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97-4045

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EU{"b'6 pI- .
(CC\") 'e'\") 1S)'b1'i1. (1 '
400001
GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS PTY LTD
STRATIGRAPHIC SLlMHOLE DRILLING PROGRAM
MICROFilMED
FICHE No.OI44OO""
PELHAM #1
WELL PLAN
97-4045
WELL PLAN - PELHAM I
AUGI997-GREATSOUTHLAND
MINERALS (', \ ,:\ "
AUGUST 1997
GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319336
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PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Well Data Summary
1.2 Location Map
2. GEOLOGY
2.1 Well Prognosis
2.2 Geological Map
6
3. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
3.1 Landholders
3.2 Site Access
3.3 Wellsite Preparation
3.4 Wellsite Operations
3.5 Clean-up and Rehabilitation
4. DRILLING PROGRAM
4,1 Outline Summary
4.2 Setting and Cementing Casing
4.3 Drilling Fluids Program
4.4 Well Diagram and Volumes
5. FORMATION EVALUATION
5,1 Core Recovery, Logging and Analysis
5.2 Mudlogging Services
5.3 Wireline Logging and Drill Stem Testing
6. TESTING AND SAFETY PROCEDURES
6,1 BOP Testing Procedures
6.2 Pressure Integrity Test
7. COMMUNICATIONS AND REPORTING
8. PLANT AND EQUIPMENT DETAILS
8.1 Longyear 44 Drill Rig
8.2 BOP Equipment
83 Site Layout
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400002
Page
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GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/l 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338
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1.1 Well Data Summary
400003
PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
State: Tasmania
Location: Pelham
Municipality: Hamilton
Licence No: EL 1/88
Well Name: Pelham #1
Coordinates: 495,240 E 5,284,170 N
Elevation: 220mASL
Datum: Footclamps
Drill Rig: Longyear44
Planned Spud Date: TBA
Planned Depth: 1200 m (see prognosis)
Further details can be found under Geology Section 2.1 Well Prognosis.
Pelham #1 is located at Peckham Vale between Taylors Tier and Mt Spode about
10 km north of Gretna on Marked Tree Road.
1. INTRODUCTION
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400004
1.2 Location Map from TASMAP 1:25000 Series
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PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
5cm
GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 6231 9339 FAX: (03) 6231 9338
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400005
PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
2.1 Well Prognosis - prepared by Dr. Clive Burrett, Chief Geologist, GSM
Geology
We intend to drill an approximately 1200m DOH into a triangular shaped fault
block between Taylors Tier and Mt Spode at Peckham Vale at grid reference
DN952841 (see Hamilton 4828, topographic 1:25000 map sheet). The DOH
site is just to the west of a NE trending fault. Dolerite is mapped to the east of
this fault and probable Ferntree Fm mustones to the west of the fault (see
Mines Department 1:250000 geological compilation map). The geology is
poorly known but the following stratigraphic sequence may be encountered:
Ferntree Mudstone Fm 120m approx.
Risdon Sandstone correlate 5m
Malbina Fm sandstones and siltstones and mudstones 70m
Cascade Gp fossiliferous calcareous siltstones and mudstones, limestone
lenses 80m
Dolerite Sill about 350m thick (position unknown)
Faulkner Gp freshwater sandstones and siltstones 100m thick
Bundella Fm 80m
Woody Island Fm (with possibly Tasmanite Oil Shale) 80m
Truro Fm tillite 200m approx.
wwwwwwww unconformity wwwwwwwwwww
Precambrian phyllites and quartzites or Ordovician Gordon Group limestone
(Predicted by Dr D.Leaman on the basis of gravity and magnetics modelling).
5
GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 6231 9339 FAX: (03) 6231 9338
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2.2 Geological Map
PELHAM #1
WELL PLAN
+
Forest Cover
40000G
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GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS PIL 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338
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40000';1
PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
3. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Great Southland Minerals Pty Ltd is committed to conducting its business with
the desire to protect the natural environment. The company plans and
manages its operations to ensure minimum impact on the environment. It will
continue to meet all industry environmental standards and obligations. In
applying this policy, activities will be governed by the APEA Code of
Environmental Practice.
The company will maintain an active rehabilitation program to restore land
disturbed by exploration activities and will respond quickly and effectively if
accidental pollution or environmental damage occurs.
3.1 Landholders
Pelham #1 is situated on the private grazing property of 'Valley Heights',
belonging to Mr. Ken Shepherd. Initial discussions have been held with Mr.
Shepherd, who has expressed his support in relation to the exploration
program.
3.2 Site Access
The planned drillsite is just inside a row of large pine trees along the property
boundary on Marked Tree Road, approximately 6km from its junction with the
Lyell Highway. No vegetation would need to be cleared, and access can be
gained through an existing gate.
3.3 Well site Preparation
Mobilisation of the drilling equipment at Pelham #1 would require the
construction of six small concrete footings on which to mount the drill floor
support frame, thus providing clearance for installation of the BOP stack
without recourse to a deep cellar. An area of gravel hardstanding would be
constructed around the drillrig in order to maintain a clean and tidy operation.
A flare pit would be excavated about 70m west of the wellhead. Mud pits and
associated silt traps would be constructed on cleared land adjacent to the
drillsite, with drainage to the nearby creek. All mud handling operations are
now carried out in CGI tanks, with silt traps downstream of the overflow.
Refer to the Site Layout sketch in Section 8 for further details.
7
GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338
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400008
.··6Rlt:A'rSQI1'rH1iANJ).. •.. gR';' 1!J ".1 .• ·1
PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
3.4 Well site Operations
Water for drilling operations will be sourced from an existing farm dam, about 50m
south of the proposed drillsite, which is in turn fed from a large storage reservoir
about 500m upstream. Waste water run-oft will be directed through silt traps to the
small creek downstream of the drill site. Based on previous experience, mud
chemical use should be limited to liquid polymer for viscosity and caustic soda for pH
correction, with the resulting fluid being environmentally friendly. Drill fluids are
recirculated within a closed system.
Calcium and potassium chloride will be stockpiled on site for weighting up in the
event that a kill mud is required. Cellulose fibre is also held on site to treat any lost
circulation zones. All mud additives will be handled with care to reduce the risk of
spillage.
Diesel fuel will be held on site in a 1500 litre bunded tank, with fuel being pumped up
into the drillrig tank daily. Minimal quantities of other lubricants will be stored in
secure steel containers, with waste oils being removed from site.
All other wastes and rubbish will be carted away to the local Municipal disposal area,
or inert wastes buried on site where appropriate.
3.5 Clean-Up and Rehabilitation
On abandonment of the drill site, concrete footings will be buried and the mud pit,
flare pit and silt traps will be backfilled and covered with available topsoil.
Any other rubbish will be removed from site and the area re-seeded in agreement
with the landowners requirements. A final inspection will be carried out with the
landowner to confirm acceptance.
8
GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL. (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338
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4 0 0 0 0 ~ )
PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
4. DRILLING PROGRAM
All diamond drilling operations will be carried out using the Heavy Duty Longyear 44
drillrig currently in use at Lonnavale. The mast on this rig has been strengthened to
carry a safe working load of 20 tonne, and the winch has been double reeved and
fitted with a 20t snatch block. The power unit has been replaced with a 180 HP
Cummins diesel, and a new Hydro Chuck fitted. This rig now has the capacity to drill
a BQ hole to 1800m, an NQ hole to 1300m, and an HQ hole to 800m.
The wellhead will be fitted with a 5000 psi BOP stack and 3000 psi Choke assembly.
The hole will be pre-collared to a depth of up to 300m depending on the competence
of rock encountered. This work will be carried out using a 6 inch down hole hammer,
and will be cased with 100mm NB fully welded API rated pressure pipe. The hole will
then be drilled HQ (89mm rods drilling a 96mm hole and 63mm core) to a depth of
around 800m, followed by NQ (70mm rods drilling a 76mm hole and 48mm core) to a
planned total depth of around 1200m.
4.1 Outline Summary
Drilling contractors Gerald Spaulding Drillers P/L will be used to drill the pre-collar
and install HW sized casing. For details, refer to Section 4.2 Setting and Cementing
Casing.
The Longyear 44 drillrig will then be set up over the hole on a 2.1 m high steel
subframe and work will continue in accordance with the following program:
• Weld 4 ~ " 5M 6B flange to top of casing and nipple up BOP stack.
• Pressure test casing and BOP as per testing and safety procedures.
• Run in HQ string and drill out cement plug and casing shoe.
• Carry out pressure integrity test of casing shoe.
• Continue drilling HQ (96mm hole) to around 800m.
• Run in NQ string and complete drilling (76mm hole) to target depth.
• Condition hole for Wireline Log or DST as required.
• Evaluate drilling results and finalise report.
• Establish plug and abandon program as per Schedule C provisions.
4.2 Setting and Cementing Casing
The casing will be ERW Ultrapipe supplied by Tubemakers of Australia Limited,
complying with API Specification 5L (GDE-B & X42).
Nominal bore: 100mm Outside diameter: 114.3mm
Wall thickness: 6.0mm Mass: 16.02 kg/m
Maximum pressure rating: 21,800 kPa at 72% of minimum yield stress
30,280 kPa (4390 psi) at yield
9
GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338
GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/l 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338
PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
10
4.3 Drilling Fluid Program
8.35 ppg (SG 1.0)
9.5 -10
35 - 60 sec
8 - 15 cp
5 - 8 cc
13 - 18
Minimum
Weight:
pH:
Marsh Funnel:
Plastic Viscosity:
Fluid Loss:
Yield Point:
Solids:
Standard Mud Properties:
All mud engineering problems are referred to either Kerry Booth or John Trevitt of
Baroid for advice.
All drilling mud is mixed in a 3500 litre tank fitted with a high speed hydraulically
driven stirrer, and then transferred to 1500-3000 litre CGI holding tanks. The surface
circulation system incorporates three CGI tanks to allow for settling of fine cuttings
and effective degassing of the drill fluid.
400010
'.. GREAT sQ\JTH>i'AND.·\'iUN&IlAl;$> )''r>Y
Two pallets of calcium chloride are kept on site in case weighted kill mud is required.
350 bags of barite are also available if kill mud heavier than 11 ppg is needed,
although the use of barite in deep slimhole drilling operations could lead to plugging
off circulation.
With no evidence of overpressured formations, we plan to continue using fresh water
polymer drill fluids during normal diamond coring operations, with caustic soda used
for pH correction. Mud weight, viscosity and pH are monitored continuously during
each shift.
The casing will be supplied in 12m lengthswith bevel preparation at each end for full
strength butt welds. The pipe will be run in the hole with each joint being welded by a
qualified pressure pipe welder, and 10mm centralisers fixed at each joint.
A tool joint will then be attached at the top of the casing to allow circulation and
flushing of the annulus. The casing will then be cemented using Normal Portland
cement mixed at the rate of 35 bags per cubic metre, and circulated until grout of the
same consistency emerges from the top collar. The area surrounding the wellhead
will be concreted to provide support for the BOP stack and to anchor the choke and
kill lines.

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GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS PfL 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338
HQ RODS 88.9mm
HOLE SIZE 96.1mm
CAPACITY 7.25Iitres/metre
ANNULUS VOLUME 1.04 litres/metre
ROD CAPACITY 4.75 Iitres/metre
ANNULAR VELOCITY 25 metres/minute
PUMP RATE 26 Iitres/minute
NO RODS 70mm
HOLE SIZE 76mm
CAPACITY 4.53 Iitreslmetre
ANNULUS VOLUME 0.70 Iitres/metre
ROD CAPACITY 2.86 litres/metre
ANNULAR VELOCITY 25 metres/minute
PUMP RATE 18 Iitres/minute
400011
HW CASING 114.3mm
HOLE SIZE 139.7mm
CAPACITY 15.33 litres/metre
ANNULUS VOLUME 5.07 Iitres/metre
ROD CAPACITY 8.22 litres/metre
ANNULAR VELOCITY 25 metres/minute
PUMP RATE 127 Iitres/minute
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PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
.....-------- CONDUCTOR 200mm
HOLE SIZE 225mm
11200m I
laoom I
Depth
4.4 Well Diagram and Volumes
\300m I
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400012
PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
5. FORMATION EVALUATION
5.1 Core Recovery, Logging and Analysis
Drill core will be recovered continuously from the bottom of the pre-collar hole. This
core will be stored in metal core trays clearly numbered and marked for depth and
direction, then logged in detail before being transported to storage.
Samples of the core will be taken periodically for ageing, and hydrocarbon analysis
by Amdel Laboratories in Adelaide. Potential reservoir rocks will be tested for
porosity and permeability. Gas samples will also be taken and analysed by Amdel to
correlate against mudlogging results, and for detection of helium and other gases not
measured by mudlogging instruments.
5.2 Mudlogging Services
Mudlogging services will be provided throughout drilling of the hole, and may include
provision for monitoring and recording the following data:
(a) Gas Detection
- total gas
- chromatographic analysis
- running of calibration gases
(b) Drilling Parameters
- depth
- rate of penetration
- weight on biU hydraulic pressure
- speed of rotation
- pump rate
- calculation of lag time
- pit level monitoring
- mud rheological properties
5.3 Wireline Logging and Drill Stem Testing
Once drilling results have been fully analysed, a decision will be made on the
extent of wireline logging and drill stem testing to be carried out. Full core
recovery with the ability to test for porosity and permeability reduces the
imperative for wireline logging, although these logs are valuable for comparative
purposes and for establishing a standard point of reference within the industry.
Due to the significant cost of mobilising this equipment to Tasmania, any testing
work will probably be combined with other wells, and hence may not occur until
a later date. A separate testing program will be issued at this time.
12
GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338
GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL (03) 62319339 FAX. (03) 62319338
13
6.2 Pressure Integrity Test
6.1 BOP Testing Procedures
Dale Roberts - IWCF Certificate D48221AU260/0023 expires 18/5/98
• Pull into the casing and fill the hole. Stop pumps and close the annular preventer
and kelly cock.
• Begin pumping down the annulus at no more than 10 Iitres per minute. Record
and graphically plot the casing pressure versus the volume pumped.
• Terminate the test at a pressure limit of 1500 psi or at the point where the
pressure versus volume plot ceases to be a straight line, whichever occurs first.
• Record the instantaneous shut in pressure and trapped pressure for 15 minutes at
1 minute intervals or until it levels off, whichever occurs first.
• Bleed off into the graduated suction tank and record fluid volume recovered, then
open the annular preventer.
Procedure:
Drilling out the shoe and 5 metres of cemented plug, circulate to normalise drilling
fluid and test as follows:
(d) Safety drills will be carried out periodically at the discretion of the Supervisor.
(c) The Annular Preventer and Accumulator will be operated daily.
400013
·•• ...• •• ··.·.·A,;!i iiOfi.9o''1 ••• 1
The Pressure Integrity Test provides a safe method of testing the casing and
determining the amount of pressure or equivalent mud weight that the well bore can
withstand without fracturing and losing returns. All pressure integrity tests will be
conducted using a small output pump with a pressure gauge. A graduated tank will
be used to provide accurate volumetric measurements. The mud weight will be
uniform in the wellbore. A pressure integrity test form will be used to record all data
as accurately as possible.
(a) Following nippling up of the BOP, the Annular Preventer, Choke Manifold,
Kill valves, stand pipe and swivel will be tested to 3000 psi in 500 psi
increments.
(b) At intervals not exceeding 7 days after drilling below surface casing a
pressure test of BOP's and manifold equipment will be carried out using a cup
tester.
Senior Driller:
Drilling Supervisor: David Tanner - IWCF Certificate S7253/AU260/0069 expires 17/5/98
All operations will be under the direct control of qualified personnel holding current
BOP and Well Control Certificates as follows:
PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
6. TESTING AND SAFETY PROCEDURES
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PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
7. COMMUNICATIONS AND REPORTING
GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/l 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEl. (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338
(03) 6231 9339
019 973134
(03) 6231 9338
Telephone:
Mobile Phone:
Facsimile:
David Tanner
Exploration Manager
Great Southland Minerals Pty Ltd
Level 3
65 Murray Street
HOBART TAS 7000
Operational reporting, including Daily Logs and goelogical reports will be forwarded
to Mineral Resources Division of TOR on a regular basis.
40001,1
.... ¢itJi4:r .. 1iQu'r:ilJ;ANI>"'r!'lERAJ,s'TV l;lVlli'ilhi .,0'rl;;g:!il"hi ~ " "Alijp"t199'l ...... ,
All communications to the Operating Company and third parties will take place
through Great South Land Minerals Pty Ltd office at 65 Murray Street, Hobart:
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GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL (03) 6231 9339 FAX. (03) 6231 9338
PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN
8. PLANT AND EQUIPMENT DETAILS
400015
' ... (iREA1' .SOU'r.i! •• LAN " .. MfJiiil ii)\,,;,s".J'.XY· .··L1;".... ·..... Aiig .. (JjUi7..... ·1
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2" 3M Chiksan Hoses with hammer unions for connection to kill line and
choke line.
2" 3M Kill Line fitted with gate valve and check valve.
5M Socket Weld Flanges
2" 3M Choke Manifold fitted with pressure gauge, dual choke lines and
diverter connected to 6" surge tank.
NL Shaffer 3 Station Koomey Unit with 11 gallon accumulator bottle,
hydraulic tank, regulator gauges, BOP connection hose and duplex
charging pump driven by Kohler engine and control unit.
Model No. GED 1000053S, SIN 12483.
x 5M Drilling Spool.
5M API rated full opening GREYGATE flanged valve.
HYDRIL GKS 5000 Annular Preventer with 5M flange,
complete with replacement element and seal kit. PIN 45931, SIN
63820
FMC 50 hp Bean Pump delivering 190 litreslmin @ 10,000 kPa.
Maximum rated pressure 12,500 kPa (1800 psi)
Collapsed for transport: 6m long x 2.5m wide x 3.5m high x 10 Tonne
2-Seclion 9m rod pull length with pipe stacking rack and hydraulic mast
raising cylinder.
Hydraulic drum hoist with 2000m capacity of 6mm cable.
Maximum line pull 5kN.
30 KVA Genset driven by Perkins 4108 diesel.
Skid-mounted Longyear 44 Hydraulic Chuck Diamond Drill with
hydraulic jacking rams and full weatherproof enclosure.
Cummins 6BT turbocharged diesel delivering 177 HP @ 2500 rpm
8.2 BLOWOUT PREVENTION EQUIPMENT
8.1 LONGYEAR 44 DRILL RIG DESCRIPTION
CHIKSAN HOSES
ACCUMULATOR
CHOKE MANIFOLD
KILL LINE
FLANGES
GATE VALVE
DRILLING SPOOL
BOP
RIG DIMENSIONS:
AUXILIARY POWER:
MAST:
WIRELINE HOIST:
DRILL FLUIDS PUMP:
MOTOR:
DRILL:

