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European Landscape Architecture
This is an important new book about landscape construction and good detailed design. It is not a book of standard details in landscape architecture, nor does it give the reader step-by-step instructions; instead it highlights how important it is to consider detail in the creative process, showing that good practice in detailing is as integral to successful design as an exciting concept or striking site plan. The book features case studies of recent landscape architectural projects in nine European countries, including the Peace Garden in Sheffield, the Harbour Park in Copenhagen, a motorway service station in France, a guest house garden in Hungary, a cemetery in Munich and the new Botanic Gardens in Barcelona. Each project has been chosen for its exemplary good practice in construction detailing and is demonstrative of how a strong overall concept can be expressed through well-designed detail to create convincing design. European Landscape Architecture draws together a team of leading professionals and academics in the field of landscape architecture. The case studies are well-illustrated with photographs and many original construction drawings running alongside the text. This will be a valuable source book for students and practitioners alike, as well as being of interest to researchers with an interest in the process of design.
Jens Balsby Nielsen was Associate Professor at the University of Copenhagen from 1998–2005 where his main subjects were landscape planning, management, and landscape architectural detailing and construction. In 2005 he became a landscape advisor in the Danish Palaces and Properties Agency. Torben Dam has been an Associate Professor at the University of Copenhagen since 1993. Torben is the author of books about garden design, quality standards and hard surfaces in landscape architecture. His main areas of teaching and research are in detailing and construction in landscape architecture. Ian Thompson is Reader in Landscape Architecture at Newcastle University. A chartered landscape architect and town-planner, he spent thirteen years in practice before joining the teaching staff in the School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape in 1992. He is editor of the international peer-reviewed journal Landscape Research and the author of several books including Ecology, Community and Delight (Spon Press, 1999) which won a Landscape Institute Award in 2001 and The Sun King’s Garden (Bloomsbury, 2006), a narrative history of the creation of the gardens of Versailles.
First published 2007 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY10016 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2007 Jens Balsby Nielsen, Torben Dam and Ian Thompson, selection and editorial matter; individual chapters, the contributors
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All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging- in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book has been applied for
ISBN 0–203–62299–5 Master e-book ISBN
ISBN10 0-415-30736-8 (hbk) ISBN10 0-415-30737-6 (pbk) ISBN13 978-0-415-30736-9 (hbk) ISBN13 978-0-415-30737-6 (pbk) ISBN13 978-0-203-62299-5 (ebk)
European Landscape Architecture
Best practice in detailing
Edited by Jens Balsby Nielsen, Torben Dam and Ian Thompson
Torben Dam and Ian Thompson 9 Denmark Torben Dam and Jens Balsby Nielsen 43 Ireland Sue Jackson 67 France Emma Jonasson 81 Germany Ingrid Schegk and Sabrina Wilk 119 Hungary Kinga Szilágyi 153 The Netherlands Boudewijn Almekinders and Ad Koolen 183 Spain Marti Franch 213 Sweden Ann Bergsjö 237 The United Kingdom Ian Thompson 263 267 Notes Index .Contents vii ix x xi 1 Foreword Acknowledgements Contributors Illustration credits Introduction Jens Balsby Nielsen.
In this book and in the cases studies that are illustrated here. This is therefore a benchmark publication by the editors Jens Balsby Nielsen. the European landscape design community has taken up the task of offering critical commentary on contemporary detail practices and projects within their national landscapes. The case studies that occupy the greater part of this book illustratate landscape projects as living dynamic processes of design. This is both a timely and significant task as the development and implementation of contemporary landscapes and conversely. and I need to declare immediately that it is a very inventive. the geographical and cultural complexities of the national practices demonstrated here present an antidote to globalization. construction and detail design. Torben Dam and Ian Thompson in the evolution of landscape architectural practice and scholarship. the third area of work takes a significant step forward in addressing the issues of landscape detail across national and geographical boundaries. The art of this activity. durability. finally. homogeneity and lack of specificity in detail design. continues with little pause. the demolition and eradication of many more recent design works. has regrettably still not received adequate attention by landscape historians or theorists and still remains a productive area of the landscape field in need of development. diminishing natural material resources and accountability required by clients and municipalities for constructed landscape design projects over time. The first area. Finally.Foreword Design proposes ideas but it is through the medium of landscape detail that these ideas are projected as a material reality on site. If landscape architecture is to continue to advance its knowledge base as a series of cultural practices and a pragmatic art form of the highest level. Three crucial areas of work need to be carried out by landscape researchers and academics regarding the broader subject of landscape technology. These are detail durability. with their resultant vii . has become of increasing significance to the landscape architecture profession as issues of sustainability. the preparation of a history of landscape technology and. In addition. it should be noted. regional case studies in landscape design detail. on the history of landscape technology. subtle and robust art-form. lies in the processes of detail design – the act of detailing by the landscape architect and the subsequent evolution and elaboration over time and by others of the resulting constructed landscape detail elements and forms. with this publication focusing on the European experience of landscape detail and detailing practices. The second area. design practitioners and teachers must pay due care and attention to advancing the practice of landscape detail as the core of contemporary landscape design.
backtracking. Making landscape detail form as a design activity requires a lifetime investment of energy. the purpose is to project landscape detail beyond its current role as a complement to other parts of the landscape design and planning processes. Center for Technology and Environment at the Harvard Graduate School of Design viii . technology and construction practices. leaps of imagination and periods of creative design synthesis. The notion of commitment to serious detail investigation requires an obsessive mind. and. they provide a way of understanding landscape design through its detail. This is a subject deeply concerned with the intellectual activity of design. Department of Landscape Architecture Director. Niall Kirkwood Professor of Landscape Architecture and Technology Chair and Program Director. resemble a set of guidelines or rules that will automatically result in successful details in the future (we may. it displays the practical dimensions and creative possibilities of landscape design detail. and a deep understanding of design history with as much practical site experience in varied cultures and climates as any designer can muster in a professional life time. a way of looking at landscape detail through design. ideas and meaning.Foreword dead-ends. In this. That is not the nature of landscape design or that of landscape detail. It still requires individuals to have developed individual design talent with the capacity to work productively in the landscape field in whatever country or countries they are commissioned to work. The case studies do not. as the editors point out. It is hoped that this publication will be the first of many. resources and patience from any designer. It is also a way of rediscovering what has already been recognized in the landscape design work of previous historical periods. while also giving broad attention to the particular design challenges of landscape detailing. In return a built form is produced which is intricate yet strong in its resolution and execution. Nor do they absolve the designer of having to grasp the total range of knowledge and skills in all other areas of landscape architecture design. care to measure the notion of 'success'). In short. a clear intellectual focus. however. both as a daily form of practice and a personal aesthetic language. an art form combining materials. Instead. and to establish it as an identifiable subject on its own. but today continues to elude our full appreciation. which is simultaneously poetic and pragmatic. at the same time.
This book has been long in the making and has passed through many hands. The editors would like to thank the authors of the various chapters and all of those practitioners who assisted by agreeing to be interviewed and by supplying drawings and images of their work. At Routledge we would like to thank Caroline Mallinder for commissioning the book, Michelle Green and Jules Mohm for their help along the way and Katherine Morton for bringing a difficult
project to completion. Susan Dunsmore was an enthusiastic, entertaining and amazingly quick copyeditor. Gavin Ambrose came up with a crisp design to complement the quality of the work portrayed. The typesetter Alex Lazarou juggled the text and captions around until it all seemed to work. Last, but by no means least, we would like to thank Havekulturfonden, the Danish foundation which made a generous contribution towards the cost of the colour reproduction. Like a designed landscape, this book is a collaborative effort. Credit to you all.
Boudewijn Almekinders is a principal of OKRA Landscape Architects, Utrecht, and a tutor in the Department of Landscape Architecture at Larenstein University, Amsterdam. Ann Bergsjö is an Associate Professor in the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Alnarp, where she teaches courses in landscape architecture and construction detailing. She was previously employed by White, Stockholm, a Swedish architectural practice. Marti Franch has a landscape architecture practice based in Girona, north of Barcelona. He is a graduate of Greenwich University, and a part-time lecturer at the Polytechnic University of Catalonia. Sue Jackson is a chartered landscape architect and the principal of the Durham-based practice Bluespace environments. Sue has been employed in private practices, local authorities and most recently at Newcastle University, where she taught landscape architecture and environmental planning. Emma Jonasson is a landscape architect currently employed by the office of Thing & Wainø A/S in Copenhagen. Ad Koolen is the principal of Ad Koolen Advies en Ontwerp and a tutor in the landscape architecture
schools at Wageningen University and Larenstein University in the Netherlands. Ingrid Schegk was appointed to a full professorship at Weihenstephan University of Applied Sciences in 1995, where she teaches landscape construction and design in the faculty of Landscape Architecture. Kinga Szilágyi is a chartered landscape architect and Professor in the Department of Garden and Urban Design, Faculty of Landscape Architecture, Corvinus University of Budapest, where she teaches urban green system planning and design. Sabrina Wilk was appointed Professor of Graphics, Visualisation and Design in the Faculty of Landscape Architecture at the Weihenstephan University of Applied Sciences in 1999, having worked previously as a landscape architect in Germany.
The authors and publishers would like to thank the following individuals and institutions for giving permission to reproduce illustrations. We have made every effort to contact copyright holders, but if any errors have been made we would be happy to correct them at a later printing.
Denmark 1.1; 1.18; 1.22; 1.24 1.2; 1.3 1.5–1.17; 1.19–1.21; 1.23; 1.25–1.29
photo Torben Dam photo Julie Rønnow Annelise Bramsnæs and Poul Jensen
Germany 4.1 4.2–4.4; 4.6–4.8; 4.13 4.5; 4.9–4.12; 4.15; 4.16; 4.19; 4.21–4.27; 4.30; 4.32–4.38; 4.40; 4.42; 4.44; 4.46; 4.48; 4.49 4.14; 4.17; 4.18; 4.20; 4.28; 4.29 4.31; 4.39; 4.41; 4.43; 4.45; 4.47
Stadt München Giles Vexlard, Latitude Nord Ingrid Schegk
Heiner Luz Lohrer - Hochrein Landscape Architects
Ireland 2.1; 2.2; 2.5; 2.7; 2.8 2.3; 2.4; 2.6; 2.9; 2.13; 2.16; 2.17 2.11; 2.14; 2.15; 2.18 2.12
McGarry Ni Eanaigh Architects Sue Jackson Mitchell + Associates Dublin City Council
Hungary 5.1; 5.17; 5.19–5.23 5.2; 5.3; 5.5–5.7 5.4; 5.8–5.10 5.11; 5.14; 5.24; 5.25 5.12, 5.13; 5.15; 5.16 5.18
Kinga Szilagyi Gabor Szúcs Istvan Demjén Sándor Gábor Preisich: Budapest városépítésénék története I–III Balazs Almási
France 3.1 3.2 3.3–3.20
Emma Jonasson Tibo HYL
The Netherlands 6.1–6.4; 6.6a; 6.6b; OKRA 6.7–6.9
6.5 6.6c 6.6d 6.11 6.10; 6.12a–d; 6.13 b–e; 6.14–6.22 6.13a
Ben ter Mull ABT Bouwtechniek büro O.O.G. permission through the publisher Ad Koolen
Sweden 8.1; 8.10; 8.12; 8.13; 8.17; 8.18; 8.22–8.25 8.2–8.9; 8.11; 8.14–8.16; 8.19–8.21
Niko de Wit The United Kingdom 9.1; 9.17 Ian Thompson 9.2–9.13 Thomas Heatherwick Studio 9.14–9.16; Sheffield City Council 9.18–9.23
Spain 7 7 .1; .12; 7 .15; 7 .19 Alejo Bagué 7 7 7 .2; .7; .11; 7 .13; N Menbrives 7 .16–7 .18b; 7 .20–7 .22; 7 .24–7 .27; 7 .29; 7 .30 7 7 7 7 .3; .6; .8; .9; Ferrater 7 .10; 7 .23 7 7 .4; .5 Ferrater / Figueres 7 a–c .14 M Franch 7 .28 J. Pàmies
Jens Balsby Nielsen, Torben Dam and Ian Thompson
This is a book about landscape construction and the importance of good detailed design, but it is not a book of standard details, nor will it instruct you how to set about creating details of your own. It might, however, convince you that the consideration of detail is as important as an exciting concept or a striking site plan. It might show how a big idea can be worked through into every detail, and how details can come together in a powerfully convincing way. It might inspire you to think more carefully about detail, and to see the design of construction as integral to the creative process. This book, like many a design project, has had a long gestation. It was first proposed in 2001, at a meeting hosted by the Royal Veterinary University, Copenhagen. Two of the editors, Torben Dam and Jens Balsby Neilsen, had issued an invitation to fellow academics with an interest in the teaching and understanding of construction. It was one of the participants, Ian Thompson, from the University of Newcastle in the United Kingdom, who suggested that a book would be a suitable vehicle in which to explore this theme. From the outset, the idea was not to produce a textbook or a set of instructions for producing landscape details, but to examine the topic of detailing through the consideration of case studies which would shed light upon the design process. We were particularly
interested in the way in which decisions were taken. Why was one detail favoured over another? How did designers come to choose their materials? At what point did the consideration of details become important – was it a concern from the outset, or did it only become significant later in the development of a design? Usually, when we look at a project or visit a site, we know very little about the constraints and conditions within which the designer had to work. Another important topic was the relationship between aesthetics and the practicalities of use and maintenance. What sort of compromises might be necessary? Designed landscapes are places to be used. Can an artistic vision withstand the mundane realities of wear and tear? We were interested in projects that could be taken to exemplify ‘best practice’, so we asked our contributors to select schemes which had already won awards or received positive reviews in the professional press. We did not ask them to select the most recent designs, but to find projects which had been in place for a few years. Our reasoning was that only after a period of use would any deficiencies in design, materials or construction become evident. Readers should not therefore be surprised to find projects in this book which they have read about elsewhere. Our aim was not to produce a glossy compendium of what was most recent; indeed we are more concerned with what might be enduring.
The original idea was to invite each contributor to submit two case studies. be considered part of Europe. Does the title of this book simply reflect the origins of its editors and authors. but we sought out a few other people later. Again. which was designed by a Frenchman. We asked our authors not only to describe. i. the book includes chapters from as far west as Ireland. within a single volume. rather than their own. setting these projects in the context of the historical development of landscape architecture in their own country.e. near Munich. Therefore. a British design should be by a Briton and the Swedish design by a Swede. but in a couple of cases. Nor should we underestimate 2 . Boudewijn Almekinders and Ad Koolen worked on the two schemes described in the Netherlands chapter. In the event. as far north as Sweden and as far south as Spain. In some chapters. the Irish chapter is written by an Englishwoman and the French chapter by a Swede educated in Denmark. but also to evaluate. Sixteenth-century Italian gardens influenced those of seventeenth-century France. this too proved impossible to enforce. together with a brief introduction. For the most part. Initially. since Ingrid Schegk was very keen to write about the Landscape Park Riem. so it was important that they should not be writing about their own work. Not all of them have a well-established profession of landscape architecture. and all the case studies are drawn from European countries. this might help reveal them. To a large extent. There are 49 states that can. in that they were the people who responded to that first invitation from Copenhagen. but there would still not be space. we have to report a compromise. we asked them to evaluate one another’s projects. to represent all those countries in which landscape architecture is practised. compromise was necessary. there is only one case study.Introduction The title of the book is European Landscape Architecture: The Details. when it came to the evaluation. in the interests of obtaining a good geographical spread. we thought that the projects should all be by indigenous designers. or is there something identifiable and distinctive about ‘European Landscape Architecture’? Throughout history. If there were any national differences in approach or style. Gilles Vexlard. our contributors were self-selected. the contributors are resident in their lands of origin and they describe work from their own country. In the eighteenth century it was the turn of England to provide the dominant cultural model. design influence has flowed back and forth around the world. However. for geographical and historical reasons. while the grand manner of Le Nôtre was enviously copied by German princes. and the craze for the jardin anglais swept around the globe. This raises an interesting question. as far east as Hungary.
From the case studies gathered here. at one and the same time. a Swiss-born architect practising and teaching in New York. or perhaps. more specifically. Allain Provost’s Thames Barrier Park (completed 2000) and Desvigne + Dalnoky’s plan for Greenwich Peninsula. represented in the eighteenth century by the passion for chinoiserie and more recently by the influence of traditional Japanese design upon twentieth-century Modernists and Minimalists. where the French government had. There was the Parc Citroën (opened in 1992). designers and planners throughout Europe. not just the Landscape Park Reim discussed in this volume. since it set its face against both the pleasurable presumptions of the picturesque and the social worth and utility of Modernism. yet it certainly fulfilled the government’s desire for a prominent cultural statement. Although Tschumi claimed to be celebrating disjunction and folly. an initiative given additional emphasis by preparations for the Olympic Games in 1992. The spotlight then turned upon Paris. but also two of the most notable projects in London. Soon major commissions throughout Europe seemed to be tumbling into the hands of French designers. proclaimed a competition for a new urban park for the twenty-first century. 3 . Following the establishment of democracy in Spain. a grid of bright red folies. The competition was won by Bernard Tschumi. and Provost’s Parc Diderot at La Defense (also 1992). to be built on the site of a former cattle market at La Villette. the Parc de la Villette collaged and collided three very ordered systems. A spate of significant parks soon followed. Despite its author’s deconstructivist rhetoric. where neatly trimmed box hedging and a sculptural slate cascade swoop in waves down a hillside. the municipal authorities in Barcelona sought to revive the city’s civic life through a programme of new public spaces. where the revival of seventeenth-century geometries is plain to see. in 1982. It seemed to be. both mechanical and mad.Introduction the oriental influence upon European design. Barcelona and Paris. both Descartes and Le Nôtre contributed something to its design. it seems that the places to which European designers have been looking most recently for their inspiration have been Spain and France. another design that might please the spirit of the Sun King. its plan echoing the layout of Louis XIV’s great gardens at Marly. Tschumi’s design was controversial. It was a programme that was admired and envied by civic leaders. by Allain Provost and Gilles Clément. and a path system which included dead-straight covered walkways. a system of spaces based on simple geometrical shapes.
In Britain. clearly demonstrates. Catalonian design is represented by the new botanic gardens in Barcelona. as Marc Treib’s recent book. since the gardens are designed to show plants in their natural associations. which appears in Kinga Szilagyi’s chapter on Hungary. While all this has been happening. Although many landscape practices still do similar work – many commissions are connected in some way with steering development proposals through the planning system – we hear less about it than we do about new parks and squares in cities. there was far less emphasis upon nature and a far greater use of hard materials. in a manner that even ‘Capability’ Brown might have recognised. Wherever landscape architects have been concerned with cities. dams. speaking of industry and the city. but one with which there is certainly a degree of sibling rivalry. angular and stepped.1 the profession has very different histories in different countries. Bernard Tschumi took things a stage further. landscape architects have also had to recognise the rise of urban design. the dominant ideology has often been rus in urbe. Given a free choice of case studies. In this book. a sister or brother profession perhaps. The image presented is rather softer and more naturalistic than we have come to associate with that city. he argued. the only truly rural project selected by any of our contributors is the guest-house garden designed by Gábor Szücs. This transition is expressed perfectly by Luis Peña Ganchegui’s Parc de L ’Espanya Industrial. sharp. throwing down a gauntlet to all naturalistic designers. Generalisations are difficult.Introduction Both Barcelona and Paris exemplify an enthusiasm for urbanism. where banks of lawn sweep softly down to one side of a pool. Over the past decade landscape architecture seems to have become predominantly an urban profession. commercial forests. The Parc de la Villette was not a park in the traditional sense. during the middle decades of the last century. In Paris. but it nevertheless seems safe to hazard that this focus upon city life represents a shift. yet the organising principle and the path layout depend upon a hard-edged ‘irregular triangulated grid’. concerned above all with the quality of life in cities and towns. The Architecture of Landscape. In Barcelona. where many of the new spaces were relatively small and had been designed by architects rather than landscape architects. it was ‘the biggest discontinuous building in the world’. and the picturesque or naturalistic park has been the preferred model. 4 . power stations and oil refineries upon the countryside. landscape architects used to be more concerned with the effects of developments such as roads. 1940–1960. And this change is not unique to Britain. because. the countryside in the town. while the other side of the same water body is hard.
5 . The Harbour Park in Copenhagen exemplifies the new philosophy of conservation.Introduction What has all this meant in terms of detailed design. gravel and tarred wood. but with less recycling of on-site materials. was destroyed in such a process. towards formality. Back in the 1960s. culturally and ecologically. yet they are infused with post-modern whimsy and a hint of the exotic. they hark back to traditional civic patterns of formality. We might label the work of contemporary French designers as post-modern or deconstructivist. turned a steelworks with blast furnaces and bunkers into an award-winning park. the site had to be swept bare or covered over to create a history-free tabula rasa for new construction. mainly granite. Thomas Heatherwick’s Blue Carpet in Newcastle certainly uses contemporary materials in a precise and controlled way. constructed on the site of a former coal-gas conversion plant. Gradually we came to see that too much that was valuable. or the elegant and practical benches of Budapest’s Erzsébet Square. Malmö’s Daniaparken reuses a harbour site. Original granite sett paving and railway tracks have been retained and the inverted hull of an old ferry-boat forms an eye-catching shelter. reclamation was generally seen in Modernist terms. but at the same time the whole design is a deliberate joke. the more recent Landscape Park Duisberg Nord. characteristically perhaps. the strikingly contemporary braziers at Dublin’s Smithfield. the main concern of this book? There is little doubt that it has focused attention upon the qualities of hard materials. for the moment at least. socially. The Peace Gardens in Sheffield are almost impossible to pin down stylistically. In Britain. is the reuse of former industrial or dockland sites. Nevertheless. keeping the rusty chimneys and retorts and recycling the abandoned machinery. but it revives classical idioms and insists upon precision. conversion and reuse. The balance between formality and informality in landscape design has shifted. This is not something unique to Europe. designed by the German practice. clearly identifiable in the Danish and Swedish chapters. despite the use of contemporary materials and technologies. How extraordinary it is to see the most ‘continental’ of horticultural techniques – pleaching – being used to create an outdoor room in the middle of Dublin’s O’Connell Street. Equally iconic. design is quirkier and ironic. the character of the new park is derived from its openness and from its traditional palette of materials. Latz + Partner. Richard Haag’s celebrated scheme for Gasworks Park in Seattle. brightened up with coats of paint. Another theme. Modernist simplicity and functionalism survive in the design of street furniture. was opened in 1975. Across the Öresund. neatly clipped hedges and crisp patterns of paving. in a playbarn.
to learn problem-solving skills. The deductive is linked to natural science and positivism. that the work. Nevertheless.3 There has been considerable discussion of the case study methodology as a research tool within academic and professional circles. theory. Mark Francis has observed: For professional education. Although the contributors to 6 . besides being a work of art.5 And Malene Hauxner says that to criticise works of garden art without knowing the circumstances of their creation can lead to even greater misunderstandings. Gardens are created in a particular time. intended for a particular place by a particular person. which is undertaken for the purpose of informing future practice. The case study method. case studies need to be systematic and well documented. The abductive is similar. and/or education. case studies are an effective way to teach by example. As Peter Blundell-Jones has written.’6 Natural science attempts to reduce the variables and to control the sampling method in order to obtain unequivocal results. conversely. case studies are a way to build a body of criticism and critical theory.Introduction These case studies are presented in the conviction that they can be an aid both to creative work and to education. policy. but this approach cannot work in the complex situations faced by landscape designers. and to disseminate the effectiveness of landscape architecture outside the profession. in both architecture and landscape architecture. but differs in that it attempts to reconstruct the case from the accessible facts. and to develop useful evaluation strategies. is a social product.2 In similar vein. inductive and abductive. but restricts the number of cases examined in order to look at them in more depth. ‘In assuming this double nature. A case study is a well-documented and systematic examination of the process. decision-making and outcomes of a project. For the profession as a whole. the method requires both a critical reading of its context and a close reading of the landscape. the inductive methodology has its roots in ethnography and what in recent years has become known as ‘grounded theory’. one can feel more confident of getting at least something right than when building an edifice of theory that might crumble into a thousand pieces in the face of contradictory evidence. ‘starting with the case rather than the laws at least assures dialogue with the material’.’4 Rolf Johansson says that the adoption of case studies as a research methodology links research and practice. Johansson suggests a format involving three phases: deductive. on a particular programme. Blundell-Jones can see the advantages of the case study method: ‘Looking at a small sample detail. keeps all the variation and the complexity.
though. or even from visiting the site. the compromises. We hope that in reading this. A good case study is a way of making the construction and the technology. and the tectonic expression visible. aspects of all three approaches are evident. of course.Introduction this book were not asked to follow a particular method. you will understand more about the hidden processes of design than you could ever learn from looking at pictures. the decisions. we would be delighted if what we have presented here makes you want to travel to see these exemplary projects. 7 .
In her Guide to Danish Landscape Architecture. There is still a strong urge to perform a balancing act with ellipses. accompanied by innumerable other commissions to create ground for elementary and high schools. delicate steel bridges. carried out with great insight. In the 1950s. curves and slightly staggered. in contrast to today’s creations. Common features of these garden and landscaping projects were that they were to be functional. Th. Annemarie Lund remarks that during the 1930s ‘several landscape architects continued enthusiastically to experiment with various geometrical shapes to create exciting space’ (1997: 22).: 26).1 Its origins were in the design of private gardens. but since the start of the 1930s landscape designers have participated in a wide range of projects from parks and housing areas to motorways and landscape planning. After the Second World War. wriggling lines. Brandt and C. sensible. the amount and range of landscape architectural assignments rapidly expanded. and the formation of a tradition (which is understandable in a small country with only five million inhabitants). as did the number of assignments. Parc Citroën. Several landscape architects had careers which spanned 40–50 years and during this period a new generation grew up. imaginative lighting fixtures. Many of them worked at the offices of G.: 23) During the 1960s.Denmark Torben Dam and Jens Balsby Nielsen Landscape architecture in Denmark Danish landscape architecture has been vigorous for over a hundred years. The gardens were simple and. and detailed. (ibid. practical and beautiful. universities. It started with housing areas. health-care and cultural institutions and cemeteries. unpretentious. ‘Streamlined trellises. the number of landscape architects grew. international inspiration became more and more obvious. 9 . complex paving surfaces are effects that are used frequently and not without reference to foreign models such as the Parc de la Villette. Sørensen and were part of a well-connected network which provided the basis for a common experience. training centres. The technical execution was excellent down to the last detail.N.’ (ibid. etc.
Overview For the residents of the Islands Brygge neighbourhood. Suddenly everyone found themselves in agreement that the right use for the site was a park. geometrical forms and excellent technical execution down to the last detail.000m²) Annelise Bramsnæs and Poul Jensen. The desire to preserve accumulated cultural value led to the retention of existing artefacts. This emphasis on reuse harmonises with the philosophy of sustainability which is now an important theme in Danish landscape architectural practice. Berlin. Copenhagen City of Copenhagen. Islands Brygge. dark red walls and the provision of outdoor sitting and cooking facilities. Part of the explanation can be found in the arrival of a new generation of staff in the city’s public parks office. In particular. represented by Roads and Parks Department The Danish City Planning Award 2003 The project chosen as the case study for this chapter is a continuation of the Danish traditions of unpretentious.8 hectares (28. even though it borrows ideas from projects elsewhere. such as the railway and crane tracks. and even one Aesculus hippocastanum which had been planted by local residents in an earlier and provisional phase of the park’s development. the Netherlands and France. the Harbour Park reflects the new approach to relaxed outdoor life in an urban context which has become familiar in Barcelona. functional. planning commencement 1994 1995–2000 DKR25 million €4. On the other hand. Copenhagen 1st draft December 1993. For many years. 10 . Islands Brygge Iceland Docks.Denmark Case study: The Harbour Park. but the influence of successful harbourside redevelopments around the world was also felt.1 million without buildings 2. the creation of the Harbour Park was a breakthrough. Copenhagen Project data Project name: Location: Planning period: Construction period: Costs: Area: Landscape architects: Client: Awards: The Harbour Park. local people had been in conflict with the city authorities over redevelopment plans for the area. The Harbour Park also proved to be a breakthrough in design terms. there is a strong Mediterranean influence with the use of soft gravel surfaces.
The Harbour Park.1 Harbour Park seen from the Langebro bridge. looking south 11 . Copenhagen 1.
a number of residents groups were formed to protest against the proposal to build the Hotel Scandinavia on the site. and her particular interest was in how nature and natural resources relate to spatial qualities and aesthetics in landscape architecture. for it was here that ships trading with Iceland and the Faroe Islands would berth. mainly concerning the renewal of the Copenhagen harbour front’ (Møller. ‘Is’ is the Danish term for ice and the name reflects the usage of this part of the harbour. 1993. Following the urban renewal in other parts of the city (e. In the 1970s. and the area’s uses became more diverse. ‘Poul Jensen made his first proposals under the influence of international modernism. Poul Jensen takes part in the contemporary architectural debate. 12 . Copenhagen (1973–99). and as an Assistant and Associate Professor at the Royal Academy of Arts School of Architecture. Bramsnæs took part in architectural competitions. The main road parallel to the park is also called Islands Brygge. Islands Brygge is also a neighbourhood housing 12. researcher and writer.Denmark About the designers Annelise Bramsnæs (1941–99) worked in Sven-Ingvar Anderson’s landscape architecture office (1967–70).000 inhabitants in dense five-storey blocks. mainly in the area of landscape planning. The explosion in 1980 revealed that the authorities could not handle an escape of chemical substances so close to a densely populated area. it was from these groups and from the neighbourhood council that the idea of creating a park emerged. Although the hotel went ahead. and support for the needs of the residents began to grow. She was a teacher.g. translated by the authors). Department of Town Planning and Landscape. He was chairman of the neighbourhood council of Islands Brygge from 1972. The activities of the residents and an accidental explosion in a nearby factory drew attention to the concerns of the district. at Nørrebro) and the explosion of 1980. the residents of Islands Brygge pointed out that the housing densities were very high and that the area needed a park. but the Harbour Park is one of her very few built projects.’ ‘During the 70s this influence lessened as in the Town Hall of Struer.’ ‘The Nørrevangskirken church represents a free interpretation of the Danish church. The harbour activities changed rapidly after the Second World War. Poul Jensen (1929– ) graduated as an architect from the Royal Academy of Arts Architectural School in 1958. Design and materials are regionally orientated but the building contains a light influence of post-modernism. Project history Islands Brygge is a landfill area dating from 1905– 08. but then set up his own office. He was in practice with partners from 1962 until 1988. In 1971. Trade declined and the dockside railway activities stopped.
13 . The residents got permission from the port authorities to use the northern part of Islands Brygge. Over the course of one weekend in April 1984 several hundred residents laid out a provisional park on the harbourside which covered an area of 1 hectare. The fund would contribute DK kr. The neighbourhood council established a fund to support the park. there was light and air and lots of activity. At the waterfront. Poul Jensen and landscape architect Annelise Bramsnæs were asked to act as consultants. however. it was specified that the existing railway tracks should still be usable. The new park was laid out as a ‘happening’ that marked the residents’ wishes. where activity in the harbour was decreasing. the history and our time’. For example. The preparations for this were considerable. The initiation of the park attracted a great deal of publicity. The planning proposal2 stated the intention: ‘To make sure that the establishment of the park is made with consideration to the area’s attractive position close to the city centre. In December 1993.The Harbour Park. they presented a plan: ‘A new harbour park at Islands Brygge – a recycled park which conveys the place. the entrance to the harbour and also the adjacent dominant building façades.’ The designers believed that the park should be developed as a concise whole with organic shapes in a constructive correlation with the rest of the make-up of the city.2 Harbour activities on Islands Brygge in 1980 1. The park was popular and gradually it became obvious from the wear and tear that the maintenance of the park demanded more than the local people could do in their spare time. 5 million. The neighbourhood council and its chairman Poul Jensen continued to work on the park and in 1993 the municipality of Copenhagen decided to give the money to complete the park as a permanent feature.3 Residents making a lawn in 1984 the municipality of Copenhagen acknowledged that Islands Brygge was a very densely populated district and that the built form meant that there was sunlight for only short periods in the streets and backyards. The permission required that harbour activities in other parts of the harbour could still continue. Copenhagen 1.
The park consists of different elements which are described and analysed separately below. the history and our time’. ends the harbour area. Between the open spaces are 30m-wide lawns bordered by a 36cm-raised concrete panel. the Festival Place. The components in each space have a different character. the 10m-high bridge. The diagonal paths crossing the lawns. uniform residential block ends the harbour area. West of the park is a 300m-wide basin and Kalvebod Brygge. the characteristic skyline of Copenhagen is visible – with fivestorey buildings and towers. The caption reads ‘a recycled park which conveys the place. Many different approaches towards design have been combined. with an ambience that reflects its maritime and commercial history. Towards the north. the curved walls at Reykjaviks 14 . the Lawns and the Playground.C. Design development The harbour The harbour park is part of the harbour area. Paths are cut diagonally through the lawns. Ørsted Works. the designers listened carefully to the wishes of the residents. The 12m-wide waterfront raised 2m above sea level ends the park towards the basin. December 1993. Halfdan’s Passage and the Market Place were informed by respect for the history and character of the place. Towards the east a leafy canopy of two rows of Prunus avium functions as a promenade. Facing south the view is towards the preserved buildings of Dansk Sojakagefabrik (the Danish Soya-cake Mill) and the H. a six-storey. The park itself is 50m wide. Langebro. as well as a positive attitude towards the recycling and reuse of existing features. The groundscape is a level surface of gravel onto which components are either placed or dug into the ground. corresponding spaces within the park fulfil a specific variety of functions. In the background. Where streets open onto the promenade. Towards the east.4 Aerial perspective sketch of the proposed Harbour Park on Islands Brygge. The design for the Waterfront. In the design of Vestmanna Plads.Denmark 1. as described below.
A specimen of Aesculus hippocastanum from the provisional park is to be found at the northern end of the alley. Lighting is provided by lamp-posts placed at intervals of every fourth tree.75m from the edge of the cycle path. and the zigzag steps at the Festival Place. There is a 100mm camber to this alley. On top of this is a geosynthetic membrane. they had a stem circumference of 18–20cm measured at 1m above ground). The tree planting pits are 2.75m and the gravel surface ends 2.3 i.18m from the trees with a 36cm-high edge of concrete. the rhythm and profile of the avenue provide an instantly recognised element and one can easily accept these pauses at the street ends.The Harbour Park. The first row of trees stands 1. Stepping over the street kerb onto the gravel surface marks the transition from city to park. each containing 450mm of growing medium on top of 500mm of loosened soil. 100cm 15 . The construction of the alleyway is as follows: the top 20mm consists of hoggin. such as the Alley. which pay tribute to those at the Parc de la Villa Cecilia. Some features of the park employ references to other designed landscapes. Barcelona. The distance between the two rows is 7 . The top of the pit was covered with 50mm of uncompacted gravel on top of 20mm of hoggin. The trees were planted as ‘standards’ (i. This gives the impression of a partly open and not a distinctively tight character.75m wide and 570m in total length. The trees create a leafy canopy which is broken by gaps at the points where other streets meet Islands Brygge. Promenade with leafy canopy of cherries Parallel to the street known as Islands Brygge on the eastern side of the park there is an alley formed of Prunus avium. demonstrate a contemporary approach. which draws upon Marienjberg Cemetery as well as promenade planting in Berlin and Paris.0m in plan. The spaces between the pits are filled to a depth of 500mm with ‘root-friendly material’ consisting of large stones infilled with soil (the soil occupies about 25 per cent of the volume). and at the same time one can see beneath the trees to the park and the harbour beyond. This is laid on a 150mm base course of well-graduated gravel (between 0 and 35mm diameter). This avenue is 7.e. Copenhagen Plads and lighting at Halfdan’s Passage. inspired by examples in Barcelona. gravel bound with clay. The spacing between the trees in the row is 6m. The canopy announces the park to the street. On the other hand. The landscape architects based these dimensions on field research into successful promenade plantings in Berlin and Paris.0 x 3.e. the lighting at Halfdan’s Passage. laid on top of the pre-existing soil formation. on the other hand. casting run-off to either side.
where it is absorbed locally. The designer’s first sketches show an alley of Salix trees. of stabilt grus (crushed stone mixed with sand). Jensen states: ‘The profile of the section was thought of as hollow. but the wooden 16 .5 Plan and cross-section of the final proposal. like the Salix alley at Marienbjerg Cemetery where the grass under the alley makes a beautiful image. The alley is going to have a partly open and not a distinctively tight character. Bramsnæs and Jensen stated: The main character will come from the light Salix in the long canopy. the rows are disrupted once in a while. The camber of the path sheds run-off storm-water towards the tree pits. The iron rails will be removed. To prevent too much regularity. because it has a soft form and light foliage.’ According to Bramsnæs and Jensen: ‘The promenade will have a firm gravel surface from the street edge to the park. Outside the small squares the row stops completely. Therefore Salix alba will be planted. Lighting is carefully sited between the trees. and a final 20mm of hoggin.Denmark 1.
6 Early sketch of the avenue showing Salix trees 1.7 Section through the promenade showing the originally intended concave profile and drain 17 .The Harbour Park. Copenhagen 1.
There are also new benches sited to give views over the harbour. Two sets of railway lines remain in the pavement. The original granite mooring posts have been retained. It bears no fruits. such as the skateboard rink. but he did not want the gravel to turn into a green surface. so Prunus avium ‘Plena’ was substituted. It also proved impossible to reuse the old railway sleepers as there was a fear that the chemicals which had been used to preserve these timbers could cause cancer. Because of the recycled/reclaimed aesthetic of the site. The maintenance personnel have accepted that hand weeding will be necessary. but it is now more firm and stable. connected by gently curving pieces of track. It was not possible to obtain a sufficient quantity of Salix in larger sizes.Denmark 1. Initially. together with their steel 18 . as constructed. The promenade is interrupted in places by new features with more elevation. It was chosen for its double flowers. new walls. could accept a few weeds. groups of Crataegus crus-galli have been planted. the railway tracks and the seating areas sleepers will be kept as elements which give some character and identity. this original concept had to be modified. the pergola and the tower in the playground. which made it easier for weeds to become established.’ However. The park office in Copenhagen follows a policy not to plant trees smaller than 18–20cm in circumference at 1m stem height. Along the harbour edge. The harbour edge is defined by a 350mm-wide granite element which is 50mm proud of the sett paving and dates from the building of the harbour in 1908. showing the line of granite slabs. Such large areas of gravel interrupted by raised edges and items of furniture provide good conditions for weed growth. the gravel surface was a little loose. The sleepers will be flush with the surrounding surface.15m wide x 570m long and is paved with granite setts. but this would have caused ponding of storm-water in the centre. The granite setts and the railway tracks are laid directly onto the fill material used to construct the area known as Islands Brygge in 1905–08.8 Plan of the waterfront. along with the use of flame weeders. The paved waterfront The promenade along the waterfront is 11. Poul Jensen. so it was rejected in favour of a convex profile which would shed water towards the trees. Two rows of granite slabs have been placed along one set of tracks. The hollow section in the designer’s first sketch suggested a concave profile for the path. the landscape architect. Storm-water run-off is directed towards the harbour edge where it is collected in drains before it is delivered into the harbour.
Existing sleepers have been retained.9 Survey plan showing uneven areas and areas of asphalt 1. Copenhagen 1. 19 .11 Section through the waterfront from the edge of the lawns to the harbour.The Harbour Park. Rocks have been placed in the harbour against the quayside wall. Storm-water is directed towards the harbour.10 Typical section through the pavement 1.
and with particular regard for those using wheelchairs or pushchairs. All the trees have white flowers. The edges around the lowered square are made with the same type of concrete elements used to form the 20 . The promenade along the waterfront still has the character of a harbour. In the centre of this is a square of asphalt. Benches and tables have been placed under the latter. In other places. which is approximately 600mm lower than the skatepark and slightly skewed in plan. mooring rings. the removal of concrete or asphalt left holes where the sett paving had to be relaid. a detailed survey of the condition of the surface was undertaken. The seven-storey building in the background is on the other side of the harbour. Because a surface made of granite setts can be uneven. It was found that granite sett paving had often been covered up by additions of concrete or asphalt. the tracks were removed. the same material imported to make the sett paving a hundred years ago. but rocks have been placed against the outside of the harbour walls so that ships can no longer use this stretch as a quay. These flags are of Halland Gneiss. Sorbus trees have been planted in groups on both sides of the ramp and in the promenade along the street known as Islands Brygge. Vestmanna Plads with the skateboard rink Opposite the street called Vestmannagade is an area surfaced with gravel and asphalt at the same level as the promenades. This forms a basketball area which is edged by concrete elements forming either a single step or three steps. The asphalt mastic provides a very smooth surface for roller skaters and skateboarders. walls and pergola which interrupt the promenade refer to the new functions of the Harbour Park. it keeps its harbourside austerity because it does not look new. 280m2 in area. Although some of the paving has been relaid. There is also a ramp between the skatepark and the basketball pitch. edged by two low concrete walls. The railway lines were left in the pavement.12 Plan of the skateboard rink and the sunken basketball court.13 Photo: the ramps and edges of the skateboard rink. In a few places. with their problematic sleepers undisturbed below. The area is illuminated by a single high spotlight positioned on a metal pylon. so that it cuts into the harbour promenade.Denmark 1. such as seating areas or the new plant beds. As their general approach favoured the retention of the existing dockside character and the reuse of materials. The designers had to decide whether to attempt to salvage the existing sett paving and railway tracks or to undertake a completely new construction. This area interrupts the line of cherry trees. The slabs have been sawn and flamed to give them an even surface. Here there is a skateboard rink in steel which is offset by 2m. two rows of granite flags were set into the pavement. Pavement and railway tracks hold the history. 1. while the skating rink.
Meanwhile. It is not mentioned separately but only as the access to a pro- posed youth hostel. These walls are raked to follow the slope of the ramp. which was to have been housed in an anchored vessel. Skaters associated with a shop called Underground were consulted regarding the first design suggestions for Vestmanna Plads and gave specific advice on the design of features for skating. Herluf Trolle. In the design proposal made for the park in 1993 Vestmanna Plads is much smaller. It was decided to redesign the area and to integrate the activities of these young people into the park. roller skating and skateboarding became very popular. with specially shaped pieces to create the low walls at the sides of the ramp. Copenhagen raised lawns. The skateboard rink itself is made of curved steel plates supported on a timber framework. Although this proposed hostel gave an impetus to the creation of the Harbour Park. particularly among a group of youngsters with their own subculture. A handrail secures the edge of the platform which is 2m above the ground toward the harbour side. it was never realised.The Harbour Park. in the 1990s. The sunken asphalt area has a central crown which sheds runoff towards gullies placed in each corner. The design 21 .
22 .Denmark 1. The design is contemporary and was developed in association with the skaters.14 As-built drawings of the skateboard rink ramps. in elevation and section.
