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18 January 2010
XP Home has no backup program. What I think you mean is Active and Passive matrix LCD panels. XP Home doesn't. A typical active TFT panel capable of resolutions of just 1024x768 is made up of nearly 2. IIS—XP Pro includes IIS. the transistors are etched onto glass. How will you install Operating System in more than 50 PC at a time when the all Pcs having same configuration? Create a image of Operating System and the software’s which you want to install on all systems from Symantec ghost and paste or distribute the image on the network. Remote Desktop—XP Pro adds to Remote Assistance by letting any machine running a Terminal Services client run one Terminal Services session against an XP Pro machine. which lets someone from a Help desk connect to the client desktop to troubleshoot problems. 2. Upgrade from Win2K/NT—Only XP Pro supports this upgrade. one with columns. TFT's tend to be quicker ( response time) and nicer to look at in general. The right version for you depends on the functionality you need. TFT monitors are rapidly displacing competing CRT technology. XP Home doesn't. and user setting management. TFT LCD is one type of active matrix LCD. and the Client Services for NetWare (CSNW). IP Security (IPSec). Group Policy—XP Pro supports group policies. Backup—XP Pro has the standard Win2K backup program. TFT-LCD (Thin Film Transistor-Liquid Crystal Display) is a variant of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) which uses Thin-Film Transistor (TFT) technology to improve image quality. but they can access domain resources. Upgrade from Windows Me/Win98—Both XP Pro and XP Home support this upgrade. If the pcs are on network you can have RIS or WDS setup. XP Home doesn't support IntelliMirror. which includes Microsoft Remote Installation Services (RIS). Network Support—XP Pro includes support for Network Monitor. though it is usually synonymous with LCD. one with rows. XP Home doesn't. flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. TFT means Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display. The control is done with an IC (integrated circuit or silicon chip) on the LCD's circuit board/s. Multiprocessor—XP Pro supports up to two processors. a very useful feature for mobile machines. XP Home supports only one (as did Windows Me/Win98). XP Home doesn't. XP Home doesn't. 3. they don't have the same features.5 million transistors (commonly known as small 3 legged lumps of silicon found in TV's and most other electronics) eccept in this case. In computing. software deployment. Domain Membership—XP Pro systems can be domain members. and is therefore suitable for use in battery-powered electronic devices.What is the difference between Windows XP Professional Edition and Windows XP Home Edition? Although the XP Pro and Home Editions share the same common core code. What is the difference between LCD and TFT ? A liquid crystal display (commonly abbreviated LCD) is a thin. A normal LCD basicaly has two layers of glass. Encrypted File System (EFS)—EFS debuted in Win2K and lets you encrypt files on an NTFS partition.1. to microscopic precision hence the name "Thin Film Transistor". and are commonly available in sizes from 12 to 30 inches. 2 . It is prized by engineers because it uses very small amounts of electric power. Dynamic Disks—XP Pro supports dynamic disks. It is used in both flat panel displays and projectors. This is where there is a difference in price. XP Home systems can't. 64-bit Support—Only XP Pro will have a 64-bit version that supports the Itanium systems. Remote Assistance—Both editions support Remote Assistance. SNMP. XP Pro includes EFS. IntelliMirror—XP Pro supports IntelliMirror. Requirement for clients is they should have network bootable NIC. this makes up a grid that can be referenced to control each pixel.
