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Analyses for Effect of Wielding Speeds on Cooling Rates in (M MAW) Precess Theoretieal .Analysis of a thermally operated vapor bubbl.e pump Numerical Study of Conduction Heat Transfer through Square Plate Heated from, Belo,w with Heat Generation. Condensation Two-Phase Bubble tbrougb Direct-Contact Heat Transfer or'nvo Immiscibl.e Liquids Convection. Heat Transfer Inside an lncliDedP·orousPa:rtition.ed Triangular Enclosure NUMERICAL STUDY OF LAMJNARFORCED CONV.ECTlON HEAT TRANSFER IN A , BORIZONT AL CllANNEL WITH
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The Simulation of Tensile Creep Test using Finite Element Method
Asst. Prof. Dr. Bani Aziz Ameen 'It
Ahmed. Hadl Abood'" Riyad Jassim TeJaifeb*

'* Pumps

Engineering Department -Technieal College I AJ-Musaib

Abstract The simulation of creep test for different alloys of time start atS minute to 420 minute is carried out using finite elemeat method via. ANSYS software. Two alloys is used to compare the rate of strain in theaUoys with time and to investigate the creep stresses with each time. Power law creep in the tensile specimen is considered in tbe anaJysis. It is found that the rate of strain increasing with time when constant load is considered and decreasing tbe creep stresses in the middle of tbe specimen.

~, jWl1J..lI ~

~4 J

~J

420 ~I
a..'1-JI din
.:Ii!-.jl .,

~J

5

&,;a Ja ~
~ ~

pl .iJ ~

.~

u.a.jJ1 ~ ~ ,.:;.''''}.1

ilSt.:w ~

~

"" c} ~"'11 cJ

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v- ~.,Jl
,.. ~

Jii . ANSYS !-,U.)i ~
~
~

JlU. u,..i.aa...U
y.-jl1 ~ ~

e:--. .:IIJ"H~'jl
Nomenclature. Symbols

·wl

.. ~

,I..b.jll .~"i\

~I.

• 4J~..nJ:a,.......
Defini.tion creep strain stress time temperatuee mat~rials constant materiaJs constant initial yield. stress activation. energy

LAjll .:II+f.I~..J J..aJI (·'~ljjJcl,jll

eC
t
a

T K,Kc,.A,B,C,D,m~n
ml,m2'
Go

r.c.n.a,»,»

Q
R

Boltzmann's CODstant effect creep strain eiasto-pfastic stress-stram m:atrix

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elastic stress-strain matrix
U

Ep

displacement vector plastic strain stiffness matrix thermal load vector meehanieal load vector creep load vector Ausys Parametric Design Language

[K]
FT FM
F -c
AP.DL Introduction

Creep deforma.don of solid structures has become of increasing concern to the design and appUcationof engineering structures in high temperature environment. Analysis of stress in solids during creep deformation i very important part of the design of machine components for high temperature application. As illustrated in Fig(l). Creep deformation of solids is time dependent, it can be generaUy consid.ered to consist of three stages: (1) th.e p,dmary stage with relatively higb delonnation. rate;.(2) the secondary creep, wruch has a much slower areconstantgrowtb rate andnormaUy occurs at higb temperature; (3) the tertiary creep, whicb is tbe most detrimental type of creep deformation as the defonnation rate becomes extremely high aod usually results in ,catastrophic rupture of the structure in a very sho.rt time. An ex.tensive desc:ription of tbe develop.ment of creep mechanics is given in. Ref.[ll. As creep in solid is gen.eraUy regarded as ODe from of inelastic deformation., intuitively one would conclude that much of tbe tbeory developed by Ref.[2] for plastic deformation can be equally weU adapted for this type of problem. The creep test is aoalysis llY rmite element for small punch in Ref.13].The fioite elem.ent analysis of creep ,and its corresponding experimental creep rupture test for tensile cress-welded specimen is made by Rer~14].The experimental procedure and finite element were used to explore tbe creep damage for duralumin alloy is made in Ref15]. The primary creep for polypropyl.ene is done by ANSYS program in Ref.I6). So in this study the simuiatio.Dof creep test for different aUoys of time start at 5 minute to 420 minute is carried. out using rmite element method via ANSYS softwar·e.

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Secondary cr cr .. p I 1I

Froc:w"

IT
t
ora

~JEo-lnlfiol
11ralr!