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GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL. (03) 62319339 FAX. (03) 62319338
8.3 Site Plan
40001G
(..• ·.GiieAt<. sijiirH LAl\!l)·»n!ER... :i'S.·...... C(), <l/fl) •..••• ··Aiijiii,jt/t9?t···<·1
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400018
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD
STRATIGRAPHIC SLlMHOLE DRILLING PROGRAM
Standard Manual for
BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL
RIG SAFETY AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE
FEBRUARY 1997 EDITION
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD
400019
Engineering Division Januitry 1997
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BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL
CONTENTS
Page
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PRESSURE CONTROL ENGINEERING
Introduction to Pressure Control Engineering
Origins of Abnormal Formation Pressure
Indications of Abnonmal Formation Pressure
Causes of Loss of Control of Abnormal Pressure
ABNORMAL PRESSURE DETECTION
Introduction
Flow Check Pressure
ABNORMAL PRESSURE CONTROL
Introduction to Abnormal Pressure ContrOl
Friction Pressure loss in the Circulating System
Methods for Kick Conrol
Pressure Control Worksheet
Pumping to Displace Mud in the Drill String
Pumping to Displace Mud in the Annulus
Well Shut in Procedures
Blowout Prevention Equipment
Blowout Prevention Test Schedule
Blowout Prevention Well Head Diagram
2
3
3
3
4
7
7
8
9
10
10
11
11
12
13
14
see appendix

GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle St. Sanery Pmn! TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAJC 0362242227
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GReAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineedng Did!'lion
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January 11}97
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BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL
Introduction to Pressure Control Engineering
Necessary rapid response to emergency situations may best be accorded when drilling crews are
trained to react instinctively to implement actions which effectively prevents a situation from becoming
unmanageable.
Where practical a well plan should identify those intervals in the well which have a history of abnormal
formation pressure manifested either as lost circulation, as highly compacted and sloughing sediments
or as highly pressured fluids which may cause a problem to the normal drilling activities undertaken.
The investigation should seek to anticipate such problems for well intervals and so assist in designing
casing strings as well as drilling procedures to provide the drilling programme, economy and safety in
operations
Supervisors need to provide regular crew drills to enact these procedures so each person on a location
is fully practised as to his responsibilities and actions during such an emergency. Drilling crews are
reminded that the first response is most often a responsibility of the Contract Drilling Company
performing operations at the site and that in the normal course of drilling, the contractor's personnel will
carryon all operations to secure well control.
The first responsibility of a rig crew in an emergency is to preserve personnel at the site from injury or
loss of life. The consideration that the most common cause for loss of life and property on oil and gas
drilling rigs in the past has resulted from human error and not through equipment failure, should indicate
the importance of carrying out regular drills in safety training on a location.
Our priority IS to educate crews in understanding the principles, procedures and specification of
equipment employed for safe handling of an emergency response as well as the necessity for
communicating all appropriate details through correctly identified channels. Communication procedures
for crews are those which have been identified with the operating company representative at the site
during the course of a contract drilling programme.
The following section, 'Abnormal Formation Pressure', identifies the origins and indications for abnormal
borehole pressure, causes for loss of control in a well bore when encountering abnormal pressure, and
procedures tor carrying out flow checks to detect a kicking well
Thereafter, 'Well Control Procedures', for handling HW/HO/NO rod strings are described, together with
Well Kill Methods which include the 'Driller's Method' and the 'Wait and Weight Method' to shut in and
kill the well to prevent a blowout.
Origins of Abnormal Formation Pressure
Formation pore pressure has often been classified as normal where it is equivalent to a normal sea
water gradient of 0.1073 kgf/cm' I metre and subnormal when less than this. Abnormal over-pressured
formations may be in excess of 0.2353 kgf/cm' I metre in some sedimentary basins of the world. In such
extreme cases the over-pressure arises out of a condition in which formation pore fluids are supporting
part or all of the rock overburden. The reasons for this condition are not always fully understood but
most explanations argue that incomplete diagenetic compaction during burial of the sediments or geo-
tectonic pressuring after compaction and burial is responsible.
Indications of Abnonnal Formation Pressure
There are a number of seismic and wireline methods for predicting abnormal pressure in formations
which may be employed when planning a well, and there are a series of well documented indicators tor
the onset of abnormal pressure that may be observed when drilling a well. A number of warning signs
can be observed at the surface when drilling which will indicate the onset of a kick. It is the
responsibility of crew members to recognise these warning signs and act correctly and promptly to
recover such a situation.
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PiL 12 Newcastle 51. Battery POInl TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
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GR EAT SOUTH LAND MIN ERA LS PTY LTD
Primary indicators are:
1. Increase in pit volume
2. Increase in flow rate
3. Well still flowing after turning pump off
Engineering Division
400021
Fcbrullr)o' 1997
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Other indicators are listed as follows:
4. a sudden increase in the drilling rate
5. an abrupt increase In bit torque
6. a reduction in pump pressure
7. an apparent increase in drill string weight
8. complete or partial loss of circulation
9. decreasing shale density
Secondary Indicators which may forewarn of a kick include.
increasing contamination of the drilling fluid by gas (gas cut mud)
variation in mud chlorides indicating water cut mud
increasing mud temperature
increasing trip gas and connection gas
Causes of Loss of Control of Abnormal Pressure
Kicks, lost circulation or blowouts may occur where formation pressure in the formation drilled is higher
than or less than the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid in the well bore. Such an imbalance may
permit formation fluids to invade the well and produce a kick at the surface which may develop into a
blowout of the well. In circumstances where the formation pressure is less than hydrostatic pressure an
under-balanced condition exists and if porous or cavernous rock is being drilled, fluid may be lost to the
formation. The loss of hydrostatic pressure arising out of this condition may permit the escape of
formation fluids from higher formations into the well bore and similarly cause a well kick or blowout.
Present drilling practice requires maintaining near balanced mud densities and at the same time
ensuring hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to control formation pressure. A rule of thumb often employed
has been to control mud density to that required for balancing formation pressure plus enough weight to
provide for the trip margin.
Australian land drilling operations are frequently complicated where formation pressures will not support
the hydrostatic pressure exerted by a drilling fluid and partial or total loss of returns occurs in porous or
cavernous surface and intermediate hole.
Less frequently, and often together with a lost Circulation event, complications to drilling operations
arise through formation pressure exceeding the mud hydrostatic pressure in a well. The causes for kicks
are listed below:
1. insufficient mud density
2. failure to keep the hole full of fluid
3. swabbing
4. lost circulation
5. abnormal over-pressure
6. equipment failure
Insufficient Mud Density:
The condition may occur when drilling into a zone with a drilling mud that is providing less hydrostatic
pressure than the formation fluid. Where the formation is permeable, fluids will flow Into the well bore.
The fluids (gas or water and hydrocarbons) will cut the density of the drilling fluid and compound the
condition. Increasing the density for control will not always be a satisfactory remedy since high mud
densities may exceed formation fracture gradients and cause lost circulation. Excessive mud densities
reduce penetration rates and can lead to the differential sticking of the drill rods and they can damage
zones for investigation.
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 NewcasUe SI. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PlY LTIl E n ~ incerin g Oi \: i s i on
400022
January 1997
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Failure to Keep the Hole Full of Fluid:
Most blowouts recorded have occurred during the pulling of pipe from the hole. Blowouts have resulted
through not filling the hole with sufficient mud to replace the drill string volume that is withdrawn from
the hole. The influence of swabbing while tripping together with the reduction of hydrostatic pressure
from incorrect filling of the hole is the most common cause for rig misfortune and tragedy. The situation
is avoided through care to make sure that the correct volume of fluid IS being returned to the well after
pulling a set quantity of pipe. Tripping practice to change a bit should include the correct handling of a
trip sheet and this should be signed and maintained with drilling tour reports.
The theoretical accumulated volume displacement should be compared through a trip with actual
accumulated volumes that are returned to or from the well as the drill string is withdrawn or run back in
the hole. When the hole is not taking the correct volume this should alert the driller that invading fluid
may be flowing into the well bore.
Pump stroke counts and measuring the pit volume all assist the driller to calculate and confirm that the
volumes to replace the displacement are correct.
An oil saver-wire line stripper connected to the top drill rod recovers mud from a travelling wire line and
provides blowout protection when retrieving the inner core tube. However, this operation is carried out
With flow check procedures outlined in the section Flow Checks for Core Drilling.
In some areas during tricone rotary drilling, it may become useful practice to slug the pipe with a barite
plug before commencing to trip out of the hole. ThiS will assist in stabilising the hole when the drill string
is at the surface.
Swabbing:
Swab pressure is created while pulling the drill string or inner core barrel from the hole. Suction arises,
since mud does not re-enter the hole as fast as it is displaced. Where hydrostatic pressure of a mud
column is only slightly above the formation pressure, the resulting pressure loss from swabbing may
allow formation fluids to flow into the well. The pressure reduction from swabbing is a function of
hoisting speed, clearance between the well bore and the drill string, mud properties and bit water
course size.
The most critical period of influence from swabbing will occur while pulling the first few stands of the drill
string off bottom. A check to ensure that formation fluid is not being swabbed into the hole at the early
stages of a trip will often be adVisable.
Lost Circulation:
There are numerous causes for lost circulation which may frequently arise in shallow or un-consolidated
beds and in deeper rocks which may fracture because the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the mud
column exceeds the fracture pressure of a formation, or because a formation is naturally fractured or
cavernous.
When the hydrostatic pressure in the well bore exceeds the fracture pressure of the formation, the
formation will break down and mud will be lost to that zone. Lost circulation is particularly hazardous
when zones with pressure higher than the hydrostatic pressure of the mud column which stabilises after
the losses become exposed and push fluids into the well.
Frequently circulated returns are lost and the flUid level will stabilise at some point down hole where the
hydrostatic pressure balances the formation pressure in the lost circulation zone. On other occasions
only partial losses are experienced to a zone and Circulation may be restored after treatment to plug the
formation.
If lost circulation occurs while a kick is being handled with pressure on the preventors, an underground
blowout may occur. The zone of lost circulation must then be repaired before normal well control
procedures are carried out. Sometimes it is possible to spot a heavy slug of high density mud below the
thief zone in the zone of high pressure and this effect repairs to the zone of lost circulation.
5
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 NewcasUe St Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362242227
BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Didsion
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Jltnuarl1997
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On other occasions it will become necessary to repair the thief zone with a thixotropic cement squeeze
and possibly then case out the two zones after drilling to a suitable formation in which the casing can
be secured.
Abnormal Over-pressure:
As stated, abnormal over-pressured formations are frequently defined as those formations with a
pressure gradient in excess of a normal column of sea water. This normal formation pressure gradient is
o1073 kgf/cm
2
I metre.
If an high pressured formation is penetrated with insufficient mud density, then a kick situation is likely
to develop. The response will usually depend on whether the permeability and porosity in the formation
is sufficient to permit fluids to flow freely from the highly pressured formation into the well bore.
Under other conditions, the formation may be pressured because compaction in the rock cannot sustain
the overburden, and although porosity and permeability are not sufficient to allow the escape of large
quantities of fluid into the well bore, there may be deformation and accelerated erosion to the well bore.
Increasing the mud weight will often prevent or reduce the sloughing and caving of sediments in these
formations.
Equipment Failure:
Failure to correctly test, maintain and operate equipment on the rig has in the past been a cause for
concern in the industry and has been the reason for loss of life and property in times of blowout The
schedules for function testing surface well head and mud line equipment, the necessity for reporting
testing to statutory authorities and training programmes for rig personnel have all assisted in reducing
the problem, but extra care needs to be given to required operational training in the use of this
equipment.
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 S1. SaNery POlnl TAS 7004 TEL. 036223 8789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
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fGREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Divisjon
40002,j
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BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL
Introduction to Abnormal Pressure Detection
The drillers and drilling crews are instructed to recognise and report any signs indicating the onset of
abnormal pressure or those conditions indicating that the well is flowing. The crews are drilled regularly
to make flow checks and shut in the well when necessary.
Flow Check Procedure
In order that drilling crews take all necessary precautions to prevent a kick situation arising, it is
recommended that flow checks are carried out at specific times during drilling operations:
1. while drilling and in the event of indication of a kick
2. prior to tnpping the drill string
3. in circumstances of indication of a kick while tripping
4. while out of the hole
5. while retrieving core
Rapid closing of the well is necessary if excessive surface pressure is to be avoided. Unnecessary and
improper closing in procedures can however cause equipment damage and hole problems.
When one or more indicators that a well is kicking are recorded, a flow check should be conducted
immediately to confirm the presence of formation fluids entering the well bore However, this flow check
must be kept as short as possible In order to minimise the potential Influx of hydrocarbons and hence
kick size. A large kick is more difficult to kill and circulate out. This is of particular importance in slimhole
drilling because of the small annulus volume; for example, a 40 litre kick in a BO hole would occupy
100m of annulus while drilling, or 24m of drill pipe while retrieving core
General procedures to be observed are as follows:
1. While Drilling:
stop rotary, then hoist to position tool joint at surface
shut off pump and call alert
observe well and if flowing shut annular preventer
line up well to closed choke manifold and monitor stand pipe and casing pressures
2. Before Tripping the Drill String:
position tool jOint above footclamps and call alert
divert the flow line to record flow rate and volume
record the flow rate for 1-2 minutes
if no flow is noted, trip out of the hole
if the well is flowing, shut it in immediately
3. While Tripping the Drill String:
position tool joint above footclamps and call alert
install stabbing valve in open position then close
ensure the hole is full then shut down pump
divert flow to record flow rate and volume for 1-2 minutes
if the well is flowing, shut it in immediately
4. While Out of the Hole:
ensure the hole is full then shut down pump
divert flow to record flow rate and volume for 1-2 minutes
continue to monitor the flow each half hour
5. While Retrieving Core:
The well flow check procedures are those established for carrying on wireline operations In
conventional drill string assemblies
call alert
shut in the wireline oilsaver packer stripper
monitor the flow for 1-2 mlns. via by-pass
ensure the well has stabilised before completing the flow check
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 SI. Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. FAX: 0362242227
BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL
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IGREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD E n g i n c e r i n ~ Di\'ision
400025
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Introduction to Abnormal Pressure Control
General to the procedures for well control and well kill operations in HW/HQ/NQ core drilling are those
features of the drill rig and system controls which permit safe handling when drilling in over pressured
formations
Drill fluids suppliers have mud weighting materials compatible for use with wireline core drilling tooling
and weighted mud systems are now regularly provided for slimhole operations.
Wireline cOring drill holes are considerably downsized to conventional oil and gas holes. The sunace
mud volumes used and pump circulation rates to drill these wells are also much reduced. Fewer,
smaller drill cuttings are produced while coring, which reduces formation contamination of the drill fluid.
A driller works above the hole and can monitor all aspects of the circulating system from his position at
the rig console.
It is critical to operations that drill fluid rheological properties and particularly yield and gel strengths are
readily controlled to maintain optimum conditions for pressure control management in these wells. The
annular mud volumes in core hole geometries are only about 15% of those in conventional oil and gas
wells, while the circulation system is only about a third of that used by conventional oil field rigs. In
these circumstances less time and fewer mud materials are necessary to build weight, condition the
mud and control a kick.
While all other response times may be considered equal, the opportunity for detection of a more exact
and smaller variation in pit volume is possible in these circumstances. Attention to this opportunity can
provide a lead time for response in such an event.
While wireline coring tools are lighter than conventional rotary drill strings it may be pointed out that in a
closed well situation with a HQ core drilling assembly in 4.33" hole locked in under a top drive UDR rig,
in excess of 3,000 psi could be contained. This IS without the necessity of closing a shear ram. By
comparison, the same situation in a 7 3/4" production hole with a fluted kelly, would require 132,000 Ib
of string weight to prevent drill pipe from moving up the hole
While tripping rods, it should also be noted that in spite of these rods having a large bore and a narrow
bit ken area, the calculated resistance to flow (and its resultant implication for swabbing) when pulling a
rotary tricone roller bit string will be found to be greater than in the case of the core string.
Wlreline core retrieval has no unique feature which characterises the operation from other wlreline
activities in conventional drilling practice Two adopted procedures are designed to prevent accident
when pulling core:
A wireline Oil-saver packer stripper, rated to antiCipated pressure control requirements ( 3,000 psi
in this manual), is installed on top of the drill rod string. In the event of a kick, the packer may be
closed. In this event the core inner barrel becomes suspended in a pressured chamber. mud
which is allowed to rise while retrieving the core inner barrel IS directed back into the hole via a
fast acting mud by-pass valve in the drill string. This valve IS also shut in the event of a kick.
When stable, read the shut in casing and shut in drill pipe pressures and record the volume gain.
Equipment Rated Pressure:
Well data calculated for carrying out well kill procedures uses rated working specifications for the
pressure control equipment and recommended property specifications for the drilling fluids employed.
The rated shut In pressure of the Blowout Preventer Well Head is 5,000 psi. The rated pressure of the
Annular Blowout Preventer is 5,000 psi. The operating pressure of the Blowout Preventers is 750 psi.
An equipment list and diagrams for the BOP equipment are shown in the Appendices.
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IGREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD En g i Dee do 4!, . Di ~ i 5 ion
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Friction Pressure Loss in the Circulating System:
The following procedures programme identifies the fundamental concern for the handling of friction
pressure losses in these geometries when planning to control and kill a kick.
A friction factor derived for conventional rotary drilling with a drill pipe to annulus ratio of 0.28 will be
smaller than the friction factor derived where this ratio is in the order of 2:1 as is the case in wireline
drilling geometries. As a result, 92% of circulating system friction pressure losses are derived in the
annulus in these down hole configurations, whereas annulus pressure losses in conventional rotary
drilling geometries will generally only be to the order of 10% of circulating system pressure losses. As a
consequence, a kick event in the well may be anticipated to evacuate:
the annulus while drilling
the drill string while tripping
the drill string while operating wireline tools.
As a further consequence of this distribution for friction pressure losses in a CHD circulating system, it
may normally be expected while core drilling that equivalent mud densities will be higher than those in
wells which are drilled using conventional oil-well rotary drilling practices.
For clarification of the following well shut in and kill procedures, a description of pressure control
equipment and well data to support the drilling practices which is useful for preparing a well kill data
sheet, has been included in the appendices
Friction Pressure Calculations:
The Power Law model for fluid flow behaviour has been employed In calculating friction pressure losses
in the circulating system. The equations used to calculate the friclion pressure loss are described in the
IDF Drillfluids Manual which is held at the location in the tool room. The circulating system pressure
data obtained when drilling Comalco's Ungoolya I in the Officer Basin of South Australia and the
Pittston Minerals (Aust) Sandfire Flat (SD1) mineral hole in the Canning Basin (described in the
Slimhole Drilling Technology Manual) are empirical data sets used as models for applying these friction
pressure loss equations at the location.
HW/HQ/NQ well geometries and drilling fiuid properties are recorded on the kill sheet which describe
the parameters used in these calculations.
The circulating system pressure loss in a well is the sum of friction pressure losses.
CSPL =P(surface) + P(drill string) + P(core barrel) + P(annulus)
When a kick is detected and the well has been shut in, it is well to wait for a few minutes to allow the
pressure to stabilise. If a gas bubble has been encountered it will begin to migrate up the hole, and it is
not good practice to wait too long before commencing remedial action. The driller may respond in two
prescribed ways to control the pressure.
He may use the recorded surface pressures to plan for kill procedures and fill in the Pressure Control
Worksheet at this time, or he may wish to circulate the well through the choke using the constant pump
stroke method and displace all the invading formation flUids before commencing to kill the well.
The latter, which initially controls the over-pressure by circulating the hydrostatically under-balanced
well through the choke, and displaces any invading fluid from the well is called 'The Driller's Method'
and will provide more reliable data to calculate mud weight to control the abnormal pressure The
method requires a minimum of two complete circulations to kill the well
The former IS known as 'The Wait and Weight Method' and is designed 10 kill a well with one circulation
and because of simplicity it is most often the preferred procedure.
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle St. Battery Poinl TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX. 0362242227
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IGREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD E ngincc ring Divis i on
400027
Janu.arJ 19971
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Methods for Kick Control:
This method and a worksheet for controlling a well is described in the aDCM Well Control Manual
which is in the tool house at the location.
A well which has been shut in may be then circulated while the driller controls the 3,000 psi diverter line
ball cock valve with the original mud weight to displace an invading fluid in the annulus. A constant
bottom hole pressure is maintained while circulating at the slow pump rate to control further entry of
formation fluid. It is useful to complete a Well Control Worksheet before commencing the procedure.
Circulation is commenced by cracking the diverter line ball cock valve and simultaneously bringing the
pump rate to the desired slow pump rate. While pumping at the constant pump rate the drill string
pressure is held constant by adjustment at the choke. An initial pump pressure is obtained by adding the
circulating system pressure loss to the shut in drill string pressure
When all the invading fluid has been pumped from the hole, clean uncut mud will appear and the well
may be shut in once more. The shut in casing pressure and the shut in drill string pressure should now
be equal and a Pressure Control Worksheet may be completed using this recorded data.
It is possible to continue circulating the well at any time while weighting up operations are in progress
using this constant pump stroke - constant drill string pressure method and maintain control of the well.
Regardless of the two methods employed, to kill a kicking well is the same in both cases when
displacing old mud with newly weighted mud of sufficient density to effectively control the over pressure.
The operation may proceed after the initial shut in without displacing the invading fluid using the 'Wait &
Weight Method' or it may proceed to circulation using the 'Drillers Method' to control the kick. In both
cases the shut in pressures are used to fill out the Pressure Control Worksheet and mud density is
increased in the pits to effectively control the abnormal pressure.
The Pressure Control Worksheet:
This work sheet is used for recording shut in data and is kept up to date during drilling operations to
maintain the pre-recorded information which includes the circulating system pressure loss with the
pump and well data.
Record the shut In drill string and the shut In casing pressure together with the kick volume. The Initial
circulating pressure required is found by adding the shut in drill string pressure to the system pressure
loss.
The new mud density required to balance the formation pressure may be calculated from the shut in drill
string pressure. This pressure is converted to an eqUivalent mud density in units of specific gravity
using the equation described on the worksheet Adding the result to the original mud density will provide
the new mud specific gravity which is required to balance the formation
It is necessary to displace the original drilling mud in the drill string and annulus with newly weighted
mud while pumping with a controlled pump rate and making adjustments at the diverter ball cock choke
valve to maintain a regulated pressure. The pressure is regulated to reduce the pump pressure from the
Initial Circulating Pressure to the Final Circulating Pressure as the old mud is pumped out of the drill
string. Calculate the Final Circulating Pressure uSing the equation shown in the worksheet, and then
prepare a graph plan which plots the number of pump strokes and/or time vs the decrease in pumping
pressure while the new mud is being pumped from the surface to the bottom of the drill string. This Final
Circulating Pressure is then maintained by controlling the choke while pumping the new mud up through
the annulus.
Remember when making these calculations:
the drill string hydrostatic pressure + the circulating system pressure - the friction pressure
is always equal to
the annulus hydrostatic pressure + the casing pressure + friction pressure in the annulus.
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PtL 12 Newcastle 51. Battery Point TA57004 TEL: 0362238789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
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IGREATSOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD E n ~ i n ('c ringDi \. is ion
400028
J a n u a r ~ r 1'97l
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BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL
Pumping to Displace Mud in the Drill String:
Displacement is effected by pumping new mud at the controlled slow pump stroke rate and maintaining
choke adjustment to control the pump pressure. This is the Initial Circulating Pressure at the
commencement and is reduced to the Final Circulating Pressure when the new mud reaches the bit
While making this choke correction it can be seen that pump strokes may increase as the pump
pressure falls, and to return the well to balance it is necessary to close the choke until pressure and
pump rate return to their designated values. Should the pump pressure increase and the pump stroke
rate begin to fall, then it is necessary to gradually open the choke to restore balance.
Pumping to Displace Mud in the Annulus:
When pumping to displace the annulus the final circulating pressure becomes the controlling factor. The
new mud is pumped through the annulus while controlling back pressure on the choke to maintain this
final pump pressure
The casing pressure will vary considerably while displacement proceeds and the maximum pressure will
be recorded when the gas bubble (if any) first reaches the surface.
The highest pressure recorded at any point in the well ( eg. the casing shoe) will occur when the top of
any such gas bubble reaches that point
Once new mud is returned to the surface, the well is once more balanced and back pressure required at
the choke will be reduced to zero. The well may then be shut in once more to determine if the new
weight is effectively controlling the formation pressure.
The higher annulus pressure associated with the driller's method for controlling a kick may become of
serious concern if an inner casing string has a low pressure rating or if it is set at a shallow depth where
fracture pressure in a formation is less than the probable annulus pressure that will occur when a gas
bubble reaches the shoe. For this reason, cautious evaluation of well parameters needs to apply when
selecting the method for controlling a well
11
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St. Batlery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Division
400029
JHDuar)' 1997
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Well Shut in Procedures;
If the well is flowing, the drill crew should shut in the well and make the necessary arrangements to
begin killing operations. The position of the drill string at the time of this decision determines which of
the following procedures to use for the shut in. Both of the 3,000 psi ball cock valves on the kill and
diverter lines are maintained in the closed position at all times while drilling or coring.
1. Shut in While Drilling:
call alert
stop rotary, hoist to place tool joint above slip area
shut down pump
check both ball cock valves are open
close annular preventer
slowly close 3,000 psi ball cock valves without exceeding allowable operating pressure
when stable, read the shut in casing and shut in drill pipe pressures and record the volume gain
2. Shut in While Tripping:
call alert
position upper tool joint above slip area
set pipe in slips & release elevators
Install 3,000 psi stabbing ball cock valve open, then close
check both ball cock valves are open
close annular preventer
slowly close the diverter ball cock valves without exceeding allowable casing pressure
make up top drive rotary to top connection
open 3,000 psi ball cock stabbing valve
allow well to stabilise
when stable, read the shut in casing and shut in drill pipe pressures and record the volume gain
3. Shut in While Out Of Hole:
call alert
check both 3,000 psi diverter line ball cock valves are open
close the 5,000 psi gate valve
slowly close diverter line. ball cock valves without exceeding allowable operating pressure
allow well to stabilise
read the shut in casing pressure and volume gain
4. Shut in While Retrieving Core:
The well shut in procedures are those established for carrying on wireline operations in conventional
drill string assemblies.
call alert
check both 3,000 psi diverter line ball cock valves are open
close in the packer stripper valve and by-pass valve
slowly close diverter line ball cock valves without exceeding allowable operating pressure
allow well to stabilise.
12
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle SI. Batlery Po;nl TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
13
BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL
Further descriptive Information for this equipment is provided in the Appendix
Blowout Prevention Equipment
400030
1997
NL Shaffer 3 Station Koomey Unit with 11 gallon accumulator bottle, hydraulic
tank, regulator gauges, BOP connection hose and duplex charging pump
driven by Kohler engine and control unit. Model No. GED 1000053S, SIN
12483
4;1;" 5M Socket Weld Flanges
2" 3M Chiksan Hoses with hammer unions for connection to kill line and choke
line
4@" x 2;1;' 5M Drilling Spool.
2" 3M Kill Line filted with gate valve and check valve.
2" 3M Choke Manifold filted with pressure gauge, dual choke lines and
diverter connected to 6" surge tank.
HYDRIL 4@" GKS 5000 Annular Preventer with 4@" 5M flange, complete with
replacement element and seal kit. PIN 45931, SIN 63820
4@' 5M API rated full opening GREYGATE flanged valve.
Chiksan Hoses
Accumulator
Kill Line
Choke Manifold
BOP
Flanges
Drilling Spool
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD
The following equipment was supplied and tested by Wisco International, Houston, Texas, USA in
September 1995
Gate Valve
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle St. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL
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IGREA'T SOUT HLA ND MINERALS PTY LTD [n gin e el" i n ~ D r \ ' i si 0 n
400031
Fehruary. 1997 1
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Blowout Preventer Test Schedule:
Pressure test policy requires that the BOP's and associated well control equipment is tested to
operation pressures recommended by the manufacturers.
Testing may be carried out with the least number of valve manipulations and in a=rdance With the
instructions of the operating company.
In the event that a test indicates that the equipment is not operating correctly, operations shall not be
continued until the deficiencies have been corrected to the satisfaction of the operating company.
All preventor equipment to be tested in accordance with such regulations requires that annular type
blowout preventors shall be tested to 70% of the manufacturers rated pressure.
A complete BOP test is carried out at the installation of the equipment, before drilling out after setting
each casing string, every 7 days while drilling and after each time repairs are made that require removal
of a pressure seal in the assembly. The gate valve shall be tested at the times stipulated in the above
paragraph, providing that after installing each casing string, the gate valve shall be pressure tested to
the operating pressure prOVided above.
The annular preventors and rams shall be function tested on each round trip or 24 hour period, which
ever is the greater period of time.
In conjunction with BOP tests, pressure tests of the inside BOP's and rig mudlines require attention at
this time. The pressure test for the rig mud lines and pump manifold is 1800 psi.
Closing Unit:
1. Accumulators shall have sufficient capacity at all times to close, open and re-close the annular type
blowout preventor.
2. Rig hydraulic pump shall be capable of rebuilding fluid pressure in the closing unit within a period of
three minutes to a sufficiently high level to close the annular type blowout preventor.
3. Closing unit shall be connected to the blowout preventors with lines of working pressure at least
equal to the working pressure of the unit.
Closing Unit Tests
Tests are performed at installation or every 15 days, whichever is the shorter period of time. Regardless
of the arrangement of a blowout preventor stack to be tested, a set of drawings is most useful when
conducting this procedure Tests are carried out with the least number of valve manipulations.
The test diagrams are prepared after the drill rig plumbing inspection is concluded at the location. All
BOP testing is carried out using water after mud is flushed from the stack and lines. Low pressure tests
must be applied for 3 minutes betore increasing to the full test pressure on the NPT mUdline, the
diverter and kill line ball cock valves, gate valve and annular BOP
BOP Inspection Test Check List:
Make frequent inspection to your satisfaction that you have;
Ensured the BOP's are correctly installed and braced
Replaced hand wheels.
Ensured the 3,000 psi ball cock valves on the dlverter and kill lines are closed.
Sufficient mud weighting chemicals to meet location requirements
Hydraulic properties recorded daily in the Pressure Control Worksheet
Drills and Safety Meeting requirements fully observed
Tested the stand pipe, pump lines, valves and mud line hose.
14
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle SI. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362242227
15
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362242227
RIG SAFETY AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PI'; LTD
400032
Enginee["ing Division January 1997
9:4 First Aid
CONTENTS
RIG SAFETY AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE.
9:2 Rig Safety
24
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PAGE
400033
JanuarJ 1997
En gineering 0 i,,· isiun
9:4:1 First Aid at the Rig Site
9:4:3. Basic First Aid for Wounds
94:3. Fractures
9:4:4. Burns and Scalds
9:4.5. Treatment of Shock
9:46. Responsibility
9:2: 1. Introduction to Fire Fighting Procedures
9:2.2. Classification of f,res and methods for their control
9:2:3. Rig Fire Prevention
9:24 Responsibility
9:2.5. CUlling & Welding
9:2:6. Inspection
927. Welding in Confined Spaces
9:2:8. The Use of an Observer
9:2.9. Electric Arc Welding
9:2: 10 Operator Safety
9:2: 11 Oxy-Acetylene Flame Cutting and Welding
9:2:12 Safety Responsibility
9:3 Production Testing
9.3.1. ProductionTesting
9.3:2. Procedures
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD
9:1 Emergency Response
9.1:1. Introduction
9: 1:2. Rig Emergency Procedure
9.1.3. Contractor Emergency Staff Response
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16

GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE
Emergency Response
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS .PTY LTD Engineering Di\lision
400034
JanUiU) 1997
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9:1:1. Introduction
The Safety and Emergency Response Program is prepared for the benefit of the Contracting drilling
crews and management to ensure the correct response to emergencies which may arise out of
contracting operations from time to time, and for the laying down of guide lines for safe procedures
when working on or around the drilling site.
Drilling supervisors are responsible to ensure that all personnel employed on the site are fUlly
conversant with the content of this manual, and are instructed in safe working practices on these
operations.
Company contractor personnel are then expected to sign the Safety Book to acknowledge they are fully
aware of and will abide by these instructions.
The Operating Company, Great Southland Minerals Pty Ltd, have prepared an Emergency Response
Manual which covers those contingencies for the drilling programme being conducted.
Should an emergency arise, nothing in the contents, Instruclions or regulations provided in this
programme shall be so construed as to prevent the "person-in-charge" from taking the most effective
action in his judgement for rectifying the conditions causing the emergency, or action deemed
necessary for the saving of life and property.
Emergency Alert Plan
An emergency is considered to be an unexpected event that may result in harm to life, environment or
property and which calls for immediate action.
Examples·
1. An event that results in loss of life, serious injury or causes a potential hazard to life and property.
2. Hydrocarbon or chemical spill or other emission harmful to the environment
3. A fire causing equipment or property damage.
4. Explosion, rupture or well blowout
The Senior Company Employee at the scene will contact the Operating Company Representative on
site or at his location and report the emergency, including details of:
where it occurred
when it occurred
what action IS being taken to control the situation
what progress is being achieved in rectifying the emergency.
The Operating Company Representative in these circumstances is Mr Malcolm Bendall
Tel. 0362 25 0542 Mobile 018120659 After Hours 0362250542
The Senior Company Employee is then responsible for reporting the emergency to his immediate senior
at the Contracting Company Head Office.
The Immediate Senior at the Contracting Company In these circumstances is Mr David Tanner
Tel. 0362315677 Mobile 019973134 After Hours 0362315677
Your immediate reports then are
1. Operation Site Representative
2. Contracting Company Supenor
Emergency Response
A list of operating company personnel to whom you may report emergencies will need 10 be prepared
and kept handy in the supervisors office. Make sure that the contact level for these situations is fully
established for each drilling programme.
17
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL. 0362238789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD E;[lginccring Division
400035
Januar)' 1997
9:1:2. Rig Emergency Procedure
The circumstances that will be encountered in any particular emergency are very often unpredictable.
No comprehensive set of plans can be formulated to meet all emergencies. However, normal
preparations can be made in response to ;
1. Fire, explosion or blowout
2. An urgent need for medical assistance
1. Alert all members of the team.
2 Contact the senior member of the Operator's emergency staff.
3. Base the emergency team at the radio contact room.
4. Liase with the Operator's rig supervisor.
5. Liase with the Contractor Rig Supervisor at the location.
6. Ensure names and addresses of personnel on the rig are known.
7. Prepare response for the State Regulators.
Supply
As advised by the Operator,
1. Prepare warehouse personnel responsible for materials dispatch.
2. Mobilise and dispatch any materials requested to the rig.
3. Ascertain if any injured personnel are in need of evacuation.
4. Prepare mobilisation for any evacuation.
5. Advise the local Police Department of the emergency.
6. Request Police assistance if necessary.
7. If necessary advise the most accessible medical facility.
8. Arrange medical assistance in transit if necessary
9. Arrange emergency accommodalion if necessary.
10. Maintain a record of evacuees, their location and condition.
11. Report back all Operator advised action.
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Contracting Emergency Staff Team:
1. Drilling Manager
2. Senior Drilling Supervisor
3. Co-ordinator 24 hour contact
9:1 :3. Contractor Emergency Staff Response
Mr David Tanner
Mr Dale Roberts
Mr David Tanner
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Operator's Representative
The Operator will detail an Emergency Response Co-ordinator to supervise the operations and it is
important the Great Southland Minerals Pty Ltd emergency staff act through his instructions.
Emergency Response
This Co-ordinating Supervisor has ultimate responsibility and will be making the decisions which are
remedial for the emergency at the site and contingent to safe passage of any evacuees for medical
purposes.
The Contracting organisation is responsible to act promptly on any proposed operation detailed and
requested by this representative and to keep him fully informed as to the outcome of the actions.
Further, they are to advise him in all matters pertaining to the emergency, either requested or otherwise.
18
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle St. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Di\'ision
40003G
Jan u a r)' I 997
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Rig Safety
9:2:1. Introduction to Fire Fighting Procedures
In the petroleum industry and particularly for exploration, fire is an ever present hazard to life and
property. It is necessary that the required fire fighting equipment on the rig is correctly serviced and
maintained at convenient designated locations, and that personnel are fully instructed and understand
procedures for extinguishing any conflagration.
Burning and welding are two notable hazards that require attention and control at the location, and
preparation notices must always be requested for these activities so there is no breach of any regulation
and so supervision is prepared for the job.
Sources for ignition
It is recognised that most of the hazards surrounding the occurrence of fires stems from lack of attention
on the part of personnel to preparation and care on a job. Consideration for any sources of ignition
during the carrying on of an activity and exclusion of the hazard potential through job preparation will
lower the nsk for accidental fire considerably. Think hard on this and your own past experience!
Ignition may result from;
1. An explosion, naked flame, molten sparks or spontaneous combustion.
2. Welding, cutting and sparks generated through cutting or grinding.
3. Electrical faults; loose connections or incorrect grounding.
4. Electrical faults; incorrect grounding, or overloading.
5. Electrical faults; incorrect wiring or fuse placement
6. Electncal faults; short circuits or unprotected installations.
7. Smoking in non-<Jesignated areas.
9:2:2. Classification of fires and methods for their control
Fires have been classified as follows;
Solid Fires - extinguished using water, foam or any type extinguisher.
Liquid Fires - extinguished using foam, carbon dioxide or dry chemical.
Electncal Fires - extinguished using carbon dioxide or dry chemical
DO NOT USE WATER OR FOAM TO EXTINGUISH ELECTRICAL FIRES
9:2:3. Rig Fire Prevention
It is the responsibility of the Operating Company Supervisor to ensure that fire prevention and safety
procedures are carried out on a location to the satisfaction of his companies set policy.
It is the responsibility of the Contracting Company Supervisor to ensure that his crew is performing
duties in accordance with instructions provided by the Operator.
A Contracting Rig Supervisor should instruct crews of the follOWing ng fire prevention responsibilities;
• Ensure that the fire prevention procedures are introduced and displayed at the rig and are given
attention in Safety Meeting Agendas
• Ensure that Fire Station notices are well prepared and displayed conspicuously around the rig.
These notices contain equipment details and duty Information for personnel
19
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St. Batlery POln! TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362242227
RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering U i , : i ~ i o n
400031'
Ja n u aryl 997
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Rig Safety
Ensure that new cre,W members taking up duties on the location are fully briefed in fire prevention and
their responsibilities in an emergency situation.
Rig crews commencing operations at a site are required to sign a log book to acknowledge that they
have been instructed in fire prevention and rig safety in general.
All visitors to the rig are to be made aware of restriction notices and safety regulations operating at the
site.
All fire extinguishers required under the regulations are to be correctly positioned at the site, are to be
reported as inspected and operational at the commencement of drilling operations, and thereafter every
three months
Smoking is only permitted in designated areas.
Electrical installations are to be inspected by a qualified electrician before the commencement of drilling
operations and then following the installation of any replaced or additional new electrical installation.
Compressed gas cylinders are not to be operated unless the are installed with gauge and pressure
regulating equipment.
Spilled hydrocarbons are to be immediately recovered, even if it is necessary to curtail operations in
doing so.
Engine oil is drained and stored in drums at the site. It is not permitted that drained oil is held in sumps
under motors.
Waste oil rags, sacks, rope, plastic containers are not to be left around the location, but deposited in
designated refuse containers on site.
9:2:4, Responsibility
The Contractor Supervisor and each service company senior representative is responsible for his unit
and personnel safety
The Contractor Supervisor is the person-in-charge of fire fighting on the rig.
This responsibility may be shared by the operator supervising staff or a deputy where operator liabilities
are involved ie. danger or damage to life, the well, the reservoir or property. In the event of fire, all
precautions Will be taken to eliminate danger to life and property even if drilling operations have to be
curtailed as a result.
Responsibility for manning and operating fire stations will be properly delegated Back up equipment
and personnel are to be mobilised quickly.
If a fire cannot be brought under control on the rig with the resources at hand, then the supervisor is
required to inform the Operator and proceed to notify his company emergency staff that back-up
equipment is required forthwith
9:2:5. Cutting & Welding
Authorisation for welding jobs are provided by the contracting supervisor or a member of the crew
delegated by him, and each job needs to be detailed for his approval on a Welder's Job Sheet.
Cutting and welding operations need to be properly supervised and an inspection of the work area
should be carried out to determine if the work is necessary and safe to carry out.
Ensure that the welder fully understands the work, that he IS qualified to carry it out and that fire
equipment is on hand
20
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle St. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX. 0362 24 2227
RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering D i \ - i ~ i u n
400038
Januaq: 1997
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Rig Safety
9:2:6. Inspection
During pre-operation inspection, ensure that;
• No spark, flame, or hot slag is likely to be blown or fall onto combustible material or equipment which
could be ignited and cause damage.
• No combustible vapours are present in open or confined spaces which could be ignited, and
adequate ventilation is provided while the work is in progress to prevent the accumulation of
combustible or noxious fumes. Good ventilation is essential when cutting or welding alloy metals,
plated steel or painted metal since harmful vapours will be produced.
• If hydrocarbons are present on the metal surface, it should be thoroughly cleaned to remove as far
as possible any residue which could foreseeably cause ignition.
• Where welding or cutting is to be performed around any timber, the wood is well watered down
before work commences, and that periodic wetting is kept up while the work is in progress.
• Welding equipment is never used in the vicinity of asbestos material.
• Any welding work to be carned out on service or connecting pipe IS not commenced until inspection
ensures that the pipe has been bled to atmospheric pressure, that it has been purged and cleaned
and that there is no possibility of pressure rebuilding in the pipe during the operation.
• Make sure all connecting valves are correctly closed and any flanges to be used are correctly
installed.
• If work is to be performed on any structural member, no damage to the specification of the equipment
will result so that the strength or efficiency of the member is in any way reduced.
• Where any work of this nature is to be performed and the supervisor IS unsure of the consequences
of the job, another opinion will need to be sought from a higher authority.
9:2:7. Welding in Confined Spaces
Welding in confined spaces will require that the supervisor ensures;
• Any welding to be conducted in a tank compartment of any kind and regardless of its features, is not
commenced before it has been inspected and ascertained that it is safe to proceed with the job
• A person who is designated to carry on the job is familiar with the work and that the compartment is
free of any noxious or inflammable vapours.
• Air blowers are placed strategically to pick up and discharge any produced fumes.
• Ready access to and from the place of work is freely available.
• At least one other observer is in attendance while the job is in progress and that the welder has a
life-line to signal for rescue should difficulties arise.
• No person IS permitted to enter the compartment if there IS the slightest doubt that sufficient air to
support life Without self contained breathing apparatus is available.
• Service or connecting pipe is inspected and is to the requirements stated in the above.
• Where-ever possible, positive closures such as blind flanges, bull plugs or locked valves are
employed on pipe lines entering confined spaces while this work is in progress.
21
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St. Banery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Di\:ision
400039
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Rig Safety
9:2:8. The Use of an Observer
Welding operations on the rig unit and within a 15 meter radius of the well head shall not be permitted
unless an observer is present to watch for flying sparks and falling slag so that no fire hazard is
permitted from such an occasion.
Where welding operations are to be permitted within a 15 m. radius of the well head while drilling is in
progress, the welder and his observer are to arrange a system of signals which will provide for a job to
be shut down in the event that a hazardous situation arises.
9:2:9. Electric Arc Welding
Inspection by the supervisor should ensure that:
• The welder on the job IS experienced and qualified to carry on the work which has been planned.
• The welding equipment, leads, ground terminals and the environment where the work is to be carried
on are satisfactory for the completion of the work.
• A ground return connection is not made through a conductor such as a pipe or other object which
may contain inflammable liqUids or gases, and the connection is similarly not to be made through
other cables, condUits, chains, wire rope or carriers of this nature
9:2:10. Operator safety
The welder and his assistant observer are required to be correctly attired and equipped for the duties of
carrying on welding operations.
Clothing which is protective of sparks, hoi slag, and ultra violet rays are necessary and should cover the
whole body below a mask.
Shirt sleeves are to be rolled down.
Welding masks and goggles for electric welding and flame torch welding and cutting as well as gloves
are to be supplied for the welder and his observer with any welding rig.
Shielding to protect other crew members from any harmful effects arising from welding practice must
also be provided.
The work area should be recovered on completion of the Job, and It is important to dispose of any rod
ends that have been discarded.
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle 51. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362238789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD En gi nccrin gDi \: i 5 i oil
400040
Janlury 1997
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Rig Safety
9:2:11. Oxy - Acetylene Flame Cutting and Welding
Gas cylinders are to be stored outside a 15 metre radius of the well head and should be handled in a
cradle to prevent the possibility of damage.
The cylinders should be stored and secured in an up-right position and capped unless they are in use.
Ensure that cylinders which have been in use and are to be transported off a location, have been
recapped for transport.
The storage area at the location should be one that is free from grease or other lubricants, since these
materials on the bottles and hoses will present a fire risk.
Cylinders should be stored in a protected location on the rig, out of the direct rays of the sun, outside
any fire risk area, away from corrosive chemicals and out of work areas where they may be exposed to
sparks or naked flames
The cylinders are never to be used for jobbing to act as rollers or supports for other equipment.
It is important to match regulators and gauges correctly for the gas rig. Never allow an oxygen regulator
to be used on an inflammable gas bottle, and ensure the rig personnel are familiar with colour codes for
the appliance.
Never force threads or connections when breaking down or assembling the regulators. Always keep the
thread area on bottles and regulators clean and away from harm when they are not in use. If leaks are
to be explored, use a soap solution to detect any lea, not an inflammable solution. Don't permit any
torch work using equipment which is leaking or defective in any other way.
Don't use oxygen as a source for compressed air or permit acetylene to escape into an enclosed space.
Ensure that the welder is experienced in the work that has been scheduled and that he is qualified to
carryon the work. Supervise each job until inspection confirms correct procedures for handling the
equipment are being observed, and that the work is being carried out in accordance with the job detail.
9:2:12. Safety Responsibility
It is the responsibility of the operating company to provide its emergency response programme for the
handling of tOXIC hydrogen sulphide gas which may be vented while drilling. The occurrence of the gas
is to be fully reported in the daily log, and a full written report is to be made of each incident involving
detection of the gas. The operating company may delegate duties for the safe handling of the gas to the
Contractor Rig Supervisor in any situation which involves its occurrence during drilling operations.
23
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle SI. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL. 0362 23 8789. FAX: 0362 24 2227
RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Divi!'lion
400041
Jan uar y199 7
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Production Testing
9:3:1. Production Testing
Well testing is supervised by the Operator, and crews for drill stem testing are supplied by service
companies who supply down hole tooling and specialise in these operations.
Contractor personnel are provided to assist in the operation, and the supervisor and or driller are
generally required to run the down hole string with the assistance of a normal floor crew.
During the testing, the driller is retained to work the string. Reporting tor a drill stem test is from the time
the string reaches the down hole location in the well, until the test tool is brought back and laid down on
the surface.
Some Operators have especially prepared emergency response procedures tor test operations and
these may be distributed on the location.
The supervisor will inform crews of their assigned duties in the event of any emergency.
9:3:2. Procedures
The Contractor Rig Supervisor is required to notify all crew and operator personnel that the tool is
positioned down hole, and that testing is to commence.
The supervisor is required to ensure that;
• adequate signs are placed on the rig to inform all personnel that all welding operations are
suspended for the duration of the test,
• the signs should also warn that no naked flame IS permitted on the location during this period,
• no smoking is permitted on the location during the test, either in or away from designated areas,
• smoking is confined to enclosed accommodation areas only,
• fire fighting equipment which has already been strategically positioned should also support the drill
floor and the gas separator locations and
• all available water outlets and hoses need to be run tested before the test is commenced.
The Operator is often obliged to provide self sustaining breathing apparatus and gas masks on the
location in many areas for test operations. Great Southland Minerals Pty Ltd may be requested to
provide this equipment in the event and should have access to and be able to supply the necessary
items Frequently one oxygen mask tor every three men working on the test will be required.
Great care is required by crews working on the rig floor in order that no articles of equipment are
carelessly permitted to slip down the hole. Maintain the drill floor so that all tools and other test tool
Items are handled away from the well head.
Drill stem tests are not scheduled to commence during hours of darkness and are programmed to be
completed during daylight hours. This is not the case for wire line Formation Interval Testing however.
Only persons directly connected with the test are permitted in the area of testing or on the drill floor.
Test supervisors and service personnel conducting these tests are frequently working under difficult
conditions, and are grateful for quiet assistance offered by drill crews
24
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PfL 12 Newcastle SI. Batlel\' Point TAS 7004 TEL. 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND M1NERALS PTY LTD Engineering Division
400042
Jilnuar)' 1997
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Basic First Aid
9:4: 1. First Aid at the Rig Site
Personnel at the rig site are trained to perform First Aid in the event of an accident during operations, to
assist an accident victim prior to any requirement for additional professional medical assistance.
A First Aid Certificate is a valuable qualification to have and can result in the saving of a life. All crew
personnel are encouraged to train for this certificate, and are assisted by contractors to obtain the
certificate.
Emergency procedures (including communications with head office) need to be fully explained by the
person in charge at a location and strictly adhered to.
Even minor injuries should be treated and reported on an accident report form. It is important the
accident victim complete a Workers Compensation Report Form as soon as possible after any accident
which involves such a claim.
9:4:2. Basic First Aid for Wounds
Any break in the skin can become infected if it is not promptly treated and the first aid treatment should
be aimed at stopping any such Infection from happening. Wash your hands before attempting any first
aid.
Minor or Superficial Cuts, Scrapes or Scratches
Cleanse the wound with a clean gauze pad or cotton wool using warm soapy water or a mild
disinfectant, making sure to wash away from the wound and not towards it.
Rinse after cleaning with clean water and dry.
Apply antiseptic spray, cream or lotion to cover the wound and hold a gauze pad firmly to cover the
damage.
Tape or bandage the gauze firmly but not so tight as to interfere with Circulation.
Do not use skimpy dressings but make sure the wound and surrounding area IS adequately covered
Do not use cotton wool or adhesive tape directly to any part of the wounded area.
Deep or Extensive Wounds
Control the bleeding using a clean gauze pad and pressure over the wound
If one pad becomes saturated place another on the top of the first pad and continue to apply pressure.
When the bleeding stops bandage the wound firmly but not too tightly
If bleeding from a wound on a limb continues unabated, apply pressure to the artery which supplies the
limb.
Should this fail it may be necessary to apply a tourniquet. Once a tourniquet is applied it IS not removed
until a doctor has been called to the Victim. It may be loosened for short periods from time to time on the
adVice of a doctor before he reaches the victim In order to permit ctrculation to the rest of the limb. A
tourniquet is made of flat material about 5 cm. in width and is applied to the normal skin about 2.5 cm
above the wound.
Obtain medical assistance as soon as possible.
Watch for any impending sign of shock and treat immediately if signs become obvious.
25
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle 5t Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL. 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD En g i Deer i n g Oi \'j s ion
400043
J.Ilnu.ary 1997
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Basic First Aid
Deep Puncture Wounds
Encourage bleeding by applying pressure around the wound.
Rinse the wound with clean water and cover with a sterile pad held in place with tape or a bandage.
Seek medical assistance.
Wounds with Foreign Bodies - Metal, Sand or Glass etc.
Do not attempt to probe for toreign bodies but pick off any particles which may be obviously removed. It
is belter to cover the wound, including foreign bodies, using a sterile gauze held in place with tape or a
bandage.
Seek medical assistance as soon as is practical.
Injuries Caused by Crushing.
Lay the injured person down and cut away the clothing from the injury.
Control bleeding with gauze pads and treat the victim for shock.
Wrap the injury with gauze pads and bandage well. Keep the injured part of the body elevated.
If a fracture exists, splint the limb before moving the victim.
Request immediate medical attention
9:4:3. Fractures
Fractures may be either simple or compound. In the case of the simple fracture a bone may be broken
but the skin is not pierced.
Compound fractures are generally more serious and involve broken bones with piercing of the skin. In
these cases there is likely to be a wound above the break with bleeding, and the bone end may protrude
from the skin
Fractures may be recognised;
• where a victim heard the bone snap and can feel grating,
• where pain or tenderness exists in the region of the break,
• where partial or complete loss of the use of the limb exists,
• where there is deformity in the limb or
• where the limb is abnormally positioned or shows swelling or discolouration.
First Aid Treatment
Do not move the injured person more than is necessary.
Where possible merely place a bag of Ice over the fracture and seek Immediate medical assistance.
If a fracture is suspected, treat it as the real thing, unless a doctor tells you otherwise
Treat for Shock After the Injury
If the injured person needs to be moved, it is first necessary to apply splints to immobilise the limb.
Handle slowly and gently onto a stretcher
In case of a compound fracture, the wound is covered with gauze or a clean cloth and pressure is
applied to control the bleeding before any required splinting is applied. Never altempt to push a
protruding bone back into place.
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle SI. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. FAX: 0362 24 2227
RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD
Basic First Aid
9:4:4. Bums & Scalds
Burns and scalds are classified in degrees of severity.
• First Degree Burns are where the skin IS reddened
• Second Degree Burns are where blistering occurs
Engineering Di\-"ision
400044
Januar): 1997
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• Third Degree Burns are where skin is charred or cooked.
First aid in the treatment of burns should be aimed at relieving pain, preventing infection and preventing
or treating for shock.
There are a number of important 'DON'TS' associated with the treatment of burns.
• don't touch the burn with anything which is not clean
• don't use butter, oils or boric, tannic or picric acid based ointments
• don't but absorbent cotton or blankets directly on a burn with broken skin
• don't break or drain blisters
• don't delay first aid treatment for shock in cases of serious burns
• don't delay obtaining professional medical assistance
Treatment of First Degree Burns
Apply antiseptic- analgesic burn ointment, cover with a sterile gauze pad and bandage firmly
Treatment of Second Degree Burns
Administer first aid for treating shock
If the victim is conscious and thirsty and there are no abdominal wounds it is advisable to give, freely, a
weak saline and bicarbonate of soda solution. Prepare the solution using half a teaspoon of bicarbonate
and 2 heaped teaspoons of salt in a litre of water
Remove clothing from the burn, being careful to cut around any cloth sticking or fused to the burn.
Cover the burn area With sterile gauze or a suitable substitute such as a freshly laundered sheet or
pillow case.
Make the victim comfortable and warm while seeking immediate professional medical assistance.
Third Degree Burns
Immediately administer treatment for shock.
Do nothing to the burn but cover it With sterile gauze pads or cloth.
Seek immediate professional medical treatment for the victim.
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle SI. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL. 0362 23 8789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD l<: n g i ne e r i n g D i \-' i s ion
400045
Jahuarl1997
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Basic First Aid
9:4:5. Treatment for Shock
Shock is a serious depression of vital functions that can often a=mpany even moderate injury.
In all cases of severe injury, first aid for shock should be given immediately. It is Important not to wait for
shock to develop and to act immediately by keeping the victim lying down, warm and with an adequate
supply of fluids.
Allor any of the following symptoms may be present immediately following an accident, or may develop
over a period of time after the event:
• weakness, faintness, mental sluggishness or collapse,
• paleness with cool or clammy skin,
• drooping eyelids, eyes vacant and dull or dilation of pupils,
• rapid and shallow breathing,
• nausea and/or vomiting,
• rapid, irregular or weak pulse, or pulse too weak to feel, or
• unconsciousness.
Treatment
Lay the victim on his back with the face upward.
Loosen clothing and elevate the feet about 30 to 50 cm. or,
For a head injury elevate the head instead of the feet.
For chest injUries and breathing difficulties elevate head and shoulders
Keep victim comfortable and warm with top and bottom blankets.
In hot weather do not make the victim uncomfortably warm.
Conscious victims without abdominal wounds should be provided as much fluid as IS comfortable for
them to take, provided they are not nauseous or vomiting.
A teaspoon of baking soda with half a teaspoon of salt in a litre of water is suitable as a fluid, or orange
juice and other soft fluids may be used.
No alcohol or stimulants should be administered.
Attend any injuries and keep the victim quiet and comfortable while waiting for professional medical
assistance.
9:4:6. Responsibility
First aid practiced at a drilling location is the responsibility of the rig Safety Officer who IS trained as a
First Aid Orderly
The Officer IS responsible for carrying out first aid on any victim injured at the location, for dispatch of
any seriously injured victim in an accident, and for the requesting of medical assistance for the victim of
an aCCident
This person is also responsible for reporting accidents and dispatching all correspondence associated
with the mishap at the location.
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle SI. Batlery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362238789, FAX: 0362 24 2227
APPENDICES
STRATIGRAPHIC SLlMHOLE DRILLING PROGRAM
BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL
RIG SAFETY AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD
WORKING SKETCH OF BOP, DIVERTER & KILL LINE
DIAGRAMS OF HYDRIL BOP CLOSING UNIT
WORKING SKETCH OF CHOKE MANIFOLD
29
Di\ision
400046
.. y 1997

GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastie SI. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789, FAJC 0362242227
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL. 0362 23 8789 FAX: 0362 24 2227
-lo
40004?
Febr:uarY··1997··1 Division
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IGREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY.LTD
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TYPE OKS ANNULAR BLOWOUT PREVENTER!STRIPPER
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD
" HYDRII.;
Djviliion
400048
February 1997
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Figure 95
Cro5&i·SoeCllon Of 2
a
il,"-1 0,000 and
4'/1"·5000 and 10.000 GKS
FigIJrt 94
Exterior View 01 and
and 10,000 psi GKS
aOPISlflpper
OPERATION OF THE GKS API studded top connector and API sure (psi) required to establish inlt,al seal
The GKS Annular BOP/Stripper is an an· flanged bOl1om connector. ott in GKS blowout preventers, The pres·
nular BOP with partioular applioation to STRIPPING sures given in these tables are guidelines,
workover oporallons. This BOP/Stripper Stripping, snubbing and stuffing pipe and Maximum packing unit life will be obtained
is espeoially applicable for stripping, tUbing can be rotated and tooi joints or by using tM lowest closing pressure
snUbbing, stuffing, and wirellne opera
a
tUbing connections can be safely stripped will effect a seal.
tions, The packing unit will seal off around through lne sealed ott GKS paCking unit. To obtain maXimum pooKlng unit :%,
any diameter within tho bore or seal off the The closing presSures shoUld be low use the recommended closing pressure
open hole to rated working pressure. enough to permit a slight leakage of end test pipe diameler. For example, on a
Hydraulic pressure applied to the 0105- drilling/completion fluid as the toollolnt or GKS 4'/;,"-5000 BOP, use 450 PS'I oc
Ing ohamber rsises the piston squeezing tUbing conneotion passes througn the 3'/,' driii pipe [0 establish initial seal
the packing unll into a Sealing engage- olOSEld packing unil. This fluid lubrioates Reduction 01 closing pressure after
ment. Closing pressure should be propor- the paoking unit to minimize wear. stabilizalion of test pressure reduces rub-
tionally reduced as well pressure IS in· As a larger diameter oonnection passes ber stress and increases packing unit lifo,
creased, Optimum packing unit life will be thrOugh the closed paoklng unit it ex· The piston stroke has a direct correia-
realized by uSing the lowest closing pres- pands. The hydreulic pressure surge tion to the oondition of the packing unit.
sure required to elfect a seal. Initial clos- oaused by the paoking unit expansion Hydril Annular Biowout Preventers ,ore
Ing pressures are in Table 22. The GKS should be controlled by a responsive equipped with a drilled passage in th.
BOP is seli-opening, thus it reopans when pressura regulator valve. Bener pressure head 01 the BOP through Which piston
all olosing pressure is released. surge control may be achieved with the stroke can be measured, The condition 01
When two GKS BOPs are used one appticatlon of an accumulator to the clos· the paoking unit can be determined by
above the other, as in olubflcator instalia- Ing line, Precharge the accumulator to measuring the piston stroke on a new
tion, higher oIoslng pressure will be reo one-half the required closing pressure, pacKing unit using the appropriete test
quired to close the lower unit. The pre>· Controlling the rate of stripping oonneo, pipe diameter, and laking subsequent
sure reqUired will equal the normai closing tions through the unit will allow e pressure measurements each lime the BOP Is
pressure piUS the amount of pre••ure regulalor valve 10 more effectively limit tested, The remaining iife of the packing
above the pecKing unit. pressure surges. unit is proportional to the amount 01 pls:on
; The GKS BOP has e sorewe<! head, TESTING/PISTON STROKE stroke left.
:,The top and bottom oonnections of the MEASUREMENT If full stroke 01 Ihe piston is reached
.2".3pOO and 2"·5000 are furnished with Routine functional testing 01 the GKS before a seal is obtained, the paoKing unit
;API 2'10' 00 external upset temale tubing BOP can be carried out with long packing" should be replaced since any further in·
!;ir,,,,ad. The 2'/,.'-' 0,000, 4' /,."·5000 end unit lifei.f propgroperatlngprocedu\.... creases of oloslng preesur. wlli not causn
;£,,-".10,000.BOps are provided with an foIlO\Y8d, Table 22 g,ves 10 seal off.
GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle SI. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789 FAX: 0362 24 2227
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400049
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Di\'ision February 1997
Figure 97
CrOII-Seel!on 01 2'''·3000
eNl 5OQO GKS
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Figure 96
Exta-rior of
,nd 5000 psi GKS
'. :.,,'
U,$ I;tIiIln:1
rwl
"""
S1n>"
".
11l
'"
'" m
...
1111
..-
4'I,,·1Q,llll
'Qily
nilmMllr {L.II1..1
HOW TO ORDER rHE GKS BOP
Specify the following:
, Type: GKS
2. Nominal Sit.e
3. Bore Size
4. Working Pressure
5. Connector
a. Top
b. Bottom
6. PacKing Unit Material:
Rubber or Nitrile Rubber
Full
Dllln
ioN
TABLE 22
INITIAL CLOSING PRESSURES (PSI)
FOR GKS BOP/STRIPPER
TABLE 23
ENGINEERING AND PHYSICAL DATA-
GKS BOP/STRIPPER
"IUIIIIII'" ION'et 'ile'; 1M"'" b,
H'IRtr P'UllIfIl l:teVerllJ :sll tlilhllr Ijller 1PUllS, ..i,r
Ttil m,de Ie IUlile URltl,f.,
$1npllIr Mud
Slnol
ItY<l