ini shows available os for selection.POST(power on self test) first check for hardware 2. What is IMAP? How does it work? IMAP is a standard protocol for accessing e-mail from a local server. boot.They all will be in Q regardless of their priority.ini.loads boot.exe takes over and starts winlogon. Winodow uses Priority based preemptive scheduling while Unix uses Round robin preemtive scheduling. you put your creativity and start redesigning. 1. Multiprocessing is not possible on single processor system.ini.Windows is GUI based. Booting process are classified into 5 steps. Using IMAP an email client program can not only retrieve email but can also manipulate message stored on the server. UNIX source code is made free and is available for students 7.ini.dos. control set and loads device drivers.ini it loads os. 6. Get it completed as a new OS and sell it if you are business-minded. boot. etc.sys. UNIX is not event driven.After that Ntoskrnl. ntoskrnl. Unix is text based. system. So messages can be deleted. 6.mbr loads active partation 4ntldr loads o.The MBR reads the boot sector which is the first sector of the active partition. ntoskrnl.ini 4. ntldt. ntldr will be in boot. without having to actually retrieve the messages. bootsect.s. First there will be pre.com to get information about installed hardware. Explain the Windows XP. ntdetect. loads mbr.exe. 5. An operating system that supports a set of principles and practices on how to write softwares whose source code is openly available. If you want your OS to work for you as you want it to. What is an Open Source OS? List some .Ntldr reads the registry files then select a hardware profile. ntdetect.So system having one processor can not do multiprocessing it is only psedomultiporcessing. it includes the following 1. In windows process or thread which has higer priority will take over but this will be the case in Unix. Window is component based syste. 3 . 3..It's only possible on multcore or multiprocessor system where more then two process can be scheduled simulteniously . boot process: first loads boot.TCP/IP and File systems are the component of the system where Unix is integrated system.exe which starts lsass.. Open Source OS is any OS which has the source code with its installation package. have their status changed.4.Windows is event driven And for God sake both are multithreaded. What is the difference between unix and windows operating systems? These both os are multihtread os not multprocessing.. 2000 and 2003 Boot Process? following are the booting files for xp .Ntldr locket path of os from boot. This source code is modifiable. useful for blackberry's etc where data costs money 5.exe this is the program that display the welcome screen.dll.hal.com check for hardware. 3.exe loads drivers for devices.com.Ntldr to run ntdedetect. Examples: Linux versions ..boot sequence.. IMAP allows for clients / users to read only the header information and then decide if they wish to download the whole msg.bootdd.POST 2. multiple mail boxes can be managed.
and the host part is 32.0. 9.255. What is ADS & ADSL? ADS stands for Active Directory Services.16 is network part .1.Â That would be Synchronous where the rate of download and upload is the same.0. Like IP addresses. and 25. it is just like a Main gate of home when a person wanna go to outside from home or come inside he can only do the same by main gate.0 Subnet mask is 32 bit long TCP/IP address divided in four equal part.168.2 subnetmask. more readable form : 255. eg.255.there is two version of ip adress ipv4(32 bit) and ipv6(64 bit). And if packet have another network address it should be come out from Default gate way. if u have a IP 172.255. Why do we use Subnet mask? What are its uses? Subnet mask is use to isolate the network ID and Host ID. E.but ip adress is the logical adress assinged to perticular computer . network ID :192.255. ADSL is short for Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line.1 A subnet allows the flow of network traffic between hosts to be segregated based on a network configuration.255.For a simple LAN there is no use of default gateway.Â Generally anything to do with authentication against an Active Directory to workstations or network shares as well as global and security group membership is covered under ADS.0. By organizing hosts into logical groups.1 then the default subnet is:255. subnetmask is just used to identify the class of ip address and its is used for subnetting of ip address for eg:ipaddress -192. the most recognizable aspect of subnetting is the subnet mask.0. subnetting can improve network security and performance. have 3 network octate and 1 host octate i.0 4 . Which is 48 bit. In network if the packet have address of same address then switch direct forward the packet to its desired destination.255.255.25.e.8.if an IP is:192.16. For example.the mask is used to detrmine that which part of IP belonged to network or which part belong to host. Default gateway:. and in my experience always greater than. Why we want Mac address as well as IP address ? Why one address is not enough in net work ? Mac address is the physical address of a computer.0 because it is a C Class Address C Class Add.Â DSL is a very common broadband Internet access method in use all over the place.255.Subnet mask mainly use in subneting.0. If subneting is enable then we can use some bit of host part in network .32 and its subnet mask is 255. Basically it reduces the collision.0 and host ID : 0. It is used when network communicate with other network.126.96.36.199. Same Concept used here. a very common subnet mask in its binary representation 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 is typically shown in the equivalent. for above example subnet mask is 255.16 is host part.Â Asynchronous means that the rate of download is different from.Â It is also possible to have SDSL.g.0 the nwk address become 172. 10.if u type ipconfig/all from the command promt of a computer u can find that both adress.0. the rate of upload. What is the difference b/w subnet mask and default gateway? Subnet Mask:.255.168. then the 172.It is used for isolation of network address and host address 11. a subnet mask contains four bytes (32 bits) and is often written using the same "dotteddecimal" notation.
