcement Beyond End Region
1. Shear reinforcement size and spacing beyond the end region of the girder shall be determined by the designer. The variation in reinforcing demand for the entire range of span and spacing configurations is considerable. The shear reinforcement is likely to be light, or nominal, for the longest single piece spans with a narrow girder spacing, whereas the demand will be significant well out into the span for shorter spans with wide girder spacing. The minimum angle theta, θ, for calculating shear reinforcement should be 25 degrees to avoid excessive horizontal tension demand through the bottom corner of the girder by the AASHTO LRFD modified compression field theory.

2.

Girder Sheets
1. There are four end types shown on the girder sheets. Due to the extreme depth of the W83G and W95G girders, and possible end of girder tilt at the piers for profile grades, the designer will need to pay particular attention to details to assure the girders will fit and perform as intended. The four end types are identified with pertinent detailing dimensions as follows: • End Type A – is for cantilever end piers with an end diaphragm cast on the end of the girders. End Type A has a recess at the bottom of the girder near the end for an elastomeric bearing pad. The maximum bearing pad size expected for the W95G and W83G girders is 18 inches long x 35 inches wide. The recess at the centerline of bearing is 3/4 inch deep to accommodate an elastomeric pad length of 18 inches. This recess is to be used for profile grades up to and including 4 percent. The recess is to be replaced by an embedded steel plate flush with the bottom of the girder for grades over 4 percent. A tapered bearing plate, with stops at the edges to contain the elastomeric pad, can be welded or bolted to the embedded plate to provide a level bearing surface.

6.2-A1-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures W95G and W83G

Reinforcing bars and pretensioned strands project from the end of the girder. The designer shall assure that these bars and strands fit into the end diaphragm. Embedment of the girder end into the end diaphragm shall be a minimum of 3 inches and a maximum of 6 inches. For girder ends where the tilt would exceed 6 inches of embedment, the girder ends shall be tilted to attain a plumb surface when the girder is erected to the profile grade. Embedment into the end wall shall be 3 inches. The gap between the end diaphragm and the stem wall shall be a minimum of 21/2 inches or 1/2 inch greater than required for longitudinal direction.

July 2000

6.2-A1-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures W95G and W83G

• End Type B – is for “L” type abutments. End Type B also has a recess at the bottom of the girder for an elastomeric bearing pad. Notes regarding the bearing recess on End Type A also apply to End Type B. End Type B is the only end type that does not have reinforcing or strand projecting from the girder end. Note that the centerline of the bearing is not coincident with the centerline of the diaphragm. For girders on a grade, dimensions for each bearing, P1 and P2, from the ends of the girder will be different. Typically the centerline of bearing will be 1′-3″ minimum from the end of the girder to fit the bearing and provide adequate edge distance. The designer may want to locate the diaphragm such that it is equal distance from the centerline of the bearing, and the centerline of the bearing is equal distance from the face of the back wall of both abutments. This should create consistency in dimensions and make it easier to calculate girder lengths.

6.2-A1-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures W95G and W83G

• End Type C – is for continuous spans and an intermediate hinge diaphragm at an intermediate pier. There is no bearing recess and the girder is temporarily supported on oak bunking blocks. This detail is generally used only in low seismic areas. This end type is generally used for bridges east of the Cascade Mountains. The designer shall check the edge distance and provide a dimension that prevents edge failure, or spalling, at the top corner of the supporting cross beam for load from the oak bunking block.

July 2000

6.2-A1-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures W95G and W83G

• End Type D – is for continuous spans fully fixed to columns at intermediate piers. There is no bearing recess and the girder is temporarily supported on oak bunking blocks. The designer shall check the edge distance and provide a dimension that prevents edge failure, or spalling, at the top corner of the supporting cross beam for load from the oak bunking block.

6.2-A1-8

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Summary of Checks Required by Designer
1. 2. Shear reinforcing size and spacing beyond the end region of the girder shall be determined by the designer. It is uneconomical to provide a standard pattern to cover all span and girder spacing arrangements. Determine lifting location and required concrete transfer strength to provide adequate stability during handling. The lifting bar location, concrete release strength, and “A” dimension should be based on six (6) temporary strands in the top flange. Generally the temporary strands provide additional stability for lifting and transportation, and reduce the camber. Less camber allows for less “A” dimension and concrete pad dead weight on the structure. Temporary strands are assumed to be cut after all intermediate diaphragms are cast and cured, but before the cast-in-place deck is placed. Attention to detail: Due to the extreme depth of the W83G and W95G girders, and possible tilt at the piers for profile grades, the designer will need to pay particular attention to details to assure the girders will fit and perform as intended. Girder data required to be placed in the table on Girder Details 2 of 2 include the girder identifiers, “A” dimension, end types, girder geometric data, and strand forces and pattern required. Check edge distance of supporting cross beam. For continuous bridges, design girders as simple spans for live load (Do not deduct negative moments from maximum simple beam positive moments). Provide reinforcement for negative moments at intermediate piers due to live loads and superimposed dead loads from traffic barrier, pedestrian walkway, utilities, etc.

W95G and W83G

3.

4. 5. 6.

P65:DP/BDM6

July 2000

6.2-A1-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Prestressed Girder Intermediate Hinge Diaphragm

Notes to Designer for Prestressed Girders Intermediate Hinge Diaphragms
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. All girders in each bridge shall be of the same depth. Design girders as simple span (do not deduct negative moments from maximum simple beam positive moments). Provide reinforcement for negative moments at intermediate piers due to live loads and superimposed dead loads from traffic barrier, pedestrian walkway, utilities, etc. Include reinforcement on this sheet in the bar list you prepare. Check hinge bars for minimum embedment in crossbeam. See hinge bar table for size when girders exceed 6.0 ksi. Check hinge bar size.

Design Assumption — Saw Tooth Shear Key
Design criteria based on AASHTO LRFD { Vn = c*Acv + mu*(Auf*fy + Pc) } 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Creep and shrinkage not considered due to simple span design c = 0.100 ksi, and mu = 1.0*lambda, where lambda = 1.0 for normal weight concrete Assume Pc = 0.0 Maximum ultimate shear stress = 0.800 ksi (on sawtooth area only) fy = 60 ksi

Maximum Ultimate Shear = 1.25(DC) + 1.75 (L + IM)
W95G W83G W74G W58G W50G W42G Vu = 629 kips Vu = 588 kips Vu = 291 kips Vu = 241 kips Vu = 215 kips Vu = 170 kips

Minimum Crossbeam Width
In order to have room for placing oak blocks with required clearances on cross-beams, the cross-beams must be designed with a minimum width of 4′-6″ for W95G and W83G, 4′-2″ for W74G, and 4′-0″ for all other girders. Designer is to check edge distance of oak blocks to top outside corner of cross-beam for reaction from girder weight + diaphragms + (20 psf) construction load. Adjust minimum width of cross-beam as necessary to prevent corner support failure.

P65:DP/BDM6

July 2000

6.3-A1

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(Note: The majority of these anchorages have been approved and accepted by WSDOT on the bases of tests done by suppliers for various state and local jurisdictions outside the state of Washington.6-inch strands used for dock (or slab) post-tensioning 28 1/2-inch strands 24 1/2-inch strands 22 1/2-inch strands 22 1/2-inch strands Prescon Corporation (Owned by Freyssinet International) Anchorage 19 KD 5 27 KD 5 Type Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Remarks 19 1/2-inch strands 27 1/2-inch strands July 2000 6.5 ACS-24.6-inch strands 12 1/2-inch strands 12 0. Post-Tensioning Anchorages VSL Corporation (Owned by DYWIDAG Systems International) Anchorage E5-31 E5-22 E6-22 E5-19 E6-19 E5-12 E6-12 EC5-31 EC5-27 EC5-19 EC5-12 SO6-4 ACS-28.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Preapproved Anchorages for Post-Tensioning The following are the anchorages approved by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT).6-inch strands 19 1/2-inch strands 19 0.5 Type Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Casting With External Flange (for Bearing) Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Maximum Number of Strands 31 1/2-inch strands 22 1/2-inch strands 22 0.6-inch strands 31 1/2-inch strands 27 1/2-inch strands 19 1/2-inch strands 12 1/2-inch strands 4 0.5 C-22.1-B1-1 .5 ACS-22.

) P65:DP/BDM6 6.5 SP 27.5 C 12.5 SP 19.5 MP 12. (Note: For anchorages not shown.5 MP 22.1-B1-2 July 2000 .5 C 19. contact supervisor.5 Type Single Plane System Single Plane System Single Plane System Multiple Plane System Single Plane System Single Plane System Single Plane System Single Plane System Minimum Number of Strands 12 1/2-inch strands 19 1/2-inch strands 27 1/2-inch strands 12 1/2-inch strands 22 1/2-inch strands 12 1/2-inch strands 19 1/2-inch strands 27 1/2-inch strands Post-Tensioning Anchorages Bar Anchorages DYWIDAG Systems International 1-inch thread bars through 13/8 at fu of 150 ksi only.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures AVAR Post-tensioning Systems Anchorage SP 12.5 C 27.

All losses due to tendon horizontal curvature must be included in elongation calculations. 7.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Post-Tensioning Notes 1. The prestressing force shall be distributed with an approximately equal amount in each web and shall be placed symmetrically about the center line of bridge. 4. The design is based on the estimated prestress loss of post-tensioned prestressing strands of _____. k=0. ksi.0002. creep and shrinkage of concrete. Use of a tendon with more strands than the maximum noted above requires the approval of the Bridge Design Engineer and the Design Unit Supervisor. All tendons shall be stressed from pier _____. The actual anchor set used by the contractor shall be specified in the shop plans and included in the transfer force calculations. m=0. Small changes in thickness of web (up to 1 inch) shall not require redesign of structure on the part of the contractor. 2. B. Note to Designers: 1. The minimum prestressing load after seating for each web shall be _____. and a friction wobble coefficient. No more than one-half of the prestressing force in any web may be stressed before an equal force is stressed in the adjacent webs.” P65:DP/BDM6 July 2000 6. an anchor set of 1/4 inch. ksi due to steel relaxation. 2. The design is based on _____ inch diameter low relaxation strands with a jacking load of _____ ksi each web. ksi. At no time during stressing operation will more than one-sixth of the total prestressing force be applied eccentrically about the center line of the bridge. elastic shortening. The maximum outer diameter of the duct shall be _____ inches. Commonly used stress levels in note number 1 are 3000 psi and 3500 psi. The contractor shall submit the stressing sequence and elongation calculations to the engineer for approval. 5.2-B1 . The cast-in-place concrete in superstructure shall be Class _____.20. The stressing sequence shall meet the following criteria: A. 3. a friction curvature coefficient. 3. Notes to Designers Post-Tensioning 4. The minimum compressive strength of the cast-in-place concrete at the time of post-tensioning shall be _____. The area of the duct shall be at least 21/2 times the net area of the prestressing steel in the duct. Each web shall have a minimum of _____ strands. Post-tensioning shop drawings detailing a tendon with more strands than the maximum specified by the contract shall be returned “Not Approved” with a note stating “the number of strands per tendon exceeds the maximum specified in the contract. 6.

0 22.3 *Twin bridges. Name 9215 AR Line O’xing County Spokane Award Date 12/71 Span 112 Span/ Depth 28. 9150 9664 Sunset I/C SR 2 O’xing* W-Line O’xing Spokane Chelan & Douglas King 8/71 12/73 150 130 38 59 21.9 Skew Deg. July 2000 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Width Curb Curb (ft. 9900 W. Snoqualmie I/C O’xing WB EB Euclid Avenue I/C O’xing WB EB 4/75 165 135 68 52 22.3-B1 .0 2156 14 E Line U’xing (N&S)* Clark 11/81 112 26 21.7 5′ sidewalk on one side.8 19.8 Curved 2200′R Curved 2200′F Curved 3274′R Curved 625′R 0902 Allen Street I/C O’xing* Cowlitz 2/78 132 52 22.4 21.T. Curved 6000′R 52 0 Remarks Limited available structure depth.) 38 P. Box Girder Bridges Single Span Contract No.5 45 40 0839 Chelan & Douglas 10/77 158 158 38 50 19.

6 37 1219 Johnson Road U’xing Yakima & Benton Yakima 8/78 34 22. 9737 Mill Plain Road I/C U’xing Clark 5/74 84 22.) 38 P.7 45 1366 Donald Road U’xing 12/78 55 23.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Width Curb Curb (ft.1 37 July 2000 6.9 41 1788 Gap Road U’xing Yakima 1/80 30 22.5 51 9448 NE 18th Street U’xing Clark 1/73 44 22.3-B2-1 . Name 8569 Brickyard Road U’xing County King Award Date 2/69 Span 137 155 124 124 130 130 141 133 138 138 167 172 178 158 151 151 156 161 142 155 168 157 131 131 Span/ Depth 22.8 45 1764 148th Avenue NE U’xing King 12/79 60 21.2 8 0862 East Zillah I/C U’xing Yakima 10/77 40 23. 5′ sidewalk on each side. Box Girder Bridges Two Span Contract No.2 Skew Deg. 45 Remarks 9122 NE 50th Avenue U’xing Clark 7/71 44 24.8 12 9122 NE 69th Avenue U’xing Clark 7/71 84 23.8 17 6′ sidewalk on each side.T.0 44 0862 Hudson Road U’xing Yakima 10/77 30 22.6 0 9289 SE 232nd Street U’xing King 3/72 55 23.

Transv.4 Curved 1600′R Curved 1500′R 2236 SR 14 I/C U’xing (Westbound) Franklin 4/82 38 21. Transv.5 0 2207 N-S Line U’xing Benton 4/82 155 155 163.6 20.3-B2-2 July 2000 .2 35 2236 Road 100 I/C U’xing Franklin 4/82 55 21.T.T.5 38 22.4 Curved 11. 2207 G Line U’xing Benton 4/82 162.4 180. P.T.3 2217 Keene Road U’xing Benton 2/82 34 21. P.) 60 P.6 Varies 78. P. Box Girder Bridges Two Span Contract No.1 0 2207 SR 240 Connection U’xing (R-Line) Benton 4/82 72 20.4 0 25′ counterweighted cantilever spans at each end.T. Name 2156 14-H Line U’xing County Clark Award Date 11/81 Span 114 114 196 196 147 147 150 150 Span/ Depth 22. 0 Remarks 2156 14-D Line U’xing (North) Clark 11/81 26 21. Transv.8 Skew Deg. 2236 Road 68 I/C U’xing Franklin 4/82 191 191 183 167 170 156 159 148 64 23.459′R 25′ counterweighted cantilever spans at each end.6-84.5 163.8 6.5 15 2236 SR 14 I/C U’xing (Eastbound) Franklin 4/82 26 22.8 Curbed 600′R 0 2217 SR 12 U’xing Benton 2/82 55 23.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Width Curb Curb (ft. 30′ counterweighted cantilever spans at each end.

Sam C. Guess Memorial (Division St. built in two stages.5 Varies 0 6′ sidewalk on one side.9 Curved 500′R & 600′R 1193 24F Over MD Line Clark 8/78 129 201 129 126 182 126 26 Varies 0 3794 Sen. 2/70 0 NB 2/70 Varies 46.3-B3-1 . 2/644) 5/90 77 Varies 12 Replaced arch. 8761 Valley View Road O’xing Snohomish 2/70 38 25.5 160 159 100 Span/ Depth Skew Deg. Name 8759 Kalama River Bridge SB County Cowlitz Award Date Span 40 200 200 40 40 200 200 40 88 170 88 190 260 190 100. Box Girder Bridges Multiple Span Contract No.) Varies 46-53 P. July 2000 6.T. Remarks 6′ sidewalk on one side.2 0 9102 Columbia River Bridge at Olds** Chelan & Douglas 7/71 74 Varies 0 9749 Evergreen Parkway Thurston 26 Varies 47 Hourglass columns. 9840 W Sunset Way Ramp U’xing King 12/74 26 22.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Width Curb Curb (ft. **Middle 3 spans of 7-span bridge are post-tensioned.5 145 145 114 114 87.

South Bridge 38 Varies Curved 5900′R Transverse posttensioning.1 Curved 1200′R NB 8/79 38 25. 2156 14-I Line Clark 11/81 163 145 82 128 171 128 90 188 90 38 22. Name County Award Date Span 63.T.3-B3-2 July 2000 .5 133 63.2 Curved 600′R 2156 14 D Line (South) Clark 11/81 26 24. Box Girder Bridges Multiple Span Contract No.5 Curved 1400′R 6. 10′ bicycle and pedestrian path on one side.1 Curved 1200′R 1950 Yakima River Bridges North Bridge Benton 10/80 140+ 161 161 215 147 140+ 161 161 215 147 Varies 48′-100′ Varies Curved 6000′R Transverse posttentioning.5 167 5@172 167 137 6@172 166 Span/ Depth Skew Deg.4 Curved 625′R 2207 GE Line Over G Line Benton 4/82 38 23.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Width Curb Curb (ft.2 40 1580 Ahtanum Creek O’xing SB Yakima 8/79 26 25. Remarks 1439 SR 516 O’xing King 3/79 42 24.) P.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Width Curb Curb (ft.5 to 8.7 Curved 1400′R & 400′R 0 Transverse posttentioning.3-B3-3 . ***Not yet to contract. Guess Memorial (Division St.) 55 P. Box Girder Bridges Multiple Span Contract No. 2327 Spokane River Bridge Stage 1 Spokane 6/82 Varies *** Green River Bridge King 74 Varies 22 3794 Sen.T. 20 Remarks Transverse posttentioning. P65:DP/BDM6 July 2000 6. Sam C.3 Skew Deg.7 Curved 1400′R 2245 6th Avenue O’xing Pierce 4/82 Varies 87. 2/644) 5/90 77 Varies (depth 5. Name 2207 RA Line Over ER Line County Benton Award Date 4/82 Span 47 104 47 49 159 49 43 125 43 175 255 175 118 150 99 126 182 126 Span/ Depth 17. built in two stages. 2245 Pearl Street O’xing Pierce 4/82 54 22.5 at piers) 12 Replaced arch.4102 76 22.

. . . . . .1-1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Bearing Stiffeners . . . .99-1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Bolted Field Splice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 5 5 7 7 7 9 10 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Flanges . . . .1 General . . . . .9 Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 1 1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Typical Girder Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Types of Steel . . . . . . .7 Camber Curve and Bearing Stiffener Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Bottom Laterals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Girder Spacing . . . . . . .9 Safety Cable Details . .8 Crossframes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Crossframe Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shop Plan Review . . . . . . . . . . .12 Roadway Slab Placement Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Webs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Girder Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Girder Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . .0-i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Girder Segment Sizes . . . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Contents Page 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Longitudinal Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . .1 Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Surface Roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Girder Elevation . . . . . .5 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-1 1 1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 7. . . . . .2 “I” Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Available Plate Sizes . . . . . . . . . Plan Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Computer Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design “I” Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Composite Section . . . . . . . .99 July 2000 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Estimating Structural Steel Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Framing Plan . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Bridge Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Structural Steel Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Roadway Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-A4 7.0-ii July 2000 .4-A15 7.4-A10 7.4-A13 7.4-A9 7.4-A3 7.4-A8 7.4-A14 7.4-A2 7.4-A12 7.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Appendix A 7.0-A1 7.4-A5 7.4-A6 7.4-A1 7.4-A11 7.4-A7 7.4-A16 Contents Steel Plate Girder Design Flow Chart Girder Framing Plan and Elevation View Part Longitudinal Girder Elevation Primary Stiffeners Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners Splices Optional Web Splices Fillet Weld Termination Detail Field Splice Detail Drip Plate Details Crossframes Crossframe Attachment Details Lateral Plate Detail Camber Curve and Bearing Stiffener Camber Details Roadway Slab-Plan View Roadway Slab-Section View Safety Cable Details P65:DP/BDM7 7.

suspension.) are not addressed. arches. Because of their uniqueness and limited application. etc.0-1 .1 Structural Steel Introduction The most common type of steel superstructure used on bridges in Washington State is the built-up steel “I” girder. Use English units for all widening and rehabilitation on existing English designed and detailed steel bridge projects. Structural Steel P65:DP/BDM7 July 2000 7. Metric units are acceptable for new previously designed steel bridge projects. trusses.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7. other types of steel superstructures (box girders.0 7.0. Rolled beams have been used on a very limited basis but much of the following is applicable.

Typical construction is nonshored steel girders acting compositely with a reinforced concrete roadway slab. Since plate stock of M 270 grade 50W and M 270 grade 50 are close in price. Recommendations for using weathering steel are contained in Uncoated Weathering Steel Bridges. such as top flanges. Careful attention to details is required for proper weathering.1.1-1 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.1 Design Considerations General Use the Strength Design Method Load Factor Design of Section 10 Structural Steel of AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges to design steel girders. An example would be a twin plate girder structure. The superstructure depth is typically the distance from the top of the concrete roadway slab to the bottom of the web. is considered a composite protective system. and water from expansion joints can pose considerable problems and add to life cycle costs. Design Considerations 7. Approval for its use must be obtained from the Bridge Design Engineer. Chapter 9 of AISC’s Highway Structures Design Handbook. office practice is to specify grade 50W for plate girders. Bridges on horizontal curves shall also meet the requirements of the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved Highway Bridges. The information provided in this chapter is intended to help apply these AASHTO specifications and to define office practice. as applicable. Vol.1. staining of substructure. Provisions to sand blast erected steel and apply controlled wet-dry cycles are required to produce a sound protective coating with good appearance. or a component thereof. the use of nonredundant structures may be approved by the Bridge Design Engineer. should be shop painted. This is discussed in more detail in Section 7. This is a barrier protective system but in combination with the zinc primer.2. July 2000 7. Nonredundant loadpath structures are structures where the failure of a single load carrying member.3. The first coat is an inorganic zinc shop primer. The designer will have to verify this depth by meeting live load deflection requirements and by meeting stress requirements. and 1 foot 0 inches for longer span bridges. Unpainted weathering steel should be considered for locations deemed appropriate. It is office practice to limit live load deflections to L/800 for HS-25 or L/1000 for HS-20. Live load deflection is calculated on a per bridge basis with reduction for multiple lanes. The second coat is an epoxy seal normally applied after the slab has been placed.2 Girder Depth The superstructure depth is initially determined during preliminary plan development and is based upon the span/depth ratios provided in Chapter 2 of this manual. nonredundant structures increase fabrication costs and require greater attention to detail during design. This paint system will normally require repainting in approximately 30 years. A more comprehensive treatment is found in NCHRP Report 314 Guidelines for the Use of Weathering Steel in Bridges. Surfaces to be embedded in concrete. Also.1 7. Even so. The color is specified in the Special Provisions. however. Steel girder bridges typically require a paint system to provide protection against corrosion. See NCHRP Report 314. and should be consistent throughout the length of the bridge. I. could cause a total collapse. This distance is in multiples of 6 inches for shorter span bridges. Nonredundant structures are generally not used because of the extensive ongoing annual maintenance inspections required by FHWA. This is a sacrificial protection system. The third and final coat is a urethane which protects the epoxy from UV attack and provides color for the bridge. approval shall be obtained by the designer prior to beginning the design. Accumulation of debris. The paint system for girder bridges is defined in the Special Provisions and is a three-part system. The use of nonredundant load path structures should be avoided.

steel suppliers do not stock angles or channels in weathering steel. Availability of weathering steel can be a problem for some sections. AASHTO M 270 steels are not stocked by local suppliers. 100W requires approval by the Bridge Design Engineer. and M shapes). lateral systems. live load distribution to girders shall be in accordance with AASHTO Section 3. etc. These charts provide a good double check on final quantities. H-piles. Rolled sections include beams (W. flanges. girders should be spaced such that each is designed for the same load. that is basically. Spacing should be such that slab dead load is equally distributed on all girders and the distribution of wheel loads on the exterior girder is close to that of the interior girder. bolts. The following table shows equivalent designations. The use of M 270 grade 100. The use of M 270 steel should be restricted to large quantities such as found in typical plate girder projects. channels. In general. tees. 7. girders will be identical. should be considered in selecting the superstructure depth. These figures are based upon previous designs with HS-20 live loads with no distinction between service load designs and load factor designs. and all secondary members (web stiffeners.3 Girder Spacing For simplicity of design.1-2 July 2000 . Grades of steel are based on minimum yield points.1. The weights shown include webs. The least number of girders should be used that is consistent with a reasonable deck design. and angles. When these bounds are exceeded.4 Estimating Structural Steel Weights For the preliminary quantities or preliminary girder design. Barrier weights shall be equally distributed to a maximum of two “I” girders.1.1. and shear connectors.5 Types of Steel The most common types of steel used for bridges are now grouped in ASTM A 709 or AASHTO M 270 specifications.1. an estimate of steel weights for built-up plate composite “I” girders can be obtained from Figures 7. vertical clearances.. S. Weathering steel wide flange and tee sections are available but difficult to locate. ASTM A 36 A 572 gr 50 A 588 A 852 A 514 ASTM A 709 Grade 36 Grade 50 Grade 50W Grade 70W Grade 100 Grade l00W AASHTO M 183 M 223 gr 50 M 222 M 313 M 244 AASHTO M 270 Grade 36 Grade 50 Grade 50W Grade 70W Grade 100 Grade l00W Plates and rolled sections are available is these specifications and grades. diaphragms.1.4-1 through 7. These materials are prequalified under the Bridge Welding Code. crossframe. gusset plates) plus a small allowance (usually 5 percent or less) for weld metal. Use AASHTO M 270 grade 50W for plate girders. 7. 7. For example. Part C for “I” girders. Also.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design Considerations Other features such as notching at hinges (combined with notching for expansion joint system). a rational live load distribution method should be used.4-3. The fabricated costs of structural carbon and structural low alloy steel plate girders are about equal. 7.

Verification is necessary to identify input errors which renders erroneous output.7 Girder Segment Sizes Locate bolted field splices so that individual girder segments can be handled. Office practice and good engineering principles require that the results of any computer program should be independently verified for accuracy. Weight is seldom a controlling factor. 7. Long.1. 40 tons is a practical limit for some fabricators. during preliminary planning or early in the design phase. an individual plate should not exceed 14 feet in width. 7.6 Available Plate Sizes Readily available lengths and thicknesses of steel plates should be used to minimize costs. The region should help determine the possible routes. These materials are not considered prequalified under the Bridge Welding Code. 7. Instruction manuals for the programs are available in the Bridge Office Computer Section. Crane limitations need to be considered in congested areas near traffic or buildings. See Table 1-4 of AISC Manual of Steel Construction for selection and availability. Transportation route options between the girder fabricator and the bridge site can effect the size and weight of girder sections allowed. July 2000 7. a butt splice is required and should be shown or specified on the plans. Also.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design Considerations Structural tubes and pipes are covered by other specifications. slender segments can be difficult to handle and ship due to their flexibility. programs with built-in code checks must be checked for default settings. Consider the structure’s span length and the above factors when determining girder segment lengths. They are covered under the Structural Welding Code AWS D1. and erected without imposing unreasonable requirements on the contractor.1. If either or both of these dimensions are exceeded. including camber requirements. or a length of about 60 feet. Tables of standard plate sizes have been published by various steel mills and should be used for guidance. In general. However. Default settings may reflect old code or office practice may supercede the code that the program was written for.1. Horizontal curvature of girder segments may increase handling and shipping concerns.1. Plate thicknesses of less than 5/16 inches should not be used for bridge applications. Structural tubing ASTM A 500 is not recommended for dynamic loading applications.8 Computer Programs The designer should consult the design supervisor to determine the computer program currently being used for analyses.1-3 . shipped. “I” girder segment lengths should be limited to 150 feet depending upon their cross section. These tables are available through the steel specialist. and the restrictions they impose.

150-170 130 Over 11/2″ 1 Not Available 150 140 130 115 Not Available /2 .21/2″ inc.3″ inc.1-4 July 2000 . Properties of High-Strength Bolts Tensile Strength ksi 120 105 120 105 90 Yield Strength ksi Design Considerations Material AASHTO M 164 (ASTM A325) ASTM A 449 (No AASHTO equivalent) AASHTO M 314 ASTM F 1554 Grade 105 AASHTO M253 (ASTM A 490) ASTM A 354 Grade BD (No AASHTO equivalent) Bolt Diameter /2 .11/2″ inc.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.9 Fasteners All bolted connections shall be friction type. 3″ . Design is based on Class B coating on fraying surfaces.11/2″ inc.1″ inc. 125-150 1 /2″ . Over 11/2″ /4″ .1″ inc.4″ inc. 11/8 . Over 4″ 7.1. 13/4″ -3″ inc. 11/8 . Over 3″ 1 1 1 92 81 Not Available 92 81 58 Not Available 105 /4″ .1″ inc. The term “slip critical” implies a friction type connection.

1-5 . Suitable heavy hex nuts and plain hardened washers are covered by this specification. Suitable heavy hex nuts and plain hardened washers are covered by this specification. Grade 105 — Higher strength anchor bolts to be used for larger sizes (11/2″ to 3″). In lieu of galvanizing. headed structural steel bolts for use in structural joints. These bolts are suitable for use as anchor bolts where strengths equal to A490 bolts are desired. Do not specify for anchor bolts. Recommended for use as anchor bolts where strengths equivalent to A325 bolts are desired. High strength steel bolts and studs for general applications including anchor bolts. Design Considerations 2. Grade BD — high strength alloy steel bolts and studs. These bolts are not covered in the Standard Specifications so they require coverage in the Special Provisions when called for. the application of two or three coats of an approved zinc rich paint may be specified. A449 3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel General Guidelines for Steel Bolts 1. These bolts may be hot-dip galvanized. These bolts should not be galvanized. M 164 (A325) High strength. Do not specify for anchor bolts. Nuts and washers are covered by this specification. A354 July 2000 7. because of the high susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. High strength alloy steel headed bolts for use in structural joints. M 253 (A490) 5. These bolts should be treated in the same manner as A490 bolts in regard to galvanizing. M 314 (F1554) 4. These bolts may be hot-dip galvanized.

1.1-6 July 2000 Composite Welded Steel Plate “I” Girder — Simple Span Figure 7.4-1 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design Considerations 7.

1.4-2 7.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design Considerations July 2000 Composite Welded Steel Plate “I” Girder — Two Continuous Spans Figure 7.1-7 .

7.4-3 Criteria Structural Steel BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Design Considerations July 2000 .1.1-8 Composite Welded Steel Plate “I” Girder — Three or More Continuous Spans Figure 7.

................................................................................... No Equivalent A 525M ..................................... No Equivalent A 307 .. M 102 A 673/A 673M ............................. M 291M A 572/A 572M .. No Equivalent A 501 .............................................. No Equivalent A 486/A 486M .......................................................... No Equivalent F 606M .......................................................... M 293 F436M ............... No Equivalent A 108 ................................ M 223/M 223M A 588/A 588M ............................................................. No Equivalent A 109M ....................................... No Equivalent A 514/A 514M .................. M 253 A 490M ..........................................1-9 .................1...................................5-1 July 2000 7............................................... No Equivalent F606 ........................... M 314 Figure 7......... M 270/M 270M A 852/A 852M ................. No Equivalent A 449 ............................................... M 183/M 183M A 48 . M 111 A 153 ................... No Equivalent A 536 ................................................................................... No Equivalent A 563 ............................... M 164 A 325M ....... M 244/M 244M A 525 .............. No Equivalent F 1554 .............. M 291 A 563M .................................................................................... M 232 A 252 ................................................................................................................................. M 253M A 500 ............ No Equivalent A 502 ............................................... M 164M A 328/A 328M ......................................... M 192/M 192M A 490 ........................................................................................................................................... T 243/T 243M A 709/A 709M ............................................................................................................................................. T 244 A 435/A 435M ...................... No Equivalent B 695 .............................................................. No Equivalent A 370 ................................................................................................................................................................................... M 298 F436 ............... M 313/M 313M A 898/A 898M ................................................................................................................................................................. No Equivalent A 325 ........................................ No Equivalent F 959M .........................................................BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Equivalent ASTM and AASHTO Specifications ASTM Designations AASHTO Designations ASTM Designations AASHTO Designations Design Considerations A 6/A 6M .......................................................................................................................... M 160/M 160M A 27/A 27M .......... M 202/M 202M A 354 .................................. No Equivalent A 123 ............................................................................................................................... No Equivalent A 446/A 446M ...... No Equivalent A 668 ............................................. M 169 A 109 ........ M 105 A 53 .............. M 222/M 222M A 618 ......................... M 103/M 103M A 36/A 36M ...............................

Usually. Either a minimum thickness condition must be met to achieve a given stress state. Its shortcoming is inefficiency in resisting shear. The “I” girder represents an efficient use of material for maximizing stiffness. have traditionally been designed to elastic limits or lower. Weight savings is achieved by minimizing the number of webs used for a given bridge. All welds for the main components are easily accessible and visible for welding and inspection. The flanges and webs are fabricated to full segment length with full penetration groove welds. The plates are oriented in line with the rolling direction so as to make good use of strength. stability needs to be insured for all stages of construction. These welds are inspected by ultrasound (UT) 100 percent. Minimum size welds based on plate thickness controls design in most cases. and toughness of the structural steel. Most strength calculations involve buckling in some form. Corrosion and fatigue cracking have contributed to unanticipated life cycle costs. These welds are loaded parallel to the longitudinal axis and resist horizontal shear between the flanges and web. fracture critical. Two girder superstructures are considered non-redundant and hence.1 Girder Bridges General Once the material of choice. “I” girders are an excellent shape for welding. as designated in the plans.2 7. Also. Buckling can be a problem in flanges as well as webs if compression is present. Numerous graphs and charts are available to demonstrate the falling percentage of steel bridges and the rising percentage of concrete bridges being constructed. with or without a roadway deck. they are made with automatic submerged arc welders. The web is attached to the top and bottom flanges with continuous fillet welds. These trends may be compensated for by simplification of fabrication details. and painting costs.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7. Office practice is to have flanges and webs fabricated full length before they are welded into the “I” shape.2. Current office practice is to use a minimum of three girders to provide redundant load path structures. Fabrication and material costs have also contributed to steel’s relative cost disadvantage. steel has been eclipsed by concrete. The specifications allow a combination of plastic design in positive moment regions and elastic design in negative moment regions. of the depths typically built in this state. elimination of expansion joints and hinges. Steel plate girder design is complicated by buckling behavior of relatively thin elements. The art of designing these girders is to minimize material and fabrication expense while ensuring adequate strength and stiffness. Plate girders.2 “I” Girders As stated in the introduction. Weld splicing built-up sections results in poor fatigue strength and zones that are difficult or impossible to inspect. This also helps minimize fabrication. Tension welds. Office practice is to maintain constant web thickness for short to medium span girders.2-1 . Girder Bridges 7. P65:DP/BDM7 July 2000 7. and the lowering of steel prices due to the advent of mills that recycle scrap iron. Newer design methods may help reduce steel weight and narrow the cost gap between steel and concrete bridges. or strength is reduced by some amount to account for buckling. handling. are also radiographed (RT) 100 percent. Steel girders can also be shallower than the same span prestressed girders.2. ductility. welded plate “I” girders constitute the majority of steel girders designed by WSDOT.

the fatigue truck shall be applied without neglecting axles that do not contribute to the extreme force effect.) is applied to the composite section transformed using 3 ES/EC.1. The stiffness analysis is performed for superimposed dead loads and live load plus impact. Long-term loading (dead load of barriers. Flange thickness changes at field splices are easily accomplished. The cross sectional areas of the top and bottom flanges may be varied by changing thickness. As mentioned in Section 7. 7. Design “I” Girders 7. 7. office practice is to use nonshored girders. luminaries. overlays.2 Composite Section Short-term primary loading live load plus impact is applied to the composite section transformed using ES/EC.3.4 Webs Maintain constant web thickness throughout the structure. If a width change in the top flange is necessary. All welded web splices on exterior faces of exterior girders and in tension zones elsewhere shall be ground smooth. signs. The fatigue truck shall be HS-20 for LFD design.3 7. a welded splice may be justified if more than 500 pounds of steel can be saved. etc.1 Design “I” Girders General Composite girders may be used for continuous and simple spans. Except for extremely deep superstructures. Stiffeners used between crossframes shall be located on one July 2000 7. Like splices on interior girders need not be ground in compression zones. will be most economical.3. Assume Case I road type when determining the number of stress cycles for design. When designing by the LRFD method. continuous spans. One girder section change in end spans between maximum positive moment and end bearing may be justified. one each side of maximum moment and between field splices. The girder section must carry the weight of the fluid (wet) concrete deck as well as its own dead load. try to use a constant top and bottom flange width throughout the length of the bridge.3. Generally two changes in girder section located within the negative moment region.3. maintain webs full depth without longitudinal splices. 7.3-1 . As a general rule.3. commonly denoted n. After the concrete has cured. bottom flange and web at these locations. The negative moments from the analysis are applied to the steel girder section including longitudinal reinforcing (negative moment composite section). Longitudinal reinforcing steel shall be used in negative moment regions of composite.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.1. assuming the section acts compositely over the total length of the structure or continuous portion thereof. Shear connectors are provided over the full length of the top flange of the structure or continuous portions of the structure. Vertical web splices for girders should be shown on the plans in an elevation view with additional splices made optional to the fabricator. Refer to AASHTO Section 10. The moments resulting from the stiffness analysis are applied to the composite section in the positive moment region. They shall be welded to the top flange.3 Flanges When determining girder section at locations of maximum positive and negative moment.4. it is best made at a field splice.3. the composite section becomes effective in carrying all superimposed loads. This detail is considered fatigue stress category C.38.5 Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners These stiffeners shall be used in pairs at crossframe locations on interior girders and on the inside of webs of exterior girders.

The connection of the bearing stiffener to the girder consists of full penetration groove welds to the bottom flange and fillet welding to the top flange and web. must be vertical under total dead load. Fabrication costs indicate the use of longitudinal stiffeners is not economical on webs 12 feet deep or less. 7. Typically the configuration selected is based on the most efficient geometry. therefore. they may be welded to both flanges if fatigue Category C is checked.3. welded to the compression flange. 7. Avoid conflicts with utilities passing through the girders. avoid connection congestion at bottom laterals: K-frames like the following may be better for utilities.3. earthquake. 7. however. Stiffeners located between crossframes in regions of stress reversal shall be welded to one side of the web and cut short of both flanges.7 Bearing Stiffeners Stiffeners are required at all bearings to enable the reaction to be transmitted from the web to the bearing. Crossframes are generally patterned as K-frames or as X-frames. These stiffeners are designated as columns.3. pouring.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design “I” Girders side of the web. On curved bridges. and curing of the roadway slab. create some congestion at the bottom lateral connection: 7. and curvature and are transmitted from the roadway slab to the bearings. comparative web evaluations shall be made to determine whether the use of longitudinal stiffeners will be more economical. On K-frames like the following. Together with the bottom laterals they stabilize the superstructure during erection. These connection details limit the design stress to Category C for all girder sections at points of maximum negative moment. In the case of severe horizontal curvature on structures where girders and crossframes are subjected to large transverse forces resulting in considerable lateral flange bending. The members should closely approach a slope of 1:1 or 45°. Alternatively. and cut short of the tension flange.3-2 July 2000 . the crossframes also resist lateral flange bending. full penetration welds at top and bottom flanges may be necessary.8 Crossframes The primary function of intermediate crossframes is to distribute vertical loads transversely and give torsional rigidity to the superstructure.6 Longitudinal Stiffeners On long spans where web depths exceed 12 feet. Full penetration welds are expensive and should be used only where necessary. Pier crossframes are subjected to lateral loads that originate primarily from wind.

the bottom laterals are effective in resisting live load plus impact thereby becoming primary members and must be modeled in the structure to determine the actual forces the members experience. The resulting detail must be checked for Category C stress range. r not for 75 percent strength of member. July 2000 7. One hundred fifty percent of the allowable service load design stress is permitted in the laterals for the temporary construction condition. Crossframes at piers must be designed to transmit transverse loads due to wind or earthquake from the roadway slab to the bearings or transverse stops. Partial loading (total panels less one-half of the end panel) yields maximum shear in the end panel. Consideration should be given to limiting bottom laterals to one or two bays on straight bridges. Bolted connections for crossframes are favored because they allow adjustment during fit up and erection. See Figure 5. Design and detail pier crossframes separately from intermediate crossframes. X-framing may be designed in tension only.” Use Table 1. and size of connections.4A of the guide specifications to distinguish between straight and curved girders. Intermediate crossframes for curved I-girders require special consideration. This practice minimizes out-of-plane bending of the girder web. kL ≤ 140 and design connections only for anticipated loads. Connections of crossframes to web stiffeners require careful attention to detailing to minimize fabrication difficulties and most importantly increase fatigue resistance. K-framing must be designed as compression and tension members. Lateral patterns are formed depending on number of girder lines. Consult AASHTO for further guidance. other arrangements may be used. This should result in greater economy but still meet the intent of 7.3.1. Determine one size of diagonal member to be used throughout the structure. office practice is to design the diagonal members in bottom laterals as secondary members. Consult with the design unit supervisor or the steel specialist for special requirements.3-3 . where girder depth approaches girder spacing. Curved girder systems should be designed according to AASHTO “Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved Highway Bridges.9 Bottom Laterals The primary function of a bottom lateral system is to stabilize the girders against lateral loads before the deck hardens and stabilize the steel portion of the superstructure while the roadway slab is placed.2-1. In general. number. repetition. on curved structures. Web stiffeners at crossframes shall be welded to top and bottom flanges. Choose a section which satisfies AASHTO specifications. Also. On straight bridges. crossframes should be installed parallel to piers for skew angles of 0° to 10°.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design “I” Girders X-frames like the following. For greater skew angles. Cost considerations should include geometry. girder spacing. are more efficient geometrically: Intermediate crossframes for straight girders with little or no skew should be designed as secondary members. and crossframe spacing.