.. Unit
UIll*
Upper s..:lvp lIine
....
I.IIIIII'l'
w-- flml1.
TABLE 24
PARTS LIST-HYDRIL elKS
BOPISTRIPPEFI
4
Figure 9f1
E><pl<X1o<l Vi • ., 0' GKS ...r
8

10 ---"_
9 _.......
101-----11
7
6

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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle St. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789 FAX: 0362242227
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400050
A
Febr u a r yt9 9 7 I
kL·
-- ->-L-J
Engine c ring·. Di'Vi!l ion
: 11v.
c
l 10 _(/C,(L
..,o.....
cl,ok,-, t
J}&II 00. VGS .
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GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle S' Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789 FAX: 0362 24 2227
IGKEAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTYLTD
A
1>. -
c-
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I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

PELHAM #1

WELL PLAN

400002

CONTENTS
Page 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Well Data Summary 1.2 Location Map 2. GEOLOGY 2.1 Well Prognosis 2.2 Geological Map 3 4

5

6
3. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 3.1 Landholders 3.2 Site Access 3.3 Wellsite Preparation 3.4 Wellsite Operations 3.5 Clean-up and Rehabilitation 4. DRILLING PROGRAM 4,1 Outline Summary 4.2 Setting and Cementing Casing 4.3 Drilling Fluids Program 4.4 Well Diagram and Volumes 5. FORMATION EVALUATION 5,1 Core Recovery, Logging and Analysis 5.2 Mudlogging Services 5.3 Wireline Logging and Drill Stem Testing 6. TESTING AND SAFETY PROCEDURES 6,1 BOP Testing Procedures 6.2 Pressure Integrity Test 7. COMMUNICATIONS AND REPORTING 8. PLANT 8.1 8.2 83 AND EQUIPMENT DETAILS Longyear 44 Drill Rig BOP Equipment Site Layout

7 7

7
8 8

9 9

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12 12 12

13 13

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GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319336

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

PELHAM #1 1. INTRODUCTION

WELL PLAN

400003

Pelham #1 is located at Peckham Vale between Taylors Tier and Mt Spode about 10 km north of Gretna on Marked Tree Road. Further details can be found under Geology Section 2.1 Well Prognosis.

1.1 Well Data Summary State: Location: Municipality: Licence No: Well Name: Coordinates: Elevation: Datum: Drill Rig: Planned Spud Date: Planned Depth: Tasmania Pelham Hamilton EL 1/88 Pelham #1 495,240 E 220mASL Footclamps Longyear44 TBA 1200 m (see prognosis) 5,284,170 N

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GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/l 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338

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400004
PELHAM #1 1.2 Location Map WELL PLAN
5cm

from TASMAP 1:25000 Series

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GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L

65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000

TEL: (03) 6231 9339

FAX: (03) 6231 9338

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400005
PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN

2.1 Well Prognosis - prepared by Dr. Clive Burrett, Chief Geologist, GSM Geology We intend to drill an approximately 1200m DOH into a triangular shaped fault block between Taylors Tier and Mt Spode at Peckham Vale at grid reference DN952841 (see Hamilton 4828, topographic 1:25000 map sheet). The DOH site is just to the west of a NE trending fault. Dolerite is mapped to the east of this fault and probable Ferntree Fm mustones to the west of the fault (see Mines Department 1:250000 geological compilation map). The geology is poorly known but the following stratigraphic sequence may be encountered:

Ferntree Mudstone Fm 120m approx. Risdon Sandstone correlate 5m Malbina Fm sandstones and siltstones and mudstones 70m Cascade Gp fossiliferous calcareous siltstones and mudstones, limestone lenses 80m Dolerite Sill about 350m thick (position unknown) Faulkner Gp freshwater sandstones and siltstones 100m thick Bundella Fm 80m Woody Island Fm (with possibly Tasmanite Oil Shale) 80m Truro Fm tillite 200m approx.
wwwwwwww unconformity wwwwwwwwwww

Precambrian phyllites and quartzites or Ordovician Gordon Group limestone (Predicted by Dr D.Leaman on the basis of gravity and magnetics modelling).

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GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 6231 9339 FAX: (03) 6231 9338

' .~~.-~~ '. __ -..2 Geological Map Forest + Cover • Jd .I I I 40000G PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN 2. __ .'--"'-.~t~~~~· "2~-· u~:~ :-j.." _ ....' -~~f~~~'ti.""-'-'_.-~.~ :..-"""' 6 I GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS PIL 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338 ...~ '7.S S8 '.c_ - ..

It will continue to meet all industry environmental standards and obligations.1 PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN 3. and access can be gained through an existing gate. Mud pits and associated silt traps would be constructed on cleared land adjacent to the drillsite. with silt traps downstream of the overflow.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 40000'. An area of gravel hardstanding would be constructed around the drillrig in order to maintain a clean and tidy operation. 3. Initial discussions have been held with Mr. activities will be governed by the APEA Code of Environmental Practice. approximately 6km from its junction with the Lyell Highway.1 Landholders Pelham #1 is situated on the private grazing property of 'Valley Heights'. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Great Southland Minerals Pty Ltd is committed to conducting its business with the desire to protect the natural environment. Shepherd. In applying this policy. with drainage to the nearby creek. All mud handling operations are now carried out in CGI tanks. thus providing clearance for installation of the BOP stack without recourse to a deep cellar. The company plans and manages its operations to ensure minimum impact on the environment. who has expressed his support in relation to the exploration program. Refer to the Site Layout sketch in Section 8 for further details.2 Site Access The planned drillsite is just inside a row of large pine trees along the property boundary on Marked Tree Road. 3. A flare pit would be excavated about 70m west of the wellhead. belonging to Mr. 7 GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338 . No vegetation would need to be cleared.3 Well site Preparation Mobilisation of the drilling equipment at Pelham #1 would require the construction of six small concrete footings on which to mount the drill floor support frame. The company will maintain an active rehabilitation program to restore land disturbed by exploration activities and will respond quickly and effectively if accidental pollution or environmental damage occurs. Ken Shepherd. 3.

j~"A.··6Rlt:A'rSQI1'rH1iANJ). Cellulose fibre is also held on site to treat any lost circulation zones. Diesel fuel will be held on site in a 1500 litre bunded tank. Any other rubbish will be removed from site and the area re-seeded in agreement with the landowners requirements.1 ..4 Well site Operations Water for drilling operations will be sourced from an existing farm dam.'. mud chemical use should be limited to liquid polymer for viscosity and caustic soda for pH correction. gR'.':it!i~J. 3. Drill fluids are recirculated within a closed system. Calcium and potassium chloride will be stockpiled on site for weighting up in the event that a kill mud is required.. Minimal quantities of other lubricants will be stored in secure steel containers. All mud additives will be handled with care to reduce the risk of spillage. iiHN. with waste oils being removed from site. concrete footings will be buried and the mud pit. (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338 . with fuel being pumped up into the drillrig tank daily. Based on previous experience.d. 8 GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL. or inert wastes buried on site where appropriate. A final inspection will be carried out with the landowner to confirm acceptance.' 1!J ". with the resulting fluid being environmentally friendly. J. flare pit and silt traps will be backfilled and covered with available topsoil. which is in turn fed from a large storage reservoir about 500m upstream.. about 50m south of the proposed drillsite.1'I):::fiJiiiln.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400008 . Waste water run-oft will be directed through silt traps to the small creek downstream of the drill site.5 Clean-Up and Rehabilitation On abandonment of the drill site. All other wastes and rubbish will be carted away to the local Municipal disposal area.• ·1 PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN 3.iiliALSP~Y •.

followed by NQ (70mm rods drilling a 76mm hole and 48mm core) to a planned total depth of around 1200m. and a new Hydro Chuck fitted. DRILLING PROGRAM WELL PLAN All diamond drilling operations will be carried out using the Heavy Duty Longyear 44 drillrig currently in use at Lonnavale. The hole will be pre-collared to a depth of up to 300m depending on the competence of rock encountered. Continue drilling HQ (96mm hole) to around 800m. This rig now has the capacity to drill a BQ hole to 1800m. The wellhead will be fitted with a 5000 psi BOP stack and 3000 psi Choke assembly. Carry out pressure integrity test of casing shoe. an NQ hole to 1300m. Pressure test casing and BOP as per testing and safety procedures. For details. 4.280 kPa (4390 psi) at yield 9 GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338 . The hole will then be drilled HQ (89mm rods drilling a 96mm hole and 63mm core) to a depth of around 800m.1 Outline Summary Drilling contractors Gerald Spaulding Drillers P/L will be used to drill the pre-collar and install HW sized casing.800 kPa at 72% of minimum yield stress 30. Nominal bore: 100mm Outside diameter: 114. 4.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 40000~) PELHAM #1 4. The Longyear 44 drillrig will then be set up over the hole on a 2. complying with API Specification 5L (GDE-B & X42). Establish plug and abandon program as per Schedule C provisions.3mm Wall thickness: 6.0mm Mass: 16. This work will be carried out using a 6 inch down hole hammer.2 Setting and Cementing Casing The casing will be ERW Ultrapipe supplied by Tubemakers of Australia Limited.2 Setting and Cementing Casing. The power unit has been replaced with a 180 HP Cummins diesel.02 kg/m Maximum pressure rating: 21. Run in HQ string and drill out cement plug and casing shoe. Evaluate drilling results and finalise report. and the winch has been double reeved and fitted with a 20t snatch block. and will be cased with 100mm NB fully welded API rated pressure pipe. The mast on this rig has been strengthened to carry a safe working load of 20 tonne. Run in NQ string and complete drilling (76mm hole) to target depth. and an HQ hole to 800m.1 m high steel subframe and work will continue in accordance with the following program: • • • • • • • • • Weld 4~" 5M 6B flange to top of casing and nipple up BOP stack. refer to Section 4. Condition hole for Wireline Log or DST as required.

