I. II. III.
Title: What Men Live By Author: Leo Tolstoy Historical and Cultural Background of Russia History
The name Russia is derived from Rus, a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants " " (russkayazemlya) which could be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as KievanRus' by modern historiography. The name Rus' itself comes from Rus people, a group of Varangians (possibly Swedish Vikings) who founded the state of Rus ( ). An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, (Rossiya), comes from the Greek version of Rus', spelled [ros ia], which was the denomination of KievanRus in theByzantine Empire.
Early periods Kurgan hypothesis: South Russia as theurheimat of Indo-European peoples. One of the first modern human bones of the age of 35 000 years was found in Russia, in Kostenki on the Don River banks. In prehistoric times the vast steppes of Southern Russia were home to tribes of nomadic pastoralists.Remnants of these steppe civilizations were discovered in such places as Ipatovo, Sintashta, Arkaim,and Pazyryk, which bear the earliest known traces of mounted warfare, a key feature in nomadic way of life. In classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. Since the 8th century BC, Ancient Greek traders brought their civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies,was overwhelmed by nomadic invasions led by warlike tribes, such as the Huns and Eurasian Avars.ATurkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas until the 8th century.The ancestors of modern Russians are the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pinsk Marshes. The East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves: one moving from Kiev toward present-day Suzdal andMurom and
another from Polotsk toward Novgorod and Rostov. From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia and slowly but peacefully assimilated the native Finno-Ugric peoples, including the Merya, the Muromians, and the Meshchera.
Folk culture and cuisine
The Merchant's Wife by Boris Kustodiev, showcasing the Russian tea culture.Thereare over 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia. Ethnic Russians with theirSlavic Orthodox traditions, Tatarsand Bashkirs with their Turkic Muslim culture, Buddhist nomadic Buryats and Kalmyks, Shamanistic peoples of the Extreme North andSiberia, highlanders of the Northern Caucasus, Finno-Ugric peoples of the Russian North West and Volga Region all contribute to the cultural diversity of the country.Handicraft, like Dymkovo toy, khokhloma, gzhel and palekh miniature represent an important aspect of Russian folk culture. Ethnic Russian clothes include kaftan, kosovorotka and ushanka for men, sarafan and kokoshnik for women, with lapti and valenki as common shoes. The clothes of Cossacks from Southern Russia include burka and papaha, which they share with the peoples of the Northern Caucasus.
Russian cuisine widely uses fish, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey. Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for kvass, beer and vodka drinks. Black bread is rather popular in Russia, compared to the rest
of the world. Flavourful soups and stewsinclude shchi, borsch, ukha, solyanka and okroshka. Smetana (a heavy sour cream) is often added to soups and salads. Pirozhki, blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Chicken Kiev, pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes, the last two being of Tatar and Caucasus origin respectively. Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls (golubtsy) usually filled with meat. Salads include Russian salad, vinaigrette and Dressed Herring.Russia's large number of ethnic groups have distinctive traditions of folk music. Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli,balalaika, zhaleika and garmoshka. Folk music had great influence on Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands, including Melnitsa. Russian folk songs, as well as patriotic Soviet songs, constitute the bulk of repertoire of the world-renown Red Army choir and other popular ensembles. Russians have many traditions, including the washing in banya, a hot steam bath somewhat similar to sauna. Old Russian folklore takes its roots in the pagan Slavic religion. ManyRussian fairy tales and epic bylinas were adaptated for animation films.
Literature and philosophy In the 18th century, during the era of Russian Enlightenment, the development of Russian literature was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosovand Denis Fonvizin, and by the early 19th century a modern native tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers of all time. This period, known also as the Golden Age of Russian Poetry, began with Alexander Pushkin, who is considered the founder of modern Russian literary language and often described as the "Russian Shakespeare". It continued into the 19th century with the poetry of Mikhail Lermontov and NikolayNekrasov, dramas of Alexander Ostrovsky and Anton Chekhov, and the prose of Nikolai Gogol and Ivan Turgenev. Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky in particular were titanic figures to the point that many literary critics have described one or the other as the greatest novelist of all time. By the 1880s the age of the great novelists was over, while short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres. The next several decades became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry, when the previously dominant literary realism was replaced by symbolism. Leading authors of this era include poets Valery Bryusov, VyacheslavIvanov, Alexander Blok, NikolayGumilev and Anna Akhmatova, and novelists Leonid Andreyev, Ivan Bunin, and Maxim Gorky. Russian philosophy blossomed since the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers, advocating the Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles, insisting on developing Russia as unique civilization. The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky andKonstantinLeontiev, the founders of eurasianism. In its further development Russian philosophy was always marked by deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism and religious philosophy were other major areas. Notable philosophers of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev, Sergei Bulgakov, and Vladimir Vernadsky. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 many prominent writers and philosophers left the country, including Ivan Bunin, Vladimir Nabokov and NikolayBerdyayev, while a new generation of talented authors joined together in an effort to create a distinctive working-class culture appropriate for the new Soviet state. In the 1930s censorship over literature was tightened in line with the policy of socialist realism. Since late 1950s the restrictions on literature were eased, and by the 1970s and 1980s, writers were increasingly ignoring the official guidelines. The leading authors of the Soviet era include novelists YevgenyZamyatin, Ilf and Petrov, Mikhail Bulgakov and Mikhail Sholokhov, and poets Vladimir Mayakovsky, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, and AndreyVoznesensky.