3.3-4 July 2000 .9-1 7.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design “I” Girders Examples of Lateral Bracing Figure 7.

Most. which is:  I WEB    × design moment at centerline of splice  I SECTION  3. Splices are usually located at the dead load inflection point to minimize the design bending moment. The outer most bolt in the bolt group is the most highly stressed. The traditional format for detailing these diagrams should be adhered to for the benefit of construction. Framing which is adequately braced should not require bottom laterals. Shear force due to moment resulting from the above shear force times the eccentricity of the distances from the centerline of the splice to the center of gravity of the bolt group on one side of the centerline of the splice plus. Also. the Standard Specifications provide for adjustments at the time of slab forming. Splices should be designed for the greater of: 1.11 Camber Permanent girder deflections shall be shown in the contract plans in the form of camber diagrams. the design stress level in the girder. is governed by the Category E detail. Shear force due to the portion of the design moment resisted by the web. 2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design “I” Girders Note: Where lateral gusset plates are welded to girder webs. Split splice plates are used at the bottom of the bottom flange to allow moisture to pass through the splice. the slab design should reflect the possibility of reduced slab depths. The latest USS Highway Structures Design Handbook should be consulted for examples of splice designs. Allow fill plates to be fabricated from AASHTO M183. The shear force can be determined by using the “elastic moment of inertia” method. See AASHTO Section 10. The flange splice is designed to resist the portion of the design moment not resisted by the web.18 for splice design requirements. Mark splice plates that carry tensile stress. Camber curves are used by shop plan detailers. Fill plates are not subject to tension and therefore a charpy V-notch toughness test should not be required for them. and field personnel.3-5 . at the web. Fill plates are used to maintain constant flange splice plate thickness across the splice. phases of girder fabrication and erection involve potential sources of error in camber. girder erectors. For widening projects. Allow fabricators to use steel sheet (ASTM A 715) for fill plates less than 1 4 inch thick. Web splice bolts are designed to resist a shear force due to: 1.3. Total factored shear force plus. 7. if not all.10 Bolted Field Splice Office practice is to use bolted field splices. 2. bottom laterals are not needed since new can be braced against existing construction. The average of the required moment due to factored loads and the moment capacity of the smaller section. 7.3. July 2000 7. 75 percent of the moment capacity of the smaller section. Therefore. if steel is painted. girder fabricators at the shop assembly stage.

A note of clarification is added to the plan camber diagram: “For the purpose of measuring camber tolerance during shop assembly. This loading is applied to the steel section only. Slab shrinkage. Finally. 7. For example. This will allow shop plan detailers to compensate for rotations so that bearing stiffeners will be vertical in their final position. if f′c = 5000 psi. and especially structures with hinges. A two-span bridge of regular proportions. girder webs are cut from plates so that the completed girder segment will assume the shape of camber superimposed on profile grade. one for total dead load plus slab shrinkage and one for girder self-weight (steel only). Traffic barriers. For long structures. 4. welds. Two curves will be required. First. The modulus of elasticity of the slab concrete should be reduced to one third of its short term value. Next. In addition to girder deflections. the calculation would be performed as above. Slab shrinkage has a varying degree of effect on superstructure deflections. The following is a general outline for calculating camber and is based on girders having shear studs the full length of the bridge. Slab weight. unusual girder arrangements. Slab shrinkage should be the smallest portion of the total camber (approximately 20 percent). The slab may be assumed to act instantaneously on the steel section only.5. the segments are erected. then use a value of n = 21. Again. resulting in altered girder profiles. shear studs. etc. should not require a rigorous analysis. Therefore. and other items constructed after the slab pour should be analyzed as if applied to a composite section full length of the bridge. Errors at mid-span can be between one to two inches at this stage. Total dead load camber shall consist of: 1. Steel weight. Field splices are drilled as the segments are placed in position to fit profile grade plus total dead load camber. an analysis coupled with a slab pour sequence may be justified. 3.3-6 July 2000 . The total effect of slab construction is the superposition of each slab pour.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design “I” Girders Girder camber is accomplished at three stages of construction. In the past. Camber tolerance is governed by the Bridge Widening Code AWS D1.” This allows a high or low deviation from the theoretical curve. The fabricated girder segment will incorporate the as-cut web shape and some degree of welding distortion. The contractor should be required to submit a new camber diagram if a different slab pour sequence is proposed. show girder rotations at bearing stiffeners. Fifteen percent of total girder weight. 2. no negative camber tolerance was allowed. should suffice. There may be slight angle changes at field splices. Girder self-weight is assumed to include the basic section plus stiffeners. the girder segments are brought together for shop assembly. sometimes with supports at field splices. Slab dead load deflection will require the designer to exercise some judgment concerning degree of analysis. distributed evenly along the bridge. Girder dead load deflection is determined by using various computer programs. crossframes. Each slab pour requires a separate deflection analysis. These items may be accounted for by adding an appropriate percentage of basic section weight. the designer must use some judgment in evaluating this effect on camber. for example. A note must accompany the camber diagram explaining the relation between camber and the slab pour sequence. Traffic barriers and overlays. overlays. This would require an incremental analysis where previous slab pours are treated as composite sections and successive slab pours are added on noncomposite sections. assume top flanges are embedded in concrete without a designed haunch.

13 Bridge Bearings Office practice and design criteria for bridge bearings can be found in Chapter 8 of this manual. When used. Suitable for surfaces that do not contact other parts and for bearing plates on sheet lead or grout. For the third sequence. very fine surface only used on high stress sliding bearings. Suitable for steel to steel bearing or rotational surfaces including rockers and pins. This finish is typical of ground edges in tension zones of flanges. An extremely fine machine finish suitable for steel sliding parts. It may be produced by all methods of direct machining under proper conditions. This surface is generally produced by polishing. For the second sequence. It is specified by the symbol xxx and shall be shown on the plans for all surfaces for which machining is required unless covered by the Standard Specifications or Special Provisions. For the first sequence. the smoother the surface.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7. For stainless steel sliding surfaces. slab placement in negative moment regions does not cause cracking in previously placed concrete. 7. This is a different method of measurement and reflects industry standards for polishing. Furthermore. see Figure 7. Design “I” Girders 7.3.3.3. Check tensile stresses in the first sequence slab pour due to the second sequence slab pour. This minimizes cracking of the slab due to shrinkage. Following is a brief description of some finishes: 500 A rough surface finish typical of “as rolled” sections. For examples. concrete is placed on the dead load positive moment region of the remaining spans after the concrete in the first sequence has attained a minimum specified tensile strength. concrete is placed on the dead load negative moment region over each interior pier. specify a #8 mirror finish. placing the slab sequentially allows the contractor to place manageable volumes of concrete at a time. 63 32 16 A smooth machine finish suitable for high stress steel to steel bearing surfaces including roller bearings on bed plates. No units are implied. Suitable for connections and surfaces not in moving contact with other surfaces.3-7 . July 2000 7. 125 A fine machine finish resulting from careful machine work using high speeds and taking light cuts. Generally. A very smooth.14.3. concrete is placed on the dead load positive moment region of end spans and in the positive moment regions of alternate interior spans.12 Roadway Slab Placement Sequence The roadway slab is placed in a prescribed sequence allowing the concrete in each sequence to shrink freely. This surface is generally produced by grinding. The lower the number (xxx). this symbol means that the average value of the depth of the surface grooves shall not exceed xxx millionths of an inch. 250 A fairly smooth surface.14 Surface Roughness The standard measure of surface roughness is the microinch value.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design “I” Girders Surface Finish Examples Figure 7.14 7.3-8 July 2000 .3.

amendments thereto and the special provisions. a record of test specimens examination and approval except for SMAW prequalified.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7. The designer must consider the limits of allowable fatigue stress. brazing. This publication is a very good reference for definitions of abbreviations and acronyms related to welding. Exceptions to both codes and additional requirements are shown in the Standard Specifications and the special provisions. The designers should be especially aware of current amendments to the following sections of the Standard Specifications. AWS electrode specifications and classifications are obtained from the structural steel specialist. Lincoln Electric Arc Welding Handbook.1 Structural Weld Code. the maximum size fillet weld which may be made with a single pass is 5 16 inch for submerged arc.5 qualifies the welding of all AASHTO approved steels with a minimum specified yield of 50 Ksi or less. The maximum size fillet weld made in a single pass is 1 4 inch for the shield metal arc welding process.1 and D1. All others must be qualified by test. 6-03. gas metal arc.5-96 Bridge Welding Code (BWC) and the latest edition of the AWS D1. See Chapter 10 of AASHTO. The Standard Specifications currently calls for welding structural steel according to the AASHTO/AWS D1. The minimum fillet weld size shall be as shown in the following table. Many of Lincoln Electric’s published materials and literature are available through those designers and supervisors who have attended their seminars.3(25)A Welding Inspection. Weld size is determined by the thicker of the two parts joined unless a larger size is required by calculated stress.4 by that name. specified for the various welds used to connect the main load carrying members of a steel structure. The only process deemed prequalified in D1. In general. Qualification of M 270 grade 50W (A709 grade 50W) in Section 5 of D1. The major difference between AWS D1. July 2000 7.15 Welding All structural steel and rebar welding shall be in accordance with the WSDOT Standard Specifications.5 is shielded metal arc.5 is the welding process qualification. and flux-cored arc welding processes.3. Prequalified joints are found in BWC Section 2. Some handy reference aids in checking WPS in addition to PQR are: Matching filler metal requirements are found in BWC Section 4. Bridge fabricators generally qualify to M 270 grade 50W (A709 grade 50W). Standard symbols for welding. The weld size need not exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined.3(25) Welding and Repair Welding and 6-03.3-9 . and nondestructive examination can be found in the ANSI/AWS A 2. All welding procedure specifications (WPS) submitted for approval must be accompanied by a procedure qualification record (PQR). Base Metal Thickness of Thicker Part Joined Inches (mm) To 3 4 Design “I” Girders Minimum Size of Fillet Weld Inches (mm) 1 4 (20 mm) inclusive 3 4 (6 mm) (8 mm) Over (20 mm) 3 16 5 16 The minimum size seal weld shall be inch (5 mm) fillet weld.

progressive transverse assembly. Notes: Electrogas and electroslag welding processes are not allowed in WSDOT work. Due to geometric complexity of some structures. P65:DP/BDM7 7. in the field. The designer shall consult with the supervisor and the steel specialist to determine the extent of shop assembly and clarification of the Standard Specifications. and crossframe connections. Design “I” Girders 7. Narrow gap improved electroslag welding will be allowed on a case-by-case basis.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel WSDOT Standard Specifications for preheat and Interpass temperatures. WSDOT fabrication inspectors in the Northwest Region contract with a company which can make that determination economically. a one girder line progressive longitudinal shop assembly is sufficient to assure proper fit of subsections. Often it is not possible to determine from the contract documents for the structure whether or not the existing steel is weldable.. Contact these inspectors to verify that the service is still available before making preparations. The desired method of assembly shown in the Standard Specifications will then be required in the special provisions. in some form. Often in the rehabilitation of existing steel structures. it is desirable to weld. etc. to the inplace structural steel. in combination with progressive longitudinal assembly may be desirable.3.16 Fabrication In most cases. Coupons from the steel must be furnished for a spectrographic examination. field splices.3-10 July 2000 .

See Appendix 7. In general. Show shear connector spacing. members of cross frames are shop bolted to give some degree of field adjustment. Plan Details 7. A solid bolt symbol will suffice. Designations for structural steel can be found in Table 2-1 of AISC Detailing for Steel Construction. Innovation is best reserved for content. Locate panel points (crossframe locations). Radical or even modest changes in detailing practice can result in misinterpretation of plans. bearing lines. See Standard Specifications.4. August 1998 7. and transverse intermediate stiffener locations. In addition. Show general arrangement of bottom laterals. a rather detailed framing plan should be made to help guide the shop detailer and the shop plan reviewer.4-A1 to A9. Cost benefits for individual details vary from shop to shop and even from time to time. An entire sheet may be required for complicated bridges with multiple field splice designs. Such details include the weld details. 7. Old plans are a good reference for traditional detailing practices. Provide geometry. Define those components of the girder subject to the Charpy V-notch requirements shown in the Standard Specifications. and number across the flange.4. various stiffener plates and weld connections. 7.1 Plan Details General Detailing practice should follow industry standards. Include field splices here if only one type of splice will suffice for the plans. For geometrically complicated structures.4. location. the structural steel notes are not shown in this manual. Show shear connectors in the girder details also.3 Framing Plan Define girders and component parts not shown on the girder elevation view such as jacking stiffeners. locations of optional web splices.4-1 . Welded assemblies tend to be less adjustable when it comes time to install them. Section 7. however. Locate transverse intermediate stiffeners and show requirements for clearance from tension flange. Show field splices and detail the general configuration of crossframes in a section through framing plan. previous plan details can be guides but should not be considered standards.2 Structural Steel Notes Due to their dynamic nature. Define full penetration welds X or portions thereof subject to tension for which Radiographic (x-ray) examination is required.4. 7.4 7. webs.5 Typical Girder Details One or two plan sheets should be devoted to showing typical details to be used throughout the girders. V and X are mentioned also in the Structural Steel Notes. and drip plate details. For these reasons. These notes must be edited based on the requirements unique to each project and additions and deletions made accordingly. Actual details for plate girders are continually being revised or improved.4 Girder Elevation Define flanges.4.2. Permissible welded web splices may show. the optional welded web splice shown elsewhere in the plans permits the fabricator to add splices subject to the approval of the engineer. and components thereof.4. The designer’s attention is directed to the Bridge and Structures Office Book of Knowledge (BOK) which contains the most current version of the structural steel notes in their entirety.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7. not presentation of steel detailing. Note: Do not distinguish between field bolts and shop bolts. office practice is to favor field bolted as opposed to field welded connections.

Actual lengths of members and dimensions of connections will be determined by the shop plan detailer. Use good engineering judgment when detailing this dimension. P65:DP/BDM7 7. As a general rule of thumb.4-A14 and A15.4-A16. Details should incorporate actual conditions such as skew and neighboring members so that geometric conflicts can be minimized. The plan views should detail typical reinforcing and cutoff locations for negative moment steel. The plans should reference this procedure contained in Standard Specification 6-03.4. 13″ for medium spans (180′ to 220′) and 14″ to 15″ for long spans (over 220′). Avoid termination of all negative moment steel at one location. In lieu of tenth points. See Appendix 7. 7. the girder is cambered to compensate for dead loads and vertical curves.7 Camber Curve and Bearing Stiffener Details Camber curves should be detailed using conventional practices.4-2 August 1998 .4-A13. Plan Details 7.8 Roadway Slab The roadway slab is detailed in section and plan views. These figures are only approximate. fabrication and erection tolerances result in considerable deviation from theoretical elevations.4. Dimensions given at tenth points has been office practice in the past. However. If possible. leave a minimum of 1 inch between legs and include fillers as needed for stability. For continuous spans. Cable locations may be adjusted to avoid conflicts with other details such as large gusset plates. Ideally. 7.9 Safety Cable Details Safety cables for maintenance crews are standardized details. Tee sections are preferred over double angles for easier painting. use 11″ for short span rolled beam bridges. 12″ for short span plate girder bridges (150′ to 180′). If double angles are used.6 Crossframe Details Typical crossframe and bottom lateral details are shown on Appendix 7.4.4-A10 to A12. See Appendix 7. The “pad” dimension for steel girders is treated somewhat differently than for prestressed girders.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7. The pad dimension is assumed to be constant throughout the span length. include safety cables with typical girder details. If room permits. The screed for the slab is to be set to produce correct roadway profile.4. See Appendix 7.3(39). add a section showing negative moment longitudinal reinforcing to the typical section shown at mid-span. The pad dimension is to be noted as nominal. The pad dimension is therefore considered only a nominal value and is adjusted as needed along the span once the steel has been erected and profiled. continue the positive moment region reinforcing pattern from end-to-end of the slab with the negative moment region reinforcing superimposed on it. dimensions may also be given at crossframe locations which are more useful in the field.

The review procedure is described in Section 1.5-1 .5 of this manual. STRUCTURALLY ACCEPTABLE. If not. between top and bottom flange plates for example. Most shop plans may be stamped: “GEOMETRY NOT REVIEWED BY THE BRIDGE & STRUCTURES OFFICE” However. Welding procedure specifications and procedure qualification records should be submitted with shop plans.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7. and the special Provisions. BUT DOES NOT CONFORM TO THE CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS Shop Plan Review P:DP/BDM7 August 1998 7. shop plans with acceptable changes have been so noted and stamped. are to be expected. Some differences in lengths.5 Shop Plan Review Shop plans must be checked for agreement with the Contract Plans. Standard Specifications.3. they should be requested and received before shop plans are approved. radii. In the past. The effects of profile grade and camber would make exact verification difficult.6 of this manual. and sizes shown on shop plans are in general agreement with the contract.3. The procedures to follow in the event changes are required or requested by the fabricator can be found in Section 1. the reviewer should verify that lengths.

1. Bibliography P:DP/BDM7 August 1998 7.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7. Guidance for the design of wide flange beams is also included. U. This is a detailed design reference for “I” girders and box girders. torsional.S. Curved Girder Workshop produced by the Federal Highway Administration. both straight and curved. There are sections on bridge girders and many other welded structures. This publication is quite helpful in the calculation of section properties and the design of individual members.99-1 . Some of this material may be dated and its application should be used with caution. utilizing either service load design or load factor design. Blodgett.99 Bibliography The following publications can provide general guidance for the design of steel structures. Design of Welded Structures by Omer H. and warping stresses. This publication is helpful in the design of curved “I” girders and box girders with explanation of the associated lateral flange bending. Volumes I and II. Steel Highway Structures Design Handbook. 3. 2.

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4-A1 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Girder Framing Plan and Elevation View August 1998 7.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Part Longitudinal Girder Elevation August 1998 7.4-A2 .

4-A3 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Primary Stiffeners August 1998 7.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Transverse Intermediate Stiffener August 1998 7.4-A4 .

4-A5 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Splices August 1998 7.

4-A6 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Optional Web Splice August 1998 7.

4-A7 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Fillet Weld Termination Detail August 1998 7.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Field Splice Detail August 1998 7.4-A8 .

4-A9 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Drip Plate Details August 1998 7.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Crossframes August 1998 7.4-A10 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Crossframe Attachment Details August 1998 7.4-A11-1 .

4-A11-2 August 1998 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Crossframe Attachment Details 7.

4-A11-3 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Crossframe Attachment Details August 1998 7.

4-A12 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Lateral Plate Detail August 1998 7.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Camber Curve and Bearing Stiffener Camber Details August 1998 7.4-A13 .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation . . . . . .3-1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 8. . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cut and Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Clearance . . . . . . . . . . Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . Impact Attenuator Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sign and Luminaire Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Snow Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bored . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timber . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . Cable Stayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . Vertical Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elevated Railways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Loads . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . * * * * * * * * * * * * * 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . .3 8. . . .3 8. F. . . . . . . . . Ground Mounted Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . Wind Loads . . .1. B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 *Indicates sections not issued to date. . . . . . . General . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . Dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tunnels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . Other Bridge Types . . . . . . . . Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulling Force from Restraining Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aesthetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Push Force on Back-Up Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suspension Bridges . . . . . . . . Railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ice Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . Factored Load Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sign Bridges Mounted on Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deadloads . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sign Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .0-i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loads . . . . . . . . . . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Contents Page 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Live Loads . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Miscellaneous Design . .1. B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. Floating Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . August 1998 8. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . C. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . D. . . . . . . . . . Movable Bridge and Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge-Mounted Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 1 1 2 5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . Bridge Railing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Available Retrofit Designs . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose . . . . . . . . . Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bearing Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . Criteria for Utility Installation on New Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structural Plate Arches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Contents Page 8. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . Specifications for Bridge Deck Joints . . . .1-1 1 1 10 10 11 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-ii August 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expansion Joints . . . Bridge Details . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Rail Rehabilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . Types of Supports . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . Forces to Be Resisted . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bearing Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Railing Performance Levels . . . . . . . Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Traffic Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Available Bridge Rail Designs . . . . Bridge Bearings . . . . . . . . . .6 8. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1 1 1 1 2 * 8. . . . . . . . .2-1 1 1 1 1 1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Etc. . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Confined Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . 8. . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . .5-1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 5 8 * 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reviewing Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ladders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. B. . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . On Bridge Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type of Conduit . . . . . . . . . . H. . . . . . . . At Grade Cast-in-Place Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WSDOT Bridge Inventory of Bridge Rails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 *Indicates sections not issued to date. . . . . . Drainage Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Approach Slabs . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . Other Considerations . . A. . . Surface Treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . D. . . I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . Utility Review Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utility Installation on Bridges . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utility Review Procedure for Existing Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Considerations for Various Districts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Orientation of Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1 1 1 2 4 15 15 * * * 8. . . . B. . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and 3 for Truss Sign Bridge 8. . . . . * Bibliography . . . . . . . . .7-1 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Types . .2-A2 Vacant 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-A8 Pedestrian Barrier 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lighting and Electrical Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 C. .3-A7 Traffic Barrier w/Fractured Fin Finish 8.3-A9 Pedestrian Barrier w/Fractured Fin Finish 8. . . . 3 D. . . . . and 3 8. . . . . Widening. . .3-A3 Bridge Railing Type BP 8. . . . . . * General Considerations . . . . System 1 (Epoxy Coated Bars) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * Navigation Lighting .2-A4 Double Faced Barrier Foundation Types 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.3-A6 Traffic Barrier 8. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0-iii . . . . .2-A13 Monotube Sign Structures — Foundation Details Types 1. . . . . . . .2-A9 Monotube Sign Structures — Sign Bridge Layouts 8. . .99-1 8.3-A2 Guide for Utility Installations Existing Bridges 8. .2-A8 Monotube Sign Structures — Member and Sign Criteria 8. . .5. . . . and 3 for Monotube Sign Bridge 8. .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Contents Page 8. . 4 E. . . . . . .2-A3 Notes to Designers for Truss Sign Bridge Foundations 8.2-A1 Sign Structure Foundation Material Quantities 8. . . . . 2. . . . . . .3-A10 Notes to Designers for Traffic Barrier 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System 3 (Asphalt Overlay with Waterproof Membrane) . . . . . . . . .2-A5 Notes to Designers for Monotube Sign Bridge Foundations 8. . . August 1998 8. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-A10 Monotube Sign Structures — Cantilever Layouts 8. . .3-A4 Bridge Railing Type BP-B 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * Electrical Requirements . . . .3-A12 Utility Hanger Details *Indicates sections not issued to date. . . . . . . . . .2 8. . System Selection for Bridge Deck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 B. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . System Selection for New Structures . .2-A11 Monotube Sign Structures — Structure Details 8.3-A11 Utility Hanger Details 8. . .3-A5 Notes to Designers for Bridge Railing 8. . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . .2-A12 Monotube Sign Structures — Structure Details 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 F. . .4. . . . . . .7 Deck Protective Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-A6 Doubled Faced Barrier Foundation Types 1. . . . . .3-A1 General Notes and Design Criteria for Utility Installation to Existing Bridges 8. 2. . System 2 (Dense Concrete or Latex Modified Concrete Overlay) . . . . . . . . * Illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Rehabilitation . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .2-A7 Notes to Designers for Monotube Sign Structures 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . .1 8. . . .99 Appendix A — Design Aids 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-B3 Strip Seal Design — Example 2 8.4-B12 Girder Stop Bearing Pads Example 8.4-B5 Gmin and Gmax for Modular Joints 8.4-B1 Compression Seal Design Example 8.4-B8 Modular Joint Design — Example 3 8.4-B7 Modular Joint Design — Example 2 8.4-B15 Girder Stop Bearing Pads Pad Thickness Chart P:DP/BDM8 9807-0802 8.4-B6 Modular Joint Design — Example 1 8.S.4-A2 8.4-B10 Vacant 8.0-iv August 1998 .4-A3 8.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.4-B13 Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Chart 8.4-B2 Strip Seal Design — Example 1 8.4-A4 8.4-B4 Strip Seal Design — Example 3 8.4-B9 Elastomeric Bearing Pad Example for P.4-B14 Girder Stop Bearing Pads Spacing Chart 8.4-B11 Vacant 8.4-A1 8.4-A5 Expansion Joint Details Standard Drain Modifications Bridge Drains Types 7 and 8 Bridge Grate Inlet Bridge Grate Inlet Type 2 Contents Appendix B — Examples 8-B1 Notes to Designers — Pin Bearings 8-B2 Notes to Designers — Spherical Bearings 8-B3 Notes to Designers — General 8-B4 Notes to Designers — Post-Tensioning 8-B5 Notes to Designers — Structural Steel (Box Girder) 8-B6 Notes to Designers — Structural Steel (Plate Girder) 8-B7 Notes to Designers — Strip Seal Expansion Joint 8-B8 Notes to Designers — Modular Expansion Joint 8-B9 Notes to Designers — Rail Rehabilitation 8. Girder (Prestressed) 8.

ft 60 lbs./ln. ft./ft. Deadloads Sign (incl.2. Luminaires.1 . 60 lbs. B. General The reference used in developing the following office criteria is the 1975 AASHTO “Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs.10 . ft./ln./ln.45 1. April 1991 8. Calc. ft Calc. stiffeners) Luminaire Fluorescent Lighting Standard Signal Head Mercury Vapor Lighting Sign Brackets (No Maintenance Walkway) Structural Members 5-foot-wide maintenance walkway (incl.30 1./each 6.20 1.” and shall be the basis for analysis and design. and Traffic Signals.20 1.1 Sign and Luminaire Supports Loads A.45 1.25 lbs.10 1.2 ./each 3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8. see Isotach figure (Appendix A)./ln.45 1.20 3. Local topography may also dictate the use of higher wind velocities.50 1.0 lbs.0 lbs. Wind Loads Mean Recurrance Interval 10 10 10 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 25 Velocity (MPH)* 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 Drag Coeff (Cd) 1. sign mounting brackets) 11/2-foot-wide maintenance walkway between signs C. 28 lbs. Sign and Luminaire Supports Type of Structure Roadside Sign Support Round Roadside Sign Support Square Roadside Sign Support Octagonal Standard Plan G-2 Standard Plan G-3 Chords Standard Plan G-3 Post Monotube Signs Square Luminaires Round Luminaires Signal Heads *When designing structures on the Olympic Peninsula or south of Olympia and west of Interstate 5 consideration should be given to using a wind velocity between 80 mph and 100 mph.2 8.20 .2 60 lbs.

0 BL .2 April 1991 . Wind Combination 1 2 Normal Comp. Snow Loads The above stated ice load shall be considered to include any snow load for the commonly used structural support systems.2 . design pressures must be corrected by using the specified value for Cd. D. luminaire. Live Load 500 lbs. 0. BL is then applied to the centroid. and luminaires. and signal structures are designed using the maximum of the following three load groups: Loads Group I – DL Group II – DL + W Group III – DL + Ice + 1/2 (W**) Percent of * Allowable Stress 100 140 140 *No load reduction factors shall be applied in conjunction with these increased allowable stresses.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Wind Pressure ** for 80 MPH Wind P (psf) 22 28 31 35 39 42 44 Sign and Luminaire Supports Height above Ground (FT) 0 14 29 49 99 149 199 < < < < < < < H H H H H H H < < < < < < < 14 29 49 99 149 199 299 **Values in this table were computed using Cd = 1.6 BL Trans. Ice Loads 3 psf applied around all the surfaces of structural supports.00. but applied to only one face of sign panels. 8. applied as a concentrated load at 3 feet from sign face (only where maintenance walkways are used). Load Groups Sign. G. 25 psf minimum for W Group III. 1. horizontal members. F. **W to be computed on the basis of the wind pressure formula. E.3 BL BL is a wind force and is equal to P times the exposed area of the sign and support system.2 BL 0. Comp.

3 .2. Vertical Clearance The bottom of the sign lighting bracket should be placed a minimum of 17 feet 6 inches and a maximum of 21 feet 0 inches above the lower roadway (see Figure 8. The minimum clearance is a requirement of the current electrical code.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.2 .2 Bridge-Mounted Signs A.2. Greater or lesser clearance may be approved by Roadway Development on an individual project basis.2-1 April 1991 8.2-1). Sign and Luminaire Supports Sign Vertical Clearance Figure 8.2.

2-2 8. support brackets should be designed to provide a sign skew of no more than 10° from perpendicular to the lower roadway (see Figure 8. For structures above a tangent section of roadway.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design B.4 April 1991 . signs may be installed parallel to the structure provided the structure skew does not exceed 10°. Geometrics 1. If the structure skew exceeds 10°.2 .2-2). Signs should be installed at approximate right angles to approaching motorists.2.2. Sign and Luminaire Supports Sign Skew on Tangent Roadway Figure 8.

Sign Skew on Curved Roadway Figure 8.2 . signs may be installed parallel to the structure provided the structure chord-skew does not exceed 10°.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 2.5 .2.2-3 April 1991 8. Sign and Luminaire Supports For structures located on or just beyond a horizontal curve of the lower roadway. If the structure chord-skew exceeds 10°. 3.2-3).2. support brackets should be designed to provide a sign chordskew of no more than 10° from perpendicular to the chord-point determined by the approach speed (see Figure 8. The top of the sign shall be level.

discoloring. Also avoid placing the sign directly under the drip-line of the structure.2. Whenever possible. When the sign support will be exposed to view. Whenever it is necessary to place a sign under a bridge due to structural or height requirements.2. 3. special consideration is required in determining member sizes and connections to provide as pleasing an appearance as possible. The sign support shall be detailed in such a manner that will permit the sign and lighting bracket to be installed level.2-5).2-5 8. This causes partial shading or partial exposure to the elements. Preferably. Whenever possible.2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design C.6 April 1991 . Sign Horizontal Location Figure 8. 2. the designer should avoid locating signs under bridge overhangs.2. and difficulty in reading (see Figure 8. These conditions may result in uneven fading.2-4 D.2-4). 2. 4. Aesthetics 1.2 . Sign Placement 1. the support structure should be hidden from view of traffic. the top of the sign and its support should not project above the bridge rail (see Figure 8. the installation should be reviewed by Roadway Development. Sign and Luminaire Supports Sign Vertical Location Figure 8.

C. or approved equal with AASHTO M164 anchor bolts should be used for existing structures and cast-in-place anchor bolts (ASTM A307) for new structures. Geometrics Sign structures should be placed at approximate right angles to approaching motorists. April 1991 8. When Hilti HVA. B. G-2a. Vertical Clearance Vertical clearance for sign bridges follow the same requirements as Bridge-Mounted Signs as stated in Section 8. or Kelken-Gold.2.7 . or ITW/Redhead systems are specified. refer to Standard Sheet G-6. i.e. 3. Consideration shall be given to the method of installing the sign support and sign on the structure. the sign size shall be expressed in terms of horizontal by vertical dimension. where X = horizontal dimension and Y = vertical dimension. Loads from the sign bridge should be included in the design of the structure.3 Sign Bridges Mounted on Bridges A. X x Y. G-3. Sheets G-2. and Appendix A of this chapter. When maintenance walkways are included. Installation 1.1A. Sign and Luminaire Supports 2. or ITW/Redhead EPCON Ceramic 6.1.. (b) Torque anchor bolt nuts to proof load. a sign located underneath the overhang can cause problems in lifting the material into position and making the required connections. Dimensioning Where show on the plans. the following should be included: (a) Anchor bolt system is to be installed using manufacturer recommendations in dry conditions. F.2. An expansion-type concrete anchor is undesirable for attaching sign support brackets to the structure. Kelken-Gold Keli Bond.2 . This will account for any signs that may be added in the future.2. Molly Parabond. Molly Parabond. 8. Design Loads Design loads for the supports of the sign bridges should be calculated based on assuming a 12-foot deep sign over the entire roadway width.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design E. a minimum of 2 inches of clearance shall be provided between the edge of the required sign lighting zee-bar bracket and edge of the vertical sign support members. When locating sign support brackets on the structure. The design loads should follow the same criteria as described in Section 8. The Hilti HVA. Dimensions and details of sign structures are shown in the Standard Plans. For example. under the sign bridge. This is because the nature of the loads imposed on the anchors can cause vibration and pull-out.

8 April 1991 .2 .4 Foundations The most efficient foundation design for sign. Standard foundations have been designed. The type 3 foundation is designed for poor soil conditions where the lateral bearing pressure is between 2.2. see Appendix A of this chapter.500 psf and 1. J-1b.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8. Sign and Luminaire Supports 8-2:V:BDM8 8. G-3a. see Standard Plans G-2b.500 psf. and signal supports is the Caisson Foundation. and Appendix A of this chapter. The standard foundations have been modified for placement under traffic barrier. The headquarters Materials Lab should be consulted as to which foundation type is to be used.500 psf. Foundation type 1 and 2 are designed for a lateral bearing pressure of 2. luminaire. Type 2 is the alternate to type 1 when drilled shafts are not suitable.

General Concept This criteria is concerned with the support design of the Hi-Dro Cushion attenuator (liquid-filled cells with cable guides and side panels).3 .8 x 4k x G. Design Speed Design speed shall be per highway Design Manual. By this means. design the back-up wall and front cable anchorage for a symmetrical load of 112 kips and also for unsymmetrical load of 56 kips acting through one restraining cable only.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8. The ultimate strength of the 7/8-inch restraining cables is 56 kips each. which is one of the two FHWA qualified energy-absorbing systems to protect occupants of highway vehicles from fixed objects within the highway system. Sliding and overturning should be checked. For other systems. To avoid a complicated dynamic analysis. Provide flexure.3 for sliding. The table is based on the results of full scale tests. we should recommend to the district that more units should be used.5 for overturning and Wφ + Pp > 1. A minimum of 1.3 8. Vehicle Force Limitation G loads for varying speeds and number of bay units can be found on page 2 of the Design Data — Hi-Dro Cushion Reusable Systems brochure. If this value is higher than 10 Gs. Design Force The design force shall be determined from other values given in the above-mentioned table or 1. 2. D. 3. where: = H W = Weight of Support φ = Friction Coefficient H = Horizontal Force γh2 (1 + Sin φ) Pp = Passive Pressure = 2 (1 . It is desirable that the average vehicle deceleration be limited to a maximum of 10 Gs.3. Ground-Mounted Units It is recommended that the back-up wall and anchor block foundations for ground-mounting units be combined into an integral unit.1 Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design Impact Attenuator Supports A. C. The service loads should be used in establishing factors of safety. the stability of the structure in enhanced. Push Force on Back-Up Wall 1. the restraining cables will exert a pulling force on the back-up wall and the front cable anchorage. B. shear and torsion reinforcement in the back-up wall as required by these two loading conditions. whichever is greater. similar design procedures should be followed.Sin φ) φ = Angle of Internal Friction γ = Unit Weight of Soil Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design April 1991 8. Pulling Force from Restraining Cables If the attenuator is impacted at an angle.1 . These values have good correlation with calculated deceleration.

2 October 1993 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design E. see the manufacturer’s brochure or shop drawings of previous installations. Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 8. Factor Load Design The loads previously determined due to impacting or pulling of cables shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.3.5 for Ultimate Load condition because it is an impulse loading. The resultant of these loads should lie in the middle half of the support footing.3 . The dead load of the support shall be multiplied by the usual factor of 1. F. Minimum steel requirements of AASHTO Reinforced Concrete Design should be checked except where a construction joint makes it impossible for tension to develop in the concrete. Details For details of scale anchorages and attenuator hardware required for the back-up wall.

This concept is embodied within the Guide Specifications for Bridge Railing. Examples of these semi-rigid and weak post guardrail systems are shown in Section 8. Other semi-rigid guardrail systems also qualify for this performance level due to geometric features such as height. Use a Single Slope concrete bridge rail when there are Single Slope concrete barriers on grade in the median for approaches to bridges or for continuity within a corridor. 4. • When roadway geometrics increase the possibility of larger trucks hitting the barriers at a high angle (such as on ramps for freeway to freeway connections with sharp curvature in the alignment). 5. July 2000 8. The standard approach for new bridge rails is a 32 inch high safety shape (F Shape) concrete barrier on all interstate and major highway routes.3.10 and the appropriate standard plans. vehicle mix.3. Guidelines 1. B. design speed. the Guide Specifications for Bridge Railings have been adopted by AASHTO to give specific requirements for crash testing of bridge barriers prior to their use on all new bridge structures. Bridge Railing Performance Levels It must be recognized that bridge railing performance needs differ greatly from site to site over our highway network and that railing designs and costs should match facility needs. 2. (See Design Manual Section 710 for additional background and criteria. the concrete traffic barrier may not be warranted with concurrence of roadway geometrics. The AASHTO Guide Specifications differentiate crash test criteria for various performance levels depending upon in part traffic volume. Guardrail approach transitions to bridge railing shall also be crash tested and consistent with the performance level dictated by the bridge site. Crash tested breakaway guardrail systems and otherwise semi-rigid guardrail systems have shown that they can effectively contain vehicles on the bridge without undue damage to the bridge deck. Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 3.1. and other factors that produce a vast variation in traffic railing performance needs from one site to another. In addition. Performance Level 1 (PL1) On low-volume roads with little accident history.2C.) The Standard Single Slope bridge rail is 34 inches high to be consistent with the heights being used on grade applications. The design criteria for bridge traffic barriers on structures shall be in accordance with Section 2 of the Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges adopted by AASHTO.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8. Use taller 42 inch high safety shape or single slope bridge rails on interstate or freeway routes in the following circumstances: • When accident history suggests a need.2 Bridge Traffic Barriers A.2-1 .3. Three bridge railing performance levels and associated crash test/performance requirements are given in these guide specifications along with guidance for determining the appropriate performance level for a given bridge. Section 710. 1. The criteria for its use shall be in accordance with the Highway Design Manual.

Performance Level 1 a. The estimated cost for this system as a retrofit to existing structures is $75 to $85 per linear foot.2-2. Available Bridge Rail Designs 1.2-4).BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 2. C. This system is ideally suited for cast-in-place and precast slab superstructures with at least 15-inch minimum slab depth (see Figure 8.1. This failure mechanism assures minimum damage. 3. California Side Mounted Guardrail This thrie beam guardrail system is a crash tested rigid rail system which again requires a Type 4B transition.7. b. This rail system is suited to slab superstructures of 12-inch minimum depth (see Figure 8. The crash test matrix for this performance category includes a 50. High accident rates with these trucks or buses may warrant this performance level. if any at all. Performance Level 3 (PL3) Higher capacity bridge rails are sometimes required for cases of high traffic volume with large truck or bus percentage.3. We have utilized this design on some of our short concrete spans and on our timber bridges. c. Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 8. tractor trailer.3.3.3. Details for some examples of retrofitted weak post systems are shown in Figures 8. d. Rail systems under this category have to be capable of resisting not only compacts and passenger cars but also 18.000 lb.3. Oregon Side Mounted Guardrail This thrie beam guardrail system is an approved crash tested rigid rail which will require a Type 4B transition leading up to the bridge (see Standard Plan C-3 2 of 2).2-5). Glu-Lam Timber Rail on Wood Deck This is a crash tested treated timber rail system that may be used for low performance level facilities (see Figure 8. The appropriate guardrail approach transition shall be a Case 14 placement as shown on Standard Plan C-2h.3A in the Guide Specification).2-2 July 2000 . Performance Level 2 (PL2) This performance level is defined as a rigid rail system that generally meets AASHTO’s strength requirements of 10 kips lateral impact capacity.2-1 and 8. single unit trucks (see Table G2.2-3). Service Level 1 Weak Post Guardrail This bridge railing is a crash tested weak post rail system that was developed by NCHRP Report 239 for low-volume rural roadways with little accident history. A failure mechanism is built into this rail system such that upon impact the post will break away with the thrie beam guardrail containing the vehicle by virtue of its ribbon strength.000 lb. This system could be used by cities and counties on new structures in which the cost can be estimated at $40 to $50 per linear foot. to the bridge deck and stringers.3. The concrete New Jersey barrier and F shape configuration would qualify under this performance level.