8 cc 13 .15 cp 5 . and then transferred to 1500-3000 litre CGI holding tanks. 350 bags of barite are also available if kill mud heavier than 11 ppg is needed.·. 4.60 sec 8 . although the use of barite in deep slimhole drilling operations could lead to plugging off circulation. Mud weight. All drilling mud is mixed in a 3500 litre tank fitted with a high speed hydraulically driven stirrer. The pipe will be run in the hole with each joint being welded by a qualified pressure pipe welder. viscosity and pH are monitored continuously during each shift. and circulated until grout of the same consistency emerges from the top collar..jJ'l PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN The casing will be supplied in 12m lengths with bevel preparation at each end for full strength butt welds. The casing will then be cemented using Normal Portland cement mixed at the rate of 35 bags per cubic metre.»"n:gi". 10 GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/l 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338 . A tool joint will then be attached at the top of the casing to allow circulation and flushing of the annulus. The area surrounding the wellhead will be concreted to provide support for the BOP stack and to anchor the choke and kill lines..Dld'ii>ii:.~:gii#>I.Lt!J. GREAT sQ\JTH>i'AND . The surface circulation system incorporates three CGI tanks to allow for settling of fine cuttings and effective degassing of the drill fluid.35 ppg (SG 1.18 Minimum All mud engineering problems are referred to either Kerry Booth or John Trevitt of Baroid for advice.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400010 '.·\'iUN&IlAl.5 -10 35 . we plan to continue using fresh water polymer drill fluids during normal diamond coring operations...HI"~. Two pallets of calcium chloride are kept on site in case weighted kill mud is required. with caustic soda used for pH correction. and 10mm centralisers fixed at each joint.$> )''r>Y .3 Drilling Fluid Program With no evidence of overpressured formations. Standard Mud Properties: Weight: pH: Marsh Funnel: Plastic Viscosity: Fluid Loss: Yield Point: Solids: 8.0) 9.

1mm CAPACITY 7...9mm HOLE SIZE 96.4 Well Diagram and Volumes Depth ..- ~S!:!U~R~F~AeCE CONDUCTOR 200mm HOLE SIZE 225mm \300m I laoom I HW CASING 114.07 Iitres/metre ROD CAPACITY 8.22 litres/metre ANNULAR VELOCITY 25 metres/minute PUMP RATE 127 Iitres/minute HQ RODS 88...33 litres/metre ANNULUS VOLUME 5..3mm HOLE SIZE 139.25Iitres/metre ANNULUS VOLUME 1.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400011 PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN 4..04 litres/metre ROD CAPACITY 4..7mm CAPACITY 15..86 litres/metre ANNULAR VELOCITY 25 metres/minute PUMP RATE 18 Iitres/minute 11200m I 11 GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS PfL 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338 .75 Iitres/metre ANNULAR VELOCITY 25 metres/minute PUMP RATE 26 Iitres/minute NO RODS 70mm HOLE SIZE 76mm CAPACITY 4..53 Iitreslmetre ANNULUS VOLUME 0..70 Iitres/metre ROD CAPACITY 2.

Full core recovery with the ability to test for porosity and permeability reduces the imperative for wireline logging. Gas samples will also be taken and analysed by Amdel to correlate against mudlogging results.rate of penetration . 5. then logged in detail before being transported to storage.pump rate .depth .1 Core Recovery. Logging and Analysis Drill core will be recovered continuously from the bottom of the pre-collar hole. and hydrocarbon analysis by Amdel Laboratories in Adelaide.running of calibration gases (b) Drilling Parameters . FORMATION EVALUATION 5. Potential reservoir rocks will be tested for porosity and permeability. any testing work will probably be combined with other wells.mud rheological properties 5. a decision will be made on the extent of wireline logging and drill stem testing to be carried out. Samples of the core will be taken periodically for ageing. and for detection of helium and other gases not measured by mudlogging instruments. This core will be stored in metal core trays clearly numbered and marked for depth and direction.2 Mudlogging Services Mudlogging services will be provided throughout drilling of the hole. 12 GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL: (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338 .pit level monitoring .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400012 PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN 5.weight on biU hydraulic pressure .chromatographic analysis . A separate testing program will be issued at this time.speed of rotation . and may include provision for monitoring and recording the following data: (a) Gas Detection .calculation of lag time . Due to the significant cost of mobilising this equipment to Tasmania. although these logs are valuable for comparative purposes and for establishing a standard point of reference within the industry.total gas . and hence may not occur until a later date.3 Wireline Logging and Drill Stem Testing Once drilling results have been fully analysed.

TESTING AND SAFETY PROCEDURES All operations will be under the direct control of qualified personnel holding current BOP and Well Control Certificates as follows: Drilling Supervisor: David Tanner . A graduated tank will be used to provide accurate volumetric measurements..2 Pressure Integrity Test The Pressure Integrity Test provides a safe method of testing the casing and determining the amount of pressure or equivalent mud weight that the well bore can withstand without fracturing and losing returns. (a) 6.·. • Terminate the test at a pressure limit of 1500 psi or at the point where the pressure versus volume plot ceases to be a straight line. Safety drills will be carried out periodically at the discretion of the Supervisor. Procedure: Drilling out the shoe and 5 metres of cemented plug.IWCF Certificate D48221AU260/0023 expires 18/5/98 6. circulate to normalise drilling fluid and test as follows: • Pull into the casing and fill the hole. (03) 62319338 . . whichever occurs first. (c) (d) The Annular Preventer and Accumulator will be operated daily.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400013 ·•• P.. A pressure integrity test form will be used to record all data as accurately as possible.!i iiOfi. the Annular Preventer. • Bleed off into the graduated suction tank and record fluid volume recovered.9o''1 ••• 1 PELHAM #1 WELL PLAN 6.•l\I.tNEIlA~8. then open the annular preventer. Record and graphically plot the casing pressure versus the volume pumped. Kill valves.:i''tY •• L:[D.·. 13 GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL (03) 62319339 FAX. All pressure integrity tests will be conducted using a small output pump with a pressure gauge. The mud weight will be uniform in the wellbore. whichever occurs first.1 BOP Testing Procedures Following nippling up of the BOP. Stop pumps and close the annular preventer and kelly cock.llIlAT'$~IlTJi>Lj\:J"i* .'ii1iili).·. Choke Manifold. stand pipe and swivel will be tested to 3000 psi in 500 psi increments. • Record the instantaneous shut in pressure and trapped pressure for 15 minutes at 1 minute intervals or until it levels off.·A.gl)hl'lii1i ··.~~tln.IWCF Certificate S7253/AU260/0069 expires 17/5/98 Senior Driller: Dale Roberts . • Begin pumping down the annulus at no more than 10 Iitres per minute. (b) At intervals not exceeding 7 days after drilling below surface casing a pressure test of BOP's and manifold equipment will be carried out using a cup tester.

lVlli'ilhi . COMMUNICATIONS AND REPORTING All communications to the Operating Company and third parties will take place through Great South Land Minerals Pty Ltd office at 65 Murray Street.1 .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 40001. ¢itJi4:r . including Daily Logs and goelogical reports will be forwarded to Mineral Resources Division of TOR on a regular basis...s'TV PELHAM #1 l..g:!il"h i~" "Alijp"t199'l . WELL PLAN 7... 1iQu'r:ilJ.ANI>"'r!'lERAJ. Hobart: David Tanner Exploration Manager Great Southland Minerals Pty Ltd Level 3 65 Murray Street HOBART TAS 7000 Telephone: Mobile Phone: Facsimile: (03) 6231 9339 019 973134 (03) 6231 9338 Operational reporting. (03) 62319339 FAX: (03) 62319338 ..0'rl. .. 14 GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/l 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEl. .

.. Maximum line pull 5kN. 2" 3M Kill Line fitted with gate valve and check valve. regulator gauges. PIN 45931. PLANT AND EQUIPMENT DETAILS WELL PLAN 8.SOU'r.2 BLOWOUT PREVENTION EQUIPMENT BOP HYDRIL 4~" GKS 5000 Annular Preventer with 4~" 5M flange..5m wide x 3. FMC 50 hp Bean Pump delivering 190 litreslmin @ 10. BOP connection hose and duplex charging pump driven by Kohler engine and control unit..5m high x 10 Tonne 8. Hydraulic drum hoist with 2000m capacity of 6mm cable.c·1 •. Aiig .l!itgliiiidiigDi\iI. 4~" KILL LINE FLANGES ACCUMULATOR 5M Socket Weld Flanges NL Shaffer 3 Station Koomey Unit with 11 gallon accumulator bottle. PELHAM #1 8..J'.. 2" 3M Chiksan Hoses with hammer unions for connection to kill line and choke line.XY· . Cummins 6BT turbocharged diesel delivering 177 HP @ 2500 rpm 2-Seclion 9m rod pull length with pipe stacking rack and hydraulic mast raising cylinder. x 2~" 4~" 5M Drilling Spool.500 kPa (1800 psi) Collapsed for transport: 6m long x 2. ..I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400015 ' ..1 LONGYEAR 44 DRILL RIG DESCRIPTION DRILL: MOTOR: MAST: WIRELINE HOIST: AUXILIARY POWER: DRILL FLUIDS PUMP: RIG DIMENSIONS: Skid-mounted Longyear 44 Hydraulic Chuck Diamond Drill with hydraulic jacking rams and full weatherproof enclosure. SIN 63820 4~" GATE VALVE DRILLING SPOOL CHOKE MANIFOLD 5M API rated full opening GREYGATE flanged valve. 2" 3M Choke Manifold fitted with pressure gauge..i! • LAN " . MfJiiil ii)\..··L1. dual choke lines and diverter connected to 6" surge tank.~J~~ ·. hydraulic tank.s".. SIN 12483. ~ (JjUi7. .". (iREA1' . Maximum rated pressure 12.... (03) 6231 9338 . Model No. 30 KVA Genset driven by Perkins 4108 diesel.000 kPa.. CHIKSAN HOSES 15 GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL (03) 6231 9339 FAX. complete with replacement element and seal kit. GED 1000053S..

:i'S...GiieAt<.~ <t ~ 0 Q) -t \. J ~ ~ " «I ~ t.L \ i :oJ I . C(). 'ZSD c:: ca(c.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I (.••• ·. d I I I 1\ .i't~j>' ··Aiijiii.r4- ~~ .jt/t9?t···<·1 40001G PELHAM #1 8..hi:!I.. \ I £ ~ ) (lef'o' I~I s. i.. / r ~ r @ c. (03) 62319339 FAX. I I I I I 't . ''\ / \ \ JAI • ~.3 Site Plan WELL PLAN ~ - Al:> \ f\ Q... 16 GREAT SOUTH LAND MINERALS P/L 65 Murray Street Hobart TAS 7000 TEL.~~iiiiii::j)I~... ( .• ·.·.. sijiirH LAl\!l)·»n!ER...) ~I -Ll 0 ~ -3 -os CO> VI :L PELHAM ~l SrTC !j'(O'. <l/fl) •...JT i. i . (03) 62319338 .

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400018 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD STRATIGRAPHIC SLlMHOLE DRILLING PROGRAM Standard Manual for BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL RIG SAFETY AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE FEBRUARY 1997 EDITION .

Sanery Pmn! TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400019 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Division Januitry 1997 BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL CONTENTS Page PRESSURE CONTROL ENGINEERING Introduction to Pressure Control Engineering Origins of Abnormal Formation Pressure Indications of Abnonmal Formation Pressure Causes of Loss of Control of Abnormal Pressure 3 3 3 4 ABNORMAL PRESSURE DETECTION Introduction Flow Check Pressure 7 7 ABNORMAL PRESSURE CONTROL Introduction to Abnormal Pressure ContrOl Friction Pressure loss in the Circulating System Methods for Kick Conrol Pressure Control Worksheet Pumping to Displace Mud in the Drill String Pumping to Displace Mud in the Annulus Well Shut in Procedures Blowout Prevention Equipment Blowout Prevention Test Schedule Blowout Prevention Well Head Diagram 8 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 see appendix 2 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle St. FAJC 0362242227 .

procedures and specification of equipment employed for safe handling of an emergency response as well as the necessity for communicating all appropriate details through correctly identified channels. as highly compacted and sloughing sediments or as highly pressured fluids which may cause a problem to the normal drilling activities undertaken. Our priority IS to educate crews in understanding the principles. Battery POInl TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789.1073 kgf/cm' I metre and subnormal when less than this. and there are a series of well documented indicators tor the onset of abnormal pressure that may be observed when drilling a well.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400020 GReAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineedng Did!'lion January 11}97 BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL Introduction to Pressure Control Engineering Necessary rapid response to emergency situations may best be accorded when drilling crews are trained to react instinctively to implement actions which effectively prevents a situation from becoming unmanageable. The first responsibility of a rig crew in an emergency is to preserve personnel at the site from injury or loss of life. The following section. together with Well Kill Methods which include the 'Driller's Method' and the 'Wait and Weight Method' to shut in and kill the well to prevent a blowout. 3 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PiL 12 Newcastle 51. 'Abnormal Formation Pressure'. Indications of Abnonnal Formation Pressure There are a number of seismic and wireline methods for predicting abnormal pressure in formations which may be employed when planning a well. should indicate the importance of carrying out regular drills in safety training on a location. A number of warning signs can be observed at the surface when drilling which will indicate the onset of a kick. In such extreme cases the over-pressure arises out of a condition in which formation pore fluids are supporting part or all of the rock overburden. 'Well Control Procedures'. The investigation should seek to anticipate such problems for well intervals and so assist in designing casing strings as well as drilling procedures to provide the drilling programme. economy and safety in operations Supervisors need to provide regular crew drills to enact these procedures so each person on a location is fully practised as to his responsibilities and actions during such an emergency. for handling HW/HO/NO rod strings are described. The reasons for this condition are not always fully understood but most explanations argue that incomplete diagenetic compaction during burial of the sediments or geotectonic pressuring after compaction and burial is responsible. Communication procedures for crews are those which have been identified with the operating company representative at the site during the course of a contract drilling programme. identifies the origins and indications for abnormal borehole pressure. the contractor's personnel will carryon all operations to secure well control. causes for loss of control in a well bore when encountering abnormal pressure. The consideration that the most common cause for loss of life and property on oil and gas drilling rigs in the past has resulted from human error and not through equipment failure. It is the responsibility of crew members to recognise these warning signs and act correctly and promptly to recover such a situation. and procedures tor carrying out flow checks to detect a kicking well Thereafter.2353 kgf/cm' I metre in some sedimentary basins of the world. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . Where practical a well plan should identify those intervals in the well which have a history of abnormal formation pressure manifested either as lost circulation. Abnormal over-pressured formations may be in excess of 0. Origins of Abnormal Formation Pressure Formation pore pressure has often been classified as normal where it is equivalent to a normal sea water gradient of 0. Drilling crews are reminded that the first response is most often a responsibility of the Contract Drilling Company performing operations at the site and that in the normal course of drilling.

fluid may be lost to the formation. Less frequently. an apparent increase in drill string weight 8. a sudden increase in the drilling rate 5. 5. The loss of hydrostatic pressure arising out of this condition may permit the escape of formation fluids from higher formations into the well bore and similarly cause a well kick or blowout. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. 2. The causes for kicks are listed below: 1. A rule of thumb often employed has been to control mud density to that required for balancing formation pressure plus enough weight to provide for the trip margin. a reduction in pump pressure 7. complications to drilling operations arise through formation pressure exceeding the mud hydrostatic pressure in a well. Excessive mud densities reduce penetration rates and can lead to the differential sticking of the drill rods and they can damage zones for investigation. 3. Increase in flow rate 3. Where the formation is permeable. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . fluids will flow Into the well bore. Such an imbalance may permit formation fluids to invade the well and produce a kick at the surface which may develop into a blowout of the well. lost circulation or blowouts may occur where formation pressure in the formation drilled is higher than or less than the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid in the well bore. Increasing the density for control will not always be a satisfactory remedy since high mud densities may exceed formation fracture gradients and cause lost circulation. Well still flowing after turning pump off Other indicators are listed as follows: 4. Increase in pit volume 2. Present drilling practice requires maintaining near balanced mud densities and at the same time ensuring hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to control formation pressure. 6. and often together with a lost Circulation event. complete or partial loss of circulation 9. 4. In circumstances where the formation pressure is less than hydrostatic pressure an under-balanced condition exists and if porous or cavernous rock is being drilled. insufficient mud density failure to keep the hole full of fluid swabbing lost circulation abnormal over-pressure equipment failure Insufficient Mud Density: The condition may occur when drilling into a zone with a drilling mud that is providing less hydrostatic pressure than the formation fluid. increasing contamination of the drilling fluid by gas (gas cut mud) variation in mud chlorides indicating water cut mud increasing mud temperature increasing trip gas and connection gas Causes of Loss of Control of Abnormal Pressure Kicks. an abrupt increase In bit torque 6. Australian land drilling operations are frequently complicated where formation pressures will not support the hydrostatic pressure exerted by a drilling fluid and partial or total loss of returns occurs in porous or cavernous surface and intermediate hole. decreasing shale density Secondary Indicators which may forewarn of a kick include. 4 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 NewcasUe SI. The fluids (gas or water and hydrocarbons) will cut the density of the drilling fluid and compound the condition.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400021 GR EAT SOUTH LAND MIN ERA LS PTY LTD Engineering Division Fcbrullr)o' 1997 BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL Primary indicators are: 1.