Copenhagen 23 .The Harbour Park.
but also to the specific needs of a particular group of park users. Two metres in front of the walls are two 500mm raised beds which contain brightly coloured bedding plants.2m. The gravel surface is raised into a small mound. other people often come to spectate. The walls are capped with square ceramic flags which are light blue in colour and serve to shed water. Although the area is mostly used by the young and active. The curved wall was a later idea and the choice of the colour red was made after tests on site. Behind the wall. the plant list was influenced by the wild herbs which are to be found in the large seminatural area south-east of the park. groups of Prunus padus have been planted.4 to 3. These walls are curved in plan and their height varies from 1. The original design for Reykjaviks Plads showed a much smaller area with pergolas protecting the seating places.Denmark could therefore be tailored not only to the character of the place. the square known as Reykjaviks Plads is surfaced with gravel. Originally. Reykjaviks Plads Like much of the Harbour Park. These too have the blue ceramic facings. but the truth is that the colour was decided by trial and error. Red walls with integrated benches form a shelter from cold winds that blow from the north especially in the early spring. to the north. The rear of the wall has been planted with Hedera helix. It lies opposite the end of the street called Reykjavikgade. which also provide shelter. The concept was to use blue and yellow wildflowers that could 24 . while a group of tables and benches in front of the planting beds is placed within a grove of Malus hybrida spaced on a regular grid. the area is predominantly used by skaters rather than basketball players. from which two fragments of concrete protrude. Seating places and openings in the wall have been faced with the same ceramic flags. They are constructed from in-situ concrete and lightweight concrete blocks covered with a red mortar. who use edges in their sliding and ramps and smooth pavements to obtain speed. 400mm in height. The skateboard park and the basketball area have proved to be popular attractions. Light is provided by a low pylon lamp-post to a design often found in railway areas. At present. making use of the tables and benches that have been provided. The edges around the square and on the ramp are very popular with the skaters. with different colours being tried on the wall. Commentators have suggested a wide range of influences from Barcelona to Bolivia.
The Harbour Park. Copenhagen 1. flowerbeds and trees. 25 .15 Sketch plan and section of Reykjaviks Plads showing the walls. The wall extends into the promenade and groups of white-flowered trees interrupt the avenue.
The Harbour Park, Copenhagen
1.16 Opposite: plan as built. Note the small ‘hill’ and the two concrete blocks that belonged to a building in the former harbour area. 1.17 Details of the wall, shown in elevation, plan and section. The wall has a ceramic coping and ceramic tiles cover the benches and the sides of the wall where storm-water runs off.
1.18 Photo: the slightly raised platform where the upturned hull of the Pinen has been mounted as a shelter. Visitors can climb the steps as a stair or follow the zigzag route as a ramp. 1.19 Opposite: plan showing the raised platform in the Festival Place
withstand drought conditions. The desire was to bring nature into the park, and it was also thought that this approach would be appropriate to the envisaged low levels of maintenance. However, the wildflowers were later replaced by bulbs and annuals with blue flowers. After three years, probably in response to undocumented demands from members of the public, the composition of the flowerbeds was changed and a variety of strong colours was introduced. The red walls of Reykjavik Plads shelter seating places sited to catch the sun. They are particularly popular in early spring. The flowerbeds are kept full of brightly coloured plants and are popular with the residents. The Festival Place The inverted hull of an old ferry, the Pinen, appears to float over this place. It has become the icon for the park. It is carried on two wigwam-like timber supports to form an umbrella over the highest part of the site. It stands on a gentle mound about 650mm higher than the rest of the park. Beneath it, the chosen surface material is once again gravel, with gentle falls to shed run-off. On three sides – east, south and west – there are shallow steps (100–120mm risers) in an eye-catching zigzag formation. These steps have been created with pre-cast concrete kerbstones. The configuration of the zig-
zags also accommodates a gentle ramped access. The northern side of the Festival Place is framed by a 4m-high steel pergola, through which runs a path raised by 50mm. The steel frame of the pergola has oxidised, giving it a rusty appearance in harmony with its setting. It carries steel wires which provide the support for climbing Clematis. South of the Pinen, groups of Crataegus crus-galli have been planted in the gravel surface, while towards the street there is a group of poplars. All the trees planted are white-flowered. In keeping with the philosophy of recycling and reuse, 12 benches in the Festival Place have been made using concrete from the former storage area of the harbour. The benches are supported on H-profile iron legs, upon which the 60 x 180 x 15mm concrete elements are secured. These are capped with blue ceramic flags. In the south-eastern corner a wall is reused as the support for six barbecue grills. These are fixed to the wall and one of them has insulation underneath so that people in wheelchairs can use it without danger of burning their legs. The old ship was already part of the provisional park laid out by the residents, the original idea coming from Poul Jensen. The designers felt that ‘to stress the special importance of Pinen, there should be a slight rise up to it’. The connection to the harbour is
The Harbour Park, Copenhagen
1.20 Sections showing details of the steps in the Festival Place. The kerbstone is made of the same white concrete used elsewhere in the park. The lawn edging is also shown. 1.21 Opposite: survey in plan and elevation of the industrial wall to be retained in Halfdan’s Passage.
obvious and stresses the link between the park and earlier activities that took place on the site. In the first proposal for the Festival Place, it was suggested that it should include an area on the opposite side of the street, but residents were not enthusiastic about having trees so close to their buildings. In the meantime, alternative proposals for renovating the street were implemented and the option of enlarging Festival Place was turned down. The impressive zigzag steps were inspired by the designer’s travels to Barcelona where the Parc de la Villa Cecilia incorporates a similar idea. This concept has been adapted to fit the gentle landform which carries the Pinen. This evident use of references is
honest, while the design itself is functional. Gravel provides a robust surface which is able to withstand heavy use during the many parties and festivals that are held here, particularly during the summer months. The barbecue grill and other outdoor facilities can easily be used by people in wheelchairs. Smooth access is made possible by a line of granite flags and some of the grills are deliberately positioned to allow wheelchair users to get close to them. The wall at Halfdan’s Passage Opposite the street called Halfdansgade to the south of the Festival Place is Halfdan’s Passage, where a grey wall about 3m high, a remnant from the days of the harbour, separates a low area with
the influence of projects in Barcelona is apparent in this method of lighting. The structure also formed one of the walls of a storage building. However. Access is provided by two ramps which are angled slightly from the rectilinear geometry of the games pitches. A new coping has been made for the wall. which hides some of the damage caused when the crane was taken off its rails. The concrete wall used to carry one of two rails for a crane which unloaded coal and later gravel and stone for harbourside storage. and this also secures the top of the espaliers.The Harbour Park. Some of the spaces between the columns are open while others are filled in. When designing the park. The volleyball and pétanque pitches are sunk 450mm below ground level. Wisteria sinensis grows on the wall. Copenhagen volleyball and pétanque pitches from an open area paved with concrete. The wall is made of concrete columns supporting a weighty beam. no trees have been planted in the promenade at this point. the decision was taken to demolish most of the building but to retain this wall as a feature which referred to the site’s heritage. which creates a striking effect. several espaliers were secured to the eastern side of the wall up to a height of 2. The open area has in-situ concrete paving laid in slabs of 3 x 3m. softening its industrial monumentality. Two planting beds have been created within this pavement. In keeping with the rest of the park. Once again. A full survey was undertaken in plan and elevation and an assessment of the amount of stabilisation and repair necessary was made. The intention was not to attempt a cosmetic transformation of the wall but to retain its industrial character. The pitches have a crown which sheds storm-water to the edges where it is picked up by a drain and led off into a sewer.5m as a support for the Wisteria. 31 . Cables for the light fittings are also hidden within this construction. Lighting is provided by fittings secured to the wall and from uplighters beneath the Prunus and Crataegus trees.
Denmark 1. section and plan showing the new coping.23 Opposite: details of the wall in elevation. Note the new lighting and espaliered planting.22 The grey wall viewed from the north-east. 1. espaliers. plant beds and bench 32 .
The Harbour Park. Copenhagen 33 .
On this was laid a 340mmdeep level of growing medium. The three lawns which lie between the cherry alley and the paved waterfront promenade are each 30m wide and they are cut through by paths at various angles – 30o. Using this information the contractor was able to make appropriate alterations and repairs so that the concrete pavement could be reused. In response. consisting of compost mixed with gravel. These are much better than the previous grassed areas which were at the same level as the paving. a thin plastic net was used to keep the new soil separate. These elements were laid very closely together with very narrow joints. Because there was some contamination of the existing ground. In places. which offers them some protection from excessive trampling. The edges of the lawns have been constructed using white concrete pre-cast elements – the basic unit has the dimensions 900 x 400 x 400mm. This use was determined by the residents. A PVC membrane has been laid on the inside of the surrounding concrete elements to protect them from moisture percolation. the designers have provided new raised lawns which improve this function. Along the cherry walk there is an access ramp at each corner of every lawn. on a 200mm foundation of dry-mix concrete. it is now used once a year for a local festival. The lawns are raised 360mm above the surrounding levels.Denmark The condition of the concrete floor in the old storage area was also carefully surveyed for irregularities and damage. The centres of each lawn are raised by about 300mm to facilitate run-off. The environmental authorities for Copenhagen informed the designers that the existing soil on the site was contaminated and should not be allowed 34 . Ramps give access to the lawns for disabled people and also for maintenance machines. 45o and 60o. it had been patched using asphalt. as pedestrians are gently channelled along the footpaths. special units were needed for junctions at corners. The 1993 proposal suggested a flower garden in this location. but because of the angled paths. Lawns and sunbathing Sunbathing was one of the most popular activities in the temporary park laid out in 1984. The wall and the concrete pavement on the new market square are important elements from the former harbour which have been incorporated into the new design. but instead the salvaged concrete forms the floor of what is now known as the market square. Their condition after many years of use means that some repairs and modification were needed before the elements could be used in the new park.
the designers suggested ‘a precise and stable edge made of soft coloured concrete elements. the suggestion was that the lawns should be raised by 200–250mm but this height was later increased to 360mm so that the raised edges could also function as informal seats. The decision to raise the lawns meant that careful consideration had to be given to the edges. In the proposal dated 1993. a much more practical and economical solution. maybe with a pattern in the surface’. Small ramps give access to the grass for children’s buggies. Each was drawn in detail at a scale of 1:50. Laying these heavy elements to the 35 . wheelchairs and mowing machines. This meant that it either had to be completely removed. The choice was between transporting and storing a great amount of polluted soil – with all the problems associated with its eventual disposal – or sealing the existing soil on site and bringing in a much smaller quantity of a new growing medium. This then was the main impetus for raising the lawn areas. or a new layer should be added on top. showing the places where standard elements could not be used to come into contact with users.25 Details of the raised lawn edgings.The Harbour Park. Copenhagen 1. but the solution was to modify the standard element and to create a number of special corner pieces.24 Photo: one of the diagonal paths cutting through the lawns. In 1993. The paths which cut through the lawns at various angles presented a challenge to the designers. 1. The decision to raise the lawns also has the benefit of protecting them from wear and tear caused by pedestrians and cyclists which had been a big problem in the provisional park since its creation in 1984.
each with a small tube running through it.Denmark 1. Benches have been placed along the wall which give good views over the play area to the harbour beyond. The lawn at the eastern side of the playground rises 800mm up the wall. A narrow stair with five steps and high rails gives access from the promenade. The pupils wanted to create a jungle with a tunnel system where they could crawl and hide. membrane and joint. it now consists of three small hills. but the complex system of tunnels suggested by the children was judged to be too dangerous by the authorities. The detailed sections show the carrying layer. Towards the harbour the playground is fenced using H-profile steel columns in-filled either by concrete elements or by wires creating a kind of espalier. The tunnel system therefore had to be simplified. The playground had its starting point in co-operation with the local school. For one month the school ran a project whereby students could put forward ideas for the proposed playground.2m wall has been built which frames the playground.26 Summary drawing showing the types and numbers of special elements required. The playground Towards the canopy of the cherry avenue a 2. Much of the playground has a grass surface but there are also areas of gravel. Admittance from the harbour side is via small cast-iron gates. creating a slope which is orientated towards the harbour and the sun. the children’s vision of a jungle was reduced to the planting of Salix purpurea ‘Gracilis’ and three groups of Salix alba 36 . The face of the wall slopes by about 10 per cent. fine tolerances necessary to achieve narrow joints required the contractor to use a crane. Similarly. The landscape architect tried to respond to this concept.
28 Sketch showing the underground network of tubes. Copenhagen 1.27 Sketch plan of the playground at an early stage. the jungle and the tower as imagined by the schoolchildren 37 .The Harbour Park. incorporating the wishes of the schoolchildren following the participatory project with the school 1.
38 . The ‘jungle’ was interpreted as willow scrub.Denmark 1.29 Plan of the playground as built. The tower has been adapted for construction in steel. but this proved difficult to establish. The underground network is limited to three tubes.
The Harbour Park. Copenhagen 39 .
Our own time is written on the site in the form of the diagonal paths. History has been preserved in numerous ways. Local people have contributed to the creation of this contemporary layer. It is not just the materials and elements of construction that have been reused or recycled. This place in the middle of the city and the edge of the harbour has been retained with an open sky above and unimpeded views of the city skyline. they have been successful. Evaluation In the original proposal for the park the designers stated that their intention was to create ‘a recycled park which conveys the place. who brought in an engineer to advise on stability. as in the suggestions made by the skaters for the design of steps. which has become even more important 40 .Denmark ‘Sibirica’ in the gravel surface. though fenced all round for reasons of safety. but also the very openness of the site itself. Although the wilder ideas produced by the children had to be toned down. Designing this latter feature was a challenge for the landscape architect. An aerial ropeway in the children’s scheme was changed to a bridge running between two towers. pavement and ramps. not just through the paved waterfront and the recycled materials but in new constructions like the pergolas or aerial ropeway which have a family resemblance to the older elements and make reference to the former use of the site. The four themes – recycling. place. spatially it is very open to the harbour. history and time – are evident throughout the Harbour Park. the playground provides a good and safe place to play. the curved walls and the new lighting. The bridge itself was constructed by a ‘rigger’ from a local shipyard. the history and our time’. In this. The more recent layer of history provided by the provisional park is also marked by the retention of the Aesculus hippocastanum and the rethinking of the big lawns. Contemporary needs are also addressed in the focus upon outdoor facilities. It is fenced and framed by a wall to the street.
The Harbour Park. The Harbour Park is a new form of park for the 1990s. The authorities will recognise the virtues of supporting a local initiative when the arguments for it are persuasively made. The informal is today obvious and appropriate but it belies the amount of professional time and skill that has gone into its creation. The residents who since the 1980s had been fighting for better living conditions on Islands Brygge have seen one of their main goals fulfilled. The Harbour Park is thus an exemplar and inspiration for other groups fighting for better environmental conditions and proves that perseverance can be rewarded. The many references to Berlin. The idea of the informal is seen in the choice of gravel as pavement and the partly broken alley of cherries. For example. which met the needs of the city at the time of its creation. and it suits both the old harbour environment and the impression given by the provisional park. the distance between the trees in the alley of cherries is the result of many considerations. not least in the survey and assessment of the condition of the existing site and the possibilities it presented. The lighting of the park alludes both to railway sidings and to the uplit squares of Barcelona. Paris and Barcelona have been incorporated by the landscape architects in such a way that they fit the context of the Harbour Park. The relatively long period that the design process has taken has provided the time to listen closely to the residents and the park has been adapted as it has been built. This effort has been entirely justified and has given the site an authenticity which would have been very difficult to attain with a completely new construction. but the final proportions of the alley allowed the designers possibly to break the line at certain points without disturbing the general impression. Copenhagen following the opening of a swimming pool in the harbour in front of the park. it allowed time for the skaters’ needs to be included and for the decision to build a marketplace rather than construct more flowerbeds. 41 . which required adaptation and redesign. For example.
the Republic of Ireland was born. The advent of the European Union. with good employment prospects. Six counties remained within the UK as Northern Ireland. when 26 Irish counties seceded from the United Kingdom as the ‘Irish Free State’. political. These policies had a very positive effect and Ireland now has a thriving economy and a rising population which is young and well educated. which brought the predicted opportunities for development and consultation arising from legislation. which has been the traditional route for those training for the profession. having its independent origins in the 1970s. the Irish government implemented a series of national economic programmes including urban regeneration and development. there was only one landscape architect in private practice and the profession was a chapter of the (British) Landscape Institute. In 1966. urban designers and landscape architects. an undergraduate landscape architecture course was instigated at University College.Ireland Sue Jackson Landscape architecture in Ireland The Irish Free State came into being in 1922. Landscape architecture is a developing profession within the Republic of Ireland. with support from the European Union. which has members working in private practices and local authorities throughout the Republic of Ireland. The conditions for this split developed during the previous century as a result of social. for example. following a civil war. cultural imperatives and the severe effects of the potato famine of the 1840s. led to the profession’s separation from the Landscape Institute in the UK. In 2004. The profession began to develop when seven landscape architects who trained in America. The Republic of Ireland was traditionally a rural economy and its economic development was hindered by poverty and emigration until the 1990s. An initiative in 1993 brought together the Institute of Landscape Architects and the Horticultural Association to form the Irish Landscape Institute (ILI). economic factors. the site planning of Glenveagh National Park. Local authorities employ architects. when the United Nations considered the country undeveloped. They have recently 43 . returned in the 1970s to the Republic of Ireland to work. Dublin. That decade saw the beginnings of remarkable economic success and the country became known as the ‘Celtic Tiger’. In the early days the planning and environment section of the Tourist Board and the Office of Public Works provided important opportunities for landscape architectural input into prime projects. During that time. with Ian McHarg among their tutors. With the creation of a republic in 1949. in addition to landscape horticulture. the historic Glendalough site in the Wicklow mountains and the Canal Studies Strategy.
The first landscape project in the vicinity of Dublin to take advantage of the new legislation was the ferry terminal at Dun Laoghaire. built in 1991 to accommodate new ferries of larger size. supported by more effective planning. There have been recent developments. High-quality sustainable and innovative spatial design complements new buildings and promotes regeneration of the built environment. while strengthening communities. has also increased the use of outdoor spaces. are now large and of plate glass. Eyre Square. Patrick Street Cork (Beth Gali) and Tralee town centre (Nicholas de Jong). In 1986. with the design and implementation of public open space generally being the domain of architects with landscape architects in support. which detached them from the streetscape. Residential. the Urban Renewal Acts provided tax incentives for undeveloped parts of the city. The cityscape of Dublin has recently undergone a renaissance. business and industrial development is booming. for which landscape architects have been commissioned to design and implement town and city centre schemes. The NSS (2002–2020) is a planning framework which aims to achieve a better balance of social. The smoking ban of 2004 (which applied to enclosed public places). although they made no provision for community benefit within the developments. together with an upsurge of markets. which integrates the internal and external environments. for example. Galway (Mitchell and Associates). The terminal plaza is an important gateway to the country for tourists and immigrants. Other changes have integrated life inside the buildings with streets and external spaces. Waterford (Bernard Seymour). at Baronstrand. The profession is considered to be behind the UK in client awareness. These livelier streets have increased the demand for external spaces of high quality. economic and physical development across Ireland. Irish towns and cities are becoming more cosmopolitan in character and lifestyle and the design of their urban spaces and streets is fundamental to this development. The scheme includes microclimate attenuation and striking artwork in the form of a 44 . However. Partnership between private investment and government money is expanding. such as new transport systems. the implementation of which has increased their usage. the evidence from newly completed schemes suggests that the tide is turning. The windows in bars which were traditionally high or decorated.Ireland accessed European subsidies for their infrastructure implementation schemes. The National Spatial Strategy (NSS) emphasises the potential for the urban and rural environment to contribute to the country’s continuing prosperity.
for example. Abelleyro and Romero. There is also a sample of Irish humour – palm trees. In other areas. In 1998. The redevelopment of public spaces. to the south of the airport. The National Development Plan has targets for new homes which will be exceeded. but promotes a united city as traditionally investment was centred in the southern half of the city. to perplex the visitor as to their location. 45 . which provides a separate walking and seating area cantilevered over the river. Father Collins Park1 in Dublin’s north side. access for pedestrians has been greatly improved on the northern bank by the construction of a boardwalk. and a coordinated palette of materials within a set of landscape guidelines. levies on residential development are funding new green spaces. Along the River Liffey. determined by the landscape architect. A large- scale residential and community development is taking place in Ballymun. along with changes in transport systems. both visually and in terms of access.to four-storey dwellings. have provided significant improvements. under the control of the local authority in the form of Ballymun Regeneration Ltd. the contemporary urban park. These are made available to consultants and developers for the landscape of streets. all the major cities are benefiting from this type of redevelopment. The 1960s high-rise housing is being replaced by three. There is a need to develop sustainable communities and to this end housing may be grouped in larger numbers in multi-storey dwellings (100 units per ha) to reduce the area of land required for development. Trachycarpus fortuneii.Ireland mosaic serpentine seat. laid out with precise definitions between public and private space. They grow contentedly in this relatively mild climate. This high-quality redevelopment became an important catalyst for the regeneration of Dublin and set the agenda for future development. but such projects are not unique to the capital. Green spaces and parks are included within the development. Two projects in Dublin have been chosen to illustrate the development and regeneration of the built realm in the Republic of Ireland. six Integrated Area Plans took redevelopment beyond physicality to include local community needs. Its location on the north bank not only provides a sunny site. designed by an Argentinean practice.
The site is located north of the River Liffey.405m2 McGarry Ni Eanaigh Architects Dublin City Council CCCB (Centre de Culture Contemporania de Barcelona) European prize for public open space RIAI Irish Architecture Award in 2000 AAI award 2001 Overview The most notable millennium landscape project in Dublin was the redevelopment of Smithfield in the northern area of the city. Dublin Project data Project name: Location: Date completed: Cost: Area: Designer: Client: Awards: Smithfield Dublin City. creating an uncluttered.Ireland Case study Smithfield. At the time the scheme was developed. north of the River Liffey in the heart of the community of Smithfield 2000 €4. The height of this development has significantly altered the skyline. It is also the starting point for the St Patrick’s Day parade. such as bestowing the Freedom of the City. Additionally.000 14. in the heart of the community of Smithfield. it has a strongly rectilinear overall form. well-detailed and dramatic space. a locally important public house stands adjacent to the site on the northern boundary.000 people. and consequently reduced the impact of the iconic lighting columns topped with braziers. Formerly a fruit and vegetable market. 46 .400. which is used for a monthly horse fair and also for concerts and civic ceremonies. holding up to 12. the western boundary was occupied by single-storey small businesses which have now been replaced by a major seven-storey residential development. It is a major public gathering and market space. There is an existing residential development bordering the square on its north-eastern and northern boundaries.
Dublin 2.1 Smithfield: plan 47 .Smithfield.
48 . Ove Arup and Partners. In this southern area. will be designed not to integrate with Smithfield.Ireland 2. The site. now known as Dublin City Council. It is presently an informal car park with surrounding commercial buildings and street access to the river in the south. at the time the competition was launched. but to the west. but to provide a contrast to it. The site was constructed by SIAC Ltd. To the northern and north-eastern sides of the site are found vestiges of the residential area which pre-dated the development of this space. there is a formal group of existing mature trees adjacent to the service building for the braziers. completed in 2000 at a cost of €4. The regeneration has stimulated the commercial. was designed by McGarry Ni Eanaigh Architects. the Luas line. there was only a derelict area. because the site was bisected by a new sustainable transport link. The new development will include a relatively small central public space linked to Smithfield which. BG Technology plc. but declined. there will be modifications to the existing scheme. in accordance with the developer’s brief. To the east is a new hotel. following their success in the international design competition. McGarry Ni Eanaigh’s design was not implemented in this area. Planner and the City Architect. The southern side of the competition site is still awaiting development. residential and leisure development of the Smithfield area. Lighting Design Partnership and Dublin City Council were all participants in the project. It has a strong. The local residents were given the opportunity to be involved in the competition assessment. which covers an area of 14. a thinly rectangular configuration which is framed by the surrounding developments.2 Flaming braziers at Smithfield Project history This public space was the subject of a design competition in 1997 following a brief from the City . as a response to local needs and the amenity value now highlighted in community participation. was awarded the CCCB (Centre de Culture Contemporania de Barcelona) European prize for public open space and an RIAI Irish Architecture Award in 2000 and the AAI award 2001. The brief from Dublin Corporation. When the design for this area is implemented.2 was to create confidence in the area by developing Dublin’s premier civic space for the twentyfirst century.000.405m2.400. The project. There was then a dormant period during which the client accessed EU funding from the Structural Fund to finance the scheme and to pay for a large stormwater sewer which was needed prior to implementation of the design. The multi-storey residential development now taking place in this area includes a communal square linked spatially to Smithfield. distinctive shape.
to which its main accesses relate. Chinese granite was used for the roadway. instead. with 49 . which links the rear of the hotel to adjacent streets to the east. would have been lost. Dark grey basalt and granite setts from the existing surface were reused in the central area while a new. designed by architects A&D Wejchert. The design philosophy would have been interrupted by a linear kerb line on two counts: first. The designer wished to retain the site as a single strong visual entity with a purity of form. It is not subdivided and the 45º angle of the paving across the whole site increases the sense of width in relation to length. is now a tourist destination. Dublin 2. the road and paving boundary curve in a long arc. the integrity of the diagonal design would have been compromised. which is emphasised on the ground by the choice of different coloured materials for the road and the central area. lighter grey. Removable stainless steel bollards with 45º angle slits have been designed for the site.4 Edge paving cut to delineate the roadway Along the eastern boundary. To the east. There has been less public activity in the area than originally envisaged in the brief. The existing chimney. from the top of which the site can be viewed. Design philosophy The site boundaries provide a high length-to-width ratio. The very tall and visually interesting lighting columns.Smithfield. It is a central feature of the new enclosed Smithfield Village. the edge paving was cut to provide the delineation of the roadway. Pedestrian access across the site is prioritised by using level road-crossing points and maintaining the use of the same materials for the road and paved areas. around Christmas. in contrast to the surrounding darker materials. adjacent to existing government offices.3 Diagonal pattern of the paving 2. the site is the location of a temporary ice-rink. a new hotel was developed at the same time as the open space. No kerbstones have been used. the purity of the curve of the roadway. although. second. The maintenance of this colour differential was important to the designer.
Ireland 50 .
Dublin 2.5 Smithfield: detail plans showing paving treatments at significant junctions between materials 51 .Smithfield.
In areas of vehicle access these slabs are 100mm in depth. was to allow easier universal access across the site. including an enormous storm-water drain. the working area was very constricted as local businesses claimed ancient trading rights and therefore access routes. Design development Prior to implementation of the surface redevelopment. This mortar absorbs 52 .6 Pedestrian routes using the larger. During the construction process. The choice of the additional material. The edge stones adjacent to the carriageway which form the kerb are 275mm in depth. The designer wished to use larger 1200 x 600mm slabs. delineate the site from the western boundary and have provided a recognisable and highly significant feature in the skyline. Basalt and granite setts were already present on site and the largest possible number were recycled. which originates in China and was sourced for this scheme. and the timing of construction were limited. smoother slabs their shields and post-top braziers. it was necessary to install major infrastructure. They were used for the pedestrian routes. The construction of the area of setts has a geotextile sheet below broken stone and 200mm concrete on a 50mm semi-dry sand and cement bed. Two types of paving material were chosen for the scheme. but for budgetary reasons the size had to be reduced to 600 x 600mm. The designer also considered the geographical and social relevance of the choice of this economically poorer northern area of the city as the site for a millennium redevelopment. across the pavements. roads and within the central area.Ireland 2. smoother and larger 600 x 600mm granite slabs. This is pointed in the same material. The carriageway is of light granite.
The gas brazier fitted to each mast produces a 2mhigh flame. with its frequent level crossing points and depth of paving edge. provides for interesting cut lines on the kerbing. with a strong and clear design philosophy. permit only slow vehicular movements and this assists in the comprehension of the space 2. which is highlighted by its continuing integrity despite the reported failings in traffic management. The masts were purpose-designed by Abacus. In the city of Dublin.7 The drama of Smithfield at dusk 53 . in times of drought. adjacent to the street and on the drop kerbs at the south-eastern end of the site.Smithfield. the lighting contractor. The width and design of the carriageway. The gas-fuelled braziers are powered by a unit contained in a building at the southern end of the site. The 45º angle increases the apparent width of the space and. is watered during construction) creating a semi-rigid rather than a rigid surface. The quality of this detail is emphasised by competent implementation. this allows the necessary equipment to be fitted to the mast at ground level and routine maintenance is carried out without the need for expensive access systems. Evaluation Smithfield is a visually stimulating and socially diverse public space. This utilises a reflector system and a dish containing the floodlights and casts a soft general light over the space. the site had to maintain its previous functions while improving the visual amenity of the space and its potential for adjacent redevelopment. in its impact. It exudes drama and is a landmark with its iconic lighting columns topped with braziers complemented by the visually strong and unified ground design and detail. in conjunction with a hydraulic counterbalance unit. Situated in the north inner city in a traditionally working-class area. particularly around the carriageways and dropped kerbs. this scheme has been key to the extensive regeneration of the area. as well as an elaborate indirect lighting system at approximately half the height of the braziers. the development of a European flavour within modern Irish landscape architecture and urban design. in its detail. At the installation stage. to accommodate the complex cabling system required to fuel the gas braziers. visually mitigated to some extent by the existing mature trees. Smithfield is a complete spatial entity. The scheme illustrates. allows the mast to be lowered to ground level. Each of the 26m masts features a base-hinged arrangement which. Dublin moisture from the air (or.
8 Smithfield: perspective sketch 2.9 Smithfield: diagram showing lowering of the lighting masts 54 .Ireland 2.
The development of the Luas tram line has prevented design implementation to the south. as there is limited traffic management on the site. but the area was not designed for heavy vehicle use. Replacement bollards are of a standard cylindrical form omitting the interesting angled detail and therefore. the baseplate could have been lifted by impacts which would have caused further damage to the paving. 55 . but the level crossing points provide defined safer routes across the road and assist in accepting the additional volume of pedestrians outside the main hotel doors. but if these had been used. this replacement policy is reducing the quality of detailed design. adjacent to the brazier supply building. despite the necessary vehicle movements in front of the hotel. the carriageway becomes level allowing universal access. The scheme has been hindered by the management and replacement policy. Dublin 2. over time. These zones are frequent along the pavement. The 100mm diameter non-standard stainless steel bollards are fitted into baseplates to provide a guide to traffic management on the site. but lack of cleaning of the lighter granite of the carriageway limits this contrast and therefore diminishes the original design intention. The exposed edge of the cut paving at the road edge varies in depth from zero at the crossing points to 280mm elsewhere. The curve of the roadway is accentuated by the differing colours of the stone products used in the adjacent areas. At the crossing points along the east outside the hotel. which has not adhered to the detailed design and therefore slightly downgraded the robust nature of the design philosophy. The most northerly crossing point from the east starts outside a local shop and provides access across the site to the residential locations to the north-west. The vast.Smithfield. The roadways are single carriageway and traffic was observed to travel slowly. bollards have been flattened by collision from vehicles. The designer had considered the use of heavier gauge bollards to limit vehicle impact. open. This provides visual interest and rhythm along the roadway. In certain areas. Highly durable natural stone paving has been used and there has been recycling of the existing setts. The pavement width was observed to be narrow outside the hotel for the volume and multi-directional nature of the pedestrian traffic. They are all removable for events. central area provides uninterrupted public space for the variety of current uses. where the existing plane trees are located in crudely con- structed raised squares of granite setts.10 Quality of detailing at drop kerb as pedestrianised. providing good ease of access especially outside the hotel and commercial outlets.
They were once a skyline feature of this area and provided a recognisable symbol of the area’s regeneration. Nevertheless. This emphasises their drama and the restrained detail of the hard surfacing provides a horizontal foil for the imposing verticality. as shown. the apparent design simplicity and restrained use of materials. coupled with the dramatic use of lighting. The creation of hard-surfaced landscape schemes requires systematic maintenance input to maintain the integrity of the design as implemented and it is recognised that this has not been of sufficiently high quality. by the failures in the replacement policy. has given the site an important role in the regeneration of the locality and the development of urban public space design in the Republic of Ireland. 56 . for example. but the multi-storey residential development which provides their new backdrop somewhat reduces their impact. as there is now the visual distraction of high levels of detail in the background. The braziers are the symbolic feature of the site and design articles written since the millennium have extensively used them as an image of the developing European urban form of Dublin.Ireland The dramatic lighting columns with their pole-top braziers are unusually high for the width of the open space.
The timing of the attack suggests that it was done to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the Easter Rising of 1916. and later as Sackville Street. 57 . Dublin Project data Project name: Location: Date completed: Landscape designer: Engineering design: Client: GPO Plaza (Phase 1 of the O’Connell Street improvement scheme) O’Connell Street.GPO Plaza. Originally known as Drogheda Street. who also designed the ill-fated Nelson’s Pillar. it was renamed after independence in recognition of the liberator. Daniel O’Connell. but two days later Irish Army engineers completed its destruction after considering it too unsafe to repair. The initial damage was carried out by former IRA men. most of which have a retail function. designed by Francis Johnson (1760–1829).11 Elevated view of the site. the major street which runs north from the River Liffey 2004 Mitchell & Associates Dublin City Council Dublin City Council 2. The featured project centres on the General Post Office forecourt and associated streetscape to the east. The GPO is an imposing building on the west side of O’Connell Street. It is bordered by nineteenth. who blew up the top half of the statue. The site is bounded on three sides by recently planted pleached lime trees. It is a wide avenue. with the fourth side of the rectangle formed by the frontage of the General Post Office. showing the GPO frontage. terminating at the River Liffey. a Doric column which was blown up in 1966. which runs from the northern area of the city in a southerly direction. Many shop-fronts have been modernised. Dublin Case study GPO Plaza. O’Connell Street. These include the O’Connell monument and the recently erected Dublin ‘Spire’ built to replace Nelson’s Pillar. Dublin. the Spire and the ‘room’ formed by the pleached trees Overview O’Connell Street is the most famous street in Dublin. The central area reservation between the carriageways contains statues of individuals significant in the development of Dublin and Ireland.and early twentieth-century buildings.
After further hostilities between 1919 and 1921 treaty negotiations led to the formation of the Irish Free State. but when some of their number were captured and secretly executed by the British. but recently the prosperity of the city has centred upon the retail area to the south of the River Liffey. Under Dublin City Council’s Action Area Plan for O’Connell Street. The Phase 1 works described here are to be found in the central section of this larger improvement area. including the airport. which is still pock-marked by bullet holes. concerned that O’Connell Street had been in decline since the 1960s. It was a very significant location in the Easter Uprising of 1916 during which the British Army crushed an Irish rebellion with huge loss of life. O’Connell Street is the major and historic route in the northern area of the city. 58 . This site is extremely important in the history of the Republic of Ireland. They did not have general public backing. launched a new action plan that recognised its potential as the finest street in the city. The adjacent redevelopment sites within this project (phases to the north and south) are being developed in-house by Dublin City Council. It links major transport routes from the north. with Moore Street and Marlborough Street forming the east and west boundaries. The specification details and implementation remained under the control of Dublin City Council. support grew and led to a revolt. The General Post Office. The O’Connell Street Integrated Area Plan covers an area that extends from Parnell Square in the north to Trinity College in the south. including Michael Collins. fast food outlets and a seedy reputation. while O’Connell Street’s decline has been marked by cheap shops. though dissatisfaction with the terms of this settlement led a further period of civil war in which several prominent republicans.Ireland Project history In February 1998. A budget was also allocated for physical shop frontage improvements to encourage the retail function. into the heart of Dublin and therefore it is important for commerce and tourism. lost their lives. The GPO and its setting are thus of particular historical and symbolic significance for the city and the nation and this has a particular bearing upon the contemporary redevelopment. but this has met with a limited response from the owners of these properties. The war ended in mid-1923 with defeat for the forces opposed to the treaty. is the building most associated with the rebels. the landscape architects were employed as consultants for Phase 1 of the project. The works in the vicinity of the GPO are part of a larger project to reverse this perception. Dublin Corporation.
12 Presentation plan of O’Connell Street Improvement Scheme Phase 1.GPO Plaza. Dublin 2. Dublin City Council 59 .
The practice deals with the interface between the town planning scale and that of the individual site. At night. combining architectural. Constructed of rolled stainless steel sheet. Design development The Spire The Spire was erected to the north of the GPO Plaza in 2003. the practice has been responsible for the preparation of a series of Integrated Action Plans for historic townscapes/landscapes. 60 . In addition. following their competition success. a major civic space for meetings. urban design and landscape. The decision-making involved a large number of people. The Spire is a 120m-high conical structure. During the day. The main areas of experience are in relation to urban landscape. making it the tallest structure in Dublin city centre. Designed by Ian Ritchie Architects. landscape architectural. A wide range of samples were collected and assessed prior to the final selection. at all levels up to the City Manager. masterplanning of rural sites – particularly historical estates – and the insertion of built form into sensitive landscapes. it is 3m wide at the base and tapers to 15cm wide at the top. this monument was envisaged as the key feature for the refurbishment of O’Connell Street. The top section is perforated and lit by small LEDs. London. Stone styles Mitchell & Associates were commissioned as sole landscape consultants in 1997 They were . The circular base at the bottom of the cone is of ridged stainless steel. but collaborated closely with Dublin City Council throughout the project. not the lead designers for the O’Connell Street works.Ireland Design philosophy Mitchell & Associates is a multi-disciplinary practice founded in 1989. In the case of the GPO Plaza. the creation of a ‘room’. responding to the site’s historical significance. urban design and masterplanning skills. in relation to the selection of stone. was the underlying design concept and it is exemplified through the planting and the paving designs and choice of materials. combining elements of planning. the surface reflects light and the surrounding streetscape. the tip of the cone is illuminated and provides the city with a navigation beacon.
At the interface between the two. The recently refurbished Henry Street links to O’Connell Street visually in its use of similarly designed paving. which consists of 267 x 267 x 70mm granite blocks with 166 x 166 x 166mm blocks in the carriageway area. creating the sense of an urban square. but bus routes through the site led to a demand for kerbing. The prominence of the site demands high levels of maintenance. The designers built upon the lessons learnt from other projects. combining research and expertise to establish a paved surface which should be as resistant as possible to vehicular movements over its surface. has an older two-coloured pavior design. There are links from O’Connell Street to the adjacent narrower side streets. involving level controlled crossing points. there is a new pedestrian cross- ing point. North Earl Street. Widened pedestrian areas were proposed to engender feelings of spaciousness reminiscent of the pavements of other major European cities. the Chief Specifier for the municipality of Barcelona. which have a variety of paving styles. with an 8m-wide paved central median. Carriageway widths have been narrowed to two lanes and a cycle lane in each direction. A pattern of white ‘spot stones’ articulates the dark grey granite Plaza and assists in the delineation of lanes. A compromise was reached. His main piece of advice was that. when using stone and other high-quality materials. Research into the use of stone elsewhere in Europe and an awareness of the problems that can occur when the bonding pattern is broken led to the choice of a smaller granite paving unit (166 x 166mm) on the carriageway than might have been chosen for purely aesthetic reasons to complement 2. and another crossing point south of the site. Dublin The designers wanted to create a level surface around the GPO which could be shared between pedestrians and traffic. Advice was sought from Iggnaci Di Lecea. approximately 11m in width. The surface is flame-finished. it is normal to expect a much higher level of on-going maintenance. Dublin City Council’s in-house engineers developed a specification for the site. which was sponsored by the natural stone suppliers TRL (Edinburgh) and recognising the problems experienced in the paving scheme for Eyre Square.13 Close-up of ‘spot-stone’ 61 .GPO Plaza. Shared space with lane narrowing provides generous pavements. Street cleaning vehicles have acute turning circles which create a high twisting momentum across the paving. Galway. a pedestrian street on the east side of O’Connell Street. Building on the knowledge of the Scott report. the centre of which is the Spire. There is a major pedestrian crossing point to the north. with kerbing to the carriageways and central reservation.
These studs are also used at the controlled crossings to provide a tactile warning for the visually impaired. It is in this band that the change of level occurs at the crossing points of the roadways. They are flamed and bush-hammered with mortar joints. These units are.14 Construction of granite kerb and carriageway paving 2. The granite paving units have sand-blasted. down the eastern side parallel to the shop fronts and back across to the southern pillar of the portico. The trees are planted at a spacing of 4. however.4m. The edge of the roadway is marked by large stainless steel studs. there are stainless steel bollards and these are complemented by stainless steel mounting posts and surrounds for the traffic lights which control the pedestrian crossings. below the GPO portico and on the western open area of pavement. The granite blocks used under the GPO portico and on the adjacent pavement are 350 x 350mm with a depth of 70mm. The trees. The units are flame-finished and the joints mortared. including protective bollards the large-scale stone structure of the General Post Office. It is edged internally and externally in dark grey which provides a contrast to both the pink and the paler grey of the main bulk of the paving.Ireland 2.15 Details at the base of the Spire. recessed lighting and some of the stainless steel waste bins are set into a band of pink granite. To protect the base of the Spire from vehicular damage. Flame-finishing is a widely used stone treatment in Europe and provides the minimum texturing for slip resistance. 62 . The interface between the surrounding buildings and the light grey pavement is of dark grey 100 x 100 x 70mm granite setts. across the pavements and carriageways. There are large lighting columns with seven units on each post to complement the recessed pavement units. The drainage for the wide pavement area is a linear system integrated into the design detail. bushhammered sides and bases to assist in effective mortar bonding. deeper than those previously specified (166mm) to avoid or minimise the potential for a weakening of the surface integrity as a result of the slueing effects of vehicles. but produces a very even finish. Lighter stones are used to mark the carriageways. The 1200mm-wide granite margin contains the formal trees and up-lights and it forms a perimeter around the four sides of the central plaza. At the entrances to the building and in bands below the portico pillars there are larger granite slabs of the same colour. which runs from the edge of the GPO portico on its north side.
GPO Plaza.16 Lighting column carrying seven lighting units 63 . Dublin 2.
The planting of the trees to form the three sides of the rectangle in front of the Post Office building emphasises the pedestrianised space. the materials. a solidly contained and delineated space. This has resulted in minimal kerb height crossing 64 . The interplay between the history of the Easter Rising and the contemporary priorities of city use are well illustrated by the spatial development and containment of this design. when one is within this ‘room’.17 Band of pink granite paving with tree pits and sunken light fittings Evaluation Dublin’s main street is a potential prime retail location and the major entrance to the city from the north and the airport. Over time. Collaboration and positive working practices between client and landscape architect become evident when discussing this site with either party. once the trees establish greater bulk. The scale of the buildings. while the two trees at the base of the Spire provide an effective frame. the implementation and the maintenance. The surface is presently in an excellent condition. as the trees increase in volume. an area for a crowd. the Spire and the lack of significant volume in the trees all contribute to this perception. looking in through the treed boundary. in contrast to the linear carriageways which cut across the space with their transient movements. but a compromise was necessary in the light of experience. Its width and the nineteenthcentury buildings which define its edges create pleasing proportions. but it has much heavy traffic. However. producing a pleasing suite of complementary fittings. the built face of the GPO and other contemporary schemes. the traffic. The units of paving appear small compared with the bulk of the stone pillars of the portico. this will become even more apparent. the width of the street. There is evident quality in the design. owing to the highway engineering requirement to maintain kerbs along bus routes and the designer’s desire for level pedestrian access. The specification. which is less trafficdominated and easier to negotiate. At present. maintenance and management of the stone paving have all been based upon sound research. The stainless steel street furniture is echoed by the posts for the traffic lights.Ireland 2. The development of wider pavements limits the impact of the traffic and provides pedestrians with a more pleasant environment. The choice of pleached trees emphasises the ground design. limiting the background confusion. the sense of containment feels less than when one is outside. which provide a significant plaza in front of this historically important building. and a small reduction in aesthetic values will be compensated by the maintenance of the surface integrity over time. they will become a more dominant element of the design. There have been compromises in the surface levels on the site.
Dublin 2. 65 . Note the ‘spot’ stones.GPO Plaza.18 Pleached trees emphasise the pedestrian space.