Under no circumstances shall this depth exceed 3 inches. If an overlay is contemplated either at the time of construction or within one year after the project. Texas T-202 Concrete Beam and Post This crash tested rail system offers a combination of low maintenance and low profile see-through characteristics. California Type 115 Tubular Steel Rail This crash tested system offers a see-through low profile steel rail option to the thrie beam guardrail. Texas Guardrail Fence for Box Culverts Texas developed this semi-rigid standard for the many box culvert situations that face all highway engineers. The vertical face of the barrier end section allows for an easy thrie beam guardrail Terminal Design F connection.2-9).3. g. Performance Level 2 a. A tapered traffic barrier end section is used to allow a snow plow to approach the bridge using the guardrail as a guide without damaging the toe of the barrier. Nebraska Concrete Beam and Post This is a similar rail system to the Texas T-202 rail with more opening at the base.3. 32-Inch New Jersey (NJ) Shape Concrete Traffic Barrier This rail treatment is preferred for most higher volume state highway facilities because of its past performance as far as the redirection capability and its low maintenance costs.2-7). Again a Type 1 guardrail approach is required at bridge ends (see Figure 8. A disadvantage of this is that when this rail system is hit the repair sometimes requires the replacement of the steel post thereby necessitating excavation of the fill. Any additional barrier height adjustments due to camber shall be accommodated at the top of the barrier (see Figure 8. A Type 1 guardrail approach transition would be required at the bridge ends (see Figure 8.3. Texas T-411 Aesthetic Concrete Baluster Texas developed this standard for a section of highway that was considered to be a historic landmark.2-3 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design e. the existing deficient concrete baluster rail was replaced with a much stronger concrete baluster that satisfactorily passed the crash test performance criteria set forth by the NCHRP Report 230 (see Figure 8. i.3.2-10). A Type 1 guardrail transition as shown by Standard Plan C-3 1 of 2 is required (see Figure 8. 2. Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design July 2000 8. h. W-Beam guardrail is attached to steel posts that is mounted to the top of the concrete deck for fill depths of 0 inches to 37 inches. The required guardrail transition is shown in Standard Plan C-2i. So in response to this fact. This detail is shown in Standard Plan C-10. the vertical lip at the base shall be 3 inches plus the overlay depth.2-6). Washington has developed a take off from this design that addresses this point by introducing a stiffer steel post in the fill that will hopefully never need replacement.2-8). Otherwise this lip depth shall be allowed to vary from 0 inch to 3 inch max.3.3. f.

see-through option.2-13 and 8. A rigid thrie beam guardrail transition would be again required at the bridge ends. New York Thrie Beam Guardrail This crash tested rail system can be utilized at the top of a raised concrete sidewalk to separate pedestrian traffic from the vehicular traffic as shown in Figure 8. c.3. 32-Inch Vertical Face Concrete Barrier This crash tested rail system offers a simple to build concrete alternative to the NJ and “F” shape traffic rail configurations (see Figure 8. A rigid thrie beam guardrail transition would be required at the bridge ends (see Figures 8. f.3.3.3.000 lb. This has not been crash tested satisfactorily to be utilized as a vehicular rail. Oregon DOT currently uses this configuration (see Figure 8. This more vertical shape actually tested better than the NJ face which had more of an inclination to roll vehicles over upon impact. Another application of this barrier was utilized on the SR101 to Southbound SR5 structure where there were an unusually large amount of truck accidents with debris thrown to the structure below (see Figure 8. tractor trailer.3.2-18).2-4 July 2000 . Oregon 2 Tube and 3 Tube Curb Mounted Rail This is another crash tested model offering a light-weight.2-15 or can be mounted directly to the top of the concrete deck. This rail is shown in Figure 8. A cross-section of this rail is offered in Figure 8.2-14). A three tube rail system is also available for sidewalk use without vehicular traffic. A Type 4B guardrail transition shall be employed at the ends of the bridge. An alternate precast barrier with the “F” shape configuration is now available for use adjacent to bridges near the Oregon border (see Standard Plan C-8d).2-11). 42-Inch “F” Shape Concrete Barrier This barrier is very similar to the 32 inch F shape concrete barrier in that the slopes of the front surface are identical except for its height.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design b.3. d. Illinois 2399 Tubular Steel Rail This crash tested model offers a light weight and open rail alternative to the concrete traffic barriers outlined above. e.2-16. 3. This barrier was used on a portion of the Seattle Access project in Seattle due to the large vehicular mix of intercity buses and the fact that there was a building below that needed to be protected.2-12).2-17. Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 8. 32-Inch “F” Shape Concrete Traffic Barrier This configuration was crash tested in the late 1960s along with the NJ Shape and then again recently at this performance level. Performance Level 3 a. This barrier and all remaining options within this section have been crash tested for a 50.3.3.

2-19). If a connection is made to an existing traffic barrier or parapet on the bridge.2-23). Additional design data is given on Standard Plan D-2e.2-5 . Design criteria for allowable distribution width for impact on barriers with greater than 1 foot of elevation difference is as follows: (1) For stability calculations: distribution width for impact load shall be 16 feet for walls under 16 feet high.3. Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design P65:DP/BDM8 July 2000 8.000 lb. Texas C202 Bridge Rail This rail system offers a combination open concrete beam/post and a metal rail with an overall height of 54 inches (see Figure 8. b. D. truck (see Figure 8.3. the barrier shall be designed as a wall with AASHTO’s barrier loading and will require a footing. Special Higher Performance Level a. No foundation such as a footing is required.3.3. (2) For reinforcing steel design in the stem and footing: distribution shall be the smaller of 2H or 16 feet where H is the height of the wall.3. If this difference in elevation is greater than 1 foot.3.2-21). Cast-in-Place barriers (Type 2) at grade are sometimes required in median areas with different roadway levels at each side (see Figure 8.2-20). 15 inches long holes shall be drilled for the wire rope connection and shall be filled with an adhesive resin. Shoulder Barriers Cast-in-Place shoulder barriers at grade are sometimes desired adjacent to bridge sidewalk barriers in lieu of standard precast Type 2 barriers (see Figure 8. This and other options listed within this section have been crash tested for a 80. A Cast-in-Place barrier with 1 foot 0 inch or less difference in elevation has been crash tested successfully with a 10-inch embedment depth.2-22). 4. 2. This barrier cross section has equivalent mass and resisting moment for stability considerations to that of the embedded double face New Jersey Traffic Barrier which has been satisfactorily crash tested.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design b. Texas Type HT This crash tested rail employs a combination New Jersey Traffic Barrier and a special steel rail mounted to the top with an overall height of 50 inches. At Grade Cast-in-Place Barriers 1. 42-Inch Vertical Concrete Parapet This crash tested option offers a simple to build alternative to the “F” shape configuration (see Figure 8. Median Barriers a. A wire rope and pin connection shall be made at the bridge barrier end section per Standard Plan C-8.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design Figure 8.3.3.2-1 8.2-6 September 1992 .

3.2-7 Figure 8.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design September 1992 8.2-2 .

2-8 September 1992 Oregon Side Mounted Guardrail Figure 8.3.3.2-3 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 8.

3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design California Side Mounted Guardrail Figure 8.2-9 .2-4 September 1992 8.3.

3.2-5 .2-10 September 1992 Glu-Lam Timber Rail Figure 8.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 8.

2-6 September 1992 8.3.2-11 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design Texas T-202 Rail Figure 8.3.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 8.2-7 .3.3.2-12 September 1992 Nebraska Concrete Beampost Rail Figure 8.

2-13 California Type 115 Rail Figure 8.3.3.2-8 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design September 1992 8.

2-9 .2-14 September 1992 Texas T-411 Aesthetic Concrete Baluster Figure 8.3.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 8.

2-10 September 1992 8.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 32-Inch New Jersey Shape Figure 8.3.2-15 .3.

3.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 32-Inch “F” Shape Figure 8.2-16 September 1992 .2-11 8.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 32-Inch Vertical Concrete Parapet Figure 8.2-12 September 1992 8.2-17 .3.3.

3.3.2-13 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 8.2-18 September 1992 Illinois 2399R Tubular Steel Rail Figure 8.

3.2-19 Illinois 2399R Tubular Steel Rail Figure 8.2-14 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design September 1992 8.3.

3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design New York Thrie Beam Figure 8.3.2-20 September 1992 .2-15 8.

2-16 September 1992 8.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design Oregon 2 Steel Tube Rail Figure 8.3.2-21 .

3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design Oregon 3 Steel Tube Rail Figure 8.2-17 8.3.2-22 September 1992 .

2-18 September 1992 8.3.2-23 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 42-Inch “F” Shape Figure 8.3.

3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 42-Inch Vertical Concrete Parapet Figure 8.3.2-24 September 1992 .2-19 8.

3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design Texas Type HT Rail Figure 8.2-25 .2-20 September 1992 8.3.

3.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design Texas C202 Bridge Rail Figure 8.2-21 8.2-26 September 1992 .

2-22 CIP Median Barrier Figure 8.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design CIP Median Barrier Figure 8.3.2-27 .3.2-23 September 1992 8.3.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.3.3 Bridge Rail Rehabilitation
A. Policy The bridge rail retrofit policy is “To systematically improve or replace existing deficient rails within the limits of 3R resurfacing projects by (1) utilizing an approved crash tested rail system that is appropriate for the site or (2) designing up to the strength requirements set forth by Section 2 of AASHTO.” B. Guidelines Strength and geometric review, using the latest AASHTO Specifications, is required for all bridge rail rehabilitation projects. If the strength of the existing bridge rail is found to be less than 10 Kips or has not been crash tested, then modifications or replacement will be required to improve its redirectional characteristics and strength. C. WSDOT Bridge Inventory of Bridge Rails The Bridge Condition Unit maintains an inventory of all bridges in the state on the State of Washington Inventory of Bridges and Structures (SWIBS) program. Bridge rail types are indicated by a code from 1 to 8 depending upon type of rail. The coded rail types are shown in Figure 8.3.3-1. 1. 2. This Timber Post and Rail system has been used on timber trestle structures. The rail is structurally deficient and requires a retrofit with thrie beam guardrail (see Section 8.3.2C.1a). This combination steel post and flex beam guardrail system generally includes steel posts with spacing between 9 feet and 12 feet 6 inches, which is in excess of the required 6 feet 3 inches. Generally, additional steel posts are required as well as thrie beam guardrail or other approved rail system to bring this system up to standards. This combination steel post and tubular guardrail system was used in a limited way for a short period of time. It is normally adequate but, if damaged, it is very difficult to repair because the sections of guardrail are welded back to back. Concrete balusters are deficient in lateral load capacity, having approximately 3 kips while 10 kips is required. These rails are normally retrofitted with thrie beam guardrail (see Section 9.3.3D.1). New Jersey shaped traffic barriers have been used by WSDOT since 1970 and meet the current code requirements. This combination low-base concrete pedestal and metal rail is considered deficient and should be replaced with Type 1, 1A, and 2 metal rails. This combination high-base concrete parapet and metal rail may or may not be considered adequate depending upon the rail type. Metal rail Type R, S, and SB are considered capable of resisting the required 5 kips of lateral load. Types 3, 1B, and 3A are considered inadequate. See Highway Design Manual, Section 710.09 for replacement criteria. A combination metal rail and New Jersey Traffic Barrier has been used rarely by WSDOT but is considered to be adequate.

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
D. Available Retrofit Designs 1. Washington Thrie Beam Retrofit of Concrete Balusters This system consists of thrie beam guardrail stiffening of existing concrete baluster rails with timber blockouts (see Figure 8.3.3-2). Southwest Research Institute conducted full-scale crash tests of this retrofit in 1987. Results of the tests were satisfactory and complied with criteria for a Performance Level 1 (PL1) category in the Guide Specifications. Bids over the last several years have shown that this retrofit can be estimated at $25 per linear foot. 2. Thru Truss Rail Retrofit High priority is placed upon retrofitting thru truss span bridges, not only because of the possibility of serious injury accidents, but also because severe damage may occur to the main structural elements of the bridge. Design details which accommodate a rigid guardrail system have been developed. The design both alleviates the problems mentioned and provides redirectional capabilities (see Figures 8.3.3-3 through 8.3.3-8). The thrie beam and post system on the curb side are designed for a 10 kip lateral load as described by AASHTO. The thrie beam and steel post on the sidewalk side is the New York crash tested system as described in Section 8.3.2-C. 3. New Jersey Traffic Barrier This is our preferred treatment for replacing deficient rails and parapets on high volume highways with a large truck percentage. All interstate highway bridges shall use this type (see Figures 8.3.3-9 through 8.3.3-11).

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

8-3-3:V:BDM8

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WSDOT Bridge Inventory Bridge Rail Types Figure 8.3.3-1

September 1992

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September 1992

Washington Thrie Beam Figure 8.3.3-2

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September 1992

8.3.3 - 5

Rail Retrofit — PL2 Thru Truss Span Figure 8.3.3-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Figure 8.3.3-4

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September 1992

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September 1992

8.3.3 - 7

Rail Retrofit — PL2 Approach Span — Thru Truss Figure 8.3.3-5

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Rail Retrofit — Truss Span Figure 8.3.3-6

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September 1992

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Figure 8.3.3-7

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Rail Retrofit — Approach Spans Figure 8.3.3-8

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September 1992

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Typical Section — Traffic Barrier Without Overhang Figure 8.3.3-9

September 1992

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Typical Section — Traffic Barrier With Overhang Figure 8.3.3-10

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September 1992

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Traffic Barrier Retrofit Figure 8.3.3-11

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8.3.4 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.3.5 Utility Installation on Bridges
A. Confined Spaces A confined space is any place having a limited means of exit which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants or an oxygen deficient environment. Confined spaces include but are not limited to pontoons, box girder bridges, storage tanks, ventilation or exhaust ducts, utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open-topped spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubes, vaults, and vessels. The designer should provide for the following: • A sign with “Confined Space Authorized Personnel Only.” • In the “Special Provisions Check List,” alert and/or indicate that a special provision might be needed to cover confined spaces. B. Guidelines The utilities which are to be considered under this guideline are power and telephone lines, natural gas, volatile fluid pipes, water pipes, and sewer pipes. Each utility has its unique installation problems. Most utility installations will be initiated by the utility company or the district, and the Bridge Management Section will review the design. In some cases, such as new projects, certain original designs are done by the Bridge Division, such as hanger details for water lines. The following subjects are covered below: General Concepts Criteria for Utilities Installation on New Bridges special Considerations for Various Utilities Type of Conduit Types of Supports Utility Review Procedure for Existing Bridges Utility Review Checklist C. General Concepts On new construction, the utility installation shall be located so as to minimize the effect on the appearance of the structure. In most cases, this will mean installing the utility between girders or in curbs. Utilities and supports shall not normally extend below the bottom of the superstructure. When the utility is located between girders, it shall be installed no lower than 1 foot 0 inches above the bottom of the girders. In some cases when appurtenances are required (such as air release valves), care should be taken to provide adequate space. When the bridge is to receive pigmented sealer, consideration shall be given to painting any exposed utility lines and hangers to match the bridge. When pigmented sealer is not required, steel utility lines and hangers shall be painted or galvanized for corrosion protection. This special provisions shall specify cleaning and painting procedures. On existing structures, proposed utility attachments are normally reviewed by the Bridge Management Section and either approved or returned for correction. A current file for most utility attachments is maintained in the Bridge Management Section. See “Utility Review Procedure For Existing Bridges” and “Utility Review Checklist” (Sections 8.3.5G and 8.3.5H).

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
D. Criteria for Utilities Installation on New Bridges 1. All pipelines carrying volatile fluids shall be encased throughout the length of the structure. A sleeve approximately 3 inches larger than the outside diameter of the carrying pipe shall be used. The space between the carrying pipe and the encasing sleeve shall be effectively vented beyond the structure at each end and at high points. Utilities shall not be attached above the bridge deck nor attached to the railings or posts. They may be placed in the concrete traffic barrier no higher than 16 inches above the top of the deck. Utilities shall not extend below the bottom of the superstructure. The utilities shall be provided with suitable expansion devices at bridge expansion joints or expansion methods as required to prevent longitudinal temperature forces from being transferred to bridge members. Longitudinal restraint may often be considered to be the bridge end fill. For telephone and power conduit, this restraint may be considered to be the cable itself. Where long runs of water pipe are used, care must be taken that expansion joints in the pipe are properly spaced with longitudinal load-carrying supports. Rigid conduit shall extend 10 feet minimum beyond the ends of the structure in order to reduce effects of embankment settlements on the utility and provide protection in case of future work involving excavation near the structure. This requirement shall be stated on the plans. Utilities off the bridge must be installed prior to paving of approaches. This should be stated in the Special Provisions. Utility supports shall be designed so that neither the conduit, the supports, nor the bridge structure or members are overstressed by any loads imposed by the utility installation. Provide longitudinal and transverse support for loads from gravity, earthquakes, temperature, inertia, etc. It is especially important to provide transverse and longitudinal support for Grinnell inserts and other similar inserts which cannot resist moment. 7. 8. Utility locations and supports shall be designed so that a failure will not result in damage to the bridge, the surrounding area, or be a hazard to traffic. All conduit shall be steel pipe or rigid PVC pipe.

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

2. 3. 4.

5.

6.

*(Items 1 through 8 may be cross-referenced with Design Criteria of “General Notes and Design Criteria” in Appendix A of this chapter or Chapter 1 Examples of the Utilities Manual.) 9. Utilities installed in the cells of box girder bridges shall be embedded in concrete where structurally and economically feasible. Where utilities, other than telephone and power conduit, are not embedded in concrete, access shall be provided in each cell. Such access can be from manholes in the shoulder of the roadway or in the sidewalk. Current practice for access to box girder cells is to locate a hatch in the bottom of the box girder at the end piers. Where access is provided into the cells, the Special Provisions must call for removal of the top slab formwork in those cells.

10. Telephone and power conduit may be installed in the cells of box girder bridges without provision for embedment or access provided that conduit is galvanized steel pipe, or Schedule 80 PVC rigid or heavier.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
E. Special Considerations for Various Utilities 1. Gas Lines or Volatile Fluids Gas lines or lines carrying volatile fluids shall be of steel pipe (usually Schedule 40) designed in accordance with CFR Part 192, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline: Minimum Safety Standards (see WAC 480-93-010). Volatile fluids shall be encased in a steel encasement pipe as noted in C “Criteria.” Gas lines are not required to be encased in a steel encasement pipe. Contact the District Utilities Engineer for guidance on whether or not the utility uses encasement pipe. If it does not, provide the transverse insert as if there will not be encasement and blockouts in the structure as if they will be encasement (BDM 8.3.5-D). All gas lines shall be transversely braced. District Utility Engineers shall be contact by the S&E (Specifications and Estimates) office for additional design requirements that may be stipulated in the utility agreement. Normally, the utility will make provision to electrically insulate the gas line from its support. Lines carrying other volatile materials shall be supported, as required by the utility, with due care taken to protect the structure and traffic. Access and ventilation shall always be provided in box girder cells containing gas lines. 2. Water Lines Water lines shall be galvanized steel pipe or ductile iron pipe. Where freezing may be encountered, consideration should be given to the use of insulation on the pipe. Insulation shall be jacketed and saddles shall be galvanized to avoid electrolysis. Care shall be taken that all inertia loads due to dynamic action (water hammer, etc.) can be properly carried. Transverse supports shall be provided for all water lines. Additional temporary bracing will be required during pressure testing. The design loading of the temporary bracing along with a note stating “See Special Provisions” shall be shown on the plans. Pressure test loading force magnitude shall be obtained from District Utility Engineers by the S&E unit. Fire control piping is a special case where unusual care must be taken to handle the inertial loads and associated deflections. Normally, the Hydraulic Section will also be involved in this case. In box girders, care shall be taken to ensure that a failure of the water line would not flood the cell with an excess amount of water which may cause consequential structural failure of the girder. Additional weep holes or open grating shall be used if necessary (see Figure 8.3.5-3). 3. Sewer Lines Normally, an appropriate encasement pipe is required for sewer lines on bridges. Sewer lines must meet the same design criteria as waterlines. See the utility agreement or the Hydraulic Section for types of sewer pipe material typically used. 4. Telephone and Power Conduit Generally, telephone, television cable, and power conduit shall be galvanized steel pipe or a PVC pipe of a UL approved type and shall be Schedule 40 or heavier. Where such conduit is buried in concrete curbs or barriers or has continuous support, such support is considered to be adequate. Where conduit is supported by hangers or brackets at intervals, the distance between supports shall be small enough to avoid excessive sag between supports (see PVC pipe in E below). Generally, the conduit shall be designed to support the cable in bending without exceeding working stresses for the conduit material. When the conduit is intended to encase Department of Transportation electrical wiring and is encased in concrete, only galvanized steel conduit shall be used. Also, only galvanized steel conduits will be allowed in barriers when slipforming is

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

employed. Stub outs for galvanized steel pipe shall be protected against corrosion as stated in subparagraph 5. 5. Rigid Electrical Conduit for Highway Circuits In the case of all new bridge construction where roadway shoulders have not yet been paved and where usable shoulder width is 4 feet or greater in width, electrical conduit shall be stubbed-out and capped 1 foot 6 inches below grade and 3 feet 0 inches horizontally toward roadway centerline from the face of the traffic barrier. Longitudinally, this stub-out location should be near the back of pavement seat. The conduit in this location should clear any foreseeable obstructions. The location of the stubbed-out conduit at bridge ends should be clearly shown on the plans. The galvanized steel conduit stub out shall be wrapped with corrosion resistant tape at least one foot inside and outside of the concrete structure, and this requirement shall be so stated on the plans. The corrosion resistant tape shall be 3M Scotch 50, Bishop 5, Nashua AVI 10, or approved equal. The usual location of the conduit throughout the remainder of the bridge should be in the traffic barrier. The number and size of conduits within the traffic barrier shall be minimized to assure proper concrete consolidation. A maximum of one (1) 4-inch conduit or two (2) 2-inch conduits will be allowed. Pull boxes shall be provided at a maximum spacing of 200 feet. Their size shall conform to the specifications of the National Electric Code or be a minimum of 6 inches by 6 inches by 18 inches to facilitate pulling of wires. Galvanized steel pull boxes (or junctions boxes) shall meet the specifications of the “NEMA Type 4X” standard and shall be so stated on the plans. Stainless steel pull boxes shall be allowed as an option to the galvanized steel. In the case of existing bridges, an area 2 feet in width shall be reserved for conduit beginning at a point either 4 feet or 6 feet outside the face of usable shoulder. The fastening for and location of attaching the conduit to the existing bridge should be worked out on a job-by-job basis. See Figure 8.3.5-1. F. Type of Conduit 1. Steel Pipe All steel pipe conduits shall be Schedule 40 or greater. All pipe and fittings shall be galvanized except for special uses. 2. PVC Pipe PVC pipe may be used with suitable considerations for deflection, the location and placement of expansion fittings, and of freezing water within the conduits. Where conduit is to be exposed in the cells of box girder bridges, PVC should be avoided because of the possibility of damage occurring when the top slab falsework collapses. If such falsework is specified on the plans to be removed after construction, this provision does not apply. PVC pipe should not be placed in concrete traffic barriers due to damage and pipe separation that often occurs during concrete placement and from temperature variations. Where conduit is to be supported by hangers or pedestals at intervals, the distance between supports shall be small enough to avoid excessive sag of the conduit. For recommended support spacing and tabulated properties of PVC pipe, see Table 8.3.5-1.

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July 1994

however. Special car must be taken to handle expansion joints. *Support at every pipe joint — longitudinal restraint of hangers may be necessary with the use of Grinnell Universal Insert. The Bridge Office is responsible for reviewing only those details pertaining to the bridge crossing such as attachment details or trenching details adjacent to bridge piers or abutments. some type of clamping will be required. It allows the use of standard ordered parts (usually “Grinnell”) and is very flexible in terms of expansion requirements.3. but the cost may be very high. High Density Polyethylene This material may be specified by some utilities. 1. We keep one copy and. most attachments that have simple connections with epoxy anchors can be reviewed. The number of copies to be returned is determined by the district.5H). It will not normally provide longitudinal support*. 3. Same restrictions to traffic barriers apply. Utility Review Procedure for Existing Bridges It is the responsibility of the District Utilities Engineer to forward any proposed bridge attachments to the Bridge Office. Its cost may be high for larger conduit and the conduit cannot be replaced. Selection of a particular support type should be based on the needs of the installation and the best economy. H. and responded to within one day.5 . The turnaround time for reviewing the proposals should not exceed two weeks. Figure 282 or similar inserts. Concrete Embedment — This is the best structural support condition and offers maximum protection to the utility.3. July 1994 8. The Figures 8. Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design 2.5 . 3. The support condition here is very good. 4. Types of Supports The following types of supports have been used. and 4 depict typical utility support installations and placement at abutments and diaphragms. stamped. Continuous Support — This support condition may be achieved by providing ledge of concrete to support the conduit. 5. Concrete Pedestals — This consists of concrete supports formed at suitable intervals and provided with some type of clamping device. If it has been returned for correction or not approved. if it’s been approved. and transverse support must be provided by a second hanger extending from a girder or by placing bracing against the girder.3. Unless other data is available.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 3.5-2. Pipe Hangers — This is the most usual type of support for utilities to be supported under the bridge deck. support as for PVC. See the “Utility Review Checklist” below (Section 8. support as for PVC. In addition. G. we keep one and return two marked copies. 4. Fiberglass Pipe This material may be specified by some utilities. return four marked copies. Same restrictions to traffic barriers apply. Unless other data is available. This is provided that corrections and additional notes are minimal. Most districts send five copies of the proposed utility attachment.

3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design Conduit Location Beyond Bridge End Figure 8.6 July 1994 .5-1 8.5 .3.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design July 1994 8.3.7 .5 .

For more detailed guidelines. Check Bridge Inspection Report for any existing utilities (available in Bridge Conditions). Determine location of existing utilities. b.” and “Guide for Utility Installations to Existing Bridges” in Appendix A of this chapter. the bridge itself shall have adequate capacity to carry the utility without affecting the live load capacity. Utility Review Checklist (For review of all proposed utility attachments to existing bridges. • Adequate strength of supports as attached to the bridge (calculations may be necessary).3. Do a cursory check to become familiar with the proposal. Check utility file for any existing utility permits or franchises and possible as-built plans. For large utilities. . Bridge attachments designed to resist surge forces should always be accompanied by calculations. • Does the utility obstruct maintenance or accessibility to key bridge components. The connection detail shall be designed to successfully transfer all forces to the bridge without causing overstress in the connections or to the bridge members to which they are attached. a. consult the Materials Lab. and bridge no. The engineer may request calculations from the utility company for any attachment detail that may be questionable. We will usually respond directly to them in a letter by concurring with their proposal or by suggesting an alternate. see “General Notes and Design Criteria . d. If trench limits encroach within the 45° envelope from the footing edge. SR no. • Adequate lateral bracing and thrust protection for pressure pipe systems. (Currently maintained in the Bridge Management Section. • Location (elevation and plan view) of the utility with respect to pier footings or abutments. 3. • Maximum design pressure and regular operating pressure for pressure pipe systems.) Any existing utilities on the same side of the structure as the proposed utility should be shown on the proposal. 2.) 1. Often they will request this approval by sending a sketch of their proposal directly to the Bridge Office. Check with the Bridge Condition Section if in doubt.8 July 1994 . Review the following with all comments in red: • Layout with directions.5 . This letter includes instructions for them to resubmit their final proposal through the District Utilities Engineer with a courtesy copy of this letter sent to the District Utilities Engineer. 8. • Adequate spacing of supports. c.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design Occasionally. The engineer shall check the utility company’s design with his own calculations. a utility company wants a conceptual approval of their proposed attachment before they invest their time in detailed drawings and calculations. Utility attachments which exert moments or large forces at the bridge connection should be accompanied by at least one set of calculations from the utility company. 1. . Obtain as-built plans from bridge vault if not in an existing utility file.

9 .3.5 .5-2 July 1994 8.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design Figure 8.

10 July 1994 .5 .3.3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design Figure 8.5-4 8.

. (Previous transmittals and plans not approved or returned to correction should be discarded to avoid unnecessary clutter of the files. 5. name. 8-3-5:V:BDM8 July 1994 8. b. Write a preliminary IDC or letter of reply for the supervisor to review before final typing. Give the complete package to the section supervisor for review and place the folder in the utility file after the review. include your initials at the bottom of the IDC or letter so that a copy will be returned to you indicating that the package has been accepted and sent out. Stamp and date the plans using the same date as shown on the IDC. 7. Bridge no. Upon his approval.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design • Force mains or water flow systems may require encasement if they are in excavations below the bottom of a footing. utility company or type of utility. c.5 . 4.) The letter of submittal and a copy of the IDC or letter of reply after it has been accepted. 6.3. Create a file folder: a. and franchise or permit number. One set of approved plans and possibly one or two pages of the original design plans if necessary for quick future reference.11 .

design philosophy requires that they be sized and installed to always be in a state of compression. the criteria shown below should be followed for expansion joints. to prevent water runoff from damaging the supporting structural elements. and to have a long service life. The following design.4. Hence. Small Movement Joints Compression seals have most frequently been used for small movement range joints. Consult the Expansion Joint Specialist for the current design policy on each of these systems. Note: The use of intermediate expansion joints should be avoided. particularly on rehabilitation projects.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.4. to support and to provide smooth and quiet passage of traffic. where possible. where possible. A.1 Bridge Details Expansion Joints Expansion joints or bridge deck joints are designed to accommodate cyclic and long-term structure movements. Design Bridge deck joints are classified as small. All Concrete Bridges: Use L-Abutments with expansion joints at ends when the bridge length exceeds 400 feet. medium. Steel Bridges: Use L-Abutments with expansion joints at ends for multiple-span bridges. Expansion joints are not normally designed for seismic movements. Expansion joints may be eliminated for single span bridges with the approval of the Bridge Design Engineer. installed within an expansion joint gap to effectively seal the joint against water and debris infiltration. Silicone sealant joints and asphalt plug joints have both been used as alternatives to compression seals in recent years. Note: The use of intermediate expansion joints should be avoided. specification. or large movement joints. the expansion joints must accommodate the seismic movement so that the bearings perform properly. typically with extruded internal web systems. If seismic isolation bearings are used. Whenever the bridge skew exceeds 30 degrees.1-1 . This office is continuing to monitor these systems in order to assess their long term performance. consult the Expansion Joint Specialist and the Bridge Design Engineer for recommendations and approval. Compression seals are held in place by mobilizing friction against adjacent vertical joint faces. and shop plan review criteria cover the bridge deck joint systems most commonly used in Washington State.4 8. Whenever the bridge skew exceeds 30 degrees. consult the Expansion Joint Specialist and the Bridge Design Engineer for recommendations and approval. The assumption is that damage will occur after a seismic event. Compression seals are continuous preformed elastomeric sections. The total movement to be accommodated at the joint determines the classification: Small Movement Joint Medium Movement Joint Large Movement Joint 1. Total Movement 1 /4″ < Total Movement 5″ < Total Movement 3 Bridge Details ≤ 13/4″ ≤ 5″ August 1998 8. and the joint will be repaired. For new construction.

Consult the Expansion Joint Specialist regarding patent infringement issues which may result when generic polymer concrete is used in combination with a Dow Corning silicone sealant. Several different chemical variations of silicone sealant are available depending upon the joint geometry and construction requirements. They should not be used for joints having large skew angles. or in situations where the total height of the polymer modified asphalt above the steel plate is less than 2 inches. and cures very quickly. joints subjected to large rotations. Consult the Expansion Joint Specialist for current policy and guidelines. In theory.4. The primary differentiating characteristics of the silicone sealants are viscosity and curing time. traffic signals). Therefore. This product is self leveling. The steel plate spans across the expansion gap to retain the PMA during its installation. can bond to itself. This office has used silicone sealant joints for motion ranges up to 1 inch. asphaltic plug joints provide a smooth seamless riding surface for traffic. Application guidelines must be carefully followed to assure successful performance of asphaltic plug joints. Overall. 8. Design Criteria (1) When more exact temperature data is not available. particularly within wheel lines. Generic and proprietary polymer concrete formulations are available. A minimum recess is required from the top of the pavement to the top of the silicone sealant in order to prevent tire traffic from contacting and debonding the sealant from the substrate. They should not be used at joints subjected to differential vertical movements (for example.1-2 August 1998 . The PMA has a tendency to creep out of the blockout. use the following design temperature ranges: Concrete Structure Steel Structures (Eastern Washington) Steel Structures (Western Washington) 0° to 100°F -30° to 120°F 0° to 120°F All plan dimensions are based on a normal installation temperature of 64°F in accordance with the WSDOT Standard Specifications. Silicone sealants are generally poured in place directly over a foam backer rod placed in the expansion gap. longitudinal separation joints). In situations were the rapid curing and self leveling properties are not required.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details An asphaltic plug joint consists of polymer modified asphalt (PMA) installed within a blockout over a steel plate. Consult the Expansion Joint Specialist for guidelines and example details. asphaltic plug joints have demonstrated erratic performance in Washington State. A commonly used silicone sealant for rehabilitation projects is the two-part Dow Corning 902 RCS sealant. Polymer concrete headers are generally recommended at compression seal joints and at silicone sealant joints. less expensive silicone sealants can be used. Proprietary elastomeric concretes are occasionally used in lieu of polymer concrete to further enhance impact resistance. The completely cured silicone sealant joint can accommodate tensile movements of up to 100 percent and compressive movements of up to 50 percent of the sealant width at installation. Polymer concrete provides tensile strength and toughness to resist traffic impact. asphaltic plug joints should not be used in situations where the adjacent pavement is subjected to significant acceleration or deceleration (off ramps. a. This tendency is amplified by any horizontal loading applied to the asphaltic plug joint. This office has used asphaltic plug joints for motion ranges up to 1 inch. A primer may be sprayed onto the vertical faces of the concrete or steel substrate to enhance bonding of the sealant.

4W = 0.45W = movement range normal lo the seal (Movement parallel to the joint) (Movement normal to the joint) (2) (3) (1) (5) (6) February 2000 8. in terms of required uncompressed seal width.0002 for normal weight concrete. The calculated shrinkage is multiplied by a shrinkage factor.0 for steel bridges L = Length of structure contributing to movement of the joint in feet ∆ T = Design temperature range (2) Determine movements parallel to the joint. the compression range for bridge compression seals is 40 to 85 percent of the uncompressed width. µ. 0. seals must be compressed at all times.0 for Rat slabs.4W = maximum compression of 40% (4) A max = 0. proceed as follows: (1) Determine the total movement.0002 ft/ft µ = Shrinkage factor: 1.5 for prestressed-precast girder bridges.4. Mt. To determine the compression seal size (W) required. α = Coefficient of thermal expansion: 0. 0.ß µ Other Movement includes all other factors which affect movement.85W .000006 per degree Fahrenheit for concrete 0.85W = minimum compression of 85% A movement = 0. b.0000065 per degree Fahrenheit for steel ß = Shrinkage coefficient for reinforced concrete: 0. along the bridge centerline: Mt = Temp + Shrink + Other Movement = Total Movement where: Temp = 12 L α ∆ T Shrink = 12 L .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details (2) Use a shrinkage coefficient 0.8 for box girders and T-beams. and 0.1-3 . Mp. Mn (Figure 8. and normal to the joint. to account for anticipated future shrinkage that occurs after the joint is installed.0. A. otherwise they will fall out. All movement of the joint must be within this range.4.1-1): Mp = Mt Sin θ Mn = Mt Cos θ where: θ = skew angle (3) Define the working range of joint width. shall be: A min = 0. W: Width of joint opening. A. It is recommended that compression seals not be used when the skew exceeds 45 degrees. Compression Seal Size Determination To function properly. Generally.

and 0. and solving for W yields the following formula: W = 4(Cos θ)[K(Temp) + Shrink + Other Movement] Use a seal size based on the largest value of W from Eqs. 0.1-1 Assume a minimum midrange installation width at 64°F: A install = 0.53 (64° to 0°F) for western Washington steel bridges.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details Skewed Expansion Joint Figure 8. Temp = Temperature movement previously defined.45 (9) (8) (7) Assume the seal is installed at a temperature of 64°F and the joint opening at installation plus the total opening movement does not exceed the maximum permitted joint opening (0.63 (64° to -30°F) for eastern Washington steel bridges. (11) 8. (9) and (11). (5) and (7) into (10).6W (4) Determine required compression seal size.85W): A max = A install + Cos θ [K(Temp) + Shrink + Other Movement] where: (10) K = Temperature drop divided by temperature range: 0.4. (8).22 Seal width to accommodate movement normal to the joint. Shrink = Shrinkage movement previously defined. Substituting Eq’s. Mn: W = Mn/0. W: Seal width to accommodate movement parallel to the joint. Mp: W = Mp/0.4.64 (64° to 0°F) for concrete bridges.1-4 August 1998 .

taken in the shade. and external restraints. August 1998 8. including rotations. the designer should review as-built plans. shrinkage. Medium Movement Joints Strip seals are the first choice for joint movements greater than 13/4 inch and less than 5 inch. The skew angle can influence strip seal performance. a joint providing greater movement capacity is required.4-A1). (7) See Appendix 8. For example. ambient air temperatures. are used in adjusting the joint at the time of installation.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design (5) Determine width of joint opening at time of construction. for medium movement expansion joints is 4 inches. (5) The preferred maximum allowable opening. all factors which affect movements. Generally. This maximum limitation improves the ride.1-5 . bearing type and direction(s) of permitted movements. skew. measured in the direction of traffic. For skews greater than 30 degrees.4-B I for example. (4) Joints with 0 to 30 degree skew should be designed for the movement along the centerline of the bridge. past inspection reports for recorded joint movements. with 3 inches and 4 inches as the most widely used. stage construction. temperature range. in degrees Fahrenheit. (2) Earthquake movement need not be considered for medium movement joints except when required for structure performance. Strip seals are available in whole inch sizes from 2 inches to 5 inches. and measure the existing joint opening at several locations (note the structure temperature when taking field measurements). a system which provides the most movement capacity at a 0 degree skew angle may not always provide the most movement capacity at greater skew angles. At large skews. a. (12) Bridge Details (6) When the computed seal size required exceeds the maximum seal widths noted in the “Compression Seal table” (see Appendix 8. consult the Joint Specialist. These include: creep. (3) When designing for existing joint rehabilitation or joint modifications.Tc) where: Tc = Ambient air temperature during construction of joint. reduces impact. should be considered in dimensioning the joint. Design Criteria (1) In addition to the design criteria for small movement joints. large size strip seals can buckle and invert above the top surface of the steel edge rails. 2. construction tolerances. to ensure proper functioning of the bearings. Therefore. So. The use of any medium movement joint with an opening greater than 4 inches must be approved by the Joint Specialist. and reduces the hazard to motorcyclists and bicyclists. a larger size joint than normal may be required.6(W) + Cos θ[12(L)α](64°F .4. when using base isolation bearings. the superstructure must be allowed to displace without hitting the backwall. (6) Adjustment of the joint to compensate for the temperature at time of installation must be allowed. A const: A const = 0.

When the bolts holding the panel failed. pL. is equal to the minimum installation width at 64°F. (b) Shrinkage Use a shrinkage coefficient of 0. these joints were subject to snowplow damage.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details To facilitate installation of the seals. calculate the total closing movement. Strip Seal Size Determination (1) Starting with a temperature of 64°F. If required by the manufacturer. or temperature adjusting devices shall be permitted. These dynamic impact loads can be as much as 70 percent greater than a static wheel load. (7) Use only steel shapes. (10) Many anchorage systems of bridge joints in the medium movement range have failed because of high impact from wheel loads. (2) Starting with a temperature of 64°F. Do not use steel shapes with horizontal projecting legs in the curb or barrier region. due to: (a) Temperature 64°F to 0°F for concrete superstructures. For an HS25 vehicle. using the length of the bridge along centerline. calculate the total opening movement. b.0002 for normal weight concrete and a shrinkage factor. constructibility. Temporary threaded studs. lifting straps. (9) Carefully detail joints at sidewalks and parapets with respect to leakage. Generally. (8) Use continuous seals for the full width of the bridge including parapets. used for positioning and securing the edge beams during placement of concrete in the blockout. size the joint and position the edge beams so that the joint opening. and anchors in edge beams. Do not use bolt-down elastomeric expansion joints. hooks.1-6 August 1998 . strip seal extrusions may be split at the curb or traffic barrier. and 64°F to either 0°F or -30°F for steel superstructure. No welding of shipping clamps. and maintenance. No splices in the seals other than one preapproved manufacturer’s shop vulcanized field splice per seal is permitted. all strip seals have a minimum installation width of 11/2 inch normal to the joint. the maximum static wheel load is 20 kips per wheel without impact (1. along the bridge centerline. Anchorage systems must resist the rebound effect of the impact wheel loads. to account for anticipated future shrinkage that occurs after the joint is installed. The seal can now be installed at any temperature below 64°F. (11) Bolt-down panel elastomeric joints were widely used in the past. may be tack welded to the edge beams and removed later by grinding. Steel sliding plates shall be used in sidewalk areas to prevent seal damage. normal to the joint. the panel was no longer restrained and a safety hazard to motorists (particularly to motorcyclists) was created because of the loose panel in the roadway. due to: 8. No aluminum parts shall be permitted.25 times 16 kips per wheel). In addition to continued maintenance because of loose hold down bolts. reinforcement. plates.4. Shrinkage is not required for rehabilitation projects where shrinkage of the superstructure has already taken place.

G. Try to avoid skews greater than 30 degrees for modular expansion joints. including curb and traffic barriers. The purpose of limiting the gap is to reduce the wheel impact on the joint system and subsequent wear on supporting elements. The maximum gap between centerbeams or centerbeam and edge beams is 31/2 inches at the minimum temperature condition.1-7 . A Group 1 joint requires a 1/2 inch gap between steel supporting elements at full closure so the seal is not damaged. the “Design Criteria” for medium movement joints applies to large movement joints where the total movement is expected to exceed 5 inches. Generally.. A Group 2 joint permits full closure between steel supporting elements. (5) The movement allowed per sealing element shall be limited to 3 inch maximum.. strip seal joints have been classified as either Group 1 or Group 2 (see Appendix 8. (2) All seals must be continuous across the full roadway width. Note that the “G” dimension is normal to the joint and is measured from face-to-face of edge beams. minimum installation width less 1/2 inch minimum gap equals 1 inch).g.4-B4 for typical design calculations.g.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design (a) Temperature 64°F to 100°F. (3) The expansion joint system must be durable enough to resist the damaging effects of traffic impact. which allows for unpredictable non-seismic movements. Group 2 joints use a 11/2 inch minimum opening normal to the joint. Large Movement Joints — Modulas Expansion Joints Modular joints are the first choice for movements greater than 5 inches. at time of edge beam installation for temperatures of 40°F. 3.4-A1). and snowplow damage. (4) Joints should be designed for the total movement normal to the joint (e. Design Criteria (1) Where applicable. This helps the Contractor adjust the edge beams during construction at different temperatures. abrasion. Bridge Details August 1998 8. (4) Determine the “G” dimension at time of edge beam installation Show the construction width. (5) See Appendixes 8. for concrete superstructures. a. 64°F. (b) Minimum Opening Required for Seal Installation at 64°F For calculation purposes. No splices in the seals other than one preapproved manufacturer’s shop vulcanized splice per seal is permitted. (3) Determine the required strip seal size by adding the total opening movement and the larger of either the total closing movement or the minimum installation width.4. The minimum opening normal to the joint is 1 inch (e. and 80°F. and 64°F to 120°F for steel superstructure. the product of the total movement along the centerline of the bridge and the cosine of the skew angle) plus a 15 percent factor of safety. The entire joint shall be shipped completely preassembled to the job site. See the Expansion Joint Specialist for approved manufacturers and latest plan details.4-B2 through 8.