Setting of the story
The setting took place on the following: y At the house of husband and wife, Simon and Matrena y The holy shrine were Simon met Michael y Shoe shop of Simon V. Conflict
The conflict of this story is when Michael, the angel, had fallen from heaven because of disobedience from God and he must fulfill a mission in order to find answers to certain questions in order to be an angel again. In order to fulfill his mission, he must find a kind person that would accept him in that person¶s home so that he could survive living on earth.
Theme The theme of the story is the key answer to the questions that Michael must find: y What dwells in man? It is love. y What is not given to man? To know his own needs. y What do men live by? Love exists in man.
A kind and humble shoemaker called Simon goes out one day to purchase sheep-skins in order to sew a winter coat for his wife and himself to share. Usually the little money, which Simon earned would be spent to feed his wife and children. Simon decided that in order to afford the skins he must go on a collection to receive the five roubles and twenty kopeks owed to him by his customers. As he heads out to collect the money he also borrows a three-rouble note from his wife's money box. While going on his collection he only manages to receive twenty kopeks rather than the full amount. Feeling disheartened by this Simon rashly spends the twenty kopeks on vodka and starts to head back home. On his way home he rants to himself about the little he can do with twenty kopeks besides spend it on alcohol and that the winter cold is bearable without a sheep-skin coat. While approaching a holy shrine, Simon stops and notices something pale looking leaning against it. He peers harder and distinguishes that it is a naked man who appears poor of health. At first he is suspicious and fears that the man has no good intentions if he is left in such a state. He proceeds to pass the man until he feels that for a second the man lifted his head and looked toward him. Simon debates what to do in his mind and feels shameful for his disregard and heads back to help the man. Simon gives the articles of clothing he can and wraps around the stranger. He aids him as they both walk toward Simon's home. Though they walk together side by side, the stranger barely speaks and when Simon asks how he was left in that situation the only answers the man would give was: "I may not tell" and "God has punished me." Meanwhile Simon's wife Matrenadebates
whether or not to bake more bread for the night's meal so that there is enough for the following morning's breakfast. She decides that the loaf of bread that they have left would be ample enough to last till the following morning. As she sees Simon approaching the door she is angered to see him with a strange man who is wrapped in Simon's clothing. Matrena immediately expresses her displeasure with Simon, accusing him and his strange companions to be drunkards and harassing Simon for not returning with the sheep-skin needed to make a new coat. Once the tension settles down she bids that the stranger sits down and has dinner with them. After seeing the stranger take bites at the bread she placed for him on his plate, she began to felt pity and showed so in her face. When the stranger noticed this his grim expression lit up immediately and he smiled for one brief moment. After hearing the story from the stranger how Simon had kindly robed the stranger after seeing him in his naked state Matrena grabbed more of their old clothing and gave it to Simon. The following morning Simon addresses the stranger and asks his name. The stranger answers that his name is simply Michael. Simon explains to Michael that he can stay in his household as long as he can earn his keep by acting as an assistant for Simon in his shoemaking business. Michael agrees to these terms and for a long period of time remains a very faithful assistant. One day a customer who was a nobleman came in their shop. The nobleman outlined strict conditions for the construction of a pair of thick leather boots will not lose its shapes or become loose at the seams for a year or else he would have Simon arrested. When Simon gave the leather that the nobleman had given them to use to Michael, Michael appears to stare beyond the nobleman's shoulder and smiled for the second time since he had been there. As Michael sews the leather to construct the boots he does so in a fashion that makes them soft leather slippers rather than thick leather boats. Simon is too late when he notices this and cries to Michael asking why he would do such a foolish thing. Before Michael can answer, a messenger arrives at their door and gives the news that the nobleman has died and if they could change the order to slippers for him to wear on his death bed. Simon is astounded by this and watches as Michael gives the messenger the pre-made leather slippers. Time continues to go by and Simon is very grateful for Michael's faithful assistance. One day another customer comes in who happens to be a woman with two girls, one of which was crippled. The woman requested if she could order a pair of leather shoes for each of the girls but to only three shoes since they both share the same shoe size with the exception of the crippled girl's lame foot. As they are preparing to fill the order Michael stares intently at the girls and Simon wonders why he is doing so. As Simon takes the girls' measurements he asks the woman if they are her own children and how was the girl with the lame foot crippled. The woman explains that she has no relation to them and that the mother on her deathbed accidentally crushed the leg of the crippled girl. She expresses that she could not find it in her heart to leave them in a safehome or orphanage and took them as her own. When Michael heard this he smiled for the third time since he had been there. After the woman and two children finally left Michael approached Simon and bid him farewell explaining that God has finally forgiven him. As Michael did this he began to be surrounded by a heavenly glow and Simon acknowledged that he was not an ordinary man. Simon asked him why light emits from him and why did he smile only those three times. Michael explained that he is an angel who was given the task to take away a woman's life so she can pass on to the next life. He allowed the woman to live because she begged that she must take care of her children for no one other than their mother could care for them so. When he did this God punished him for his