This also diminishes the visual difference between the carriageways and the pavements. not just in the relatively level prescribed crossing areas. On alternate paving blocks forming the kerb. These paving materials and colours are banded across the site to include both the pavements and the carriageways. 66 . Lighter blocks are used occasionally as ‘spot stones’ to mark out the area for the carriageways and are also used in the central reservation and in front of the GPO. investors and visitors to the capital city. but also by cutting across zones where the kerb height is increasing. Visually this high-quality junction serves to emphasise the excellence of the new scheme compared to North Earl Street. This changing kerb height was observed to be a trip-hazard in these areas. which is difficult to discern in certain light levels and shadow patterns. and visually might be mistaken for lighting units. The studs do not appear very large on site. which could have pedestrian safety implications. however. stainless steel crossing point studs are used for pavement/ roadway delineation. The streetscape is visually complex in this area and may lead pedestrians to become distracted. owing to the use of pavement and carriageway materials of the same stone. even though it is visually delineated using the pink and grey coloured bands. The development of this area to high design and detailed standards provides a more appropriate setting for the historic buildings while maintaining contemporary flair and has positively developed this major access route for the economic and aesthetic benefit of the inhabitants. larger stainless steel studs have been installed to mark the proximity of the carriageway.Ireland points increasing to kerb depths of 75mm within the plaza and 150mm outside the plaza. On the blocks behind the level kerbs. The interface between O’Connell Street and North Earl Street is well maintained and only two units showed signs of jointing weakness. It was observed that the route below the Spire is a busy junction and that pedestrians cross.
the motorway services at the Bay of Somme created by the HYL (P Hannetel. Sgard.4 The case study chosen for this chapter. Provost. There is an association called APCE (Association des Paysagistes Conseil de l’Etat). which is reflected in today’s landscape architectural practice. Moreover. Laforge) practice in Paris. Corajoud. Vexlard. They are commissioned in advance of development. At a departmental level. . 67 . rather than waiting until the errors of urbanisation and the implantation of infrastructure become evident and demand to be camouflaged.3 young landscape architecture offices are now making their own mark upon the landscape. which is an association of advisers consisting of a hundred experienced independent landscape architects. A. they have also contributed to the development of landscape architectural theory and to the education of several generations of landscape architects. such as the creation of the new suburbs ‘Les Villes Nouvelles’ and the pioneering rehabilitation of some areas in Paris including Les Halles and the Parc de La Villette. a stream of influential figures has given the French landscape profession a face: Chemetoff. These young professionals seize the occasion to create new landscapes and stimulate new users of their sites. residential quarters and even in motorway service stations. to anticipate the consequences and undertake sound site planning. Yver. Well known outside their country of origin. Coulon. and landscape and environment on the other. landscape architects are employed in both the private and public sectors. CAUE (Conseils d’Architecture. In France. We can anticipate the end of the opposition between planning and development. and many more. Since the 1970s. Simon.France Emma Jonasson Landscape architecture in France France has a long tradition of landscape architecture. on one hand. but landscape architects no longer design royal parks. Lassus. Ch.2 Influenced by their teachers and the projects of the 1970s and 1980s. They are selected by competition and employed by the State in an advisory capacity for two and a half days per month. Clément. This organisation also employs independent architects on a part-time basis. is an example of this new approach. independent landscape architects often work in conjunction with the public service.1 Some contemporary projects are as large as the enormous parks of the seventeenth century. instead their work is found in industrial areas. d’Urbanisme et d’Environnement) provides free advice to people who build for themselves. The famous seventeenth-century parks created by André Le Nôtre form an important heritage.
In France. 68 . The motorway association in France. ‘the user pays according to his needs’. All public commissions above a certain cost must be put out to design competition. says that the fees make it possible to maintain the high quality of the French motorways compared to those of some other countries in Europe. It is not easy for drivers to pull off the motorway to get petrol. A break from driving should be a pleasant experience. This makes it all the more important that the design quality of the official stopping places on the motorway is kept very high. even if it is hard to compete with more established offices. The European Commission has anticipated a growth of 38 per cent for freight traffic and 24 per cent for passenger traffic between the years 1998 and 2010. Motorway traffic is increasing in Europe. drivers must pay a toll to drive on the motorways. For landscape architects there are thus many occasions to participate every year and for private consultants this is the main way of winning assignments. The motorway service station described in this chapter was subject to just such a competition. it seems that the expansion of the motorway network will be inevitable in the short term. Normally the client chooses three to five teams of consultants who are paid to produce proposals.France France has a long tradition of design competitions compared to other European countries.5 A payment motorway is a closed system. visit local shops or find refreshment. ASFA. Whatever the long-term future of the internal combustion engine. The wide variety of projects also provides the opportunity for young landscape architects to find their way into the market. The system developed in the 1970s and serves today as a model.
The architect Bruno Mader and the landscape architecture firm HYL (previously Hannetel & Associés) won the competition in 1995. 10km north of the city of Abbeville in France Competition 1995. These fluctuations have an influence on the perception of the landscape. The A16 motorway between Paris and Calais was opened in 1998. €2. which is constantly altering.Bay of Somme motorway service station Case study Bay of Somme motorway service station. Arnaud Yver. When you enter the services you are transported into the characteristic landscape of the Somme department and the motorway feels far away.1 Map of the Department of Somme with the A16 motorway.4 million (park) HYL – Pascale Hannetel. a water-landscape that changes with the tides with a variation of several metres per day. This is a part of Picardie in the region between Normandie in the south and Nord Pas-de-Calais in the north. To promote local tourism. This corner of France consists of the plain of the River Somme which crosses the department and ends up in the Bay of Somme delta. the motorway service station of the Bay of Somme and the coast Overview Travelling along the A16 motorway between Abbeville and Touquet in the north of France you can take a break at the motorway services of the Bay of Somme. of which 10ha is parkland €4. A16 On the A16 motorway. In this respect. 69 . Bay of Somme. on the A16.0 million (total). Christophe Laforge Bruno Mader Studinfra BET SANEF (Société des Autoroutes du Nord et de l’Est da la France) and Conseil Général de la Somme 3. 1st prize 1998–99 20ha in total. it was a pioneering project and it demonstrated that this fusion of aims could work very well.6 Now the coast of Picardie is only two hours away from Paris. France Project data Project name: Location: Planning: Construction period: Area: Cost: Landscape architect: Architect: Engineer: Client: Motorway service station. a competition was announced to create a service station that would combine the functional needs of motorway drivers with the provision of information and interpretation related to the Bay of Somme.
To facilitate the understanding of these comprehensive earthworks. Modelling also proved to be a useful tool when seeking to insert the proposal into the surrounding landscape. that were associated with the levels. by a road concealed by slopes.France 3. You enter the site from the south and are led into the landscape.3 Park and surrounding countryside with path reaching out into the landscape Design philosophy The aim was to integrate the service station into the surrounding countryside. The winning project proposed to cover the whole site with a 2–2. the feeling of freedom when entering the park is enhanced. You successively discover the parking area and the building that divides the motorway world from the wide-open landscape on the other side. By first emerging in this way. a landscape where the fields appear boundless and where the view stretches to the horizon. A lot of effort was put into solving the problems. wetlands and open fields have been combined in the design of the park. These landscapes with their canals. the extra layer of earth is barely visible.2 Aerial photograph showing the special landscape of the Bay of Somme 3. The characteristic landscapes of the Department of Somme are those of the Bay of Somme delta and the fields of the Plateau of Picardie. In excess of 200. was to became the new landscape of the Bay of Somme motorway services. through the slopes. When one visits the site today. step by step. Through the terrain 70 . It was important for the HYL office to visualise the terrain of the project using models during the design process. a model was placed in the administration building on the site during construction. excavated during construction of the motorway.5m-thick layer of earth and then to create canals and wetlands within this layer.000m3 of earth. away from the motorway. a fundamental aspect of the HYL design philosophy.
together with environment considerations and the quest for aesthetic beauty. 71 .5 Photo of the earthworks model modelling. This visual connection between the A16 and the park is thus very discreet. which are level with the motorway.4 Plan from the competition documents 3. When the environmental issue of run-off is taken seriously. Steep slopes separate the A16 and the park.Bay of Somme motorway service station 3. This approach to design creates projects that are very clear in their conception and very easy to comprehend. The only visual contact between the motorway and the park is provided by the canals. High speed drivers on the motorway may not even notice them. the functional need to lead off and store rainwater becomes a main element in the concept of the site. Only by turning one’s head at the right moment can one become aware of the park situated on the other side of the slopes. the functional needs of the project were analysed and incorporated into the design. The treatment of rainwater is an important issue for HYL and often provides a structuring element in their projects.
6 Section of the site through the A16 motorway and a canal in the park 3.7 Section of the site through the A16 motorway and the access way to the picnic areas in the park 72 .France 3.
8 Final plan after implementation: (1) service area. (3) park landscape. (2) service building.Bay of Somme motorway service station 3. and (4) A16 73 .
9 Photo of the U-bend and slopes towards the service building with the wind turbine in the background Design development Service area To enter the site from the A16. you have to sweep around a U-bend. the toilets and. To stabilise the roads. Quercus robur and Acer platanoides.8 A special feature of the Bay of Somme services is that you can actually arrive at the service building and its park without going onto the motorway at all. In the areas close to the access road. toilets. to a high-quality park. Here the surfaces are more varied. A separate road to the service area crosses the motorway by a bridge. trucks and buses close to the petrol station. unusually for a motorway stopping place. including béton désactivé (exposed aggregate concrete). which includes such species as Fraxinus excelsior. timber decking and sable stabilisé (stabilised sand). shops and information stands about the Bay of Somme. the building 74 . On the other side. Here there are organised parking places for cars. but it results from a conscious decision by the landscape architects7 – to slow down the traffic speed and to gradually guide drivers to the goal of this stop: the petrol. The local flora which is found on a calciferous soil inspires all the new planting in the project. This detour might seem a peculiar approach. but have no vehicular access to the motorway. South of the access road there is a dense woodland.6m above the previous natural ground level and contains a playground. the soil had to undergo a lime treatment. by mixing the clay-filled earth with crushed lime. The service building The service building is constructed on a rectangular surface 0. This creates a chemical reaction that dries the clay and the soil is thus stabilised and hardened. This opens up the site not only for motorway users but also for local inhabitants and for tourists who are staying in the area. The walls are made of concrete elements with inlaid stones from the local coast.France 3. the food. A functional material – asphalt – was chosen for the surfacing of the traffic areas in the service station. Here the vegetation and the slopes enhance the feeling that you are moving away from the motorway out into the countryside. gravel. terraces and parking towards the artificial pond situated in between the building and the park. Visitors who arrive this way can use the facilities. Here you find restaurants. The main service building is designed to be opaque towards the petrol station and the parking areas. solitary trees are dispersed on the slopes which are covered with meadow flowers.
11 Photo showing the playground area and the wooden path going through the park 3.12 Detailed plan and section showing fixing details for the duckboards 3.13 Section through timber terrace 75 .10 Photo showing the transparencies between service building and park 3.Bay of Somme motorway service station 3.
A staircase winds its way around the outside to the top. On the ground floor. there is an exhibition about the region with a slide show of the Bay of Somme. 76 . A wind turbine was added during the feasibility studies and has become a landmark in the area. a view that extends all the way to the coast. A sophisticated detail is that the planks are linked together by screws from underneath. Details like support walls and steps are made out of béton sablé (sand-blasted concrete). The surrounding landscape can be seen from the top of the tower. You can see it from far away coming along the A16. The wind turbine produces all the electrical power for the Bay of Somme service station.9 From the service building you can enter a cylindrical tower. Different kinds of concrete are used quite often in France to provide a variety of surfaces. The paths around the building are made out of exposed aggregate concrete. so that the screw-heads cannot be seen from above. A grid of Fraxinus velutina has been planted. Lamps are incorporated into the supporting walls. The playground is covered with gravel. A humorous touch is provided by the specially designed colourful giant frogs in concrete which invite children to play. 500. extending the rhythm established by the pillars of the service building. It is interesting to note that from this viewpoint you cannot see the service area itself because of the roof of the main building.France is transparent and through its huge windows the park landscape is totally exposed. Hedges of Carpinus betulus and different kinds of roses divide the various areas close to the service building. This also underlines the environmental quality of the site. 19m in diameter.000kWh per year. The terraces and paths leading out to the park are made of wood. Here you also have a view of the 10ha park. which rises 10m above the ground.
An 80m-deep well was drilled to keep the pond supplied with clean groundwater. showing parking-places and path with terrace alongside the pond 3. These constructions are in contrast to the natural expressions of the site. which also serves as a storage and flow equalisation basin for heavy rain. Even inside the park. There is a pond that represents the wetlands of the Bay of Somme and three canals that emerge through the plateau like the canals of the ‘Bas-Champs’ (local polders). All rainwater from the parking places and the roofs of the buildings is led out to the canals.11 In dry seasons the canals are supplied with water from the pond located close to the service building.5m deep. 1m out. In case of a pollution leak from the service area. and the bottom is actually the former land level. The boundaries of the whole park are made as invisible as possible.10 The canals are 2. The engineers were pleased to find water. fences are avoided. The HYL office also designed the picnic tables and terraces in the park and the parking area. the bottom is only 20cm deep. there is an area further away from the buildings. which is protected from the wind by slopes. although the depth was far deeper than expected during the feasibility studies. along the edges of the pond and along the terraces. From here you can go out to the canals. 77 . The water runs from one canal into the next. The bridges crossing the canals are designed to look as light as possible. The outermost fence is hidden in a ha-ha. Before transfer to the canals the water is filtered to separate suspended solids. For those visitors wishing to picnic. the nearest canal can be isolated. The need for safety fences has been eliminated by making the pond shallow. This area is accessible by car and supplied by parking places for caravans and picnic facilities.14 Opposite: section and plan through the west side of the service building. A timber-decked path goes through the park and leads out to the surrounding fields.15 Service building and tower seen from the park Park landscape From this point we have free access to a park that contains many different elements.Bay of Somme motorway service station 3.
17 View from the tower towards the picnic area and the A16 during construction shrubs like Salix caprea. canals and forests on the plateau and near to the sea. A bench in the slope serves as a maintenance path. Cornus mas and Viburnum tinus which are not allowed to grow too high. The actual shapes of these ponds differ from the initial competition proposal as a result of new calculations. In the park there are fewer trees than on the south side of the service building. is inspired by the species from the surrounding biotopes such as the wetlands.16 Section of the site through the park showing the cylindrical tower and the three canals 3. The reeds in the canals grow abundantly and must be cut regularly. with small trees chosen for the colours of their flowers and leaves. 3. The bottom is covered with a layer of Bentonite. they each now have an area of 200m2. The open prairies are mown once a year to maintain a rural appearance. The section through one of the canals shows how they are designed to respond to different functional needs.France The edge of the pond consists of sand and pebbles from the nearby coast. as mentioned before. This selection of vegetation gives the visitors a genuine impression of the wider landscape when walking in the park. Each canal has an infiltration pond designed to hold the capacity of the severe storm that occurs once in a hundred years. The vegetation is varied and. The layers of aquatic plants treat the water in the canals by absorbing pollutants such as nitrogen. The wetlands and canals are planted from an ample palette of water-adapted plants. The overall pattern in the park is that the slopes and park borders are planted with 78 . a kind of clay that expands when water is added and creates an impermeable surface. the picnic area and the caravan area are treated differently to provide a more cultivated appearance. There are different textures of grass. The bas champs. This also gives visitors the opportunity to take a walk in private. The humid areas can be inundated and are covered with clover. The areas close to the service building and parking are more frequently maintained to give them a well-cared-for look. phosphorus and suspended solids.
Bay of Somme motorway service station 3. At 79 . The solitary trees located in the parking area at the west end of the service building area grow slowly because of the wind. This would have been very costly in reality and was abandoned during the feasibility studies. what looked important on the drawings turned out to be neither necessary nor possible in reality. In the competition proposal. since the natural process that shapes the trees is clearly evident. Again. As described. gives the impression that no boundaries exist between the park and the surrounding landscape. In the opinion of HYL. What emerges from such considerations is that if a project has a strong concept. However. the organisation now in charge of the maintenance and operation of the site reviewed this design and decided that they had to secure the safety of the children on the playground by installing fences. small adjustments make no difference to the overall impression. Initially the intention was to plant far more trees in the park than have actually been planted. as realised. reinforcing the impression that the park and the fields float into each other without interruption. which deforms them. During construction it emerged that what seemed evident on the drawings was not necessary in reality. but rather an educational tool. fences have even been avoided around the ponds by the use of ground modelling. the canals were extended on the eastern side of the motorway. so the plantations that framed the area on the initial drawings were omitted.19 Section through the canal and infiltration pond Evaluation The development of the vegetation is interesting.18 Section showing the connection between the pond and the first canal 3. this was not necessary and the pervading concept of no borders has been weakened. The project. HYL does not consider this to be a problem.
has changed little from the competition proposal. The close collaboration between the architect and the landscape architect from the earliest drawings stage has been important for the result. This reflects one of the strengths of the HYL office. has become a much more important asset for both travellers and residents. their projects are always worked out in detail from a very early stage. 80 . yet they are visited by large numbers of people.France 3.20 Section through the bridge crossing the canal the Bay of Somme services the initial concept still stands strong and the design. as built. People in the region are very proud of their natural landscape and the design of this facility promotes this in an excellent way. and provide a great opportunity for landscape architects to show their skills. A place which could have been conceived in a narrowly functional way. as only a place to buy food or petrol. The Bay of Somme service station has become a wellestablished attraction for the visitors and local population. Motorway stopping places are rarely designed with such careful attention.
Under somewhat differing names. Over time.Germany Ingrid Schegk and Sabrina Wilk Landscape architecture in Germany Landscape architecture in its current form is a relatively young discipline in Germany. In this particular field. their importance has evolved into something much more than a horticultural fair. Accordingly. Ulrich Wolf and Günther Grzimek.1 From that time onwards. despite the fact that when one looks at past garden art and garden architecture. and each school has developed its own particular emphasis and profile. The planning and designs of landscape gardeners such as Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell (1750–1823) or Peter Joseph Lenné (1789–1866) still influence the appearance and the open space systems of important German cities today. the German Fachhochschulen. the study of landscape architecture has also been established as a postgraduate or an engineering programme at universities and polytechnic colleges. some progressive and socialistbased ideas did become widely accepted. which opened in 1972.2 Beginning in the 1940s. 81 . Ever since their premiere in Hanover in 1951. They demanded parks and open spaces with varied activities and uses for all social classes. studies in landscape architecture or related courses are currently offered at a total of 16 universities in Germany: 5 research universities and 11 universities of applied sciences. They ‘create social green spaces and make an essential contribution to a modern ecological urban development’. Even if the post-war period was characterised mainly by very conservative attitudes and landscape architects were mostly concerned with private gardens. these exhibitions have taken place every two years. the designer of Munich’s Olympic Park. an important medium of German landscape architecture has been the national and international garden exhibitions (BUGA and IGA). its origins have very traditional roots. each one in a different German city. The protagonists of these positions were landscape architects such as Herrmann Mattern. Most such study programmes belong to the so-called ‘green’ faculties and are closely combined with subjects such as horticulture or agriculture and not as a specialisation of architecture. the courses are often characterised by an ecological orientation. If we confine our observations to contemporary landscape architecture. the period after the Second World War represents an important phase in its development. Related study programmes orientated towards landscape construction and management are relatively new and are offered at a small number of faculties. the University of Weihenstephan and the University of Osnabrück currently offer the only complete engineering degree in Landscape Construction and Management.
including landscape architecture. Berlin is the largest German city. With three million inhabitants. located in an eastern city quarter of Munich. which is a part of the park. As a result of the relocation of the German government from Bonn to Berlin. we also evaluate ’best practice’ on the basis of a holistic. a lot of new facilities have been built. Our assessment of ‘best practice’ is not confined to consideration of a single remarkable object.Germany German unification in 1989 initiated numerous impulses and new fields of activity for the whole building industry. interdisciplinary planning strategy in which landscape architecture plays a decisive role. Both projects are judged to have exemplary content. but is not as well known. The first example is the ‘Landschaftspark Riem’. two projects in the city of Munich have been cho- sen for the following case studies. and a multitude of remarkable landscape architecture projects have also been generated. The second example is the new cemetery in Riem. 82 . which is not completely finished at the moment of writing. or the Landscape Park in Riem. based on a persuasive design concept and realised in high technical quality. Many projects realised in Berlin or neighbouring Potsdam could have been used as examples of ‘best practice’ in landscape architecture. The re-united city of Berlin was made the capital of Germany again. although it is a noteworthy project in its own right. However.
2002–05 (National Garden Exhibition 2005) €60 million (park) €41 million (garden exhibition) 210ha (park) 130ha (garden exhibition) Gilles Vexlard. The park also provides areas of ecological balance and replacement (such areas are required by German law. Riem Case study The Landscape Park in Riem Project data Project name: Location: Planning: Construction periods: Cost: Area: Landscape architects: The Landscape Park in Riem Munich. 1st prize 1998–2001 (1st phase of construction). Client: Overview The Landscape Park in Riem extends southwards from the housing areas of the city quarter of Riem. district of Riem International competition 1995. it is the third largest park in the city after the English Garden and the formal park of Nymphenburg Palace.The Landscape Park. Stahr and Haberland. Munich (bidding. 2000–04 (2nd phase of construction). advance the completion of the park. By holding the exhibition. Rainer Schmidt. In 1997 the city of Munich applied to host the National Garden Exhibition in 2005. 2nd phase of construction). Munich (Garden Expo) City of Munich. LATITUDE NORD.3 The park offers ample areas for recreational activity to people visiting the new exhibition centre and quarter.000 people. 1st phase of construction). site management. particularly when large building projects have considerable ecological impact) and a fresh air corridor for the city centre. Paris (design). site management. Munich wished to continue the successful tradition established there by former events such as the Olympic Games 1972 and the International Garden Expo in 1983 which attracted a record number of 11 million visitors to a garden exhibition. The city won its bid as host because of its convincingly sustainable concept for both the city quarter and the garden exhibition. With an area of more than 200ha. 83 . as well as the neighbouring communities. Munich (since 1998. The catchment area of the park contains approximately 40. as a mechanism to . Heiner Luz. bidding. represented by MRG München–Riem Ltd.
4 Although property is expensive to buy or rent in Munich. Six years on. the city is known as one of the most attractive places to live in Germany.5 Based on an ecological concept which allows ‘living and working among greenery’.3 million people. All phases of development have been thought through with ecological aspects in mind. to the creation of the new landscape park as the linking element between the 84 .000 jobs by the year 2013.6 The main advantages of the new district in the east of Munich are the good transport connections (the highway and the subway). from the demolition of the former airport.7 It is the first time that such a garden exhibition has taken place in a park which was planned entirely independent of the temporary event. built in east Munich between 1936 and 1939. one-third allocated for industry or business development.000 people and 13. which form the core of a new city quarter. The national garden exhibition follows a sustainable urban development approach and clearly demonstrates the ecological demands of the project. The project has been evaluated as ‘one of the most interesting projects of urban development in Europe’. It was decided in 1992 that Munich’s Riem Airport. This was regarded by the city of Munich as a six-month-long housewarming party for its new city quarter. not including the trade fair and exhibition grounds. This kind of regeneration process is typical of so much recent urban development throughout Germany and Europe in general. further north-east of the city. the international flair of the trade fair and exhibition areas. have been opened. the high-quality infrastructure and the partially completed landscape park with its large lake and bathing facilities. The basic principle for developing such new districts is the so-called ‘three parts solution’: one-third of the area zoned residential. Living standards are high. because of its proximity to the Alps and to the lovely lake environments just south of the city. The city’s approach to its urban development is represented by the slogan ‘compact – urban – green’. Munich is the third largest city in Germany. was to be relocated to Erding. The new area around the Munich Exhibition Centre is currently being developed as a new city quarter.Germany Project history With a population of 1. and one-third for parks and open space. as are the facilities for recreation. The landscape park hosted the national garden exhibition (Bundesgartenschau) in 2005. This decision marked the beginning of the development of the Munich Trade Fair and the Exhibition Centre of Riem. the new exhibition buildings. the new city quarter of Riem will offer housing space for 16.
8 The range of tasks and problems encountered in contemporary landscape architecture is very clear in the new city quarter of Munich–Riem. which is why this project was chosen to demonstrate ‘best practice’ in its broadest sense. created by different landscape architects from different countries (urban quarter – landscape park – garden exhibition – cemetery). The following aspects will be considered: • • landscape architecture as an essential part of sustainable ecological urban development. Riem new quarter and the surrounding environment.The Landscape Park. • • • 85 .6ha of photovoltaic cells on the roofs of the trade-fair halls are the largest installations of their kind in the world. The 6. • the clarity of design. the temporary event becoming ever more prominent as a new dimension of urban and landscape design (the national garden exhibitions). ensuring a fresh air supply into the city. parks and green spaces as an important and distinctive component within a new urban quarter (the landscape park). The park acts as a green corridor for Munich. the technical quality and the ecological compatibility as simultaneously traditional and modern values of the contemporary building culture (best practice in materials and design). the creation of a classic type of open space (the cemetery) that must fulfil the needs of a society which is becoming increasingly multicultural. the integration and implementation of various concepts and designs.
then he structured it with green elements. the pathways in the park were laid through the previously designed landscape at the very end. A band of activity areas (sports areas. as developed by Gilles Vexlard: Topography Landscape and green structures Pathways. He describes the landscape park as a project between a ‘sprint and a marathon’. ‘Who knows how people will move around in 50 years' time?’ This question was asked by Gilles Vexlard. pocket parks) runs through the new exhibition centre connecting the urban areas and the wider landscape in an aesthetic and functional way. in conjunction with the wide. Thus. while walking through the park. as volumes structuring and directing space. Vexlard designed the terrain and topography of the park. and it challenges us to think. grassy heath areas and meadows. the design concept was very sensitive to the site’s conditions and its cultural landscape traditions. A piece of designed Munich landscape has been created which appears somewhat new and seemingly unused. First. The formative framework of light oak and pine forests. yet its expansive open spaces convey a strong sense of freedom and the need for rapid movement. The path systems are overlaid onto this vegetal structure. which offers the park users three or four different landscape situations on their walk. Despite the very individual and distinctive approach with its characteristic formal language. as an independent network. These elements.Germany Design philosophy The design by French landscape architect Gilles Vexlard won the 1st prize in the 1995 international design competition. which they can choose to examine and explore. The scale and the relationship between one person and 300ha of space are definitive for Vexlard. The jury correctly commented that: The work develops its formal characteristics out of the historic field boundaries and the prevailing wind directions.9 The newly-built landscape park is very impressive. the antithesis of an English landscape park. In order to explain the park’s very consistently designed details. it is important to present the hierarchical layers of the park concept. Gilles Vexlard compares them with the scenographic route of a camera moving through the landscape. provide a coherent ecological approach to this space. is supplemented by smaller groves and narrow plot hedges providing what Vexland called ‘visual distance markers’. 86 . The design was also very persuasive in its details.
Within the Sunken Garden. which allows people to approach their landscape. as part of the landscape park. which is ‘Changes of Perspective’. the Bundesgartenschau in 2005. His design was inspired by microscopic images of the plant world. This micro/macro theme fits in with the main Bundesgartenschau theme. the gardens were further enhanced by the lower-lying ‘Sunken Garden’ and the ‘Parallel Garden’. Embedded within the formal language of the landscape park. Under the title of ‘Gardens of Powers’. which presents the citizens with distant landscape elements along their route. The lake has four different types of edge: an urban quay to the north.11 While the Cell and the Leaf Gardens were temporary. the concept of ‘cell‘ images can be found once again.10 The difficult task for the participants in the competition for the German national garden exhibition. or the ’Leaf Garden’ with a pathway system based on the vein structure within a leaf could be experienced. The landscape architect’s concept integrated various recreational attractions. Riem ‘We do not just observe these things. In this area. he clarifies the difference between his idea of the English landscape garden. the path becomes a boardwalk over the water. a soft and natural-looking edge with fields of perennial wildflower to the south and a wide belt with cat-tails and reeds along the western edge. says Vexlard. 87 . a 27m-high sledding hill and an 18m-high viewing hill. With this. People can experience the biotope without damaging the vegetation with their feet. to go inside it and finally to become a part of it. These ‘enhanced the language of Vexlard’s park in an almost poetic way and with an astonishing lightness’. and his landscape park. we are in these things’. In addition to the areas dedicated to the Bundesgartenschau within the landscape park.The Landscape Park. The most convincing solution to these demands was developed by the Munich landscape architect Prof. was to design an exhibition concept that would present an indepen- dent idea which combined and harmonised with the park already built by Gilles Vexlard. Rainer Schmidt. Exciting spaces such as the 'Cell Garden' with over-sized ‘cells’ made of gravel berms. further building plots for temporary exhibits had to be made available later. the Sunken and Parallel Gardens remained after the exhibition. a finely pebbled bathing beach and sunbathing meadows to the east. whose design won 1st prize. both the latter made from excavated material from the site. layouts were created based upon a spatial interpretation of microscopic photos enlarged to varying powers of ten. an artificial 14ha bathing lake. The bathing lake and the hills were completed in the second phase of construction and are open to use by local residents and city dwellers alike.
Germany 4.1 Overview Landscape Park Riem and National Garden Expo 2005 88 .
The Landscape Park. Riem 89 .
12 Certainly the cross-border collaboration was not always easy.13 A closer look at the park shows that the international cooperation has led to a novel design and professionally interesting result. but across such lengthy distances it would have led to uncomfortable sightlines for the people in the park areas closest to the city. marks the boundary between city and park landscape. City. Two parallel pathways lie on the slightly southward sloping terrace. the so-called terrace wall. an effect that was used during the Renaissance: the paths adjacent to the ground planes are elevated. The differences between the two planning cultures were often very visible. A terrace was created to form a frame for the city’s silhouette. These are hardly recognisable today. which combine to form a promenade which allows for extensive views into the park. The top of the wall runs horizontally for long distances.000 newly planted trees. The volumes of woodland orientate themselves towards the directions found in the 90 . As previously described. park and landscape form a true ensemble. the green structures in Vexlard’s park hierarchy are secondary to the topography. Gilles Vexlard sees historic connections: the design of the English Garden in Munich by Sckell was a result of the French Revolution. Vexlard feels almost closer to the city of Munich than to some French cities such as Toulouse and Marseille. Design of the terrain In order to be accountable to the human scale. He evened out the existing slope of the site northwards to the city. the landscape architect undertook several decisive changes in topography. despite the almost geographical dimensions of the park. but lie above the pathway systems. The construction plans created in the Paris office had to meet the German norms and technical specifications. The wall which is necessary to accommodate the changes in grade. The contrast between the spatially effective volumes and the open limitless surfaces heightens the relationship between the dense large city and the openness of the countryside. Gilles Vexlard goes back to a classic device in landscape architecture in his handling of the topography.14 Planting design The most important building materials in the Landscape Park Riem are the plants.Germany Design development The collaboration between German and French landscape architects was a special feature of the realisation and construction of the park. This slope was minimal. The overall plan of the park and garden exhibition requires about 30. a large and a small terraced pathway. The park is structured using woody plants and shrubs of differing sizes. as well as incorporating grassy meadow areas.
section F is shown overleaf) 91 .The Landscape Park. Riem 4.2 Plan view of the promenade adjacent to the lake (includes key to sections.
Germany 92 .
The planting concept includes five different typologies shown in the table overleaf. the woody plant structures and the colourful blooming grassy meadows lie in the foreground of the design. The area for the sunken garden by Rainer Schmidt is intensively designed and contains predominantly built components. The material selection avoids spectacular. timber and steel. depth and height effects. In accordance with the ecologically-oriented planning concept for the trade fair centre and city quarter of Riem. especially in the terrace areas close to the city. 4. The palette of materials is limited to natural stone. risky or short-lived novelties. existing infrastructures. it was important that all construction materials were of the highest quality and met criteria for ecological sustainability. a criterion defined by the city of Munich.3 Typical sections (and associated plans) through the promenade. Special details and materials can be found here. the park’s hard details and materials are the elements that allow Vexlard’s concept to be understood. Riem 4.2) shows a section through a tree grove on the promenade. Section B shows the section through the western part of the promenade. Vexlard’s planting principles distinguish between ‘homogenous and heterogeneous’ and ‘regular and irregular’ plots.4 Section F (keyed in Figure 4. the main wind direction. The selection of plant species was directed by the potential natural vegetation of this landscape area.15 All structures for the woody plants and shrubs comprise consistent. an elastic pathway 93 . They facilitate the use of the park by the people around it. sometimes very dense grids. concrete.5 View from the elevated terrace onto the open landscape landscape: historic field boundaries. 4. The park’s green elements. for example. which offer differing transparency.The Landscape Park. The materials in the park Even though it is the structure of the vegetation in the Landscape Park Riem that plays the starring role.
Pinus silvestris. low hedges lead from the park into the open landscape. they accentuate the space. Aver. these form visual distance markers that allow the spaces to be experienced. they define the large or small open spaces using their forms and their order Groves Planted occasionally. 5m wide and 100–150m long Solitaire trees and tree lines Trees are planted in differing configurations: as solitaire trees (strong or uncommon tree species). containing multistemmed and solitary shrubs of the following species: Cornus. they are approx. Corylus. and a minimum length of 100m Plot hedges Planted along the plot boundaries. etc.Germany Planting concept of the Landscape Park. Ginkgo) The mixed plantings are linear. they tend to lie at the edges of the park. Populus. their crowns develop freely. Acer pseudoplatanus. but some are mixed containing non-native tree species (Liquidambar. Aesculus hippocastanum. Fraxinus excelsior. they form thresholds. Eleagnus. containing multistemmed and solitary shrubs of the following species: Fraxinus. Fagus. Important species (botanical names) Mixed plants from the species found in Oak–Hornbeam forests (Carpinetum) and in Oak–Pine forests (Quercetum) Usually contain only one species (Tilia cordata. Betula. giving them their characteristic height and form. Pinus. Syringa. strips are 30m wide. They are placed in open meadow areas. Prunus. Juglans. description The main structure of the park. Crataegus. Tilia cordata. they contain the spaces. distances between groves are 150–300m Strips and bands of woody plants and shrubs These direct the spaces and create connections to the surroundings.). Sorbus. Ilex. Prunus. in lines or groups. etc. bands are 10–20m wide. 94 . etc. Crataegus. Pinus silvestris. Ligustrum. Carpinus. cross borders. Pinus nigra. Quercus. Riem Type. Quercus robur. The solitaire trees have diameters of 25/30 to 50/60cm girth. Viburnum. which in turn adds scale to the park The mixed plantings are linear. Fraxinus excelsior. open up spaces towards neighbouring sites. Species include: Acer platanoides. etc. they mark boundary lines and integrate them with the park. Viburnum. description Woody plants (massive volumes) Characterisation.
Riem 4.The Landscape Park.6 The groves in the park (black rectangles) 4.7 The typology of the groves 95 .
10 Grove of lindens 4.Germany 4.12 Opposite: the toboggan hill 96 .8 Typical planting scheme for the grove 4.9 Grove of lindens – overview 4.11 Opposite: the sunken garden 4.
The Landscape Park. Riem 97 .
without allowing access to the area.00m). The necessary height differences in areas around the sunken garden are dealt with using high retaining walls. These walls are carefully detailed. These are inviting and encourage visitors to stay. This serves to remind one of the local natural stone. They consist of massive natural 98 . which is sometimes called ‘the concrete of God’. While the north wall of the sunken garden is painted red as a complementary contrasting colour to the green of the garden. The wall is constructed of several parts: the side walls. The old airport building and the observations platform are now protected as historic structures within the landscape. Gilles Vexlard designed a separating trench densely planted with willows. which lead to the park’s ‘green fingers’. in accordance with the user’s wishes. access had to be prohibited. It is expected that all the chosen materials will age gracefully. the wall height is relatively low (1. Integrating the former flight observation arena into the park was not an easy task. so that one can walk upon it or enjoy the sun by lying on its thick natural stone cladding. There are still several elements made of this natural stone on the former airport site. By using a casting form with a timber matrix. acutely-angled volumes of concrete and cladding can be found here. To avoid the need for a fence. which in some respects creates a new city wall. Precisely constructed. which displays a high bending and tensile strength. a conglomerate called ‘Nagelfluh’. similar to granite.Germany surfacing made of recycled rubber and planting bed edges made of shiny stainless steel. the wall at the end of the former runway of the old airport is enhanced in a stonemason-like fashion. The cladding is made of ‘Gebhartser Syenit’.00m) but the width is doubled (2. Several different types of walls coexist alongside the terrace wall in the landscape park. The wall can become a catwalk. The walls An important detail is the terrace wall mentioned above. a bench or a sunny terrace. The wall is interrupted in some areas by the pathway systems. allowing an unobstructed view of the observation arena. were produced as pre-cast concrete elements and were installed on site. the surface of the wall was given a profile. the areas that connect the park with the residential quarters. For reasons of safety and historic protection. which are connected by a kind of transverse bulkhead. The low seating walls are another type of wall found in the park. In most sections. The interior is filled with gravel. The willows are regularly cut flush with the top of the trench. yet it has little in common with a traditional city wall. an Austrian natural stone.
15 Photo: terrace wall.16 Photo: terrace wall. The bronze inlays show different images from places at the same latitude as the park 99 . detail. detail 4. detail drawing by Luz 4.14 Terrace wall.The Landscape Park. schematic section by Vexlard 4. Riem 4.13 Terrace wall.
19 Nagelfluh stone 100 . detailed section by Luz 4.18 Wall along the former runway.17 North wall of the sunken garden 4.Germany 4.
The Landscape Park.20 Seating wall at a linden grove. detail drawing by Luz 4.21 Seating wall at a linden grove 4.22 Seating wall on the toboggan hill 101 . Riem 4.
23 Path edging.25 The hard and soft banks of the lake 4.27 Special angle-detail designed by Vexlard stone blocks. intersections 4. This means that eventual rounding off of path junctions or the erosion of the upper levels of berms and slopes will be avoided. path intersections and junctions are secured through the use of natural stone borders and concrete elements. Terrain edges. Lines. much like the coincidental pattern of the sticks in a game of ‘Mikado’.000m long. The characteristic formal language of the park and the sharp lines of its design are protected from becoming effaced or blurred through human use. The paths are edged with natural stones or concrete kerbs.26 Seating steps and stairs beside the lake 4. Even the design of the lake in the eastern part of the site follows these principles.Germany 4. The intersections of the pathways – the third and last part of the park’s hierarchy – produce many acute or obtuse angles.24 Securing the upper edge of a slope using concrete elements 4. This formal clarity demands a structural definition of the boundaries and edges. which can have edges 2. were built is impressive. The northern bank represents a hard borderline constructed as 102 . whose side surfaces are sometimes enhanced by the work of stonemasons. The precision with which the boundary lines and lengthy paths. edges and borders The artificial landform of the park has very clear forms. which has led to the park’s characteristic details. All the lines within the park are thus very exact and sharp.
The Landscape Park. Riem 103 .
These were then attached to the binding inter-ties through the gaps between the planks from above. In order to avoid a visible screw connection from the top.29 Boardwalk detailed drawing. the wooden planks were angled towards their ends.28 Boardwalk.30 Photo: boardwalk detail a natural stone block. painted black. The untreated timber planks contain extra measures against weathering. with landings every seven steps.Germany 4. showing handrail construction 4. linear pathway connections in the areas of the bathing lake and the sunken garden. The load-bearing construction consists of steel members. two planks were connected on the underside with a steel plate. isometric drawing 4. and a surface of larch-wood planks with surface grooves. the interrupted appearance of the wooden material. pedestrian boardwalks were necessary. 104 . To the rear of the hill. serpentine bends are used to reduce the slope to 3 per cent to ease access for those with mobility difficulties. and safety for pedestrian users. The pedestrian boardwalks In order to continue the long. providing a comfortable gradient. The specially designed stainless steel handrail follows the slope of the hill as well as the stairway. The construction of these boardwalks appears to be very solid. each combined with two risers. The terrain is consistently terraced with seating steps. The construction of the boardwalks ensures timber protection. The long stairway to the top of the toboggan hill consists of 40cm treads with 12cm risers. The dimensions of the construction members are based on the static calculations of the consulting engineer. To make the side elevations of the boardwalk appear more elegant.
Riem 105 .The Landscape Park.
For Gilles Vexlard. ecologically-functioning landscape directly next to a major city. the remains of which can today only be experienced around the protected observation platform. Its green structures are based on the boundaries of the historic cultural landscape in east Munich and the prevailing wind directions through the site. the Olympic park or the Westpark. does not seem to have been considered here. Generally speaking. a typical design form from the 1930s. this planting scheme allows the spatial effects of the green elements to be experienced immediately in this very young park. did not fit with his ideas of freedom and openness in the landscape. the landscape park is a very special project. symbols and images. Experts fear that these areas will completely collapse within a few years.16 The closed form and finished character of the oval. For him it comprises the ’sum of many voices in the landscape’ and the result of 30 years of work as a landscape architect. Many citizens were shocked at the park’s strong linearity and large dimensions. since the term ‘landscape park’ had evoked visions similar to Munich’s ‘English Garden’. A more serious criticism concerns the very dense planting areas. As a result of the close proximity. The landscape park Riem is meant to develop further south and is not yet finished. Its independent character can exist without quotations. The issue of sustainability. The sharp clarity of the concept has produced a large. The innovative character of the park arises not only through spatial definition. But despite this criticism.Germany Evaluation The construction of the landscape park in Riem initially attracted much negative criticism from Munich’s citizens. A large old hornbeam hedge also had to be removed. the park impresses through its formality and its consistent design throughout. forms and usage. Yet despite these connotations of the past.17 106 . The precise 2km long lines remind users of the former airport’s runways. otherwise so consistently addressed. thinning out of single trees may not be possible without causing great damage to the rest. nor through alienated elements. ‘A straight path cannot be an ecological area’ was common opinion. the design is now better understood by the citizens. eye-catching furnishings or trendy materials and details. His vision foresaw a park without borders: ’the power of the Munich landscape is the distance’. some of which contain only one species. Vexlard was also widely criticized for having dissolved the oval plan of the former airport. The blooming of the extensive grassy meadows in the spring has already convinced many doubters. The park’s ’genius loci’ can be clearly felt. In the meantime. the landscape park Riem is also a park for the future.
as the original area had been designed and built in 1908 and could no longer meet current needs. represented by MRG München-Riem GmbH German Landscape Architecture Award 2001 – Honourable Mention German Architecture Award 2001 – Acknowledgement Project history In 1995.The New Cemetery. Munich City of Munich.000m²) Axel Lohrer and Ursula Hochrein. The old cemetery is separated from the wedge-shaped extension site by a roadway. and Ursula Hochrein 1st prize. uninterrupted open space. Riem Case study The New Cemetery in Riem Project data Project name: Location: Planning: Construction period: Construction costs: Area: Landscape architects: Architects: Client: Awards: Cemetery Extension in Munich-Riem Munich. 1999–2000 DM6m (about €3m) without buildings 13ha (130. the integration of a funeral hall and chapel. The site for the cemetery extension lies at the border of old Riem and has become a sort of green connection between the old city quarter and the new Munich East Trade Fair area. 107 . wedge-shaped topography and planting areas. despite a dividing roadway. This cemetery was to expand by 13ha. Magdeburg. and recommendations for noise barriers in the north of the site along the A94 Autobahn. The park’s concept has a clear structure and individuality with its long pathways and sightlines. The new cemetery has come to represent the western part of the Landscape Park Riem which is the main part of the green semi-circle around the new trade fair area. It was one of the first phases of the landscape park to be completed. In 1997 the competition jury for the new cemetery in Riem awarded the landscape architects Axel Lohrer . The competition brief demanded a new cemetery for a total of 6. The design for the cemetery extension was also to refer to the design concept for the landscape park. district of Riem (Munich-Riem quarter) Competition 1997 1st prize. it was decided to enlarge the cemetery in Riem. planning commencement 1997 . The pathways and connections between the landscape park and the residential areas bordering onto the new cemetery were to be taken into consideration and kept open. Munich.500 graves. Perach/Inn Andreas Meck and Stefan Köppel. as part of the development process of the urban planning project for the Trade Fair and Exhibition Centre Munich East. The brief also required that the existing typical and ecologically valuable oligotrophic grasslands – which are also a large and important part of the new landscape park – were to be kept and even enhanced as a connected. a direct connection to the old cemetery.
along with simple and flexible solutions to meet the project’s demands. its potential. efficiency and cost management from conception to maintenance. From the first idea onwards. Thoughtful consideration was given to maintaining the individuality of the existing extensive dry and oligotrophic grasslands within the very urban setting of the trade fair area and its large roadways. They are one of the best-known and most successful young landscape offices in Germany. we are committed to seeing that our philosophy is carried through from the large-scale urban planning concept into detail design and construction.Germany Design philosophy The landscape architecture practice of Axel Lohrer and Ursula Hochrein started in 1993. in competitions or as jury members. we search for the essential and unique aspects of a place as the basis for our own design work. design. its history. 108 . while integrating with the Landscape Park Riem. preferably the opposing relationship between urban density and open landscape. The place is distinguished by the interaction of function. and according to the given task.18 The new cemetery in Munich Riem is representative of this philosophy. A unique and unmistakable place has been created. colour and plants. demand high-quality craftsmanship. we develop an individual landscape architectural language. Evolving from the place. It is standard for us to project-manage all levels of the German planning guidelines (HOAI). in interdisciplinary teams. materials. all of which serve to further enhance the place’s individual character. Whether in an open dialogue. They define their philosophy in the following way: We deal with open spaces.