Conl10nt p

Fig.(l} Typical

CI'eeP

strain curve [7]

Finite element formulation for creep, analysis The most fundamental input requu:ed to establish, the constitutive equations can only be derived from the relevant stress-strain curve via functional representa.tion. Such constitutive law is often called tbe creep law. A typical creep strain curve for a solid subject to constant uniaxial load was sbown in Fig(l). A gen.eral form of function describing this type of curve can be express as fonows[7]:
EO

= f( 0", t, T)

= fl (0')f2 (t)f3 (T)

..•••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••• (1)

in which '0' ,t, T are respectively, a.ppJied stress, time and temperature. There are various, lorms of the fU.n.dioDs f[ ('0'), f1(t) & (3(T) proposed ~ researchers, Some of the commonly used forms are presented be.low: 1- Common forms of fl (0') are: Norton [8] Me Vetty [7] Soderberg
Dom.
[1 (0-)

=

KcrD =A sinh(crI 0'0) = B [exp( cr I cr 0 -1) I
exp(o/oo)
~ D10mI

(2) (3)
(4) .••.•••• ,•••••..••••• (5)
••.••.•••.•••••••.••.•• (6)

=c

Johnson

+ D2om2

=: A [sinh( 0' / (J 0 )]m ••.••.••••••••••.••••••(7) Garofalo where K,A,B,C,D,m,n,m., and m2 are ma.terial constants

2- Common forms o[ f2(t) are Andrade: [7] f2(t) = (l+bt1~exp(kt)-l Bailey: = Ff ( n s

1:::;

t)

......•..•....•. (8) (9) .•.•.••••••••.••...••..•., •.•,.(10) .

McVetty:

= G(1-e-qt)+Ht

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Graham

and Walles,

."" = ,~8'it

ni

•••• , •, ••, •, • •• ••

11'11.,

,.,11 •••••

, •••

(11)

wbere F,G,H,ahb,k,n,nhq are material ~onstants. 3- A common form of f3(T) appears to be asfn Ref..{9] f3(T)= A exp (-QIRT) "* (12) wher-e Q= activation energy, R= Boltzmann's constant, and T absolute temperature. For most engineering application, Norton's law is usedSo, equation (1) becomes:
E
C

= Kcont

exp(-Q/RT) exp(-Q/RT)
' •• ' ." ••• ' ••• '111, ••• , ••

",...••••••••.•••.•••.•.. . , . (13)
, •• ,.,." ., •••

or tC=KcoR

i!!I, .....

i!!iI ••

, ••

, •••

(14)

where Ke a.n.dn are material constants. and for multi-axial stress EO = K cO' n t exp( -Q / RT) ••••••'••••••••••••..•••••.••• , ••••••••••(15) • or

tc

= Kcanexp(-Q/RT)

.•.•.•.•..•.•.••.

11

'

Ii.

!!!!I!

•••

~

••

(16)

where Ee effective creep strain [7) Similar to the Prandtl- Reuss relation wa described by Johnson & Mellor [10], the incremental creep strain can be e:s:pres ed in terms of a creep potential fUDction[7] • R ..~ EC =.... tXp . .. ,.,...... ,.",..,.... ~I~I!i!~.,~,. ~•• ,..,...... ,•• "•• ,•• ,., •••• ,••• ,...... ,••••••• (17) . ",
8(Q)

where ~ isa positive parameter depending 00 the laading history and <PC!V is the creep potential function. using the above relations and bardening rules[l], it can be deduced tbe constitutive eqaanon, for creep ana1ysis as fonows: dcr=[D.
ep ~ep
1&

~[D

ep

l(OOT+ o[Der] odT+ aT -

a De}-l odE]_[DeJO"'(OF
0& S

aT

dT+

a~dE)
aE

•.•••• 18) (

Where

S

=

(aFJ\ne1(OFJ. _(aFX =» J'(BFJ aF au . 0(7 aK au
!II .. j'

,,
.e .•••• ' ••• '•••• '

.(19)
~(20)

Hence, the characteristic equation, can be written as in Ref.[ll] [K] 6~ = AF
.e .

where j)F is the incremental thermo mechanical load matrix

= 8.t.T + afM
and
'II

+A!:c

, •••'••..• '••. .