1 and Host part that is 2 the class of ip is C where as default gateway is a ip address given to a router or ASDL modem which is used to communuicate with other N/Ws or internet 12.for 64-bit).168. 3)Maximum File size is upto 4 GB. It usually implies a binary compatibility with the 32-bit instruction set of the 80386 (a.win millenium. compression and auditing.w2k3. i386 (as eluded to above) is the common name for the Intel386 (or 80386) based PCs. Linker 4. What is FTP & UDP?What is the different version of IP? FTP or File Transfer Protocol is used to transfer data from one computer to another over the Internet.IPv4 Questions Regarding Operating Systems 1. The most important new feature of NTFS is the ability to encrypt files and folders to protect your sensitive data b) NTFS 1)allows access local to w2k. What is the difference between x86 and i386 computer? x86 refers to a popular set of instructions most commonly used in processors from Intel. programs on networked computers can send short messages sometimes known as datagrams(using Datagram Sockets) to one another. Text editor 2. 4)File & folder Encryption is not possible. Loader? Assembler 3) What is the Difference between NTFS and FAT32? a) FAT (FAT16 and FAT32) and NTFS are two methods for storing data on a hard drive.a. or through a network User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite.98. The hard drive has to either be formatted using one or the other. 5 . Using UDP. which supports file-level security.k.XP. 2) Which of the following system software resides in main memory always ? 1. It also supports large volumes and powerful storage solution such as RAID. AMD. 3)Maximum File size is upto 16TB. 4)File & folder Encryption is possible only in NTFS.xp on local partition. or can be converted from one to the other (usually FAT to NTFS) using a system tool NTFS is a high-performance and self-healing file system proprietary to Windows XP 2000 NT. Assembler 3. and others.we can find N/W part that is 192.win2k.win NT4 with SP4 & later may get access for somefile. It is sometimes emphasized as x86-32 (for 32-bit) and x86-64 (also called x64 . ip versions IPv6. 2)Maximum size of partition is upto 2 TB. VIA. i386). 2)Maximum size of partition is 2 Terabytes & more. FAT 32 1)Fat 32 Allows access to win 95.
you have to add a route for this 255. Static electricity. I ease these batteries into the holder with the aid of a “tweaker” (small screw driver). Every time I boot up my PC the date is 1/1/1998. such as disk drive parameters. which it should be) A power surge. A bad real-time clock.255. etc. remove the battery and check the voltage. Causes include: A bad battery. Larry What is the CMOS memory? A. Most of the battery holders I have seen for these batteries are quite fragile and easily broken. (In both of the next two examples.hence a DHCP configured PC boots. byte 3 is added is to the sum of bytes 1 and 2. we assume that DHCP requests will be coming in on interface eth0). 6. CMOS memory draws very little current (nano-Amps). That is. were Nickel-Cadmium and they were rechargable. A bad motherboard. byte one is added to byte 2..255. some of which you enter in the CMOS Setup program." and relate error. During the boot-up process or POST (Power-On Self Test) a checksum is generated by the BIOS from the CMOS and compared to the one saved the last time the CMOS Setup was run or the BIOS defaults were loaded. or at least some of those blue batteries. It is used by the Basic Input Output System (BIOS). A. Can you tell me what causes CMOS checksum errors? . If you have a multimeter or you have a friend who has a multimeter. 5. It does this by sending a standardized DHCP broadcast request packet to the DHCP server with a source IP address of 255. The carry bits are dropped. What it does is dynamically assign network settings from a server. Values stored in it can be maintained for very a long period of time while the computer is off with a rechargeable lithium battery. and the date-time. Grounding the CMOS circuitry. A battery that has become discharged (the computer has been off a very long time). If it reads 1. The CMOS battery is coinshaped.0 volts when fully charged.255. The CMOS memory is used to store system configuration information. . to configure the computer. The following reference is worth a bookmark if you are interested in the subject. Make sure it is properly installed and + is up.255. It is located in the chipset on most recent motherboards. A CMOS checksum is generated by adding all of the bytes (or bits) in the CMOS one after the other. How it Works? DHCP stands for dynamic host configuration protocol. The result (checksum) is stored in the CMOS. the time is 00:00.255 address so that it knows the interface on which to send the reply. The CMOS Setup is part of the BIOS program. If the two numbers don't agree it is an indication that the data in the CMOS has been corrupted (one or more bits in the CMOS changed when it/they weren't supposed to) and a checksum error is issued by the BIOS ("CMOS checksum invalid.255. " "CMOS invalid. "CMOS battery low"). negative and positive Metal Oxide transistor circuits. CMOS uses a complimentary arrangement of both NMOS and PMOS. If your DHCP server has more than one interface. It should read 3. Be very careful installing and removing coin-shaped batteries. Insertion of an expansion board in such a manner (cock-eyed) as to short-out the bus (even if the computer is off. Coin-shaped batteries on most motherboareds should be a CR2032. A disconnected battery. The CMOS memory is usually located with the real-time clock in the motherboard chipset or in a separate real-time clock chip. it requests its IP address from the DHCP server. Lightning. a program permanently stored in the flash memory on recent motherboards and in read-only memory (ROM) on older motherboards. memory configuration.4) What is DHCP.8 volts or higher it is probably OK. CMOS is an abbreviation for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor.. if not. the CMOS memory is located in the VT82C596B 6 . For example. it sends it to the default gateway. After doing some more research it appears that those blue batteries that were soldered on old motherboards.