. and design. D. and replacement of components can be made.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details (6) All supporting structural members shall be designed for the limit states. b. impact percentages. this is accomplished by jacking the center beams apart or to one side. Consideration should be given to using reinforced strip seals.C. all seals shall be removable and replaceable at 64°F per manufacturer’s recommended procedure. The designer should work closely with his Supervisor and the Expansion Joint Specialist to determine the best solution considering the time constraints of stage construction and increased cost. face-to-face of edge beams. (7) In the past. This dimension is normal to the joint and is dependent upon two variables: (a) Flange width of center beams. For retrofit or stage construction applications. It may be more convenient to oversize the joint so that the seals can be installed at the minimum manufacturer’s installation width at 64°F. the current practice is to use factory installed strip seals. has a total movement rating of 9 inches. box seals were used. wheel loads. this procedure may be both time consuming and expensive.1-8 August 1998 . Modular Expansion Joint Size Determination Modular joints are sized according to movement rating (MR) and are in increments of 3 inches beginning with a 6-inch modular system. a three seal modular joint with three strip seals. The movement rating is equal to the product of the number of seals and the 3 inch maximum allowable movement rating of each seal. Generally. helps the Contractor adjust the joint assembly in the field for different temperatures. This creates a larger gap between center beams for seal removal and reinstallation. For example. and distribution factors specified in the Special Provision “Modular Expansion Joint System. (1) “G” Dimension and Temperature Setting The “G” dimension. (11) Traffic barrier cover plates should be designed for removability. (8) To allow for replacement of damaged seals or seal installation under stage construction. Washington. (10) Only manufacturers who have satisfied the prequalification requirements stipulated in the Special Provisions “Modular Expansion Joint System” will be permitted to supply modular expansion joints. Therefore. testing. (9) Access to the modular expansion joint components shall be provided so that repairs. 1997. (b) Minimum gap per seal permitted by the manufacturer at full closure. each with a maximum allowable movement rating of 3 inches. This Special Provision includes requirements for fatigue resistance characterization.4.” National Academy Press.” These requirements are derived from research summarized in NCHRP Report 402 “Fatigue Design of Modular Bridge Expansion Joints. Gmin and Gmax can be determined from: Gmin = (N-l)(B) + (N)(MG) Gmax = Gmin + MR (13) (14) 8. adjustments.

in concrete bridges. (d) At the maximum joint opening. but for larger movements. Consideration should be given to using a two. rotation. However. either cantilever or propped cantilever steel tooth plates. (e) Elastomeric troughs should be provided under the joint to protect the structure below. Large Movement Joints—Steel Finger Joints Prior to the development of watertight modular joints. The tooth plates can be cut from a plate l1/2 inch thick for movements up to 5 inches. consideration should be given to using structure temperatures in determining construction openings at 40°F. (c) Limit the minimum joint opening in the longitudinal direction to 1 inch. Additional requirements suggested by the FHWA include: (a) Limit deck surface openings in finger joints to permit safe operation of motorcycles. where temperature is not constantly monitored as part of the construction procedure. These dimensions are normal to the joint.4.or three-day running mean temperature for setting joints during construction. The steel fingers should also be stress relieved to prevent warping. However.4-B5 through 8. Consult the Joint Specialist before selecting this type of joint. “G” dimensions should be shown for structure temperatures of 40°F. (3) See Appendixes 8.1-9 . use special floor plates in the shoulder area. These joints are open-type. For long span bridges. because of the time lag between ambient air temperature and structure temperature. It is felt that the joint will suffer damage in a seismic event and have to be rebuilt. and 80°F following the same procedure as used for strip seals. The troughs should be continuous across the full width of the bridge including the curb and parapet area and sloped at least 1 inch per foot to prevent August 1998 8.4-B8 for typical design calculations. or settlement across the joint.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design where: B MR N N-1 MG MS = = = = = = Bridge Details Center beam flange width Total movement rating of the joint system Number of seals = MR/MS Number of center beams Minimum gap per seal permitted at full closure Maximum permitted movement rating per seal = 3 inch maximum In addition to the Gmin and Gmax dimensions. Reinforced elastomeric material for troughs should have a low durometer (50 or 60) and be at least 3/8 inch thick. (2) Generally. large movement joints are not designed for earthquake movements. these joints do not provide a watertight seal and are not currently being specified. but tapered downward slightly to prevent snowplow damage. The designer should work closely with his Supervisor and the Expansion Joint Specialist to determine the best combination of cost versus design movement. 64°F. The design should also accommodate differential deflection. temperature movements require more attention. the teeth should overlap at least 2 inches. For large movement joints. 64°F. The teeth should have adequate transverse and longitudinal stiffness to avoid chatter under traffic. The steel fingers should have the top surface parallel to the roadway grade. and 80°F. 4. it is preferable for tooth plates to be cast or fabricated by welding. finger joints were used to accommodate large movements. (b) Where narrow bicycle tires are anticipated. consideration may be given to accommodating some earthquake movement.

C. Specify quality assurance requirements. be certified under the AISC Quality Certification Program (Simple Steel Bridges). B. g. 2. The designer should avoid specifying finger joints for new construction. Specifications for Bridge Deck Joints Bridge deck joints shall be specified as follows: 1.1-10 August 1998 . Reviewing Shop Plans 1. and 80°F for setting the joint.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details sedimentation. testing). Plan and elevation of the joint. if present. For all joints. Note on the shop plans whether these temperatures are structure temperatures or ambient air temperatures taken in the shade. inspection. All AASHTO or other material designation and method of corrosion protection. and methods proposed by the manufacturer to prevent weld induced cracks. Do not specify “or an approved equal. welding procedures to include pre. b. corrosion protection. Opening dimensions at 40°F. Installation procedures. However. personnel requirements. Movement rating. HS 25 live loading plus impact. 4. d. fabrication requirements (e. they may be needed where snowplow use is extensive or where widening of an existing structure precludes the use of any other joint system. 64°F.. Approval will have to be obtained from the FHWA by the Bridge Design Engineer before a sole source can be specified. 3. Specify that the manufacturers of modular joints or finger joints. c. Complete details of all components and sections showing all materials incorporated in the joint. Review the shop plans to ensure that they conform with the Contract Plans and Special Provisions regarding the following information a. material specifications.g. the slope may vary depending on the expected rainfall and debris at each location. 8. Personnel performing nondestructive testing (NDT) shall be certified as NDT Level II under the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1a. welding. Behavior on skew. including any required services by a manufacturer’s field representative.and post-heat.4. The troughs should be attached in a secure manner with a minimum of 5/8-inch diameter bolts at 18-inch centers. f.” A single manufacturer (sole source) may be specified if the designer determines that their system is the only one that can satisfy the design criteria. design requirements. Specify only approved manufacturers that provide good field performance and service. specify that welding inspection shall be done by certified welding inspectors under AWS QC1. Standard for Qualification and Certification of Welding Inspectors. Furnish justification to the Specifications Section and check with the Joint Specialist. acceptance criteria. e. However. and payment. Consideration of weld details in areas of stress concentration.

D. Minimum radii permitted by the AISC for cold bending steel traffic barrier cover plates. Maintenance During design. For large movement joints. f. All calculations shall satisfy the requirements of the Special Provision “Modular Expansion Joint System. d. Ease of removal and handling of traffic barrier cover plates by two persons without special lifting equipment.” See the Expansion Joint Specialist for sample calculations.1-11 . n. and access provisions should be considered. Threaded studs should be removed by grinding and an appropriate corrosion protection system applied to the steel affected by grinding. Bridge Details Prohibition of temporary lifting. 2. 2. Anchorage details. b. Other Considerations 1. Provide the following information to the Expansion Joint Specialist for performance tracking and maintenance purposes: a. g. e. sidewalks.4. and traffic barriers (to include the non-traffic side) with respect to leakage and maintenance. Manufacturer’s part numbers. b. k. so replacement parts can be easily identified and ordered. Widening and Rehabilitation of Bridges a. For the rehabilitation of bridges. and construction adjustment devices that are welded to the centerbeams or edge beams. 1. Contract Number/Bridge Number. i. method of support during placement of deck concrete. The designer should consult with the Expansion Joint Specialist on the maintenance and durability of the modular joints. Treatment of curbs. blockout size to facilitate placement of concrete. P:DP/BDM8 9807-0802 August 1998 8. Consideration should be given to proper anchorage of edge beams for wheel impact loads. existing joints and structure layout should be studied to determine if existing joints can be eliminated. Manufacturer. parts availability. Design calculations for all structural elements of modular expansion joints. except for threaded studs used to support strip seal joints. c. Approved By/Date Approved. It will be necessary to determine what modifications to the structure are required to provide an adequate and functional system when existing joints are eliminated. Type of Joint. and all blockout reinforcing steel.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design h. Seal Size/Manufacturer’s Designation. Type of Extrusion/Steel Shape Designation. consideration should be given to maintenance of the joints. replaceability. m. parapets. j. Location. temperature.

4.3(10) — Bridge Decks Standard Specification Section 5-05. erosion of abutments. sheets of ice from melting snow. Geometrics Bridges should have adequate transverse and longitudinal slopes to allow the water to run quickly to the drains. On Bridge Systems In some cases.2 Drainage Design A. Standard Specification Section 6-02. The minimum piping diameter should be 6 inches with no sharp bends within the system.5 percent for minimum valves are adequate.015 in the design. A transverse slope of . Most of the problems can be prevented by collecting the runoff and transporting it away from the bridge. D.4. General Even though it is rare that poor drainage is directly responsible for a structural failure. C.3(11) — Approach Slabs Bridge Details P:DP/BDM8 9807-0802 August 1998 8. This untextured area provides for smooth gutter flow and a Manning n value of . At other times. The first selection is to place 5-inch diameter pipe drains which have no bars and drop straight to the ground. and deterioration of structural members.02′/ft. Hydrology Hydrological calculations are made using the rational equation. in cold climates.2-1 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8. Construction Bridge decks have a striated finish in accordance with the Standard Specifications listed below. the gutters have an untextured finish (steel trowel) for a distance of 2 feet from the curb. A 10-year storm event with a 5-minute duration is the intensity used for all inlets except for sag vertical curves where a 50-year storm intensity is required. and longitudinal slope of 0. it still must be a primary consideration in the design. B. Proper geometrics during the preliminary stage is essential in order to accomplish this. the straight drop drain is unacceptable and a piping system with bridge drains (see appendix) is required. The use of unsymmetrical vertical curves may assist the designer in shifting the low point off the structure. Avoid placing sag vertical curves and superelevation crossovers on the structure which could result in hydroplaning conditions or. The Hydraulics Section recommends placing the bridge deck drainage off of the structure. such as box girder structures. E. such as for steel structures. a bridge drainage system is required for the structure. Poor drainage can cause problems such as ponding on the roadway. however. So the Bridge Design Section has adopted the policy that all expansion joints will be watertight.

2-2 August 1998 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details 8.4.

Bridge Details August 1998 8.” The transverse force will develop a moment within the bearing itself. and to allow necessary superstructure movements to take place. Expansion bearings may. This moment may be significant for tall bearings and should be included in the analysis. or other suitable means. and must be resisted by keys. 3. These forces can be combined into the basic loading vectors described below. For “stop bearings. Where thcse forces may exist. Curved bridges require special consideration. girder stops may be used to resist this force. Other Forces Bending moments in each of the three planes may be developed by a particular structure. anchor bolts. including thermal motion forces and forces due to concrete shrinkage.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.4. Uplift Forces With the exception of elastomeric pads. shear deformation forces in neoprene bearings. however. 5. pintles. usual bearings shall be designed for uplift forces due to earthquake in an amount equal to 10 percent of the vertical dead load reaction of the superstructure. develop significant longitudinal forces due Lo sliding or rolling friction. Vertical Force This force can be considered to act directly through the center of the bearings. Forces to Be Resisted Bridge bearing reactions can come from any of the forces associated with bridge loadings. The resulting forces induced in the bearings should be considered and accounted for in the design when they are significant. Purpose The purpose of a bridge bearing is to support the superstructure at a constant elevation. In some cases. 2. It is normally made up of dead load and live load. and so forth. to carry all forces from the superstructure into the substructure. This force is resisted by bearing against the concrete of the pier cap at the reduced stress values specified in AASHTO design specifications for such bearing. B. earthquake.3 Bridge Bearings A. which is equal to the product of the force times the height of the bearing. they must be accounted for in the design.4.4. Transverse Force This force acts normal to the centerline of the bridge in a horizontal direction at the top of the bearing. 4. Longitudinal Force This is any horizontal force acting parallel to the centerline of the bridge. Friction on the stop may require a “stop bearing. Longitudinal forces generally will not be developed in an expansion bearing.3-1 .” see Section 8. 1. It is made up of wind. in which case the bearing itself need not resist it.e. and other horizontal forces.3D5.

Steel Structures In the absence of more exact temperature data. Temperature Expansion and contraction due to temperature change will occur throughout the life of the structure. extremely high forces may be imposed on other portions of the structure. expansion joints and bearings set. etc. The following material provides guidance for design. This means that the plan dimensions are taken to be correct at 64°.4.4. use the following design temperature ranges: Eastern Washington: Western Washington: -30° to 120°F 0° to 120°F Center bearings at 50°F. Movements Allowance must be provided in the design of each structure for all anticipated movements. 8. Standard construction specifications specify a “normal” temperature of 64°. Bridge Details 30-Year Extreme Temperatures High Olympia Spokane Yakima 100 108 110 Mean Annual Temperature Olympia Spokane 50 1 47. which is the temperature at which it is assumed steel will be fabricated. The National Weather Service has information on other areas. Specify bearing setting temperatures about a mean construction temperature of 64°F. Normally these movements will be primarily in the longitudinal direction. 1.3 Low -7 -25 -25 Typical Temperature Ranges in Washington Figure 8.3-2 August 1998 . b. design temperatures for concrete structures throughout Washington State shall be assured to range from 0° to 100°F. bearing setting dimensions should be shown on the plans for a range of temperatures other than 64°. Proper temperature expansion provisions are essential to ensure that the structure will not be damaged by restricting such movements Where these movements are restrained due to poor design or construction. Consequently. It should be noted for setting bearings that the mean annual temperature throughout the state of Washington is approximately 50°. Figure 8. the temperature extremes to which they are exposed are less than those of steel structures. In the absence of more exact temperature data. transverse movements may also be significant. Concrete Structures Concrete structures possess more thermal mass than steel structures. For extremely wide structures. Except for elastomeric bearings.3C1-1 gives additional temperature data for specific areas.3C1-1 October 1975 a.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design C.4.

3Clb-l October 1975 2.1A. If the calculated movements are significant.1. bearings should be designed and installed to compensate for this effect. Shrinkage All concrete tends to shrink during curing unless special additives are used. bearings for concrete structures (except elastomeric bearings) should be installed in the direction of the “hot” position (opposite to anticipated shrinkage) in order to be in the “normal” position after shrinkage has taken full effect. this effect could result from dead load sidesway forces. On very unusual structures. August 1998 8. The design of bearing elements shall accommodate this shrinkage movement.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details Sample Temperature versus Motion Graph for a Concrete Box Girder Bridge Figure 8. creep associated with applied loads must be taken into account in the bearing details. This is particularly true for post-tensioned bridges where the prestressing force will cause an immediate clastic shortening of the structure and an associated long-term creep effect.4.3-3 .4. Creep In certain structures. See 5. Similar to the adjustment for shrinkage. Such adjustment must be shown on the plans. 3.

1. bearings should be designed so that if these motions occur.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 4. if necessary. or replaced to mitigate construction induced displacement. and installed to facilitate inspection. Design will include an analysis of bearing elements at high and low temperature positions utilizing the load factors normally associated with those temperature conditions. Consideration should be given to providing jacking pads to minimize the labor involved in making such adjustments. Bearing Details The following are some specific design criteria with discussion for various bearing types and details (see Figure 8. unanticipated earth pressure movements have resulted in tilted rocker bearings. In any case. Higher plate stresses may be allowed if a more rigorous analysis is used. and the moment applied to the base plate is the horizontal force times h. Force/Motion Combinations In the process Of bearing design. to account for such motions. Similar action should be considered where settlements may cause bearing misalignment. That is. 6. Bending stress in the base plate of all steel bearings shall normally not exceed 24. maintenance.3-4 August 1998 . and eventual replacement if required.4. Fixed Bearings The bearings are called “fixed” because they do not allow longitudinal motion. Forces in the transverse direction (along the axis of the pin) may be assumed to act on the bearing in double bending. fabricated.4.4.3C-1). castings will be specified only where the bearings will be duplicated several times due to the high cost of the pattern.000 psi in order to avoid use of thin plates and the resultant concentration of loads due to flexural distortions of the plate. Construction Tolerances Care should be taken that the design includes adequate construction tolerance for setting bearings. 7. Jacking points shall be identified on the contract drawings so that bearings can be reset. closed expansion joints. 5. The base plate must be capable of transmitting the horizontal forces to the concrete through positive Bridge Details 8. Forces in the longitudinal direction are assumed to act through the center of the pin. bearings should be designed so that they can be readjusted in position. Earth Pressure In several structures which have been designed and constructed. and jammed joint openings. the moment applied to the base and to the pin along its length is equal to the force times h/2. Where it is anticipated that such action may occur. replumbed. Similar procedures should be used for other motion conditions. D. Usually the bearing will be designed in the “normal” position for dead load and live load. in that they allow rotational motion in the longitudinal direction (see Figure 8. The body of the bearing is normally cast steel or a weldment. the question often arises as to what position of the bearing to assume for design. Replacement Considerations Whenever possible.3C-1). Normally. They are normally not fixed in the static sense but are actually pinned. bearings shall be detailed. Base plate pressures on the concrete are governed by AASHTO Specifications. they will not result in damage to the structure.

That force is equal to P w/R. and r and R the radius of the pin and rocker respectively. They are usually used for movable bearings supporting very large loads. Other design provisions are similar to those for fixed bearings. Provision must be made to hold down the rocker to the base plate for earthquake uplift requirements. Rocker Bearings These bearings are intended to allow the end of the structure to move longitudinally along a horizontal line.3C-1. AASHTO equations are used to select an appropriate line bearing value and a dimension for the rocker radius.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details means. The designer should be aware of the longitudinal horizontal force which may be developed through pin friction. Moment at the bearing line of the rocker due to transverse loads can be developed using assumptions similar to those noted for fixed bearings. deducting the pintle widths. shear lugs. Normally. Pintles are always used with thcse bearings to prevent “walking” of the rocker on the base plate and to resist transverse horizontal forces. The line bearing force values should be based on a net contact length.4. P the load.3-5 . Webs of the body of the bearing will be designed taking into account the minimum thickness requirements for steel plates. or other suitable devices.7 for the dry static condition). Bearing Details Figure 8. where u is the steel friction coefficient (could be taken as 0. August 1998 8. Sufficient clearance must be maintained between the edges of the top and bottom bearing blocks to allow the bearing to rotate freely at the extremes of motion.4. The base plate of these and of all movable bearings shall be placed level in order to avoid the tendency for the bridge to move down slope.4. This may include anchor bolts. friction alone will not be considered to be adequate. The line bearing values should take into account the increase in line pressure due to transverse loads when the loading combination being considered contains such loads.3C-l October 1975 2. Base plate design consists of selecting a plate thickness to satisfy the strength requirements shown in Figure 8. The strength of the plate ends beyond the end of the rocker may require additional investigation.

Elastomeric bearings are commonly used on prestressed girder bridges and may be used on other bridge types. 5. a. Sliding bearings will always develop significant horizontal longitudinal forces. Elastomeric bearings rely on their inherent shear flexibility to accommodate bridge movements in any horizontal direction. Bridge Details 8. stability. the line bearing value will be controlled by the lowest yield strength. The cost of elastomeric bearings is relatively low compared to most high-load multi-rotational bearings.3C-l). Roller Bearings These bearings are simpler than rocker bearings. shear. Roller nests do not allow rotation of the beam end (unless special pins and guides are used) and are difficult to maintain. The Method B design procedure allows significantly higher average compressive stresses. Sliding Bearings These bearings rely on a reduced coefficient of friction between the two contact surfaces to allow longitudinal bearing motion. These bearings are limited to a maximum of about 7 inches in roller size due to availability of bar stock. These higher allowable stress levels are justified by an additional acceptance test. Elastomeric Bearings An elastomeric bearing is fabricated wholly or partially from either natural rubber or neoprene. If bearing plates and rollers are fabricated from steels with different yield strengths.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 3. However. Sliding materials may be Tronze. and elastomer stiffness requirements. “Teflon. Many combinations of the above are possible. Large rotations and translations generally require taller bearings. They are normally made from finished roller stock. specifically a long-duration compression test. but may be manufactured from thick plates (see Figure 8. This shear flexibility also enhances their rotational capability. significantly affects the compressive and rotational stiffness of the bearing. neoprene pads.” stainless steel. Pintles are required at both the top and bottom of the roller. or pins.” “Lubrite. delamination.” 4. Yield points to 70. High-load elastomeric bearings are designed using the Method B procedure. steel reinforcement yield/rupture. The design of a steel reinforced elastomeric bearing requires an appropriate balance of compressive. Conventional elastomeric bearings are designed using the Method A procedure. Design criteria for both methods is based upon satisfying fatigue. Steel shim plates limit the tendency for elastomer to bulge laterally. and rotational stiffnesses. it has no impact on the translational stiffness of the bearing or its translational deformation capacity. but due to the smaller radius are suitable for carrying only moderate loads. The shape factor. or other patented materials. General Design Criteria Design of elastomeric bearings shall be in accordance with the AASHTO specifications. as defined by the steel shim spacing. These bearings must be used in combination with a device which will allow beam end rotation.000 psi may be specified in order to keep the line bearing values within AASHTO allowables.4. This device can be curved sliding surfaces. For additional criteria. Numerous bearing materials and configurations are possible. and these forces must be accounted for in the design. Reasonable friction coefficients must be selected for the particular materials selected. Office practice is to not allow roller nests (multiple rollers in one bearing) except for temporary bearings. see “fixed bearings” and “rocker bearings.3-6 August 1998 . Steel reinforced elastomeric bearings are reinforced with multiple steel shim plates vulcanized between adjacent elastomeric layers.4.

] March 2000 8.4. Minimum Pad Thickness for Prestressed Girders = 2[3/4 (∆ Temp. allowance must be made for half shrinkage.99-1 provides additional guidance for the design of elastomeric bearings. a minimum of 1/8 inch of side clearance shall be provided over the steel shims. a minimum of 1/4 inch of side clearance shall be provided. it should be assumed that the beams may not be placed at the “mean” temperature range.4-B9 of Appendix B presents a reinforced elastomeric bearing pad design example using the AASHTO Method A design procedure. Section 8. Bearing pad thickness shall be no less than twice the maximum lateral deflection (see Figure 8.3-7 . a minimum of 1/2 inch of side clearance shall be provided. c. For overall heights between 3 inches and 7 inches. Live load plus impact compressive deflection shall be limited to 1/16 inch. In determining bearing pad thickness. and d below are approximations of this motion. The minimum elastomeric bearing length or width shall be 6 inches (except for girder stop pads). Fall) + ∆ 1/2 Shrink. Generally. The Standard Specifications states that elastomeric bearing pads shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 251 Plain and Laminated Elastomeric Bridge Bearings and that internal shims shall be fabricated from ASTM A 570 Grade 36 (A 570M Grade 250) steel unless noted otherwise on the plans. b.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details High-load elastomeric bearings (AASHTO Method B design) can provide economical alternatives to lightly loaded high-load multi-rotational bearings. Pads shall be laminated in 1/2 inch elastomeric layers with a minimum total thickness of 1 inch. In addition. Rise + ∆ Temp. Designers shall obtain the approval of the Bearings Specialist and the Bridge Design Engineer in order to use high-load elastomeric bearings on a specific project. For overall bearings heights less than 3 inches. Elastomeric Bearings for Precast Concrete Spans For prestressed or precast concrete girder spans. For overall heights greater than 7 inches. it should be assumed that slippage will not occur. Additionally. The equations shown in b. Electronic spread sheet programs are available for designing high-load elastomeric bearings using the Method B design procedure. Reference 5 on page 8.3D5a-1).4. their flexibility provides some degree of seismic isolation which may reduce substructure costs. all pads shall be 60 durometer hardness.

it should be assumed that the temperature of concrete at time of casting is the normal temperature. No allowance is needed for shrinkage.)] Pad Width Equals 5 inches 8. However.4. 100.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details Figure 8.3D5a-l October 1975 c.3-8 August 1998 . The following procedure is recommended for design of stop pads for skewed prestressed girder bridges for loads due to earth pressure on back walls. Minimum Pad Thickness for Cast-in-Place Girders = 2 [∆ Temp. Design Assumptions (Series 80.2D and Figure 8.3DSe-l). where temperature fall is the deflection corresponding to a temperature change of 45°. these stops must be capable of allowing the anticipated motion (see Article 9. Range) +1/2 (Shrink. allowance must be made for full shrinkage. it should be assumed that the beams may not be placed at the “mean” temperature and design should provide for 3/4 of the total temperature range. Rise + ∆ Temp. d.4.].3. Elastomeric Bearings for Cast-in-Place Concrete Spans For cast-in-place concrete spans. Fall)] e. and 120 Prestressed Girders Only) Cold Climate Elastomeric Bearing Pads of 60 Durometer Hardness and 1/2-inch Laminates T = 2 [3/4 (∆ Temp. Fall + ∆ Shrink.4. Girder Stop Bearing Pads Where earth pressure on the back wall (end diaphragm) of skewed bridges or other transverse loads must be resisted by girder stops. Minimum Pad Thickness for Steel Girders = 2 [3/4 (∆ Temp. Elastomeric Bearings for Steel Girder Spans For steel girder spans.

no girder stop bearing pads are required since the girder bearing pad is capable of resisting 2.4. the required pad thickness can be obtained by entering the Pad Thickness Chart on page 8. the transverse load per girder F(Ep)T may be read on the right-hand side of the chart.200 pounds. and girder spacing (normal to girder). The pad thickness should be rounded lo the next higher half-inch increment. girder series.4-B14 of Appendix B.200 pounds with a maximum transverse deflection of 1/8 inch.4-B15 of Appendix B on the left side with the bridge length (back to back of pavement seat). and 120 girders. Note: If F(Ep)T is less than 2. The width of the girder stop bearing pad is a constant 5 inches for series 80. If the Spacing Chart indicates that girder stop bearing pads are required.4. By entering this chart with skew angle. The length of the pad is equal to three times the rounded “T.3-9 . 100.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details Girder Stop Bearing Pad Figure 8.3D5e-l October 1975 Procedure The transverse load girder due to earth pressure plus live load surcharge pressure can be determined from the Spacing Chart on page 8.” August 1998 8.

10T Hence: 0. and the number of lines of girders in the end span. Maximum allowable concrete bearing pressure is determined by 1977 AASHTO Article 1.4-B12.4. Maximum total load on bearing is 500 kips.10)T + T = 12.5LR Given: DL + LL + I = 260 kips/bearing Rotation = 0. another type of bearing should be used.015 radians Allowable Bearing Pressure for Fabric Pad = 1.14 = maximum strain with edge stress of 2. They can provide for rotation.200 psi. strain = 10 percent or 0. See the sample problem Appendix B Section 8. Preformed Fabric Pads These pads can withstand large compression loads.14T = (0.000 psi L (R) 2 8. If the design load exceeds this value. 6.5. When a PTFE sliding surface is specified. Criteria Maximum average allowable bearing pressure on the fabric pad is 1.200 psi at service load.000 psi At 1.26(3). When used in combination with a PTFE sliding surface.200 psi fc′ = 3.015 Radians minimum (AASHTO) 0. the number of girders in the end span requiring girder stop bearing pads can be obtained. Maximum bearing thickness is 4 inches. b. They have been used on reinforced and post-tensioned concrete box girder bridges and can be used on other bridge types. Sample Problem The following method is used to calculate the required dimensions of a preformed fabric pad used in combination with a TFE sliding surface: Maximum Edge Strain = Average Strain + Rotation Where: T = Pad Thickness L = Pad Length (parallel to longitudinal axis of beam) R = Rotation due to loading plus construction tolerances Allowance for Rotation = . the PTFE sheet shall be 1/8 inch thick and shall be recessed 1/16 inch into 1/2 inch-thick steel plate that is bonded to the top of the fabric pad. a.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details By reentering the Pad Thickness Chart on the bottom with the pad thickness (from chart as rounded). The cost of bearings incorporating preformed fabric pads is relatively low compared to most steel bearings.3-10 August 1998 . F(Ep)T (from the Spacing Chart). they will allow bridge movements in a horizontal direction.

200 psi = 216. High strength bar steel should be used where necessary to keep pin sizes reasonable./1. are commonly used with many bearing types.06 inches Use Fabric Pad that is 20 inches by 11 inches by 21/4 inches 7. Bearing Pins Pins of the type shown schematically in Figure 8. It is desirable to have pins fabricated of a August 1998 8.000 psi) (1. They are quite expensive and have seldom been used to date in Washington.5(11)(0.” half of D2 from centerline pin. For instance. Diameter D2 is Y2 inch less than Dl. Patented Bearings These bearings are available from several sources.3) (3. The transverse loads are carried from the top bearing plate to the bottom bearing plate by the inner ring of the upper bearing block bearing against the washer and nut. Combination Bearings The bearing types which have been discussed above can be used in many combinations in order to develop a satisfactory solution for a bearing problem. If used. This is normally not a problem. Normally. The pin diameter and strength must be such that vertical loads can be adequately carried. 9. they may prove to be a good solution for heavily loaded bearings.200 psi Allowable Bearing on the Fabric Pad Controls Thickness of Pad: T = 12.278 psi > 1. This stress must not exceed that allowed for tension at the root of the thread.3-11 .3C-I.3C8-1 by force “H. The critical factor in pin design is the ability to carry transverse loads.5LR = 12.4.67 in2 Try a 20-inch-wide by 11-inch-long pad Area = 220 in2 Check allowable concrete bearing pressure by AASHTO Al = 20 inches × 11 inches = 220 in2 A2 = (20+6)(11+6) = 442 in2 Allowable Bearing on loaded area = fb fb = (0.42 ≤ 2 Allowable fb = (.000 lbs. This is allowable because any slight bending of the pin will tend to move the point of application of the force vector closer to the centerline.3D9-1 shows a typical configuration of such a pin. This causes a bending plus axial tension stress in the threaded portion of the pin.015) = 2.30fc′ ) A2 A1 Bridge Details A2 A1 = 1.4. In some cases.42) = 1.4. Fixed Bearings. 8. an elastomeric bearing may be used to provide rotational ability when using a sliding bearing.4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Solution: Pad Area Required = 260. The position of the acting force may be taken as shown in Figure 8. care must be taken to ensure that the bearing actually supplied by the Contractor meets all of the requirements of specifications. Figure 8. in the figure shown.

4. have been used successfully with A36 bearing blocks.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details steel with slightly different composition from the bearing blocks in order to avoid the possibility of “freezing” of the bearing surface. 70.4.3D10-1 September 1986 8.3-12 August 1998 .4.3D9-1 October 1977 10. Typical Bearing Pin (For Use With Bearing Blocks) Figure 8. Pins of ASTM A-108 grade 1040. Bearing Blocks The bearing blocks for use with the typical pin described above are rectangular steel blocks machined for the pin shaft and the keeper ring (see Figure 8.P.3D10-1). Bearing Block Figure 8.000 Y.4. The keeper rings used with such pins must be adequate to carry required uplift loads.

It must also be large enough to ensure that the stress due to vertical pin loads is within allowables.4. If P is the vertical load applied to the bearing.3C11-1 shows a section through a typical anchor bolt. Anchor Bolts Anchor bolts are used for all except neoprene bearings and perform a variety of functions.3C11-2 for a typical detail.1. where strengths equal to ASTM A 490 are desired. 12. H is the horizontal component of force developed by the pin curvature. Provide temporary support for base plate.” Where reinforcement in the concrete can be engaged. These may include the weight of erected steel superstructure for structural steel bridges.” least thickness to pin. sufficient number of shims shall be used to carry the weight of the plate and other loads applied before grouting the plate.4.4. The plans shall normally show how these shims are to be placed in order to avoid overstressing the base plate or bearing webs or the concrete of the pier.8. An arrangement for doing this must be shown on the plans. These functions may be: Hold down uplift loads. W is the width of the load applying element. R is the pin radius. the movement on the section dimensioned at “T” can be shown to be:  T + R − W M=P  2π π 8  This moment tends to fail the bearing block in bending at this section and must be resisted by the strength of the section at that point. that reinforcement may also be considered to act to resist uplift Transverse loads cannot be resisted by the anchor bolts unless the void between the pipe and the bolt has been well grouted. If the anchor bolt is to provide temporary support for a base plate. Resist transverse loads from bearings. Hold base plate firmly to erection shims. the bolts must be adequate in length and the washer nut must be of sufficient size and strength to engage a mass of concrete as specified in AASHTO under “Uplift. Anchor bolts shall be ASTM A 449 where strengths equal to ASTM A 325 are desired. see Bridge Instruction 7. Grade BD. AASHTO Specifications give sizes for nominal anchor bolts. Where uplift loads must be held. 11. Their size must be such that these shear forces can be adequately resisted by the cross section of the pintle. 13. The dimension “T. Figure 8.3-13 . The plans should require that the contractor grout from the bottom of the pipe before grouting the bearing plate. August 1998 8. For anchor bolt specifications and properties. and x and y are the distances to the reactive forces P/2 and H then. Volume 1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details Design of such blocks is nominal. They are detailed so that transverse shear is applied at the surface of the parts. must be large enough to clear the nut and the weld on the end of the block. Not all of these functions are necessarily needed in each design. and ASTM A 354. Pintles Pintles are used with rollers and rockers to carry transverse loads and to keep the moving parts in alignment. See Figure 8. Construction Shims The Construction Specifications require that bearings for steel bridges be supported on sets of 21/2 inch square shims while the steel is being erected.

4. this axis may correspond with a chord between the two ends of the span. On curved bridges. Orientation of Bearings Movable bearings must be aligned to correspond to the actual direction of motion anticipated in the structure. care must be taken that the details clearly show the bearings set relative to the actual axis of motion.3C11-1 Anchor Bolt as Detailed Figure 8. On curved and skewed structures.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details Typical Anchor Bolt Figure 8.3-14 August 1998 . STRUDL may be helpful in establishing the exact motion vectors of the structure.3C11-2 E.4.4. 8.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design F. 8.4.4. Bearing Selection Consideration should be given to elimination of bearings by making the superstructure continuous with the substructure.4. These include hinged columns and bents. Etc.3-15 . Stairs.4.4 8. other devices which act as bearings may be used. Grates.5 8. where feasible. (Vacant) Surface Treatments (Vacant) P:DP/BDM8 9807-0802 August 1998 8.6 Bridge Railing (Vacant) Ladders. The following bridge types and bearings are commonly used together: Prestressed Girder Bridges Slab Bridges Concrete Box Girder Bridges Elastomeric Bearings Continuity or Elastomeric Bearings Elastomeric Bearings Roller Bearings Preformed Fabric Pads w/TFE Sliding Surfaces Roller Bearings Sliding Bearings Rocker Bearings Rocker Bearings Bridge Details Steel Girder Bridges - Steel Truss Bridges - Occasionally. Engineering judgment based on the particular design conditions should govern bearing in any particular case.

4. Deck elevations shown on other plan sheets shall be top of concrete as constructed (13/4-inch cover).7D). The 21/2-inch cover includes 0.4. The 2-inch concrete cover is for cast-in-place construction and includes a 1/4-inch tolerance for the placement of rebar.4. System Types 1. A.7C). Overlay thickness should be .015 feet for traction striations. The 11/2-inch latex modified concrete overlay is a minimum depth and includes . All of the above systems are considered to be experimental and should not be used without the approval of the Bridge Design Engineer. 3. and cathodic protection. Future overlays for bridges with one of the following systems is unlikely. 4. Bridge Details 2.7 Deck Protection Systems A deck protective system is to be included in all projects involving concrete bridge deck construction or rehabilitation. microsilica modified concrete. At present. System 1: A 21/2-inch concrete cover over an epoxy-coated top mat of reinforcing with no overlay (see Section 8.15 feet (see Section 8. namely thin polymer concrete overlays. there are four other systems available. June 1994 8. The type of system to be used shall be determined by the Bridge and Structures Branch during the preliminary plan stage and shall be shown on the preliminary plan in the left margin. System 3: A 11/2-inch or 2-inch concrete cover over an epoxy-coated top mat of reinforcing with a waterproofing membrane and asphalt overlay. if an overlay becomes necessary. Other Systems: The type of systems available for use may change as new products become available. however.7-1 .4.4.15 feet of depth for traction striations in the roadway surface and 1/4-inch tolerance of the placement of reinforcing steel. The bridge elevations shown on the layout sheet are to be based on top of the overlay (3 inches total cover).BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8. The most commonly used systems are listed below. polyester polymer concrete.7B). The design concrete cover includes 1/4-inch tolerance for placement of reinforcing steel and 1/4-inch for scarifying the concrete deck. System 2: A 13/4-inch concrete design cover over an epoxy-coated top map of reinforcing steel with 11/2 inches of later modified concrete overlay (see Section 8. the concrete cover for the precast prestressed deck members is reduced to 11/2 inches. a layer of concrete shall be removed equal to the weight of the asphalt overlay that will replace it so that the dead load remains unchanged. Thin polymer concrete overlays can be methyl methacrylate overlay or epoxy concrete overlay. Because of the high quality of concrete and better control of reinforcing placement.

4.4. System 1 (Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Only) 1.7-1). Add a note to the traffic barrier sheet to epoxy coat the S1 bars. Do not epoxy coat stirrups (see Figure 8. With this system.4. Indicate the epoxy-coated reinforcing on the plan sheets and with an “E” in the “Epoxy Coated” column of the bar list. and prestressed girders for the roadway slab with 135 hooks. Secure all stirrups for crossbeams. diaphragms. webs. Bridge Details 2. March 1984 Figure 8. This includes the top longitudinal negative moment reinforcing tied to the transverse deck reinforcing. only the roadway slap top mild reinforcing mat and traffic barrier S1 bars are coated.7-1 8.7-2 April 1991 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design B.

7-2 April 1991 8.7-3 .4.4. March 1984 Figure 8.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details C. System 2 (Latex Modified Concrete Overlay with Epoxy Coated Reinforcing) Note: See System 1 for additional details.

4.7-3 8. March 1984 Figure 8. See System 1 for additional details.4. System 3 (Asphalt Overlay with Waterproof Membrane and Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing) Note: The class of asphalt is to be determined by the district.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details D.7-4 April 1991 .

System 2: This system is considered to provide double protection and shall be specified for structures with transverse post-tensioning in the deck. Other Systems: Thin Polymer Concrete Overlay systems should be considered only in special cases. and Rehabilitation Only design widenings for a future overlay when the adjacent existing structure is not overlaid as part of the widening. asphalt concrete is a nonstructural component. System 1: This system will normally be used. 4. The Bridge Design Engineer should be consulted before considering the use of a double protection system. b. it tends to reduce the load carrying capacity of the bridge by the amount of the overlay added. Concrete in the deck exhibits inferior durability based on visual observation. but due to their experimental nature should be used only in special cases.4. Chloride contamination at the rebar level is less than 2 pounds per cubic yard or exceeds 2 pounds per cubic yard for less than 40 percent of the samples tested. and their restoration is complex and costly. System Selection for Bridge Deck. Factors that may influence the decision are the type and size of structure. b. Delaminated and patched areas of the concrete deck exceed 5 percent of the deck area. System Selection for New Structures 1. 1.7-5 . d. 3. This system is most suitable for bridges with Bulb “T” girders and precast slabs. 2. nature of traffic. Consideration should also be given to this system for other types of structures. However. A pacometer survey shows concrete cover over reinforcing steel of less than or equal to 1 inch over 15 percent or more of the deck area. 3. Delaminated and patched areas of the deck are less than 5 percent of the deck area. Epoxy-coated reinforcement is to be specified in the widened portion of the bridge. They are particular suitable for bridges where weight of the overlay is critical. Bridge Details F. When removal of an asphalt and membrane system is required.000 and the traffic index is less than 7. ADT. or where extended traffic disruptions are intolerable. This system may be used when all of the following criteria are met: a.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design E. impact of future deck reconstruction on traffic flow. System 3: In this system. (This requirement will remain in effect until such time as a removal procedure is developed which will not result in damage to the underlying concrete. such as movable span bridges. ADT is less than 10. Widening. c. and anticipated use of deicing chemicals. e. 2. System 2: This system is preferred since it provides long-term protection. Deck surface must be compatible with the membrane system. This system will normally be used when one or more of the following criteria are met: a. Chloride contamination at the rebar level exceeds 2 pounds per cubic yard for 40 percent or more of the samples tested. e. Concrete cover exceeds 1 inch or 90 percent or more of the deck area. June 1994 8. d. System 3: This system is also considered to provide some degree of double protection. A rough or pocked surface will result in damage to or early failure of the protective membrane.5. Deterioration of such decks seriously impairs the structural integrity. the primary use of this system is for decks where a flexible leveling course is needed for joints in precast deck units. c.