Lohrer and Hochrein designed four trapezoidalshaped burial landforms. This image of ‘islands of peace and tranquillity’ in the middle of an urban context. There are three kinds of graves in the new cemetery: (1) normal earth graves in the flat ground. the four burial areas rise up from the extensive surrounding dry grasslands like islands. which changes direction twice to avoid becoming a banal axis.31 Design concept for the cemetery 4. Surrounded by wedge-shaped earthen berms. roads. (2) the socalled ‘urn-walls’ where cremation ashes are housed in urns with inscribed plaques. whose shapes related to the characteristic language of forms found in the landscape park. with its different buildings. appeared to be an interesting vehicle for the concept for a cemetery. while exploring the theme of ‘cemetery’ and searching for appropriate symbolism and forms. Riem Design concept During the site analysis process. connects the four islands.The New Cemetery. and (3) a new form of communal ‘earth columbarium’ where the urns are lowered into the ground in steel baskets. A main linear pathway. the landscape architects discovered a description of the ‘islands of the dead’ located outside Venice. bustle and noise.32 Schematic plan for orientation at the cemetery entrance 109 . The funeral hall is situated on the dividing roadway and becomes the connecting element between the 4.
50m-high walls provide the grave areas with enclosure. These groves give each of the grave islands its own distinctive character. pines and birches and wild apples are planted very densely around the edges. cherries. becoming less dense towards the inside of each island.33 The elevated level of the grave islands. almost monastic design.60m above the surrounding site. the enclosures present themselves as parts of the landscape.34 The main linear pathway connecting the islands 4. These islands display the seemingly closed-off character of traditional church- yards. yet still allow for distant views into the landscape beyond. From the outside. The 1.0m above the level of the natural terrain. the berm slope is supported by the dry-laid gneiss stone walls.21 The 13ha area of the cemetery extension now represents an impressive synthesis of a generously designed park cemetery with spacious grassy fields. The upper level of each berm lies approximately 2. The elevated level of the ‘grave islands’ has a functional purpose: it was required by the very high ground water table of the site. The land within the berms is approximately 1. the dry-laid stone wall inside and the oligotrophic berm in the background 4.Germany 4. individual fruit trees and introverted burial islands.19. as green and colourful. On the inside. This quadripartite building has a strict. flowering sloped berms. lengthy pathways. flowering in May old and the new cemetery.35 Cherry tree grove. 110 . The designers were successful in creating spiritual places of tranquillity and introspection in the middle of an urban park landscape. 20 Groves of different native tree species such as oaks and hornbeams.
directly to the first grave island. These are best described by taking a virtual walk through the site. designed by the architects Andreas Meck and Stefan Köppel. but neither element is weakened by the other.36 Each grave island presents itself outwardly with colourful and blooming sloped areas. The gates of each island can be locked.26 The The most important material: Austrian gneiss. which has a protective layer of rust and harmonises perfectly with the gneiss stone.38 The quiet concrete surface of the bell towers 111 . to the inside. To the inside and to the grave areas. Four oak trunks carry a mighty gneiss stone plate and define a cruciform open space below. gneiss from Stainz in Austria (a natural stone which changes from grey-brown to rusty brown through its iron-oxide content) and corten steel. the quiet surface of a poured concrete wall. the islands show the closed surfaces of the layered masonry walls. honourable-looking gates are made of corten steel and are meant to remind one of the heavy cast-iron gates of old village cemeteries. form the link between the old cemetery and the new one. which is also characteristic of the bell tower. In the centre of the island. The gneiss is found in layered masonry walls and as polygonal pavers in the ground. The new funeral hall and its entrance area.24 The different confessions. The hall has a strong design relationship with the cemetery. These appear comfortably dimensioned so that one can see over the walls into the surrounding landscape. The heavy.The New Cemetery. beginning with the old cemetery exit in the south-east and going northwards across the four burial islands. The rust-brown tones of the natural stone and the steel provide a lovely complementary colour contrast to the vegetation. for which the cemetery is intended. the path bends northwards leading to the second and third island.22 The three essential construction materials which give the cemetery its character and colour are introduced here: concrete. here combined with oak 4.23 A linear gravel pathway leads from the funeral hall. a masonry wall. The new funeral hall’s entrance court lies directly – but not exactly centrally – in the main visual and functional axis of the old cemetery. In a few individual situations. Riem Detailed description The special atmosphere of the cemetery is distinguished by the construction details and materials.37 The ‘double-faced’ surrounding wall 4. oak becomes the fourth material. The surrounding walls of the funeral hall’s court take on the materiality of the building: to the outside. In the centre of the first island there is a cross sculpture by the Munich artist.25 4. Red colours dominate around the funeral hall. green in the cemetery. Hermann Biglmayr. are hereby respected.
4.39 Cross-section through the wall 4.40 Corner of wall and slope
The New Cemetery, Riem
4.41 Water basin detail, section 4.42 Water basin, taps
4.43 Wall unit construction detail 4.44 Wall unit for watering cans
The New Cemetery, Riem
4.45 Urn wall, construction detail 4.46 Urn wall
5:33cm 4. the honour of the individual remains respected. The gravel paths are lined with upright gneiss stone pavers and the gneiss material is found again in the stairs. It symbolises the brief but energy-laden meeting of the spiritual place of the cemetery with the banal place of the motorway. From this last island. In the third grave island. The structural stability of the retaining wall is maintained. the linear pathway bends again and leads to the fourth and final island. Riem cemetery’s landscape and urban context are not hidden from view. candles and other mementos of the deceased can be placed. even though it only has a cross-section depth of 50cm at its base. The urns can be added and taken away according to need and still allow for extensive areas of vegetation. plan and section construction details 4. the landscape architects developed a new form of urn grave. the path bends one last time and leads to a green stair made of gneiss to a viewing platform within the noise barrier of the motorway. in this very modest-looking community grave area. Masonry walls made of layered Stainz gneiss form the framework for the water stations.27 The intensive use of this ledge by the mourners is reminiscent of the urn walls found in southern European countries. which offer an alternative to the gently-sloping access ramps to the grave islands. which is sunken and thus allows uninterrupted planting areas. which stretch up to 1.28.49 Pathway edging 117 . where flowers. The water basins are made of light-coloured concrete with robust stainless steel taps. The urn walls have a long urn ledge. and similar wall units house the watering cans. The stones also form the freestanding urn walls. is meant to make drivers along the autobahn aware of the neighbouring cemetery. for people with limited mobility.30 4. Despite this very efficient and economic design. with its tower-like concrete column. In order to ease the earth pressure from the sloped side. This viewing platform.The New Cemetery. The urns are placed into a steel frame.30m into the sloped berm. found at each bend in the pathways. The walls are built as dry-laid stone walls. 29 The design of the pathways’ edges and the stairways is very consistent.48 Stairs made of Stainz gneiss with a riser to run ratio of 14. layers of geotextile were integrated every 40cm. In addition to the traditionally influenced urn walls. A special innovative construction method was developed to build this type of enclosure. and also allows visitors to the cemetery a view out into the everyday urban context.47 Opposite: urn grave.
the smell of the fruit trees along the pathway edge. The materials and construction details are distinguished by quality craftsmanship. the elegant bending of the grasses on the sloped berms. The textures and characteristic colours of the natural stones and corten steel contrast with the greens of the vegetation and the blue Munich sky and all correspond to the light grey of the concrete and the gravel pathways. This respectful relationship between the inside and outside gives the cemetery a sense of lightness. The spiritual quality of the place inside the burial islands can be felt. in an ideal symbiosis. despite the close proximity to the trade fair centre and the motorway. On occasion. the touch of the rough corten-steel gates or dry-laid stone walls. Lisa Diedrich describes the character of the cemetery as follows: No heroic prospects but rather simple sensual stimulation distinguishes the walk to the graves: the steps on the polygonal pavers in the court. The enclosures with their ‘two-faced’ walls. the sound of the gravel under one’s feet on the way to the grave. sustainability and the necessary economy. Visitors are offered views over the cemetery walls towards the city landscape and beyond to the Alps. the rustling of the leaves as one arrives at the graves. offer quiet and honourable places for the graves. showing colourful sloped berms to the outside and stone walls on the inside. It is a unique place with a very special identity.Germany Evaluation The new cemetery in Riem successfully combines a contemporary landscape park cemetery with the motifs of a traditional enclosed regional village cemetery.31 118 . visitors have been known to lie in the unused meadows of the cemetery during their lunch breaks.
on the other. there are multiple and varied challenges for Hungarian landscape architects. which neglected the country’s natural endowments. Thus. landscape architect and 119 . open space is a common challenge for the urban designer. as well as tourist regions and recreational areas which have developed dynamically from the 1970s. On the one hand. the downtown districts are less able to bear the expanding traffic and parking needs. Because of the forced industrial development under communism. must not be postponed any longer. public squares and various urban open spaces. The renewal of historical city centres. delayed for decades. if we are to halt the migration to the metropolitan agglomerations. where the bulk of administrative and cultural institutes are situated and one-fifth of the country’s population lives. their significance is growing from the social. as a result of historical forces. partly because of poor economic decisions taken in the past. planning and redevelopment. Urban open spaces are becoming more valuable. Large tracts of agricultural land have become sites for building or reserves for further development. particularly in proximity to large cities. one of the proposed solutions is multiple land use. but seem to be getting warmer and drier as a result of global warming. Due to these opposing requirements. The traditional west–east axis of development is varied and influenced by features of the landscape and geography. The generally more-developed western part of Hungary includes Transdanubia. The eastern part is moderately developed on the whole. while significant developing cities with prosperous administrative and cultural centres emerge from the Hungarian Great Plain. there is a huge contrast in the economic situation and development of various regions. the great industrial centres collapsed and huge areas became brown-fields requiring costly remediation. aesthetic. there is a measurable social need for parks. Stagnating regions with small villages are also to be found in Transdanubia. Urbanised areas transformed rapidly and drastically after the fall of the communist regime in 1989. including the capital. while. The country has a mosaic landscape structure which spreads from sub-alpine mountains to sub-Mediterranean regions and to the plains which have a continental climate. even greater expectations are placed upon open spaces. Furthermore. urban ecological and economic points of view.Hungary Kinga Szilágyi Landscape architecture in Hungary In spite of Hungary’s relatively small size. architect. In Budapest. the central region with many towns and cities. It includes regions and counties where the crisis of industry and agriculture penalises both landscape and inhabitants – partly as a consequence of natural causes.
The fashionable philosophical trends from the West. such as the architectural reflection of post-modernism and deconstructivism. but only in a gradual way. as a consequence of the transformed institutional. provide another type of task for landscape architects.Hungary traffic planner. Regarding the content.or short-term plans of developers and investors can turn the balance. After the events of 1989. and if the rural landscape can provide semi-natural sites for recreation and ecological conservation. Owing to Hungary’s wideranging landscape heritage. the renewal of the city by central government and the municipalities should always take the long-term view. recognising the capacity of the landscape for development in relation to recreation and tourism. At the same time. Accession to the EU could bring changes to agriculture. Moderate economic development can be beneficial. on sites brought into being by the demolition of industrial buildings or the selected demolition of blocks of flats in densely built-up traditional residential districts. such as an increase in traditional organic farming and land management. Landscape and open space structure were very much determined by the basic principles of everyday usage. At the level of spatial and development planning. to a greater or lesser extent. It also might derive from the quick spread of new theoretical ideas and trends from western countries and from new building materials and technologies. if it is motivated by a thorough knowledge of landscape features and traditions. However. These natural and cultural landscapes are considerable attractions in terms of recreation and tourism. Urban reconstruction has created opportunities for new open spaces. a change can be seen in both the content and the function of Hungarian landscape architecture. so the clearly expressed function appeared as an aesthetic value without ornamental decoration or l’art pour l’art. have had an influence on landscape architecture. Regions that have avoided urbanisation. the landscape architect. almost 10 per cent of the country’s territory is protected natural areas. Later. such as gardens and pocket parks. such development must be done in such a way that the distinctions between different types of landscapes are not lost. 120 . where the long. must ensure that such development does not damage the existing character of the landscape. Hungarian landscape architecture was shaped by modernist functionalism until the end of the 1980s. a freer approach to the ground-plan structure of open space designs and towards ornamentation was noticeable. assets of local and national importance. administrative system and the new circle of investors. the self-assertive intention of the designer to articulate a clear artistic essence could also be seen.
The other is the garden of a rural guest-house. The turn toward rural areas and villages is logical. which makes reference to Goethe’s theories and to Rudolf Steiner’s anthroposophy. we have the radical assertions of the ‘ecological approach’. One is a typical urban open space which – relative to Hungarian conditions – is a trendy.Hungary The influence of the global ecological crisis is of critical importance both in architecture and landscape architecture. They are motivated by the wish to change their lifestyles. Also. is more and more characteristic and popular among professionals and creates a proper intellectual context for the creation of landscape architecture. of course. perhaps because they are bored with the way of life in cities. neo-modern masterpiece of the younger generation. The two landscape architecture projects chosen as case studies represent two very different creations in terms of style. developed under the influence of the French geometric style. On the one hand we have mere lip-service to ecological thinking. Traditional rural architectural features have become popular among those who intend to leave the cities temporarily or permanently. to a certain extent. In the case of this garden. the landscape designer’s remarkable achievements have aroused the owner’s sensitivity towards the rural landscape and its traditions and towards the interrelationship between humans and the environment. reflecting those of an older generation. hard ornamental elements and high-tech building materials and technologies. including the influence of landscape art and minimalism. perhaps because of snobbism. managed by an entrepreneur who has moved from the city to the countryside. philosophy and environment. almost forgotten. ‘modern’ approaches and ideas. Alongside all of these tendencies are to be found. but on the other. the effect of an old-fashioned. but not necessarily new. fine arts tradition can be recognised in our landscape architecture. It is interesting that ‘neo-modernism’ has become quite popular among younger designers with extremely sleek. 121 . The organic direction.
and a peasant’s house in the traditional style of Somogy County. 122 . She had the ruined buildings on these sites pulled down. The two new buildings and the stable form a frame around the central part of the garden. divided into various garden spaces with different functions.000m2. a small village in Somogy County. except for one stable. landscape architect of the PAGONY Landscape and Garden Design Company Overview Called the ‘Garden of Somogy’ by its designer. a kitchen. The client. a public room. bought several adjacent sites and merged them into one.000m2 Gábor Szücs. Bonnya 1998 9.000 Hungarian Forints (c. At the entrance is a three-sectioned gate. which is a popular destination for tourists and holiday-makers.000) in 1998 7 . The central group of spaces was designed very carefully. and then had new buildings constructed: a guest-house with eight rooms. down to the smallest details. the starting point for further developments. The buildings associated with the garden serve rural tourism and hospitality. which opens onto the front garden with a car park. a public room. The natural vegetation of this region consists of various types of forest – silver linden. this garden is located in the countryside near Bonnya. as is the fruit garden in the embrace of the stone retaining wall. a 77km-long freshwater lake. and includes a paddock and a field for sports and amusements. calciphile oak and hornbeam-oak. Bonnya lies among loess hills approximately 30km south of Lake Balaton. £25. This was the core. while the cottage used as a guest-house is surrounded by a peasant-style garden. with two rooms for guests. The garden between the guest-house and the stable is designed for barbecues and picnics. In front of the guest house there is terraced garden.000.Hungary Case study The Garden of Somogy Project data Project name: Location: Date completed: Cost: Area: Designer: The Garden of Somogy. an economist seeking a rural retreat. a kitchen and a sauna. Beyond the garden. while the southern slope is intended for silent recreation. the wider estate covers about 3ha. garden of a guest-house Somogy County. The total area is around 7 .
the idea of living in a close relationship to the environment – all these things were forgotten. half-hearted manner. she felt it was important to build a living connection with the village and the villagers and she organised a programme of cultural and sporting events to try to infuse life back into the village. Her husband ran a profitable enterprise in the city. the familiarity of place. Bonnya is a small. where she has tried to develop a new view of community. the client showed her commitment to the rural area and country life by choosing to belong to a small community of villagers. to a village and an existing society. The traditional culture. hidden inside her. since the villagers approached the new initiative in a disinterested. but the original. There are hardly any popular traditions or folk customs left. This initiative was not a resounding success. now had to cultivate estates that had belonged to someone else. afflicted by depopulation. The client’s decision shows her commitment to rural areas and country life. the landscape changed and people no longer felt attached to their homeland or village. remote and very poor village in Somogy County with approximately 200 inhabitants. who had lived off their properties. Even though it was a for-profit venture.The Garden of Somogy 5. the way of life is changing. In such villages in Hungary. with the idea that she would one day live there permanently. Bonnya was an independent.2 (overleaf) Plan of the garden at Somogy Project history The client lived in a city and her daily life was taken up with her work. gradually. self-supporting village before the Second World War. This city economist wished to open a guest-house in a small and almost depopulated village at the back of beyond. The villagers. When she arrived. natural world. The self-supporting model worked relatively well until the war. who was not only responsible for creating a garden. The people became rootless. She turned to a sensitive.1 View of the hills of Somogy from the fruit garden 5. but privately owned fields were merged into co-operative farms during the socialist reorganisation. The connection to nature seemed to be missing from her life. The client found this out when she tried to discover the original local traditions during her stay in Bonnya. She was also interested in animal husbandry and agriculture. but did not participate financially or intellectually in the project. After the change of regime in the 1990s many people were able to get their properties back. self-supporting way of life could not be easily restored. but the need and the yearning for it were there somewhere. its inhabitants made a reasonable living. It was never rich. She therefore needed help from the designer. All of these were completely unfamiliar to her and at first she had only rough ideas about this unknown environment. but while farming was considered valuable. but also helped her to discover and outline a new way of life. 123 .
Hungary 124 .
The Garden of Somogy 125 .
City dwellers longing for a move to the country. Their ideas and their new methods of farming will influence the villagers’ way of thinking too. The aim is to create a living system and not to have a still. Gábor Szücs. says the designer. These newcomers visit periodically and generally do not take part in community life or are excluded from it. works at the PAGONY Landscape and Garden Design Company. 126 .Hungary Society continues to change. and thus are not interested in establishing a selfsupporting. First. PAGONY Landscape and Garden Design Company builds. Second. Imre Makovecz. or people searching for a second home. a designer can only create a really excellent garden if he is a good observer. and this influences everything from the initial relationship with the client to the changing life of the garden and the requirements of future users. In the 1990s. Without the ability to observe. upon the organic approach. In villages where subsistence farming cannot be revived. which is influenced by the renowned organic architectural studio led by the eminent architect. Gábor Szücs’s approach was developed after a study tour to Switzerland where he was influenced by the writings of Jochen Bockemühl. these newcomers bring new thinking. The designer must recognise and mediate all the associations that lie in the client’s hidden. do not want to run a farm. so that it is possible to create new things which arise from the character of the landscape. frozen. If one-third of the houses are bought up by city dwellers and foreigners. Though they produce food. and another third belong to elderly people in their sixties or seventies. only the final third is available for local families and the younger generation. Such people stay in touch with the city. Design philosophy The designer. city dwellers and foreigners started to buy houses in the villages. Hopefully these changes will lead to a revival of rural life in villages like Bonnya. But there are also new farmers coming from the cities who are interested in growing plants and keeping animals. they often have ecological ideas which are new to the communities they have joined. in its own way. who was formerly the head of the Institute for Natural Sciences at the Goetheanum at Dornach. peasant-like style of farming. observation allows one to recognise the spirit of the place. static construction. both for their own consumption and for sale. The reasons for this are twofold. there can be no cooperation between client and designer. so they rebuild their new residences as summer cottages and the environs are also subordinated to this function. According to Gábor Szücs. accurate observation of the client’s personality is essential in order to connect the place with the person.
Before getting started. The same ideas are expressed in the building materials and of course in the use of plants. when starting to plan a new garden.The Garden of Somogy ‘unknown’. These natural facilities are realised in the garden itself. and reveal how the future users of the garden might feel once the design has been implemented. to validate and to re-construct it. The landscape is really vivid here with its small hills. And as we observe nature and the landscape with a special sensitivity. inner. Therefore. According to Sz cs. in the patterns of tiling. to keep it working. an ideal notion of the garden. who should adopt these ideas so as to be able to develop and take care of the garden in the future. The task of a landscape architect is to revive this idea. in the arches and lines of the retaining walls. our ideas about gardens are rooted in the Garden of Eden. we should also observe the person for whom we design the garden. and during the design process he tries to revive. which represents the memory of a harmonic environment. so as to create a garden concerned with and connected to the atmosphere of the landscape. and to use it in planning and design. which forms a natural buffer. There is a special quality in its atmosphere. I tried to include the landscape of Somogy into the garden itself. starting from the flower gardens next to the buildings. through the fruit gardens to the semi-natural plantation in the outer part of the estate. personal. fine vineyards. the creation of a garden should be first called a rebirth. 127 . He states: I think that the landscape architect. existing within ourselves as a deep. has to have this notion somewhere hidden deep inside. resulting in harmony with the landscape. The designer’s intentions have to be balanced and harmonised with those of the client. generally subconscious experience. in the small terraces. I observed and felt the landscape of Somogy in Bonnya. in its situation and in the view of the village from the estate. inner world. creeks and mosaic views. the rebirth of the Garden of Eden.
lively garden. While. severe and elegant style of a hotel. but do not last. areas for intimate garden parties. and the garden designer can only provide a foundation. donkeys. chickens and geese. designed by Gábor Szücs. A health and fitness centre with a garden as a core element is also under development. but the Garden of Somogy is alive and everchanging. The second phase of the development aimed to provide a wider range of services for guests. the architecture can give a permanent frame to a shifting way of life. She made some stipulations about parking spaces for herself and for her guests. a swimming pool. It was also very important to her that the typical flora of the Somogy landscape should be used in the garden. change and passing. Some gardens demonstrate the designer’s will. rabbits. Otherwise she entrusted everything to the designer. It is not just the garden itself that is organic. There were no flat areas suitable for use around the buildings. so that the clients would come back time and time again. The aim was to create a homely atmosphere. gave the designer a fairly open brief. forcing plants against their natural habits. The guests will be able to rejuvenate physically and mentally in the Garden of Harmony. lying next to the main road. together with the best of rural cuisine. but an enchanting and vibrant rural hospitality with activities in the garden. but it also encodes processes of birth. such as horses. in this case. the keeper of a garden constantly reforms it. The client.Hungary Design development The gardens The project’s aim was to provide hospitality for affluent guests. There is a group of buildings for company training and conferences. goats. but also the process through which the garden is planned. some can only be maintained by regular pruning. The designer’s personality is expressed in a vivid. which required high-quality buildings. sheep. The new buildings were built on a high terrace. This is not the cold. as the sloping hillside 128 . with a good view over the rippling hills and the low valley of a stream lined with trees and shrubs. created and constructed throughout the course of its existence. and an open air oven for bread-baking and traditional cooking. furniture and equipment in the guestrooms. The designer was excited by the diversity and the romantic/picturesque aspects of the area. and the lively proximity of domestic animals. in keeping with the changing needs of life. The plan secures a moment. henceforth the user of the garden will keep this process alive and moving. in the case of a building. complemented by open air structures. and about open space for family activities.
4 Ramped path and retaining walls 5.5 The system of retaining walls from below 129 .3 Plan.The Garden of Somogy 5. section and terrain alignment of retaining walls 5.
Hungary 130 .
As well as some traditional forms of roses. hydrangeas and yuccas. slowing down a little bit on the hills of Somogy. The creation of this welcoming place was a primary aim of the design. the steps that gave access to the guest-house. People can enter this welcoming area on foot or by car. which today has only ornamental value. These enabled the designer to enlarge the upper area and to create a fruit garden below.The Garden of Somogy 5. it is a line full of energy. In the planting. looking around. which became the most intimate resting area within the garden. an open-air oven which provides all the functions of a kitchen and a sideboard.9 Photo: ‘female’ gate extended all the way to the stream.7 Details of the ‘female’ gate 5. in a sensitive way. dynamic lines in the plan.6 Elevation of ‘male’ and ‘female’ entrance gates 5.8 Photo: ‘male’ gate 5. an enclosed area near to the stable forms an open-air lounge for community activities. including small ornamental bushes and perennials. It includes some characteristic structures. therefore. like all the curving. the principle was to use species that reflected the character of the surrounding landscape. charged with mental and spiritual ideas. while also symbolising. The gate is the threshold that allows visitors to understand that they have arrived at a new place. was only possible using a series of retaining walls to accommodate height differences. It must be a real stop. This stepping of the ground originates from the requirements of everyday use. the complex relationship between human beings and place. which draws upon the area’s ancient culture and popular arts. but at the same time. and also some native species with high ornamental value. but it melts into the landscape from the most important viewpoints. calming down. Next to the house. for here is the true landscape of Somogy. he must wait for a moment before getting out of the car. The undulating lines of the retaining wall symbolise the outlines of the landscape. turns through the gate and stops. and an old restored well. The realisation of the entry. while the south front garden is planted with herbs typical of a 131 . A characteristic gate marks the transition between the welcoming area associated with the buildings and the outside world. The driver who speeds along the motorway and turns off the highway and arrives in Bonnya. the parking places. and when they arrive. there is a great variety of species. we can find peonies. Beyond the guest-house. It was necessary to create an old-fashioned system of terraces and embank- ments using retaining walls that varied in height from 500mm to 4m. they are faced with the Somogy landscape. the barbecue and the furnished garden lounge. where low walls for sitting were incorporated. The original surfaces next to the buildings were inappropriate for the intended garden uses and could not remain.
It is regarded as the root of history and the temple of wisdom. Lavandula. While the yew is considered the symbol of death in many cultures. Santolina. Syringa vulgaris. around the bushes and in certain parts of the grass-covered areas. On the middle terrace the fruit trees are next to the retaining wall and are grown on cordon. The most effective bows were made out of yew and. but also along the roadside and opposite the gate to emphasise arrival. Perennials are particularly important in such a young garden. Because of these strong associations. a greater proportion of the more common and native species are planted. Phlox. Euonymus europaeus. where only some small yew forests survived in the Transdanubian region. Centrantus ruber. according to historians of ecology. Lonicera japonica and Spiraea x vanhouttei. where they provide the main ornamental interest. the huge number of war bows made during medieval times caused the extinction of English yew in many parts of Europe. Further away from the house. Sambucus nigra. On the lower terraces there is a fruit garden planted with the varieties of fruit trees found in traditional peasants’ gardens. Salvia. In Hungarian culture the yew carries complex meanings. The intensive use of flowerbeds is less and less evident as one moves away from the house and the main picnic areas.Hungary peasant’s garden: Mentha. Campanula. it is also regarded as the symbol of life. which used to be typical of this landscape. The English yew (Taxus baccata). They are planted here in great numbers. Achillea and Lilium. it was chosen to create a frame at the main entrance to the guest-house. According to ancient traditions. they are planted with Iris. including Corylus colurna. Rudbeckia. Viburnum opulus. utilising the heat stored and re-radiated by 132 . therefore all the most important decisions were made beneath the elm tree. and it helps us to restore and to purify ourselves. including Hungary. There are perennials not only along the garden paths. the elm was the most significant saint’s tree and was able to create a connection with the sky. Thymus and Rosmarinus. plays an important symbolic role. The ancient Celtic warriors honoured it as a holy tree. Solidago aurea. The European white elm (Ulmus leavis) is another symbolic tree in Hungary. bringing the ‘energy of life’ into the building. Amygdalus nana. Cotinus coggygria. There are rich flowerbeds forming a riot of colour around the house and along the main roads. The driveway is lined with a welcoming avenue of maples (Acer campestre) while a pleasant sycamore in a round flowerbed radiates a sense of calm from the centre of the front garden. It was therefore essential that this species should be represented in the garden.
character and spirit of the landscape. patina-covered. Building materials Like the plants. while second-hand red limestone blocks were used for the garden steps. well-used and vernacular place. For paving and steps the designer deliberately used good-quality second-hand building materials to give the garden the appearance of an old. The fence along the boundary of the estate. Deep joints evoke the dry-stone walls used in the agricultural countryside. patinated surfaces to convey a homely atmosphere. nursery-aged to create character and beauty in the shortest possible time. The footpaths and the open-air lounge were paved with second-hand bricks. and has a wattle construction in keeping with the spirit of the landscape. The benches. with mature. while the walls in the garden are built of natural stone. the building materials were chosen to suit the atmosphere. The newly planted trees were advanced nursery stock. This also adds character to the garden. while the sitting walls in the fruit garden are of stone. even when freshly mined. 133 . volcanic rocks from the Balaton highlands. next to the road. The colours and textures of these blocks. a strong and durable wood. The road from the gate and the parking place are surfaced with a grey gravel. frostresistant. The low retaining walls to each side of the steps to the guest-house entrance and the high retaining wall along the garden road were built of dense. organic. is a traditional structure used in peasant gardens. It is made of acacia.The Garden of Somogy the wall to ripen the fruit. tables and the furniture of the open-air lounge were made of wood. rustic building stones. give the impression of old.
but the garden is still developing under the guidance of Gábor Szücs. 134 . it provides a home for the owner and also for her guests. The garden expresses the spirit of place. new buildings and outdoor areas have been added. to the garden and to the landscape. paying attention to the relations between man and environment. They have become attached to the place. developing a village remote from the city. The project has proven the economic viability of such an enterprise. The garden has been in use for six years. she loves it and cares for it and the plan has realised her hopes. The owner feels that it belongs to her. and to transform its capacity for arrangement into a vital process. He has untangled it and helped it to be born. who come back regularly. Subjectively the designer looks for suggestions from the character of the landscape. A particular landscape has subconsciously suggested a solution. His role is to help to revive the genius loci.Hungary 5.10 View of the guest-house and stables from the meadow Evaluation The Garden of Somogy came into being as a consequence of the designer’s typically organic approach. this represents the ‘will’ of the landscape. On the one hand. it represents a thorough knowledge of the client and the gradual discovery of the hidden corners of her personality. on the other. Since the garden was first created. which the designer has recognised and uncovered using his powers of observation.
Budapest. András Boór. Budapest Case study Erzsébet Square. Up to 800 people can use the underground facilities at any one time. The new urban space is technically a roof garden. 135 . Budapest Project data Project name: Location: Date completed: Cost: Area: Landscape architects: Erzsébet Tér urban open space Erzsébet Square.245) 7 . Dénes Halmai Firka Architect Studio Ltd. Firka Architect Studio Ltd.615m2 Péter István Balogh. multi-functional open space in the heart of Budapest city centre. designed to provide a calming environment with water and vegetation within a dense urban environment. The development includes underground facilities.000 HuF (€1. Tamás Sándor.Erzsébet Square. a 450m2 restaurant and a car park for 140 vehicles. recreation and the appreciation of culture. an 800m2 commercial area. Boór and Kern Deposit Company Ministry for National Cultural Heritage Architects: Client: Overview The Erzsébet Tér is a vivid. It forms part of an ambitious renewal project. Sándor Garden Design Ltd. including a 700m2 concert hall and conference room. it has been possible to safeguard 70 per cent of the total area of the square for water features and soft landscape. István Bikki. Zsuzsanna Bogner. intended to increase the quality of urban life through the provision of new facilities for entertainment. 5th district 2002 300. Despite the intensive pedestrian traffic in this central location.186. András Bánfalvy.000.
Hungary Project history In medieval times. In 1996. They objected to the projected increase in urban traffic and the likely increase in air pollution. after a long political and professional debate. the government decided to build the new National Theatre on the site of this car park. together with the municipality. Architects were discouraged by a very precise competition brief. At this point. and the artistic. in association with the creation of a new urban open space and a new cultural centre served by an underground car park. in the middle of the nineteenth century. functionalist bus terminal was built on the eastern side of the park. This huge reinforced concrete structure yawned empty for two years. Following the 1998 parliamentary elections. while the Erzsébet public park would be kept intact and revitalised. In the mordant vernacular of Pest. the Ministry of Culture announced a design and planning competition. replacing a two-storey baroque residential building which had been badly damaged in the Second World War. then. right-wing government was returned. which would utilise the existing concrete structure. pointing out that the city centre was already over- crowded. visual and functional opening onto 136 . A hundred years later. neither among professionals nor within civil society. The jury decided not to award prizes. which doubted the soundness of the Erzsébet Square urban development proposal and halted the construction of the National Theatre. in 1948. The opponents of the plan raised objections against the proposed density of the cultural institutions. The former bus station would gain a new cultural function. both for planning and design. a modern. free from stylistic dissonance. the site lay outside the city walls of Pest. it became known as the ‘National Hole’. a difficult context and the memory of the long political wrangles connected with the site. Their entry had impressed with its clean. In 2000. Originally it was used for cemetery purposes and later it became a market place. constructivist forms. The idea of building the National Theatre in Erzsébet Square did not meet with unanimous approval. even though a substantial part of the special vibration-resistant underground structure had been finished. the government. a new. a huge car park was built. thus recreating the spatial boundary along the small boulevard and providing a new architectural landmark that would transform the difficult and irregular link to Andrássy Avenue. proposed the enlargement of the existing Erzsébet Park. Along the small boulevard nowadays called Bajcsy Zsilinszky út. but to appoint the Firka Architecture Studio Ltd as consultants. it became a public park providing opportunites for open-air recreation. so only five proposals were received.
Zsuzsanna Bogner and Tamás Sándor landscape architects 137 .Erzsébet Square.11 Landscape masterplan by Péter Balogh. Budapest 5.
Péter István Balogh and Tamás Sándor. The Firka Studio then tendered for proposals from landscape architects to assist with the project. including the revitalised public park Deák Square and the sunken city agora were also highly regarded.12 Large car park on Bajcsy Zsilinszky út 5. 138 . It would be their task to develop detailed designs for the gardens and open spaces to complement the original urban and architectural design. They were able to start almost from the beginning. keeping in mind the main stylistic and architectural elements of the successful competition entry.Hungary 5.13 Overall plan showing context. and appointed a young team comprising Zsuzsanna Bogner.
14 Computer-generated images of the proposals.15 Plan of the public park at Erzsébet Square in 1873 139 . the second looking from the junction of József Attila Street and Andrássy Street towards Deák Square 5. one showing the view from Deák Square towards József Attila Street. Budapest 5.Erzsébet Square.
with a new promenade starting in front of the former bus terminal building. The aim was to bring the roof garden and the underground structures into close harmony. up-to-date urban space to the traditional public park. the municipality of the 5th district decided to handle the two parts of the Erzsébet Square as one unit. to disguise the roof garden character. with fine connections and a smooth transition from the fresh. at the same time. According to Zsuzsa Bogner: From a technical point of view. In spite of the complicated underground structure. inspired and delectable urban spaces in spite of the small area given and the dense urban fabric. the open space with its calm grassy expanses and water surfaces restores a sense of evenness and reassurance to the disturbed. it should not be visible to the visitors. but in the light of the competition the whole architectural programme had to be carefully reconsidered. and creating new connections have had an influence upon the surrounding area. The connection to the Cathedral (Bazilika) to the north has been rethought. It was a fantastic challenge to exploit the possibilities of the concrete structure and. The task has been rendered more difficult by the excavation of the ‘Hole’. Satisfying the needs of pedestrians. 140 . opening up a new visual axis. nor should it be sensed by the plants in the garden. The basis of the landscape design was laid down in Firka’s competition entry. which used a fine constructivist form. Redevelopment of the old bus terminal as a cultural exhibition hall and the refurbishment of the old Erzsébet park have been delayed.2 Though the restoration of the old public park at Erzsébet Square was not included in the plan- ning competition.Hungary Design philosophy According to Zsuzsanna Bogner: The main idea of the landscape design was to create a great variety of interesting. the Erzsébet Square is a typical roof garden. Therefore the landscape architecture team drew up a design for the whole area. where the coordinated system of open and inner spaces complete each other in a strict structural order defined by pure functional needs. It is not the designers’ fault that the building project was (and still it is) restricted to the new open space and the Hole. and this directed the designers towards a very strict architectural approach to space forming and style. the huge concrete structure and the detailed architectural and urban planning regulations. hectic city life.
the open and inner spaces. The square is framed by spacious promenades and broad pavements. and there is a small pond in the direction of Deák Square. provides an ideal leisure park. which takes the form of a large expanse of water. The spacious central lawn offers a pleasant view with its playful bubbling water elements. and even for watching open-air concerts or other events. This is the result of a constant co-operation between the architects and the landscape architects. nevertheless they complement each other because of their strict geometric arrangement. The rigidity of the flights of stairs is relieved by smooth water surfaces. Six different areas. Budapest 5. The peacefully sparkling water surface is beautifully revealed from the adjacent terraces and steps. lawns and deciduous trees. Even on the hottest of summer days Budapest city centre with the bus station and the parking place on the plot of the former Morocco court. the. Wide stairs and terraces. entertainment and commercial centre which still bears the ironic nickname the 'Hole’ (the National Theatre was eventually built on a different site in the 9th district). and therefore the stairs themselves can be used as resting and seating spaces. Detailed urban plan of Design development Architectural concept The Erzsébet Square design answers various functional needs with a complex system of places. have been created within this small area. are connected to each other logically and continuously. The nickname ‘National Hole’ of Pest was finally accepted as the name of the Erzsébet Tér cultural centre. The pool with its promenades and boardwalk. pools. at a slight angle from the general orientation. The level difference between the entertainment spaces below and the boardwalk above serves to provide sufficient shelter against the noise and bustle of open-air concerts. points towards the entrance of the exhibition and concert hall. richly decorated with plants and falling water lead to the underground cultural. Hornbeams clipped into cubic forms frame the welcoming area. The timber boardwalk beside the pool is one of the most pleasant places for sitting and relaxing. The irregular break of Andrássy Street. 660m2 ornamental pool. built into the cover slab of the exhibition hall. each with a particular spirit and function.16 Budapest City Centre. A row of lamps. The most unique and spectacular link is that between the roof garden and the cultural centre. The architectural concept of Erzsébet Square ensures that the buildings and the open spaces. An elevated leisure area is waiting for visitors along the small boulevard known as Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Street.Erzsébet Square. This represents a symbolic interchange between the historic city centre and the busy new urban nexus. The conference room is lit by natural lighting through its glass bottom.3 The underground cultural and commercial institutions are accessible on a spacious open staircase serving the terraces which step down from Deák Square. József Attila Street and the Kiskörút can be seen 141 .
and run at right angles to the promenade. with the thickness of soil required varying in accordance with the design.Hungary 5. similar in construction and materials. enclose the row of glass buildings. József Attila Street is an extremely busy main road connecting Buda with the city centre via the Chain Bridge. One of the planning conditions placed upon the site was that there should be a depth of 2m of soil over 25 per cent of the site to accommodate larger trees. Pergolas. The public utilities running beneath restricted the opportunities for planting in this location. This requirement. The raised level of the surface was also of benefit to the architectural design. 142 . opening a transverse walk towards the pier. A corrugated cover slab provides an elevated garden. The form of the glass cuboids responds to the modern design of the former bus terminal building. since the height of the rooms below could be increased. suited the designers’ purposes well. with a long glass moulded construction. which offers natural lighting for the underground car park and protects the park from the heavy noise at the same time. the whole of this new urban space is a roof garden. This has been sandblasted with a design that records significant dates in the long history of Erzsébet Square. which. The architectural elements keep a low profile for the sake of a harmonious view. For the purpose of preserving the calmness of Erzsébet Square. parallel to this glass screen. along with the need to deal with the evidence of the pre-existing concrete structure. is closed off with a short alley of six columnar maple trees (Acer platanoides ‘Emerald Queen’). because of its sunken level and orientation. elevators and airshafts were placed in elegant glass buildings with good proportions. Stairs leading to the underground car park. but people are offered the opportunity to turn into the park and use the inner promenade instead. The pavement is really only suitable for fast walkers. the variations of sandblasted and smooth plate-glass. Their foliage provides an intense background to the glass buildings and creates a green wall parallel to the face of the terminal building. The materials. it was necessary to close off the length of József Attila Street. There is an alley of Gleditschia triacanthos ’Shademaster’ along the promenade. can host noisy events without disturbing the calm quality of life above. in order to emphasise the new pedestrian axes between Deák Square and the Basilica.18 View of the pool from József Attila Street this area can be used as an agora. sheltered from the busy boulevard by densely planted raised beds.4 The pavement at József Attila Street. reflect today’s architectural possibili- ties.17 Foyer of the ‘Hole’ leading to the conference and exhibition hall 5. Essentially.