disobedience and commanded that he must find the answers to the following questions in order to be an angel again: What dwells in man?, What is not given to man?, and What do men live by? When Michael returned to earth to take the woman's soul, he realized that the woman's lifeless body rolled over and crushed the leg of the now crippled girl. Michael's wings had left him and he no longer was an angel but naked and mortal. When Simon rescued him he knew that he must begin finding the answers to those questions. He learned the answer to the first question when Matrena felt pity for him, thus smiling and realizing what dwells in man is "love". The answer to the second question came to him when he realized that the angel of death was looming over the nobleman, thus smiling and realizing what is not given to man is "to know his own needs." Lastly, he comprehended the answer to the final question when he saw the woman with the two girls from the mother he previously did not take the soul of, thus smiling and realizing that regardless of being strange or relation to each other what men live by is that "love exists in man." When Michael finished he sang praise to God as wings appeared on his back and he raised to return to heaven. VIII. Point of view Third Person ± narrator is not a participant in the story IX. Reaction/ Reflection a. What value/s did I learn from the story?
Such values did I learn from this literary piece is hospitality and trust which is primarily existent throughout the story. In the world nowadays, these values are quite difficult and challenging to apply because there are a lot of wickedness going on humanity. Many people tend to steal, do bad things, and kill someone in order to steal what he possesses. But there are still that are kind hearted and willing to give others a helping hand. These people truly have fear of God. In this story, the kindness of Simon was really shown. He accepted Michael who is a stranger to him, In his home whole heartedly. He first give Michael clothing and then he showed hospitality to him. At first, Simon¶s wife Matrena couldn¶t accept Michael in their home and she was not welcoming though. But she learned to accept him after a few days. In addition to Simon¶s kindness, he also gave a job to Michael to be his assistant in Simon¶s shoemaking business. Trust becomes a challenge to Simon also. In real life, it¶s not easy to trust especially when you encounter people you do not know much, in what extent they¶re gonna be good to you or do they plan dark secrets in order to harm you or let you down. At first, Simon find it hard to trust Michael as his assistant in the shoemaking because it seems Michael does his job foolishly. Michael did mistake but that mistake lead to a good result because maybe Michael can foresee what is going to happen and he knows what he¶s doing that¶s why Simon realize Michael is trustworthy enough.
Another value that I taken from the story was obedience. Michael was an angel of God and because of disobedience, god punished him. Faith is so important in this aspect because it moves more on the spiritual side. God knows what is the best for us, especially what he wants us to do, and that¶s His will. A simple obedience to God is being good and love out neighbor and follow His commandments.
b. What is the significance of the theme of the story to my life as a person?
Recalling the theme of the story: Love dwells in man ± I believe in each one of us, no matter how good or bad we are. There is something best that¶s inside of us, and when we apply it, it creates peace and we also please our Lord. God is love and love is in God. God created us in his own likeness and image, so therefore what dwells in man is love. So I¶m trying my best to keep the love throughout my whole being and avoid hatred. To know his own needs is not given to man ± Basic needs such as food, water, shelter and clothing are common and staple. These needs are for survival. The kind of need that is emphasized here is the psychological need which is considered to be the higher state of our fullness. God had given us freedom of choice. We are free to choose whatever we want, but the challenge is we are entitled to search what is truly our need. I think and I believe no one can be really happy or satisfied with his life without achieving his ultimate need. For me, living a life that has the need fulfill dreams is not really attainable. Some are only wants and the needs are right deep inside our hearts that is when we can say we are fully satisfied and you came to a point that ³there¶s nothing you could wish for´. To me, the highest form of need that each of us maybe or may not aware of is that our need for spiritual fulfillment. That is, be in a close relationship with God and develop it in His grace, we are encountering a spiritual journey in which how can this affect to our daily activities and attaining for our goals in life. We are just free individuals who are free to choose anything in life but finding God is the best choice that one of us can ever be made. Love exists in man is what men live by ± Faith, hope and love, the three major gifts of God to us but the greatest of these is love. We all live by through our wants, attaining dreams, living life as we enjoy it. Since what dwells in us is love, that¶s the value we also live for. I¶ve came to the thinking, we are here to love and to be loved. A simple act of kindness is worthy enough of the love and that is fulfilling one of the greatest commandment God has given us, love your neighbor as you love yourself. At the same time, it corresponds loving God above anything else.
Project In Humanities
Submitted by: Reyes, Faye Bernadette O. BSN3-A Submitted to: Ms. ElaQuinsay