The bridge Planning and Technology Development Unit must be contacted early in the planning stage for using this system. 5.7-6 April 1991 . The Bridge Planning and Technology Unit should be consulted about the latest information on the new products available and also about the condition of the existing decks. the replacement scheduled should be coordinated with the districts. Use of a system other than Systems 2 and 3 (stated previously) is considered as an exception and will require approval of the Bridge Design Engineer for its use.4. Excessive delamination.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details Adoption of thin overlays should be coordinated with the district through the Bridge Planning and Technology Unit. reactive aggregate. and freeze-thaw have been the predominant factors contributing to deck deterioration. high chloride content. Deck Replacement: In some cases. This is required to coordinate development of the project with the district and if necessary the FHWA. deck deterioration will have advanced beyond the point of cost effective rehabilitation and/or protection. When deck replacement or bridge replacement becomes necessary. 8-4-7:V:BDM2 8.

and Branch. Michigan. Bashore. N.” Joint Sealing and Bearing systems for Concrete Structures. 2. F. “Extruded Seals for Bridges and Structures. 10.99 Bibliography 1. Vol. Michigan Transportation Commission.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.” Bridge Drainage System NCHRP—Synthesis of Highway Practice No. December 1979 Bridge Deck Drainage Guidelines Report No. American Concrete Institute. 1996 P:DP/BDM8 9807-0802 August 1998 8. 1986.” Research Report No. D. “Design of Neoprene Bridge Bearing Pads. F. and Lian Duan. — 1997 11. Dupont de Nemours. and Hawkins.99-1 ..” Joint Sealing and Bearing Systems for Concrete Structures. I. National Research Council. 4. TRB. SP-70. 6. S. 9. W. E. “The Principle of Elasticity for Expansion Joints. D. WA 98504 Burke. M. J. 2. K. R-1245. 1982. 1989. P.. W. SP-94. Puccio.. 67 Transportation Research Board National Research Council Washington. Bibliography 3.. “Determination of Allowable Movement Ratings for Various Proprietary Bridge Deck Expansion Joint Devices at Various Skew Angles.. Price.C. 2.. FHWA/RD-87/014 December 1986 Hydraulics Manual WSDOT M23-03 Olympia. 675-712. 8. “Development of Durable Anchorage Systems for Bridge Expansion Joints. June 1989. Handbook of Bridge Engineering Chen. Fatigue Design of Modular Bridge Expansion Joints NCHRP-Report 402 Transportation Research Board National Research Council Washington. Vol.C.1. May 1984. editors Chapter 25: Expansion Joints CRC Press — 1988 12. D. Koster. American Concrete Institute. Jr. A. Steel Bridge Bearing Selection and Design Guide National Steel Bridge Alliance American Iron and Steel Institute. pp. “Bridge Deck Joints. 7. Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC). W. Babaei. 959. 24 pp. 66 pp. Second Testing Series. G.. p.” NCHRP 141.. D. E. Inc. Lansing. 5.C.” Final Report WA-RD 181. 56 pp. Washington. M.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Sign Structure Foundation Material Quantities September 1992 8.2 .1 .A1 .

2 September 1992 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Sign Structure Foundation Material Quantities 8-2-A1:VP:BDM8 8.A1 .2 .

5.2 . “D” dimension and station. 24 Mark No. Modify details if other than a 3-inch curb is required. 2. 2. 4. 1. Type 1. 60 Rebar Mark No. depends upon type of foundation and “D” dimension.2-A4 (double-faced barrier foundation. spacing between end posts of truss. Quantities for the barrier as shown: Class 4000 concrete Class 3000 or 3000W concrete Gr.185 CY/LF above foundation cap .269 CY/LF outside foundation cap Varies with type and depth of foundation. Transition section can be 10 feet 0 inches or 12 feet 6 inches. 6. If none exist. Constant Maintain 6-inch o. verify with district as to size and quantity needed. Show sign bridge base elevation. 21 and 22 Mark No. 8. See Standard Plan G-2b for dimensions. 2. If it is needed.A3 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Notes to Designers Truss Sign Bridge Foundations Notes to designers pertaining to the use of BDM Appendix A. number. Varies.c. or 3). Example contracts: . 26 8. Varies with span length and “D” dimension 3345 SR 5 Southbound Add Lane 3393 Interstate VMS Signing 8-2-A3:V:BDM8 September 1992 8. Note vertical shaft and tie steel No. 3. and 3. 1 and No. 2. for truss sign bridge). Determine conduit needs. delete all references to conduit. 7. Indicate type of foundation to be used (Type 1.

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A5 . Indicate type of foundation to be used (Type 1.002 pounds = 1. Type 1.2-A6 (double-faced barrier foundation. 3. If none. transition sections can be 10 feet 0 inches or 12 feet 6 inches.2 . Determine conduit needs. 2. 3. Show sign bridge : 1. 1. contact district for number and size. or 3). 5.401 pounds = 1. 2. delete.503 pounds N/A 3283 Eastside to Plum 8-2-A5:V:BDM8 September 1992 8. 4. If needed. Determine sections needed to “build” foundation. Base elevation Station Number Modify details if other than 3-inch curb is required. Example contract = 1. 50 60 feet & under 60 feet to 90 feet 90 feet to 120 feet 120 feet to 150 feet 6. 372 pounds Steel AASHOT M222 or M223 GR. 8. or 3. Approximate quantities for foundation as shown: Class 4000 Class 3000 or 3000W Steel Reinforcing Gr. Varies – see typical foundation sheet. 60 .289 CY/LF over shaft foundation. 2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Notes to Designers Monotube Sign Bridge Foundations Notes to designers pertaining to the use of BDM Appendix A. for Monotube Sign Bridge). 2.

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note the average lateral bearing pressure for each foundation.2 . 3. Note size and quantity (if any) of conduit to be installed. delete these from lower table to free up room. delete detail. or 3.2-A8 through A-13 (Monotube Sign Structures). If some span lengths are not used on a particular project. List of contracts with special designs C-3199 C-3334 C-3502 First Hill Lid Third Lake Paving and Systems Seattle Transit Access Phase 1 8-2-A7:V:BDM8 September 1992 8. 6.A7 . If not Type 1. Note the bridge sheets on which the structure details are contained. If no cantilevers are included. 2. Note if view is looking ahead or back on stationing. 4. 1. 2. 8. 5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Notes to Designers Monotube Sign Structures Notes to designers pertaining to the use of BDM Appendix A.

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A1 .1 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Notes for Utility Installations to Existing Bridges July 1996 8.3 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Notes for Utility Installations to Existing Bridges 8.3 .A1 .2 July 1996 .

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3-A5 . show only one dimension for the height of the metal railing in two different places. To determine height of railing. Appendix 8. Appendix 8. Notes to Designers for Type BP and Type BP-B Bridge Railing 8-3-A5:V:BDM8 September 1992 8. is to be used when clear anodic coating is desired. is to be used when bronze anodic coating is desired. use 4′-6″ measured from the top of the railing to the reference surface (as defined by AASHTO). 2.3-A3. Notes to Designers for Bridge Railing Bridge Railing Type BP. 3. 4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design 1.3-A4. Bridge Railing Type BP-B. On the final plan sheet.

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/L. the 3″ maximum and 2′-8″ minimum dimensions shown in “Typical Section — Traffic Barrier” shall be referenced to the top of the overlay.F. (Bars R1 to R6) Bars S1. Notes to Dsigners for Cast-in-Place Traffic Barrier 8-3-A5:V:BDM8 September 1992 8. with overlay 15. S2. 3. yds.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design 1. 2.F. 6. with 3″ curb 0./L. with overlay 427 lb. show traffic barrier joints normal to centerline./L. The horizontal leg of S2 should lap the transverse slab bars by 1′-0″ minimum. show lighting bracket and conduit details on a separate sheet.110 cu. Show back of Pavement Seat in “Plan — Traffic Barrier” detail. Approximate quantities for the Traffic Barrier are as follows: Class 4000 Concrete 0.3-A10 . Notes to Designers for Traffic Barrier Steel Reinforcement Bars 5.F.100 cu. At roadway expansion joints. When an overlay is required. with 3″ 470 lb/L. yds.2 lb/L. and S3 (when applicable) should be included in normal Bar List.F.F.4-A1. When bridge lighting is a part of the contract. 4. except as shown in Appendix 8.

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The grout tube shall extend to the bottom of the pipe.) 1. 8-B1:V:BDM8 May 1993 8 . of torque for a snug fit. Stainless steel screws shall conform to ASTM F 593 Type 304. nuts and washers with two coats of zinc rich paint.000 psi. Clean pin and adjoining bearing surfaces and coat these surfaces with grease. The bearing plate of each expansion bearing shall be centered transversely between the guide bars immediately prior to grouting of the pipes and grouting under the masonry plates. 7. 10. Anchor bolts shall conform to ASTM A 490. 12. The bottom shim of each stack shall be machine tapered to account for both transverse and longitudinal top of pier slopes. ASTM A 449. 3. 5. 6. including supplementary requirement S4 with a minimum yield point of 50. 11. Paint anchor bolts (from top of bolt to 6 inches below top of pier). Shim stacks shall be plumb and level. Pin nuts shall conform to AASHTO M291 Grade DH.B1 . 2.-lbs.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Pin Bearing Notes (These notes change constantly. The bearing plate shall be positioned longitudinally as shown. Anchor bolts shall be grouted prior to grouting under the masonry plate. Do not paint sliding surfaces and bearing pin mated surfaces. 9. Pressure grout the masonry plat from the center to the outside edges through a grout tube. The 28-day compressive strength of the grout in the grout pad and in the pipes shall be 4. check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor. Pin nuts shall be tightened to a minimum of 200 ft. Anchor bolts shall be pressure grouted from the bottom up utilizing the grout tube. Standard Formula A-9-73. Pin blocks shall conform to AASHTO M102. For the latest information.000 psi. Bearing pins shall conform to ASTM A 434 with a minimum yield strength of 70. 8. Notes to Designers Pin Bearings 4.000 psi.

e. 7.B2 May 1993 . check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor.F. Bearing elements shall be designed by the manufacturer in accordance with the Special Provisions to resist the forces given in the Table of Bearing Loads. surface in all operating positions and shall extend one additional inch in the longitudinal direction. 2. 10. Keeper plates shall be designed for applied bearing pressures resulting from the loads and movement provided in the table.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Spherical Bearing Notes (These notes change constantly. __________. This submittal shall include a complete set of calculations. Group bearings from the center to the outside edges of the masonry and lower keeper plate through the grouting tube. For the latest information.. The bearing manufacturer shall determine the weld size connecting the upper keeper plate to the girder based upon the bearing loads and size of the upper keeper plate required to accommodate the bearing as per AASHTO. 5. Anchor bolts as shown shall be used to secure the lower keeper plate and masonry plate where applicable to the pier. allowable stresses shall be increased by 50 percent. 6. 9. Spherical bearings shall be used at piers _____. The stainless steel sheet shall completely cover the T. 12. Full horizontal forces shall be resisted by the external restrainer.E. The bottom shim of each stack shall be machine tapered to account for both transverse and longitudinal top of pier slopes. Hinge gap should be sized before bearings are designed. Upon receipt of grout pad elevations. Pressure grout masonry bearing plates after the structural steel has been erected and prior to pouring the roadway slab. Centerline of bearing locations are shown on bridge sheets _____. Notes to Designers Spherical Bearing * 3. 4. Shim stacks shall be level. The Contractor shall verify this bearing height after design of the bearing elements and shall provide new grout pad elevations as necessary.) 1. Bearing elements and keeper plates shall be sized to fit the geometric limitations shown and to accommodate girder details. Bearing elements shall be removable and replaceable. 11. 8-B2:V:BDM8 8 . column/pier cap reinforcement). Rotational capacity = + _____ degrees minimum. Shop drawings shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to the manufacture of the bearings. Bearing elements shall be sized utilizing Service Load Design methods except for the AASHTO Group VII. the Engineer will review the affected pier and girder elements and implement any revisions (i. 13. Top of grout pad elevations shown on the column sheets are based on an assumed overall bearing height of 8. Reminders: *Bearing height becomes very important at hinges when the bearings are contractor designed.

12. A. The maximum design soil pressure per square foot is _____ tons for piers _____. Falsework shall be carefully released to prevent impact or undue stress in structure. Reinforcing steel for footings.B3 . After seals are poured. All prestressed concrete elements have been designed for service load stresses and checked for the requirements of load factor design. 6. B. Bolt lengths not shown shall be as required to fit. as well as bridge columns. 3. The concrete seals at piers __________ are designed for a water surface elevation of _________. The maximum design load for the shafts is _____ tons.1 . All steel shall be AASHTO M183 and galvanized after fabrication according to AASHTO M111.) 1. All material and workmanship shall be in accordance with the requirements of the state of Washington. unless noted otherwise. The traffic barrier and sidewalk shall not be poured until the falsework has been released. 11. All other structural elements are designed in accordance with the requirements for load factor design. May 1993 8 . if necessary. An acceleration coefficient of __________ has been used. and columns shall not be cut until final elevations have been determined and substructure details have been modified. shall be Class _______. This structure has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the _______ AASHTO Specifications for Highway Bridges. dated 1983 and interims through __________. Seismic design of this structure conforms with the provisions of the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. Department of Transportation. cofferdams shall not be dewatered when the water is above elevation _________. All bolt hole sizes shall be 1/16-inch diameter larger than bolt diameter. 9. including roadway deck and crossbeams. abutment walls. Provision shall be made to flood the cofferdam in the event that water surface is above the design elevation.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design General Notes (These notes change constantly. 4. The concrete in the superstructure. Bridge and Municipal Construction dated ________. 7. All dimensions and elevations shall be verified in the field by the contractor. For the latest information. All structural elements have been designed in accordance with load factor design. check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor. 8. the maximum design load for the piles for piers _____ is _____ tons. 5. All bolts except as noted shall be ASTM A307 and shall have standard nuts and washers and galvanized according to AASHTO M232. Notes to Designers General 2. Footing elevations and substructure details are subject to change depending upon foundation material encountered. All screws and miscellaneous fasteners shall be ASTM A 307 and galvanized according to AASHTO M232. All other cast-in-place concrete shall be Class _______. This structure has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the ________ AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. 10. The concrete in the seals and shafts shall be Class _______. Standard Specifications for Road.

3 inches from the bottom of footing.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Notes to Designers General 13.B3 . 1 inch from the bottom of the roadway slab. 8-B3:V:BDM8 8 . and 11/2 inches from all other concrete surfaces. Reminders: Normally used concrete mixes in Item #5 above are 4000W. and 4000 respectively. Item #12 is normally appropriate for rehabilitation and widening projects. and #11 may be omitted on steel superstructure bridge designs as they may conflict with Structural Steel Notes. Unless otherwise shown on the plans. clear concrete cover from top of roadway slab to any reinforcement bar shall be 21/2 inches. Items #9.2 May 1993 . 4000. #10.

elastic shortening. For the latest information. For tendons made of 20 to 31 strands of 1/2-inch diameter. The contractor shall submit the stressing sequence.) 1. The concrete in superstructure shall be Class 5000 mix. 3. 8-B4:V:BDM8 May 1993 8 . µ = 0. and force after anchor set to the engineer for approval. The stressing sequence shall meet the following criteria: A. B. Unless otherwise noted. Commonly used stress levels in note number 1 are 3000 psi and 3500 psi. The minimum compressive strength of the cast-in-place concrete at the time of post-tensioning shall be _____ psi. 2.2 and a friction wobble coefficient. The maximum outer diameter of the duct shall be ____ inches. elongation calculations. Reminders: 1. 6. Design is based on a friction curvature coefficient. 2. Design is based on _____ 1/2-inch diameter low relaxation strands with an anchor set of 3/8 inch. For tendons made of 34 strands of 1/2-inch diameter.B4 . fc′ = 5000 psi. adopt web thickness of 101/2 inches. creep and shrinkage of concrete is estimated to be 32 ksi. For tendons made of 19 or less strands of 1/2-inch diameter. At no time during stressing operations will more than one-six of the total prestressing force be applied eccentrically about the center line of the bridge. The area of the duct shall be at least twice the net area of the prestressing steel in the duct. check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor. adopt web thickness of 12 inches. Do not use any tendon made of 1/2-inch strand greater than 34 strands. K = 0. All tendons shall be stressed _____________________________ (either one end or both ends). no more than one-half of the prestressing force in any web may be stressed before an equal force is stressed in the adjacent webs. the prestressing force. P-jack shall be distributed with an approximately equal amount in each web and shall be placed symmetrically about the center line of bridge. 7. The loss of stress in post-tensioned prestressing strands due to steel relaxation. 4 5. The actual anchor set will depend on the jacking equipment used by the contractor and shall be specified in the shop plans. Any changes associated to the thickness of the web shall be at contractor’s expense. 4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Post-Tensioning Notes (These notes change constantly. All longitudinal bars will be placed between vertical stirrups. Whenever possible. Contractor shall obtain approval of the Engineer for any deviation to the number of strands in a duct as shown on the plans. The maximum number of strands permitted in a duct is limited to 34 numbers.0002. Each web shall be stressed to a load of _____ kips at jacked end after seating. adopt web thickness of 111/2 inches. 5. Notes to Designers Post-Tensioning 3. 6.

10. One butt splice will be permitted for flange and web plates exceeding 60 feet in length. Deck formwork shall not be supported on top laterals. and (5) shear connectors to top flange. Remove temporary cross frames between box girders after the entire bridge deck has been placed and reached a minimum strength of 4. Bolt holes remaining in girder webs upon removal of deck formwork and temporary bracing shall be treated in accordance with the Standard Specifications. except members marked C may be fabricated from AASHTO M183 steel. All welding shall be done with minimal distortion. and C marked on portions of the bottom flange also apply to stiffeners attached to or supported by the bottom flange. Members marked FCM are fracture critical members and shall meet the fracture control requirement tests as described in the Special Provisions. Top flanges. (4) gusset plates to webs. 17. (2) flanges to web. The contractor shall provide temporary web bracing and/or stiffening at locations where slab forms are attached to unbraced or unstiffened webs. Any proposed butt splice shall be shown on the shop drawings submitted for approval.B5 . 5. Welding Sequence: (1) flange and web splices. 6. with the bolt heads toward the outside and underside of the bridge. Section 9-06. web splices. The designations V .5(3). A permissible location will be shown in the plans. The minimum center-to-center dimension shall be 3 inches unless shown otherwise. For the latest information. Reminders: Remove Note: “A 715 for Filler Plates” when minimum thickness is > 1/4 inch. and all intermediate cross frames shall be normal to the flanges. 8. All dimensions are horizontal and vertical.000 psi. 2. Galvanizing shall be in accordance with AASHTO M111 or M232 as applicable. 3. ASTM A 715 may be used for filler plates less than 1/4-inch thickness. All structural steel shall be structural low alloy steel AASHTO M222 or M223 grade 50. FCM .1 . Shop bolting may be used where approved in the shop plans. Intermediate transverse stiffeners. All structural steel shall be painted. The welding sequences and procedures to be used shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to the start of welding. 11. All welded shear studs shall be 7/8-inch diameter. check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Structural Steel Notes (These notes change constantly. 9. High strength bolts shall be to AASHTO M164 and shall be 7/8-inch diameter. X denotes tension butt weld for flanges or webs.) 1. bottom flanges. 14. and webs shall be fabricated to full length between field splices prior to welding flanges to webs. All field and shop connections shall be made with high strength bolts. Nuts and washers shall conform to Standard Specifications. All connections shown are for field bolting. 15. 7. Members marked V are main load carrying tensile members or tension components of flexural members and shall meet the longitudinal Charpy V-Notch tests as described in the Special Provisions. unless otherwise shown. Notes to Designers Structural Steel (Box Girder) 4. (3) stiffeners to webs and flanges. 16. Remove Note Regarding: FCM when not applicable. 13. 12. May 1993 8 .

8-B5:V:BDM8 8 . Intermediate transverse web stiffeners shall be located a minimum of 6 inches from a welded web or flange splice.2 May 1993 . except.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Notes to Designers Structural Steel (Box Girder) Butt splice locations are the contractor’s option.B5 . no splice will be permitted within 20 feet of the centerline of a pier or within 6 inches of an intermediate cross frame stiffener.

Top flanges. 5. 6. web splices. Any proposed butt splice shall be shown on the shop drawings submitted for approval. if required. (4) gusset plates to webs. All structural steel shall be structural low alloy steel AASHTO M222 or M223 grade 50. All welding shall be done with minimal distortion. (2) flanges to web. Intermediate transverse stiffeners. Galvanizing shall be in accordance with AASHTO M111 or M232 as applicable. For the latest information. 10. Welding Sequence: (1) flange and web splices. 9. Nuts and washers shall conform to Standard Specifications.) 1. Notes to Designers Structural Steel (Plate Girder) 4. 12. The welding sequences and procedures to be used shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to the start of welding. and all intermediate cross frames shall be normal to the flanges. 8-B6:V:BDM8 May 1993 8 . Section 9-06. bottom flanges. All field and shop connections shall be made with high strength bolts. ASTM A 715 may be used for filler plates less than 1/4-inch thickness. 14. 15. The contractor shall provide. X denotes tension butt weld for flanges or webs.5(3). temporary web bracing and/or stiffening at locations where slab forms are attached to unbraced or unstiffened webs. Remove Note Regarding: FCM when not applicable. Members marked FCM are fracture critical members and shall meet the fracture control requirement tests as described in the Special Provisions. All connections shown are for field bolting. All structural steel shall be painted.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Structural Steel Notes (These notes change constantly. except members marked C may be fabricated from AASHTO M183 steel. Bolt holes remaining in girder webs upon removal of deck formwork and temporary bracing shall be treated in accordance with the Standard Specifications. 3. and (5) shear connectors to top flange. Members marked V are main load carrying tensile members or tension components of flexural members and shall meet the longitudinal Charpy V-Notch tests as described in the Special Provisions. unless otherwise shown. check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor. A permissible location will be shown in the plans. 11. (3) stiffeners to webs and flanges. 7. All dimensions are horizontal and vertical. 13. Reminders: Remove Note: “A 715 for Filler Plates” when minimum thickness is > 1/4 inch. High strength bolts shall be to AASHTO M164 and shall be 7/8-inch diameter. The minimum center-to-center dimension shall be 3 inches unless shown otherwise. 2. Shop bolting may be used where approved in the shop plans.B6 . with the bolt heads toward the outside and underside of the bridge. 8. All welded shear studs shall be 7/8-inch diameter. and webs shall be fabricated to full length between field splices prior to welding flanges to webs. One butt splice will be permitted for flange and web plates exceeding 60 feet in length.

3. (When Class 5000D concrete is used in the deck. temperature. The shear studs attached to the steel shapes shall be shown on the shop drawings and shall not interfere with reinforcing in the blockout.) Class 4000LS concrete shall be placed in the blockout between the expansion joint system and adjacent roadway slab. Temporary lifting. check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor. (When Class 4000D concrete is used in the deck.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Strip Seal Expansion Joint Notes (These notes change constantly. 8-B7:V:BDM8 8 . See strip seal table for approved manufacturers. If the opening between the steel shapes will be less than 11/2 inches at the time of seal installation. threaded studs may be welded to the steel shapes then removed by grinding and a corrosion protection system applied to the areas affected by the grinding. and construction adjustment devices shall not be welded to the steel shapes. For the latest information. 2. 6. 7.B7 May 1993 . The strip seal shall be continuous. However.) 1.) Class 5000LS concrete shall be placed in the blockout between the expansion joint system and adjacent roadway slab. 5. The entire strip seal assembly shall be constructed so that the strip seal may be removed and replaced. the seal may be installed prior to encasement of the extrusions in concrete. Notes to Designers Strip Seal Expansion Joint 4. The contractor shall submit details and installation procedure for strip seal assembly to the engineer for approval. One factor vulcanized splice will be permitted per seal. A. B.

“G” dimension is measure from nose to nose of steel edge beams and includes effects of anticipated creep and shrinkage. Blockout dimensions as shown in the plans shall be verified by the contractor. The contractor shall not install the modular expansion joint until the entire superstructure. Modular expansion joint system shall be as specified in the modular expansion joint table found in the contract plans. is completed. The contractor shall submit details of the modular expansion joint system to be used together with installation procedures. 6. Aluminum components shall not be used. Sealing elements shall be strip seals. 5. check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor. 8. For the latest information. Minimum size and strip seal shall be 80 mm. except the traffic barriers.) 1. and reinforcing steel required to the engineer for approval prior to installation. 2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Modular Expansion Joint Notes (These notes change constantly. The roadway slab reinforcing steel shown elsewhere is the minimum required. 9. 8-B8:V:BDM8 May 1993 8 . Notes to Designers Modular Expansion Joint 10.B8 . Blockout reinforcing steel shall be specified by the expansion manufacturer. Class _____ LS concrete shall be placed in the blockout between the expansion joint system and adjacent roadway slab. 7. 4. The modular expansion joint system shall allow a minimum total movement normal to joint of ____ inches at pier 1 and ____ inches at pier _____. 3.

Unless otherwise shown on the plans. All bolts. Notes to Designers Rail Rehabilitation 3. 2 inches at the top of footing. 2. 1 inch at the bottom of the roadway slab.) 1. Bolt lengths not shown shall be as required to fit with 1-inch minimum threads exposed beyond nut. check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor.B9 May 1993 . and 11/2 inches at all other locations. and Municipal Construction.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Rail Rehabilitation Notes (These notes change constantly. This structure has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the 1992 AASHTO specifications for highway bridges and interims through _______. unless otherwise shown in the plans. 6. All material and workmanship shall be in accordance with the requirements of the current version of WSDOT Standard Specifications for Road. All bolt hole sizes shall be 1/4-inch diameter larger than the bolt diameter. Bridge. unless otherwise shown in the plans. B. All steel shall be AASHTO M183 and galvanized after fabrication according to AASHTO M111. All elements have been designed in accordance with the requirements for load factor design. 4. All screws and miscellaneous fasteners shall be ASTM A 307 and galvanized in accordance with AASHTO M232. For the latest information. shall be AASHTO M164. 3 inches at the bottom of footing. the concrete cover measured from the face of the concrete to the face of any reinforcing steel shall be 21/2 inches at the top of the roadway slab. A. The concrete in the traffic barrier shall be Class 4000. and shall be galvanized after fabrication according to AASHTO M232. and admendments. 8-B9:V:BDM8 8 . 5.

68" Use 15/8" Use 13/4" Use 2" 8-4-B1:V:BDM8 September 1992 8.6(3.89" = 0.89) + 0.53/0. (12) Construction Width at Tc = 40°F: A const = 0.6(3. Determine Compression Seal Width Required Determine total movement of joint.6(3.000006)(100°F) 12(123)(0.22 = 2. 2.00/0.000006)(64-80) = 1.0) + Cos 28°(12)(123)(0.13(Cos 28°) = 1.24] = 2.86" <= Controls Use a 3" wide seal (W = 3"). Note: Joints at the end piers for this bridge could be eliminated by using monolithic or integral end abutments. End abutments are “L” abutments with one foot thick backwalls.0002)(0.00" W = 0.13" 12(123)(0.53" Mn = 1. (8) From Eq.80" Construction Width at Tc = 80°F: A const = 0.4 .0) = 1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Compression Seal Design Example Reinforced concrete box girder bridge with an overall length of 248 feet out to out of pavement seats.41" W = 1.0) + Cos 28°(12)(123)(0. Skew angle = 28° < 45° Temperature range = 0° to 100°F 1. Mt: Temperature: Shrinkage: L = (248′/2) .B1 .13(Sin 28°) = 0.8) Mt Total movement parallel to the joint: Total movement normal to the joint: Determine seal width required: From Eq. (9) From Eq.64(0.1′ = 123′ = 0.99" Construction Width at Tc = 64°F: A const = 0.000006)(64-40) = 1.45 = 2.24“ = 1.22" W = 4(Cos 28°)[0. (11) Mp = 1. Determine Width of Joint at Time of Construction: Use Eq.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Strip Seal Design Example 1 Cast-in-place concrete bridge with an overall length of 400 feet.5-0.0)/Cos 30° = 1. Group 2: (1. Add opening and closing 1.03" Use 3" Use 3" Determine Width Calculations for Various Temperatures Construction Width at 64°F for both Group 1 and 2 Strip Seals: G = Manufacturer's minimum installation width at 64°F Construction Width at 40°F: G = 1.4-B4. 8-4-B2:V:BDM8 September 1992 8.80" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 1.73 = 3.000006)(64-40) = 1. Determine Size of Strip Seal Required Total opening movement of joint: Temperature: Shrinkage: 64° to 0°F (12)(200)(0.000006)(64) (12)(200)(0.4 .30 + 1. This may not be true in all cases as shown in Appendix 8.B2 .52" (Group 1 joints have a 1/2" gap at full closure) Min.30" Use 13/8" Use 17/8" Use 11/2" Note: In this case.5-0. at installation.73" > 0. Group 1: (1.15 = 2. Skew = 30°.50 + Cos 30°(12)(200)(0.52" (Group 2 joints have no gap at full closure) Determine size of joint required using the larger of either the minimum installation width or the total closing movement: Group 1: Group 2: 2. use movement along bridge centerline Temperature range = 0° to 100°F 1.30 + 1.15" > 0.92" = 0.5)/Cos 30° = 1.8) = 0.30" Total closing movement of joint: Temperature: 64° to 100°F (12)(200)(0.50 + Cos 30°(12)(200)(0.52" Set minimum installation width at 64°F: Min.000006)(64-80) = 1.000006)(36) = 0.45" Add opening and closing 1. The structure is symmetrical and has 200 feet (at 64°F) between point of zero movement and the end pier joints. because the minimum installation width at 64°F exceeded the total calculated closing movement of the joint.0002)(0.38“ = 1. the minimum seal installation width at 64°F is the same for both Group 1 and 2 strip seals. at installation.

8) = 2. at installation.61" Add opening and closing for Watson Bowman ACME 2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Strip Seal Design Example 2 Cast-in-place concrete bridge with an overall length of 900 feet. Watson Bowman Acme: 2. see Joint Specialist Temperature range = 0° to 100°F 1.000006)(36) = 1. the 5-inch seal cannot close without possibly buckling and inverting above the roadway surface.96 = 4.0/Cos 40° = 1.000006)(64) (12)(450)(0.55" > 5" Cannot use Watsom Bowman ACME 5" Seal After consulting with the Joint Specialist on the skew and size of strip seal required. Therefore.17" Determine size of joint required using the larger of either the minimum installation width or the total closing movement: Group 1: Group 2: Add opening and closing 2.0002)(0. Determine Size of Strip Seal Required Total opening movement of joint: Temperature: Shrinkage: 64° to 0°F (12)(450)(0.61 = 5.94" Total closing movement of joint: Temperature: 64° to 100°F (12)(450)(0.87“ = 2. at installation.94 + 1. Skew = 40° > 30° degrees. 8-4-B3:V:BDM8 September 1992 8.0/Cos 40° = 2.94 + 1. a modular joint should be used.4 .31" > 1.31 = 4.96" > 1.07" = 0.5/Cos 40° = 1.17" Set minimum installation width at 64°F: Min.90" Use 5" Use 5" Watson Bowman ACME (Group 2) has a 2" minimum opening for a 5" seal: Minimum at installation.94 + 2.25" Add opening and closing 2.B3 . Group 2: 1.17" 1. Group 1: Min. The structure is symmetrical and has 450 feet (at 64°F) between point of zero movement and the end pier joints.

60 = 3.50" (Group 1 joints have a 1/2" gap at full closure.60" > 1. The structure is symmetrical and has 300 feet (at 64°F) between point of zero movement and the end pier joints. G = Manufacturer's minimum installation width at 64°F = 11/2" Total closing movement of the joint: Cos 20°(1.73" > 1.20" Total closing movement of joint: Temperature: 64° to 120°F 12(300)(0.07" < 1.20 + 1. Determine Size of Strip Seal Required Total opening movement of joint: Temperature: 64° to -30°F 12(300)(0.0000065)(94) = 2. at installation.0/Cos 20° = 1.31" Set minimum installation width at 64°F: Min.31 = 3. at installation.1 .31) + 0.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Strip Seal Design Example 3 Steel bridge with an overall length of 600 feet.75 + Cos 20°(12)(300)(0.0000065)(64-40) = 2.) Construction Width at 40°F: G = 1.31" 1.4 .0000065)(56) = 1.75 + Cos 30°(12)(300)(0. Add opening and closing 2.31" Determine size of joint required using larger of either the minimum installation width or the total closing movement: Group 1: Group 2: 2. Group 1: Min.5/Cos 20° = 1.0000065)(64-80) = 1.28" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 1. Skew = 20° Temperature range = -30° to 120°F (Eastern Washngton) 1.51" Add opening and closing 2. Group 2: 1.50 = 1.80" Use 4" Use 4" Construction Width Calculations for Various Temperatures Group 1 Strip Seals: Construction Width at 64°F: Use the larger of the manufacturer's minimum installation width at 64°F or the total closing movement of the joint.20 + 1.40" Group 2 Strip Seals: Construction Width at 40°F: G = Manufacturer's minimum installation width at 64°F = 11/2" Use 13/8" Use 21/4" Use 13/4" September 1992 8.B4 .

50 + Cos 20°(12)(300)(0.) Construction Width at 40°F: G = 1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Total closing movement of the joint: Cos 20°(1.4 .15" Use 11/8" Use 2" Use 11/2" Strip Seal Design Example 3 8-4-B4:V:BDM8 8.0000065)(64-40) = 2.B4 .03" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 1.50" (Group 2 joints have no gap at full closure.0000065)(64-80) = 1.0 = 1.2 September 1992 .23" < 1.31) + 0.50 + Cos 20°(12)(300)(0.

5 + 12 = 19.93" Gmax = Gmin + MR = 6 + 9 = 15" 2. of seals (= MR/MS) Number of centerbeams Minimum gap per seal at full closure Maximum movement rating per seal = = = = = = 2.4 . WABO D-1200. determine Gmin and Gmax: Gmin = (3)(2. D-241.213" 9" 3 seals 2 centerbeams 1 /2" per seal 3" max. Watson Bowman ACME. Gmin = (N-1)(B) + (N)(MG) = (2)(2. Brown Co.5" Note: Gmin and Gmax for other modular joint manufacturers are computed in a similar manner. Use 71/2" Use 191/2" 8-4-B5:V:BDM8 September 1992 8.4.B5 . Modular Joint B MR N N-1 MG MS = = = = = = Center Beam Flange width Total movement rating Total No.5) + (3)(0) = 7..213) + (3)(1/2) = 5.1. S. Modular Expansion Joint B MR N N-1 MG = = = = = 2.5" 12" 4 seals 3 centerbeams 0" per seal Use 6" Use 15" From Equations (13) and (14). D.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design 1. Determine Gmin and Gmax for Modular Joints Calculate Gmin and Gmax: See Equations (13) and (14) in Section 8.50" Gmax = 7.

75 + Cos 20°(12)(600)(0.62" Design movement along bridge centerline: Add opening and closing (4. set G at 64°F = 8.02" Design movement normal to joint + 15 percent: Cos 20°(7.Design Movement = 9 .) Construction Width at 64°F: Set the joint opening (normal to the joint) at 64°F and allow a 15 percent safety factor: G at 64°F = Gmin + total closing movement of joint = 6.62) = 7.83 + 0.15) = 8.59 = 1. D..7.0 + Cos 20°(2.83" would be adequate. Brown Co.62)(1.213)]/3 seals = 1. 2.40" Total closing movement of joint: Temperature: 64° to 120°F (12)(600)(0.0000065)(94) = 4. Choose a setting so that the extra capacity is shared equally between closing and opening of the joint.77" > 1.50" ok Use 9" Use 107/8" Use 93/4" September 1992 8.2(2.83" Any setting greater than 8.0000065)(64-80) = 9.B6 .88" Therefore. Type D-241.0000065)(64-40) = 10.75 . Determine Size of Joint Required Total opening movement of joint: Temperature: 64° to -30°F (12)(600)(0.81" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 9.41" -30° to 64°F: (94°F/150°F)(1.15) = 7.41) = 0.75" + Cos 20°(12)(600)(0. S.4 .59" Need a modular joint with a 5" movement rating (MR). Construction Width Calculations for Various Temperatures a.4-B5 for Gmin and Gmax.40 + 2. MR = 9" Gmin = 6" Gmax = 15" (See Appendix 8.0000065)(56) = 2. Skew = 20° < 30° Temperature range = -30° to 120°F (Eastern Washngton) 1.02)(1.88 = 9.1 .71" Construction Width at 40°F: G = 9.05" Check spacing between centerbeams at 64°F for seal replacement: Spacing = [9. Extra capacity = MR .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Modular Joint Design Example 1 Steel bridge with 600 ft (at 64°F) between the point of zero movement and the end pier joint.

Check spacing between centerbeams at minmum temperature: G at -30°F = 8.2(2. Brown’s type D-241.50" Since the spacing is less than the 11/2" minimum recommended by the manufacturer for seal installation.2 September 1992 .25" < 1. seals can be replaced without jacking the centerbeams apart.75 . WABO D-900.75 + Cos 20°(4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Modular Joint Design Example 1 Therefore. the centerbeam will have to be jacked toward one of the edge rails in order to replace the seals.88 .15" < 31/2" ok b.88" < Gmax = 15" ok Maximum spacing = [13.88 . Type D-241. Therefore.50)]/3 seals = 2.88" < Gmax = 14" ok Max. MR = 9" Gmin = 5" Gmax = 14" Note that Gmin and Gmax are 1" less than those computed for D. G at 40°F = 97/8" G at 64°F = 83/4" G at 80°F = 8" Check spacing between centerbeams at 64°F for seal replacement: Spacing = [8.B6 .63" < 31/2" ok 8-4-B6:V:BDM8 8.2(2. Watson Bowman ACME.2(2.40) = 12. S.40) = 13.213)]/3 seals = 3. the temperature setting calculations will also be 1" less than those for D. spacing = [12. Check spacing between centerbeams at minimum temperature: G at -30°F = 9.75 + Cos 20°(4. S.50)]/3 seals = 1.4 . Brown’s.

2.5(0.50" ok Therefore. D.2" Design Movement = 3.1" > 5" Use a Modular Joint Determine Size of Modular Joint: Add 15 percent safety factor Add opening and closing: (3. and that half of the shrinkage has occurred. and creep were obtained: Temp Fall 64° to 0°F Shrinkage Elastic Shortening (ES) Creep Ct(ES) = 1.5) = 3.25 + (1. (13) and (14). Ct. Assuming a long term creep factor.2" Modular Joint Design Example 2 Determine Size of Joint Required The Contractor would like to set the joint assembly 60 days after post-tensioning the structure. calculate Gmin and Gmax: Gmin = (1)(2.9" Need a modular joint with a 6" movement rating (MR) 2.213)/2 seals = 1.9" Total closing movement of the joint: Temp Rise 64° to 100°F = 1. centerbeams will have to be jacked to one side in order to replace the seals.25 + 6 = 9.3) = 4.2)(1.1" 1. shrinkage.(16°F/100°F)(3.1 .1) + 1.5(1.22" Check spacing between centerbeam and edge rail at 64°F for seal replacement: Spacing = (4. of 1.25" Construction Width at 64°F: Set the joint opening at 64°F and allow a 15 percent safety factor G at 64°F = Gmin + (Total Closing Movement due to Temp. S.3" Construction Width at 40°F: G = 4.2 = 3.15) = 4. determine: Total opening movement of the joint: 2. MR = 6" From Eq’s. Box Girder Bridge Skew = 0° Temperature range = 0° to 100°F The following calculated movements due to temperature.213) + (2)(0.8) 1. The elastic shortening due to post-tensioning has occurred.9 + 1.2 = 5.1 + 0.P.75 .9 + 1.2" Temp Rise 64° to 100°F 1.B7 . Construction Width Calculations for Various Temperatures a.4 .. Type D-161.5. elastic shortening.27" < 1. Use 41/4" Use 51/2" Use 31/4" Use 91/4" September 1992 8. Rise + 15 percent safety factor) = 3.1" 0.54" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 4.2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Concrete Post-tensioned C.63" Use 43/4" The total temperature movement for 100°F is 3.21" Gmax = 3.I.75 + (24°F/100°F)(3.2)(1.3) = 5.75 .15) = 5.8" = 1. Brown Co.

9 = 8.3) = 3. Use 33/2" Use 43/4" Use 4" Modular Joint Design Example 2 8-4-B7:V:BDM8 8.47" Check Gmin and Gmax.1) + 1.0 + (16°F/100°F)(3.75" < 1.2](1.1 + 0.213)]/2 seals = 2.65" Maximum spacing = [8.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Check spacing between centerbeams at minimum temperature: G at 0°F = 4.0 .0 + [2.15) = 2.5)/2 seals = 0.79" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 4.3" Construction Width at 40°F: G = 4.75 + 3. Watson Bowman ACME.11" < 31/2" ok b.3) = 4.0 .2.B7 .(1.65 .15) = 8.5(1.4 .2(2.15) = 3.50" Since spacing is the than the 11/2" minimum recommended by the manufacturer for seal installation.2 September 1992 . WABO D-600.5" Construction Width at 64°F: G at 64°F = Gmin + (Closing Movement due to Temperature Rise + 15 percent safety factor) G at 64°F = 2.5" ok Total opening = 4.42" < 81/2" ok Check spacing between centerbeam and edge rail at 64°F for seal replacement: Spacing = (4. MR = 6" Gmin = 2. if G at 64°F is 4": Include the 15 percent safety factor Total closing = 4.62" > Gmin = 2. the centerbeam will have to be jacked toward one of the edge rails in order to replace the seal.2)(1.5" Gmax = 8.88" The total temperature movement for 100°F is 3.0 + (24°F/100°F)(3.15 + (1.2)(1.