expansion boards.). Possible fixes: 1." What is it and how do I fix it? A. (Rebooting will automatically disabled it after it has done its thing. unchange it. Reseat all expansion boards. 7. socketed chips. What causes a computer to reboot itself? A. bad CPU fan. I handle them last because the wiring is not consistent from case to case and motherboard to motherboard. Follow with the reset switch and test. Q. A noisy power supply. The System Management BIOS (SMBIOS) is an extension of the Basic Input Output System (BIOS) that formulates and delivers this information to the operating system. You can do this with the computer on. During bootup my computer hangs at "Verifying DMI pool data. The speaker can be plugged-in either way. Pull all boards not required to boot the computer.Southbridge chip in the VIA MVP3C chipset on the Epox MVP3G2 Super7 Motherboard and in the AMD756 Southbridge in the AMD-750 chipset on the MSI MS-6167 Athlon motherboard. Q. Next. installed a new hard disk drive). Q. If you installed a new hard disk drive. when the BIOS is "Verifying DMI pool data" it is verifying the table of data it sends to the operating system (Windows. It could be caused by a lot of things. DMI or DesktopManagement Interface (pdf) is a layer of abstraction between system components and the software that manages them. The Power on LED usually plugs into a five-pin header or a group of five pins on a header with the keylock. and follow with the Power on LED. possibly. You can plug LEDs in backwards and it won't hurt them or the motherboard. hard disk LED. 3.) 4. it should return an error. reconnect one at time. If it isn't sucessful.g. If this fixes it. the key lock on older cases). You may have to disconnect the drive first. and memory. The key lock (if it isn’t on a five-pin plug with the Power on) goes into the remaining two pins.) connect to the header(s) on my motherboard without the motherboard documentation or clear labeling? A. hunt for the HD LED like the Power on. Enable "Reset Configuration Data" (may be "Force Update ESCD" in some CMOS Setuups) in the motherboard CMOS Setup PNP/PCI configuration. Wait a reasonable period of time for it to finish. using the Reset switch to boot the computer and light the LED… There are still Turbo LEDs and Switches in the world and some motherboards still accommodate a Turbo LED. It may make take some time or it may be stuck. 8. and then the speaker. In short. backward and forwards. etc. Switches do not have a polarity and can be plugged-in either way. The pool data is the information. but it is usually a hardware problem. 6. Do not plug a LED into a switch header on a motherboard or a closed (short) switch into a LED header on the motherboard. until it lights. Disconnect all drives not required to boot the computer. You can plug a switch. which is not closed (most aren’t except. into a LED connection on the motherboard and it won't hurt the motherboard (or switch). 2. Keep plugging it in the four possible positions. loose screw under the motherboard. I leave them disconnected and bundle 7 . set the motherboard CMOS Setup to Auto for the drive type.. and they have no meaningful function except eliminate the problem of having to explain to a customer why the Turbo LED isn’t on and why the Turbo switch has no real purpose. If I can’t get them to work after a few minutes or fidgeting. speaker. I generally start with the Power on switch (ATX motherboard). The CMOS may be corrupted. It has two wires that usually connect to a four-wire plug. The floppy drive may be bad or not connected properly. If you changed the hardware just before this problem occurred (e. etc. How can I determine where and how the various front panel connectors (Power-on. especially if it occurs randomly. and cables that are not fully seated are among the common causes. 5. Clear it.