111

, ••••••••••••

' ••••

(21)

[K] = J[Bt[Dep][B]dv

Since creep is regarded a a time-dependent plasticity, the creep strain is accumulated over a small time increment, dt following nonlinear E- t relations depicted in Fig.(I). There are several schemes available for the solution of creep equation. Among these scbemesare the Euler forward explicit scbeme[12I, the

194

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fourth-order RungewKutta, fO.rmuls [13] sod. the Ts.ylor series [14]. The Taylor series, scheme has been adopted in thi.s study, and can be outlined as foUows:

dEc = /(i:Cdt (1- At BEc
20c c

J

.," •• "'l'.'"'

,.' •••• ".' •• ,

~

1Ir

(23)

Finite Element Model by ANSYS The program is summarized bytbe lioUowiog steps: l-.Building a model. 2-Specifying an element used in. the specified elements method. 3-Specifying the boundary conditions and imposing them on tbe model, which include aU the forces external effects. 4-Reaching a solution and foUowing it up because some solutions need interference to choose one of the numerical analysis methods to approach the results. 5-Reviewing tbe solution to show the result3.

The element chosen in theanalysispreeess is specified by u_sing the specified e.lements method of the pro,gram. It is possible to consult Ref.lIS] to iden.tify the other features uf this element which is called and numbered (Plane 183) as shown in the Fig.(2) below:

y
(If IXI'I)

L

Xlor raci.

,4J
Tn Qption

Fig.(2) Element Planel83 used in the creep analysisllS]

Model Generation The ultimate purpose of a finite element analysis is to re-create mathematically the behavior of an actual engjneering system(16J. In other worils, the analysis must be an accurate mathematical model of a p.bysical prototypellS],.In the broadest sense, the model comprises aU the nodes,elements, material properti.es,. real constants, boundary conditions and the otber features that usedto representthe physic J system. In. ANSYS terminology., the term model. generation usually t 'kes 0.0 tbe narrower meaning of generating the nodes and elements that represent tbe special volume and connecti.vity of the actual system. Thus, model generation in this study will mean the process of deflDing the geometric configuration of the model's nudes and elements. The program offers tbe foUowing approaches to model ge eratiom

195

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a) Creating a solid, medel b) Using direct generation. c) Importing a model created in.a eomputer ... ided ,design CAD system. a The method used in thiseeseareh tlogenerate a model is ,solid modeL. 10 solid modeling som.1 oneean be described the boundaries of the model, estabtishcontrols lOver the size and ,desired shape elementa auwouti.caUy, Le, dNwing tbe two dim.ensional specimen. modelan.d meshing using .meshtooL Solid m.odeling is usuaUy more powe.rful" and versatile than other mlOdeliDg,aud is 'commonly the preferred method for generation models.. The two DimensioD model of specimen is done by drawing aDd meshing two ,dim.ension specimen plane with element planl83 •.F.ig,,(7) shows, the specimen model and its, boundary conditions in ANS YS., The simulation is don.,e by APDL, in this study to BDalyze the tensile creep test as foHows,:. ffITLE,Creep Tes,t IPREP7 *ask,fff,enter force in N,lO *s··k,-ttt, .enter time in Hoor , 1 a ~"I *SET,Cl,1.S62S;E~14 !ASSIGN VALUE *SET,C2,5.0 !ASSIGN VALUE "'SET,C3,-O.S !ASSIGN VALUE *SET!C4,O !ASSIGN VALUE "'SET,HOUR,ttt .!ASSIGN VALUE MP,~1,200E3 !DEFINE YOUNG'S MODULUS MP,NUXY,1,O.3 !DEFINE POISON'S RATIO (,TUNIF ,HOT!ASSIGN TEMP TO NODES !TOFF,OFFS !'SPECIFY TEMP' RELATIVE TO ABSOLUTE VALUES TB,CREEP,1",6 !ACTIVATE DATA TABLE TBDATA,1,Cl,C2,C3,C4 !DEFINE DATA FOR TABLE l.tunif,IOOO !ASSIGN TEMP TO NODES tUDif,hot : SA VE!SA VE: !PREP7 : fc=2S,.4: rectog,O,l "'lc,O,"*lc rectng,2.S"'f~,3.S"'fe,O,l"'fe rectng,O.s."'fc,3" fc,( (1 ~(3116) *fe,«(I- (3/16))1l)~(3/16) )*fc )/2) aovla.p,alJ : IfiUt,,22,lO,(lJJ31)*fc: 16Ut,21,19,(13/3,2)*fc:16Ut,23,19,(U/3,2)*fc ifillt,20,24,(13132)*fc: AJ,2,12,8: AI,21,9,.U: AI,28,24,l7: AI,23,26,25 Aadd,all: Dumemp,aU: cyI4,O'.5*fc,O.S"'.fc,(5131)*fe: eyI4,3*fe,O.5*fc.,(5132)*fc AsbA,l,].: AsbA,.4,3: ET,I,PLANE182: KEYOPT,I,l,l: KEYOPT,l,3,.~O amesh,al1 : LSEL,S",13',16: n511,s,l: D,ALL,ALL: aUsel,aU: fmisb ISOLU LSEL,Sm17,20: nslI,s,l : F,aU,h,HI: NALL: RATE" OFF: DELT,I.~OE~8,1.0E..;9,1.OE-8 TIME, t.OE-8 : !TIME" t.OIE-8; :.IOUT,SCRATCH : OUTRES,ESOL,ALL :SOL VE lOUT RATE, ON, ON: DELT,lE"S',lE-S,l5: TlME,ttt: IOUT,SCRATCH: SOLVE :/OUT F1NlSH : /POSTI6 : ESOL,1,91"EPCR,X :.PRV AR,l :'PLVAR,2: *GET ,RESIX,VARI,2,KTIME,ttt FINISH