(16°F/100°F)(6.8" 1.5)(0.7 = 2. elastic shortening.0" 1.6" Need a Modular Joint with a 12" Movement Rating (MR) 2.7 + 2.6) + 0.3" 1. Post-tensioned concrete box girder bridges meet at a hinge adjacent to a pier.7" Total closing movement due to Bridge A and B = 1.6" 0. shrinkage.1 .2 + (0. MR = 12" Gmin = 7.I.2" 0.5)(1.6) = 11. Skew = 0° The following calculated movements due to temperature.375 + (24°F/100°F)(6.0 + (0.7" Bridge B 1.5" 0.B8 .3) + 1.5.75" 0.40)(1.45" Total opening movement of the joint due to Bridge B: 1.375 .2 + 0. Determine Size of Joint Required Determine joint opening 60 days after post-tensioning when the joint will be installed.75 = 2.2" 1.6) = 9. Remember that the two bridges move opposite to one another.26" The total temperature movement for 100°F = 3.50 + (2.P. Rise 64°F to 100°F 1.5)(1. assume a long-term creep factor.7 + 1.8 = 5.15) = 11.4" Determine size of Modular Joint: Include 15 percent safety factor Add total opening and closing movements = (7.0 + 1.32" Use 93/8" Use 12" Use 103/8" 3. Total opening movement of the joint due to Bridge A: 3.45 + 2. (Ct)(ES) = (1.6"/100°F Construction Width at 40°F: G = 10. WABO D-1200. Watson Bowman ACME. and creep were obtained: Bridge A Temp Fall 64° to 0°F Shrinkage Elastic Shortening Creep.7 = 6.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Modular Joint Design Example 3 Two C.25" Total opening movement due to Bridge A and B = 5.5" Construction Width at 64°F: G at 64°F = Gmin + Closing Movement due to Temperature Rise = 7.7" September 1992 8.5" Gmax = 19. Construction Width Calculations for Various Temperatures a.4 .96" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 10.15) = 10.25 = 7. Assume the elastic shortening and half of the shirnkage has occurred. Ct = 1.7 + 0.2") = Temp.4)(1.

48" < Gmax = 203/4" ok Check spacing between centerbeams at minimum temperature: G at 0°F = 11.15) = 20.5)]/4 seals = 2.375") than those computed for the Watson Bowman ACME.17" < 31/2" ok 8-4-B8:V:BDM8 8.375 + 7. WABO D-1200.375 .3(2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Check if G at 64°F is 103/8" (include 15 percent safety factor): Total Closing = 10.643" < 31/2" ok b.7)(1. Type D-321.64" Gmax = 8. the construction width calculations for the D. Brown Co.75 + 12 = 20.213)]/4 seals = 3.375 + (7.40)(1.325 .3(2.325" Max.50" ok Check spacing between centerbeams at minimum temperature: G at 0°F = 10.(2.75 + (2.23" < Gmax = 19.625 + 7..625 + (7.15) = 7.15) = 11.7 = 19.4 . Brown Co.075" < Gmax Maximum spacing = [18.625 .15) = 19.16" > Gmin = 7.7 = 18. will be 11/4" greater (11.5) = 8. Construction Width at 40°F: G = 131/4" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 105/8" Check if G at 64°F is 115/8" (include 15 percent safety factor): Total Closing = 11.4)(1. MR =12" Gmin = 3(2.7)(1. S. spacing = [19.625" = 10.’s.Type D-321.213) + 4(0.(2. S.75" Construction Width at 64°F: G at 64°F = Gmin + Closing Movement Due to Temperature Rise = 8.51" Use 115/8" Use 83/4" Use 203/4" Modular Joint Design Example 3 By comparison to previous calculations for Watson Bowman ACME.B8 .50" ok Total Opening = 10. D.2 September 1992 .86" > Gmin = 83/4" ok Total Opening = 11.075 .4)(1.15) = 8.

Internal Steel Reinforcement: 14 gauge plate (thickness = 0.3.x = Live load rotation (excluding impact) = 0. the shear modulus varies between 0.000006/°F β = Shrinkage coefficient for reinforced concrete = 0.HS25 = 60 kips Live Load rotation (calculated from analysis) θLL. August 1998 8.1A. Bearings shall be installed so that they are horizontal (level) under dead load.0.1. Loading: Dead Load reaction per bearing: PDL. Slab+Traffic Barrier = 112 kips Live Load reaction per bearing (excluding impact): PLL. (c) Internal elastomer layers shall be 1/2 inches thick.b.130 ksi and 0.0002 in/in µ = Shrinkage factor = 0.003 radians (from structural analysis) Constants: α = Coefficient of thermal expansion for concrete = 0. external elastomer layers shall be 1/4 inches thick. (b) Unreinforced (plain) pads shall not be used.4. Use a value corresponding to the most conservative design. Span length is 130 feet.075") Fy = 36 ksi Fsr = 20 ksi The bearing design shall conform to the following additional WSDOT standard requirements: (a) Design for a 60-durometer elastomer.5 BDM Section 8.1.(1) Elastomer Design Parameters: Durometer Hardness = 60 From AASHTO Table 14. (d) Minimum number of internal elastomer layers shall be two. for a 60 durometer hardness elastomer.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Example for Prestressed Girder (AASHTO Design Method A) Standard WSDOT W74G simple span prestressed concrete girder bridge. Girder = 108 kips PDL.4.200 ksi. Use AASHTO Standard Specifications Section 14. (f) Tapered elastomer layers shall not be used.1 Design Method A.4-B9-1 . Bottom flange width of the girder is 25 inches. (e) Maximum overall height of the bearing shall not exceed 5 inches. Use a temperature range of 0°F to 100°F for concrete bridges with a normal construction temperature of 64°F. (g) The shape factor of each layer of any reinforced bearing shall be equal to or greater than 5.

63″ Determine bearing thickness: Minimum total elastomer thickness ≥ 2∆s hrt ≥ (2)(0. maintenance.075″) = 0.725″ thick 8.000 ksi for steel reinforced bearings (220 kips + 60 kips) ∏ [(L)(22)] £ 1. W = 25 in .20 = 0. (k) Girders are placed on the elastomeric bearing pads 30 days following casting.17) + 0.4. (i) Design loading shall take into account the effect of skew and curvature.225″ Total bearing thickness = T = 1.50″ + 0.5)(0.0002)(65)(12) = 0. The remaining creep of the girders tributary to each bearing has been calculated to be 0.1/2″ thick interior layers of elastomer and 1/4″ thick cover layers.725″ < 5″ maximum Determine bearing width.000006)(64) (65)(12) (0.26″ (AASHTO Section 14. (l) The design details shall provide access for inspection. if any.75(0.4.5″) = 22″ Determine bearing length.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Example for Prestressed Girder (AASHTO Design Method A) (h) The average compressive stress from dead load and uplift.08 + 0. Determine preliminary bearing size Temperature fall (64° → 0°F): Temperature rise (64° → 100°F): Shrinkage: Creep (calculated from girder age of 30 days to infinity): ∆s = 0.17″ = 0. shall not be less than 200 psi to avoid “walking” of the bearings.14 gage steel shims. hrt = = = 1. 1.000 ksi L ≥ 12.20″ ok Use (3) .73″ Use L = 13″ (AASHTO 14. L: σc. and future replacement of each bearing.20".TL ≤ 1.63″) = 1.3) (0.30 + 0.000006)(36)(65)(12) (0. W: Use a width equal to the width of the prestressed concrete girder bottom flange less two 1″ chamfers less an additional 1/2″ on each side. Sum of shim thicknesses = (3)(0.0″ 0. 2 interior layers at 1/2″ 2 cover layers at 1/4″ Total elastomer thickness.30″ = 0. (m) For thick bearings. calculate the grout pad elevations using the compressed height of the bearing.2(1″) .2(0.26″ Minimum total elastomer thickness required Use (2) .225″ = 1.08″ = 0.1) Use W = 22″ ok Preliminary bearing size: 13″ wide ξ 22″ long × 1. (j) The bearing design movement shall be based upon 75 percent of the total calculated temperature rise and fall using an assumed normal temperature of 64°F plus any other anticipated movements or translations.1.75 (Dfall + Drise)+ Dshrink +Dcreep = 0.5″ > 1.1.5″ 1.4-B9-2 August 1998 .

H: H = GA∆s /hrt = (0.25″)] = 0. ∆c. but not greater than 1.003 radians ok August 1998 8.700hri = 1.979 ksi £ 1.z= 0.63) ÷ (1. 6.17 > 5.4.0 = 1.TL.1) σc. Check if bearing needs to be secured against horizontal movement (AASHTO 14.4.725″ 4.TL= 280 kips ÷ [(13)(22)] = 0. allowable = 2∆c / L qTL. ok ok ok Check steel reinforcement (AASHTO 14.000 radians.17 → Compressive strain = 0.4) Rotation perpendicular to the beam’s longitudinal axis: θTL.DL= 220 kips ∏ [(13)(22)] = 0.058)/13 = 0.4.x.allowable= GS/b = (. Check bearing stability (AASHTO 14.4.200)(13)(22)(0. using AASHTO Figure 14.DL > 0.1.200 ksi to keep bearing from “walking” under minimum load.z ≤ 2∆c/ W Determine the compressive deflection.039)[2(0.769 ksi ≥ 0.1.4.000 ksi 14.075≤) = 1500 lbs/inch > 850 lbs/inch ok 5.50)(13 + 22)] = 8.5) To ensure stability. Assume minimum load occurs under dead load and uplift.130)(8.000 ksi ok (AASHTO (AASHTO 14.2) Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Example for Prestressed Girder (AASHTO Design Method A) Check compressive stress under minimum load only.725″ L/3 = 13″/3 = 4.x = θLL.5≤) = 850 lbs/inch Pallow = (Fsr)(hs) = (20000 psi)(0. Therefore.0 kips PDL / 5 = 220 / 5 = 44.33″ > 1. if any.039 ∆c = (.5): Determine the design shear force on bearing.2B: Compressive stress = 0. of the 1/2″ thick interior layers: S = (L)(W) ∏ [2(hri)(L + W)] = (13)(22) ∏ [(2)(0.x.979 ksi and Shape factor = 8.1.4-B9-3 .0 minimum σc. σc. S.1.0 > 24.062 ksi.0090 radians > 0.33″ > 1.6) Resistance of internal elastomer layer = 1. θTL.700(0.5) = 24.allowable= 2(0. the total thickness of the bearing should not exceed the lesser of W/3 or L/3.058″ Assume girders are level after placement of slab and traffic barriers.5″) + 2(0.0 kips → Anchorage of the bearing is not required.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design 2.x ≤ 2∆c/ L Rotation parallel to the beam’s longitudinal axis: θTL.1.003 radians and θTL. Keep σc. qTL. Check allowable compressive stress Determine the Shape Factor. W/3 = 22″/3 = 7.x = 0.200 ksi 3. Check rotation (AASHTO 14.17)/1.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Summary: Size: Length = 13″ Width = 22″ Overall total thickness = 1. 14 gage (0.075 inch thickness) Provide 1/8″ minimum side clearance for the steel shims Steel reinforcement: P:DP/BDM8 9807-0802 8.725" 3 steel shims.4-B9-4 August 1998 .725″ Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Example for Prestressed Girder (AASHTO Design Method A) Elastomer layers: 2 interior layers at 1/2″ thick 2 cover layers at 1/4″ thick Total Thickness = 1.

B11 .4 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Elastomeric Bearing Pad Example for Steel Girder July 1996 8.

500 Lbs.4-B12-1 .500 Lbs. > 22.4-B14 Pad Thickness Chart: Page 8.4 Pads Required Use Girder Stop Bearing Pads on three (3) of the girders in each end span. (From Spacing Chart) Number of Girders = 6 From Pad Thickness Chart: 2. Place pads on proper side of girder to oppose lateral component of force from earth pressure. Pavement Seat) T = 2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Girder Stop Bearing Pads Example Spacing Chart: Page 8.5 = 71/2″ Width = 5″ (Flange Depth . August 1998 8.32″ Use T = 21/2″ (1/2″ Laminates) Girder Stop Bearing Pad Dimensions Thickness = 21/2″ Length = 3 × 2.Chamfer) (Number of Pads Required): Known: Pad Thickness = 31/2″ F(Ep)T = 7. ∴ Pad Required Known: From Pad Thickness Chart: Bridge Length = 420″ (Bk-Bk.4-B15 Known: Skew = 33° Girder = Series 120 Spacing = 8′-0″ (Normal to Girder) From Spacing Chart (F(Ep)T ≅ 7.200 Lbs.

4-B12-2 July 1996 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Girder Stop Bearing Pads Example 8.

B13 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Chart July 1996 8.4 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Girder Stop Bearing Pads Spacing Chart July 1996 8.4 .B14 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Girder Stop Bearing Pads Pad Thickness Chart July 1996 8.B15 .4 .

. . . . .2 July 2000 9. . . . . . . . . Abutment and Retaining Wall Junctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dead Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drainage and Backfilling . . . . . Face Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . Bearing Restraints and Girder Stops . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . Sizing Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . Construction Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resisting Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Representative Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . Slenderness Effects . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Earthquake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loads on Girder Stops . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Substructure Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bearing Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . .2-1 1 1 1 1 2 4 11 11 11 15 17 20 21 21 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . Section Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application of Loads to Substructure Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete Design for Substructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Handling of Lateral Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loads . . . . . . . . . Applicable Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . The Moment Magnification Method . . . . . . . . . Usual Governing Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Size and Construction Details . . . Second-Order Analysis . . . . . . . . . Loads on Girder Stop Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Contents Page 9. . . . . Live Loads . . . . . .1-1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Abutment Loads . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . .0-i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spacing of Piers and Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Earthquake Loads . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prestressing Effects from Superstructure . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . Embankment at Bridge Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Load Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 6 12 12 16 16 19 19 9. . . . . . . D. . . . . F. . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seismic Design of Multicolumn Bents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . .

C. . . . General . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wingwall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 9 10 14 29 29 29 29 30 30 9. . . . Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . Footings . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . Design for Stability . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cantilever Walls . H. . . . Counterfort Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rock Walls . . Cylinder Pile Walls . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design . . . . . K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . Proprietary Walls . . . . . . . . . . .5-1 1 1 5 5 6 9 9 9 10 10 9. . . . . . . . . . . .0-ii July 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements for Spill-Through Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cantilevered Walls . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . Earth Pressure at Front Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design for Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L. B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minimum Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diaphragm Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . Joints . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pile Supported Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Distribution Under Footings . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . A. B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete Fill for Soldier Pile Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pedestals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cribbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tieback Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements for Pile Stub Abutments . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Contents Page 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retaining Walls . . Pile Spacings . . . . . General Requirements . . . . Gravity Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . Detailing of Standard Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Architectural Treatment . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slurry Walls . . . . . . . . Requirements for Rigid Frame Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . Uplift Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Forces on Pile Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements for Pile Cap Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Types of Walls . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . .4 9. . . . . . Footing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load and Reinforcement Requirements . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tieback Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements for Cantilever Abutments . . .3 General Design Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soil Nailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 23 23 23 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . Spread Footings . . . . J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timber Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Contents Page 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . B. . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . General Considerations . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . .8-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . Cylinder Piles . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spread Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definition . . . . . . . Normal High Water Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete Pile Types . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . A. . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . Uplift Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . Classification by Load Transfer to the Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Drilled Shafts . . . . . A. . . . Disadvantages . . . . . . . Drilled Shafts . . . . Selection of Pile Type . Specifications . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subsurface Conditions Affecting Construction . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Soils Investigation . . Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . Surface Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . Pile Supported Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Friction vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 9. . . . A. . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . Methods of Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . Seal May Not Be Required . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages . . Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Point Bearing Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subsurface Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . .0-iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 9. Seal Vent Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Piles and Piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification by Type of Construction . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . Recommended Foundation Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . Seal Positively Required . . . . Scour Depth . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages of the Drilled Shaft . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . Steel Piling (H Piles) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pile Loads and Spacing . . . .4 July 2000 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . Characteristic Soil/Rock Properties and Their Use in LRFD . . . . . . . . . A. . .9 9. Overall Design Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Estimated Tip Elevation — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . Pile Foundation Design . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uplift for Drilled Shafts . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . Slurry Displacement Method . Determination of Pile Driveability .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Geotechnical Branch Will Provide to Bridge Office for LRFD Pile Design . . Pile Size.5 Design of Drilled Shafts for Axial Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bearing Capacity. . . . . . . . . .99 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .9. Pile Type. . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . What the Geotechnical Branch Will Provide to the Bridge Office for LRFD Footing Design Loads and Load Factor Application to Deep Foundation Design . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . Loads and Load Factor Application to Spread Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group Effects for Lateral Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions and Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . Overall Stability for Footings — Service and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Contents Page 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determination of Minimum Pile Tip Elevations . . . . . . . 4 4 4 5 9. . Group Effects for Bearing Capacity . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Geotechnical Branch Will Provide to Bridge Office for LRFD Shaft Design . . . . . . . . and Characteristic Soil/Rock Projects . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . Drilled Shaft Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LRFD Basic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drilled Shaft Capacity — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Responsibilities . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . and Concrete Strength of Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sliding Stability for Footings — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Factor of Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roles. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Limit State Design for Drilled Shafts . . . . . Load Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resistance Factors for Footing Design — Strength Limit State . . Overturning Stability for Footings — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diameter Reinforcing. . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group Effects for Uplift . . . . . Resistance Factors for Pile Foundation Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LRFD Load Combinations. . . .0-iv July 2000 . . . . General Modeling Technique . . Analysis by Computer . . . . . . . . . . . .8-6 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 9. . . . . . . Design of Footings at the Service Limit State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. A. . . . . . . . . . . . P-Y Curves . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99-1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . Ultimate Failure vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shaft Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spread Footing Design . . . . Basic Equation. . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. . Dry Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application of LRFD Code to WSDOT Foundation Design . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . Design of Drilled Shafts Subject to Lateral Loads . . . . . . . . . . Depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Excessive Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . Construction Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spacing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral Load Analysis for Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Footing Bearing Stress and Capacity — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Casing Method . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1 1 4 5 7 7 7 9 10 13 14 15 15 16 17 17 19 22 23 24 24 24 26 26 28 28 31 33 37 38 39 39 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A-3.0-v .7-A2 Pile Extension Below Foundation Seals 9. and A-5) 9.2-A10 Moment Magnification Factor 9.3-A4 15-Foot Wing Wall 2:1 9.4-A1 Earthquake Force — Retaining Wall 9.9-A1-1 through 5 Simplified Example for Pile Foundation Design.2-A4 60-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart 9. Including Resistance Factor Calibration Appendix B — Design Examples 9.2-A1 24-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart 9.5-A1 Stress on a Rectangular Footing Normal Load Outside Kern 9.2-B1-1 through 4 Column Shear Example 9.2-A9 Factor Charts 9.2-A2 36-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart 9.3-A5 15-Foot Wing Wall 1 3/4:1 Slope 9.2-A3 48-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart 9.2-A6 Column Design Flow Chart 9.3-A1 Wing Wall Notes to Designers 9.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Contents Appendix A — Design Aids 9. A-4.2-A7 Column Design Effective Length Factors 9.3-A1.3-B1-1 through 5 L-Abutment Design Example — Sheet 1 9.7-A1 Thickness of Foundation Seals 9.2-A5 72-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart 9.3-A2 General Wing Wall Details (applies to 9.2-A8 Buckling Load — Round Columns 9.3-A3 20-Foot Wing Wall 2:1 Slope 9.4-B1-1 through 8 Curtain Wall P65:DP/BDM9 July 2000 9.2-A11 Column Design Example 9.

the reactions from such analysis shall be used appropriately as loads to the substructure. Live Loads Live load shall be distributed to the substructure by placing the appropriate live load wheel line reaction in the lane configuration giving maximum stresses in the substructure unit. For the design loads in columns. Sidesway effect shall be included where it tends to increase stresses.1 .1. the design lanes are to be loaded to obtain the maximum transverse moment at the top of the column. the lane reduction factor as described in AASHTO Article “Reduction in Load Intensity” can be applied to the number of lanes actually loaded to obtain the design loads. sidesway effect from live load need not be considered.) Normally. The wheel line reaction will be 1/2 the results for one lane load from BDS or the results for one wheel load from UCONBRG. Liveload impact is not included in some elements of the substructure.1 . On curved bridges. Substructure elements shall be designed to carry all of the loads specified in AASHTO. The live load wheel line reaction can be obtained by the computer programs BDS or UCONBRG. then loaded again to obtain the maximum shear in the member. For maximum cantilever moment on the substructure units. C. Appendix A of AASHTO can be used. See AASHTO “Impact. and YIELD tabulate the load combinations as described in Chapter 4 of this manual. a single column pier could be overloaded by placing all of the precast girders on one side of the roadway before placing those on the other side. the outside vehicle wheel shall be placed 2 feet from the curb. Computer programs such as GPLOAD.1 9. the substructure units shall be designed for the eccentricity resulting from the differences in girder lengths. (See Figure 9. General 1. For simple span structures.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9. In some cases a sequence of construction is shown on the plans in order to avoid unacceptable loadings. the Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges and Chapter 4 of this manual. B. 3. GROUPLDS. Consideration shall be given during design to construction loads in order to ensure that stability and appropriate stresses can be handled during all construction conditions. the design lanes are to be loaded to obtain the maximum moment in the member. In each case. For the design loads in the crossbeam members. General Considerations 2. For example. The computer program GTSTRUDL will include this effect. No consideration is given to torsional or lateral distribution. The values in Appendix A are for one lane. then loaded again to obtain the maximum axial force on the column.1-1. Good judgment is needed to select those load conditions which govern in order to minimize calculation time.1 General Considerations Loads A. April 1991 9.1. The wheel line reaction will be 1/2 of the values listed. Where curved girder theory has been used in design of the superstructure.” The loads are considered to act directly on the substructure without further distribution through the superstructure except as previously noted. Dead Loads Substructures shall be designed for all anticipated dead load conditions.

2 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design General Considerations 9.1 .

Wind Loads Wind forces shall be applied to the substructure units in accordance with the loadings specified in AASHTO Article “Wind Loads. for example. the full permanent reaction from this effect should be included in the governing AASHTO load combinations for the pier under design. earthquake forces shall be considered to cause a temporary uplift on the substructure equal to 10 percent of the dead load reaction of the superstructure. F. Wind loads shall be applied through shear keys or other positive means from the superstructure to the substructure. The resulting loads shall be taken in any horizontal direction to give maximum design load for the substructure element. Earthquake uplift forces shall be designed per Guide Specifications “Hold-Down Devices. Frame moments and shears thus obtained should be added algebraically to the values obtained from the primary and secondary Pe moment diagrams applied to the superstructure. a more appropriate result might be obtained by considering the superstructure to act as a flexible beam on elastic supports. For structures carried on elastomeric pads or where there is no positive vertical connection. Wind loads shall be distributed to the piers and abutments in accordance with the laws of statics. the substructure design should take into account frame moments and shears caused by elastic shortening and creep of the superstructure upon application of the axial post-tensioning force at the bridge ends. For large structures. General Considerations January 1991 9. Y. When cast-in-place. E. Reference 6. (Seal not included).0 (EQ + Uplift).3 . Final design acceleration coefficient and site coefficient will be given in the Foundation Report. post-tensioned superstructures are supported on sliding bearings at some of the piers. the crossbeam.” As a minimum.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design D. Uplift wind. post-tensioned superstructures are constructed monolithic with the piers. as necessary to properly distribute loads to the substructure. per AASHTO Article “Overturning Forces. When post-tensioning is complete. the ultimate downward force shall be 1. the uplift force from the superstructure shall be neglected.” shall be included in the design where appropriate.99-1.” Transverse stiffness of the superstructure may be considered. Prestressing Effects from Superstructure When cast-in-place. For concrete superstructures built integrally with the substructure. is coded into the computer program GTSTRUDL along with axial forces (and moments at bridge ends if they exist). Where such forces can be developed. Earthquake Loads Earthquake loads on elements of the substructure are describe in the Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. Lin’s text. If the equivalent uniform vertical load method presented in T. provided that the superstructure is capable of sustaining such loads. column and footing shall be designed to carry these temporary loads. the substructure elements shall be designed to carry their dead load plus all the elements below them including soil overburden as though they were suspended from the superstructure. For this condition. then the output results will represent all of the above mentioned effects.1 . on single column piers. the design of those piers should include the longitudinal force from friction on the bearings generated as the superstructure shortens during jacking. Transverse wind can be applied to the piers assuming the superstructure to act as a rigid beam.

However.1.4 April 1991 .1.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9.2 Concrete Design for Substructure The class of concrete for substructure units shall normally be as specified below: Seals Footings Pedestals Massive Piers Columns Std. the force transmitted through a bearing pad shall be limited to that which causes the pad to slip. Live Load For application of live load. Earthquake For earthquake loading. For single-span structures supported on pads. B.1 . see Guide Specifications “Design Requirements for Single Span Bridges. The Modulus of Elasticity of Neoprene at 70˚F (21˚C) shall be used for determine the shear force.1-1. consideration could be given to using Class 4000 in the retaining wall or using pigmented sealer in order that the concrete color will not vary from adjacent portions of the structure.3 Application of Loads to Substructure Units A. The calculated longitudinal movement shall be used to determine the shear force developed by the pads at the abutments. 9.” 9-1:V:BDM9 9. Retaining Walls Wing Walls Crossbeams Retaining Walls Traffic Barriers Class 4000W Class 4000 Class 4000 Class 4000 Class 4000 Class 3000 Class 4000 Class 4000 Class 4000 Class 4000 General Considerations Where retaining walls are connected directly to the bridge superstructure and color matching is important. see Figure 9.1. the intermediate pier(s) of each unit of a multispan continuous structure shall be designed to resist the entire longitudinal earthquake force for that unit (unless the end piers are an integral part of the superstructure).

Pier spacing is usually not changed after the preliminary plan stage. 2. B.2 9. changes can still be made. 3. who will determine if the change needs to be reviewed by the Bridge Planning Engineer or the Bridge Architect. who will determine if the changes need to be reviewed by the Bridge Planning Engineer or the Bridge Architect. for structural reasons. These changes must be reviewed by the supervisor. Tall piers will generally justify greater spacing (longer spans) than short piers. Columns should be designed so that construction is as simple and repetitious as possible. The designer should discuss the possibilities of changing the pier spacing or skew with his/her supervisor at the earliest possible time. Good judgment must be used in determining pier locations on each job. Rectangular sections should have lengths and widths that are multiples of 3 inches. Any changes must be reviewed by the supervisor. Long rectangular columns are often tapered to reduce the amount of column reinforcement required for strength. Tapers should be kept to one plane for ease of construction. Optional construction joints with roughened surfaces should be provided at approximately 30-foot vertical spacing. Multicolumn Spacing Columns shall be spaced to give maximum structural benefit except where aesthetic considerations dictate a modification. Section Shape Column section shape shall be selected for strength and aesthetics and shall give proper dimensions for long column action. Piers January 1991 9. after column spacing in a multicolumn pier or change from a single-column pier to a multicolumn pier. Changes in pier spacing could affect the Materials Lab’s soils investigation.2 . Construction Joints Construction joints in columns are normally placed at the top of the footing or pedestal and the bottom of the crossbeam. However. Multiple columns should be considered if earthquake loads control the column design. Spacing of Piers and Columns 1. Pier Spacing Piers normally are spaced to meet the geometric and aesthetic requirements of the site and to give maximum economy for the total structure. Difficult and expensive foundation conditions will also justify long spans. Changes to column size and shape may be made by the designer. The spacing should be selected so that column moments are minimized for dead load. C.1 Piers Columns A.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9.1 . Multicolumn piers are generally better suited for handling lateral loads due to wind and/or earthquake.2. The column shape is determined at the preliminary plan stage. The designer may. Changing Spacing Column and pier spacing is usually set at the preliminary plan stage based on preliminary analysis. if substantial structural improvement and/or cost savings can be realized. The diameter of circular columns should be a multiple of one foot.

180° hooks generally provide less congestion.2 October 1993 .2. No. Two section views of transverse reinforcing differentiating the column ends and the typical middle sections should be shown. 11 and smaller bars can be spliced by welds. welded splices or an approved mechanical butt splice shall be used. where it must both provide confinement and resist shear. or the top bar can be bent inward (deformed by double bending) to lie inside and parallel to the bars below. All dimensions of the section shall be reduced by the same ratio to obtain the reduced section. Splices of No.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design D. Longitudinal reinforcement should extend into the footing and rest on the bottom mat of footing reinforcement with standard 90° hooks. or 20 bar diameters in the case of welded splices. Longitudinal Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement ratio (ratio of the steel area to the gross area of the section .25 1d.As/Ag) shall be 0. Column Reinforcement 1. When the bar size exceeds No. A detailed clearance check is essential at the column/crossbeam connection. 3. Longitudinal reinforcement should extend into the crossbeam at least 1. 2. Embedment must be at least 1. 7 bar. Where a column is to have an intermediate construction joint. Hoops can be made up of several reinforcing elements with 135° hooks extending into the core a minimum of 10 diameters or 6 inches. plastic hinge locations. If the crossbeam is not deep enough to develop the bars. For usual practice in splicing. the shortest bar shall project above the joint 60 bar diameters in the case of lap splicing. and in columns less than 30 feet long between the top of footing and the bottom of crossbeam. Hooks should be avoided in the crossbeam. The smaller of the bars being spliced determines the type of splice required. splices should not be closer than 30 feet from the columns ends. The reinforcement ratio may be reduced to 0. For extremely tall columns (where a 60-foot bar length cannot reach the middle half). 6 bars. 11 and smaller bars shall be made by lapping the bars.01. Ties can have a 180° hook on one end and a 90° hook on the other end. see Figure 9. The properties of the reduced section should not be used to compute K1/r ratios for long columns. 7 bars can be used for hoops and ties.01.” the method of payment for splice steel shall be defined in the Special Provisions. but the concrete cover (1 inch to the tie) must be maintained using the standard radius for a No. The tie is to engage the peripheral Piers 9. When space is limited. 7 and larger bars shall be staggered. an approved mechanical butt splice. Splicing of Longitudinal Reinforcement Column reinforcement shall not be spliced at points of maximum moment. Show splice locations on the plans. Hoops and ties in the confinement zones are normally No.005 provided that all loads can be carried on a reduced section of similar shape such that the selected reinforcement ratio is equal to . The Guide Specifications require that splices fall within the middle one-half of the column. Ties and Spirals Ties or spirals are required in all columns to resist shear forces and to maintain the column’s structural integrity after catastrophic forces have severely cracked the outer shell. 11.25 1dh (1dh is development length of a standard hook). No. The column end section will only be used for the confinement zones.2 . The appropriate weld details shall be shown on the plans and approved mechanical splices are covered in the Standard Specifications.1-1. The 180° hook is to be alternated both horizontally and vertically with the 90° hook. All splices of No. The minimum reinforcement ratio shall be 0. If the splice is indicated on the plans as “optional.06.

1/2-inch diameter or 5 /8-inch diameter plain steel bar. Twelve feet zero inches is the maximum height normally fabricated. 4 or No. The designer should check that the 180° hook can fit between adjacent hoops and longitudinal bars. Standard sizes for column spiral use are No.2. The pitch shall allow for 1 inch or 11/3 times the maximum coarse aggregate size clearance to allow aggregate to flow through. The area of transverse reinforcing in the confinement zones is the larger of the two requirements. multicolumn crossbeams.2.2 . The general arrangement for column spirals in circular columns is shown in Figures 9. Transverse reinforcement may be provided by spirals. Show full height of the spiral in the bar list. 1/2-inch diameter or W20 spiral). Location of Confinement Zones The typical locations of confinement zones for circular columns are shown in Figure 9. The lesser of: (1) 1/6 the clear column height.3 . hoops are to be used.” The area of transverse reinforcement required for confinement is determined from Guide Specifications Article “Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement for Confinement” for spirals and ties. 4. The spacing at lap splices should be shown on the splice detail and tied to the splice location. The same provisions as a spirally-reinforced circular column apply. or longitudinal frames must have confinement reinforcing over the maximum of: a. Anchor spirals at the top and the bottom with a hook that extends into the core a distance of 10 inches past the bend.1-1 and 2. The maximum vertical spacing for hoops and ties in the confinement zones and over the length of lap splices is 4 inches for Seismic Performance Categories C and D and 6 inches for Seismic Performance Categories A and B. Crossties outside the confinement zones are usually No. For wall type piers where plastic hinging occurs only along the weak axis. Cross-ties should be spaced so as to leave horizontal openings of 18 inches to 21 inches to allow for placing and consolidating concrete.2. The vertical opening between layers of confinement reinforcement should be at least 21/2 inches to allow aggregate to flow through. the transverse reinforcing needs to resist the column shear. 5 bars. Label these spirals with all three options (for example: No. See Design Example 9. use the short dimension. October 1993 9. The area of the transverse reinforcement required to resist the column shear is defined in Article “Column Shear and Transverse Reinforcement” of the Guide Specifications and AASHTO Article “Shear. 5 deformed bar. 18 inches.2. Where confinement is not required. 4. The locations of confinement zones are the same for columns of any shape.1-4 with the use of spirals.1-5 through 5. the fabricator will provide required splices. hoops. b.1-3. Column ends that are framed into footings.1-2 and for tapered rectangular columns in Figure 9. Constant dimension rectangular columns shall be detailed as shown in Figure 9. or W20 or W31 cold drawn wire. 4 or No. The general arrangement for ties in tapered rectangular columns is shown in Figures 9. or cross-ties.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers hoop and be tied to the longitudinal reinforcement.2. or (2) The maximum column dimension.2B-1 through -5. For diameters larger than 8 feet 0 inches. Note that spirals are to be used for all circular columns including and less than 8 feet diameter.

4 . The Earthquake Load Combination is described in the Guide Specifications. There should also be a shear key at the hinge bar location.1-6 shows some typical hinge details.. it may be advantageous to reduce the amount of reinforcement as the applied loads decrease along the column. Vs. Article “Design Forces for Structural Members and Connections. additional confinement reinforcing may be necessary to take the horizontal component from the bent hinge bars. The maximum spacing of confinement reinforcing for the hinge is the smaller of that required above and the following: Av Fy Smax = Where: Av. Column Hinges The area of the hinge bars in square inches is as follows: 1/ (Pu) Pu2 2 + + Vu2 2 4 As = [ ] 0.” For long columns.2 . multicolumn crossbeams. E. The load combinations are described in AASHTO Article “Combination of Loads” and in Chapter 4 of this manual. Continue this spacing one-quarter of the column width (in the plane perpendicular to the hinge) past the bend in the hinge bars.25 times that described in AASHTO Article “Development of Flexural Reinforcement. Crossbeam and footing steel can be counted as confinement steel as long as it is fully developed at the extended planes of the side of the column. load combinations need to be generated at the locations where the reinforcement is reduced. Computer programs such as YIELD. [ Pu Tan θ V + s 0.2. AASHTO Article “Shear. Column Loads Loads applied to the columns consist of reactions from loads applied to the superstructure and loads applied directly to the columns. GROUPLDS.85 Fy Cos θ Where: Pu is the factored axial load Vu is the factored shear load Fy is the reinforcing yield strength (60 ksi) θ is the angle of the hinge bar to the vertical The development length required for the hinge bars is 1.” or a maximum of 12 inches (6 inches if longitudinal bars are bundled). the larger of one-half the maximum column dimension and 15 inches. Space the ties and spirals to satisfy Article “Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement for Confinement” of the Guide Specifications. 5. When the hinge reinforcement is bent. In these cases.” Figure 9. and d are as defined in AASHTO Article “Notations” and 1h is the distance from the hinge to where the bend begins. and GPLOAD can be used to combine the loads. but not more than three-quarters the depth of the crossbeam or footing.85 lh d ] 9.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers Confinement reinforcing is required to extend into these framed footings. Premolded joint filler should be used to assure the required rotational capacity. etc.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers 9.5 .2 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers Spiral Details for Circular or Rectangular Columns Show splice details on the plans.1-2 9. Figure 9.2.2 .6 October 1993 .

2 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers January 1991 9.7 .

2 .2.8 November 1993 .1-4 9.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers Constant Rectangular Column Section Figure 9.

9 .2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers Tapered Rectangular Column Ties Figure 9.2 .1-5 July 1994 9.

2 .10 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers 9.

As a result. failure of the concrete or reinforcement results in sudden failure of the column. bridge columns are required to resist lateral loads through bending and shear. A “long” column can fail due to elastic buckling even though. General Understanding the effects on long columns due to applied loads is fundamental in their design. Valuable information is available in the Commentary on Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. 2. The following is intended to give further guidance of long column design. Method 2 is recommended (by AASHTO) for all situations and is mandatory (Article “Slenderness Effects in Compression Members”) for kLu/r > 100. Bending moments are applied to the column. The following is intended to supplement and clarify the provisions of the AASHTO Specifications. 1. b.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9. January 1991 9. Modes of Failure A column subject to axial load and moment can fail in several modes. Slenderness Effects The goal of a slenderness analysis is to estimate the additional bending moments in the columns and the foundations that are developed as a result of axial loads acting upon the deflected structure. these columns may be required to resist relatively large applied moments while carrying nominal axial loads. B. In addition.11 . The decision as to which method to use is based upon a consideration of the slenderness ratio (kLu/r) of the column(s). Two primary analysis methods exist: Method 1: Method 2: The approximate moment magnifier method detailed in AASHTO Article “Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects. in the initial stages. Axial loads act eccentrically to the new column center line producing P-∆ moments which are additive to applied moments. The P-∆ moments increase the deflection of the column and lead to higher eccentricities and moments.2. Axial load is applied to the column. e. ACI 318 R-83. Failure of a long column is normally a combination of stability and strength failure which might occur in the following sequence: a. causing movement of the center line with respect to the line of action of the axial loads. At some curvature (bending strain). Method 1 is allowable if kLu/r ≤ 100. A “short” column can fail due to crushing of the concrete or to failure of the tensile reinforcement. d.2 Column Design A. c.2 . columns are often shaped to give good appearance. This results in complicating the analysis problem with non-prismatic sections. stresses are well within the normal allowable range. Piers Peculiarities of Bridge Columns Unlike building columns.” A second-order structural analysis which accounts directly for the axial forces.

1. due to axial loads may be resisted by lateral flexure of the superstructure as a result of the connections at the end piers. For nonprismatic columns. k The computation of the effective length factor for columns can be readily accomplished by using the charts shown on Design Aid Sheet 9. In building design.2. Normal bridge practices is to provide expansion bearings at the end piers. These charts are appropriate only for prismatic members. The usual practice is to consider the piers as unbraced in the transverse direction. bracing is commonly provided by diagonal bracing. In this case. 2. for braced columns. the columns must resist the longitudinal lateral loading and therefore are considered unbraced. k. The effective length factor (k) should be computed for both axes of the column. a. sidesway. shear walls. Thus.0. In a braced member with loads applied at the joints. Gtop (1) Transverse Direction When the connection between a single column pier and the superstructure is moment resisting. For certain structures. the bracing member must be designed to take all of the horizontal forces. where L is the total column length. The only time a column can be considered as braced in the longitudinal direction is when it is framed to a bracing member that does not let the column displace more than L/1500. Determination of (kLu/r) requires an estimate of the value of the effective length factor. Braced or Unbraced Columns The AASHTO Specifications use the expression “compression members braced against sidesway” in order to establish an effective column length. Gtop can be computed as follows: 9. For unbraced columns. Design procedures developed for these situations are not readily adaptable to bridge design since typical bridge columns tend to be dominated by lateral loading while building columns are usually dominated by axial loading. however. k ≥ 1. use of Method 2 can lead to significant economy in the final structure. k is not used in the column design.12 April 1991 . a second order analysis is more appropriate. the torsional rigidity of the superstructure may be accounted for in the computation of the restraining stiffness. Effective Length Factor. any tendency toward sidesway is resisted by other members.2 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers When compatible assumptions are made. Method 1 is generally more conservative and is easier to apply. k ≤ 1. In this case. or similar elements. Bracing for some columns is provided by other columns within a story.2-A7. G on these charts is the ratio of the sum of the flexural stiffnesses of the columns to the sum of the flexural stiffnesses of the restraining members. In the transverse direction.