Tripping practice to change a bit should include the correct handling of a trip sheet and this should be signed and maintained with drilling tour reports. The influence of swabbing while tripping together with the reduction of hydrostatic pressure from incorrect filling of the hole is the most common cause for rig misfortune and tragedy. ThiS will assist in stabilising the hole when the drill string is at the surface. the resulting pressure loss from swabbing may allow formation fluids to flow into the well. The theoretical accumulated volume displacement should be compared through a trip with actual accumulated volumes that are returned to or from the well as the drill string is withdrawn or run back in the hole. Pump stroke counts and measuring the pit volume all assist the driller to calculate and confirm that the volumes to replace the displacement are correct. since mud does not re-enter the hole as fast as it is displaced. Lost circulation is particularly hazardous when zones with pressure higher than the hydrostatic pressure of the mud column which stabilises after the losses become exposed and push fluids into the well. clearance between the well bore and the drill string.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400022 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PlY LTIl E n~ incerin g Oi \: i s i on January 1997 BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL Failure to Keep the Hole Full of Fluid: Most blowouts recorded have occurred during the pulling of pipe from the hole. 5 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 NewcasUe St Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. However. it may become useful practice to slug the pipe with a barite plug before commencing to trip out of the hole. Blowouts have resulted through not filling the hole with sufficient mud to replace the drill string volume that is withdrawn from the hole. FAX: 0362242227 . Where hydrostatic pressure of a mud column is only slightly above the formation pressure. Sometimes it is possible to spot a heavy slug of high density mud below the thief zone in the zone of high pressure and this effect repairs to the zone of lost circulation. The pressure reduction from swabbing is a function of hoisting speed. In some areas during tricone rotary drilling. Swabbing: Swab pressure is created while pulling the drill string or inner core barrel from the hole. When the hydrostatic pressure in the well bore exceeds the fracture pressure of the formation. an underground blowout may occur. If lost circulation occurs while a kick is being handled with pressure on the preventors. this operation is carried out With flow check procedures outlined in the section Flow Checks for Core Drilling. A check to ensure that formation fluid is not being swabbed into the hole at the early stages of a trip will often be adVisable. The most critical period of influence from swabbing will occur while pulling the first few stands of the drill string off bottom. Lost Circulation: There are numerous causes for lost circulation which may frequently arise in shallow or un-consolidated beds and in deeper rocks which may fracture because the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the mud column exceeds the fracture pressure of a formation. Suction arises. On other occasions only partial losses are experienced to a zone and Circulation may be restored after treatment to plug the formation. mud properties and bit water course size. the formation will break down and mud will be lost to that zone. An oil saver-wire line stripper connected to the top drill rod recovers mud from a travelling wire line and provides blowout protection when retrieving the inner core tube. or because a formation is naturally fractured or cavernous. When the hole is not taking the correct volume this should alert the driller that invading fluid may be flowing into the well bore. The zone of lost circulation must then be repaired before normal well control procedures are carried out. Frequently circulated returns are lost and the flUid level will stabilise at some point down hole where the hydrostatic pressure balances the formation pressure in the lost circulation zone. The situation is avoided through care to make sure that the correct volume of fluid IS being returned to the well after pulling a set quantity of pipe.

The response will usually depend on whether the permeability and porosity in the formation is sufficient to permit fluids to flow freely from the highly pressured formation into the well bore. then a kick situation is likely to develop. the formation may be pressured because compaction in the rock cannot sustain the overburden. 6 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcas~e S1. 036223 8789. Equipment Failure: Failure to correctly test. SaNery POlnl TAS 7004 TEL. Increasing the mud weight will often prevent or reduce the sloughing and caving of sediments in these formations. This normal formation pressure gradient is o 1073 kgf/cm 2 I metre. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . but extra care needs to be given to required operational training in the use of this equipment. and although porosity and permeability are not sufficient to allow the escape of large quantities of fluid into the well bore. Abnormal Over-pressure: As stated. there may be deformation and accelerated erosion to the well bore. maintain and operate equipment on the rig has in the past been a cause for concern in the industry and has been the reason for loss of life and property in times of blowout The schedules for function testing surface well head and mud line equipment. abnormal over-pressured formations are frequently defined as those formations with a pressure gradient in excess of a normal column of sea water. the necessity for reporting testing to statutory authorities and training programmes for rig personnel have all assisted in reducing the problem.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400023 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Lngincctin~ Didsion Jltnuarl1997 BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL On other occasions it will become necessary to repair the thief zone with a thixotropic cement squeeze and possibly then case out the two zones after drilling to a suitable formation in which the casing can be secured. If an high pressured formation is penetrated with insufficient mud density. Under other conditions.

prior to tnpping the drill string 3. While Retrieving Core: The well flow check procedures are those established for carrying on wireline operations In conventional drill string assemblies call alert shut in the wireline oilsaver packer stripper monitor the flow for 1-2 mlns. Flow Check Procedure In order that drilling crews take all necessary precautions to prevent a kick situation arising. FAX: 0362242227 . then hoist to position tool joint at surface shut off pump and call alert observe well and if flowing shut annular preventer line up well to closed choke manifold and monitor stand pipe and casing pressures 2. via by-pass ensure the well has stabilised before completing the flow check 7 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcas~e SI. while out of the hole 5. while retrieving core Rapid closing of the well is necessary if excessive surface pressure is to be avoided. While Out of the Hole: ensure the hole is full then shut down pump divert flow to record flow rate and volume for 1-2 minutes continue to monitor the flow each half hour 5. trip out of the hole if the well is flowing. shut it in immediately 4. this flow check must be kept as short as possible In order to minimise the potential Influx of hydrocarbons and hence kick size. Ba~ery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. a 40 litre kick in a BO hole would occupy 100m of annulus while drilling. The crews are drilled regularly to make flow checks and shut in the well when necessary. Before Tripping the Drill String: position tool jOint above footclamps and call alert divert the flow line to record flow rate and volume record the flow rate for 1-2 minutes if no flow is noted.j fGREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Divisjon BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL Introduction to Abnormal Pressure Detection The drillers and drilling crews are instructed to recognise and report any signs indicating the onset of abnormal pressure or those conditions indicating that the well is flowing. shut it in immediately 3. a flow check should be conducted immediately to confirm the presence of formation fluids entering the well bore However. While Drilling: stop rotary. While Tripping the Drill String: position tool joint above footclamps and call alert install stabbing valve in open position then close ensure the hole is full then shut down pump divert flow to record flow rate and volume for 1-2 minutes if the well is flowing. Unnecessary and improper closing in procedures can however cause equipment damage and hole problems. This is of particular importance in slimhole drilling because of the small annulus volume. in circumstances of indication of a kick while tripping 4. while drilling and in the event of indication of a kick 2. A large kick is more difficult to kill and circulate out.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 40002. it is recommended that flow checks are carried out at specific times during drilling operations: 1. or 24m of drill pipe while retrieving core General procedures to be observed are as follows: 1. for example. When one or more indicators that a well is kicking are recorded.

Wlreline core retrieval has no unique feature which characterises the operation from other wlreline activities in conventional drilling practice Two adopted procedures are designed to prevent accident when pulling core: A wireline Oil-saver packer stripper.000 psi in this manual). This valve IS also shut in the event of a kick. The rated shut In pressure of the Blowout Preventer Well Head is 5. While wireline coring tools are lighter than conventional rotary drill strings it may be pointed out that in a closed well situation with a HQ core drilling assembly in 4. The sunace mud volumes used and pump circulation rates to drill these wells are also much reduced. in excess of 3. Equipment Rated Pressure: Well data calculated for carrying out well kill procedures uses rated working specifications for the pressure control equipment and recommended property specifications for the drilling fluids employed. the opportunity for detection of a more exact and smaller variation in pit volume is possible in these circumstances. The operating pressure of the Blowout Preventers is 750 psi.000 Ib of string weight to prevent drill pipe from moving up the hole While tripping rods.33" hole locked in under a top drive UDR rig. would require 132. it should also be noted that in spite of these rods having a large bore and a narrow bit ken area.0362 24 2227 . Fewer.000 psi. read the shut in casing and shut in drill pipe pressures and record the volume gain. 8 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle SI Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400025 IGREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engincerin~ Di\'ision BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL Introduction to Abnormal Pressure Control General to the procedures for well control and well kill operations in HW/HQ/NQ core drilling are those features of the drill rig and system controls which permit safe handling when drilling in over pressured formations Drill fluids suppliers have mud weighting materials compatible for use with wireline core drilling tooling and weighted mud systems are now regularly provided for slimhole operations. It is critical to operations that drill fluid rheological properties and particularly yield and gel strengths are readily controlled to maintain optimum conditions for pressure control management in these wells. the calculated resistance to flow (and its resultant implication for swabbing) when pulling a rotary tricone roller bit string will be found to be greater than in the case of the core string. The annular mud volumes in core hole geometries are only about 15% of those in conventional oil and gas wells.000 psi could be contained. mud which is allowed to rise while retrieving the core inner barrel IS directed back into the hole via a fast acting mud by-pass valve in the drill string. An equipment list and diagrams for the BOP equipment are shown in the Appendices. Wireline cOring drill holes are considerably downsized to conventional oil and gas holes. FAX. The rated pressure of the Annular Blowout Preventer is 5. condition the mud and control a kick. In this event the core inner barrel becomes suspended in a pressured chamber. the same situation in a 7 3/4" production hole with a fluted kelly. while the circulation system is only about a third of that used by conventional oil field rigs. When stable. This IS without the necessity of closing a shear ram.000 psi. By comparison. rated to antiCipated pressure control requirements ( 3. In these circumstances less time and fewer mud materials are necessary to build weight. Attention to this opportunity can provide a lead time for response in such an event. the packer may be closed. which reduces formation contamination of the drill fluid. A driller works above the hole and can monitor all aspects of the circulating system from his position at the rig console. is installed on top of the drill rod string. While all other response times may be considered equal. smaller drill cuttings are produced while coring. In the event of a kick.

As a consequence. = He may use the recorded surface pressures to plan for kill procedures and fill in the Pressure Control Worksheet at this time. which initially controls the over-pressure by circulating the hydrostatically under-balanced well through the choke. whereas annulus pressure losses in conventional rotary drilling geometries will generally only be to the order of 10% of circulating system pressure losses. FAX. a description of pressure control equipment and well data to support the drilling practices which is useful for preparing a well kill data sheet. The circulating system pressure data obtained when drilling Comalco's Ungoolya I in the Officer Basin of South Australia and the Pittston Minerals (Aust) Sandfire Flat (SD1) mineral hole in the Canning Basin (described in the Slimhole Drilling Technology Manual) are empirical data sets used as models for applying these friction pressure loss equations at the location. 10 kill a well with one circulation 9 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle St. 92% of circulating system friction pressure losses are derived in the annulus in these down hole configurations. has been included in the appendices Friction Pressure Calculations: The Power Law model for fluid flow behaviour has been employed In calculating friction pressure losses in the circulating system. The equations used to calculate the friclion pressure loss are described in the IDF Drillfluids Manual which is held at the location in the tool room.28 will be smaller than the friction factor derived where this ratio is in the order of 2:1 as is the case in wireline drilling geometries. The driller may respond in two prescribed ways to control the pressure. or he may wish to circulate the well through the choke using the constant pump stroke method and displace all the invading formation flUids before commencing to kill the well. The latter. HW/HQ/NQ well geometries and drilling fiuid properties are recorded on the kill sheet which describe the parameters used in these calculations. Battery Poinl TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. and it is not good practice to wait too long before commencing remedial action. A friction factor derived for conventional rotary drilling with a drill pipe to annulus ratio of 0. For clarification of the following well shut in and kill procedures. it may normally be expected while core drilling that equivalent mud densities will be higher than those in wells which are drilled using conventional oil-well rotary drilling practices. and displaces any invading fluid from the well is called 'The Driller's Method' and will provide more reliable data to calculate mud weight to control the abnormal pressure The method requires a minimum of two complete circulations to kill the well The former IS known as 'The Wait and Weight Method' and is designed and because of simplicity it is most often the preferred procedure. it is well to wait for a few minutes to allow the pressure to stabilise. . The circulating system pressure loss in a well is the sum of friction pressure losses. a kick event in the well may be anticipated to evacuate: the annulus while drilling the drill string while tripping the drill string while operating wireline tools. As a result. CSPL P(surface) + P(drill string) + P(core barrel) + P(annulus) When a kick is detected and the well has been shut in.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I IGREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD En g i Dee do 4!. Di ~ i 5 ion BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL Friction Pressure Loss in the Circulating System: The following procedures programme identifies the fundamental concern for the handling of friction pressure losses in these geometries when planning to control and kill a kick. 0362242227 . If a gas bubble has been encountered it will begin to migrate up the hole. As a further consequence of this distribution for friction pressure losses in a CHD circulating system.

Remember when making these calculations: the drill string hydrostatic pressure + the circulating system pressure . and then prepare a graph plan which plots the number of pump strokes and/or time vs the decrease in pumping pressure while the new mud is being pumped from the surface to the bottom of the drill string.arJ 19971 BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL Methods for Kick Control: This method and a worksheet for controlling a well is described in the aDCM Well Control Manual which is in the tool house at the location. Calculate the Final Circulating Pressure uSing the equation shown in the worksheet.constant drill string pressure method and maintain control of the well. This Final Circulating Pressure is then maintained by controlling the choke while pumping the new mud up through the annulus. The operation may proceed after the initial shut in without displacing the invading fluid using the 'Wait & Weight Method' or it may proceed to circulation using the 'Drillers Method' to control the kick. While pumping at the constant pump rate the drill string pressure is held constant by adjustment at the choke. clean uncut mud will appear and the well may be shut in once more. It is possible to continue circulating the well at any time while weighting up operations are in progress using this constant pump stroke . The new mud density required to balance the formation pressure may be calculated from the shut in drill string pressure. An initial pump pressure is obtained by adding the circulating system pressure loss to the shut in drill string pressure When all the invading fluid has been pumped from the hole. Circulation is commenced by cracking the diverter line ball cock valve and simultaneously bringing the pump rate to the desired slow pump rate. The Pressure Control Worksheet: This work sheet is used for recording shut in data and is kept up to date during drilling operations to maintain the pre-recorded information which includes the circulating system pressure loss with the pump and well data. Battery Point TA57004 TEL: 0362238789. 10 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PtL 12 Newcastle 51. In both cases the shut in pressures are used to fill out the Pressure Control Worksheet and mud density is increased in the pits to effectively control the abnormal pressure. It is useful to complete a Well Control Worksheet before commencing the procedure. Regardless of the two methods employed. to kill a kicking well is the same in both cases when displacing old mud with newly weighted mud of sufficient density to effectively control the over pressure.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400027 IGREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD E ngincc ring Divis i on Janu. This pressure is converted to an eqUivalent mud density in units of specific gravity using the equation described on the worksheet Adding the result to the original mud density will provide the new mud specific gravity which is required to balance the formation It is necessary to displace the original drilling mud in the drill string and annulus with newly weighted mud while pumping with a controlled pump rate and making adjustments at the diverter ball cock choke valve to maintain a regulated pressure. A constant bottom hole pressure is maintained while circulating at the slow pump rate to control further entry of formation fluid. Record the shut In drill string and the shut In casing pressure together with the kick volume.000 psi diverter line ball cock valve with the original mud weight to displace an invading fluid in the annulus. The Initial circulating pressure required is found by adding the shut in drill string pressure to the system pressure loss. The pressure is regulated to reduce the pump pressure from the Initial Circulating Pressure to the Final Circulating Pressure as the old mud is pumped out of the drill string. A well which has been shut in may be then circulated while the driller controls the 3.the friction pressure is always equal to the annulus hydrostatic pressure + the casing pressure + friction pressure in the annulus. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . The shut in casing pressure and the shut in drill string pressure should now be equal and a Pressure Control Worksheet may be completed using this recorded data.