19'6
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F. ToE Scientific International Conference

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A sample has been chosen in accordance with the creep that is shown in Fig.(3) made by different metals (lead alloys, steel aUoys with dufercntamounts of carbon, brass, Aluminum etc.).
lY

13'32" r Ii

Fig.(J) DimensioDs,

·ot the samp.te used

~116"dill

in the device or creep, test metals

Depending on Fig.(4&5) whicb illustrate the building of model by the pro.gram ANSYSverlO, aceordlng to the simulationwhjch i done by APDLprogram

_ .
..

..,.

III ...

Fig.(4) Sample shape for thetestiog

Fig.(S) Sample sbape 00 which tbe experim.entaI BOunduy conditions are applied

Fig.(4) illustrates the sample sbape for which a model has been made depending on program ANSYS ver.tO wbic.h. will be.lp the test process (creep test). Its sbape and dimensions are similar to tbe sample of la,p which specifically used. in the devic.e of meta) creeping test. The same boundary conditions of tbe specimen are used during the lap test process including the fixing points and the points of applying load as shown in Fig.(5) •.The main objective in a creep test is to measure how agi'venmetal or aoaD.oy will Iperform onder constant load"at elevated temperatures. In .8 creep test a tensile specimen (with similar dlmenslonsesa tensile test specimen) is subjected to a constant load inside a furnace where the temperature is maintained constant. Fig.(6) illustrates a simple setup for creep testing. The resulting deforma,tion or strain is measured and plotted as a funetlen ·of elapsed time. Fig.(l) shows a schematic creep curve for a.metal tested at constant load until rupture.

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FJg,(6) A creep test setup

Results, and Discussion Creep behavior of many engineering material in the from of time-depend deformation under constant static load has beenrecognieed by engineers for over a century. The formulation of thermo elastie-plastleereep present,edin the research is (a,rgely based on many theories established for the time--invariant plasticity theory, it has the merit of being relatively slmple and CBn be readily adapted to the wen-established finite element analysis for thermo elastic plastic stress analysis, as in the case of .ANSYSforDlulation. Two alloys is used to compare tbe rate of strain in the aUoys with time aod to investigate the creep stresses with each time start at 5 minute to 420 minute is carried out using fmite element method via. ANSYS software as in Figs.(7), to Fig. (2l). It has been found that the steel sample has less creep strain value for the creep metal is more resistant to tbe dislocation move.ment on tbe grain boundaries. This refers to the good consolidat.iun. of tbis metal and the stabilizing of its mecltanicalfeatures under static thermal conditions which are equal to. room temperature 2Sl! unlike the other metals as illustrated in F.ig.(23). A comparison has been made m the creep' test between two. dift'erent metallic .aUoysfor a period beginning with 5 minutes to. 420 mhmres, It shows that tbe strain rate progress.ively increases with time with a static stable load an.d a decrease of the stress value in the middle of tbe sample. The movement o.f the
8

stress begins in the middle and moves towards the ends but the greatest part is in the fixed part because reactions 8f tbe opposite (o.reuare formed. Table(l) illustrated the strain rate of each al16Y with time