2Ic)/Lc 9.2 .γ)/γ Note that 0 ≤ γ (free) ≤ 1.0 (fixed) January 1991 9. γ. where: Kcol = flexural stiffness of the column Kcol = 4Ec(1. Gbot = Kcol/KR. Gbot = (1.2Ig)Lu for a prismatic column KR = rotational stiffness constant describing the restraint of the foundation The rotational stiffness constant.5Rs for the superstructure accounts for the effects of cracking. b.2Ic)/Lc ΣnEs(0. as follows: Given KR. KR . n = 4 for an intermediate span with fixity at both ends Is can be taken as the I33 value computed for the computer program SEISAB AASHTO Article “Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects” requires that the effect of cracking and reinforcement on the relative stiffnesses must be considered when determining k. Gbot By definition. More rational approaches may be considered in some cases. γ = KR KR + Kcol 4Ec(1. The use of 0.γ)]*Kcol Therefore. and Lc are as defined above for the column Es and Ls are for the connecting spans n = 3 for an end span.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Gtop = where: Ec is the modulus of elasticity of the column Ic is the column moment of inertia computed for the gross section Lc is the column length Es is the modulus of elasticity of the superstructure Ls is the average length of the adjacent connecting spans Rs is the torsional rigidity of the superstructure (the I11 value computed for the computer program SEISAB) µs is Poisson’s ratio for the superstructure (2) Longitudinal Direction When the connection between the pier and the superstructure is moment resisting.5EsRs/2(1+µs)Ls Piers or given γ. KR. Ic. The use of 1.5Is and 0. = [γ /(1.13 . is related to the base fixity.5Is)/Ls 4Ec(1. Gtop can be computed as follows: Gtop = where: Ec.2Ic for the column stiffness approximates the effect of the column reinforcement.

Because the equation is not sensitive to values of k.0. there is a substantial amount of uncertainty involved in the computation of KR or γ.3. but in some cases a more detailed analysis is warranted. should be used. (b) allowable* soil pressure of 6-9 TSF.0. Where this value is not available.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers Procedures for establishing KR and/or γ will be discussed in Chapter 4. *at service load level If additional information becomes available. k ≥ 2. γ. psi/in.4. care must be taken to use conservative values in the slenderness analysis. in. (3) Piers on spread footings: (a) allowable* soil pressure of 3-6 TSF. In this case. it can be estimated from Figure 9. When the new effective length is significantly different. γ = 0. etc. “Foundation Modeling. grout strength. c. Gbot should not be taken ≤ 1. these values will usually be adequate. in. γ The moment induced in columns is dependent on the rotational restraint at the top and the degree of fixity at the base. γ = 0. Therefore.e.2-2.4. γ = 1. can be calculated from: γ= kIf kIf + 4EccIc/h where: k = Soil modulus. (c) allowable* soil pressure 9 TSF (competent rock). 9.2.2 for unbraced columns with rotational restraint at both ends.” used in paving design. (2) Piers on a single row of piles are pinned at the connection to the piles.1 for unbraced columns with no rotational restraint at one end (i. Ic = Moment of inertia of the column.. in. assuming a fixity of 1.4.0. psi. and the resistance of the soil to footing rotation. For braced columns. the effective length of the column(s) should be recalculated.2 . For preliminary design or when detailed foundation information is not available.0 in the column-footing connection. the base fixity is dependent on the connection between the column and the footing. conservative value for base fixity. it is adequate to assume a base fixity between 0.5 and 1.14 April 1991 . thickness of base plate. a value of k = 1. an approximate. Lower limits on k values: k ≥ 1. For most cases. between the footing and soil. h = Height of column. Ecc = Modulus of elasticity of concrete in column. γ. cantilever column). The degree of fixity or restraint. In turn. (1) Piers on multiple rows of piles are 100 percent fixed at the connections to the piles. Alternate Procedure for Determining Base Fixity. similar to “Modulus of Subgrade Reaction.0 will normally be used. The degree of fixity between a column and a footing is a function of several factors including the size and spacing of anchor bolts. the design should be checked using the new values.” In most cases. If = Moment of inertia of the plan of the footing in the direction of bending.

2-2 modulus.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Figure 9.2.2-A6 can be helpful for design by this method. Design Aid Sheets 9. and k. The basic procedure is as follows: a. The Moment Magnification Method This method can lead to rapid column design.7Pc. shrinkage. obtained from conventional elastic analyses using appropriate stiffness and fixity assumptions.2-A1 through 9. The procedure for its use is well defined in the AASHTO Specifications. and thermal deformations do not result in sidesway of the entire frame.2.2-1). Mc. This ensures that Euler buckling is not approached. I. Compute Pc for all columns per AASHTO Article “Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects. φ (see Figure 9. Pu* is the load at the top of the column plus a portion of the column weight: Pu* = Putop + 1/3 * factored column weight. This provision applies only to those columns framed together by the superstructure and/or a crossbeam. April 1991 9. it is considered appropriate to include those moments in the definition of M2b. post-tensioning effects.” Check Pu* ≤ . M2b is defined by the specifications as the bending moment due to gravity loads which result in no appreciable sidesway (∆ < Lu/1500). • All ultimate group loads and column understrength factors. 1 ≥ 1. Piers Approximate relationship between allowable soil bearing value and subgrade C. Since creep. as specified in AASHTO Equation 8-40. Compute the magnified factored moments.0 1-(ΣPu*/ΣφPc) c.15 . Compute the moment magnification factors as specified in AASHTO using Pu*. b. k. Lu. General Procedure The following information is required: • Column geometry and properties: E. 1.2 . Equation 8-41a is modified as follows: δs = d. Since φ may vary for different columns for the same load group. Note that the use of Equation 8-40 will generally require that Pc be computed for both the unbraced and the braced conditions.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers PHI Factor Figure 9.16 April 1991 .2.2 .2-1 9.

Biaxial Bending When using the AASHTO specifications regarding bending about both principal axes. For a second-order analysis.4. It can lead to substantial economy in the final design of many structures. therefore. Under the check mode. in a bridge with long. Numerical methods are available for solving this problem accurately. Second-Order Analysis 1. the appropriate values of Pc and moment magnifiers must be computed for each axis separately. the designer should use either the more correct method described above or a second-order analysis described in the following section. Performing a second-order analysis can be difficult and time consuming. It must be recognized that a second-order analysis is non-linear. If magnification factors controlling the column design exceed 1. and checks or designs the column steel. The ACI Building Code Commentary (ACI 318 R-83) discusses some general aspects of carrying out a second-order analysis.17 . This is a result of redistribution of the lateral loads in response to the reduced stiffnesses of the compression members. Previous practice has been to analyze columns separately. the results will be conservative. The analysis must be repeated for each group load of interest. The designer should consider all of the options carefully and should discuss the situation with the supervisor before proceeding with the analysis. For example. 4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 2. D. Pc The critical load. Piers January 1991 9. the entire frame should be analyzed as a unit. The problem is complicated by the fact that it is often difficult to predict in advance which load groups will govern. thus. For columns framed together. Yield Program Economy in design time can be achieved by using the program YIELD. loads are applied to the structure and the analysis results in member forces and deflections. The program groups the AASHTO loads. the stiff columns will tend to take a larger proportion of the lateral loading as additional sidesway under axial loads occurs. it will determine the Plastic Hinging Moment Envelope to determine foundation loads. The loads applied to the structure should be the entire set of factored loads for the load group under consideration. can be readily computed for a prismatic column. Pc. the computation becomes more difficult. 3. however. magnifies the moments. Analyzing individual columns results in overly conservative results for some columns and nonconservative results for others. stiff columns both integrally connected to a continuous superstructure. Some additional aspects which should be considered are given here. the commonly used principle of superposition may not be applicable. Other numerical methods require that the rotational restraint at the column ends be input directly (the effective length is not required). General A second-order analysis which includes the influence of axial loads on the deflected structure is required under certain circumstances and may be advisable in others. flexible columns and with short. This is appropriate only for those columns that are isolated structurally from the frame as a whole (with sliding bearings in the direction of interest). Critical Load. The moments are all assumed to be acting on an unbraced column.2 . For a nonprismatic column. the computer program COLUMN can be used if an estimate of the effective length factor (k) is made.

The columns are divided into a number of individual segments (10 gave good results in tests). This is inexact in that reinforcement. loads developed as a result of thermal deformations within a structure may change significantly with changes in column. b. “Modeling Foundations. beam. The model is then analyzed using the nonlinear option available in GTSTRUDL. and foundation stiffnesses. In most cases. use the reduced member stiffnesses discussed earlier and the lower-bound foundation restraint stiffness values. Procedures to compute these values will be discussed in Chapter 4. The final design moments are obtained directly from the analysis.2Ig. k.4. For compression members. The factored group loads (including the self-weight of the columns) are applied to the frame. in the computation of the moment magnifiers. are not required for a second-order analysis. Accordingly. Multiply the member stiffnesses by the appropriate reduction factor: φ = 0. The following procedure is adopted: • For the lower-bound analysis. The specifications include the strength reduction factor. For isolated single columns. cracking. More precise methods may be used. and the upper-bound foundation restraint stiffnesses. column moments are sensitive to the stiffness assumptions used in the analysis. the non-linear effects will be small for the relatively stiff upper-bound analysis.18 . the program COLUMN gives the magnified moments directly (P-∆ moments are added to the applied moments using an iterative process until stability is reached). upper and lower bounds on these stiffnesses should be determined and the analysis repeated using both sets to verify that the governing load has been found. Foundation restraint will often be modeled as rotational springs (lateral and vertical springs may also be incorporated). Methods for satisfying the requirements of a second-order analysis are given as follows: a.0). use stiffness assumptions normally employed for elastic analysis. Care must be taken in modeling complex structures as the cost of a nonlinear analysis can be high. Judgment is required. Care must be taken to use conservative values for the slenderness analysis.2 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers As with a conventional linear elastic frame analysis. connectivity. some superposition of results may be required in spite of the non-linearity of the analysis. use EI = 0. Pc. 9. For concrete beams. No guidance is given with respect to the use of φ in a second-order analysis scheme. and φ varies for columns.5EcIg. then a second-order analysis may yield substantial benefits. The stiffnesses for the upper-bound analysis should not be reduced (φ = 1. IB = Ig. For example. and foundation restraint. Note: Computations of effective length factors. • For the upper-bound analysis. A stiffness matrix may be computed to represent the soil-foundation interaction. load duration. The preferred method for performing a second-order analysis of an entire frame or on isolated single columns is to use the program GTSTRUDL with appropriate stiffness and restraint assumptions. and buckling loads.9 for beams. if magnification factors computed using the AASHTO Specifications are found to exceed about 1. various assumptions and simplifications must be made in regard to member stiffness.” For certain loadings. φ. though they may be helpful in establishing the need for such an analysis. and their variation along the members are not explicitly taken into account. IC = 1. use of the equations for EI stated in AASHTO Article “Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects” will give an adequately conservative value. In general. E for concrete varies with loading type. thus.

If not. d.19 . The moment magnifier method magnifies the Group VII loads as follows: Mu = δbMDL + δs(MEQ/R) where MEQ is the elastic seismic moment obtained from SEISAB and R is the response modification factor defined in the Guide Specifications. The load is adjusted for the P-∆ moment. the axial load must be adjusted as follows: Pu* = Pu + 1/3 * factored column weight. but bending moments and shear forces in the columns will theoretically not increase. The design philosophy of the Guide Specifications may be summarized as follows: The columns are designed to hinge (fail in flexure) at a specified percentage of the computed fully elastic seismic moment. a modified approach is necessary to perform a second-order analysis for this loading. This will occur at a deflection and shear force corresponding to δsMEQ/R. The deflections usually converge in about five iterations (deflections from last cycle are within 5 percent of the total deflections). 2.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design c. Therefore. The seismic analysis program SEISAB does not include the secondary effects of the axial loads. M. The adjusted loads are applied to the column and the deflections are computed again. and post tensioning) cannot be analyzed this way. Piers For isolated single columns. For isolated single columns. Column EI must be adjusted according to AASHTO Article “Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects. Care and judgment must be used as they have limitations on the boundary conditions and configurations that may be analyzed. such that: MEQ/R + M = δsMEQ/R. Loads affected by column stiffness (temperature. the column is too flexible and is unstable for that load.7Pc. therefore. The program LOTUS can be used to do the repetitious hand calculations. includes the effect of the column weight. January 1991 9. Special Provisions for Seismic Loading The following applies to those structures designed according to the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Seismic Design. Therefore. the program LPILE1 can be manipulated to also give the magnified moments directly. COLUMN nor LPILE1. the problem is to come up with an approach to compute the additional design moment due to slenderness effects. inelastic deflection will continue to some unknown maximum. shrinkage. At this point. A suggested second-order analysis is given as follows: Estimate the maximum primary elastic deflection of the frame: ∆PR = ∆EQ/R where ∆EQ is the CQC elastic deflection computed from SEISAB.2 . Note: Neither of these programs. *At service load level. The factored load is applied to the column and the deflections are computed along the length of the member taking into account restraints top and bottom and the effect of variations in moment and I along the length of the column.” Pu* including one-third the factored column weight must not exceed . the iterative hand method is sometimes economical.

(Note that for some structures.MPR obtained from the GTSTRUDL analysis. This is rarely the case in column design but can be the case in pile design. Computer program YIELD computes φ according to this graph.10fc′Ag or the balanced load strength φPb. The balanced load strength can be less than .) Apply the external gravity loadings and the primary lateral force determined above to the original model. 2. Use the nonlinear option of GTSTRUDL to analyze the structure. the design moments for the columns are given by: Mu = MDL + MEQ/R + M where: M = MF .20 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers Apply ∆PR to a GTSTRUDL model of the frame. Since moment capacities are based on the factored axial load.10fc′Ag. the value of φ for Group VII Loading may be increased linearly from . the superstructure and the foundation must also be designed to resist this magnified moment. decreases from .” the reduction factor (φ) may be increased linearly from the value for compression members to the value for flexure as the design axial load strength. used for footing or pile design is generally less than the value used for the columns. Thus. to zero. these forces may not agree exactly with the SEISAB results. Reduction Factor (φ) According to AASHTO Article “Design Strength. a separate analysis may be required to obtain the footing design moments. E. whichever is smaller. 1. the resisting capacity of the column section must be made adequate to carry this magnified moment. In addition. This will yield a set of primary deflections and forces. Note: The response modification factor.2-1 shows a graph of φPn versus φ.10fc′Ag when the area of reinforcement in tension of the column exceeds . or Pu = φPn.20fc′Ag to zero. R. According to the Guide Specifications Article “Flexural Strength.2 . MPR and VPR. This graph is appropriate unless φPb is less than . 9. The program YIELD computes the moment strength in the direction of the resultant Mx and My. Thus. The program ULT2AX computes the moment strength in the direction given in the input.50 to the value for flexure when the stress due to the maximum axial load decreases from . this axial load is equal to the design axial load strength. The final moments (MF) obtained are then equal to the sum of the primary moments (MPR) and the additional moments due to slenderness effects (M). Pu. Pn.” for Seismic Performance Categories C and D. Resisting Capacities Once magnified moments have been established. the φMn curve must be plotted for the axial load strength. therefore. corresponding to ∆PR. Moment Capacity Computer programs such as YIELD and ULT2AX can be used to compute the moment strength. φPn.02Ag. The appropriate capacity reduction factor (φ) must be used in the computation of this resisting capacity. The resultant of Mux and Muy must fall within the curve. φMn.2. Figure 9.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
F. Service Load Requirements When widening bridges originally designed by the allowable stress method, the analysis procedure for the Moment Magnification Method is as follows. Compute the capacity of the column by load factor design procedures. The allowable service load capacity of the column shall be taken as: Mallow = where: δ= Cm 1 - 2.5P/Pc 0.35 φ Mn δ

Piers

and P is the service axial load G. Seismic Design of Multicolumn Bents The Guide Specifications require that connections to the superstructure be designed for either the elastic demand moment (Seisab Load Case 2) at the top of the column using an “R” of “1,” or the plastic moment capacity of the top of the column, whichever is less. These column moments are to be carried into the crossbeam and accounted for in the design. (For a center column of a three-column bent, the moment is distributed to the crossbeam on either side of the column.) The seismic design moment for the crossbeam would then be the moment at the face of the column or the equivalent square column.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9.3 9.3.1 Abutments Size and Construction Details
A. Representative Types Several representative types of abutments that have been used by the Bridge and Structures Division are shown in Figure 9.3.1-1. The types shown are intended for guidance only and may be varied to suit the type of bridge being designed. B. Bearing Seats The bearing seats shall be wide enough to accommodate the size of the bearings used with a minimum edge dimension of 3 in. and satisfy the requirements of the Guide Specification for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges, Article “Design Displacements.” On L-abutments, the bearing seat should be sloped away from the bearings to prevent a build up or pocket of water at the bearings. The superelevation and profile grade of the structure should be considered for drainage protection. Normally, a 1/4 in. drop across the width of the bearing seat is sufficient. C. Bearing Restraints and Girder Stops All structures shall be provided with some means of restraint against lateral displacement at the abutments due to earthquake, temperature and shrinkage, wind, earth pressure, etc. Such restraints may be in the form of concrete hinges, concrete girder stops with or without vertical elastomeric pads, or pintles in metal bearings. Other solutions are possible. Article “Connection Design Forces” of the Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges describe longitudinal linkage force and hold-down devices required. To eliminate alignment conflicts between prestressed girders and girder stops, prestressed girders should be placed in final position before girder stops are cast. Allow 1/8 in. clearance between the prestressed girder flange and the girder stop to prevent binding. Incorporate details of Figure 9.3.1-2 in bridge plans. D. Face Slope A vertical abutment wall or a 1:4 slope is used on the front face of the abutment as shown on Design Aid Sheets 9.3-A2 through 9.3-A6. On very high abutments, where a 1:4 slope would create an excessively wide bearing seat, the slope should be adjusted or using the slope only at the exposed leading edge of the abutment and wing wall while leaving the remaining abutment wall surface vertical. On abutments with fractured fin surface, the front face should be vertical to match the fractured fins. E. Sizing Abutments Other portions of the abutment shall be sized for stress. As indicated in Figure 9.3.1-1, additional stem width, where required, may be obtained by sloping the back face of the wall. On extremely high walls (30 feet and above) subjected to large earth pressures, consideration should be given to using counterfort construction. See Section 9.4.2 B of this manual, Counterfort Retaining Walls. F. Class of Concrete The class of concrete used in abutments and standard wingwalls shall be Class 4000.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
G. Abutment and Retaining Wall Junctions Vertical expansion joints extending from the top of footings to the top of the abutment are usually required between abutments and adjacent retaining walls to handle anticipated movements. The expansion joint is normally filled with premolded joint filler which is not water tight. There may be circumstances when this joint must be water tight; 1/8 butyl rubber may be used to cover the joint. The open joint in the barrier should contain a compression seal to create a water tight joint. Figure 9.3.1-3 shows typical details that may be used. Aesthetic considerations may require that vertical expansion joints between abutments and retaining walls be omitted. This is generally possible if the retaining wall is less than 60 feet long. The footing beneath the joint may be monolithic or cast with a construction joint. In addition, dowel bars may be located across the footing joint parallel to the wall elements to guard against differential settlement or deflection. For further discussion, see Section 9.4, Retaining Walls. Particular attention should be given to the horizontal reinforcing steel required at the junction between abutment and retaining wall. To account for the resistance to rotation found in retaining walls and cantilever abutment walls rigidly connected to one another in a U-shape (as seen in Plan View), an equivalent fluid pressure of 45 pcf shall be assumed for design. This increased loading can normally be reduced to 30 pcf at a distance, from the junction between the abutment and retaining wall, equal to the average height of the wall under design. At this location, active state soil pressure is assumed to be developed. H. Construction Joints To simplify construction, vertical construction joints are often necessary, particularly between the abutment and adjacent wing walls. Construction joints should also be provided between the footing and the stem of the wall. Shear keys shall be provided at construction joints between the footing and the stem, at vertical construction joints or at any construction joint that requires shear transfer. The Standard Specifications cover the size and placement of shear keys. The location of such joints shall be detailed on the plans. Construction joints with roughened surface can be used at locations (except where needed for shear transfer) to simplify construction. These should be shown on the plans and labeled “Construction Joint With Roughened Surface.” When construction joints are located in the middle of the abutment wall, a pour strip should be used for a clean joint between pours. Details of the pour strip should be shown in the plans. See Section 5 of this manual and Design Aid Sheets 9.3-A1 through A6 for further guidance on construction joints. I. Drainage and Backfilling Three-inch (3 in.) weep holes shall be provided in all bridge abutment walls. These shall be located 6 inches above the final ground line at about 12 feet on centers. In cases where the vertical distance between the top of the footing and the bearing seat is greater than 10 feet, additional weep holes shall be provided 6 inches above the top of the footing. No weep holes are necessary in cantilever wing walls where a wall footing is not used. The details for gravel backfill for walls, underdrain pipe and backfill for drains shall be indicated on the plans. The gravel backfill for walls shall be provided behind all bridge abutments. The underdrain pipe and gravel backfill for drains shall be provided behind all bridge abutments except abutments on fills with a stem wall height of 5 feet or less. When retaining walls with footings are attached to the abutment, a blockout may be required for the underdrain pipe outfall. Cooperation between Bridge and the district as to the drainage requirements is needed to guarantee proper blockout locations.

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Underdrain pipe and gravel backfill for drains are not necessary behind cantilever wing walls. Threefoot (3 ft.) thickness of gravel backfill for walls behind the cantilever wing walls shall be shown in the plans. The backfill for walls, underdrain pipe and gravel backfill for drains are not included in bridge quantities, the size of the underdrain pipe should not be shown on the plans. Figure 9.3.1-4 illustrates backfill details. J. Embankment at Bridge Ends The minimum clearances for the embankment at the front face of abutments shall be as indicated on Standard Plan Sheet H-9. At the ends of the abutment, the fill may be contained with wing walls or in the case of concrete structures, placed against the exterior girders. On stub abutments with the end diaphragm cast on the superstructure, the open expansion joint must be protected from the fill. Normally, 1/8 in. butyl rubber is used to seal the opening. Figure 9.3.1-5 and Figure 9.3.1-6 show typical details using butyl rubber. The bearings must also be protected from the fill. Figure 9.3.1-7 and Figure 9.3.1-8 show typical details to protect the bearings. There are many other different ways to protect the open expansion joints and bearings than shown in Figures 9.3.1-5 through 8. The method used should be well detailed in the plans. The Special Provision and Estimates unit can advise as to what types of materials would or would not require special provisions.

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Open Joint Details — End Diaphragm on Girder Figure 9.3.1-7

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9.3.2 Abutment Loads
A. Applicable Loads In general, bridge abutments will be subjected to the following loads: Dead load reaction of superstructure. Dead load reaction of approach slab, where applicable, taken as 2 kips per foot of wall applied at the pavement seat. Live load surcharge on earth pressure shall not be included with this load. Weight of the abutment itself. Weight of wing walls where applicable. Weight of backfill and toe fill usually taken as 125 pcf. Frame shortening of post-tensioned superstructure where applicable. Buoyancy where applicable. Live load reaction from superstructure without impact. Live load reaction from approach slab, where applicable, taken as 4 kips per foot of wall for HS-20 loading, 3 kips per foot for H-20 and HS-15 loading and 2 kips per foot for H-15 loading applied at the pavement seat. Live load surcharge on earth pressure shall not be included with this load. Earth pressure is normally taken at 30 pcf equivalent fluid pressure for group loads I through VI. For group load VII, an equivalent fluid pressure with a rectangular distribution and a magnitude of 1/2 γ H(KAE-KA) is added to the earth pressure. Where γ is the unit weight of the backfill (normally taken as 125 pcf), H is the height of the wall, KA is the Coulomb active pressure coefficient, and KAE is the Mononobe-Okabe active pressure coefficient for earthquake as described in the Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. Live load surcharge on earth pressure where applicable, normally taken as a 2-foot surcharge, causes a vertical and horizontal reaction. Dead load reaction of approach slab and live load reaction from approach slab shall not be included with this load. Earthquake transmitted through bearings, girder stops, or a rigidly attached superstructure. Seismic inertia force of the substructure, taken as the horizontal acceleration coefficient (1/2 acceleration coefficient) times the weight of the abutment (including footing and soil weight). This force acts horizontally in the same direction as the earth pressure, at the mass centroid of the abutment. This is described in the Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. Seismic inertia force is only applied for stability and sliding analysis, it is not to be applied to determine the reinforcement required in the abutment. Longitudinal live load from superstructure. Temperature and shrinkage. Centrifugal force. Wind load from superstructure. Figure 9.3.2-1 shows the typical loads applied to an L-abutment and Figure 9.3.2-2 shows the typical loads applied to a cantilever abutment. Figure 9.3.2-3 shows longitudinal and transverse forces from the superstructure with a skew.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
B. Usual Governing Load Combinations The AASHTO Specifications for load combinations supplemented by Bridge Division Criteria shown in Chapter 4 of this manual apply in the design of abutments. Normally for the design of abutments, only Group I (Service Load) and Group IV and VII (Load Factor) need to be checked. For abutment footing design loadings, see Section 9.5. The designer should consider other groups if it appears they might be critical. For the typical abutment with wing walls, check the outer 10-foot portion of the abutment with wing wall and approach slab. Beyond the 10-foot section, check the abutment without applying the wingwall and approach slab (using the live load surcharge on earth pressure). In Group I and IV, apply live load surcharge with and without the live load reaction from the superstructure. Both the vertical and horizontal component of live load surcharge on earth pressure should have the appropriate live load factor applied to it. C. Special Handling of Lateral Forces The longitudinal forces from the superstructure is normally transferred to the abutments through the bearings. The calculated longitudinal movement shall be used to determine the shear force developed by the bearing pads at the abutments. The Modulus of Elasticity of Neoprene at 70°F (21°C) shall be used for determining the shear force. However, the force transmitted through a bearing pad shall be limited to that which causes the bearing pad to slip. Normally, the maximum load transferred through a teflon sliding bearing is 6 percent and through an elastomeric bearing pad is 20 percent of the dead load reaction of the superstructure. For Group VII (Seismic), assume no load transfer through the bearings because end diaphragm is in contact with abutment wall. The bearing force shall not be added to seismic earth pressure forces. The transverse forces from the superstructure is transferred to the abutment through the girder stops or the bearings. 1. Special Abutment Loads a. Cantilever abutment with end diaphragm cast on superstructure: For structures without expansion joints, the earth pressure against the end diaphragm is transmitted through the superstructure. b. Cantilever L-abutment: The compressibility of the expansion joint shall be considered in the design of the abutment for earthquake, temperature, and shrinkage when these forces increase the design load. The following cases will illustrate the handling of typical longitudinal forces: 2. Case A — Force in Direction of Span The intermediate pier(s) of a multi-span continuous structure shall be designed to resist the entire longitudinal force of the superstructure (unless the end piers are an integral part of the superstructure). The calculated movement at the abutments determined from analysis of the superstructure shall be used to determine the shear force developed by the bearing pads. The limiting bearing pad force shall be as indicated above. For the earth pressure force, use the βE factor (see Section 4.2), associated with earth pressure tending to decrease stability (cause overturning), except for group load VII, bE shall be taken as 1.0.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
3. Case B — Force in Direction of Backfill The force in the bearing pad caused by longitudinal superstructure movements shall be calculated in a manner similar to Case A. The βE factor for this case shall be the one associated with earth pressure tending to increase stability (resist overturning), except for group load VII, βE shall be taken as 1.0. 4. Case C — Temporary Construction Condition (longitudinal forces in either direction) a. Superstructure Built Before Backfill at Abutment In some cases the superstructure of a bridge may be built and falsework underneath released before backfill is placed at the end abutments. At this stage the structure may be subjected to earthquake, wind or other horizontal forces. The factor (see Section 4.2) associated with these forces shall be taken as 1.1 owing to the temporary nature of the condition, except for group load VII where the factor shall be taken as 1.0 The force in the bearing pad shall be calculated as in Case A. In some instances, this loading condition may govern the design and might be severe enough to require very large footings or excessive amounts of reinforcing steel when compared with loading combinations that include earth pressure and overburden. Rather than trying to design for severe loading conditions, the designer should consider recommending to the district that backfill be placed before construction of the superstructure. If agreed to, note this in the sequence of construction on the plans. b. Superstructure Built after Backfill at Abutment If the superstructure is to be built after the backfill is placed at the abutments, the resulting temporary loading on the abutments will cause them to act like retaining walls. Such walls require additional tensile reinforcement in the top of the footing heel. The bottom of the footing will normally require tensile reinforcement extending from the heel to the toe once the superstructure is completed. c. Sequence of Falsework Removal Another temporary construction condition to be considered is the sequence of falsework removal. For example, it is usually advantageous in sizing the footing to release the falsework from under the wing walls after some portion of the superstructure load is applied to the abutment. This item, when applicable, can be covered by a note in the sequence of construction on the plans. 5. Special Considerations When the force transmitted through the bearing pads is very large, the designer should consider increasing the bearing pad thickness, using TFE sliding bearings and/or utilizing the flexibility of the abutment as a means of reducing the horizontal design force. When the flexibility of the abutment is considered, it is intended that a simple approximation of the abutment deformation be made.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Abutments 9.18 .3 .

Also see Section 9. The design procedure for elastomeric girder stop bearing pads for Series 8. 10.19 . A portion of the vertical bars may be cut off where they are no longer needed for stress. but the possibility of bending moment in the direction of the span as well as towards the backfill shall be considered. In some cases bearing assemblies containing sliding surfaces may be necessary to accommodate large superstructure movements. Special requirements for individual abutments types are covered in Section 9. Abutments 9. shall be designed for the earthquake loading in addition to the earth pressure described above. Girder stops are designed using shear friction theory.3. see the special requirements for individual abutment types under Section 9.5.3. Footings. Loads on Girder Stops The loads mentioned in Section 9. Appendix A of this manual. Minimum Wall Steel The minimum area and maximum spacing of stressed wall reinforcement stipulated in AASHTO Specifications shall be furnished. For footing design see Section 9. B. In these cases. Some type of transverse girder stop is required for all abutments. Footings.2 A(d) of this manual. Design for Strength When the primary structural action is parallel to the superstructure or normal to the abutment face. C. and 14 Prestress Girders is shown in Chapter 8. Girder stops are often required to transfer earthquake load from the superstructure to the abutment.2-4). the need for girder stop bearings shall be investigated. Design for Stability The factors of safety against overturning and sliding shall be as specified in Section 9.3. The possibility of torsion combined with horizontal shear when the load does not pass through the centroid of the girder stop shall also be investigated. the wall shall be treated as a column subjected to combined axial load and bending moment. Load on Girder Stop Bearings For skewed structures with earth pressure against the end diaphragm (see Figure 9. Compressive reinforcement need not be included in the design of cantilever walls. the earth pressure exerted by the fill in front of the abutment is neglected in the design. these bearings are placed vertically against the girder stop to transfer the skew component of the earth pressure to the abutment without restricting the movement of the superstructure in the direction parallel to centerline. January 1991 9. The weight of the fill in front of the abutment should be included in the analysis for overturning if it adds to overturning.3 General Design Procedures A.3.3 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design D. including the bearing assembly.3. all components of the girder stop. Earth Pressure at Front Face In the usual case. When required. In addition.4 A through E. D. Minimum Reinforcement 1.3. E.4 A through E.2 D above apply to girder stops and superstructure restraints.5.

spaced at 12 inches. The maximum pile reaction from transverse effect will then be P/N + Mt/S. Minimum Temperature and Shrinkage Steel in Wall The AASHTO Specifications. The design of this type of abutment is like that of a crossbeam.” requires a minimum temperature and shrinkage steel of 0. This is not sufficient to limit shrinkage cracks in thick walls.3.3 . or for piles with a stiffness about the same magnitude as the pile cap.4 C). Requirements for Stub Abutments For stub abutment (girder seat to top of footing less than approximately 4 feet). see Figure 9.80 times the simple beam moment. such as shafts. where P is the total vertical load. the analysis for the pile cap should be as a crossbeam. are less than 6 kips per pile and all the piles have no batter. For the analysis of the pile cap. in. 3.4-1). and transverse bending as well as shear shall be investigated for the spans between the piles. For pile caps with lateral loads greater than 6 kips. Abutments 9. B. no. Mt is the transverse moment about the centerline of abutment and S is the transverse pile modulus. The analysis of this type abutment shall include investigation into both bending and shear stresses parallel to centerline of bearing. Article “Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement. shall be 0.20 . the wheel loads should be placed unsymmetrically to obtain the largest pile reaction. N is the total number of piles. the wheel loads should be placed for the maximum moment on the pile cap.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 2. 4 bars with 180 degree hooks. earth pressure combined with longitudinal forces from the superstructure may become significant (see Section 9.6. Requirements for Pile Cap Abutments Earth pressures on some pile caps are either negligible or very small (when the lateral force on each pile is less than 6 kips). For the analysis of the piles. For wide bridges (2 lanes with skew and wider) the abutment may be assumed to act as a flexible beam on knife-edge supports. see Section 9.3. On abutments that are longer than 60 feet. The maximum pile live load reaction from transverse loading can be obtained by assuming the abutment acts as a simple beam between piles and each wheel load (in the design lane or approach lane) is proportionally distributed to the adjacent piles (see Figure 9.e.3. maximum positive or negative moment = 0. Minimum Cross Ties in Wall Ties. per foot of wall. and vertical dead load and live load are the major effects. etc.3. in both directions on each face of the wall. If the superstructure is relatively deep. 9. This analysis is only valid if the lateral forces from earth pressure. A more appropriate minimum temperature and shrinkage steel is taken from the ACI-83.3-1.125 sq. spaced at approximately 2 feet center to center vertically and at approximately 4 feet center to center horizontally shall be furnished throughout the abutment stem in all but stub abutments. and the analysis for the piles should include the lateral capacity of the pile. This analysis is valid for piles with a stiffness much less than the pile cap.2. with battered piles. Transverse moments and shears may be found assuming the spans between piles as semi-simply supported: i. For narrow bridges (one-lane ramps and two-lane bridges without skew) the transverse live load moment on the abutment shall be taken about the center of gravity of the pile group assuming the abutment to be a rigid beam. the footing and wall can be considered as a continuous inverted T-beam. see Section 9. minimum area of reinforcing steel per foot of the wall. Maximum shear = simple beam shear.1. consideration should be given to have vertical construction joints to minimize shrinkage cracks.4 Load and Reinforcement Requirements A.011 times the thickness of the wall (in inches).

3 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Abutments January 1991 9.21 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Abutments Pile Cap Abutment Figure 9.3 .22 .3.4-1 9.

Requirements for Spill-Through Abutments The analysis of this type of abutment is similar to that of an intermediate pier. Earthquake forces from the soil mass need not be applied as loads. Whenever a preliminary analysis establishes that the effects of vertical loads are far greater than the effects of horizontal earth pressure loads (generally the case with low abutments and long horizontal spans). For earth pressure acting on rectangular columns. the assumed 45° lines of influence from the girder reactions will overlap. and bending loads. The rigid frame itself should be considered restrained against sidesway for live load only.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design C. The abutment design should include the live load impact factor from the superstructure. shear.3 . Requirements for Rigid Frame Abutments Abutments which make up parts of rigid frame bridges shall be designed in accordance with service load criteria.5 times the actual column width. The 60 pcf value is to be used for normal rigid frames where there is a high degree of restraint to the soil mass. The primary structural action takes place normal to the abutment. E.3. and the bending moment effect parallel to the abutment may be neglected in most cases. load factor criteria may be used.23 .4. The crossbeam shall be investigated for vertical loading as well as earth pressure and longitudinal effects transmitted from the superstructure.6. The design may then be carried out on a per foot basis as described earlier under Section 9. assume an effective column width equal to 1.3 A through C. Earth pressure loading shall be a maximum of 60 pcf equivalent fluid pressure and a minimum of 30 pcf equivalent fluid pressure to be applied in any combination except as noted below. However. Lower figures may be used if lower degree of restraints exist. Abutments 9-3WORK:V:BDM3 January 1991 9. The 30 pcf value is equivalent to a normal cantilever retaining wall. The wall is assumed to be a cantilever member fixed at the top of the footing and subjected to axial. Short. Requirements for Cantilever Abutments If the height of the wall from the bearing seat down to the bottom of the footing exceeds the clear distance between the girder bearings. impact shall not be included in the footing design. Earth pressure loading of up to 15 pcf may be used to reduce moments in the superstructure provided that such pressure can be developed. D. This reduction may also be used for earthquake acting on rigid frame structures. Columns shall be investigated for vertical loads combined with horizontal forces acting transversely and longitudinally. see Section 8. and the dead load and live load from the superstructure can be assumed equally distributed over the abutment width. stiff columns may require a hinge at the top or bottom to relieve excessive longitudinal moments. For requirements for rigid frames with ceramic tile lining.

along with design criteria. Cantilevered Walls Cantilevered walls are reinforced concrete walls consisting of a base slab footing from which a vertical stem wall extends.4 9. Gravity Walls Gravity walls can be made from many different materials including plain concrete. These walls are suitable for heights up to 35 feet.4. Use of masonry walls are quite limited due to the excessive cost of placing the material by hand. Details for gabion wall construction are found in the Standard Plans and Specifications. B. Gabion Walls Gabion walls consist of wire baskets laced together and filled with rock.1 . the top of which is at a higher elevation than the earth or rock in front of the wall. For illustrations of different types of walls. Mortar Rubble Masonry Walls Basic design and construction standards for these walls are given in the Standard Plans. mortar rubble masonry and gabions.1 Retaining Walls General A retaining wall is a structure built to provide lateral support for a mass of earth or other material. Cribbing height is generally 10 to 30 feet. The Hydraulics Section should be consulted for any walls that could be threatened by flood water or are located in a flood plain. rubble masonry. 2. All retaining walls not covered under Standard Walls or Preapproved Proprietary Walls are designed in the Bridge and Structures Division. These walls can exceed heights of 50 feet and generally become economical for walls having considerable portions exceeding heights of 25 feet. For nonstandard designs. They are primarily used when it is necessary to blend with previously completed projects where a masonry wall already exists. 1. the computer program RETWAL can be used for analysis. Retaining walls depend either on their own weight or on their own weight plus an additional weight of the laterally supported material.2-1 through 9. Details for construction are given in the Standard Plans.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9. Gravity walls depend on their own weight for stability. D. C. with the exception of gabion walls. which can exceed 30 feet in height. Cribbing Cribbing is made of metal bins. Retaining Walls 9. They are generally used for wall heights of 10 feet or less.4. The Architectural Section should review architectural features and visual impacts at the Preliminary Design stage. These walls are flexible and some post-construction settlement can be tolerated. Counterfort Walls Counterfort walls are a type of cantilever wall which have ribs on the backside to strengthen the junction between footing and stem wall.4. precast reinforced concrete or logs. The major disadvantage of these walls is the low tolerance to post-construction settlement. see Figures 9.4 . which may require use of piling to provide adequate support.2 Common Types of Walls A.2-4 at the end of this section.4. or on a tieback system for their stability. January 1991 9.

trademark. welded wire with vegetation.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 1.2 . Structural Earth Walls A structural earth wall is a flexible system consisting of concrete face panels that are held rigidly into place with thin galvanized steel or aluminum strips extending into a select backfill mass. Wall heights. The shaft is reinforced with steel beams or steel reinforcing bars. E. G. or geotextiles. have been built to retain fills. 4 to 10 feet. to resist horizontal forces. drilled shaft filled with Class 4000 concrete. national forests. It is recommended to use this type in marine areas for its ability to withstand corrosion. or shotcrete. cylinder piles. Metal Cribbing There are two types of metal cribbing approved for use in the state of Washington. Reinforced Concrete Cribbing Concrete cribbing is similar to metal and can be used as an alternate. The following is a description of the most common types of proprietary walls: 1. or primitive areas.4 . It is well suited for use on detours or temporary walls used for stage construction. Retaining Walls 9. The greatest advantage in using tiebacks is that it causes minimal disturbance to the soil behind the wall and any structures resting on this soil. These walls can be built to heights exceeding 50 feet. Nonstressed anchors. The walls have three principal elements: • The backfill or wall mass: a grandular soil with good internal friction (gravel borrow). Wall panels made of cast-in-place concrete. Proprietary Walls A wall specified to be supplied from a single source (patented. called deadman anchors. or copyright) is a proprietary wall. • The facing: precast concrete panels. The main members are connected to high strength steel bars or strand anchors. F. or slurry walls. rely on passive pressure of the soil in front of the deadman panel to resist horizontal forces. welded wire. Log Cribbing Log cribbing has a rustic aesthetic value which makes it popular for use in locations having a natural environment. The details are shown in the Standard Plans. such as parks. which are fixed into soil or rock with high strength grout and stressed to counteract the horizontal earth pressure loads. These walls can range in heights from 15 to 50 feet. 2. 3. precast concrete or timber are connected to cylinder piles. steel mesh. up to 50 feet. • The reinforcing metal strips. These walls will allow for some settlement and are best used for fill sections. geotextiles. The anchors can be incorporated into a permanent wall by the use of a double corrosion protection system or can be used in a temporary condition for shoring and cribbing. such as soldier piles. Tieback Walls Tieback walls use vertical main load carrying members. Cylinder Pile Walls This wall utilizes a large diameter. sheet piles.

The Special Provisions will be written by the Bridge Office with design criteria. shapes and colors. — “Criblock” up to 30 feet. b.3 . The district can select a particular wall type from the list and include it in the contract plans. The Materials Lab will supply the Special Provisions for the wall mass material. The Materials Lab is responsible for the design and review of geotextile walls. The following is a list of the proprietary wall systems that are preapproved: a. but are not adaptable to pile support. Foundation These walls perform well in settlement sensitive areas. f. January 1991 9. Backfill A granular soil meeting the requirements of gravel borrow is required for the wall mass. Height In fills more than 10 feet high. and the Materials Lab will give the soil criteria needed for design and check the soil for overall stability. The backfill used in this case must be suitable to sustain vegetation growth at the face of the wall. A list of preapproved proprietary walls is on file in our office. e. and provide special aesthetic features. The main use of fabric walls is for temporary walls. d. Length Adequate room is needed for earthwork equipment. Geotextile Walls Geotextile walls are structural earth walls that use geotextile fabric for the reinforcement and the facing. Criblock Retaining Walls Northwest Inc. Welded wire wall surfaces may have vegetation growing on exposed surfaces to match existing terrain. The Materials Lab and the Preliminary Plans Unit will approve the concept prior to Ad. the backfill shall be free-draining. as an alternate to a Standard Wall. Short. precast cantilever. 2. Excavation Structural earth walls are typically more costly than other wall types in excavation areas. Other Proprietary Walls Other wall systems similar in concept to the standard crib. including height limitations. c. which can become permanent walls with a cast-in-place or shotcrete facing. structural earth walls are generally less costly than other wall types in fill locations. Prior to wall construction. the supplier will submit design calculations and shop drawings for approval. Aesthetics Facing is available in a variety of surface textures. 3.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls There are several important factors when selecting a structural earth wall. reduce construction time. or tieback can offer cost reductions. bin. These are as follows: a.4 . In areas where the wall may become saturated. low walls should be avoided. Greater excavation is needed to accommodate the wall mass which has a width of about 70 percent of the wall height.