Its glass bottom is at a depth of 40cm to increase the visual flickering effects within the cultural centre. supported by slender steel structures which are hidden.6m-wide promenade which runs alongside the pool extends above the water as a pier.Erzsébet Square. They provide the atmosphere of a sun-terrace with sitting surfaces built into the pavement. Lonicera nitida ‘Maigrün’. Hemerocallis fulva. 143 . Budapest Plants and trees The demolition of the Morocco Court residential block had created a gap in the urban fabric. The elevation of the surface and the dense plantation not only produces clear visual closure. Vinca minor). Water features The pool built into the slab of the cultural centre provides a beautiful spectacle. Spiraea japonica. recalling the character of neighbouring Andrássy Avenue. The pavement here is also made from the same hard limestone. where an alley of Common Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) could be planted. small geometric patterned pools and water spouts make this place seem intimate. Here again public utilities and structures beneath the pavement made it difficult to provide enough soil for dense planting. The 4. Plant boxes with perennials. Hosta lancifolia. The elevated plant boxes are filled with leafy perennial species. Vinca and Waldsteinia. looking around and chatting because of the loose rhythm of their built-in benches and the dense planting. The promenade parallel to József Attila Street consists of timber boarding which apparently floats over the water. but also ensures that the traffic of Small Boulevard does not disturb the relaxing visitors. groundcovers and small shrubs (Amygdalus nana.5m-wide promenade is paved with hard limestone. including such species as Geum coccineum. ‘Froebelii’. The 1. Hosta plantaginea. The resting terraces are decorated with beds of perennials. Spiraea x bumalda ‘Antony Waterer’. so the designers sought to restore the spatial structure of this area by planting a loose alley of maple trees along Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Boulevard There is a 1m-high elevated plant box on the other side of the pavement. Cotoneaster horizontalis. Potentilla fruticosa. which consists of terraces and steps made from huge polished blocks of limestone. Viburnum opulus ’Nanum’. while the depth of water is only 6–10cm under the boardwalk and the promenade. There is a impressive view of the sparkling water surface and the spacious lawn. The necessary 2m depth of soil for the trees is provided by small planting pits within the special corrugated cover slab. The pedestrians can choose whether they want to hurry along the pavement or to walk in peace on the tranquil promenade inside. Above the timber-boarded pier there is a place for resting. Deutzia x rosea. These terraces are entirely suitable for informal leisure.
the staircases. but the diversity of treatments reflects usage and is therefore not annoying. ‘Some solitaire ornamental trees with special foliage are situated on the terraces. but also matched the high aesthetic aspirations of the project. which were not only functional. Different paving materials are used in the various areas of the square. In general. 144 . but provided cues to their roles and functions within the overall creation. where they act as counterpoints to the jungle-like planting of the elevated plant boxes. combined with high levels of state investment and a high political profile. They were allowed a free hand during the planning process without any strict financial limits. and the promenades along the pool are surfaced with a hard limestone imported from Croatia. created a tremendous opportunity for the designers to realise almost all their ambitions. Materials The prominent situation of Erzsébet Square. since the Croatian limestone did not prove to be sufficiently frost-proof. very high-quality materials could be used. to maintain the calm and regular character. Zsuzsanna Bogner. Corylus colurna. and the jumping jets land in pools covered by a grid in order to retain the spattering water. Cercis siliquastrum. As could be foreseen. Unfortunately there were some minor financial restrictions in the last stage of the implementation. Quercus palustris.’ (Liriodendron tulipifera.19 Sandblasted glass panel recording significant dates in the history of Erzsébet Square 5. while the considered use of particular materials and plants not only ensured that these places were individual and diverse.) The planting used good-quality advanced nursery stock.20 Outer promenade along Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Boulevard The lawn includes water features in the form of 11 jets which are lined up parallel to the glass buildings and the Gleditschia alley and provide a lively counterpoint to the calm lawn. with large masses of plants and a limited palette of species. Parrotia persica. The choice of materials accords with the function of each place and its connection with the urban pattern. ‘The use of clipped green walls. As with the hard materials.Hungary 5. while it is 20–40cm for the lawn and 60– 80cm for the shrubs. this restriction has caused some reduction in the quality. the terraces leading to the Hole. the use of plant materials has been kept simple. huge flat lawn surfaces and special colours are characteristic of the whole open space. These fountains form a regular row at the lawn edge. The welcoming area at Deák Square.’ says the landscape architect. The soil depth is 100–200cm for the trees in the boxes. The promenade outside and the pedestrian area in front of the former bus terminal building are covered by 2cm-thick granite stonework. therefore 3cm-thick material was substituted for the 4cm-thick slabs originally specified. Different areas and places with different functions were created in a relatively small area.
Budapest 5.21 The pier used as a sun terrace 5.Erzsébet Square.23 Terraces and steps leading down to the Hole 145 .22 The vertical walls beside the steps to the Hole are finished in huge raw slabs of red limestone 5.
Hungary 5.24 Plan of steps and terraces 146 .
There are wooden sun-beds near the pier with the same fine. covered either with the characteristic granite of the promenade. Prefabricated street furniture of good quality is offered for the visitors on the long promenade and on the raised leisure area. walls and seats soften the steps of the terraces. close to the stairs and the cascades.Erzsébet Square. which have not been smoothed or polished. while at the same time they pleasantly freshen and cool the air. Budapest A further problem is the need for the limestone surfaces to be regularly scarified to prevent people from slipping on them. 147 . The white limestone on the terraces and stairs and the vertical red limestone nicely complement each other. also acts as a seating area. cascades. The height of the terraces in the Hole allows them to be used as seats. The seats on the promenade alongside the bus terminal are custom-designed. The 40cm-high retaining wall. This dramatically rustic effect resembles the working faces of a mine. People hurrying through the park may not realise the variety of benches and seating places provided. decorative wooden surface as used for the boardwalk along the large water pool. as well as the glittering water running down the cascade. The ornamental plant boxes and trees on the terraces. The finishes used for the Hole’s vertical walls are quite special. bring vivid life to the steps and terraces. or with decorative timber ribs. The foundation is made of in-situ reinforced concrete. unique elements. which closes the plant boxes in front of the Andrássy Avenue junction. recalling the first stage of the Hole’s creation. The rhythmical stairs. These are covered with huge raw slabs of red limestone. in character with the boardwalk and the pier.
25 Plan of the Pool and the steps down to the Hole 148 .Hungary 5.
Erzsébet Square. Budapest 149 .
nor the need to provide a worthy commencement to the respectable and grandiose axis of Andrássy Avenue. This direct and one-sided opening of Erzsébet Square could be seen partly as a functional demand. Its designers bravely accepted the architectural challenges and possibilities presented by the underground structures and turned urban regulations and structural restrictions to advantage. The guiding principles of the designers were the usability and the inner consistency of the new spaces. which could respond to the grand Millennium Memorial of the Városliget (City Park) at the other end of Andrássy Avenue. it ignores the defective beginning of Andrássy Avenue completely. landscape architects and civil engineers. rather than the real or virtual connections with neighbouring squares and urban views. planners suggested that this junction should be marked with a vertical element. a building. disguised as a debate about architecture and city planning. The process of birth was protracted. on the contrary. fresh and enriching. in fact. has been born on Erzsébet Square. In numerous earlier urban development projects. The manner in which the new space opened directly on to Deák Square has been heavily criticised. And now the new open space does not have any architectural or vertical emphasis. 150 . originating from previous phases of urban development. The new open space structure does not solve the problem of the irregular link between Andrássy Avenue and the small boulevard (Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Street). especially when the opening of this space has put an end to a long political battle. The calm and generous surfaces. architects. A high-quality contemporary open space. but ultimately the result is an outstanding and remarkable stage in the renewal of central Budapest and the product of intensive teamwork between urban planners. in a strict and coherent style. endowed Erzsébet Square with a difficult heritage. the play of levels between the common areas and the rich and diverse use of water have resulted in a practical and healthy central open space which is also vivid. traffic-burdened centre of Budapest is a huge event in itself. overdeveloped. Its strange position in the urban pattern. it denies the existence of such a problematic point in the urban fabric. but not to the northern part of the 5th district or to Andrássy Avenue.Hungary Evaluation The birth of a new open space in the crowded. as the square seems to ‘turn its back’ to Andrássy Avenue and the northern part of 5th district. a memorial or even a piece of water architecture. a structure. The only direct visual opening to Deák Square strengthens the connection to the historical city centre. partly as the logical step and an evocation of the development of urban fabric.
but the timber-boarded pier reaches over the water without any raised edge. It was hard for the designer to have predicted this onslaught. Along the poolside the stone edge finishes above the water surface. There would be little point in restoring the same structures to watch them be destroyed again. which looks very elegant and beautiful. Only at the end of the nineteenth century. but the urban context requires that one should consider the history of the site as well as its present use. which is causing so much harm to the pavements and urban squares of Budapest. The boardwalk and the pool surroundings are problematic places for people in wheelchairs. which solves a drainage problem and makes the promenade more secure. although all levels and parts of the park are served by elevators. The edges of the stone cladding first became worn and chipped. First of all. The covering of the elevated plant boxes was made of the same Croatian material. the balancing of new recreational functions and environmental needs has been a success. Those who represent the interests of disabled people have also been critical of the square. did the city development take another direction. caused in part by poor design or faulty implementation. particularly the enthusiasm for skateboarding. recalls former urban connections and the previous direction of urban development. as the city of Pest (part of the 5th district today) spread northwards from the end of the eighteenth century. designed originally for sunbathing. There are also some undeniable maintenance problems. Though it is not the fault of the planners. The stairs have caused the largest problems. The skateboarders took possession of the finely finished and delicately sculpted retaining wall and destroyed it within a few weeks. had to be closed soon after the opening of the park. A sign saying ‘Keep off the Grass’ 151 . Budapest Seen in a functional perspective. but the present situation with the broken limestone finish is unsightly. lots of the stone tiles were broken. but is really not safe enough. and while this finish proved to be appropriate on the pavements.5 It has also been suggested that there are risks for small children in this environment. it is a sad fact that the great lawn. and one is no longer allowed to walk or sit on the grass.Erzsébet Square. and the retaining walls still have not been restored. opened up on only one side. it has not worked well on the retaining walls. because there are serious problems of accessibility. when Andrássy Avenue was built. some very typical uses of urban squares were not taken into account. The new urban space. then later. In the case of Erzsébet Tér the arrival of the skateboarders has caused some serious damage to the elegant hard limestone pavement.
The underground facilities are not yet fully utilised. the former bus station still awaits conversion to its new use and old Erzsébet park still awaits restoration. The curious story of this place has not yet come to an end. touch the vegetation and play with the bubbling and jumping water. fresh and usable element of the city centre. this small lawn had become extremely attractive. the new urban open space has become an organic. It is a great pity that use of this space cannot be allowed. This regrettable decision was forced upon the managers of the square. practical open spaces. where people can sit. 152 .Hungary was placed there. It was subject to such wear and tear that it would have needed to be returfed annually. since the project has not come to an end. Because there are so few green spaces in the inner city. have a rest. ‘The original aim of the designers was to create vivid.’ Despite these mistakes and failures. for as Zsuzsanna Bogner says. which was a victim of its own popularity.
Nowadays one may find many other disciplines. ideas from the Italian Renaissance. Landscape design started to be nationally recognised as an independent profession when its first professor at the Wageningen University was appointed in 1946.P . landscape architects worked on their own. Those projects resulted in well-integrated neighbour- hoods. including photographers and artists. their multi-disciplinary approach goes further. but nevertheless. regional and town. Later on the Dutch found ingenious ways to conquer land from the sea and secure it behind new dikes. Bijhouwer has had a great influence. French Baroque and the English Landscape Style. were ‘translated’ into the Dutch situation without much vision. rather than being competitive. Their design approach tended to be traditional. form the professional field in the Netherlands. Ir. Together they form a coherent hierarchical relationship: the higher-scale projects setting the outlines and briefs for the more detailed planning. is a notion that still exists if one looks at the composition of Dutch landscape practices today. Plans and projects are made at all scales: national. but during the post-war reconstruction they teamed up with urban planners and architects. regional. The water protection business has become a Dutch primary 153 . Indeed. he argued. Their point of view and novel ideas often enrich the designs for public space. following whatever was the fashion in architecture of the period. but the field of urban planning is a lot younger.T. The clients for the different tasks are in general the different levels of government: land. This idea of the neighbouring professions being complementary and overlapping. At the end of the nineteenth century. The private landscape practices. Professor Dr.H. Most Dutch territory lies below sea level. From the beginning the land has been protected from the sea and the rivers by dunes and dikes.’ At first. one should be very careful with the characteristics of the many different types of landscape which Holland possesses. J. ‘Don’t hesitate to change landscapes or environments when the change means an improvement. the water boards are the oldest authorities. Architecture has always been a mature profession. Most of the early landscape designers were botanists or owned nurseries themselves and were self-educated in design. town and site. employed in a landscape office. together with landscape architects in government service.The Netherlands Boudewijn Almekinders and Ad Koolen Landscape architecture in the Netherlands Landscape architects in the Netherlands have historically come from a horticultural background. In his view. In the Dutch system. The vast majority of projects are for public space.
while the flows of water in the rivers are also generally higher. a project of large-scale development was introduced to fill residential needs. the industrial revolution triggered the growth of many Dutch towns. which forms the second case study. Activities and func- tions such as agriculture.000 dwellings) directly related to existing urban areas. so in the post-war period. making it difficult for the water to find its way to the sea. At present.000–8. recreation and housing have been planned. This project has also. The IJssel quay in Doesburg is an example of how the Dutch deal with this traditional brief in a modern way. At the end of the nineteenth century. with higher peak flows. Like the perpetual defences against water. perhaps. Since the 1960s. This makes protection with higher and more solid dikes necessary. In this densely populated country. This went on until the middle of the 1990s. this building project is an ongoing one as well. become second nature to the Dutch. 154 . a national decision was made to create large new housing districts (4. During the Second World War a lot of houses were destroyed. while the number of people per household has decreased dramatically. the building of houses and industrial projects continues to encroach upon the rivers. the sea level is rising more than ever before. The battle with water is a continuous one because of the need to maintain the water defence systems and because of ever changing circumstances. the government has made general plans for spatial development. with the aim of realising a coherent spatial environment at a national level. especially in the bigger cities. One of the results of this policy can be seen at Albrandswaard. The reason is that the average area required by a household has grown substantially. Integral to this proposal was the task of creating valuable new public spaces. In 1994.The Netherlands instinct. ecology.
floodplains on the other. it brings new spirit to this former Hanseatic town – just at a time when interest in the towns of the Hanseatic League is undergoing a revival. residential area completed in 2005 €7 million (excluding VAT) cost level in 2001 . and merely for strolling.Quay on the River IJssel. With its abrupt changes in elevation. By becoming an attraction in its own right. It also becomes a place for living and working. But the quay provides a lot more than a defence against the river.4ha (length of the quay approx. 155 . Doesburg Case study Quay on the River IJssel at Doesburg Project data Project name: Location: Date completed: IJssel quay Doesburg Design process: 1997–2005 The project was constructed in different phases: quay completed in 2001. and a high quay serving as a promenade. and is fully adapted to the river: a low quay to provide mooring for shipping.2 5. there is a tangible contrast between the two sides of the river: quays on one side. a split-level quayside has been designed to provide flood protection. 500m) OKRA landscape architects Johan Matser Projectontwikkeling bv Municipality of Doesburg Rhine and IJssel Water Board Cost: Area: Designer: Clients: Overview In the town of Doesburg on the River IJssel. the new ground level for the higher-lying residential area provides a new perspective on the relationship between town and river. Thanks to the view over the ‘Veluwe massief’ from the higher of the two quays. The concept is very simple. for mooring.
The real danger of severe flooding made it apparent that rivers needed to be given more space in the stretches between towns. increasingly radical measures have been taken to keep it out. The Netherlands has always been at the mercy of water. It also became clear that the various sluices. they are seen as vital parts of the landscapes and towns that surround them. the area 156 . dams and water-control structures that lay along these rivers should be examined anew. However. as with landscape planning. and the measures became increasingly uncompromising. their fall is only slight. In 1995. but also against the rivers. In this flat country. slow rivers are an integral part of the delta landscape in the Netherlands. The quay along the IJssel in Doesburg is one of the first projects in which a structure that meets the most recent safety requirements will be integrated with a new. Too great a stress was placed on engineering. public quayside. Such a view provides scope for integrating that structure within the urban landscape. However. Today. No longer are structures intended as defences against the water regarded in isolation. the paradigm that long dominated the thinking of the regional water boards therefore seems to be changing. Embankments and levees were raised. One result was an illusory sense of security. Over the years. But while they look peaceful. in the second half of the twentieth century. and land was taken for housing and other types of intensive land-use when it was actually necessary to the system of rivers. appearances can be deceptive. the little IJssel town of Doesburg evokes the heyday of the Hanseatic League. and. instead. Deventer and Kampen. streams and coast. and these rivers seem to flow more slowly than they do. As technology advanced. since the decline that began at the end of the fifteenth century. the number of floods was gradually reduced.1 Aerial photographs of the total project area and its context Project history Broad. and thus for linking a town with the river that runs through it.The Netherlands 6. one which is itself part of a network of public urban spaces. Just like its riverside sisters of Zutphen. coastal and river defences were tackled in an increasingly technocratic way. high water levels in the Dutch rivers revealed just how dangerous it can be to deprive a natural system of the space it needs. it has never developed a true waterfront of its own: over the years. It was for precisely this purpose that public organisations – the socalled regional water boards – were established as long ago as the early Middle Ages. and thereby to protect new and reclaimed land. For the low-lying land of the delta needs protection not only against the sea. matters were carried too far.
2 High water between the moat and the river has been used solely by industrial establishments. When designs become more concrete. Almost every design goes through a stage of cost-cutting. The expression of a project should merely help to understand the con- 157 . the programme or social aspects. and. This context can consist of the surrounding topography. Doesburg 6. where this stage has been mostly undertaken by engineers and quantity surveyors. The design concept should always tell the story of this context. a concept is only valid if it is realistic.Quay on the River IJssel. In their projects. as designers. Their aim with every design project is to be fully involved with the determination of details and materials. Therefore their projects tend not to appear hugely expressive. although this is usually not the designer’s task in the Netherlands. Decisions in this matter have to be taken according to the concept. For OKRA. OKRA like to be closely involved in this. OKRA tend more towards minimalism than to formalism or functionalism. They like to defend the concept through the more concrete stages in this way. Design philosophy The landscape architects at OKRA believe that landscape architecture is not an autonomous art. the history. Because it is so seldom that a chance arises to build frontage along a major river. they aim to discover and strengthen the site’s authentic identity. but is strongly influenced by the project’s context. The closure of industry along the river now provides an opportunity to combine the development of a riverside hotel and over two hundred houses into a contemporary waterfront that provides spectacular views over the floodplains across the IJssel – views that extend to the fringes of the Veluwe region. a situation that landscape architects from other European countries might find rather odd. the creation of this quayside is a unique project.
Naturally. however. the low quay is under the influence of the river. the landscape architect can. but also to public open space. or in the poor weather conditions that are so common in the Netherlands. since people cannot be made to conform to the designer’s wishes. In principle. not only with regard to the properties that stand along it. When a place is quieter. As it will sometimes be submerged. guide the public in a more natural and subtle way. there is also the canal along the former fortification. though. OKRA believe that public space should merely be a stage for the performance of everyday actions. It also marks the meeting of water and town. It should support people’s lives and facilitate a wide range of activities. the pleasant appearance of that space becomes more important. by providing paved surfaces. less bustling with people. it is a defence against the river. First and foremost. with the height of the quay being determined by that of the embankment – itself determined under the auspices of the Deltawet Grote Rivieren (the Rivers Act). Design development The waterfronts The development will in fact lead to the creation of three separate waterfronts on the IJssel: besides the riverfront. OKRA never want to make the functional gestures too strong. technical details and furniture where appropriate. It should also provide potential for long-term transformation.The Netherlands text. In this part of the IJssel there is a considerable difference in water level – some 5m between the highest and lowest levels. Therefore. OKRA’s designers always consider the appearance of the project area at night. and take that into account when determining the materials. it 158 . Like the IJssel quay itself. it should provide moorings for a wide range of vessels. If the quay is to meet its full potential for liveliness. the inside and outside of the former moat will be treated as waterfronts in their own right. Through design. the main IJssel quay is distinguished by its exposure to the influences of the river.
and overlooking the harbour basin. it will be simple to build car-parking space under the housing. thus keeping public space free of cars. At the lower quay. the row of trees marks off the space close to the buildings on the higher quay. the bank is stony. it is not possible to stand on the long quay and view the totality of events along the river in a single glance. One will be a flight of grandstand steps. Thanks to the difference in elevation between the old ground level and the new embankment. the quay will feature some striking elements. both will be adapted to the scale of the river. the various fragments of canal that used to surround the town centre joined again. On the side of the old rampart. specific lines of sight are included in the various perspectives. new canal is given a soft bank. with the tower of St Martin’s as a landmark. In the profile of the quay. and is entirely free of street furniture.Quay on the River IJssel. the focus lies principally on the direct contact with the water. on the side of new riverfront. such as the view towards the centre. Doesburg Veerpoortwal quay previous situation situation after a traditional dike improvement new situation including the housing scheme low quay reconstructed defence canal high quay 6. Because of the wall along the convex riverbank. The high quay will always lie above the high-water mark. At the same time. On the town side. The boundary between the high and low quay is defined by a slightly sloping wall topped with railings. Moving along the river means that something new is constantly entering or leaving the field of vision.3 Cross-section of the IJssel and the town of Doesburg contains nautical fixtures only. Another will be the Doesburg Panorama. an observation tower built on a pontoon on the peninsula that is to be tackled at a later date. the are the the 159 . these will provide a natural place to sit. orientated towards the sun. and will thus be in constant use. in contrast with the edge of the quay with its view over the river and the floodplains. As highlights.
it is a quay that can take a lot of punishment. black and white. The design must therefore be capable of withstanding the current and everything it carries. The low river quay The river is subject to great extremes: 5m difference between its high and low water levels. though in this case their significance will be very different. This uneven paving provides a subtle contrast with the tautness of the river wall. it features the characteristic mooring bollards.The Netherlands 6. Robust by design. By lowering part of the narrow profile that runs along the houses. such aspects are subsidiary to the ambience the stones create on the high quay. there is also a high quay and a low quay. contact with the water is increased. two of them leading along former dams planted with horse chestnuts. though the stones are nonetheless made with a 160 . but also functional and stur- dy. which over the years will produce a relatively flat surface. fitting the palette selected for the materials overall: blue-grey. While reasonably comfortable for walkers. and views onto the narrow watercourse are optimised. Like many other quays in the Netherlands.4 IJssel cross-section: promenade (raised level) 6. Just like this material. The cobbles in question are second-hand stones from the quarry at Quenast – one of the softer materials. their blue-grey tint the colour of a lowland river. In short. it is paved with a material that can be transported to the site by barge: Belgian cobblestones. Town and riverfront will be linked by three prominent routes. when it will be under water. The various ponds will be connected by means of culverts under these dams. the pointing will be irregular.5 Photo: the materials of the lower quay As on the river. In the third route. especially in winter. The low quay is an industrious place – representative like the high quay. an arched bridge will cross from the soft bank to the stony one. this is not the easiest paving to walk on. However. and their relative elevations are also closer.
first sketches 6.Quay on the River IJssel.6d.6c Mooring bollards. production drawings a b c d e 161 . construction diagrams 6. Doesburg 6.6a. b Mooring bollards. e Mooring bollards.
which is to repair frost-damaged concrete. The bolts with which they are fixed are weaker than the quay wall. The quay wall First and foremost. The furniture on the low quay is nautical. the stones are not set in concrete: the site manager prefers to undertake new pointing work than the alternative. the quay consists of a socalled ‘theoretical dike profile’. Their black coating will enable them to withstand long periods under water.The Netherlands loose mortar. Because of the widely fluctuating water levels. an earth body in 162 . Nearer to the façades. Henry Dunant. Constituting a green promenade along the river. For functional reasons. overall appearances are stonier. greener counterpoint to the low quay. A row of trees divides the space upon it into two areas: one between these buildings and the promenade and one on the water’s edge. The bollards have been designed to be stronger than strictly necessary for the traffic in question. and also ensuring that the quay looks very different in summer than in winter. tour boats. They are also fitted with shearing pins that will snap if a bollard is subjected to too high a tensile force. the high quay provides a softer. each bollard and baseplate being cast in a single piece. they also provide passers-by with excellent incidental seating. i. Semi-hard paving beneath the trees provides plenty of suitable space for strollers. These bollards have been prefabricated in a limited series of 20. It is better to accidentally have a bollard tipped into the water than damage to the wall itself. it was decided to use prefabricated concrete elements for wall and steps alike. Despite the risk that this may be washed out by the current. these trees will be relatively transparent. and occasionally such exceptional vessels as the Red Cross ship J.e. thus ensuring both that residents derive maximum benefit from the wonderful views across the river. Standing at a distance from the houses. The area of housing lying behind it consists of a succession of blocks with enclosed gardens and a square. The high river quay The high quay is an attractive quay lined with imposing houses. Against the façade itself is a sidewalk that creates a transitional zone with stairs along the houses. the wall of the quay is intended to serve as a defence against the river. The bollards have sufficient tensile strength for mooring passenger and cargo vessels. thanks to their extra size. Behind this wall. This will prevent damage to the sheet-piling of the quayside. construction work had to be completed in the shortest possible time.
The finish of the curving wall of the quay is accentuated by vertical lines: as you walk along the quay. but with a consistent width of 20cms. The underlying construction consists of piles driven into the riverbed at 70cm intervals.Quay on the River IJssel. These have been applied up to the level of the edge of the quay. Post-stressed on site with 12. which projects slightly. To construct the retaining wall. this situation can pertain only in daytime during the summer. The refinement of the wall gives expression to its height relative to the fluctuating water levels. the number of strips rises.6:1. To ensure that they would not detach when submerged. Inclined at an angle of 2. the only option for creating the desired finish lay in bonding the strips to the wall. Where steps break into the line of this wall. but do not have an anti-graffiti coating. they abut each other without any bonding material. Doesburg which no foundations may be built and no trees may be planted. and should not evoke associations with a fortress. Any graffiti will be removed by sandblasting. precisely between the anchors for the sheet-piling. These have been applied in a vertical pattern. The pace at which work could proceed was thus determined both by this and by the risk of high water levels in the river. White slabs are a poetic expression of the high water. Designed by OKRA. irregular stripes create a graphic representing the extremely high water levels of 1995. atmospheric humidity had to lie below 70 per cent. continuous piling has to be undertaken.5m high and 2m wide. In northern Europe. They are made of epoxy concrete sandblasted in the factory. with a projecting upper edge and a toe slab on the underside – were constructed on their sides. the quay wall consists of a piled retaining wall with two slopes of poststressed elements. The quay wall has been faced in a random bond created with grey prefabricated strips in three different lengths. a slab was cast onto the top of the piles. 163 . As the wall is subjected to such extreme conditions. This explains why it has been built at a slight slope. The wall that bridges the difference in height between the high and low quays is intended to be a real river wall. as this would affect the structure of the wall. the strips have a structured surface evocative of ‘solidified water’. an effect that is accentuated by narrow vertical joints and broad edge joints. Due to their shape. why it is finished with grey vertical stripes.9mmdiameter FeP 1860 strands. the elements – which are 4. and also why it is topped not with a balustrade but with railings.
The balusters are inclined so as to follow the slope of the wall.8 The canal quay under construction Future high water levels will also leave their mark. This rail is made of bonded locust wood and is oiled against weathering. partly as steps. Containing welded sleeves through which the cables pass. is inherent to a quayside. They are conical in form. The promenade on the quay consists of white semi-hard paving.7 The steps with small tread elements 6. Their materials are also related to ships: cables. which will also allow for post-tensioning at a later date. part of which is submerged. In one area it is continuous.15m in height. As in the new residential area. with elm trees planted just beyond the theoretical dike profile. stainless steel and wood. Because usually there are not many users on the quay. the balusters are higher and have been topped with a wooden rail. The overall composition is evocative of the keys of a piano. For this reason. The paving is a two-component type that develops a stable surface after mixing and rolling. it was decided to keep it as empty as possible. and part of which remains dry. The steel cables passing through the balusters have been tensioned with wire-stretchers at the pressure braces and tension braces. The stairway is placed on the white 40 x 40cm grandstands steps in the form of black 20 x 20cm treads. but elsewhere fragmented. They consist of a prefabricated concrete stairway construction 4. This. they will fill up with people when there are festivities on the water. even if this is just a dark line along the wall. Although they will usually be empty. of course.The Netherlands 6. This idea is extended in the stairs – which thus become a grandstand – and also in the bollards (which will provide an obvious place to sit) and in the three very long benches on the high quay. which is 450m in length. Near the hotel. wide enough to support the elbows of anyone leaning on it to look over the river. The grandstand steps create a prominent 70m break in the line of the quay. they are made of grit-blasted stainless steel. and are thus more resistant to dirt. The high canal quay The canal quay is much less open than the quay 164 . On the top of the quay wall there are railings whose design was inspired by those on a ship. no plans for cleaning the wall – and thus for effacing the traces of high water – have been included in the quayside management regime. and are designed partly as a grandstand. it was a deliberate decision to leave the quay almost completely bare of furniture. and thus taper.
At 2. Dudok. the wall is a little higher than a man. A vertical wall spans the difference in elevation between the high quay and the lower one along the water. and to make the extra route along the lower more adventurous. the spaces in which the trees are planted are orientated longitudinally. the bridge over the canal connects the hard quay with the soft bank. thus improving access for less ablebodied residents and visitors. The high quay is paved with black Dutch clinker bricks.Quay on the River IJssel. With its single span.20m in height. To avoid a false sense of security. By the passageways through to the inner area. Thus. The quay is paved with Belgian cobbles of the same type as those used along the riverside. It is narrow. Along the canal. an extra-long brick introduced in the 1920s by the Hilversum town architect. the high quay will be the safe route. however. The roadway is laid in herringbone bond. obstacle-free path. The edge of the quayside contrasts with the paved area. The high quay is lit. after dark. the low quay is unlit. It is faced in bricks of the so-called Hilversum format. with narrow gutters of the same width as the stretcher sections. which repeats the white semi-hard paving used on the high river quay. as with the river quay. it was decided that the housing areas – and thus the high quay – would be very well lit. Doesburg along the IJssel. the lamp standards are spaced along the roadside at a sufficient distance from the trees. with the edging along the house paved in stretcher bond. with trees planted on the low part.9 Design principles of the bridge 165 . comparable to that of an urban canal in the western Netherlands. The low canal quay The wall of the quay along the canal is concave. The route along the low quay is continuous. it was decided to make the higher quay easier to walk on. the lighting armatures are fixed to the houses. due to the limited space and the presence of trees on the other side. 6. On the river quay. armatures of the same type are suspended from overhead wires – a subtle transition from the public area to the semi-public inner court. The profile is narrow. bordered by a double stretcher bond. with the interplay of lights and trees creating a rhythm of their own. In consultation with the police. The length of the quay and its limited width are also reflected in the details. Gently sloping ramps to the inner area and the ground floor entrance of the house are made on the inner side of the block. it contains horizontal lines. To provide space for a narrow. even though. The steps to the house lie within this zone. Access to those who wish to walk directly along the waterside is provided by narrow steps and by an extra flight of steps enclosed in the quay wall. In contrast with the river quay.
there was a technical problem to be addressed: How to protect the town of Doesburg against water? But for the designers it was more interesting to find a way to make this place recognisable and authentic. The project designed by OKRA landscape architects has answered the scale of the landscape and the river more than that of the town. which town is situated in this location. The place may be out of scale for the town. but this design story is unique. The enormous amounts of water flooding between the dikes asked for solutions that were far beyond the scale of the tiny city. The most usual solution in Dutch water engineering is one produced by a technical mind. The railings along the quayside and the bridge will create a single unity. The first question the designer must ask is: For whom are we doing this? And then: What is the context we are working in? Of course. more importantly. Evaluation Doesburg is in fact a very small town on the River IJssel. OKRA succeeded very well. not from the heart. anchored to a framework of beams to reduce vibration. 166 . The river and its dikes are out of scale in relation to the shape of the town. Several solutions were possible. This will be built on a supporting framework consisting of two arched tubes 18m in length. it is hoped that the high water level will not cause the roots too many direct problems. in this way. The bridge over the canal The almost literal leap over the river between the old and new town will be made on an arched bridge for cyclists and pedestrians. though both will be simpler than those along the riverside.The Netherlands Trees species are chosen that can cope with to the wet conditions pertaining at the site. The way OKRA dealt with the problem was more typical of the approach in Dutch architecture. The construction consists of a deck. and. but it indicates where a town is situated along the river. There are a lot of places in Holland that are more or less similar to this situation. one which does not take any notice of the context. In this. The trees are planted in a very shallow hole.
A section through this landscape really tells the story: the narrative of the river. Boulders and other elements relate to the flow of the river. since it has proved that technical problems can be solved in an aesthetically pleasing way. this has been proved in the past. The place will be used by inhabitants to enjoy the nice weather and to meet for gossip. but it is good to see that the tradition continues. elegant and refined at the upper level. The dike and the new residential project really form a single coherent project.). In Holland. the designers used the same materials as the water engineers normally use. but have been shaped for visitors who want to want to sit and reflect upon life while they gaze over the river and the landscape. The constructed project is not just a place for big ships to moor or to load. etc. all is clear and comprehensible. OKRA have realised a plan of which Doesburg can be proud. the design is also significant. the public place and the private spaces. stainless steel railing. the atmosphere became very specific. 167 .Quay on the River IJssel. Working in tandem with the town’s urban planners. it can be a very exciting place during stormy weather or in springtime when the water level in the river rises. it is also an important public space. Doesburg The materials used feel like they were invented for this spot. On the other hand. The OKRA project was designed in conjunction with a housing project. It has given the town a face. the backyards. In fact. which is currently being realised. but by adding elements (prefabricated large scale tiles. For the landscape architecture profession. It feels like being on a ship: sturdy and strong at the lower level.
Case study The Portland Neighbourhood Park, Albrandswaard Project data Project name: Location: Date completed: Construction: Wijkpark Portland Albrandswaard Design process, 1999–2001 The hill (roughly shaped) 2000–2002 The park 2003–2004 Art application 2005 The pond 2007/2008 €1 million (excluding VAT and art application) cost level in 2000 5ha ad Koolen (ad koolen | advies en ontwerp) Municipality of Albrandswaard
6.10 Map of the Netherlands showing Albrandswaard
Cost: Area: Designer: Client:
Overview The Portland neighbourhood park is located in the municipality of Albrandswaard, to the south of Rotterdam. In the 1990s the government designated land (mostly farmland) on the outskirts of existing towns for the creation of the so-called VINEX housing estates. One of these, the Midden-IJsselmonde VINEX estate is being developed jointly by the municipalities of Albrandswaard and Barendrecht. Scheduled for completion by 2005, it will comprise approximately 10,000 housing units. The new neighbourhood contains two parks, one to the east and one to the west of the polder. Here the western park, Portland neighbourhood park, is described. The architecture of the new development lacks character, so the designers of the new community park have turned to the surrounding landscape for inspiration.
The Portland Neighbourhood Park, Albrandswaard
6.11 Map of the landscape in former days
Project history There has been a structural housing shortage in the Netherlands ever since the Second World War. To meet the demand for good housing over the years, the government – particularly the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment – has developed a succession of housing policies. First, there were large estates bordering directly on towns (jerry-built post-war housing), then satellite towns, such as Houten (Utrecht), Zoetermeer (The Hague), Hoofddorp (Amsterdam) and Almere (Amsterdam). Attention then turned to urban renewal and in the 1990s to the so-called VINEX estates. The various kinds of government policy have all been characterised by a large-scale project-based approach. Sometimes, as in the case of urban renewal, it was underlain by social considerations. At other times, as with post-war reconstruction and the satellite towns, it was guided purely by hard
public housing figures. More recently, individual investors have had a particular influence on policy. The VINEX estate policies, developed in the 1990s, were intended to provide a total of 650,000 new homes before 2005, a scale of construction comparable to the post-war reconstruction period. The VINEX concept is currently being criticised from all sides because of its large scale and uniformity of approach. Each VINEX estate has a designated area, a designated programme, a designated budget, a designated period for completion, and so forth. As Frits Palmboom, a well-known town planner in the Netherlands, has said, it resembles a military operation, something in which spontaneity and temporality are almost completely lacking. After many years of planning and land acquisition, construction is currently in full swing. The estates have an average density of 40 housing units per
hectare, usually comprising 4,000 to 5,000 housing units overall. The Portland VINEX estate is being constructed in a former agricultural area. As it is land which was once reclaimed from the sea, the subsoil is mainly clay. The area is characterised by dikes (usually with ashes and poplars growing on them), and also by large arable field plots and orchards with shelterbelts. The infrastructure of the area is situated on the dikes, whose height provides a unique experience of the landscape. The southern side of the site is bounded by a minor river, the Koedood. In the urban development plan, this river will be widened considerably, and will form the principal axis for the estate, whose urban structure is characterised by a series of residential islands lying in the newly created body of water. Other elements of the landscape, such as former sea embankments, have been incorporated into the urban development plan.
Design development Because the neighbourhood’s architecture had no uniquely specific features, these had to be sought in its surroundings – in other words, in the landscape. This is characterised by the succession and variety of images which unfold within a short distance: to the north-east, there is the urban landscape of Rotterdam with its high-rise buildings; to the north-west, there is the awe-inspiring scale of the docklands area, with its terminals, oil storage and shipping; and to the south there is farmland, with its dikes, orchards and large fields of brassicas. The Portland neighbourhood park is situated amid the kind of housing that typifies a VINEX estate: mainly two-floor buildings with a pitched roof. The park incorporates characteristics of the surrounding area, not by bringing features of the surroundings into the park, but literally by making the surroundings visible. A 10m hill has been raised in the park. Because most of the houses are only 9m in height, it is possible to see the surrounding landscapes over the rooftops. The neighbourhood park is laid out in a triangle, and contains the hill – itself an offset triangle – with a variety of elements placed around it, such as an urban farm, a playing field and an area for sitting. All these elements are geometric in form: oval, square, oblong or round.
The Portland Neighbourhood Park, Albrandswaard
6.12a The discovery of three landscapes: the city, the harbour and the country 6.12b Two spaces 6.12c Elements in the environment 6.12d The park and its surroundings
6.13a Art on top of the hill 6.13b Measures in the neighbourhood 6.13c Detail of the entry to the hill (plan) 6.13d Detail of the entry to the hill (sketch) 6.13e Paths to climb the hill 6.13f Kerbs and seats a b
The Portland Neighbourhood Park. Albrandswaard A speelplek jaar 5 0 zitplek dierenweide trapveld 'toren' kunsttoepassing onderkomen jongeren tijdelijk winkelcentrum vijver kunsttoepassing ' A 6.15 Map of the park 6.16 Roadmetal shells 173 .14 The park and its different functions 6.
The urban farm An urban farm has been sited on the east side of the park.4m wide and 2m long. In principle. squares. black concrete paving blocks (20 x 10 x 10cms) have been laid. The 174 . Subsidiary spaces have been created by the mass of the hill. benches) has been used only sporadically. it has a loose shell paving throughout. In total. there is no point from which the whole project can be seen at once. such as triangles. the edge of the hill in fact constitutes one huge bench. Hill with artwork The most eye-catching feature of the park is the hill.5ha. The park’s primary lighting has been limited to the bicycle path running through the park. he has created a balcony from which the surrounding landscape can be surveyed to even better effect. The base of the hill is triangular. an artwork by Nico de Wit will be installed on the hill. This makes the idea of a walk through the park very attractive. other lighting has been used to accentuate specific aspects and ambiences of the park at night.5m high.17 Cross-section Because the hill has been positioned in the middle of this relatively small park. whose 10m-high mass gives it a prominent presence. 0. These elements take up roughly half of the total surface. However. a playing field and a ‘hangout’ for young people. they create a kerb nearly 500m in length. At four points little flights of steps enable visitors to climb onto the surrounding concrete kerb. so that the shell paving covers a surface of approximately 2. On top of the hill.The Netherlands 6. Thanks to its design. in which holes have been made in various shapes. such as a dog-walking area. which implicitly provides a huge amount of seating. a shape that is shown clearly by the high black concrete kerbing blocks. well above the highest point. In other words. in which spatial units with a particular function have been placed. The diversity of materials has deliberately been kept to a minimum. Heavy black concrete 200 x 50 x 40cm kerbing strips are laid around the hill. which are 0.e. lighting has been used more to accentuate aspects of the design than to provide functional lighting. and thus to climb the hill. The construction of several more houses on this side of the park will guarantee control – social and otherwise – of the various comings and goings there. The park covers nearly 5ha. This will fully capitalise upon the site and the design philosophy of the park as a whole. circles and ovals. Designated seating (i. At some point in the future. Where paving other than the shells has been used. The ‘islands’ in the sea of shells have all been edged with black 07/20 x 20 x 100cm concrete strips.
0 x 6. Half of the ground floor is used as sleeping and winter quarters for the animals.0m.) do not trample the meadow on the other side of the fence.18b Detail of the animal house 6. etc. a toilet. a sheep. a goat.18c Surfacing plan for the area around the animal house farm is laid out upon an oval. while the other part is occupied by fodder storage. while ensuring that the animals (ducks. and is built on two storeys.8a The making of the animal house 6. in the middle of which there is a fence 1. 175 . The top storey is used for storing hay and straw. This enables visitors to reach the meadow easily. and a space for the volunteers who work at the farm. The oval is accessible to visitors on one side. Albrandswaard 61.2m in height. This area is paved and contains two picnic tables. stairs to the hay loft. The building for the animals has a ground plan measuring 6. a calf.The Portland Neighbourhood Park. its periphery marked by a 2m-wide kerb of black paving blocks.
the overall effect has not been compromised. a triangular pergola and oval hedges. which creates an interesting interplay of shadows on the paving.19a Plan and section of the pergola Playground for small children A playground for small children is situated in the northern part of the park. To allow for longer stays. for instance. The playing field The playing field lies at a good distance from the sitting area. where they are used as windbreaks around orchards. Its basic triangular shape is repeated in the division of the ‘roof’. Compositional balance is provided by the black concrete strips that border the playing field and the poplars.The Netherlands 6. A more conventional sitting space is provided on the other side – the western side – of the hill. when a children’s party is combined with a visit to the urban farm. all smaller-scale echoes of the park’s overall design. Seating areas As stated above. a square plateau. an area chosen for its proximity to the farm. It owes its spatial visibility to a row of poplars – a common feature of this former polder landscape. It contains various items of simple playground equipment. and is slightly separated from the residential buildings by an embankment. the concrete kerb around the hill and the concrete edge around the dog-walking area provide ample seating. as both places attract the same public. 176 . An extra accent is provided by brightly coloured surfaces. meant mainly for children between the ages of two and four. The space. a cir- cular herbaceous plant bed. Although construction costs meant that the posts are square rather than triangular. two picnic tables have been provided. The pergola was designed especially for this site. is characterised by specially designed benches. The playground is a green oasis within the park.
19b Detail plan of seating arrangement 6.19d Plan showing pergola and seating arrangement 177 . Albrandswaard 6.The Portland Neighbourhood Park.19c Detail of the pergola 6.
The Netherlands 6. with four closed sides (the bottom. they are also very prominent. without giving others a feeling of insecurity. The bank around it will be 8m wide. This provides a pleasant meeting place for young people. which. The hangout Situated on the south side of the hill is a black concrete cubic element. 3m in height. A large. and will consist of loose basalt blocks. top and two sides). Though the cube can clearly be seen by park visitors. but in a wellconsidered fashion. the south-east corner of the park is occupied by a shopping centre.20 The construction of the border of the soccer field Goalposts and goals for the playing field were designed to harmonise with the design of the rest of the park.4m and a length of 2. On its northern side. In the near future.000 daffodil bulbs that will herald each new spring with an explosion of colour. simultaneously creating another huge length of sitting space and a strip where dogs can be walked without causing nuisance to other park visitors. All of it has been sown to grass. round pond will be dug on the site. The pond Currently. 178 . Within several years this will have grown into a close covering which will accentuate the hill’s distinct design. The pond’s round shape and black colour will ensure that it fits in with the other elements in the park.0m. The corner posts are also made of black concrete. there is a terraced embankment with a 3. hopefully inviting the invention of new games. Planting The park has been planted sparingly.5m) which is essential for the local water management. however. along with approximately 2. In this way the park has been defined in a very natural way. The goals are made of rectangular blocks of black concrete into which holes have been punched. the number of empty drink cans suggests that the young people who use it feel secure there.5m. Several clumps of shrubs (such as Philadelphus ‘Belle Etoile’ and Buddleia davidii ‘Ile de France’) have also been planted on the hill. a width of 0. In other words. These have a height of 0.5m slope and a vertical of 3m. The body of water will be 39m in diameter.5m in length. provides shelter from the rain. Along one of its walls is a bench 2. we can conclude that the place is functioning as planned. this temporary supermarket will be replaced by permanent neighbourhood shopping facilities elsewhere on the estate. its northern side has also been edged with the same black concrete kerbs that edge the hill. The whole hill has been planted with Hedera helix. The dog-walking area The south side of the park is marked by a broad watercourse (water-line 8.