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Table(U strain rate with time

Time (minute) 5 10

20
40 80

160
320 420

Strain. Rate Steel alloy Metal aIJo~· 12x 10'~ 80 x 10--:1 30x 10-~ 120 x 10-~ 75x 10-3 170 x 10.5 215x 10.5 240 x 10.5 750x 10~ 350 x 10-5 480 x IO-l! 1300x 10--:1 1250x 10-~ 680 x 10·~ 750 X 10-:1 20000x 10.5

Conclusions J- Increasing the load downward in a constaot temperature-even if it room temperature 25°C would lead to increase tbe creep of tbe metal .. 2- Various metals have different resistance to creep so the quality of metal is an effedive factor in the test of creep for the metals .. 3- The variety .of t.he metals means, variety in the microscopic structure of tile metals. Siaeeereepmeans dislocation at the grain boundary SOl wbentbe grain size decreases therate of tbese dislocations increases and consequently the: creep increases. 4- It is known that the aUoy additiodsfilnction as obstaeles for the dislocations bappening in the metal so addiug materials such as chrome and nickel increases the resistance to creep.

References 1- Odquist, F.K.G .• "Historical. survey of tbe development of creep mechanics from Its begin.nmgs in the last century to 1970." In creep in structure. A.R$. Ponterand Hayhurst (eds.).PrOic. 3rd. Symp.lDt.. nion Tbeoret.& Appl.Mech., SprmgerVerlag.pp 1U 12. 1981.

n.R.

2~HaDi Aziz Ameen "Finite element Method for tbermo Elasto-Plastic Stress Analysis of Three Dimensional Problems", .Pb.D. thesis University of Technology, 1998. 3- Young ..Jin Kim and Dong HOI Bae " Evaluation 00. small punehereeptest element metbod " ,Eng. Mat. J." VoL 297, P.377-383,2005. by finite

4- T.B. Hyde, A.A. Becker andW. SUD," Finite element creep failure anaJyses of P91 large tensile cross- weld specimens tested at 615°C", 5th Int. com. on Mechanics and Materials in Design, July, 2006. 5- Bin Zhao and Xiang Sheng W ng" Experimental and simulation duralumin aUoy 2A12", from Internet, Elsevier B.V., 2009. of creep damage for

6- MartioJ. Dropik and David H.JohnsQl.D " Devel.Q1pingan ANSYScreep Model for polypl'lopylencm from Experimental Data", 'on website: www.sprioerlink.com

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7 -Penny ,R.K. and D.L. Marriott. 8 -Nerton, F.H.,."Tbe

"Design for creep" ..New York, Me Graw Ball. 1971 Graw-Hill.1929

creep of steel. at bigh temperature".New-York,Mc
00

9 ~Dom,J.E .•"Some fu_odameotatexperimeots J.Mech.&Phys.Solids,3,85~ 116,1955. 10-W.Jobnson Reinholdt1973. and P.B.Mellor,"EngiDeering

higb temperature

creep."

Plasticity"

, Voo':Nostrand

Ll-Tai-Ran.Hsu.t'The &Uowin, 1986.

fmiteelement

Method in thermomech:anics"

Boston,Allen

12-Greenbaum,G.A. and M.F.Rubinsteiu •. Creep analysis of axisymmetric " rmite elements" .Nvcl.Eng.&Des.,7,379-397, 1968

bodies using

13-Donea.,J.,"The application of computer methods to creep analysis, in creep of engineering materials and structures" ,G.Bemasconi and Piatti(eds)Loodoo. Applied Science Publishers. 1978. 14 -Shih,C.F. and H.G.Delorenzi, "A stable computational scheme for still timedependent constitutive equations", Proc.4th SMJRT Conf.,San Francisco, paper No. L212.1977 15 - Ansys .Inc." Ansys Manuals Ver.l0".www.AN_YS.com ,2005.

16- Saeed Mooveni "Finite Element anaJysis" theory and application

With ANSYA, 1999.

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Metal aUoy, Young's Modulu.s = 60.6 MP'a, under static load =5 N, during time =300sec Strain rate between: 0 - 0.000120

J\N

' .,, -.

nf':'l"' :::In 7n"11;

m."&:.'"