This is not available in Home basic edition of Windows Vista. Home Premium. The browser also got anti-phishing tools to combat phishing. Ok. 72-pin SIMMs are generally available in 32-bit (non-parity) or 36-bit (parity) configurations. the US. One can enjoy the 3-D window effects as well as translucent window effects. What are the new features available in Internet Explorer 7.. every one asks. What is a SIMM & DIMM? A. the user information such as password etc. on 30th November 2006.0 includes tabbed browsing. In general. This is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) based operating system. There are a few older 66 Mhz motherboards that will not work PC100 or PC133 memory. How many editions are available for Windows Vista? What are they? Windows Vista comes in 5 editions. One can select the edition depending on the type of use of computer for his activity. the system requirement for running Windows Vista is. The editions are Starter. the requirement will be high as Windows Vista runs a couple of new features. which supports PC100 memory. but they are exceptions. 30-pin SIMMs come in 8-bit (non-parity) or 9-bit (parity). what are the new features does the operating system carries? Windows Vista carries a lot of new features. feature will not get installed to your system if the system does not have the DirectX 9. The last case LED I burned-out in my shop was about five years ago and that was caused by error. When is it gets released and which operating system it precedes? Microsoft has already released it business edition to its business customers in its home state. Home basic.them with the other wires with a zip (cable) tie. perhaps. The operating system will precede Windows XP.0. Q. Q. side bar etc. Let me answer that with a qualified YES. Most SIMMs have 30 or 72 pins (which are actually printed circuit contacts and not pins). which is available in all editions of Windows Vista? The 3D effect to all windows in Windows Vista is termed as Aero. Phishing is a serious crime where by. which manages the computer's resources. one must resort to tracing wires to the appropriate LEDs and switches. a reasonably well configured system to work. In other editions. One can browse multiple pages in the same window separated by tabs. business and ultimate. The official date for releasing other editions has been fixed to January 2007. The desktop look has been changed significantly. 3-D effect means? Is it the default feature. A Dual In-line Memory Module or DIMM combines two 72-pin SIMMS into a 168-pin module with 64-bit (non-parity) or 72-bit (parity) data paths. works with a 100 Mhz FSB.. not procedure. Will PC133 or PC100 memory work on a motherboard that has a 66 Mhz Front Side Bus (FSB)? A. alright.0? The Internet Explorer 7. the 128 Mbytes of PC133 memory I have in my computer with an EpoX MVP3G2 Super 7 motherboard. Sometimes. However. A Single In-line Memory Module or SIMM is a small printed circuit board containing memory chips (DRAMs).0 supported graphics card with minimum of 128 MB of Graphics Memory. Frequently Asked Questions about Vista What is Windows Vista? This is the first question. What is the minimum system requirement to run Windows Vista? Windows Vista requires a good. The other features include more secured Internet Explorer 7. It is said that. Windows Vista. For example. a Microsoft product. 8 . is an operating system. Windows Media Player 11. SDRAM is backward compatible and can run at bus speeds slower than that for which it is rated.. goes to the hacker's system. It starts with the desktop view itself. not the rule.
If the data is important to you. Home Basic provides tools such as Windows Defender and Windows Firewall for security.SVGA (800x600) Graphics Memory . Internet . Microsoft has done an excellent job in protecting the system from Hackers.System Memory . The system may crash or even selecting a wrong partition can take the data beyond recovery. a platform for entertainment. 9 . It is kept in the server. Windows Vista will not get installed to a non NTFS partition. Optical Drive . The third edition is the business edition. One can enjoy television through Xbox 360. again as various settings of the programs including shortcuts gets overwritten. Microsoft people found a way to overcome software piracy. I was prompted with a window to activate my product. If the product is not activated.Required for activation. Remember. within 30 days. One need to install every programs etc. tools for collaborating and sharing documents.800 MHz and above. ensure that the product is genuine.Any. If the product is not genuine. What is it? After many years of thinking and experimenting. latest major upgrades. Activating the product through the internet. Audio card . If there are more than one installations using same product.CD-ROM/DVD ROM. Instead of these two features. during installation process any thing may happen.64 MB in case.0. of course. The clean install requires more time than other installation method. patches. What are the features available in the various editions of Windows Vista? The features vary depending on the type of editions. which is meant for small and mid-sized organizations.• • • • • • • • Processor speed . then I will advice backup of that data.B. This edition is best suited for laptops. the product will enter into reduced functionality mode and continues to stay in that mode.15 GB. excludes media center and Xbox 360 from its list. After installation. The home Premium is meant for best computing and entertainment experiences. and this is the crucial point in backing up files. Before installation process should I require to take all data backup? This is a simple question that can be answered by you. yourself. GPU . then the server rejects the request to activate. which is meant for secured browsing.20 GB. Microsoft felt the need for conversion from FAT32 into NTFS. Home Premium includes features from home basic plus Windows Aero. HDD .512 M. provides connectivity to business and remote desktops. It also provides Windows Media Center. whose drivers support Windows XP. it must meet the minimum system requirements as given above. Keep data backup in CD-ROMâ€™s if you can afford to do so. • File System . For security reasons. even scratching their heads. It includes all features of Home Premium. (40 GB for well working conditions) HDD Free Space . but. Should I require converting my existing FAT32 hard disk partition into NTFS while installing Windows Vista? Yes. but. and the product installed is termed as non-genuine. before installing windows vista. if running aero. it comes with tools for protecting from hardware failures. then one may not able to get the latest updates.The installation hard drive partition must be NTFS New Technology File System). Clean Install involves removing the existing entire operating system and installing the new one. till the product is activated. It also includes Internet Explorer 7. Will the present PC can run Windows Vista? Yes. The process collects information such as ids of various hardware components installed in the system and sends the information to the activation server. The home basic provides only basic features for email and internet access in a more secured environment.