21a Design sketch: at the border of the pond 6.21b Design sketch: sun panels in the pond 6.21c Design sketch: sun panels as art collections in the pond 179 . Albrandswaard 6.The Portland Neighbourhood Park.
22a Plan showing structure of tree planting 6. planted with Hedera helix. which is 180 . in this respect.22b Photo: the construction of the road surface The western side of the park is marked by a line of trees (Alnus cordata) that continues into the residential area. The various elements have been planted with specific trees. Salix sepulcralis ‘Tristis’ by the pond and Populus nigra ‘Italica’ around the playing field. strong. is a green. structuring element was a good intervention. and the hill invites visitors to climb to the top.The Netherlands 6. While the eastern side is marked by ashes (Fraxinus excelsior ‘Eureka’). The choice of materials provides a clear contrast between the hill. from where there are panoramic views to be enjoyed. The hill. Evaluation The spatial framework of the park is a very strong one. In a low-density residential area such as this. three-dimensional object. It makes the park recognisable. The designer’s intention was that the triangular hill would organise the other geometrical elements of the park. such as Juglans nigra by the urban farm. To give the park a big. the other trees in the park are birches (Betula nigra). It provides a new perspective on the surrounding landscape and. The accessible sculpture accentuates the hill as the highpoint and highlight of the park. the surrounding area and the site-specific elements. The surroundings lack vertical interest. a park has to create its own structure. the concept of the park and of the artwork reinforce one another.
The generous scale of space makes it a welcome addition to the small gardens of the private houses. the park combines a number of functions and elements. The area surrounding the new park is still something of a building site. Special elements that refine the design such as floor lights are subject to vandalism and take a long time to get repaired. 181 . Because of these changing circumstances. compounded by problems of imperfect maintenance. The quality of the design lies in the fact that these delicate elements are not essential to the general impression that the park makes. All in all. Albrandswaard much stronger in form than a group of trees would have been. And because of this low intensity of use. The surrounding light-coloured gravel provides a neutral background for the more expressive and richly detailed elements of the park. The construction period for the houses stretched out over a much longer time-span than expected. The design of the park has been conceived as a single strong spatial framework. During the development process of the whole residential district the economic climate changed dramatically. there is not sufficient social control. well organised but informal. The construction was carried out in one phase. the park is not yet intensively used.The Portland Neighbourhood Park. Its layout has a good balance between logical composition and spatial tension and this makes it an attractive park. even though the park itself was completed in 2004. which has led to vandalism.
was an important issue. Eventually new principles – clear modern forms. street events. seeded the ground for a new vocabulary of open space design. the rest is houses and private condominiums. care in the choice of furniture and lighting. as well as a little understanding of plants and soft works as a design tool – created a new movement that quickly gained followers. Those responsible for smaller towns. gradually agronomists. peripheries. design through abstract concepts instead of lyrical references. in the face of a daunting amount of work to be done.Spain Marti Franch Landscape architecture in Spain It is difficult to summarise the landscape design tradition in Spain. study of materials and a special concern for detailing at the small scale. As in designing a house. In this social context. Squares. parks. although everyone might agree that a new approach or ‘tradition’ in public space design started in the democratic municipalities in the early 1980s. a new approach to urban planning and public open space design started. open public space had been completely neglected. some have passed the ‘10 years test’. biologists and landscape architects have joined the architects in the task of designing open space and more complex and interesting schemes are now emerging. villages. as the ultimate space for coexistence and democracy. It became obvious that recovering public open space. emerged instinctively. especially at the regional scale. while others have proved to be mere drawing-board exercises. landscape planning. ‘The city is only the public space. emerged as priorities. attention to details and innovation in materials. The hope was that this public intervention would unlock the regeneration of the surrounding urban fabric by private investors. the head of Barcelona’s planning department. markets and street parades. wrote Oriol Bohigas. the definition of limits. With very little landscape design background at all. The combination of political will and general enthusiasm. During four decades of grey Franco dictatorship. With the advent of freedom. Design has slowly evolved. There are many examples of this newly born tradition all over the country. ‘rambles’ and gardens were created or renovated in every town quarter. Although open space is now clearly understood to be an essential part of our cities. and finally for natural and rural areas have also incorporated landscape design in their agendas and there is a growing number of projects emerging in these locations. such as concerts. and there exists a growing sensitivity for landscape matters. It worked. is an almost unexplored field 183 . the architects of the 1980s had been trained mostly to make residential housing schemes. and approached this new sort of ‘open space’ assignment rather in the manner of interior designers.
184 .Spain 7. has a new degree programme which started in 2003. similarly. one might say that our ‘new’ landscape design tradition still has space for experimentation and a lot to learn from our neighbours. without being recognised by the government. carried out mostly by the University. The long-awaited Landscape Architecture Degree finally started in the same school in 1998–99.1 Panoramic view of the JBB shortly after the 1999 inauguration in Spain. Madrid University. Professionally a Masters Programme in Landscape Architecture started at Barcelona’s Architecture School in 1983–84 which trained some of the most talented professionals now practising in this field. There have been a number of interesting initiatives. Looking at the European scale. and the first students have just now graduated. that have sunk in the ocean of political lack of will.
Lyrical garden vocabulary has been replaced here by a sort of extensive. it does so by rendering diverse vegetal landscapes from Mediterranean climatic regions worldwide. architect. architect Carlos Ferrater.000 euros/year 14ha (12 constructed) Dr Joan Pedrola. €50. landscape architect. while keeping it coherent as a whole. Jose Luis Canosa. or artificial reconstructions of the plant communities characteristic of particular landscapes. Dr Josep M. California. architect Fernando Benedicto. which creates a subtle tension with the elements of static infrastructure. Bet Figueras. a special sensitivity in working with the site’s topography. central Chile and the tip of South Africa. botanist Jaume Pàmies. and finally. instead of presenting its plant collection by taxonomical order. Montserrat. JBB introduces an innovative approach to botanical gardens. a clever infrastructure layout that allows the project to grow in a very flexible and creative way. it is currently at the development stage. southern Australia. as if taken from an Impressionist painting. ever-changing vegetal texture. technical architect Artur Bossy. the Jardí Botànic de Barcelona looks more like a landscape than a garden. a Spartan detailing that establishes a strong tension with the growing vegetation. Plants are distributed according to their place of origin and are grouped by ecological affinity into 71 phytoepisodes. which escapes from drawing-board exercises and incorporates ecological criteria such as phytosociology and morphologic evolutionary convergence.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona Case study Jardí Botànic de Barcelona (JBB) Project data Project name: Location: Date completed: Cost: Maintenance: Area: Botanical consultants: Designers: Works direction: Construction management: Planting plan scheme: Post-inauguration plantings: Garden technical coordinator: Client: Jardí Botànic de Barcelona Barcelona 1999 – under plantation €6. Opened in 1999. botanist. a richness in perceptions of scale.206 euros. on the basis of an initial planting. one visualises it as a sort of changing machia landscape. For the future. Yet it has some features that make the project stand out from others: a newish approach to planting.50 euros/m2 €360. Paradoxically. ‘All the Mediterranean in the world’ is the motto of the new Botanical Garden of Barcelona. 185 . It displays the vegetation found in those regions of the world with Mediterranean climates: the Mediterranean basin. botanist Carlos Ferrater. agronomist Ajuntament de Barcelona Overview Barcelona’s new Botanical Garden (JBB) is a happy example of the best of that city’s school of public space design. horticultural specialist Núria Membrives.061.
in the zigzagging. punctuated by overall views of the garden from strategic points. The resulting extensive plot system allows for a very flexible and creative planning of the phytoepisodes. wild and apparently anarchic. 186 . in the pavement. Formally. and finally (4) an intimate scale. (2) a project scale. when one completely withdraws from the outside world and is lost in the contemplation of a flowering Banksia or is transported by the smell of a Spartium junceum. A strong contrast and dynamic tension are set up between the sharp formality and materiality of the paths and walls and the ‘naturally’ evolving plantations. (3) a one-to-one scale. the design appears as a whole. Two basic materials with an untreated finish – in-situ concrete and corten steel – were chosen for the hardworks. faceted layout of the path system. which convey the mind to Australian or South African landscapes. inspired by surveying techniques. The fractal geometry of the triangulation plan is reinterpreted at the smaller scale. now and then providing open views to Barcelona’s skyline. which is divided into small trapezoidal shapes. and makes them accessible. divides these plots into smaller units. and in the ‘broken’ volumes of the entrance building. where themes from the grand scale are echoed on the smaller scale. When strolling through the winding paths of the garden. when one is looking at the different phytoepisodes. the extensive path infrastructure and the buildings which provide identity and continuity to the garden. The irregular triangular grid becomes the basis for a hierarchical path system that determines the major planting plots. one has the feeling that one simultaneously experiences four different scales of perception: (1) a city scale.Spain The spatial strategy used to structure the garden collections is a triangulation grid.
According to a geotechnical study.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona Project history JBB is located on the northern slopes of the hill of Montjuïc. on the grounds that the new Botanical Garden was to be built on top of a former rubbish dump. when it became an informal shanty quarter for migrants from southern Spain. the idea of looking for a new location for the Botanical Garden was raised. The detailed Masterplan. At that time. which was affected by the Olympic Ring works. approximately 50 per cent of the JBB surface was a former rubbish dump with deposits up to 20m deep in some areas. The winning entry by Ferrater. a detailed scheme proposal was commissioned and an application for European Union funding was requested. The site used to be a sort of suburban pine forest until the 1960s. It has a mild Mediterranean climate and it receives moisture from the sea. with overwhelming views toward the Barcelona skyline. An international ‘Ideas Competition’ was held in 1988. For this reason a new competition was established for an initial planting scheme. The soil horizons have very uneven properties and depths. which condenses in the shade of the hill. The garden is at an altitude of 150m above sea level and the topography is difficult. whereas much of the rest of the ground is stony. Figueras. and it also proved difficult to obtain many of the target species. The objectives behind the inaugural planting scheme were to provide a first impression of the future 187 . In 1986 the municipality commissioned the Botanical Institute of Barcelona to make a plan for its future and for its 1930s Botanical Garden. with slopes of up to 30 per cent with a difference of 50m between the highest and lowest points. including civil works as well as an overall planting scheme. was presented in October 1997 under the title ‘Recovery of an Urban Solid Rubbish Dump into Barcelona’s Botanical Garden’. The engineering works started in December of the same year. next to the Olympic Stadium. Bossy and Canosa was announced in 1989. Pedrola. and a 17ha site was assigned just behind the Olympic Stadium. In the gestation period for Barcelona’s 1992 Olympics Games. Within a 17-month working period it was not economically or logistically possible to implement all the planting envisioned in the Masterplan. Montjuïc Mountain became one of the epicentres of the city’s transformation. The European funding was granted in 1997. In 1994. The official inauguration date was fixed for April 1999. The terrain resembles an amphitheatre facing south-west.
showing infrastructure: buildings.Spain 7.2 Plan ‘as built’. walls and (in dashed lines) the main drainage lines 188 . path system.
1989 189 .4 First sketch scheme proposal.3 Photo: the site before it was planted 7.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona 7.
restored or promoted. 1997 garden and to create suitable conditions for the successive establishment of the different phytoepisodes. The 14ha Botanical Garden remains one of Barcelona’s biggest parks and keeps growing and maturing within this ambitious project. 190 . The experience of the garden now is richer and more complex. planting has continued and the aim is to complete structural planting of all of the phytoepisodes by 2010. During the execution of the civil work. sports installations. Surprise and discovery have become two new words to describe the garden. important formal and functional decisions were taken. It is now possible to see that the initial dominance of the paths and walls is gradually being balanced by vegetation. are being created. and since 2000 has been investing in this vision. gardens. and public transport and pedestrian accessibility from downtown are being enhanced. museums and galleries. Since its inauguration in 1999. and the growing volume of trees and shrubs makes the planned path layout ‘faceting’ more explicit. and only after the works ended did the garden acquire its present appearance. Parks.5 Masterplan. with approximately 50 per cent of the potential species represented.Spain 7. The Municipality would like Montjuïc Mountain to be known as Barcelona’s ‘Central Park’ within the decade.
let the site’s morphological and topographic qualities set the rules for the intervention. Plantation patterns within each phytoepisode were also to be rendered from nature according to vegetal succession ‘transects’. (B.B Mandelbrot’s figures. In fractal systems. there were two fundamental premises for the spatial design: first. the ‘triangulation grid’ became a network of hierarchical paths that delimits the planting plots. and. This grid presented itself as a useful instrument with which to adapt to the wild topography of the place. According to this philosophy. When applying ‘fractal logic’ to project making. A strategy of superimposing a geometrical ‘triangulation grid’ was adopted. Phytoepisodes were to be distributed in a mosaic pattern as in nature. These plots. conveniently subdivided according to the most favourable slope and orientation. According to the architects. second. incorporate the different phytoepisodes. Mediterranean Basin’s Evergreen Oak Woodland. No pruning was to be allowed. etc. The term ‘fractal’ is used to describe mathematically represented objects or systems. Fractality is the principle that underlies the form of the project. as shown in B.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona 7. Therefore each phytoepisode synthesises the similar plant communities that conform to a vegetated landscape. Finally. California’s Joshua Tree Woodland. while unifying the entire complex and organizing the botanical collection. Nature provides many examples of systems presenting a fractal nature. plants were to be allowed to grow naturally respecting their own shapes and dynamics in order to investigate their reactions to the conditions in Barcelona. find a structure that would allow for the ordering of the future botanical collection according to the phytoepisodes into a sort of mosaic pattern. Chile’s Espinal. plants in the new JBB were to be grouped by ecological affinity and morphologic evolutionary convergence into phytoepisodes. where the creation of form is based on irregularity or fragmentation. the logic of 191 . the principles of the major geometry also define the smaller geometries or details. Those at JBB will represent typical Mediterranean-type landscapes: South Africa’s Fynbos. such as the ramification of hydrographic networks or the shapes of mountain ranges.6 Mathematical representation of fractal islands by BB Mandelbrot Design philosophy We did not want to show a Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) but to show an Holm Oak wood. phytosociology and finally morphologic convergence criteria. and irrigation was only admitted during the establishment period. Figueras) According to the botanists. These are an extrapolation of the most characteristic species and vegetal associations found in nature.
and orders the broken volumes of the entrance building. not by prodigious detailing. complexity and poetry should emerge from the rendered landscapes and the way that they are experienced.Spain 7. the geometrical principle of the ‘triangulation grid’. influences the form of paving joints. construction details are simple. is echoed in the ‘faceted’ layout of the paths. It seems to make the point that. the infrastructure made the garden and the plantations were the ornaments. the best solutions are the simplest and that in JBB. which determines the infrastructure grid. almost spartan.’ While the spatial approach and the planting schemes are complex. Ferrater envisages the garden growth as an ‘inversion process’: ‘At inauguration. unaffected materials and repetitive solutions.7 Mediterranean siliceous scrubland phytoepisode order and form is ‘echoed’ at the different scales At JBB. with very basic treatments. Ultimately the whole garden assumes the fractal nature of these Mediterranean landscapes themselves C. 192 . At maturity the plantations will make the structure and the paths will be the ornament. in detailing.
the continuity of the terrain was then fractured by modifying the heights of some of the vertices of the underlying triangulation system. minimising the earth modelling. Spatial strategy and earthmodelling The goal is to exploit the natural distribution of vegetation. 193 . Initially. The strategy would also provide a basic matrix for all the different professionals involved to work together. The triangulated grid also came closer to natural mosaic patterns. in such a way that each triangle had two vertices at the same height and an area that varied with the slope. therefore it is the polygon that provides the best visual accessibility. The result is an abstract grid that clings to the topography like a fishnet stocking. The triangle is the polygon that has more perimeter per unit of surface. This resulted in flattened triangular shapes surrounded by concave or convex retaining walls that contained the land cut or the landfill respectively. this geometry would have generated huge earthworks and made the project unviable. as a result of the site’s complicated topography and steep slopes. the mosaic using the grid as a spatial strategy for allocating the different Mediterranean landscapes of the world. the project team started working with the classical square or regular grid that most of the world’s historical botanical gardens have traditionally used to organise their collections. it was essential to find a flexible spatial strategy that would allow the botanical collections to be distributed. while making them accessible.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona Design development The design can best be described in terms of themes rather than zones. and thus enhance opportunities for the establishment of different plant communities. was adopted as a device to generate a grid which could be used to divide the garden into parcels of land and to plan the path network. belvederes and didactic nodes within the path network. these artificially created topographical irregularities enrich the garden’s climatic variability in terms of sun and shade exposure and wind shelter. These places were planned to be strategic resting points. After some research. another objective of the designers. In some places. but. This irregular triangulated network was adapted to the contours of the terrain. At the same time. The underlying grid guides a hierarchical path system that carries the drainage and irrigation networks. as used by surveyors to generate digital terrain models. (Dr Joan Pedrola. 1989) At the beginning of the design process. botanist. an irregular triangulated network.
1989 7. Pedrola.10 (right) The site-referenced triangulation grid 194 .9 (top right) Triangulated irregular networks digital terrain model 7.8 (top left) Preliminary schemes by Dr J.Spain 7.
It is a ‘Labyrinth without a centre’ (C. ‘People would get frustrated. winding through the garden and offering ever-changing views. The project establishes two hierarchies of paths: main paths. When the slope is above 11 per cent. each of a different botanical interest. wider than 3m. while ensuring the continuity of the project as a whole. The path network Constructing an extensive path network on a site with slopes ranging from 10–30 per cent was a challenge. flat ‘fractal’ squares are created. The path network offers the visitor a choice of routes. At the meeting point of primary and secondary paths. ‘I was horrified by the vision of a long path perspective going up the hill. and subdividing the plots into the final phytoepisodes.’ Zigzagging paths were laid out according to the triangulated network.6m. and determine the major planting plots. subservient to the site topography. the paths become steps. following the existing topography. Ferrater) which works in a similar way to a golf course that allows simultaneous rounds. whereas the secondary path system runs obliquely to the slope. distribution nodes.’ explains Bet Figueras.6–2. searching for gentler slopes. searching for gentle slopes between 8 and 11 per cent. places for specimen 195 . belvederes. Instead we pursued a “faceted” path. and secondary paths with widths ranging from 1. sometimes ‘among the plants’.11 The triangulation approach translated onto the site Main paths run in the most suitable directions. following the existing topography according to the triangulation grid. that in a similar manner to Cerda’s Eixampla (the town plan which allowed Barcelona’s extension) allows great flexibility. The topography plan shows how little earth modelling was required to accommodate the path infrastructure. with slopes ranging from 4–6 per cent and occasionally 8 per cent. The result is an irregular yet rational grid. searching for surprise sequences and different perceptions of scale: sometimes walking above the garden. Nevertheless. the final layout of the paths had to solve more than problems of gradient. The brief for the competition established that the garden should be designed in such a way as to give the visitor a free choice of itinerary and to allow the simultaneous circulation of visitors and maintenance vehicles. Main paths run almost flat. Secondary paths run obliquely to the banks. These squares act as resting points.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona 7.
The dotted line shows initial topography and the grey texture the new gradients. b.13 Main path longitudinal cross-section. 7.12 Photo: impression of the path network shortly after inauguration in 1999 7.Spain 7.14a. c Walking scenes: asymmetrical stair. secondary path 196 . main path.
come together 7. and in the pouring and spreading of the asphalt along such narrow paths. some options were considered. JBB was an ambitious project with a limited budget.16 Standard path cross-section. However. but these were not advisable because of the erosion risk and the likely cost of maintenance. from Chile. flexible enough to adapt to complicated topography and it needs little maintenance. Before works stared in 1997 the secondary paths were to be paved with asphalt with railwaysleeper edges. the- 197 . California and Australia. this proposal would have caused problems during construction. Regarding the choice of materials for the paths. such as gravel or coarse sand. The irrigation system follows the paths plants to be exhibited and as information stops along the way.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona 7. because of the difficulty of using the appropriate machinery on such steep slopes. Main and secondary paths differ only in width. Concrete is a relatively cheap material. The project team changed the design of the secondary paths. constructing them of in-situ concrete. widening them and providing them with drainage channels. South Africa.15 Desert Square: the point at which some of the driest phytoepisodes. The consultant botanist preferred soft paving. sometimes up to 30 per cent. easy to work with.
making it easier to construct and contributing to the ‘faceted’ appearance.18a General plan of the asymmetric stairs refore economy of means was an important issue. A 20cm-wide channel.17 Plan of main path showing expansion joint positions. the paths acquire a more dynamic perception. ‘As built’ plan 7. in the steeper cases. follows the walkway on the upslope. The impression that one is surrounded by massive blocks of concrete is avoided. On the main paths the concrete finish is smooth. dividing the paths into trapezoidal shapes. whereas on the secondary paths with more than 11 per cent slope. The expansion joints were deliberately over-dimensioned to 25mm in order to form a tracery of lines. designed to intercept run-off. which. as well as at the foot of the supporting walls. In order to avoid cracking. The height of the edge determined the final path thickness. with a triangular system of 25mm expansion joints. By systematically breaking up the concrete surfaces of the paths and squares into relatively small pieces. in order to simplify the construction process. the concrete surface has been finely scraped to improve grip. The fractal approach to the design inspires the zigzag layout of the paths and their final detail as well. Reinforcement was used in the former rubbish dump area where there was a risk of soil movement. became irregular steps. This generous concrete width also allowed for making bigger trapezoidal blocks in the square without need of further expansion joints.Spain 7. expansion joints were not 198 . Ultimately the paths were made of 22cm-thick concrete without reinforcement. The edge of this consists of a commercially produced 22cm-thick pre-cast concrete slab. The path’s plank moulding was done with straight boards.
199 . the final lines of the paths were field tactics. clays and rubbish. but some cracks have appeared in wider paths and in some of the squares. The ultimate layout of the paths was decided on site. where concrete polygons were laid side by side. Alternatives were studied and finally the decision was taken to use reinforced earth walls. From the ‘as built’ plan cut at angles less than 60º relative to the edge of the concrete slab. pursuing the final fractal effect. The Masterplan was updated accordingly. together with a surveyor. With such soil conditions it was not advisable to lay the foundations of any rigid structures. The expansion joints were also drawn ‘in-situ’ by the site architect in charge of construction. with deposits that were up to 20m deep in some places.18b Detailed plan and section of the stairs. According to a geotechnical study the soil had very uneven properties and depths. These do not need any foundations. In places where the expansion joints were not continuous. some fissures have appeared. defined every path in turn. approximately 50 per cent of the JBB surface was landfill with debris from building materials. Carlos Ferrater: ‘If the triangulation grid was a “strategy” conceived from the office. searching for the most convenient slopes. have the necessary structural stability.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona 7. This worked well with paths up to 3m wide. the Project Director. as if by generals. as if created by guerrillas.’ Walls The Masterplan considered the construction of in-situ concrete walls to retain the landform that resulted from the creation of the plots. and done from nearby.
21 Cross-section of reinforced earth-retaining walls.Spain 7.20 Cross-section of reinforced earth-retaining walls.19 Photo: reinforced earth-retaining walls clad with corten steel 7. Standard solution 7. Standard solution 200 .
Jardí Botànic de Barcelona 201 .
it was possible to persuade the politicians not to insist upon any railings on the landfill walls. Corten steel does not need maintenance and its colour reminds one of ploughed earth. The walls were battered at an angle of 8º to accommodate possible ground movements. 202 . Though difficult. a specific construction detail was adopted to prevent ‘brown’ drainage water from getting into the lake. The decision was to use corten steel sheets without treatment.22 Section through ‘standard’ retaining wall before facing 7. The colour contrast between pale con- crete and the ochre red walls it is one of the most defining characteristics of the garden. For walls in the lake area. close to the water. The face of the reinforced earth wall can simply be seeded or clad/covered with any material. The top part of the corten wall was gently raised to provide a sort of rim with a welded ‘U’ bar profile.23 Photos: construction process for the reinforced earth walls and offer enough flexibility to assimilate the deformations that may occur in such unconsolidated soils and incorporate their own drainage system. This option was also cheaper since it was not necessary to excavate the ground in search of a stable base. which would have spoiled the views.Spain 7. Reinforced earth walls are made of soil that has been compacted in layers and reinforced with steel mats.
the tip of South Africa and part of southern Australia – although so widely separated from one another. This innovative concept has important advantages in terms of conservation and scientific investigation. their systems of land use and also the general appearance of their landscapes. central Chile. this phytoepisode presents most of the representative species present in all the different Holm Oak forest communities in the Occidental Mediterranean. which in turn resulted in their similarity. survival in Barcelona’s conditions. Planting scheme The five parts of the world with a Mediterranean climate – the Mediterranean Basin. the final height of the walls was also decided on site by the site architect with the help of the surveyor. Called ‘Evergreen Oak Woodland’. in many cases. but an extrapolation of the most characteristic species present in natural landscape. these were welded perpendicular to the slope of the top of the wall. As with paths. Therefore.24 Echium: Canary Islands thermophilous woodlands 7. these plants went through similar processes of adaptation to climate. and therefore much higher genetic variability. In the JBB collection. phytosociology. minimising establishment and maintenance works. Canary Islands sub-tropical vegetation has an important relation to the rest of the Mediterranean climate flora. JBB introduces an innovative approach to botanical gardens: instead of presenting its plant collection by taxonomical order. the regular presence of fire. Though genetically different. 203 . For example. the most common forest in the entire Mediterranean basin. plants associations. This is known as the evolutionary convergence of plants. which are reflected in the appearance and structure of their plants. it groups it by ecological affinity and morphologic evolutionary convergence into phytoepisodes. west California. etc. nevertheless present extraordinary climatic affinities.25 Rotación derocalla: Saxicolous communities of Spanish Levante In order to optimise the use of the corten plates.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona 7. conservation of endangered species. since the botanical garden will have ‘full populations’ of each species instead of individual specimens. since it represents the original Thermophilous vegetation from which all the others evolved at the time when Pangea separated 250 million years ago. These are not literal botanical communities or ecosystems found in nature. Plants in these various Mediterranean regions have had to adapt to survive the dry summer. since these naturally associated populations have the same growing conditions and tend to find ecological balance between themselves. occasional frosts in winter and. It also has practical advantages. there is a single phytoepisode to represent the Holm Oak forest. the concept is to render the worldwide Mediterranean vegetal landscapes in order to investigate their adaptation strategies.
sometimes excessive for certain maintenance works. imitating the succession processes of natural vegetation.5 to 2m. shrubs from 0. Chile and California meet in ‘Desert Square’. are placed in the perimeter. in such a way that those parcels where tree communities predominate.000 species to be represented. even though it is a concept which still needs 204 . For instance. Each transect divides a parcel into distinct belts of trees from 2 to 30m high. with sequences of similar textures. Generally. The concept of minimum surface area.26 Phytoepisodes distribution. A list of potential species was defined for each phytoepisode and preference was given to the most representative species. It attributes a percentage of the plot to each belt and defines the plantation density of each. South Africa. Within each region of the garden. all the driest phytoepisodes of Australia. within each phytoepisode. Blue: central Chile / White dotted green: west California / Striped pink: tip of South Africa / Striped green: southern Australia / Reddish: north Africa / Green: west Mediterranean / Green dotted white: east Mediterranean / Dashed orange: Canary Islands According to the consultant botanist. To represent nature properly. Within and between the regions. such as pinewoods. defined as the minimum area necessary for a plant community to be viable for a long period.Spain 7. the perimeter parcels have steeper slopes.. as well as those dominant in terms of the percentage of soil coverage. phytoepisodes are distributed according to principles of succession. Generally. This criterion helps to soften the transitions between the different phytoepisodes and to create a perception of the garden as a whole. roughly 7 per cent of the total of around 60. and finally low shrubs of up to 1m. whereas brushwood and scrubland phytoepisodes are placed towards the centre. phytoepisodes are ordered by criteria of morphologic evolutionary convergence for educational and aesthetic purposes. and something similar happens with all the rockeries from the Western Mediterranean and Northern Africa. plants are arranged according to ‘transects’. the JBB site allows for approximately 4.000 vegetal species to be found in these diverse Mediterranean regions. eucalyptus forests. but also has practical benefits. but forest phytoepisodes require less care and integrate these slopes visually. oak woods. therefore a concentration exercise has been necessary. This criterion is concerned with preserving overall views of the garden. has been employed when sizing and distributing the different phytoepisodes. etc. bigger plots would have been required.
High-density planting 205 . Generally. Some individual trees can be planted randomly C.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona 7. 2. climbers and ferns were studied and the most dominant and representative species were determined. to allow for problems with adaptation and establishment. as well as during subsequent maintenance. In shrub areas. Trees up to 5m or shrubs up to 2m can be very occasionally planted 1. though shrubs and smaller plants are planted in slightly higher densities. Densities are established according to size at maturity. Phytoepisodes are planted as units. prior to defining the composition of the phytoepisode planting. A study of the vegetation in the original landscapes was first undertaken. The strategy is to establish a sort of ecological balance within each phytoepisode. B-3. An irrigation system is installed during the planting period. Schemes from the Planting Plan 1999 A. 3. When the missing species can be obtained. Low-density planting. indeed. herbaceous plants. material is allowed to grow spontaneously. Trees from 2 to 30m are predominant of this to be researched. According to the transect approach. Shrubs from 0. and planting only starts when there are enough plants to cover at least 70 per cent of the area of the plot. bigger plants are planted at the back and smaller ones in the front for easier identification. Trees.27 Occidental Mediterranean siliceous heathland transect. respecting its own shape and natural dynamics without pruning or any garden shaping. A-4 means a high-density planted forest. room is made for them amidst the existing plantation.5m to 2m. This is not an ideal situation and a more detailed plan would be preferable. planting densities decrease as one moves away from the path. primarily lignified plants. As can be seen in the transect for Occidental Mediterranean Siliceous Heathland. shrubs. the goal is to create a mosaic that provides a feeling of heterogeneity. the planting schemes are very basic.e. for aesthetic reasons. leaving an important part of the final appearance to be decided at the planting stage. For the rest of the phytoepisode. Low shrubs up to 1m. in order to minimise weeding. 4. while at the same time having large enough populations for the visitors to identify each species. but flexibility is a key issue in cases where fringe B. etc. for the first two years) to let plants grow naturally and achieve an authentic appearance. an average-density brushwood and C-4 a high-density planted scrubland. in order to create an effect of depth. Average planting. Very low-density planting. Nevertheless dead flower stems are removed from some flowering shrubs such as Santolina. it will be one of the major investigations undertaken at JBB. Plantations are initiated with a high density of the most dominant and characteristic species. irrigation is only undertaken during the establishment period (i. Lavandula. As can be seen. Once planted. Phytosociology is a crucial theme when defining the arrangement of the different species.
priority was given to plantations of trees and tall-growing shrubs in the first phase.250 species. It was also necessary to 206 . Complementary planting of mature specimens – which the designer called ‘Picassos’ – took place in the squares along the main paths.170 trees were planted primarily in the phytoepisodes of the perimeter of the garden. To create convenient conditions for the establishment of certain phytoepisodes. 11 had more than 50 per cent of the required species. Ultimately. According to the ultimate character of the planned phytoepisode. and in order to avoid ridiculous scenes involving the extensive planting of very small plants.000 species to be shown in the garden when mature.000 plants had been planted. To meet the tight deadline of the 1999 inauguration. The strategy for the opening had a second objective. and the percentage of organic matter was very low. together with 8. within the constraints of a very low budget. together with contamination in some areas from the former rubbish dump. Some 1. to adjust the texture. The mature form of each phytoepisode relies upon the newly obtained species replacing some of the initial planting and the final result is not technically specified. representing 1. Of the 71 phytoepisodes.285 shrubs of available species.0. By 2010 the structural planting for all of the phytoepisodes should be complete. The aim was to create a quick first impression of the garden.Spain many species have yet to be obtained. For this reason. around 28. with ochre milled fields and green fields from seven agriculturally referenced weed mixes. but with less than 50 per cent of the potential species and nine had not been planted at all. the soil was improved. 400 species were represented. Soil preparation Before planting. the ground was cleared of stones and scrub and ploughed to a depth of 30cm. The original soil conditions. 51 had been planted. from the goal of 4. By December 2003. with an average pH of around 8. and the acidic nature of many of the phytoepisodes to be represented. organic matter content and pH value. it very much lies in the hand of the gardener. The existing soil was mostly sandy. 300 were available in the nurseries and 100 were especially produced for the JBB. more climatic variability was required. below 1 per cent. required some significant adjustment of the soils' conditions. This scheme would give the garden the appearance of a ‘harlequin’ traditional terraced Mediterranean landscape. which would also have caused serious difficulties for subsequent maintenance. it was proposed to combine strategic tree and shrub planting with the ploughing and hydroseeding of parcels of land. in terms of shade and protection from the wind.
while in the rest 25 per cent organic matter is added. the aim was to get closer to the character of the original landscapes. and 10–20 per cent animal manure. The practical criterion was to search for a functional alternative to the original landscape cover. • • • 207 . and for developing scrubland phytoepisodes that will eventually be totally covered with vegetation. together with the installation of an irrigation system. as well as for dressing many of the areas of an acidic nature. After the soil improvement process. Fallen pine needles are simply left on the ground. The sand is spread in a 10–15cm layer on top of a geotextile. Woody prunings (sky blue in the scheme) are used in woodland phytoepisodes with little understorey. 10 per cent mud and 15 per cent organic matter. Different solutions are being tested at the moment: • Sieved coarse sand (beige in the scheme) is used for the driest phytoepisodes with low plant coverage. Thus.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona 7. a conventional tree and shrub planting process was followed. consisting of 10cm of drainage quarry rubble (30–70mm). The prunings consist of branches.28 Acidic soil improvement at South Africa’s Fynbos cultivate the soils after the passage of much heavy machinery. They are laid in an 8–15cm layer. which have not been composted. Two textures are used: a red 10–15mm mix and a bigger 20–25mm black one. Pine needles are used in the Canary Islands pinewoods phytoepisodes. 50–60cm of coarse sand. In the driest phytoepisodes the mulch is 100 per cent coarse sand. just as they occur in nature. these were backfilled with a mixture of 50 per cent coarse sand. 10cm of sieved coarse sand. while rationalising maintenance. Oversized tree pits (more than twice the root area) were used in order to improve planting conditions. Volcanic gravel (purple in the scheme) is used in the Canary Islands volcanic phytoepisodes. 20cm of a mix of 75 per cent sieved coarse sand and 25 per cent organic matter. The standard correction applied to the whole site before inauguration consisted of the addition of a 15cm top layer consisting of 55 per cent coarse gravel. 20 per cent clay. mostly from conifers and up to 20cm long. 30–40 per cent plant-based organic matter. Where more acidic conditions were required a standard specification was an 80cm–1m-deep planting bed. Mulching and soft paving scheme After the opening. especially in those phytoepisodes which had just been planted or where the percentage of soil covered by plants was low. a mulching and soft-paving scheme was conceived.
10–15cm high. These are mostly big boulders. Green grassy area. It aims to establish a sort of meadow 20–25cm in height. Black volcanic clay. will be kept in this programme following planting. Ochre = ploughed fields and green = hydro-seeded meadows 7. Red volcanic clay. Rockery. grouped in various ways. Pine needles. grassy cover. while the shrubs take over. Coloured chippings are used in the square 208 . Rocks (orange in the scheme) are used in the rockery phytoepisodes. It is mown 5–8 times per year. until the shrubs become established. depending upon the weather conditions.30 Photos: mulching regimes: Coarse sand (sauló). • • ‘Maintained meadow’ (dark blue in the scheme) This is mostly used as a temporary maintenance programme for those phytoepisodes with little or no planting yet. Pruning remains.29 Inauguration cover scheme 1999. green. The grass is mown 10–15 times per year. It is mostly in the perimeter woodland phytoepisodes where there is a significant understorey. Four phytoepisodes from South Africa and California.Spain 7. with fast growing brushwoods and scrublands. Chippings • • ‘Green field’ (green in the scheme) This is the name given to a maintenance regime that aims to establish a low.
as the underlying mechanism for defining the exhibition plots. a horticultural specialist. morphological evolutionary convergence and phytosociology into the design of botanical gardens and urban public spaces. but some conclusions can already be drawn. The project is inventive in the way it is spatially organised on a site with difficult topography. Evaluation With a timescale extending from 1989 to 2010. Using phytoepisodes as the planting units for the arrangement of the botanical collections. surveyors. prevent the botanic garden from developing a theme-park ambience or a gardenesque appearance. helping visitors to perceive and comprehend the garden as a whole. with a two-speed approach that is even now defining its own future. has introduced novel concepts such as ecological affinity. an agronomist. non-linear project. the mulching and soft paving materials contribute to the sense of landscape character. together with the understated nature of the detailing. When strolling in the garden. It is too soon for a final evaluation. It has been an open-ended . civil engineers. JBB is an adventurous project that involves innovation and experimentation in the fields of botany and landscape design. inspired by surveying techniques. landscape architects. It is noticeable that there is a convergence in the mulching materials used. these surfaces. Extensive.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona parterres. This helps with the interpretation of the exhibits. and thus reproducing naturally occurring landscapes. while requiring the minimum amount of earth modelling. JBB is a long and complex project. undertaken by a multi-disciplinary team consisting of a botanist. chosen according to the origin and quality of the specimen exhibited. which mirrors the ‘morphologic evolutionary convergence’ between the phytoepisodes. The use of a triangulated grid. etc. practical and low-key. regardless of their place of origin. architects. 209 . has provided maximum accessibility and a range of perceptual possibilities at various scales. and provides coherence at a scale greater than that of the individual phytoepisodes.
in favour of a more sober. the static and the dynamic. The two-speed consolidation of infrastructure and planting has proved to be practical. while remaining open to the public. a building and a window to the garden. as the budget and the plant materials become available. The gardenesque approach has been avoided. low-key use of extensive textures of vegetation. The three main conceptual approaches to the project – the phytoepisodes as the criteria for organising the botanical collection. there is a tension between plants and infrastructure. both of which are situated at the edge of the garden. The extensive path system was constructed in a single phase during 1999 allowing complete access for planting and maintenance. halfway between a square. Inspired by fractal logics. has a welcoming sculptural quality. There has been no concession to lyricism. It displays itself as one more fractal object amidst the fractal patterns of the garden. whereas the different phytoepisodes are being implemented gradually. sharp edges and organic forms. as it stands. which might have been difficult to achieve in a building with a larger programme. The convergence of these three concepts has allowed the garden to be implemented gradually. simplicity and complexity. the application of triangulation as the basis for the civil engineering works has produced a coherent overall design with a clear identity. The result is rendering rather than representation. Only by adopting this extensive approach could one have avoided falling into the trap of creating theme-park scenery. and the development of the planted schemes. rather than through prodigious design or detailing. Locating the building which houses technical services away from the entrance building has created some problems in terms of costs. instead. On the other hand. landscape rather than garden. between permanence and change. interwoven with paths. the living and the inert.Spain The botanical garden is contemporary in its design vocabulary and rational in its detailing. and have their own inner logics 210 . without major interruptions. and the fractal logic as the basis for the design of the infrastructure and architectural elements – seem to be working well together in a necessarily flexible way. security and logistics which could have been avoided if these functions had been combined in a single building or complex. social acceptance. which maintains an important fluidity and coherence among the spaces. The garden seems to fulfil expectations in terms of accessibility. with a broken geometry. Poetry emerges from the different perceptual scales of the project. the entrance building. but some criticisms can be made. the triangulation grid as a flexible spatial strategy. The same cannot be said about the management building or the recently inaugurated Botanical Institute.
whether by the in-house team or by consultants. in the hope that this will gradually increase the visitor numbers. as in all the public space projects. Plants need to be identified and explanatory signboards are needed. A programme of school visits. conferences and temporary exhibitions in the Botanical Institute will be inaugurated in the near future. Nevertheless. A doubt arises about the way the phytoepisodes are being managed. 211 . is to keep the original scheme simple and coherent.000 per annum. The budget at JBB has been limited and this has prevented a number of important tasks from being completed. During the flurry of activity before the opening. one might say that they could have been better if more time could have been invested in their design. and to avoid the gradual superimposition of urban furniture. many of the phytoepisodes were implemented without a single plan. the use of similar materials helps to harmonise them in the general context. and the construction of an amphitheatre for open classes and meetings. signposting and other elements in a variety of styles. even though one might agree with the concept. One could regard them as follies. in terms of the overall concept. Two more strategic developments are underway – the opening of a restaurant/bar in the Biological Institute. together with picnic facilities in one of the phytoepisodes. A challenge to JBB. open days. The number of visitors doubled in 2003 to around 24. The new Botanic Institute Building has a 70m-long window façade.Jardí Botànic de Barcelona that escape the triangulation vocabulary used in the rest of JBB. among them research into the phytoepisodes and more detailed design commissions. it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the window is too long and too dominant for a project which otherwise has such a fine grain. Work on these aspects has been commissioned. although the recent appearance of litter bins which employ previously unused materials and different styles should sound an alarm. This has not yet happened at JBB. Even though the results are interesting. but the garden is still far short of being economically sustainable.
Architects tended to mix the new with the traditional. when Modernism appeared around 1930. Landscape architecture has developed over the centuries in close relation to and dialogue with art and society. Swedish landscape architects find monks and nuns of the Christian monasteries. access to light and to greenery. or interpretation with respect for the given site. military figures. such as meadows and pastures. The vegetation consisted mainly of native species and materials and vernacular references were preferred. Looking back at their predecessors. but often given a special modification. royalty and aristocracy. Inspiration for landscape design has also been drawn from vernacular forms and old cultivation methods. Designers must also contend with financial resistance. The Swedish landscape is dominated by woodlands and the forest has been one of the most profound images in the tradition of landscape architecture.Sweden Ann Bergsjö Landscape architecture in Sweden The dialogue and harmony between landscape architecture and the natural landscape are explicit and obvious in Sweden. peasants. detailing and management. The enduring belief. when architects implemented ideas for better health. has been that the natural landscape should act as the model for the urban landscape. it was not applied in its purest form. Use became more important than form. as for example in the famous Woodland Cemetery in Stockholm. The Stockholm School of the 1940s designed modern parks with a social programme. gardeners. the word can be understood in terms of the restrained forms found in Swedish landscape architecture itself. Since the 1970s. though mainly naturalistic and traditional in their visual aspect. The importation of foreign ideas has a long history in Sweden. This word can be interpreted in terms of the resistance offered by the natural landscape and the harsh climate which presents such difficult growing conditions for vegetation. As a result of the extraordinary conditions presented by the natural landscape and climate. whether it is shown by designers taking their inspiration from nature or by the incorporation of existing natural elements into a design. Even in more recent times. shared by many landscape architects throughout the different eras of architectural style. modern materials. botanists and artist painters. the first park in the world on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. or key word. for landscape architecture in Sweden could be resistance. foreign ideas have rarely been copied exactly. The clue. The garden or park often appears as nature refined. Second. Outdoor life became a priority. many Swedish landscape architects have been drifting away from this naturalism and have adjusted to the more continental and 213 . architects.
acceptance and rejection. adjustment of people’s needs and affection for nature are characteristics of the best aspects of Swedish landscape architecture. This give and take. with original boulders and waterfront international styles ruled by urbanism. At present.Sweden 8. 214 . we can see signs of a return to and revitalisation of the traditional naturalism in design.1 View from the south.