J..!u1

/

".~

..~

Strain

f;lte

••. .t5

.:,.

...
0

...

..

. U&
•• .ibU

U

11:''''' ,1;10

,""'"

U:)'

no

;".11:\11

...,1,11
J:.Bi

Time, sec

Fig.(7) Explain the relaUonship

between stra'in rate and time understati.c unknown metalaUoy.

load 5.N for 300 sec. for an

Steel alloy, Young's Modulus = 200 MPa , under static load = 5 N, during time =300sec Strain rate between .:0 - 0.8.xlO-7

IJQV

2

2DDS

~":Z.l.:"3
... l..O .....
-'J')

.l.

Strain rate

II 40

110

.uo

no
.!IIII

_0

Time, sec

Fig.(8) Ex-plain the relatioDshjp

between strain rate and time understatle alloy.

load 5N for .300 sec. for steel

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Metal al1oy, Young's Modulus = 60.6 MP.a, uDderstatie load Strain rate between: 0 - 0.0003

= 5 N,.during-time
AN.
DC'!' 31 2.005 0':33:4:3

=600sec

"
Strain rate

..
zl'
I

II ...

1. ...

.,

...
ua
.0 ZI1i!Q :;11.0 '40g ..... •. 101 iI'4,j) " .. 0 11111:0

Time, sec

Fig.(9) Explain the reta.tionship between si:rain ro,te and time under static load 5.Nfor 600 see, for an unknown metal aJloy

Steel aUoy, Young's Modulus = 200 MPa , under static load = 5 N, during time =600sec Strain rate between: 0 -1.2xlO-7
1
PDBTZ6 IPCIIX

AN ,. ~
,

IIOV 2 ZOOS 1.4:2:5:27
C • .lO:"'_':l)

.1..1 •
..l~ J.2.o:

1

.e~• .n
v.&.tt7

. u·s· .s
.~'151 ~I'·I I

.ulJl
0
I

0

eo

uo

no

800

Fig.(lO) Explain the relatlonsbip between strain rate alld time under static load 5N fur 600 ee, for steel
aUoy.

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Metal .aUoy, Young's Modulus = 60.6 MPa ,under c1200see Strain. rate between: 0 - 0.00075
1 poa'l'2:C

static load

=

5 N,. during time

l _,
OC'! 31,1 zoo. D8:QP:."
(_l.O-4 ..


4

••

Slrain rate

•. ....
4 •• , IEID U"'

~'i"

••• lI,t.'

".D .,"'.

!leG"".

.&.l.tI..

JA:I.

Time, sec

Fig.(ll) Explain. the relationship between strain ra.te and time under sta.ti.c load SN for 1200 sec. fo.r ·B!l
unknown metal aUoy•.

Steel aHoy, Young's Modulus = too MPa, under static load =1200secStrain rate between: 0 -1.7x10-1
1 PIlSTZ6

= 5 N, during

time

I\N:'~.-,
II!()V Z ZOO·S

KPCRX

-.
,1..,.'0'-

1.:25'27

c.J.O .... -"J)

"',

.117~

Strain rate

qL-

__
.00 ..,20

Time see
C:t:",ep Te .. ~

Fig.(12) Explain tbe relationsbip' between strain rat and time under static load 5Nful:' 1100 sec. for steeE alloy

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Metal alloy, Young's Modulus = 60.6, ,MPa , under static load =2400sec • Strain rate between; 0 - 0.00215

=
tn:::r

S N, during time

.AN"
l..ut-:,')

...

31 ztJios: 08:3''':,zC

Strain rate

Time,sec

Fig.(13) Explain the relationship between strain rate and time under static load SN (or 2400 sec. (or an lUlkaown metal aHoy.

Steel alloy, Young's Modulus = 200 MPa. , under static load = 5 N, during time =2400sec Strain rate between: 0 - 2.4x10-7
POl!ltZ6 .fleRY.

AN
BOlO' e:-.l.O",-.,l
;t ••

, -,.-,

.

<!-005 :1.5:2:2:.1.2
;2

:1.:1"

Strain rate

J..u ..
.L .1$

.zo OL-

~

o

uo

.1000

UOO .LUO

tOOO

,"SOD

TimeJ's~
,Creep Tellc

Fig.(14) Explain the relationsbip between strain rate and time under static load 5N for 2400 sec. {or steel
alloy .