The final and feature rich edition of Windows Vista is the Ultimate. a gadget can give one. credit card numbers etc and sends it to the person. one need a single click to access the calculator program! This saves the time and energy in pressing and moving the mouse pointer from here to there. Disk keeper. This keeps data in secured form as actual data is not revealed to the user unless he reveals his correct identity in the form of password or finger print to the system. Some spyware even can change the configuration settings of the system. Previously. Will all my softwares that ran comfortably in Windows XP. People. United States. However. Service Pack 3 is expected to be released on 2008. What are the features in Windows Defender? Windows Defender is a program which helps the PC to stay protected against spyware and other potentially dangerous. such as hard disks. as the environment. Canada.1 took time to adjust to Windows 95. Some programs may require you to tweak their some settings to work properly. For example. run in Windows Vista? This question is slightly difficult to answer at this stage. For calculator. Adobe Premiere. if one want to access calculator program. Spyware usually collects the personal information such as password. This window appears on the desktop. Actual data is converted to an unknown form in this technique. What is bit locker encryption? Bit locker encryption is tool for encrypting data. Pinnacle Studio. patches for Windows XP too. As of now. New Zealand. it was said some users of Windows 3. It has to be decrypted before use by the user. the applications such as Symantec Norton 2007. Windows Vista starter edition is a special edition meant for beginners. which offer easy access to information. who wants it. Will the Release of Windows Vista signal the end of road for Windows XP? No. It can also give an easy way to control the media player too. and a wide range of games. the new features such as Internet Explorer 7. provides tool to protect data. Gadgets are mini-applications. you can go through their official websites for more information on how to tweak settings. But. Windows Media Player 11 have been also extended to Windows XP users. It is a tool which is very useful for protecting data during the theft of any storage media. These programs may not run at all also. harmful programs. a glance view of all online instant messaging contacts. For example. including the desktop. surely it will take some time for an experienced user to get adjusted to the Vista environment. It includes additional help. It provides all features of business and home premium and also. in case of computer or hard drive thefts. without much difficulty. may cause problems. Testers found comfortable in running these applications without many problems. How much time needed to learn Windows Vista? It depends. who saw the working of Windows XP. One can download more gadgets from the gadget gallery which is available in the Microsoft web site. there by making it convenient for the users to access programs quickly. But. The user needs to traverse many paths for accessing the program. For example. such as screens got changed. Australia. 10 . tutorials to teach the use of computers among learners. For such programs. One can expect Microsoft to give out upgrades. if the calculator shortcut is placed in the sidebar. or any other high income markets defined by the World Bank. the start button is no longer labeled as "Start" in Windows Vista. the user has to click start button. Dragon NaturallySpeaking. Winamp. the day view from the calendar. One can expect Microsoft to continue support for Windows XP for another 10 to 15 years. then navigate through Programs menu. then finally reach the calculator program. through bitlocker encryption. phone number. and also provide easy access to the frequently used tools. Windows Vista side bar contains clock which shows time and also gadgets. European Union. The major upgrade of Windows XP. Instead. this edition will not be made available in the US. What is Vista sidebar? What is its use? The side bar is a small window which contains shortcuts to the frequently accessed programs. The entire environment has changed. and then through Accessories. learners. It was earlier expected that the Service Pack 3 will be released next year. Nero.0. may feel slightly different in working environment.