The site is a landfill. while the large multi-use lawn can take several thousands. which also has a large scale. The immense scale of the waterfront landscape is reflected in the park. The park will. shops. The location and site are exceptional in many ways and the design was intended to be exceptional too.000 inhabitants. in having an international outlook and in being at the forefront of contemporary landscape architecture in Sweden. The design process took off in a competitive atmosphere between several well-known landscape architects and offices from Scandinavian countries. offices. 215 . provide space for social activities. with contaminated mud as a result of about a century of industrial activity. which was initiated by the European exposition Bo 01. In Sweden. Sweden City of Malmö Thorbjörn Andersson and Pe Ge Hillinge/ FFNS Architects Veronika Borg. Malmö Case study Daniaparken. It is all flat. either in Malmö or in Sweden as a whole. streets and parks. Sven Hedlund. Kenneth Hildén. for example. located in the southernmost part of Sweden.000m 2001 Overview Daniaparken is part of a new urban district in Malmö. the wind. Even though the concept of the design seems to be typical of waterfront parks all over Europe. no parks of the size and cost of Daniaparken have been designed and constructed for half a century. gravel and tarred wood in the characteristic elements of the park. Existing qualities of the site were the sea. The design of the park is the result of a competition. When complete. Malmö Project data Project name: Location: Client: Designer: Project team: Area: Date completed: Daniaparken Malmö. parts of a new university campus. In this respect. the sky and the long views to the free horizon. Details are both traditional and innovative in design. Clotte Frank. Michael Hallbert (illumination) 20. the new district will contain about 600 dwellings. Anders Lidström. Malmö has the reputation of being ‘the city of parks’ in Sweden. Different elements and places provide space for different activities and numbers of people. restaurants. a city of over 260. using mainly granite. The openness is intended to contrast with the density of the city development of the district. Peter Ekroth. school and day care centres. to a great extent. it maintains Scandinavian traditions in detailing and materials. most of the large city parks were completed around the turn of the last century. the effort by the city of Malmö is remarkable and admirable. can accommodate about 10–15 people.Daniaparken. The Scouts area. In spite of this.
3 The landscape architect’s first conceptual sketch 216 .2 Site plan 8.Sweden 8.
4 Overview computer image 8.5 Computer image of the Great Slope 217 .Daniaparken. Malmö 8.
has had the greatest impact upon the area. the proposal of the company FFNS Architects. Norway. Five landscape architect companies. restaurants. shops. which specialised in submarines and naval technology. the wind is harsh and salty water is thrown to the shore in hard weather. Denmark and the Netherlands.. The scale is immense and must be profoundly studied . barren. The development of the harbour was relatively late... offices. the close relation between the sea and the city will be re-established.Sweden Project history The former harbour and wharf area of Malmö stretches in the shape of a peninsula out into the sound (Öresund) from the central parts of the city. With the development of the Western Harbour district. The area facing the waterfront was treated as an international exposition. public. but gives a strong character. a number of buildings in minimalist and neo-modern styles were constructed. sculptural. The period of industrialisation at the end of the nineteenth century resulted in increased activity. streets. urban. rustic. from Sweden. The Waterfront park is to a great extent a public park .1 The architects of the exposition decided to co-operate with different landscape architects upon different sites within the district. were invited to take part in a competition dealing with the parks and the public open space of the district. The character of the older parts of the inner city forms the model of the structure – dense and intimate. in the sea and in the ground water forms difficult biological conditions for plants. salty water.. The place is unique and the design reflects this character. The company has since closed down and left the area. but the major land-winning projects were carried out after the Second World War. Within the concept of a dense and irregular small-scale urban structure. given the name Daniaparken. parks and gardens. Possible words to describe the character are: sea. The Masterplan was approved by the municipal authorities at the end of the 1990s. windswept. with landscape architect 218 . The programme for the competition gave clear suggestions for the design of the shoreline park: The Waterfront Park is situated facing the sea … The site is exposed. For the waterfront park. The Kockums Company. this part of the city is called the Western Harbour and the aim is that it will be transformed step by step into a new urban district with 600 dwellings. The high content of salt in the air. Bo 01 – the City of the Future – in 2001. At present. contemplative. towards the end of the eighteenth century.
in the city. for many years to come. These ideas of design restraint and understatement position Andersson in a long-standing tradition in Swedish landscape architecture. The American landscape architect and theorist Marc Treib has interpreted the landscape architecture of T. Like the Stockholm School and Swedish Romantic Modernism. you have set the basis for the design.2 The design process and the construction of the park had a tight schedule due to the date of the opening of the exposition. was declared the winner. The following is partly drawn from the book. the design is propelled by social purpose and a predi- 219 . which is similar in size and is also located in an urban environment. Malmö 8. the initiative and the design process were different. but if you make the existing site a starting point and add a layer to fulfil the needs. Andersson in an article published in the same book. our present.6 Early perspective sketch of the east promenade Thorbjörn Andersson in charge. platser (2002). To handle the complexity is not easy. but both resulting parks have proved equally popular with the citizens. our mutual aspirations and the kind of city life people desire. in terms of both form and materials. but of people living their everyday lives on the site. Andersson claims that landscape architecture has a social mission. The main issue is to design public open space that is durable. The places should give a reflection of our culture. Daniaparken can be compared to Strandparken in Copenhagen. The following quotation is from the jury’s assessment: The connection and exposition to the sea has been given new dimensions without compromise in the control of the four elements. given his own views on landscape architecture and the role of the landscape architect. but with some supplementary reflections.3 where he also gives a more general view of Swedish landscape design traditions and characteristics. in his book Places. The work of the designer should not be a reflection of his or her personality. Design philosophy Thorbjörn Andersson has.Daniaparken. A unique outdoor environment in a project to be remembered. Strong design elements forms events and space in a large overall design.
The design has been made in co-operation between Thorbjörn Andersson and Pe Ge Hillinge. Instead we have relied on our heritage from the turn of the last century. Design development No parks of this size have been built in Sweden for half a century. with hard-surfaced walks running east–west. he does not inject fragments of natural landscapes within the urban context. The rest is for life itself to add. to his design process. They have worked together many times before and describe the design process as ‘like running in a relay race. when most of the existing parks were designed and constructed.’4 As key words. Opposing the tradition. A strong boulder lining along the edge of the sea retains the mud. The existing boulders along the edge of the sea provided a 220 .Sweden lection for local materials. Andersson refers to the Swedish architect Ingeborg HammarskiöldReiz’s ideas about sufficiency and necessity. along the sea and the shore. Structure The site of the park is a flat landfill with contaminated mud. but instead seeks a logical consequence in architectural forms and materials. The immense scale of the coastal landscape on the site is reflected in the park. For a public park it is sufficient to include the necessary. an elongated grass field between the promenades and a few lines of trees. The basic design concept is very simple with straight lines stretching from south to north. The openness is intended to contrast with the dense and irregular city development. where they carry the stick in turns. or clues.
and finally the Lawn can. the park is open to the land and closed to the sea. called the Node. The general lightning of the park is provided by three slightly tilted masts. proportion and space for social activity. one can argue that the park contains a number of parts or elements that separately have such a strong form and character that they cre- 221 . On the other hand. The large multi-use grass field. accommodate thousands of people. Along the wall.5 Elements Because of the extraordinarily large size of the park. Scale The park is mostly about scale. 1.Daniaparken. Along the eastern border. The Node provides space for a few hundreds. That’s the idea. on the inner side. The design is like Pandora’s box. Three tilted concrete planes. coordinated with their different design and character.4m high. as it provides space for several thousands of people. one could argue that it lacks what would traditionally be described as a sense of space. A large flat table. The elevated parts of the park are of great importance for the design concept. the Lawn. or palisade. meaning enclosed space defined by surrounding walls. comprising spaces and places of various sizes and qualities that address various kinds of visitors and activities. suitable for promenades and biking. if required. The different places and elements have different forms of illumination. the Scouts. equipped with well-directed spotlights. stretches another gravelled walk with a single line of trees and simple stone benches under the canopies. Along the boulder line runs a tarred wooden wall. the Balconies. The Scouts provide for about 20–30. as did the elevated mass of fill material that the boulders prevent from eroding into the water. is distinguished from the walk by two lines of trees. from the slope to the west of the park. towards the residential area. if you are tall enough. penetrate the wall and boulder line and permit visitors access to the water. The Lawn is appropriate for playing as well as for larger events. but not through it. In a way. Consequently you can look over it. the grass field ends with a terraced garden of perennial plants and to the east a grass slope provides possibilities for sitting on the ground. overlook the grass field. via the Balconies for about ten people. is a wide gravelled walk with park benches. To the north. Andersson has described it as follows: The park contains a series of social spaces from the large park benches where a family can have a picnic. Three tarred wooden boxes. lies about 6m above water level in the north-east corner of the park. Malmö departure point for the design. 16m high.
but the authorities do not want anyone to get hurt. The Node is the part of the park that. FFNS's winning proposal described the Node as a fortification. for example.7 Bird’s eye sketch of the proposal in the design competition ate a sense of space around themselves. just in case. Some days it is fantastic. In the first proposal it had a huge staircase down to the water surface with a narrow elevated pier towards the north-east corner. ‘Large scale without detailing turns out monotonous and dumb. The designer stresses that it is especially important to take care of the details when working at such a large scale. The Node is a very large body. swarms with city life. whether to a harsh wind or a beautiful sunset. has been transformed between the early design proposal and the actual construction. a focal point for the whole district and the city. The different parts were already named in the initial sketches and proposal for the competition – the Node. They jump or dive from the handrail some 6m down into the water and climb the slightly tilted walls up again. urban space which. the county in which Malmö is situated). The municipal authorities have tried to stop this and put up warning signs. During the bathing season. in the architect’s design. they have cleared the stones from the bottom. The 40 x 40m flat table. Perhaps this is a typically Swedish manner of handling such a matter – it is prohibited. rural and rather derelict place has been transformed. and. the Lawn – in order to give them a certain identity and closely connect them to the project as a whole and to make it more difficult to exclude them from the project. leaves the visitor totally exposed to the elements. Inspiration for the areas related to marine and coastal scenery was drawn from a small fishing village by the east coast of Scania (Skåne.Sweden 8. The Node Initially it was suggested that this should be a very public place. a citadel. the Balconies. This happens to be the region where Andersson was born and raised. in the summertime at least. Some days you do not want to be here at all. Presumably it is the best spot in town in which to experience stormy weather. inhuman. The Node attracts lots of visitors to the park. to the greatest extent. if. This was followed by a design with a narrowing staircase and a small outpost attached to the wall. into a large-scale. elevated about 6m above the sea level. the Scouts.’6 222 . Eventually the staircase disappeared and the Node was given its final form. This important role implied the need for a strong identity in both form and material. This inspiration from a small-scale. costs had to be cut as the design and construction process continued. the small outpost balcony attached to the wall has become a place for young men and women to test their courage.
8 Photo of a model of the proposal at a later stage in the design process 8.9 (overleaf) Elevations of the Node 223 . Malmö 8.Daniaparken.
Sweden 224 .
Malmö 225 .Daniaparken.
226 . It is a steel construction with a wooden decking of azobe and framing handrails of steel. Small washers of steel were inserted between the wood and form a diagonal pattern. In the middle of the flat square plane of the Node is a place that is elevated by approximately half a metre. the exterior façade was covered with tarred horizontal wooden paling. The colour is dark grey with a structured surface and the dimensions are 500 x 500 x 70mm. 6m above the water surface. In this way the large façade surfaces have a desirable detailing. stretching out about 5m from the wall. The supporting walls.10 The outpost with a view towards the bridge between Sweden and Denmark The Node is constructed with walls of concrete and an exterior tongue of steel. The outpost is a small and tapering platform. The metal glitters in the black surface in the daylight. Ultimately only the inner surface was finished in this way.Sweden 8. like hanging above the water. The surface of the plane has the same concrete slab paving as the rest of the surface of the Node. During the hours of darkness a sloping light from the upper edge of the wall creates shaped shadows down the walls. You can climb onto it via steps or a ramp. You can sit along the edges or on the elevated plane itself. Because of high costs. the stairs and the ramp are all constructed with solid granite blocks. so that the whole thing resembled a citadel. Inside the walls a fill material of crushed bedrock has been used to permit drainage The original idea was that both exterior and interior surfaces of the wall should be covered with 40mm granite slabs with a rough surface. called the Stone Table. Taking a few steps out onto it gives one a feeling of dizziness. It is totally free of all kinds of equipment.
11 Detailed construction sections for the outpost 227 .Daniaparken. Malmö 8.
The whole area is framed with a frieze of the same slabs.13 The Great Slope 8. but never reach its back edge. but with a pattern laid at a 45 angle to a central line formed by two rows of slabs. Along the lower edge of the slope runs a gutter of three rows of stone setts. The Great Slope Connecting the Node with the gravelled walk along the shore lies the Great Slope which is tilted at about 7 per cent (1:15). take a rest on a park bench. A small gap between the paving and the wall makes it possible for the water to flow down into the crushed rock filling. sense the wind and water. They have the shape of slightly terraced. with the unwanted result that the gravel overflows onto the stone surface.Sweden 8. The park benches in the slope are constructed of square sawn timber in robust dimensions lying on a low stand of steel. resembling those used when launching boats. Waves can overflow the tilted plane. natural patina. It is primarily attractive for activities like biking and skateboarding. The wall has a coping of granite. but you rarely see anyone resting here. You can also find benches. The sea is invited to the park. The paving is made with the same concrete slabs as used on the Node. which gives the surface the look of a grey. The slope is also suitable for sunbathing. This is the place were you can penetrate the wooden wall and get in touch with the water. The inner covering façade is made of granite slabs with a rough surface and the outside of tarred wood. picnics and children’s play. The wood is processed with iron vitriol. Originally it was planned that the Scouts were to be constructed with a body of cast concrete. The supporting walls have the same concrete construction as those of the Node.12 The Node – façade 8. The slabs are grounded in concrete. situated on the slope. the park is invited to the sea. windsurfing. have a full view to the horizon and Denmark on the other side of the narrow sound between the countries. The Scouts The three Scouts are facing the sea. You can go swimming. directed towards a stage of granite slabs in the gravelled surface below. The surface is exactly level with the surrounding gravel.14 Detailed plan of the paving on the Great Slope The falls across the Node have been designed in order to direct the storm-water towards the surrounding walls. tilted platforms. The intention was that the slope could be used as a platform or stand. The stage inserted in the gravelled surface below the slope is paved with large slabs of Swedish granite with dimensions 1000 x 1000 x 100mm with a flamed surface. designed with a nautical touch. The shape is extended towards the water. The 228 .
Daniaparken. In the Öresund there are no tides. This has resulted in a growth of seaweed that makes the steps very slippery. Accidents have occurred in connection with bathing. That means you go up on to the Scout and then down to the water. The municipal park department are testing different non-slip materials to prevent future accidents. following the original intention. This part is elevated by two to three steps above the gravelled walk. This increases the form and identity of the Scout as a separate element in the overall design of the park. protecting wall along one of the sides were to have a covering of tarred wood. but the average water level fluctuates over the seasons and as a result of wind direction. towards the gravelled walk. Normally the water reaches the third or fourth step. The wall at the back was not built as intended. The risers have a hardwood edge (azobe) chosen because it is so much more durable than any domestic timber. The framing wall at the back. The final construction was made with the terraced slope in cast concrete with a brushed surface. was supposed to have a concrete body with a façade of rough-surfaced granite slabs. even in periods of low water. The wing wall along the northern side is a solid cast concrete construction with a smooth surface. Malmö raised. The paving on the upper platform is granite. The grading of the tilted terraced slope is designed to have water overflowing the lower parts. The paving of the upper platform as well as the terraced slope were to be paved with flame-finished granite slabs. but is a skilfully cut 229 .
15 Detailed construction drawings of the Scouts (plan and section) 8.Sweden 8.16 Detailed section through the granite wall 230 .
Daniaparken. Malmö 231 .
The façade facing the lawn is slightly tilted like the outside façades of the Node. thin pieces of wood. like ‘cigar boxes pushed into the slope’. which gives the impression of being planted in a box. The construction consists of a platform of concrete sitting on concrete columns upon a cast concrete foundation.19 Photo of the scale model of a balcony 232 . and would more correctly be described as an embracing fence. On the outside the covering is made of small. open joints and small wedge stones. On this side there is also an opening in the fence. height about 1. though actually it has a pit in the slope below. The chips are tarred. As with the Scouts. The lath is screwed on to steel sheets. giving a dim black impression that at the same time is impregnating and protective to the wood. The fence has a coping lath of teak with carefully rounded edges. The outside façade is illuminated during the hours of darkness by lighting fittings hidden under the coping lath of wood. These have a robust character.Sweden 8. The enclosing walls do not have a supporting function. but these have proved hard to establish. At the entrance to the Balcony is a tree. The coping of wall consists of turfs of Sedum. that are fixed to brackets on the fence posts.18 Surface of the in-situ cast concrete paving and constructed dry wall of two different kinds of Swedish granite. following the tilt of the fence.1m. The Balconies The Balconies are intended to be pieces of cabinet making. On top of the concrete platform lies a wooden decking of azobe. This is an example of best practice in traditional stonework. like a peephole to the park and the sea. is covered on the inside with horizontal wooden laths. 8. In the opening there is a grid made of circular steel. The framing fence.17 Face of the wall 8. with a rough surface marked by the wedges of the stone craftsmen. The outside covering of wood is like a façade covering the supporting structure.7 The design is a contribution by architect Anders Lidström. They are placed in the eastern part of the park. inserted as stabilisers for the whole construction. You enter the Balcony by climbing a few steps from the walk. like a traditional spåntak or chip roof. They are elevated approximately 1m above the level of the Lawn. in the slope from the Lawn up to the gravelled walk. this small elevation reinforces the form and identity of the element.
Malmö 8.20 Section through tree pit in the slope under a balcony 8.22 Balcony inserted into the grass slope 8.21 Detailed section through supporting structure and façade 8.Daniaparken.23 Close-up of the timber cladding 233 .
8 The design concept. of course. the waterfront has a very strong attraction that is difficult to compete with. In this respect. of Daniaparken is very simple – a linear overall structure with hard surfaces along the shore and the border to the buildings. not contrariwise. but this might change over time. It is a kind of adaptive reuse project that at present occupies several landscape architects in the country and that has become something of a speciality for Thorbjörn Andersson: to transform a landscape produced by prior human use. The landscape design is for the people. its predilection for linear structures. Although the land was formerly an industrial area. on the contrary. Daniaparken is not a typical project of Andersson’s work. The design and construction in this district have higher quality standards than is usual. the walk along the east border feels remote from the city. when the district is more dense and has more buildings. for example. or scheme. Three strong ideas could still make a good design. almost sacred. They are the basic principles. an elongated grass field without any specific assignments of use and a few features that have a strong attraction to visitors. by Swedish standards. a background where people should have fun and be funny. In other respects it is. I can accept to let go of two. This raises some interesting questions when approaching the design process. One opinion about the park is that it has a very serious atmosphere. this was a burden. 234 .Sweden Evaluation Daniaparken is. In Daniaparken you can sense this lack of relation across the Lawn. A problem with a striped structure – a landscape of ribbons – is the lack of relationship across the lines. Andersson explains about his general guidelines of design as follows: I want five strong design ideas in a project. And. very typical in its analytical and simple concept. but my obligation to produce a project with an acceptable level of quality … During my first years in practice. but it is difficult to keep up the quality with less … It is not only my responsibility. but argues that landscape architecture does not necessarily have to be amusing in itself. where old structures might have been removed or still occupy the site. it was completely cleared and filled. a very large and costly project. It is a framework. In course of time it has become a little easier. the sensibility of its detailing and its use of local materials (mainly granite). At present. do we destroy the existing cultural landscape and replace it with another? Or do we keep the structure but modify the function? In the case of Daniaparken there were very few remaining structures and elements on site. I presume experience helps. Andersson does not oppose this opinion.
It is rather a rule than an exception that design projects undergo changes during the design and construction process. Mixed borders of small shrubs distinguish the Lawn from the gravelled walk along the shore and there is a perennial garden in the northern part of the park. which the municipality does not fulfil in a proper way. The eclectic idea about resembling a citadel was replaced with a fresh idea. many of them died during the first year after planting. Daniaparken was one of 14 contemporary parks nominated for the Rosa Barba European Landscape Award.Daniaparken. where there is both an inner and outside façade of wood and even though they have different expressions this does not cause the same visual conflict. with the walls having an inner façade covered with granite under a coping of granite. But these changes have not caused any disadvantage to the Scouts or to the park. vegetation does not play any leading part. The trees were not planted in single pits. The tarred wood demands frequent maintenance. but in a long. there is little vegetation. Malmö The park’s very ambitious programme of illumination. Consequently. In Daniaparkenm. plays a very important role for the experience of the park during the dark hours and seasons. The ultimate solution. created in cooperation with a specialist. not only for the visitor but also for those who see the park from a distance. The planting site consists of 800mm soil. The shrubs and perennials have established well. You can compare this with the Balconies. over the years. developed a lack of confidence in the unpredictability and changeability of vegetation in an urban context. The single change of materials which had the greatest impact on the architectural design was probably the change from granite walls to façades of tarred wood on the Node. Rows of trees have been concentrated along the walks. Typically for an Andersson urban landscape design. a few years after construction. Also the Scouts had to undergo a change of materials. which is not the case with the trees. the surfaces look greyish and dried out already. In 2003. continuous trench. has gained something from that substitution. as well as the park as a whole. instead of a concrete body with wooden covering. 400mm mineral soil and 400mm 235 . This was true in the case of Daniaparken. Actually. He has. based upon reflections of a marine context. results in a meeting of materials (with the tarred wood) that is not successful. You can debate whether the Node. The paving of granite slabs was partly replaced with in-situ cast concrete and the wing wall was constructed as a solid in-situ cast concrete wall.
In the early proposal for the competition the site could be characterised by phrases like ‘wide sky’. The cause of the failure has not been entirely investigated.Sweden 8. mainly whitebeam (Sorbus aria). which could be described as a common standard for the size of trees and the kind of urban environment. ‘public urban space’ and ‘swarming city life’. would be an apt description of the site as it now appears from spring until autumn. It has done this with a park that is able to attract the younger generations of inhabitants and accommodate their activities. a more typically Swedish characteristic! With Daniaparken. Malmö has consolidated its position as the leading city of Sweden in terms of impressive parks.25 Herbaceous garden top soil.24 Trees along the upper east promenade 8. ‘long vistas’. but the trees will be replaced by others of the same species. 236 . which is not typi- cally Swedish. To describe what is on site today you could add words like ‘modern urbanity’. for the rest of the year it is desolate. but in a refined form. ‘extended horizon’. The latter. This character remains on site. ‘stone boulders’. even though the design of the park adapts to the Swedish and Scandinavian traditions on landscape architecture and has a universal applicability in use and materials.
In Newcastle. towns and commercial forests. Little remains of the industries with which they were once synonymous. The two projects studied in this chapter belong to this second category. coal-mining and shipbuilding in the case of Newcastle. involved the construction of the new Millennium Galleries and demolition of the egg-box-like Town Hall Extension. though ultimately unsuccessful. it does correspond to two of the main strands of activity in which British landscape architects find themselves engaged in the early years of the twenty-first century. such as motorways. densely populated and urbanised island. business relocation and tourism. while Newcastle Gateshead’s highly acclaimed. within the rural landscape. but suffer from a housing shortage which pushes up prices and increases the pressure to build upon greenfield sites. South Wales and the West of Scotland. reservoirs. the ‘Cityscape’ exercise promoted by the northern branch of the Royal Institute of British Architects was a catalyst for city centre renewal. The aim is to alter percep- tions and thus increase inward investment. In Sheffield. is concerned with the mitigation of the ecological and aesthetic impacts of new developments outside or on the edge of urban areas. with a resulting loss of population to the more prosperous south. Though this picture is over-simplified. The second is an engagement with the regeneration of post-industrial towns and cities and the effort to reverse economic decline through a mixture of environmental improvement and cultural development. It is often suggested that there is a north–south divide. in addition to the transformation of the Peace Gardens which will be described here. creating the site for the striking new Winter Gardens. going into decline. such as coal-mining. they have sought to add to their cultural attractions. which is really a continuation of the post-war concern for the aesthetic accommodation of large items of infrastructure. In the old industrial conurbations of Northern England. Following the example of Glasgow. the story has been one of traditional industries. 237 . while addressing the deficiencies of their city centres through urban design. steelmaking and metalworking in the case of Sheffield. Both have been looking for ways to shake off the negative images associated with their industrial heydays. London and the South-East are regarded as prosperous. The first. steel-making and shipbuilding. Newcastle and Sheffield can both be classified as post-industrial cities. which was European City of Culture in 1990.The United Kingdom Ian Thompson Landscape architecture in the United Kingdom Great Britain is a relatively small. this has been done through an initiative called the Heart of the City Project which. power stations. bid for European City of Culture 2008 created an adventurous climate in which novel ideas could be received into urban thinking.
involving not only landscape architects. artists or craftspersons. whereas in the case of the Peace Garden. the creative vision was essentially that of one person. Both were multi-disciplinary team efforts. adjacent to the Town Hall in the Sheffield example. Thomas Heatherwick. whose training was in three-dimensional design and who combined the ability to work with others with the tenacity to hold onto the integrity of his ideas. but also highways and lighting engineers and specialist designers. Newcastle. It seems to disprove the adage that one cannot get good design from a committee. yet the whole scheme is remarkably coherent and unified. 238 . outside an art gallery in the case of Newcastle. creative ideas came from many different people and sources. A major difference between the projects was that in the case of the Blue Carpet.United Kingdom Both of the projects to be described involve the remodelling of significantly placed urban spaces.
England Project data Project name: Location: Date completed: Cost: Area: Designer: Client: The Blue Carpet Laing Square. but just as a rug can change a room. where the new glazed entrance to the Laing faced a scruffy expanse of tarmac and a miscellany of unrelated buildings.4 million 1300m2 Thomas Heatherwick City of Newcastle Overview The location of this project. one of the critical reactions to the project has been that it is not blue enough). but unlike conventional repaving. It is rather as if the owner of a house with poor floorboards has bought an exotic rug and thrown it down to distract attention from what lies beneath. Newcastle upon Tyne 2002 £1. Instead. 239 . and he is adamant that the Blue Carpet is a functional part of the city. Deliberately ill-fitting. does not describe himself as an artist. Strips peeled from the carpet form benches. It laps up against the wall of the Laing Gallery like an Axminster that has crept. it does not fit tidily inside the usual boundaries provided by adjacent buildings and road kerbs. Newcastle upon Tyne. Newcastle upon Tyne Case study The Blue Carpet. like an irregular mat. the Blue Carpet. so the Blue Carpet has altered the entire character of this formerly nondescript corner of Newcastle city centre. It appears to have been punctured by bollards. but that in its form and in its details the Blue Carpet is out of the ordinary. and its title. outside Newcastle’s Laing Art Gallery. suggest that this is a piece of public art and this was certainly the way in which the City Council chose to represent it. into a space which is itself oddly shaped. It is not so much that the paving material used. while the paving surrounding it is conspicuously ordinary. is blue (indeed. It is just that more thought has gone into it than goes into most urban spaces. it has been laid. the designer who won the competition to remodel this neglected corner of the city. Laing Square. it over-laps tree pits. which was the result of much research and experimentation.The Blue Carpet. But Thomas Heatherwick. nor even that it uses recycled glass. The Blue Carpet is essentially a paving scheme.
it has flowed up the streets’. a terrazzo company. This led him to imagine a sinuous curvaceous form. and experimenting with the idea of putting 240 . and founded the Thomas Heatherwick Studio in 1994 to bring together architecture.United Kingdom 9. The idea was that the involvement of an artist in the scheme would bring something special to the design and lift it out of the commonplace. although the continuity of his thought process is easy to follow. Presented with an irregular site which was little more than a piece of abandoned roadway.2 (above right) View of Laing Gallery prior to implementation 9. rather like a lava flow. Heatherwick’s first thought was to make it less linear and more like a city square.1 (top left) View towards the Laing Art gallery showing the ‘peeled’ benched and the carpet lapping against the gallery wall 9. which would lap into the adjacent streets. Thomas Heatherwick trained in three-dimensional design at Manchester Metropolitan University and the Royal College of Art. It would be ‘as if someone had poured a material called “Square” into this space and. design and engineering. The proposal which won this commission for Heatherwick was very different from the scheme that was eventually built. like mercury.1 The designer had been collaborating with Pallam Precast.3 (above left) The site before implementation: view towards the Newcastle Building Society Design philosophy The brief issued by Newcastle City Council called for a designer rather than a design. art.
Newcastle upon Tyne 9.The Blue Carpet. as laid 241 .4 Aerial view of the Blue Carpet.
United Kingdom 9.5 Site plan 242 .
Newcastle upon Tyne 243 .The Blue Carpet.
sharp and brittle as glass could be turned into a suitable material to pave a city clearly appealed to the designer. Though he does not regard himself as an artist. but by night had points of light in it’. rather as if the lava flow was still there but smothered beneath a rug. The idea of a material which lit up at night also proved too expensive. but the notion of an unusual material which unified the space without entirely filling it remained. Lights could be installed beneath the bollards. he also created voids which could be filled with coloured neon tubes. One of the most costly aspects of the lava-flow idea had been the curving shapes. perhaps there was something of conceptual art here. Straight edges were more economical and this thought led to the idea of a carpet. then grinding off the ends.2 This ambitious concept soon ran into the realities of budgetary constraints and had to be abandoned. Heatherwick resisted the suggestion that a small part of the square might be treated in this way. so ‘we could make paving that by day just looked like ordinary paving. but then found a solution which satisfied him. In this way it appeared that the whole carpet had been laid over some bright molten material which shone through gaps and fissures. shining up through the punctured fabric. Heatherwick had been trying to find an inexpensive way to bring colour into a paving material and had been investigating the idea of using broken glass. 244 . Every piece of the square would have needed to have been uniquely cast. the conception that a material so hard. In his experiments with the terrazzo company.United Kingdom fibre optics data-transmission fibre into terrazzo. By creating benches which appeared to be strips cut from the carpet.
The Blue Carpet.6 Bollard concept detail: section and plan 9.7 Illuminated bollard by night 245 . Newcastle upon Tyne 9.
without being rough or jagged.United Kingdom Design development For Newcastle City Council the idea of employing a designer with distinctly adventurous and artistic ideas to repave a road junction was a major departure and it required many of the other professionals involved to adjust their thinking. The breakthrough came when Heatherwick turned to the idea of using resin as a matrix rather than concrete. Initial tests showed that white cement was better than grey because it reflected light back through the glass. so the surface. The competition brief had been written by an urban designer working for the Planning and Transportation Division. Coloured glass is homogeneous and will not fade through wear or exposure to the elements. There are technical difficulties about using it as an aggregate within a cementatious matrix. which meant that the material itself had to be something unusual. When it became clear that the lava-flow concept was not going to be possible. He was certain that he did not just want to make a pattern out of conventional elements. Glass interested him because it is inherently hard and thus resists wearing. The glass particles were very small and the blocks were not polished. Heatherwick recalls how the engineers would take out their keys and scratch the sample blocks to see if any shards of glass became detached. provided a good grip. This mismatch of perceptions was also reflected in the unrealistic fee initially offered to the designer. Blue glass was chosen in preference to green or brown because it seemed to keep its colour better when embedded. Fortunately it was possible to overcome these obstacles and Heatherwick found a great ally in Nader Mahktari. The quest was to achieve the mix which allowed the maximum amount of glass at the surface without any of the particles becoming loose. The sharpness of broken glass makes it an unlikely paving material. which was based on the assumption that most of the detailed and technical design would be done by others. These are its virtues. Heatherwick realised that he would have to do something closer to a customary paving scheme. but in effect would want to design the whole place from scratch was difficult for them to accept and there was initially much scepticism and resistance. but the people Heatherwick would have to work most closely with were highways engineers. but it also presents difficulties. The idea that an ‘artist’ might not just want to produce an object to place in the new square. particularly in Britain’s safety-conscious culture. One of the benefits of this was that the material could be used to make thin tiles rather 246 . the local authority engineer appointed as project manager.
This aspect of the work was supervised by the City of Newcastle’s Landscape Section. used to the complex curves of hulls. Newcastle upon Tyne than heavy blocks. The metalwork of the stairs themselves was manufactured by Hi Def (UK) Ltd. working with two companies. Although the Blue Carpet is essentially a hard-landscaping scheme. Heatherwick did not want his material to be polished. This new material is now known as TTURA. It consists of 85 per cent recycled glass held in a solvent-free resin and can be regarded as an environmentally sympathetic material. They cover a total area of 1300m2 and are bonded to the base material with an epoxy adhesive. Eventually. so he asked them to produce samples in which the resin was cleaned back to expose the facets of the glass. perhaps the most likely hazards in this party-city. the team devised a system for making the necessary tiles. It is also resistant to acids and alkalis. It was decided that only a boat-builder.The Blue Carpet. but these metal strips catch the light. The stairs 247 . These tiles could be bonded on site to a concrete base. cigarette burns and alcohol. were made in Heatherwick’s own studio prior to casting by Pallam Precast. Glass is so extraordinarily hard that a layer of only 5mm will have a wearing life of 60 or 70 years. Heatherwick made contact with the Design Research Centre at Sheffield Hallam University where they had been exploring the use of glass as an indoor terrazzo component. Dew Pitchmastic and Resin Building Products. Designed as an elegant replacement for an existing steel structure. In the daytime the neon tubes are switched off. the staircase has at its core a simple broad spiral made of 1. They are some of the largest trees ever imported into the UK (one is over 16m tall). No one was prepared to manufacture these at a reasonable cost. The most eye-catching features in the square are the benches which seem to have been formed of the carpet material. would be able to construct this sophisticated and technically-demanding shape and the work was given to McNulty Boats Ltd of Hebburn. An epoxy grout was also used.3 The surface of the carpet is broken up by strips of brass which echo the overall shape in the manner of contours on a plan. Each tile measures 450 x 150 x 10mm and is made from blue glass in a white resin base. together with the structural steelwork that would be hidden inside them. peeled up and given a gentle twist. diesel and petrol spillage and.340 individual pieces of marine plywood. Another feature of Thomas Heatherwick’s scheme is the spiral staircase which links the new public square to one of the city’s main car parks across the Central Motorway at Manors. so their brass edges. it includes seven mature trees that were transplanted from nurseries in Germany and the Netherlands.
8 Bench concept detail (plan) 9.10 A bench as cast 248 .United Kingdom 9.9 Creating the frames for the benches in the studio 9.
Newcastle upon Tyne 9.13 Spiral staircase from above 249 .11 Staircase details 9.The Blue Carpet.12 Spiral staircase from below 9.
yet it does not seem a good reason to give up on paving. ‘It was just before the Gateshead Millennium Bridge went up. Nevertheless it seems to be a simple fact that by nature we get more excited about bridges and skyscrapers than we do about the ground beneath our feet. it might be argued that if it were a stronger colour it would be too dominant for the urban scene.United Kingdom are formed from 8mm-thick stainless steel plate cut using the Plasma arc process. but when compared with other paving materials it is undeniably blue. When it was finally revealed to the public. Heatherwick contents himself with the knowledge that it is as blue as he could possibly 250 . It is blue enough. Some commentators complained that the Blue Carpet was actually not that blue. It is certainly not turquoise or azure. Each flight and each landing had to be individually produced because the radius of the spiral varied along its length. Indeed. It is just because paving is such a ubiquitous material that we should care about it more. there was an initial sense of anti-climax. During the lengthy period of technical innovation it was hyped relentlessly. but how exciting can paving ever be? People are inspired by things that soar up in the air. In order to attract funding.’4 It is hard to deny this psychological insight. The staircase is a considerable work of craftsmanship in its own right. We worked as hard on the Blue Carpet as they did on that. Evaluation The Blue Carpet was not a routine piece of environmental improvement. and worry as much about its aesthetic qualities as its durability or safety. it was promoted as a piece of public art. As Heatherwick observes wryly.
the whole concept would lose its power. 251 . In all. It is easy to forget the doggedness that a designer must demonstrate if he is to push through an inventive idea in the face of technical problems. it took five years from competition briefing to completion. Michael Downing complained about the poor quality of the paving that surrounded the Blue Carpet. but a civic culture that demands this standard of originality and flair in all its public projects. this assessment seems fair.4 million is a significant figure. quirky. the professional magazine for British landscape architects. the architecture critic for the Sunday Times summed up the Blue Carpet when he described it as ‘an intelligent. What no one foresaw at the outset was the time that would be needed for research and development of the new paving material.000 of the final total came from Lottery Funding obtained on the strength of the project’s artistic aspirations.6 Apart from the unnecessarily Londo-centric swipe at things regional. the Blue Carpet has had a mixed reception. indifference or disbelief. Hugh Pearman. but it is not so unusual for a public art project. upmarket little regional pedestrianisation scheme’.5 Heatherwick thinks that he missed the point. This is much longer than most conventional hard-landscaping projects. it does not have the scale or the impact to become iconic. Some £500. As a one-off. it does not seem wildly inappropriate for a new square in a city which is determined to raise its international standing through cultural endeavour. The Laing Square scheme was initially scheduled for completion in December 1999.4 million. but was not completed until early in 2002. In the professional press. an ingenious and witty piece of design. without doubt.000 that had been in the initial brief.The Blue Carpet. Newcastle upon Tyne make it within the limits set by considerations of durability and safety. It is also genuinely innovatory in terms of the materials used. which were ‘completely out of keeping with the crisp modern treatment of the carpet itself’. considerably more than the projected £300. In Landscape Design. Without this contrast between ordinary materials and the extra-special quality of the Carpet and its fittings. What a city like Newcastle needs is not just one example of design of this quality. Gateshead’s Millennium Bridge cost £22 million. The Blue Carpet was over-hyped during construction. To put the expenditure into perspective. The final budget amounted to £1. yet it is. While £1. particularly the detailing of the circular tree-pits. There were also objections to the cost and to the time taken to complete.
sunny and sheltered place. In the 1970s.5m and retained behind bulging stone copings. It was mostly frequented by the homeless and people with alcohol problems. though based on a traditional English garden style. Along the rim of the garden at the higher level there is a stone balustrade. and the eight curvaceous urns around the perimeter give the place an air of whimsy and seem to evoke some mysterious lost civilisation. from which five stone-flagged paths descend towards the principal water feature.United Kingdom Case study The Peace Gardens. Sheffield Sheffield city centre 1998 £5 million Sheffield City Council Sheffield City Council Overview The Peace Gardens are located to the south of Sheffield Town Hall. a concrete Town Hall Extension was built on a neighbouring site which soon became known as the ’egg-box’. aligned with the axis of the Town Hall elevation. Although the overall layout is formal. the detailed forms of the rounded copings. The slightly exotic feeling of the place is enhanced by the planting. Beside each path run water rills seemingly fed from the spouts of large metal vessels mounted on carved circular plinths above the balustrade. a Victorian building (with a Grade I conservation listing) to which an extension was added in the 1920s. which sits within a larger space known as Town Hall Square. it was never distinguished. which. By the 1990s. After the war. In good weather. The rills are lined with highly textured leaf-like ceramic forms. The slopes behind them are richly planted with shrubs and herbaceous material. This takes the form of a computerised fountain at the lowest point of the site. There has been an open space in this location since 1937 when the abandoned church of St Paul’s was demolished to provide the site for a further Town Hall extension. The Peace Gardens would form a welcoming. In the segments separated by the radial paths there are lawns raised by about 0. 252 . but in design terms. This building proposal stalled with the outbreak of the Second World War and the site was then grassed. The egg-box would be demolished to provide the site for the Millennium Galleries and the new Winter Gardens designed by architects Pringle Richards Sharratt with consulting engineers Buro Happold. There is a change in level of about 2m across the site. England Project data Project name: Location: Date completed: Cost: Designer: Client: Peace Gardens. The Heart of the City Public Realm Project aimed to restore it to full community use. an object of derision for some. includes many architectural plants with bold foliage. At the lowest point. nestled against the Town Hall whose architectural merits would at last be complemented. the grass is crowded with people sunbathing and socialising. The latter has a symmetrical elevation which helped to determine the focal point for the new gardens. a dancing fountain forms the hub of the garden. but also the focus for an inverted kind of civic pride. it became known as the Peace Gardens and flower beds were cut into the turf. the balusters with their alternating dumb-bell and egg motifs. Sheffield. the old Peace Gardens had acquired an unsavoury reputation.
14 An early masterplan by Allies and Morrison for the whole of the Heart of the City project. 9. water features and seats 253 . showing steps.The Peace Gardens. The Peace Gardens are shown as ‘City Square’.16 View towards the Town Hall. Sheffield 9.15 View of the bronze urns by Asquith Design Partnership 9.
This requirement emerged strongly from a public consultation exercise carried out in conjunction with an exhibition at the Town Hall held over seven days in November 1995. the furniture designer Andrew Skelton produced timber benches.17 Bronze bollards designed by the Asquith Design Partnership represent Sheffield’s metalworking history expressed strong preferences for traditional park or garden elements such as grass lawns. indeed.United Kingdom Design philosophy The Peace Gardens were part of a larger initiative called the Heart of the City Public Realm Project. The cascades represent the waterfalls coming off the Edges and the rills represent the rivers themselves. Although many of the Peace Gardens’ visitors may never know it. The public also objected to the proposition that a nearby waterfeature. Tom Perkins and Ieuan Rees. herbaceous borders and semi-mature trees. and two letter carvers. Raising the quality of public open spaces was a key concept in this strategy. Six separate art or craft commissions were incorporated into the design. all-dancing water feature. a subtle symbolism underlies the overall layout and also informs many of the details. leader of the design team in the Department of Design and Property. The fountain symbolises the vibrancy of the city centre. There was a feeling that the Peace Gardens should remain a green oasis and refuge from the bustle of the city. The metal vessels which flank the gateways represent their sources high in the Peak District. and suggestions that it should become an ‘entertainment space’ were viewed with suspicion. wrote inscriptions on the stonework. the notion of ‘quality’ was a fundamental value throughout the project and is reflected in the materials used. the largest city centre regeneration project in Britain since the 1950s. which has often been regarded as too expensive for contemporary projects. 9. In the words of Lyn Mitchell. ‘We just wanted an all-singing. the ceramicist Tracey Heyes produced the inlays for the water rills. and there was general support for the idea that water should somehow be accommodated within the proposed design. the Goodwin Fountain.’7 Water power was important in the earliest industrial processes in the area and there are over one hun- Another key idea was that the Peace Gardens should genuinely be a garden. should be removed without replacement. The idea of quality is also reflected in the craftsmanship demonstrated throughout the gardens. the father-andson team known as the Asquith Design Partnership was responsible for the work in bronze. The five converging paths with their associated water rills represent the five young rivers upon which Sheffield is said to have been founded. particularly the extensive use of natural stone. The public 254 . not a paved urban square. The stone-carver Richard Perry worked on the balustrades.