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Metal. aUoy" Young's

Modulus

=4800sec. Strain rate between: 0 - 0.0075
OCT

=

60.6 MP,a,

'Under static load - 5, N, during

time

n lDOS 09:08:13

'.1 Strain rate

'.~
I

I

..

..
'DO
UDa: :111100 .sOD

Time,sec
CE.eep T~JJt.

Fig.(IS) Explain the relationship

between strain. rate and time under static load SN for 4800 sec. tor an unknowD meta] aUoy.

Steel aUoy, Young's Modulu

= 200 MPa,

under static load = S N, during time =4800sec

Strain rate between: 0-3.5
1 POS'fZ6 IPo:.llX

10-

7

JItIV Z ZD05 :1.5::1:5:19

...
1:.4.

VALO

Strain rate

OLo
..... 0
... .00

__
... ao
,QOO
4.5aO

Tim.e .;sec

Fig.(16) Explain the relationship

between strain rate and time under stoUt load 5N for 4800 sec. for steel

alloy

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Meta,' aUoy, Young's .Modulus = 60.6 MPa , under static lead= 5 N, during time =9600sec=. Strain rate between : 0 - 0.0130
1
!i'DS:rZ6

AN·.... '

111CiIX

OCT :U zcos 09:3Z:32

~

...
J.,

.1.G .1.4

Strain rate

..
.e
.z

I
I t
o
500 ?OO .BOO 1100

Time,.sec

Fig.(17) E1plaiothe relatio.nship between stnin unknown metal aUoy

rate and time under static load !iN for 9600 sec. for an

Steel alloy, Young's Modulus

Strain rate between: 0 - 4.8xl0-7
POliTZ. .p,e .a.:,..

= 200 MPa

~under static load = 5 N, during time =9600sec

.CV
~S!

Z

zoos

z_.,~O.lii

... ..,-"lJ

Strain rate

Time,see

Fill.(1S), iElpla.in the relationship

between strain rate and time under static load 5N for 9600 sec.fors'teel aUoy

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Metal alloy, You.ng's Modulus = 60.6, MPa., under static loa.d= 5 N,during, time =19200sec. Str.ain raee between ,:0 - 0.0125
1

POSH"
IPr.'

OCT :!'It .tODS

YAW

.... .. ~··I ..
~ ~ ~

J.O!U!D2

~I

Strain rate
.• 1

.....:::.~~_~~ WD &00 .gilt .H ,1.60111

~~~~~_ U.. .IAOG ~.DO "-0-0

(..D .... ~'

:loo"

Time,se~

Fig.(19) Explain the relationship between strain rate Bod time under static load 5N for 9600 sec. for an un known metal aUoy

Steel aUoy, Young's Modulus = 200 MPa, under static load == 5 N, during time =19200sec.Strain rate between : 0 - 6.8:1:10-7

AN
11'1:1'"

1l!!'.,ss: 10

:z

200.

"

,',.1..0-'"

.,~.

•.•

Strain rate

..

o L-

---:'~-zoo
400 •. 00. .1.1:00 UOO 1.00

...... ... "- )
,2,00.01

o

F'g.(20) Explain the relatioDsbip between strain rate aod time under tatie load 5N tor 9600 sec. for steel
aUoy

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Mdal alloy" Young's Modulus = 60.6 MPa, under static load = 5 N, during time =25200sec. Strain rate between : 0 - 0.200
1. POII,T"Z6 K'PCP'){

OCT

3J. ZOOS

Strain. rate

Time,sec
ere!!]:> Teat

Fig.(21) Explain the relationsbip between strain. rate and time under static load 5N for 25200 see. for an
unknown metal alloy

Steel alloy, Young's Modulus = 200 MPa , under static load = 5 N, during time =252008ec. Strain rate between: 0 -7.SxlO-7
I pon;r:;s

.ov

Z ZODS

Strain tate

Time.sec

Fjg.(ll) Explain the relationship between strain rate and time onder static load SN for 25100 se'C. for steel

alloy

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vs.n

3000.00

.....

b >< ~ ....

Creeping test for metal alloy
2000.00

d .; .l;j. en

1000.00

0.00

100.00

200.00

300..00

400.00

Time (min.)
Fig.(13) Exp.lain tbe rela.tionship between strain rate and time for metal and st.eel alloys

20'9

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