They are generally 15 feet or less in height.4 B1-10 for curtain wall rigidly attached to footing and abutment wall. Noise Walls Noise walls are primarily used in urban or residential areas to mitigate noise or to obstruct view of roadway. 9. Soil Nailing Soil nailing is a technique used to stabilize moving earth. facing is used in the form of precast panels.1.1A2. e. Design criteria for noise walls is based on AASHTO’s Guide Specifications for Structural Design of Sound Barriers. Wingwall A wingwall retains the fill beyond the bridge end. — “Reinforced Earth” — up to 30 feet. Reinforcing steel is placed in the slurry-filled trench and concrete is placed by means of a tremie or a concrete pump while displacing the slurry. these walls can exceed heights of 50 feet. General Refer to AASHTO Specifications and Bridge Design Manual Criteria 9. cast-in-place wall and footing. the excavation can be completed.3..1F and G. A trench is excavated for the wall and simultaneously filled with a bentonite slurry. a cast-in-place concrete face is not allowed with these wall systems. I. or where ground water is a problem. Retaining Walls Hilfiker Retaining Walls.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design b. and 9. VSL Corporation — “Reinforced Earth” — up to 30 feet. d. For an aesthetically pleasing appearance. See Design Example 9. because of its long history of good performance and due to the lack of development of Load Factor Design criteria for retaining walls. such as a landslide.3 Design A. c. Soil anchors are used along with the strength of the soil to provide stability. K.2.g. (1) “Reinforced Soil Wall” — up to 30 feet. The Reinforced Earth Co. Slurry Walls Slurry wall construction method enables wall placement to precede wall excavation. The standards also show different surface treatments. H. It acts like a horizontal cantilevered wall with its main support from the end abutment. 9. Service Load Design is used rather than Load Factor Design. With the addition of tiebacks.5. cast-in-place concrete. This is useful when restricted by tight right-of-way. Rock Walls Rock walls are gravity walls made of stacked large rock. The Materials Lab will design the system of soil nailing to be incorporated in the bridge contract plans. The Architectural Section is responsible for determining wall type. The two Office Standards lengths are 15 feet with 1 3/4:1 and 2:1 fill slope and 20 feet with 2:1 fill slope wingwalls. or shotcrete. Precast wall panels supported by precast pilasters. staging construction. or as a means of temporary shoring. A separate design is required when using a nonstandard length. Service Load Design is used for design of retaining walls and the loading combinations shall be as described in AASHTO. (2) “Welded Wire Wall” — up to 20 feet. or wood fencing are the common types. 9.4 . The bentonite slurry restricts the ground water flow and holds the trench sides in place. L. After the concrete has cured.4.4 April 1991 . fractured fin finish or plain concrete finish. J. They are used primarily in cut sections to provide erosion protection and limited support.

4 .5 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls January 1991 9.

6 .4 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls 9.

4 .7 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls January 1991 9.

8 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls 9.4 .

S. The 10 kip collision load shall be distributed over 16 feet.2 Retaining Walls greater than 2. At the junction of the abutment and retaining wall an equivalent fluid pressure of 45 lb./cu. ft. the surcharge slope. toe resist M abt. This is the minimum wall length allowed for Type 2 Retaining Walls in the Standard Plans.S.0 F.4 . equivalent fluid pressure when well draining granular backfill material is used. Wall Height. Special consideration should be given to the design of the “U” shape abutment without expansion joints between the abutment and retaining walls. the controlling load is the 10 kip collision load. shall be used.5 Weight FS = 1.000 psi. Normally the earth pressure is taken as 30 lb. October 1993 9./cu. In a special design.5 FS(EP + EQ) < 0.9 . To maintain adequate safety against sliding. ft. Earth pressures shall be based on soil weight = 120 lb. see table below) shall be kept within the middle one-third of footing. the distribution width shall be the smaller of wall length between expansion joints (24′-0″ max.. the coefficient of internal friction and/or the cohesion of the backfill material. 16 feet or less for 10K collision load H. This can be expressed as a minimum Factor of Safety (FS) of two against overturning about the toe of the footing for spread footings or the front row of piles for pile footings (see 9. This increased loading can normally be reduced to 30 lb. the following should be observed for spread footings. = 1. For special retaining wall design. 17 feet or more for all Wall load cases Earthquake Group VII All Heights Overturning* M abt. ft.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design B. the resultant shall be kept within the middle one-half of the footing.5 greater than 1. = 1. toe loads greater than 1. Cantilever Walls In general. (FS)P (P = total horizontal force on wall) ≤ 0. at a distance from the junction of the abutment and retaining wall equal to the average height of the wall under design./cu./cu. concrete for retaining walls shall be Class 3000 Concrete with a 28-day compressive strength of 3. The resultant for Group I loadings (except for walls with traffic barriers having a height (H) of 16 feet or less.5 Weight F.1 Factor of Safety (FS) Table *Both cases shall be met for determining wall stability. This load occurs occasionally and will have a reduced factor of safety.1 for additional criteria regarding pile footings).5. For all other loading combinations.5 W (W= total minimum vertical load) For walls having a height (H) of 16 feet or less.5 Location of Resultant* within middle 1/2 of footing within middle 1/3 of footing within middle 1/2 of footing Sliding FS(EP + Sur or 10k) < 0. H Roadway Grade to Bottom of Footing H. the use of Class 4000 is appropriate. ft.) or 5 feet + 2H (assumes AASHTO traffic barrier distribution plus a 45 degree influence line).

simple panel slurry walls. such as unfavorable soils and hydrologic conditions and where other techniques may have limitations.5. backfill slope angle • δ = i. Cut-off Wall. c. the passive resistance in the front of the footing may be considered if the earth is more than 2 feet deep on the top of the footing and does not slope downward away from the wall.5. 2. slip is more likely to occur within the backfill than between soil and abutment interface. or Curtain Wall) The permanent diaphragm walls include cylinder or tangent pile walls. See example in Design Aid 9.10 October 1993 . No lowering of the ground water table required. Limited local contractor experience which may result in higher bid prices or unforeseen construction problems. For retaining walls resting on foundation piles. Diaphragm Walls (Other names: Slurry Wall. • Kh = A/2. Higher cost. • δ. Irregular shapes are possible. if dry excavation is necessary. and T-section slurry walls. refer to Bridge Design Manual Sections 9.4-A1 to determine earthquake load. 9. For cantilever walls. e. A is the acceleration coefficient. and 9. Reduced factors of safety are shown in the preceding table. Advantages of diaphragm walls are: a. • β = 0. AASHTO article “Abutments” gives equations to calculate the earthquake forces. d. Disadvantages of diaphragm walls are: a.4 . 1. h. Mononobe-Okabe analysis in AASHTO Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges shall be used as a check in the design of the wall. c. Relatively free from vibrations and noise during construction. b. No formwork required. the soil fails in a vertical plane through the footing heel. C. Construction possible under adverse circumstances.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls For sliding. The earthquake force will be in the same direction as the slope of the surface of the backfill. Can be constructed to considerable depths ahead of the main excavation. regardless of wall batter. g. vertical acceleration coefficient is zero. b. The design soil pressure at the toe of the footing shall not exceed the allowable soil bearing capacity supplied by the Foundation Engineer.1. f.2. 9.6. The Mononobe-Okabe equation requires the following assumptions: • Kv = 0. This results in β = 0 for cantilever walls. The disposal of used slurries in urban areas may pose special problems. Relatively impervious in comparison with other types of walls. Can form outer wall of structures. angle of friction between soil and abutment i.

f. *Conventional practice is to use a factor of safety which increases the embedded depth by 20 to 40 percent above the value required for barely stable equilibrium. Class 4000 concrete is typically used.4 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 3. Use the same thickness for the flange and the stem of a T-section if possible. The choice of depth factor is based on engineering judgment.e. slippery film coating on the reinforcing steel from the slurry. There are tree common types of analysis: (1) Factored soil strength parameters of Cm. preferably 9 inch spacing.15 ~ 1.17 1. • Horizontal bars at 12 inch spacing. Modulus of elasticity shall be calculated from the reduced concrete strength. φm. increase development length by 25 percent) for deformed bars due to the thin. The maximum panel width is limited to 8 feet for T-section and 24 feet for simple diaphragm wall. Lap splices shall be 1. Concrete cover shall be a minimum of 3 inches.3 1. h.36 Retaining Walls c.2 1. g.85fc′. b. The wall panel shall be a maximum of 48 inches thick for both simple and T-section diaphragm walls. An approximate correlation between depth factor and factor of safety applied to shear strength is shown as follows: Soils Good Typical Bad Depth Factor* 1.25 1.11 .4 Corresponding Value of F 1.. To compensate for the effects of the concrete being cast in a slurry. use the following minimum spacing: • Vertical bars at 6 inch spacing. Use 80 percent of the allowable bond stress (i. d. the length of embedment required for wall stability is used in design. Higher strength concrete may be specified for special cases with approval of the Bridge Design Engineer. October 1993 9. To allow for proper placement of concrete.29 ~ 1. Design Criteria a. the assumed concrete compressive strength shall be fc = 0. and δm with full passive coefficient KP (so-called Duncan’s method): φm = tan-1 (tanφ) F C Cm = F 2 δm = φ 3 m By reducing soil strength parameters. e.5 times normally specified splice length.

4 .5. FreeStanding Abutments”) KAE = KA + KAE where KAE KAE = the coefficient of total earthquake earth pressure = KA (Coulomb’s static active coefficient). which falls in between the value of 0. (b) Overall wall and slope stability using unfactored (or peak) soil strength parameters and factor of safety ≥ 1.0A. when providing 20 ~ 40 percent additional length. (2) Free Earth Support Method — So-called “Simplified Method. (A = acceleration coefficient) The design seismic passive resistances represent the total resistance during earthquake. KAE and KPE shall be calculated by replacing γ with γ′. without adding additional length.5A for nonyielding walls. then KPE = KP (Coulomb’s static passive coefficient) For the submerged portion of soils. when θ = 0° ∆KAE = the additional dynamic load The static loads are triangularly distributed and the additional dynamic loads are uniformly distributed on the wall. The required depth of embedment is determined based on: (a) Moment equilibrium about the base of the wall.12 October 1993 . Two different techniques can be used for design of diaphragm walls: (1) Fixed Earth Support Method — So-called “Conventional Method” (refer to USS Steel Sheet Piling Design Manual).5A for yielding walls and 1. Note that if.” This method uses active earth pressure on the projecting portions of the wall.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls (2) Unfactored soil parameters use KP/1. i. and passive pressures on the front of the wall for the entire embedded length. γ ) = tan-1 γ′ 1-Kv where γ ′ = submerged unit weight of soil Kv = vertical acceleration coefficient j. (3) Unfactored soil parameters use KP. It is recommended that the horizontal acceleration coefficient Kh for diaphragm walls be the value of 1. ( Kh . Commentary “Foundation and Abutment Design Requirements. Soil loading due to earthquake is based on Mononobe-Okabe pseudo-static analysis (refer to Guide Specification. The coefficient of passive resistance can be determined from the Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges.5. θ = 0°. 9. and (c) A minimum wall depth below the excavation level depending on engineering judgment or criteria from the Materials Laboratory.

0 [DL + βE (EQ + W)] where DL = dead load of the structural element. The calculation of deflection is based on a value of n = 16 for determining modulus of elasticity of concrete used. The value of R for loose sand is larger than that for dense sand. (2) Due to soil-structure interaction.3 when using Conventional Method with full KP m.” (5) When using the equivalent (or pseudo)-static earthquake loadings and ultimate strength design methods. W = hydrostatic water pressure βE = 1. The design of the wall with regard to moment capacity. EQ = earthquake earth pressure acting on the element. a redistribution of lateral stresses is anticipated.4 . October 1993 9.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls Due to its simplicity and accuracy. k. (4) Calculate moment and shear capacity and check if they are larger than the applied moment and shear based on AASHTO table “Table of Coefficients γ and β. and a concentration of pressure at supports. The following procedures should be used. For diaphragm wall with tiebacks: (1) Recommended embedment is a minimum of at least 10 feet below the proposed excavation level. EP = static earth pressure acting on the element (plus surcharge). should be: U ≥ 1.0 when using Duncan’s Method 1. the “Free Earth Support Method” is recommended to design diaphragm walls. and to about 2 inches at the base. resulting in reduction of pressure near the center of spans between anchors. U. The wall is designed based on “Ultimate Strength Design Method” (or Load Factored Design Method”). (3) Check flexural cracking (see AASHTO Article “Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement”). (1) The minimum reinforcement provided shall be adequate to fulfill the requirements of AASHTO Article “Minimum Reinforcement.13 . and to about 11/2 inches at the potential deteriorated plane (or slip plane).3 (DL + βE · EP + W) or U ≥ 1. A computer program name “Wall” is available.” (2) Find the amount of reinforcement (on a trial basis). The typical value of l. The maximum deflection at the top of the wall at service load levels shall be limited to H/120 or 4 inches. the section capacity. whichever is less. Actual embedment may be increased to provide adequate kick-out resistance through development of passive pressure or for vertical load capacity. estimate the actual moment in the walls as follows: Mactual = R · Mcalculated The value of R for clay approaches unity as the compressibility of the soil increases.

a range of typical design values is listed as follows: a. • Selection of an anchor system. Also. In general. and is usually 15 feet for soil and rock anchors (longer free lengths may be required in plastic soils. strands and wires have advantages with respect to tensile strength. c. the values of R for stiff walls are larger than for flexible walls.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls R for sand is recommended to be 0. Testing shall be part of anchor installation and included in the specifications. or strands. are only recommended to reach deep bearing strata or avoid existing substructures. D. or rock. A reliable estimate of the safe anchor capacity is required from the soil’s report recommendations for each project to determine the feasibility of anchoring. up to 45 degrees. The capacity of each anchor shall be verified by testing. bonded length. consult the Geotechnical Engineer) in order to avoid unacceptable prestress losses due to creep in the steel. • Determination of unbonded length. Steeper angles. ease of transportation.4 . Angle of inclination between 10 degrees and 45 degrees. A 15 degree angle is preferred to simplify grouting and minimize vertical forces imposed on the wall by the anchors. Design loads between 30 and 120 tons. The tendon may consist of bars. Bars are more easily protected against corrosion. The anchor wall system must be analyzed to ensure long-term stability. Principles of Anchor Design Anchor design includes: • Evaluation of the feasibility of anchors. The minimum unbonded length must be specified in the contract document. • Estimation of anchor capacity. soil. The engineer should determine whether anchors can be economically used at a particular site based on the ability to install the anchors and to develop capacity.14 October 1993 . limited work areas. and • Selection of corrosion protection.8. Tieback Walls 1. b. 9. wires. easier to stress and transfer load. and storage. The choice of appropriate type is usually left to the contractor but may be specified by the designer if special site conditions exist which preclude the use of certain tendon types. The presence of utilities or other underground facilities may govern whether anchors can be installed. Based on previous experience.

and LI restrictions.5.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls The estimated ultimate load transferred from the bond length to different types of soils is listed as follows: Corrected Standard Penetration No.15 . or fine micaceous sand or silt mixtures The maximum allowable anchor design load in soil may be determined by multiplying the bond length by the ultimate transfer load and dividing by a safety factor of 2. The ultimate load transferred from the bond length to rock deposits may be estimated from the rock type in the following table. January 1991 9. N Loose (4-10) Medium Compact (10-30) Compact (30-50) Loose (4-10) Medium Compact (10-30) Compact (30-50) Loose (4-10) Medium Compact (10-30) Compact (30-50) Stiff (10-20) Hard (20-40) Estimated Ultimate Transfer Load in Kip/ft 10 15 20 7 10 13 5 7 9 2 4 Soil Type Sand & Gravel Sand Sand & Silt Silt-clay mixture with minimum LL. Estimated Ultimate Transfer Load in Kip/ft 50 40 30 30 25 10 Rock Type Granite or Basalt Dolomitic Limestone Soft Limestone Sandstone Slates and Hard Shales Soft Shales The maximum allowable anchor design load in rock may be determined by multiplying the bond length by the ultimate transfer load and dividing by a safety factor of 3.4 . PI.

an average earth pressure coefficient (K) should be computed as follows: x K = Ko .16 .4 .. the design should be first considered using active pressure coefficients (KA) unless structures exist within a lateral distance equal to twice the wall height.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 2. Coefficient of Earth Pressure Practically.KA) where x = H = Ko = Note: distance from structure wall height of wall coefficient of at-rest earth pressure KA allows lower wall design pressure (if small wall displacements) can be tolerated.e. Ko increases wall design pressure but limits wall displacement. ground subsidence is limited. i. (1) Retaining Walls 9.. i.2H (Ko . For this case.e. ground subsidence occurs.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls January 1991 9.4 .17 .

the wall material. T. The same provisions of protecting the unbonded length for simple protection are applied to those for double protection. 5. respectively. Amount of Translation (0. the amount and direction of wall movement. It is conservative if assumed δ = 0. 4. or strand in the bond zone.5 and 0.3-1. heat shrink sleeves. or steel tube.4.18 . 9. Double Protection Complete encapsulation of the anchor tendon is accomplished by a corrugated PVC. Values of δ = 0 or δ = φ are generally too low and high. (S1 + S1)S2 = T cos q 2 PE Typical pile spacings (horizontal) of 6 to 10 feet and anchor spacings (vertical) of 8 to 12 feet are commonly used. and secondary grouting after stressing. *Provide simple protection for temporary tieback walls (less than 18 months) and double protection for permanent tieback walls. Suggested Limits for design loads. are between 0.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls Typical amount of wall translation (top movement) to develop the active earth pressure. The minimum spacing of 4 feet in both directions is not recommended for considering the effectiveness and disturbance of anchors due to installation. Angle of Wall Friction The wall friction depends on the soil properties. for most practical cases.5%)H (1% to 2%)H (2% to 5%)H b. Corrosion Protection The corrosion protection of anchors can be divided into two categories*: a. and the surface condition.4 .6 of GUTS (typically 53 percent).1% to 0. Suggested temporary test loads are between 75 and 80 percent of Guaranteed Ultimate Tensile Strength (GUTS). Soil and Condition Cohesionless Dense Cohesionless Loose Cohesive Firm Cohesive Soft 3. Except for secondary grouting.2% to 0. Determination of Tieback Spacing The preliminary anchor spacing can be determined from Figure 9. Simple Protection The use of simple protection relies on Portland cement grout to protect the tendon.2%)H (0. The typical values are between 1 φ/3 and 2 φ/3. high-density polyethlene. The unbonded lengths are sheaths filled with anti-corrosion grease. Therefore. bar. the protection is usually in place prior to inserting the tendon in the hole.

4 .19 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls January 1991 9.

Design of Soldier Pile Tieback Walls a.3-2 For the submerged portion of soil. Lateral Earth Pressures Case 1 Cantilever Soldier Piles and Piles with Single Level Tieback Retaining Walls Figure 9. 9. KAE and KPE should be calculated by replacing θ with θ′ in Equations (4) and (5) and replacing γ with γ′ for calculating earth pressure.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 6.20 July 1996 .4 .4.

1 times height of the wall. (2) Active pressure is assumed to act over pile spacing above base of excavation and over shaft diameter below base of excavation. T.5.3T for temporary tiebacks.5T for permanent tiebacks and to 1. (4) Lock-off load is 80 percent of (1) + (2) for permanent wall and 70 percent of (1) + (2) for temporary wall.5 times shaft diameter. whichever is smaller. or anticipated future excavation depth within 20 feet of wall. T. Passive pressure is assumed to act over two times over shaft diameter or pile spacing. whichever is greater.4 . For temporary tiebacks. 0. (3) For permanent tiebacks.21 . tie back DESIGN LOAD. shall be (1) + (2). tie back DESIGN LOAD. depth of fascia wall footing. July 1996 9.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls Note: (1) Neglect any passive resistance below the base of excavation in D zone where D is the largest value of 1. (5) Proof test to 1. Shall be (1) + (2) or [(1) + (3)]/1.

4.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Case 2 Multiple Level Tieback Retaining Walls Figure 9.22 July 1996 .3-3 9.4 .

the depth of embedment is determined by moment equilibrium of lateral force about kpoint 0.0(D + E + EQ) (2) 50 percent of worse load is used for design. c. However. soil pressure distribution recommended by geotechnical engineer is used to determine the thickness of lagging. prefabricated drains. must also be sufficient to provide necessary vertical capacity or adequate kick-out resistance through development of passive pressure. Neglect the moment resistance of soldier pile member at 0. A cut which slopes toward the proposed wall will invariably encounter natural subsurface drainage. Architectural treatment of facing shall be indicated on the drawing. Retaining Walls January 1991 9. Concentrated areas of subsurface drainage may be controlled by installing horizontal drains to intercept the flow at a distance well behind the wall. or porous engineering fabrics can be used for normal situations to collect and transport drainage to a weep hole or pipe located at the base of the wall. For piles with tiebacks. d. Vertical chimney drains.3(DL + 1. soil condition. The soil pressure distribution equal to 50 percent of the lateral earth pressure diagram is recommended to design lagging which is simply supported.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design b. *Note: (1) Most possibilities of load cases governing are: Group I = 1. Depth of embedment. this procedure leads to unreasonably thick lagging for deep excavations with relatively larger soldier pile spacings. D. The 50 percent reduction is due to the soil arching effect behind the wall.67LL + 1. Design of Timber Lagging Most commonly. and soldier pile spacing. Depth of Embedment For cantilever piles without tieback.3E) Group VII = 1.4 . Concrete strength shall not be less than 3.000 psi at 28 days. The wall is to extend 2 feet minimum below the ground line adjacent to the wall.23 . the lagging thickness is determined from past construction experience as related to depth of excavation. Design of Fascia Wall Fascia wall shall be reinforced concrete and shall be designed according to the latest AASHTO Standard and Interim Specifications for Highway Bridges.* The minimum structural thickness of fascia wall shall be 9 inches. (3) Check for 10 kips impact load. In other cases. the embedment should be determined to satisfy horizontal force equilibrium and moment equilibrium about the bottom of the pile. Permanent drainage systems shall be provided to prevent hydrostatic pressures developing behind the wall.

(b) A trapezoidal diagram for temporary excavation below first anchor level. Diameter of shaft may be increased to reduce penetration. water. Soldier piles may be steel or concrete with a minimum yield strength of steel being 36 ksi or the minimum strength of concrete shall be 4.4 . Due to soil-structure interaction. (a) First anchor row Determine the safe cantilever or unsupported excavation height. and according to the latest AASHTO design criteria. Design of Soldier Piles The soldier piles shall be designed for shear. Assume the first anchor row is located 3 feet above this level. resulting in a reduction of pressure near the center of spans between anchors and a concentration of pressure at supports. This distance is required for anchor installation. The procedures for checking the stability of the wall system for temporary construction loadings are described as follows: (1) Draw “pressure diagrams” at various construction stages. (5) Check overall stability of final design. each including all pertinent loads. and (c) settlement. i. (3) Estimate required section modulus of soldier piles at all stages of excavation to ensure structural integrity. (a) A triangular diagram for estimating cantilever excavation to first anchor or for walls with only one anchor row.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design e. bending.. etc. (4) Estimate the permanent vertical loads due to anchor inclination and wall dead weight and check: (a) vertical member structural capacity. Check for Stage Construction The earth pressure distribution for an anchored wall changes during wall installation.000 psi at 28 days (concrete Class 4000). a redistribution of lateral stresses is anticipated. Find lateral spacing by dividing anchor allowable capacity by area of pressure diagram in step 1c.e. Adjust anchor spacing to optimize structural design. surcharge. Retaining Walls 9. (2) Find preliminary anchor spacing. Necessary embedment of soldier piles must be considered at all stages of excavation. The actual bending moment is recommended to be 80 percent of the maximum bending moment calculated based on the free-earth method.24 . (b) bearing capacity of the soil/rock. soil. f. (c) A trapezoidal diagram for final depth excavation. (b) Subsequent excavation levels must consider increased loads on previous anchor rows. and axial stresses.

e. (4) To permit high pressure grouting without damage to existing facilities and to ensure adequate overburden pressure to mobilize the full friction between soil and grout. For design purposes. the required bond length can be approximated with sufficient accuracy as discussed in other parts of this section to permit cost estimates and right of way acquisitions to be made confidently. The recommended values are 10 feet in rock and 15 feet in soils. 150 kips or less). The bond transfer values for soil grout length (or bond length) should be verified by testing to determine the required bond length.4 . (6) The bar or strand grout length (or bar bond length) is 15 feet. the maximum bond length is the distance from the end of unbonded length to within 2 feet of the right of way. (2) The bond lengths exceeding 40 feet in soils or 254 feet in rock do not efficiently increase the anchor capacity. g. (3) At sites with restricted right of way. (5) Anchors founded in mixed ground condition should be designed assuming the entire embedment is the weakest deposit.5) at that initial wall height.. Some important points are listed as follows: (1) A minimum bond length should be specified in the contract documents. (b) Determine the maximum transfer load for the upper anchor row based on allowable passive resistance (KP/1. a 15-foot minimum overburden cover over the bond zone is recommended for anchors of average capacity (i.25 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design (6) Construction checks during design: (a) Size anchor tendon structurally to resist maximum prescribed test load at less than 80 percent of ultimate strength. Design of Bond Length The bond length should not be specified in the contract plan. Retaining Walls July 1996 9.

4. Retaining Walls Figure 9.4 .3-4a 9.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design h. Recommended Tieback Wall Configuration (1) Base of excavation larger than 10 feet above soft soil layer.26 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design (2) Base of excavation in or smaller than 10 feet above soft soil layer.27 . Consult with Material Laboratory to obtain appropriate values of n and m.4. January 1991 9.4 . Retaining Walls Figure 9.3-4b Note: Stability number n and m are determined based on stability analysis of the project walls.

Retaining Walls Figures 9.4.3-5 9.4 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design (3) Typical section of solider pile tieback wall.28 January 1991 .

but for precast units. joint spacing should be a maximum of 24 feet on centers. For cast-in-place construction. Drainage features shall be detailed on plans.4 Miscellaneous Items A. For tieback wall.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9. See Retaining Wall Standard Sheets for top of wall and ground line relationship and also for cambering of front of cantilevered retaining walls. the footing shall be interrupted by a 1/2 inch premolded expansion joint through both the footing and the wall. Odd panels for all types of walls shall normally be made up at the ends of the walls. Architectural Treatment The type of face treatment for retaining walls is decided on a job-to-job basis according to degree of visual impact. For counterfort walls. In case the vertical distance between the top of the footing and final ground line is greater than 10 feet. Top of walls are usually smooth flowing curves as seen in elevation. If it is necessary to excavate existing material for the backfill. A compressible back-up strip of closed-cell foam polyethylene or butyl rubber with a sealant on the front face is used for precast concrete walls. Joints For cantilevered and gravity walls. No joints other than construction joints shall be used in footings except at bridge abutments and where the change from a pile footing to a spread footing occurs.29 . Appropriate details must be shown on the plans. Retaining Walls January 1991 9. The footing construction joints should have a minimum 6-inch offset with the expansion joints in the wall. No weepholes are necessary in cantilever wingwalls. Every joint in the wall shall provide for expansion. and the water pressure behind the wall may start to build up. In these cases. Weepholes can get clogged up or freeze up. a minimum of 1/2 inch premolded filler should be specified. it is important to have well draining gravel backfill and underdrains.4. Drainage All concrete retaining walls shall have 3-inch diameter weepholes located 6 inches above final ground line and spaced about 12 feet apart. The maximum spacing of construction joints in the footing shall be 120 feet. the length of the unit would depend on the height and weight of the unit. then this excavation shall be a part of Structural Excavation Class A of bridge quantities. It should be discussed with the Bridge Architect at the time of preliminary plan preparation. The wall should blend in with its surroundings and complement other structures in the vicinity. additional weepholes shall be provided 6 inches above the top of the footing. A 3-foot thickness of gravel backfill shall be shown on the plan behind the cantilever wingwalls. In order to keep the water pressure from building up.4 . joint spacing should be 24-32 feet on centers for cast-in-place walls. joint spacing should be a maximum of 32 feet on centers. Backfill material shall not be a part of bridge quantities. C. B. No under drain pipe or gravel backfill for drains is necessary behind cantilever wingwalls.

use lean concrete for the portion of the soldier pile above final grade (above the cut line in front of the soldier pile wall). In general.4 . The horizontal distance should be shown between changes in the “H” dimensions. it may be desirable to show 2 or 3 different “H” dimensions within a particular segment. See Example. unless it deviates from the Standard Plans. 9-4:V:BDM9 9. 7. Detailing of Standard Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls 1. the contractor designs and submits this special design lean concrete for approval. use lean concrete for the entire soldier pile embedment length.4. use a special designed lean concrete. 2.4-1. Use the actual design “H” reduced to the next lower even foot for dimensions up to 3 inches higher than the even foot. Soldier Pile Walls With Tieback Anchors For this type of soldier pile wall. 2. show “H” = 16 on design plans Retaining Walls For walls which are not of a uniform height. Examples: Actual height ≤ 15′-3″. Below final grade. use concrete Class 4000P.4. “H” should be shown for each segment of the wall between expansion joints or at some other convenient location. Concrete Class 4000P is permissible in a wet hole (placed by tremie).BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design D. Soldier Pile Walls With No Tieback Anchors For this type of soldier pile wall. Concrete Fill for Soldier Pile Walls 1. E. Figure 9. For a wet hole. the “H” dimension shown on retaining wall plans should be in foot increments.4-1. Do not show any details given in the Standard Plans. and show pile locations. detail any additional steel. Follow the example format shown in Figure 9. The value for “H” shall be shown in a block in the center of the panel or segment. Typically. where transfer of load for the vertical component of the sloping tieback(s) is resisted. Note on the plans any deviation from the Standard Plans. Do not detail reinforcing steel. 5. Wall dimensions shall be determined by the designer using the Standard Plans. show “H” = 15 on design plans Actual height > 15′-3″. On walls with a steep slope or vertical curves. 8. Calculate approximate quantities using the Standard Plans. 3. 6. use the example format except revise the footing size.30 May 1995 . 4. For pile footings.

31 .4 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls January 1991 9.

1 .5 . See AASHTO Working Strength Loading Combinations.5. (2) Stability requirements shall be met without mobilizing the piles. Pile Supported Footings. The factored loads shall be in accordance with Section 4. specified on the plans.2. Basic Load Combination Using Group I Working Stress Design. Retaining Wall Footings Retaining wall footings shall be designed using working stress methods for reasons stated in Subsection 9. Design Loadings for Spread or Pile Footings Footings will normally be designed by load factor methods. In the case of a pile footing: (1) No uplift shall be used for Group I loading.5. the soil loading shall not exceed twice the allowable. Footing depth will normally be set at the minimum required to assure adequate bearing pressure and cover. in the case of piles. 2.1-3 for modes of failure for spread and pile footings. The resultant of forces shall be kept within the middle one-third of the footing for Group I loadings and within the middle one-half of the footing for all other service load conditions. Where the footing is being used to support a long column. the magnified moments shall be used for footing design.5. 3. General The provisions given in this section pertain to both spread footings and pile supported footings except as noted in 9.5. The end slope on the bridge approach fill is usually set at the preliminary plan stage but affects the depth of footings placed in the fill. See Section 9. as modified below. Maximum pile loading shall be in accordance with the following: Footings October 1993 9. (3) Stability check against overturning shall be taken about the front row of piles.2. and for spread footings. Factored Load Combinations (1) Soil Pressure or Pile Reactions For any factored load combination.1 Footings Spread Footings A. the following maximum soil or pile loading shall apply. additional cover depth may be required as protection against scour. including impact collision load for walls under 16 feet. See Figures 9. This value includes any capacity reduction φ factor. Unnecessary footing depth results in large increases in cost. 1.5. the soil or pile loading shall not exceed 1.1-1 illustrates some items to consider when developing footing positions.5 9.1E for guidance on computing magnified moments. On stream crossings. a. Allowable soil bearing capacities and pile loads are given in terms of service loads as they are obtained from the Foundation Engineer or. the resultant shall fall within the middle one-third of the footing area. Figure 9.4. The Hydraulic Section should be consulted on this matter.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9. Footing Shape and Location Footings shall normally be rectangular in plan for both square and skewed bridges. b.1-2 and 9.0 times the allowable. When factored loads are applied to the footing.

1-1 9.5.2 October 1993 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Footings Guidelines for Footing Location Figure 9.5 .

5.5 .1-2 October 1993 9.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Footings Modes of Failure for Spread Footings Figure 9.3 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Footings Modes of Failure for Pile Footings Figure 9.4 October 1993 .1-3 9.5.5 .

Stability Load Combination The following criteria have been developed for design of footings for stability: When dead load tends to increase stability.1 Hu ≤ 0.2B2. additional foundation depth may be needed for footing cover.0″ less than seal size in rectangular dimensions.5 Pu B. The “Bi-Axial Stress Analysis” computer program will also compute this condition. use βD = 0. In some special cases.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Groups I-IV. Normal Load Outside Kern” can be used to calculate true soil pressures.5. see 9.7.5 x allowable pile bearing capacity Groups V-IX. 1. C. Negative footing reactions will not be allowed except in the case of friction piles with appropriate reinforcement provided at the connection between the pile and the footing. Since additional forming is required to construct pedestals.75 in the AASHTO Load Factor Combinations. Load Distribution Under Footings 1. Also. The footing size shall normally be set as 2′. Defining Pu as the total minimum factored vertical load on the footing and Hu as the total factored horizontal load on the footing. Where appropriate.5 . d. See Section 9. see Figure 9.6. Footings With Seals For establishment of seal size for footings with seals. Force Distribution A straight line force distribution shall be assumed for resisting forces. See 9. Pedestals A pedestal is sometimes used as an extension of the footing in order to provide additional depth for shear near the column. a suitable “bi-axial” analysis shall be used which accounts for the shape of the actual positive pressure area under the footing.75 x allowable pile bearing capacity Soil pressure or pile reaction is computed considering that it is not possible to develop any tension between the footing and the soil or pile below. Its purpose is to provide adequate structural depth while saving concrete. an alternate footing design with no seals should be detailed on the plans.1-5. Sliding An adequate factor of safety against sliding based on factored loads shall be maintained under all conditions. Design Aid sheet 9-5A-1 “Stress on a Rectangular Footing. careful thought must be given to the trade off between the cost of the extra forming involved and the cost of additional footing concrete. The resultant shall fall within the middle two-thirds (or uplift on not more than one-half of the area of the footing or one-half of the piles). 1.7 for method of establishing footing elevation in this case.5 . the ratio between these values shall be such that: 1.5. For proportions of pedestals. tension in piles may be allowed as explained in Section 9. Where there is a good possibility that the seal may be eliminated at the time of construction.2. 2. c. Footings October 1993 9.

They are summarized in Figure 9. If concrete shear governs the thickness. However. Reinforcement a. This construction joint should be indicated as a construction joint with roughened surface.5. Footing thickness may be governed by the development length of the column dowels.6 October 1993 . 2 feet 0 inches. For proportions of footings and pedestals and footings on rock.5 .1-4. for pile supported footings. Where stirrups are required.25 Ld. Bars in compression shall develop a length. or by concrete shear requirements. Bars in tension shall be developed using length. but shall not be less than 3/4 Ld.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Footings Whenever a pedestal is used. Footing Thickness and Shear Design The minimum footing thickness shall be 1 foot 6 inches or. excavation. as to whether to use a thick footing unreinforced for shear or a thinner footing with shear reinforcement. Column Dowels Column dowels shall be anchored into the footing in such a manner as to adequately transfer loads to the footing. This can be allowed because of the confinement effect of the wider footing. as shown on Sheet 5-164.5. based on economics. 1. as shown in Chapter 5 of this manual. Column dowels shall be hooked in order to facilitate placing. prior to the bend.1-4. and shoring requirements. The concrete strength to be used to compute the section strength at the interface between footing and column concrete shall be that of the column concrete. The minimum plan dimension shall be 4 feet 0 inches. 1. it is the Engineer’s judgment. Where bars are not fully stressed.5. Shear strength requirements are stated in AASHTO Specifications.25 Lb. see Figure 9. consider discontinuing the stirrups at the point where vu = vc. and to minimize footing thickness. The concrete strength used to compute development length of the bar in the footing shall be the strength of the concrete in the footing. For large footings. prevent their insertion into wet concrete. Footing Design 1. 2. D. 9. the plans shall note that a construction joint will be permitted between the pedestal and the footing. with or without reinforcement. reinforcement shall not be less than #6 bars at 12-inch centers to account for uneven soil conditions and shrinkage stresses. lengths may be reduced in proportion.1-5. place the first stirrup at d/2 from the face of the column or pedestal. Generally. Bottom Reinforcement Reinforcement shall be designed in accordance with AASHTO provisions and current office practice shown on Figure 9. shear reinforcement should be avoided but not at excessive cost in concrete. b.

5 .BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Footings January 1991 9.7 .

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Footings 9.8 .5 .

the spacing is a minimum of 3 feet. sufficient reinforcement shall be provided in the tops of footings to carry the weight of the footing and overburden assuming zero pressure under the footing.1). Be aware that the action of the pile group for friction piles may be quite different than for point bearing piles. the AASHTO requirement for minimum percentage of reinforcement will be waived. Footings 9. For locations between.” This assumes that the strength of the connection to the superstructure will carry such load. In this case.2. the strength of the connection may be used as the limiting value for determining top reinforcement. On short stub abutment walls (4 feet from girder seat to top of footing). General Requirements Design of pile footings shall follow the general requirements set forth in 9. In determining the proportion of pile load to be used for calculation of shear stress on the footing.5. This is the uplift earthquake condition described under “Superstructure Loads.5. B. All piles shall have an embedment in the soil sufficient to resist lateral forces and develop axial loads. Where the load distribution of the pile is partially point bearing and partially friction.BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design c. a mat of reinforcement shall normally be provided at the tops of footings. any pile with its center 6 inches or more outside the critical section shall be taken as fully acting on that section. any pile with its center outside of the section shall be taken at full load.1 for spread footings. Where the connection to the superstructure will not support the weight of the substructure and overburden.6 for each type of pile. Cast-in-place concrete piles with reinforcing extending into footings shall be embedded a minimum of 6 inches. Regardless of whether or not the columns and bearing walls are connected to the superstructure.5.2 Pile Supported Footings A. Pile Spacings Generalized pile spacings are shown in Section 9. Any pile with its center 6 inches or more inside the critical section shall be taken as not acting for that section. Steel H-Pile or timber piles shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches into the footing where a moment or tension connection is not required. must be taken by the concrete in tension.5 . Top Reinforcement Top reinforcement shall be used in any case where tension forces in the top of the footing are developed.9 . April 1993 9. There shall be 11/2 inches of clearance between the bottom mat of footing reinforcement and the top of pile (see Figure 9. the pile load acting shall be proportioned between these two extremes. For calculation of moment on the footing. any tension at the top of the footing. in that the group can fail as a unit at a lower load than the summation of the individual pile capacities. Where columns and bearing walls are connected to the superstructure. except for timber piles where the minimum spacing is 3 feet 3 inches. Any pile with its center inside of the section shall not be assumed to contribute to that amount.” For point bearing piles. these bars may be omitted. Top reinforcement for column or bearing wall footings designed for two-way action shall not be less than #6 bars at 12-inch centers. “Modeling Pile Foundation. consider using an intermediate spacing value. This effect is accounted for in Chapter 4. in each direction while top reinforcement for bearing wall footings designed for one-way action shall not be less than #5 bars at 12-inch centers in each direction. Distance from center of pile to footing edge for all pile types shall be a maximum of 1. For these conditions.5 times the pile diameter or 1 foot 6 inches. due to the weight of the small overburden.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Footings Typical Pile Footing Reinforcing Placement Figure 9. LPILE1. The pile is modeled like a beam on an elastic foundation or by the use of computer programs. i.10 October 1993 . or other means. 9-5:V:BDM9 9. No uplift capacity is allowed due to the bond between pile and embedment into footing.e.” D. The results can also be used to determine pile lateral and rotational springs. welded bars.5 . Uplift pile capacities shall be determined by Materials Lab. Forces and moments are applied to the pile and LPILE1 calculates the deflections along its length. the pile must be adequately connected to the footing by means of extended reinforcement. Horizontal Force on Pile Groups Piles resist horizontal forces by a combination of internal strength and the passive pressure resistance of the surrounding soil. LPILE1 requires soil properties supplied from the Materials Lab in order to generate P-Y curves. P-Y curves represent the force required to deflect a pile a unit length. Construction methods used for jetted or spudded piles reduce uplift capacity.2-1 C. see Chapter 4 “Foundation Modeling.. Uplift Forces When piles are subject