Lyn Mitchell. In the early stages. a landscape architect from the city’s Department of Planning. were also cast in bronze to echo Sheffield’s history as a metal-working city. Transport and Highways. Although the Council began to think about the redesign of the gardens around 1995. while Richard Watts. yet the design process was very different. Other elements of the scheme. was lead designer for the Peace 255 . was the overall coordinator for the Heart of the City Public Realm Works. The Peace Gardens involved a very large design team. high-profile masterplanners had been consulted. A masterplan produced by Allies and Morrison showed most of the area paved and was shelved once the public had expressed their opinion. the Peace Gardens appear to be as much of one piece as Newcastle’s Blue Carpet. such as planters and bollards. Her colleague Jill Ray was lead designer for Town Hall Square. mostly drawn from within the Council’s own ranks. The in-house team assembled by Sheffield City Council was very large. but augmented by artists specially commissioned to work on the project. Design development To the uninformed visitor. The bronze vessels created by the Asquith Design Partnership are reminiscent of the crucibles used in steelmaking. Sheffield dred weirs within the city. the construction phase was astonishingly rapid with work starting on site in October 1998 and finishing in time for Prince Charles’s fiftieth birthday tour of Britain in November of the same year. The design process was also strongly influenced by the public consultation exercise held in 1995 and was also subject to much attention from local politicians and media.The Peace Gardens. though they gush with water rather than with molten metal. The garden contains other references to the city’s industrial past. a landscape architect from the Department of Design and Property.
sloping plate’ 9.18 Design development sketch showing the ‘folding.21 Design development sketch showing the five rivers concept 256 .19 Design development sketch showing the five rivers concept and relationship to the Town Hall 9.20 Design development sketch showing the lawns and the planting concept 9.United Kingdom 9.
Sheffield 257 .The Peace Gardens.
which seems to have emerged instead through a protracted series of meetings and discussions. Although the water in the rills appears to flow into the fountain. A company of water engineers called Invent was consulted regarding the fountains and pumps while the lighting design was in part undertaken by a company called Equation.8 This team was augmented not just by the artists. The politicians had their say. in this case. the design team opted for an array of jets which would spring from ground level. thus overcoming the risks and inconvenience of blown spray which is so often a problem in the British climate. Every single decision went through about a hundred hoops. but Lyn Mitchell admits that ‘It was designed by committee. but also by various in-house engineers – highways. On calm days everything will work. electrical and structural. Responding to the public’s desire to see a replacement for the Goodwin Fountain. The process does not seem to have been an easy one. ‘It was very complex and painful’. there are actually two separate circulation systems. The generous budget for the project and the emphasis on quality rather than economy meant that a circular plan could be adopted. An anemometer attached to one of the lamp columns measures wind speed and can initiate a progressive shutdown. One ingenious feature of the system is that it adjusts according to weather conditions. A significant difference between this project and the Blue Carpet is that.United Kingdom Gardens themselves. even though 258 . the flow from the spouts will be reduced and the height of the jets is reduced. the reservoir tanks are in fact below ground. There would be no basin of water to collect litter or fill up with suds in the manner of the old fountain and the design had the advantage that the jets could easily be switched off if the central area was required for another purpose (in this way a vestige of the ‘entertainment space’ concept remained). while it appears that the eight large bronze vessels carry a large quantity of water. everyone had their say and there was public consultation. On really windy days the spouts and the fountains cut out altogether although water will still flow along the rills. Where specialist knowledge did not exist within the authority.’9 The designers look back on the process like war veterans. it was recruited from outside. but as the wind speed starts to rise. who were brought in at an early stage. no individual seems to have been the sole driving force behind the design. Tilbury Douglas Construction Ltd (now known as Interserve). Similarly. The construction was overseen by a management contractor. says Mitchell. Most designers recoil in horror from the idea of design by committee.
beyond the curve of the balustrade. which has an attractive iron staining. Most of the paving is Rockingston Hard stone. the last in the country which uses traditional cutting techniques. Following a construction technique used in Warrington. However. ‘The artists came up with lots and lots of ideas and we had huge meetings and they could be tough going. Sheffield this multiplied the technical difficulties involved in design and construction. Although some of these followed curves. It was shot-sawn to create a ridged texture. this material could not be used for the tighter radii in the central area because the iron banding would have looked odd. The large rounded copings around the lawns had a practical purpose. The retaining walls are built from a soft sandstone from Stoke Hill Quarry. quality of materials was still a concern. they mark access routes. and the changes were taken up with wedge-shaped pieces of stone. Every block was numbered before delivery to the site. so slabs were sourced from Johnston’s Quarry. pinks and dark greys. Rounding the edges would also make them less attractive to skateboarders who like to grind along sharp edges. It is the distinctive contributions of the artists which create the unique character of the gardens. It was substituted by Crossland Hill stone which is similar in colour and was supplied by the same company. Where stone slabs have been laid. the same source used in the building of the Town Hall. The water vessels clearly had to be large and rounded if they were to echo steelmaking crucibles. and so far out from the central feature it was no longer necessary. After the paving was laid. bedded in a cement slurry which is then squeegeed in. it was covered with sawdust for 14 days to clean the surface. ‘It was considered too expensive to cut these slabs to a radius. but most of the area was laid with granite setts. the sets are laid on a macadam base. The machine which cut the blocks at the quarry could be programmed to cut them to the necessary radii.’10 The majority of the setts are pale grey with the addition of some buffs.The Peace Gardens. Huddersfield. They were designed to be comfortable as seats. When it came to the paving. the detailed forms used in the gardens were the result of a long process. the Stoke Hill stone was insufficiently durable. it was felt that the radii were not sufficiently tight to require special cutting at the quarry. The exaggerated curved forms were not part of the original concept but evolved through the interchange of ideas. In the Town Square. According to Lyn Mitchell. As Jill Ray commented. It is the same mix of setts which was used in the repaving of nearby Fargate. We came up with a short list of objects to be designed by artists and they came up with a family of objects based 259 .
The lighting concept was provided by Equation. The basic lighting comes from lanterns mounted on lamp-posts. planters and litter bins as it does to integrated water features and lighting. responded with the idea of the fat balusters. Fibre optic lighting was included within the central water feature. soup tureens and kettles were too radical for Victorian tastes. Listed Building Consent was required for the latter. There are also submerged lights which illuminate the plumes of water which fall from the bronze vessels.’11 A direct source of inspiration for the bronze water vessels produced by the Asquith partnership was the work of Christopher Dresser. Three forms of lighting were suggested – base lighting for safety and convenience. bollards. Richard Perry. but with limited success because the power is insufficient.United Kingdom on these rounded forms. amenity lighting to enhance the aesthetics of the gardens and flood lighting to show off the Town Hall to best effect. as a result of the lengthy discussions between members of the design team.12 a late nineteenth-century professor of botany who also became a designer of functional furnishings and an advocate of industrial manufacturing. Everything in the Peace Gardens and the neighbouring Town Hall Square is bespoke and. This applies as much to the incidental features such as benches. the stone carver. though his simple geometrical designs for domestic objects like teapots. picking out features like walkways and steps. and collaborated in the design of the paving for the central fountain. there is a strong family resemblance between the elements. Richard Perry was assisted by the Carving Workshop Cambridge. Ceramicist Tracy Heyes produced textured tiles based on leaf forms for the water channels. The amenity lighting is integrated into the design at lower level. 260 . working with the landscape architect Richard Watts.
On a sunny day the benches and lawns are full of people relaxing. Whether people enjoy a place or not is surely the acid test for any public realm project such as this.23 Carved details by Richard Perry Evaluation In terms of conventional wisdom. a tight deadline. the Peace Gardens should not be the success that they clearly are. mark the place as contemporary and different. yet the bizarre forms of the urns and the pumped-up balustrade.The Peace Gardens. they have produced elegant seats which convey a sense of lightness and modernity. which might have come from some Hollywood fantasy. almost oldfashioned. and a huge multi-disciplinary team. After further technical adjustments. yet out of this cauldron of ideas an award-winning scheme has emerged which has also been taken to heart by the people of Sheffield. Some designers find it difficult to work alongside artists and many are ambivalent about public consultation.’13 261 . a high-profile scheme project with much political and media attention. yet harmonise with other aspects of the scheme. an architect with Design and Property. the jets were returned to paving level. It is clear. that the process was not an easy one. The next solution was to have pop-up jets. a convoluted process. about its formal layout. ‘The thing moved like a snail. The detailed design represents a fusion of contemporary design with traditional materials. Sheffield 9. The fountain was supposed to have been programmed to produce many swiftly changing patterns but they were found to be insufficiently responsive. According to Derek Statham. Of course. The jets were becoming submerged which stopped them from working. Also children would kick them and bend them.22 Relief carving on a fat baluster 9. Despite the physical and symbolic weightiness of the materials. which were designed to create frothy spouts of water. The jets lumbered up and down … people are actually just glad that it is working most of the time. The teething problems associated with the fountain are a good example. There is something retrospective. such as the rounded copings. talking to some of those involved. The designers had to contend with most of the conditions that are usually thought to militate against good design. the scheme is a curiosity. This is exemplified by the granite and bronze benches developed by the Asquith Design Partnership. Most of the credit for this must go to the artists who have developed a distinctive language of forms for the place. In aesthetic terms. in a project of such complexity. but these suffered from the ingress of dirt and would not go back down again. pumped out too much and the drains could not clear it fast enough. Initially the air-entrained jets. one cannot expect everything to proceed without a hitch. Difficulties had to be overcome.
initially leaked and a way had to be found to make them waterproof. There are also spalling problems with the ceramic tiles laid into the rills. GRP was also used for some of the smaller planters in Town Hall Square but an only half successful attempt was made to match the larger bronze planters in colour. but it is something which the professional eye picks up. the Peace Gardens are an impressive achievement without major shortcomings. 262 . had to be made out of Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) because they had to be bomb-proof. The public will perhaps not notice the stone slabs which have not been cut to a radius. It is also regrettable. This certainly seems to have been the case in both Newcastle and Sheffield. The litter bins. but there is another side to the balance sheet. which is that artists do not always understand the technical constraints involved in designing for public places. The artists would have preferred them to have been made from metal. There is a view that artists are less entrammelled by conventional solutions and can bring a spark of creativity to a project. The sett paving is suffering from problems caused by the high pressure machines used for cleaning which is washing the grouting from between the blocks. though this seems to be a manufacturing problem rather than any failing of the artist or deficiency in the specification. Viewed as a whole. but standards are not quite so high in Town Hall Square. for example. considering that it is right next door to the Town Hall.United Kingdom Working with artists caused familiar frictions. but not be apparent to the visitor. It is also reassuring to see that Sheffield City Council is committed to maintaining the scheme to a high standard. where the budget was not as generous. that the setts had to be purchased from Portugal because the British equivalent was too expensive. They were included in this project for the same reasons that Thomas Heatherwick was taken on to design the Blue Carpet. All manner of constraints can have a bearing upon design decisions. Perhaps one might say that it would be a very poor show if they did not look after this project. but similar schemes in similar places have fallen into disrepair or have been torn apart by vandals. a return perhaps to the old traditions of park-keeping which once protected such valued places as resources for the whole community. The quality of workmanship in the Peace Gardens themselves is exemplary. and in aesthetic terms they were almost certainly right. if only in terms of the sustainable sourcing of materials. for example. but the public safety argument prevailed. This seems unlikely to happen in Sheffield where they have had the foresight to keep security staff on the site around the clock. Often the landscape architect has to sort out some of the practical difficulties on behalf of the artist. The water vessels.
. pp. Skousbøll (2002) Pièces Urbaines: Ny fransk Byscenografi. 263 . the former Dublin Corporation was renamed Dublin City Council. 5. Modern Architecture through Case Studies. Copenhagen: Danish Architectural Press. 344. 6. de de paysage'. logiske grund och betydelse i arkitekturforskningen’. p. 1000–1996. 5 www. 3 Mark Francis (2001) ‘A case study method for landscape architecture’.fr/adpf-publi/folio/architecture/ 12. 375. Demerlé-Got (2002) ‘Jeunes paysagistes et commandes contemporaines’. Landscape Journal. Paris: Actes Sud/ENSP p. Racine (ed.asso. .html (accessed 1January 2005). Blanchon (2002) ‘Michel Corajoud (né en 1937)’. 3 K. 6 Source SANEF . Paris: Actes Sud/ENSP p. 22–3. 26 November 2004. This would seem to be the closest English term for the material used. 4 Blundell-Jones.adpf. p. Racine (ed. . Racine (ed.) Créateurs de Jardins et de Paysage. in M. Ireland 1 Proposed at the time of writing. Paris: Actes Sud/ ENSP p. 6 Malene Hauxner (2003) Open to the Sky. 2 On 1 January 2002. London: Architectural Press. 276. There had been 253 such plans for the Islands Brygge site. Philadelphia. 2: 19 (in Swedish).) Créateurs de Jardins et de Paysage. 2 In Denmark.) Créateurs de Jardins et de Paysage. anyone wanting to develop a site must submit a ‘local plan’ to the city planning authority which is open to public comments for at least three months. in M. PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Copenhagen: The Danish Architectural Press. in M. Nordisk Arkitekturforksning. 4 A. Copenhagen: Arkitektens Forlag.Notes Introduction 1 Marc Treib (2002) The Architecture of Landscape 1940–1960. 7 Interview with Pascale Hannetel and Arnaud Yver/HYL. Denmark 1 Annemarie Lund (1997) Guide to Danish Landscape Architecture. France 1 B. Only then can the authority decide whether or not to grant per- 3 mission. 2 Peter Blundell-Jones (2000) Modern Architecture through Case Studies. 20(1): 16. 5 Rolf Johansson (2002) ‘Et eksplikativt angreppssätt – Fallstudiemetodikens utveckling. 2 F Dubost (2002) ‘Les paysagistes et la deman.
director of BUGA. 2003. 2 www. 29 November 2004. Competition entry. 8 9 10 11 Germany 1 Birgit Welsch.messestadt-riem. landscape architect. L ’Eolienne de l’Aire de la Baie of Somme. March 2004. ‘Gebauter Freiraum.htm 4 www.messestadt-riem. Unpublished thesis. March 2004. Weihenstephan University of Applied Sciences. Heiner Luz. March 2004. LATITUDE NORD architects: blueprint design. Bundesgartenschau 2005. March 2004.htm 3 www.com/msr/d_planning/ id_environment. 264 . Interview with Pascale Hannetel and Arnaud Yver/HYL. Personal communication. Weihenstephan University of Applied Sciences.htm 5 www. 26 November 2004. 8/7 p. website: www. 29 November 2004. December 1995. 74.g-net. March 2000.htm Competition entry for the Landschaftspark Messestadt Riem.com/msr/d_planning/ id_bugapress1. . Interview with Gilles Vexlard.htm 6 www.com/msr/d_planning/ id_green. 8/7 p.de Birgit Welsch. ‘Gebauter Freiraum. Materialverwendung in der Landschaftsarchitektur als Reflexion zeitgenössischer Planungskonzepte’ (Built open space: material use in landscape architecture as an reflection of contemporary design concepts). Lohrer–Hochrein Landscape Architects.messestadt-riem.com/msr/d_planning/ id_history.Notes 8 9 10 11 Interview with Monsieur Page and Madame Mahieux/Studinfra. 2003 and 2005. Unpublished thesis. Interview with Gilles Vexlard. Munich. Materialverwendung in der Landschaftsarchitektur als Reflexion zeitgenössischer Planungskonzepte’ (Built open space: material use in landscape architecture as an reflection of contemporary design concepts). March 2004. Munich. Landschaftspark München Riem – 2. landscape architect. Interview with Gilles Vexlard.htm 7 Explanation of the BUGA concept by Andrea Gebhard.messestadt-riem. Interview with Monsieur Page and Madame Mahieux/Studinfra.de/zvg/dbg. 2003. Interview with Gilles Vexlard. BA.messestadt-riem. EM 465 Badesee. September 2003 and March 2004.lohrer-hochrein.com/msr/d_planning/ id_history. February 2001. July 2001 and January 2002. . 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 www. Ursula Hochrein. Interview with Gilles Vexlard. 54. personal communication. Information folder.
the underground car park and the new pavement were built in 2003. Personal communication. Ursula Hochrein. Ursula Hochrein. 265 . Places. Andersson. in T Andersson (ed. unpublished thesis. Ursula Hochrein. 1998: start of the building of the National Theatre. The key dates are: 1789: building of Morocco Court. unpublished thesis. p. A few years ago Hungary adopted a standard stating that no public spaces or buildings should be built without taking into consideration the needs of people with disabilities. 6 T. When complete. 2005. 2005. Personal communication. Birgit Welsch. Malmö. Ericsson (1999) ‘Program för parallella uppdrag’. 3 4 5 ‘Gödör’ = hole. 3.Notes 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Personal communication. p. 5 T. LisaDiedrich(2000)‘InselninderSchotterebene’ (Islands in the rubble plain). Stockholm: AB Svensk Byggtjänst. p. 27 . Sweden 1 G. Andersson. unpublished. Places. 2001: beginning of the new institute and open space. p. Garten und Landschaft 1: 15–17 . 7 T. 2005. platser. 27 . Personal communication.) Places.) (2002) Places. 1947: building of the bus terminal. Andersson. 30. 8 T. 4 T. Birgit Welsch. platser. 27 . which will connect the eastern part of the city (mainly commercial and recreational) with the city centre (mainly institutional and administrative). Places. Stockholm: AB Svensk Byggtjänst. p. Personal communication. 2005. Places. unpublished thesis. 2 FFNS Architects (2001) ‘Årets Project 2001: Daniaparken’. Birgit Welsch. Ursula Hochrein. Andersson (ed. platser. 45. Ursula Hochrein. 3 Marc Treib (2002) ‘Designed restraint: the urban landscapes of Thorbjörn Andersson’. platser. unpublished thesis. 2005. 2 Interview transcript. The United Kingdom 1 Interview transcript. unpublished. traffic will be restricted on the promenade. p. 2005. Ursula Hochrein. The promenade is not finished at the time of writing. platser. 2 The square in front of the cathedral. platser. Hungary 1 Interview with the designer. Birgit Welsch. Andersson. Personal communication.
Also present was Derek Statham.uk/ Accessed 22 July 2003.ac.Notes 3 4 5 6 7 8 www. Interview transcript. Interview transcript.html. Landscape Design.co.shu.resbuild. Downing (2002) ‘A blue day for design’.anu. Interview transcript. Interview transcript. www. pp. the architect who was lead designer for Hallam Square and the downgrading of Arundel Gate which replaced soulless underpasses with surface crossings.au/student. 314.projects97/ dresser/index.html Accessed 24 July 2003.edu. 266 . Interview transcript. United Kingdom Interview transcript. 26–7 .ttura. M. October. Seehttp://rubens. com/ and www. The author was able to interview Lyn Mitchell and Jill Ray but unfortunately Richard Watts 9 10 11 12 13 could not attend. Pearman’s review was published in the Sunday Times on 3 February 2002 under the headline ‘Out of the Blue’.uk/news/2003.
249. 247 Town Hall Square. 260. 249 tiles. Jochen. after implementation. Budapest Barcelona. 70–1. 79 playground.Index Anderson. Zsuzsanna. 248 bollards. view from tower (photo). 73 planting. 15 BG Technology. carved details (photos). 126 Bogner. 262 planting. illuminated by night (photo). 247 Lottery Funding. details. 31 see also Jardí Botànic de Barcelona Bay of Somme motorway service station. 242–3 spiral staircase. 240 lawns. 256–7 design philosophy. 253 Balogh. 70 canals. 71. 75. 74–6. concept detail. Budapest Boór. and motorway (section). 74 Berlin. 183 Bonnya village. 72. András. neon tubes. west side (section and plan). 12 Andersson. 74. 261 benches: as cast.T. 69 park. 30. 245. 135 see also Erzsébet Square. 258 Laing Art Gallery. 259 lighting. 135 see also Erzsébet Square. 246–50. 247 project data and overview. and motorway (section). Oriol. 77. 80. 135 see also Erzsébet Square. 71 evaluation.. Copenhagen 267 . Budapest Blue Carpet. 76. Newcastle upon Tyne. Sven-Ingvar. 48 Bijhouwer. bronze (photo). 247–50. and infiltration pond (section). 77–8. 245. 253 water features. 254 design development. site before implementation. 76. 5 aerial view (photograph). 75 aerial photograph of landscape. Thorbjörn Places. 262 paving. 247 259 . 153 Bikki. Péter István. bronze: concept detail (section and plan). 135 see also Erzsébet Square. 250–1 Goodwin Fountain. 79–80 map of Department of Somme. 241 balusters. glass. 240 site plan. Islands Brygge. 72. 74. 10. 78 plans: from competition documents. 75 wind turbine. 215. 12 see also Harbour Park. 254 urns. 261 bollards. 15. 76. Annelise. photo. 219 see also Daniaparken. 261 Blundell-Jones. view towards (photos). 254. 71. 4 Asquith Design Partnership. photo. 70–1 duckboards (plan and section). 6 Bockemühl. 239 retaining walls. creating frames. and tower (section). Dr. Malmö Architecture of Landscape. 240–4 evaluation. 77–8 picnic area: access. 3. Budapest Bohigas. 123–6 see also Garden of Somogy Boór and Kern Deposit Company. 78. 251 maintenance problems. 260. 259. 78 design philosophy. 1940–1960. 4. transparencies between service building and tower (photo). István. 258. bronze (photo). The (Treib). András. bronze (photo). views from below and above (photos). 248. Budapest Bánfalvy.H. sketches.P . 75 project data and overview. 260. 74–6 terrace (section). 76. 259 seating areas. 75 earthworks model (photo). 69 service area and building. J. Peter. 259. 262 urns. Budapest Bramsnæs. and path (photo). 135 see also Erzsébet Square. 79. and tower (photo). platser. Ir. 248. 135 see also Erzsébet Square.
N. 150 design philosophy. 9 see also Harbour Park. 228–32. 141–2 damage and maintenance problems. 236. 9 Budapest. 228. trees along upper east promenade (photo). 215 project history. 232 perspective sketch. face of wall (photo). 227. 185 see also Jardí Botànic de Barcelona Clément. 84 Canosa. 224–5. 223 Scouts. architectural. 228 Outpost: construction sections. 141 see also Erzsébet Square. 219 planting. 3 Diedrich. detailed plan of paving. 219 see also Harbour Park. 235 maintenance problems. 150–2 268 . 228–32. 221. Dublin Dun Laoghaire ferry terminal. Malmö. from south (photo). 219–20 evaluation. 151 Andrássy Avenue. 141. 83. 217 conceptual sketch. 221 paving. 140 entertainment. 216 Stone Table. in-situ concrete. surface (photo). detailed construction drawings (plan and section). Copenhagen Desvigne + Dalnoky. photo. 118 Doesburg see Quay on the River IJssel. 138. 233 computer-generated images: Great Slope. Copenhagen Dam. 141 car parks: photo. 5 Balconies. 233. 231. 1 Daniaparken. 236 project data and overview. 228 site plan. wheelchair/pushchair. 44–5 Erzsébet Square. 221. overview. 228 Lawns. elevations. 230. 232 seating areas. 226 structure of site. scale model (photo). 144. 141. Dublin. facade (photo). 222. 218–19 proposal: bird’s-eye sketch. Budapest Bundesgartenschau (National Garden Exhibition) 2005. 142 computer-generated images. Islands Brygge. 151 Deák Square. section through tree pit. 216 design philosophy. 222–8. 234–6 Great Slope. 221 lighting. 233. 150 boardwalks. model (photo). detailed section through granite wall. 58 Nelson’s Pillar. Budapest access.Index Brandt. Jose Luis. 260 Dublin. 5 Easter Uprising (1916). 233.. Islands Brygge. 138. G. 5 landscape architecture. 174 Denmark. 229. 232. timber cladding (close-up photo). 232. 139 concept. 235–6. 217. Doesburg Downing. Nico. Michael. detailed section. Lisa. view towards bridge (photo). pedestrian. 221. herbaceous garden (photo). Gilles. 3 Copenhagen Strandparken. 214 de Wit. 76. 119 City Centre (detailed urban plan). Torben. Christopher. 251 Dresser. outdoor. 235. 232. 235 Node. underground. 141–2 evaluation. 57 see also GPO Plaza. 226 palisade. Smithfield. in grass slope (photo). 220–1 view. 147 on Budapest City Centre detailed urban plan.
65 planting. 185 see also Jardí Botànic de Barcelona Firka Architect Studio Ltd. 151–2 maintenance problems. 58 269 . 131. 130. 57 project history. 128. 131. 81–2 see also Landscape Park. 134 fruit garden. Bet. view from meadow (photo). 147. 64–6. 142. 142. 61 pedestrian areas. 63 O’Connell monument. 58. 60 evaluation. 144 roof garden. 123–6 design development. ‘male’ (photo). 143. 65 project data and overview. 64. New Cemetery. 127 gates. 147 terraces. 6 Garden of Somogy barbecues and outdoor cooking facilities. public park in 1873. 134 health and fitness centre. 123 Garden of Eden concept. 144–7 paving. Dublin see GPO Plaza. Mark. ‘female’ (photo). spot stone (photo). 146. outer promenade (photo). 145 water features. herb garden. 140. 145 landscape masterplan. 145 plans: overall context. 139 planting. Riem. with pleached trees (photo). Seattle. 151 Ferrater. 251 General Post Office. 135 project history. ornamental. Budapest France landscape architecture. kerb and carriageway (photo). 143. 142 seating areas. of garden. 67–8 see also Bay of Somme motorway service station Francis. 136–8 promenade. 147 wheelchair/pushchair access. 144. 62. and steps to Hole (photo). retaining walls (photos). 141. 61–2. 131 Bonnya village. 185 see also Jardí Botànic de Barcelona Figueras. 5 Gateshead Millennium Bridge. 129 Gasworks Park. 64–6 kerb and carriageway paving (photo). 135 see also Erzsébet Square. 147 pool. and stables. 143. 144–7 pier. 148–9 project data and overview. 151 materials. 144 the Hole. retaining walls (plan and section). 129. 147. 129. plan. sandblasted (photo). Dublin cycle lanes. steps to (photos). Riem GPO Plaza. 133 plan. foyer leading to conference and exhibition hall (photo). 143–4. Phase 1 (plan). 250. 130. 59 paving. plan and section. 137 lawns. 140. 62. 126–7 evaluation. 143. 144. pink granite. 128 terraces. 131 guest house. 62 lighting column (photo). 141. 123–6 retaining walls: photo. 129 swimming pool. 131. Dublin Germany landscape architecture. 61. pleached trees (photo). ‘male’ and ‘female’ (elevation).Index glass panels. 131–2 project data and overview. 128–33 design philosophy. 124–5 planting: fruit garden. 122 project history. Carlos. 132–3. as sun terrace (photo). view from (photo). 57 O’Connell Street Improvement Scheme. 61 design philosophy. entrance: ‘female’ details. plan and steps to the Hole. 138. 143. 128 materials.
sketch plan of playground (early stage). 36 lighting. final proposal (plan and section). 24. 20–4 volleyball and pétanque. sketch plan. 34 Pinen. 20. 21. 20. 28. activities on Islands Brygge in 1980s (photo) Langbro bridge. 34–6 Vestmanna Plads. 31 walls: details (elevation. 36–40. section and plan). 15. Islands Brygge. 28. 17 residents making a lawn in 1980s (photo) Reykjaviks Plads. 215 see also Daniaparken. Erzsébett. 18–20. 5. ramps as built (elevation and section). Ingeborg. 20. grey wall from north-east. Copenhagen. wildflowers. 61. industrial wall (plan and elevation). 32 waterfronts. 13. 34 aerial perspective sketch. 20. Günther. Malene. wheelchair/pushchair. 60 IJssel. 18. 37. 14. 22–3. 31. 11 lawns. 36. 24–8 Halfdan’s Passage. 28. 36 skateboard rink. edging elements (drawing). 30. ramps and edges (photo). 33. 14. plan as built. Pe Ge. 30 basketball pitch. 81 Guide to Danish Architecture (Lund). 14. 18. 57 stiles. 255 early masterplan. 20. Thomas. 28. 237–8. 3 Grzimek. 6 Heart of the City Project. 30–4. 17. plan. Riem Hungary landscape architecture. 69 see also Bay of Somme motorway service station Ian Ritchie Architects. 19 wheelchair/pushchair access. 15–18. 15. 26. in Festival Place. Tracey. 28–30. 20–4. 24–8 playground. elements (summary drawing). 17 barbecues. 66. details at base . 136. Ursula see New Cemetery. 18. 30. 21. 32. 25 seating areas. 24. showing raised platform (plan). 14. 5 Halmai. Garden of Somogy HYL – Pascale Hannetel. 141 see also Erzsébet Square. Budapest Hammarskiöld-Reiz. 28 plans: as built. 16 Market Place/market square. 254. 15. 36–40. 238 see also Blue Carpet. Sheffield. 37 planting. originally intended profile and drain (section). 15–18. 21 sunbathing. 24–8 Hauxner. 253 Heatherwick. 135 see also Erzsébet Square. stone. 14.Index The Spire. 60–2 Greenwich Peninsula. 119–21 National Theatre. 14 Alley. 29 flowerbeds. 30. 15 avenue (sketch). view from (photo). residents making a lawn (photo). 14. 14. 37 project data and overview. 34 wildflower beds. Malmö Hochrein. 31 harbour. 220 Harbour Park. 62. Dénes. 34–6. 9 Haag. 260 Hillinge. 14–15. 24–8. elevated view (photo). 27. Christophe Laforge. as imagined by schoolchildren (sketch). (photo). Arnaud Yver. 40–1 Festival Place. River see Quay on the River IJssel. Richard. 5 in 1980s: harbour activities on Islands Brygge (photo). 24 evaluation. and sunken basketball court (plan). 10 project history. 22–3. Newcastle upon Tyne Heyes. 38–9. 35. 31. 14. plant beds. plan and section. 64. Doesburg 270 . sketch plan at early stage. 57 60. 12–13 promenade. 13 access. Budapest.
206–7 preliminary schemes. Evergreen Oak Woodland. Republic of. 184 visitor numbers. 199–203 Jensen. 208. Ad. 251 271 . Dublin Irish Landscape Institute. 195. Poul. 45 see also GPO Plaza. standard (section). Mediterranean scrubland (photo). 187–90 proposal. 190 mulching and soft paving scheme. 67–8 history of. reinforced. standard path (cross-section). distribution. 12. first sketch scheme. 194 project data and overview. impression (photo). Copenhagen Jardí Botànic de Barcelona. reinforced (crosssections). acidic soil improvement (photo). 203–6. 9 formality. Republic of Dun Laoghaire ferry terminal. panoramic (photo). 206–7. 200. 198 buildings. 201. 153–4 Spain. 197 design philosophy. 210. Canary Islands woodlands (photo). 199. 193–5. 202 site before planting. Islands Brygge. 203. Stefan. soil preparation. 207 spatial strategy. main path and secondary path (photos). 211. 195–9. 107 see also New Cemetery. 203. 196. 191 Masterplan. Albrandswaard Köppel. 43 Islands Brygge see Harbour Park. as built. 28 see also Harbour Park. general plan. soft. 44–5 landscape architecture. mulching regimes (photos). 213–14 United Kingdom. main path (plan). 196 paving. 189 soil preparation. 194 view. materials. Francis. 193–5 stairs. 2–3 Hungary. Spanish Levante communities (photo). 191–2 EU funding. 43–5 Netherlands.Index Ireland. 204. 4 asymmetric stairs: detailed plan (from ‘as built’ plan). assymetric: detailed plan (from ‘as built’ plan). walking scenes: assymetrical stair. 199. 191–2. 198 triangulation network. site-referenced grid. reinforced (photo). 207–9 phytoepisodes. 196. 195. 189 retaining walls. 2. 210–11 Desert Square (photo). main path (cross-section). 207–9 panoramic view (photo). 210. 203–6. 211 walls. 208. 198. 183–4 Sweden. 202. 191–2. 209–11 fractal logic. inauguration cover scheme. Copenhagen Johansson. Islands Brygge. construction (photos). 192. Rolf. 197–8. Smithfield. 191. 237–8 Landscape Design magazine. fractal islands (mathematical representation). 188–9 planting. Riem landscape architecture Denmark. 187 evaluation. 119–21 Ireland. Dublin. 43–5 National Development Plan. schemes from planting plan. 168 see also Portland Neighbourhood Park. 57 Koolen. 203 plan. 184 pathways. 6 Johnson. 205. 194. general plan. 5 France. 185–6 project history. 202. digital terrain model. 197. on site (photo).
153–4 see also Portland Neighbourhood Park. 104. 97. photo. 111 cherry tree grove. 96. 126 Malmö see Daniaparken. 2. detail drawing and photo). view from (photo). 99 toboggan hill (photo). detail drawing. 3 Mitchell & Associates. 254. 213 Munich. Doesburg New Cemetery. angle detail. Riem National Development Plan (Republic of Ireland).Index Landscape Park Duisberg Nord. 83 project history. Dublin McHarg. 93. negative. 84 Exhibition Centre. Andreas. 101. hard and soft banks (photo). 107 see also New Cemetery. 83. 96. 95 project data and overview. Riem Mader. 84. Albrandswaard. 84 Munich East Trade Fair area. 85 planting. Riem bathing lake and beach. Imre. 60 Mitchell. Riem. 105 borders and edges. 45 National Theatre. 94. André. 92 seating steps beside lake. 98–102. 104. 81 Lighting Design Partnership. 98–102. 5 Le Nôtre. 43 Meck. Riem Lund. 81 see also Landscape Park. overview. 109–10 design philosophy. 103 materials. 102 photovoltaic cells. 108 evaluation. 109–10. sections. Lyn. scheme for groves. detailed drawing. 3. 111 grave islands. 84–5 promenade: plan view. 101 slope edging (photo). isometric drawing. scheme. 106 design philosophy. 100 path edging (photo). Erzsébet. 16 Mattern. 110 272 . Jens Balsby. Heiner. Annemarie. Bruno. 93–8. Ian. 102–4. detailed section. 83. 110 design concept. typology of groves. 141 Neilsen. 48 Lohrer. Riem bell towers (photo). photo. 111–17. 67 leisure facilities see sports and leisure Lenné. Quay on the River IJsset. 96. 259 Modernism. Riem Minimalism. 102 sunken garden (photo). Axel. 91. photos. 87 boardwalks. 103 seating walls. 105. 5 Landscape Park. 107 Olympic Park. 46 see also Smithfield. 258. Peter Joseph. 103 Bundesgartenschau (National Garden Exhibition) 2005. 90. 100 terrace areas. 1 Netherlands landscape architecture. 95 lake. Herrmann. Riem. 107 see also New Cemetery. 136. 88–9 criticism. 82 Bundesgartenschau (National Garden Exhibition) 2005. 9 Luz. 255. 93. 100 Latz + Partner. 86–93 evaluation. 69 see also Bay of Somme motorway service station Makovecz. 118 funeral hall. 106. 106 groves: linden (photo). 97 walls. 83 see also Landscape Park. 109–10. Malmö Marienbjerg Cemetery. concept (table). 3. wall (section. New Cemetery. typology. Nagelfluh stone (photo). 5. 81 McGarry Ni Eanaigh Architects.
4. 113. 116 urn walls. Richard. 74. 254 Heart of the City Project. illuminated by night (photo). 143 Centrantus ruber. 144 Cotoneaster horizontalis. 261–2 Goodwin Fountain. Hugh. cross-section. main. 117. 144 Clematis. bronze (photos). 117. 117 walls: corner (photo). 251 Pedrola. 237 Laing Art Gallery. platser (Thorbjörn). 74. photo. 240 see also Blue Carpet. 169 Parc de la Villette. 115 viewing platform. 132 Liriodendron tulipifera. dry-laid stone. wall unit (photo and construction detail). Dublin OKRA landscape architects. early masterplan. 115. Copenhagen). 4 Perkins. double-faced (photo). 48 PAGONY Landscape and Garden Design. 30 Places. 28 Cornus mas. 109 pathways. 9. Tom. 144 Gleditschia triacanthos ‘Shademaster’. 67 Paris. 117. 186 Betula nigra. 132 Cercis siliquastrum. 3. Islands Brygge. plan and section. 143 Banksia. 260 Pinen (Harbour Park. 254–5 evaluation. 143 Malus hybrida. 155 see also Quay on the River IJsset. edging (photo). 255–60 design philosophy. 178. 144 Lonicera nitida ‘Maigrün’. 253 Pearman. 107 stairs (photo). 117. taps (photo). Doesburg Ove Arup and Partners. 111. 252 project data and overview. 4. 239. ‘Emerald Queen’. 18. 28. 180 Fraxinus velutina. Dr Joan. 143 Crataegus crus-galli. 142 Achillea. 180 Iris. 180 Buddleia davidii ‘Ile de France’. 76 Celtis occidentalis. 15 Peace Gardens. 180 Lavandula. 110 project data and overview. 15 Alnus cordata. 117 Newcastle upon Tyne. Newcastle upon Tyne O’Connell Street improvement scheme see GPO Plaza. 5 bollards: concept detail (section and plan). 78 Corylus colurna. 132 Acer platanoides. 132 Juglans nigra. 180 Amygdalus nana. 254 Perry. construction detail and photo. 24 273 . ‘Eureka’. 193 Peña Ganchegui. 31 Deutzia × rosea. 112. 113 water stations. Luis.Index materials: Austrian gneiss with oak (photo). 122 see also Garden of Somogy Palmboom. 28. 132 Aesculus hippocastanum. 76 Gleditschia alley. 117. 254. 205 Lilium. 253 planting. Sheffield. 142 Hedera helix. 117 urn graves. 143 Fraxinus excelsior. 132 Carpinus betulus. 110 planting: cherry tree grove. Fritz. 112. 254 design development. 255. 245. 255 urns. 3. 24. 252 public consultation. 111 orientation plan. main (photo). urn walls. 114 water basin: detail section. 10. 178 Campanula. 117. 245. 219 planting Acer campestre. 111.
176–8 pond. 159 project data and overview. photo. 166 design philosophy. 178 evaluation. 31 Prunus padus. 158–60 Quay on the River IJsset. S sepulcralis ‘Tristis’. roadmetal shells (diagram). 132 Trachycarpus fortuneii. 191 Quercus palustrius. Doesburg area and context (aerial photographs). 169–70 kerbs and seats (photo). 169–70 roadways. 165–6 low river quay. 180–1 ‘hangout’. 180 Santolina. and pergola (plan). 157–8 evaluation. 172 lighting. VINEX estate. 24 Quercus ilex. border (photo). 157 housing. 36–40. 3 Quay on the River IJssel. 186 Spirea × bumalda: ‘Antony Waterer’. plan. 18. 175 cycle lanes. construction diagrams and production drawings. 180 Potentilla fruticosa.Index Parrotia persica. Allain. map. 78. 180 playground. 174. 174 park area: cross-section. 173. 174–5 vandalism. 172. 171. 178–80. 132 Sorbus. 170–4 dog-walking area. 168. 143. 162–4 river and town (cross-section). Albrandswaard animal housing. 174. 155 project history. 176 playing field. 17. 174. 132 Populus nigra ‘Italica’. 143 Wisteria sinensis. 175 planting. S aria. 164–5 high river quay. 78 Vinca minor. 179 project data and overview. 159 waterfronts. 178 urban farm. 178. 177. ‘Froebelii’. 174. and kerbs (photo). 177. and seating area (plan). 160–2 planting. 180. 162 high water (photo). 168 project history. 177 picnic areas. 174. detail of entry to (sketch and photo). detail (photo). 174. 157 low canal quay. detail (photo). 16. plan and section. 205 Solidago aurea. 18. 176. 175. 143 Taxus baccata. S caprea. border (design sketch). 179. 172. 181 Provost. 175. 143 Viburnum tinus. 45 Viburnum opulus ‘Nanum’. detail plan. construction of (photo). 172 landscape: and environment (sketches). 165 274 . 144 Quercus robur. 166–7 high canal quay. 180 seating areas. 74 Rudbeckia. 174. surfacing plan for area (diagram). design principles. 173 paving. 15. 176. 177 soccer field. 143 Spirea japonica. in former days (map). 161 bridge over canal. 172 housing. functions (plan). 20. measurements. 174 design development. 156 bridge over canal. 31 see also under specific case studies Portland Neighbourhood Park. Doesburg bollards. 156–7 quay wall. 162. 176. 173 pergola. 143 Prunus avium. 178 hill with artwork. 132 Salix. surface construction (photo). 178. 144 Philadelphus ‘Belle Etoile’. 236 Spartium junceum. 14. first sketches. 175. sun panels (design sketches). 169. 176. 178 Phlox.
167 lighting. C. 174. 254 Rosa Barba European Landscape Award. 76 playing field. 24 cycle lanes. 18. 21. 160. 87 swimming. photo. Tamás. Derek. 52. 175 . 49 at dusk (photo). 53. 48 evaluation. 213–14 see also Daniaparken. 31 windsurfing. playgrounds. Jill. 53 EU funding. 18. 52 project data and overview. 165 planting. The see under GPO Plaza. 52. Gábor. 253 Sheffield City Council. 87 128. gas braziers. pedestrian route (photo). 174. 77 78. 5 landscape architecture. 174 dog-walking areas. 49–52. 255. 97 volleyball pitch. toboggan hill. 36–40. 38–9. 49. Andrew. 252 see also Peace Gardens. pedestrian route (photo). Rainer. 254 Smithfield. 160–2. 49. 159. early masterplan. 56. 55 lighting. 49 kerb detailing (photo). Riem Sheffield. 61. Sheffield SIAC Ltd. 164. 48 design development. 49 soccer field. 37. edge (photo). 131 basketball pitches. 237–8. 56. 159 grandstand steps. 164 housing. 52. 183–4 see also Jardí Botànic de Barcelona Spire. Dublin sports and leisure barbecues and outdoor cooking facilities. temporary. 36. 255.. detail plans. 4 see also Garden of Somogy 275 . 53. 52 pedestrian areas. 53–5. 20–4. 49. Budapest Schmidt. 228 Stahr and Haberland. 162. 21. 176–8 skateboard rink. 178 health and fitness centres. 20. 53. 31 picnic areas. 52. 52–3 design philosophy.Index canal quay. 178. 128 outdoor entertainment. 83 see also Landscape Park. 135 see also Erzsébet Square. 163 Ray. diagonal pattern. raised level (cross-section). 174. 48. 28. 46 project history. 261 Steiner. 235 Sándor. photo. gas. 83 see also Landscape Park. 160 railings. 30. Ieuan. 50–1. 34–6. 5 Heart of the City Project. 22–3 skating. 164 roadways. masts (diagram and perspective sketch). Riem Statham. 55 site plan. 259 Rees. 50–1. 78. 48 Skelton. 20. 9 Spain landscape architecture. 53–6 ice-rink. 165 walls. 165 Doesburg Panorama observation tower. Th. 228 . Rudolf. 49. 141–2 pétanque pitch. 162. 159. 75. 72. 128. 48–9 roadways. 160 paving. 164. 54 paving. 47 Somme see Bay of Somme motorway service station Somogy see Garden of Somogy Sørensen. Dublin braziers. under construction. 121 Sweden. 165 lower quay. 48. Malmö Szücs. 165–6 promenade. 52. materials (photo). 178 ‘hangout’ for young people. 178 sunbathing.
255. 81 Watts. Newcastle upon Tyne. 219 Tschumi. 5 landscape architecture. 1 trees see planting Treib. Ian.Index Thames Barrier Park. 260 276 . Sheffield Vexlard. 4 United Kingdom. see also Landscape Park. Gilles. 3 Thompson. 67 83 . Peace Gardens. Bernard. Friedrich Ludwig. 3. Richard. 4. 237–8 see also Blue Carpet. Riem von Sckell. 2. Marc.
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