Pumping to Displace Mud in the Annulus: When pumping to displace the annulus the final circulating pressure becomes the controlling factor. Batlery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. cautious evaluation of well parameters needs to apply when selecting the method for controlling a well 11 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St. For this reason. The highest pressure recorded at any point in the well ( eg. the well is once more balanced and back pressure required at the choke will be reduced to zero. This is the Initial Circulating Pressure at the commencement and is reduced to the Final Circulating Pressure when the new mud reaches the bit While making this choke correction it can be seen that pump strokes may increase as the pump pressure falls. Should the pump pressure increase and the pump stroke rate begin to fall. the casing shoe) will occur when the top of any such gas bubble reaches that point Once new mud is returned to the surface. The higher annulus pressure associated with the driller's method for controlling a kick may become of serious concern if an inner casing string has a low pressure rating or if it is set at a shallow depth where fracture pressure in a formation is less than the probable annulus pressure that will occur when a gas bubble reaches the shoe. The well may then be shut in once more to determine if the new weight is effectively controlling the formation pressure. and to return the well to balance it is necessary to close the choke until pressure and pump rate return to their designated values. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . The new mud is pumped through the annulus while controlling back pressure on the choke to maintain this final pump pressure The casing pressure will vary considerably while displacement proceeds and the maximum pressure will be recorded when the gas bubble (if any) first reaches the surface.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I IGREATSOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD E n~i n ('c ringDi \. then it is necessary to gradually open the choke to restore balance. is ion Januar~r 400028 1'97l BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL Pumping to Displace Mud in the Drill String: Displacement is effected by pumping new mud at the controlled slow pump stroke rate and maintaining choke adjustment to control the pump pressure.

FAX: 0362 24 2227 . Shut in While Retrieving Core: The well shut in procedures are those established for carrying on wireline operations in conventional drill string assemblies. If the well is flowing.000 psi gate valve slowly close diverter line.000 psi diverter line ball cock valves are open close in the packer stripper valve and by-pass valve slowly close diverter line ball cock valves without exceeding allowable operating pressure allow well to stabilise. Batlery Po. 1. Shut in While Out Of Hole: call alert check both 3.000 psi ball cock valves on the kill and diverter lines are maintained in the closed position at all times while drilling or coring. ball cock valves without exceeding allowable operating pressure allow well to stabilise read the shut in casing pressure and volume gain 4. Both of the 3. Shut in While Tripping: call alert position upper tool joint above slip area set pipe in slips & release elevators Install 3. Shut in While Drilling: call alert stop rotary. 12 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle SI. read the shut in casing and shut in drill pipe pressures and record the volume gain 3.000 psi ball cock stabbing valve allow well to stabilise when stable.nl TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. The position of the drill string at the time of this decision determines which of the following procedures to use for the shut in. then close check both ball cock valves are open close annular preventer slowly close the diverter ball cock valves without exceeding allowable casing pressure make up top drive rotary to top connection open 3.000 psi diverter line ball cock valves are open close the 5.000 psi ball cock valves without exceeding allowable operating pressure when stable. call alert check both 3.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400029 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Division JHDuar)' 1997 BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL Well Shut in Procedures. the drill crew should shut in the well and make the necessary arrangements to begin killing operations. read the shut in casing and shut in drill pipe pressures and record the volume gain 2. hoist to place tool joint above slip area shut down pump check both ball cock valves are open close annular preventer slowly close 3.000 psi stabbing ball cock valve open.

PIN 45931.' 5M Drilling Spool. 4@" x 2. Houston. regulator gauges. SIN 63820 4@' 5M API rated full opening GREYGATE flanged valve. dual choke lines and diverter connected to 6" surge tank.1. SIN 12483 2" 3M Chiksan Hoses with hammer unions for connection to kill line and choke line Gate Valve Drilling Spool Choke Manifold Kill Line Flanges Accumulator Chiksan Hoses Further descriptive Information for this equipment is provided in the Appendix 13 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle St. 2" 3M Kill Line filted with gate valve and check valve." 5M Socket Weld Flanges NL Shaffer 3 Station Koomey Unit with 11 gallon accumulator bottle. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . 4. BOP connection hose and duplex charging pump driven by Kohler engine and control unit. complete with replacement element and seal kit. GED 1000053S. 2" 3M Choke Manifold filted with pressure gauge. Texas.1. Model No. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. hydraulic tank.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400030 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Lnginccr·jn~·Division J~nuary 1997 BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL Blowout Prevention Equipment The following equipment was supplied and tested by Wisco International. USA in September 1995 BOP HYDRIL 4@" GKS 5000 Annular Preventer with 4@" 5M flange.

every 7 days while drilling and after each time repairs are made that require removal of a pressure seal in the assembly. Rig hydraulic pump shall be capable of rebuilding fluid pressure in the closing unit within a period of three minutes to a sufficiently high level to close the annular type blowout preventor. 2. Closing Unit Tests Tests are performed at installation or every 15 days. pressure tests of the inside BOP's and rig mud lines require attention at this time. All preventor equipment to be tested in accordance with such regulations requires that annular type blowout preventors shall be tested to 70% of the manufacturers rated pressure. before drilling out after setting each casing string. All BOP testing is carried out using water after mud is flushed from the stack and lines. valves and mud line hose. In the event that a test indicates that the equipment is not operating correctly. FAX: 0362242227 . Sufficient mud weighting chemicals to meet location requirements Hydraulic properties recorded daily in the Pressure Control Worksheet Drills and Safety Meeting requirements fully observed Tested the stand pipe. Testing may be carried out with the least number of valve manipulations and in a=rdance With the instructions of the operating company. which ever is the greater period of time. The gate valve shall be tested at the times stipulated in the above paragraph. Low pressure tests must be applied for 3 minutes betore increasing to the full test pressure on the NPT mUdline. gate valve and annular BOP BOP Inspection Test Check List: Make frequent inspection to your satisfaction that you have. the diverter and kill line ball cock valves. operations shall not be continued until the deficiencies have been corrected to the satisfaction of the operating company. The annular preventors and rams shall be function tested on each round trip or 24 hour period. The test diagrams are prepared after the drill rig plumbing inspection is concluded at the location. providing that after installing each casing string. Ensured the BOP's are correctly installed and braced Replaced hand wheels. The pressure test for the rig mud lines and pump manifold is 1800 psi. 14 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle SI. Regardless of the arrangement of a blowout preventor stack to be tested. the gate valve shall be pressure tested to the operating pressure prOVided above. 1997 1 BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL Blowout Preventer Test Schedule: Pressure test policy requires that the BOP's and associated well control equipment is tested to operation pressures recommended by the manufacturers. In conjunction with BOP tests. 3. Ensured the 3.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I GREA'T 400031 SOUT HLA ND MINERALS PTY LTD [n gin e el" i n ~Dr\' i si 0 n Fehruary.000 psi ball cock valves on the dlverter and kill lines are closed. pump lines. open and re-close the annular type blowout preventor. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. A complete BOP test is carried out at the installation of the equipment. a set of drawings is most useful when conducting this procedure Tests are carried out with the least number of valve manipulations. whichever is the shorter period of time. Closing Unit: 1. Accumulators shall have sufficient capacity at all times to close. Closing unit shall be connected to the blowout preventors with lines of working pressure at least equal to the working pressure of the unit.

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PI'. FAX: 0362242227 . LTD Enginee["ing Division January 1997 400032 RIG SAFETY AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE 15 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789.

The Use of an Observer 9:2. Rig Emergency Procedure 9. Fractures 9:4:4. CONTENTS 9:1 Emergency Response 9. Introduction 9: 1:2. Treatment of Shock 9:46.5.. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD 400033 En gineering 0 i. 9:2:6.5. Introduction to Fire Fighting Procedures Classification of f. FAX: 0362 24 2227 .3:2. Basic First Aid for Wounds 94:3.res and methods for their control Rig Fire Prevention Responsibility CUlling & Welding Inspection 927.9. Electric Arc Welding 9:2: 10 Operator Safety 9:2: 11 Oxy-Acetylene Flame Cutting and Welding 9:2:12 Safety Responsibility 19 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 9:3 Production Testing 9. Burns and Scalds 9:4. Procedures 24 24 9:4 First Aid 9:4:1 First Aid at the Rig Site 9:4:3. Welding in Confined Spaces 9:2:8. 9:2. 9:24 9:2.2. 9:2:3. ProductionTesting 9.3.1. Contractor Emergency Staff Response PAGE 17 18 18 9:2 Rig Safety 9:2: 1.1:1.· isiun JanuarJ 1997 RIG SAFETY AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE. Responsibility 25 25 26 27 28 28 16 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St.3.1.

0362238789. Examples· 1. A fire causing equipment or property damage. or action deemed necessary for the saving of life and property. 17 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St. Great Southland Minerals Pty Ltd. Emergency Alert Plan An emergency is considered to be an unexpected event that may result in harm to life. The Immediate Senior at the Contracting Company In these circumstances is Mr David Tanner Mobile 019973134 After Hours 0362315677 Tel. Hydrocarbon or chemical spill or other emission harmful to the environment 3. FAX: 0362 24 2227 .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400034 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS . nothing in the contents.PTY LTD Engineering Di\lision JanUiU) 1997 RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE Emergency Response 9:1:1. 0362 25 0542 Mobile 018120659 The Senior Company Employee is then responsible for reporting the emergency to his immediate senior at the Contracting Company Head Office. 0362315677 Your immediate reports then are 1. The Operating Company. Make sure that the contact level for these situations is fully established for each drilling programme. Explosion. Drilling supervisors are responsible to ensure that all personnel employed on the site are fUlly conversant with the content of this manual. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL. Instruclions or regulations provided in this programme shall be so construed as to prevent the "person-in-charge" from taking the most effective action in his judgement for rectifying the conditions causing the emergency. have prepared an Emergency Response Manual which covers those contingencies for the drilling programme being conducted. An event that results in loss of life. Operation Site Representative 2. rupture or well blowout The Senior Company Employee at the scene will contact the Operating Company Representative on site or at his location and report the emergency. Company contractor personnel are then expected to sign the Safety Book to acknowledge they are fully aware of and will abide by these instructions. environment or property and which calls for immediate action. Contracting Company Supenor Emergency Response A list of operating company personnel to whom you may report emergencies will need 10 be prepared and kept handy in the supervisors office. and are instructed in safe working practices on these operations. 2. including details of: where it occurred when it occurred what action IS being taken to control the situation what progress is being achieved in rectifying the emergency. 4. and for the laying down of guide lines for safe procedures when working on or around the drilling site. The Operating Company Representative in these circumstances is Mr Malcolm Bendall After Hours 0362250542 Tel. Should an emergency arise. Introduction The Safety and Emergency Response Program is prepared for the benefit of the Contracting drilling crews and management to ensure the correct response to emergencies which may arise out of contracting operations from time to time. serious injury or causes a potential hazard to life and property.

either requested or otherwise. 11. normal preparations can be made in response to . 4. 6. Request Police assistance if necessary. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. Operator's Representative The Operator will detail an Emergency Response Co-ordinator to supervise the operations and it is important the Great Southland Minerals Pty Ltd emergency staff act through his instructions. 2 3. Liase with the Operator's rig supervisor. Fire. Advise the local Police Department of the emergency. 8. No comprehensive set of plans can be formulated to meet all emergencies. 10. Co-ordinator 24 hour contact Mr David Tanner Mr Dale Roberts Mr David Tanner 9:1 :3. Mobilise and dispatch any materials requested to the rig. Drilling Manager 2. Base the emergency team at the radio contact room. Ensure names and addresses of personnel on the rig are known. The Contracting organisation is responsible to act promptly on any proposed operation detailed and requested by this representative and to keep him fully informed as to the outcome of the actions. Prepare response for the State Regulators. their location and condition. Contact the senior member of the Operator's emergency staff. Liase with the Contractor Rig Supervisor at the location. Maintain a record of evacuees. Supply As advised by the Operator. Arrange medical assistance in transit if necessary 9. 7. Contractor Emergency Staff Response 1. they are to advise him in all matters pertaining to the emergency. Senior Drilling Supervisor 3. Alert all members of the team. 18 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle St. Rig Emergency Procedure The circumstances that will be encountered in any particular emergency are very often unpredictable. Prepare mobilisation for any evacuation. If necessary advise the most accessible medical facility. Emergency Response This Co-ordinating Supervisor has ultimate responsibility and will be making the decisions which are remedial for the emergency at the site and contingent to safe passage of any evacuees for medical purposes. 5. Arrange emergency accommodalion if necessary. 1. 4. 3. Further.[lginccring Division Januar)' 1997 RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE 9:1:2. 5. However. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . Report back all Operator advised action. 7. Prepare warehouse personnel responsible for materials dispatch. 6.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400035 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD E. explosion or blowout 2. 2. Ascertain if any injured personnel are in need of evacuation. 1. An urgent need for medical assistance Contracting Emergency Staff Team: 1.

Sources for ignition It is recognised that most of the hazards surrounding the occurrence of fires stems from lack of attention on the part of personnel to preparation and care on a job. • Ensure that the fire prevention procedures are introduced and displayed at the rig and are given attention in Safety Meeting Agendas • Ensure that Fire Station notices are well prepared and displayed conspicuously around the rig. Electrical faults. incorrect wiring or fuse placement 6. Batlery POln! TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. short circuits or unprotected installations.extinguished using foam. Introduction to Fire Fighting Procedures In the petroleum industry and particularly for exploration. fire is an ever present hazard to life and property. Electrical faults. Think hard on this and your own past experience! Ignition may result from. These notices contain equipment details and duty Information for personnel 19 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St. Classification of fires and methods for their control Fires have been classified as follows. molten sparks or spontaneous combustion. 9:2:2. 2. FAX: 0362242227 . Welding. An explosion. carbon dioxide or dry chemical. 1. incorrect grounding. and preparation notices must always be requested for these activities so there is no breach of any regulation and so supervision is prepared for the job.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 40003G GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Di\'ision Jan u a r)' I 997 RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE Rig Safety 9:2:1. Electncal Fires . cutting and sparks generated through cutting or grinding. It is necessary that the required fire fighting equipment on the rig is correctly serviced and maintained at convenient designated locations. naked flame. A Contracting Rig Supervisor should instruct crews of the follOWing ng fire prevention responsibilities. Electrical faults. 3. 4. Liquid Fires . loose connections or incorrect grounding. It is the responsibility of the Contracting Company Supervisor to ensure that his crew is performing duties in accordance with instructions provided by the Operator. 5. and that personnel are fully instructed and understand procedures for extinguishing any conflagration. or overloading. Smoking in non-<Jesignated areas. 7. Consideration for any sources of ignition during the carrying on of an activity and exclusion of the hazard potential through job preparation will lower the nsk for accidental fire considerably. Electncal faults. Solid Fires . foam or any type extinguisher. Rig Fire Prevention It is the responsibility of the Operating Company Supervisor to ensure that fire prevention and safety procedures are carried out on a location to the satisfaction of his companies set policy.extinguished using carbon dioxide or dry chemical DO NOT USE WATER OR FOAM TO EXTINGUISH ELECTRICAL FIRES 9:2:3.extinguished using water. Burning and welding are two notable hazards that require attention and control at the location.

the well. Spilled hydrocarbons are to be immediately recovered. Cutting and welding operations need to be properly supervised and an inspection of the work area should be carried out to determine if the work is necessary and safe to carry out. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. FAX. In the event of fire. the reservoir or property. Responsibility for manning and operating fire stations will be properly delegated Back up equipment and personnel are to be mobilised quickly.:i~ion Ja n u aryl 997 RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE Rig Safety Ensure that new cre. Waste oil rags. but deposited in designated refuse containers on site. Compressed gas cylinders are not to be operated unless the are installed with gauge and pressure regulating equipment. all precautions Will be taken to eliminate danger to life and property even if drilling operations have to be curtailed as a result. Engine oil is drained and stored in drums at the site. Cutting & Welding Authorisation for welding jobs are provided by the contracting supervisor or a member of the crew delegated by him. It is not permitted that drained oil is held in sumps under motors. even if it is necessary to curtail operations in doing so. that he IS qualified to carry it out and that fire equipment is on hand 20 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle St. All visitors to the rig are to be made aware of restriction notices and safety regulations operating at the site. If a fire cannot be brought under control on the rig with the resources at hand.W members taking up duties on the location are fully briefed in fire prevention and their responsibilities in an emergency situation. sacks. then the supervisor is required to inform the Operator and proceed to notify his company emergency staff that back-up equipment is required forthwith 9:2:5. rope. and thereafter every three months Smoking is only permitted in designated areas. Responsibility The Contractor Supervisor and each service company senior representative is responsible for his unit and personnel safety The Contractor Supervisor is the person-in-charge of fire fighting on the rig. and each job needs to be detailed for his approval on a Welder's Job Sheet. Ensure that the welder fully understands the work. All fire extinguishers required under the regulations are to be correctly positioned at the site. 0362 24 2227 . plastic containers are not to be left around the location. This responsibility may be shared by the operator supervising staff or a deputy where operator liabilities are involved ie. Rig crews commencing operations at a site are required to sign a log book to acknowledge that they have been instructed in fire prevention and rig safety in general. 9:2:4. danger or damage to life.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400031' GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Ui. Electrical installations are to be inspected by a qualified electrician before the commencement of drilling operations and then following the installation of any replaced or additional new electrical installation. are to be reported as inspected and operational at the commencement of drilling operations.

• • • • • • • • 9:2:7. Where-ever possible. Banery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. Where any work of this nature is to be performed and the supervisor IS unsure of the consequences of the job. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . No combustible vapours are present in open or confined spaces which could be ignited. Ready access to and from the place of work is freely available. Good ventilation is essential when cutting or welding alloy metals. If hydrocarbons are present on the metal surface. is not commenced before it has been inspected and ascertained that it is safe to proceed with the job A person who is designated to carry on the job is familiar with the work and that the compartment is free of any noxious or inflammable vapours. • Any welding to be conducted in a tank compartment of any kind and regardless of its features. plated steel or painted metal since harmful vapours will be produced. Where welding or cutting is to be performed around any timber. flame. and that periodic wetting is kept up while the work is in progress. If work is to be performed on any structural member. the wood is well watered down before work commences. and adequate ventilation is provided while the work is in progress to prevent the accumulation of combustible or noxious fumes. Any welding work to be carned out on service or connecting pipe IS not commenced until inspection ensures that the pipe has been bled to atmospheric pressure. ensure that. bull plugs or locked valves are employed on pipe lines entering confined spaces while this work is in progress. Welding equipment is never used in the vicinity of asbestos material.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400038 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Di\-i~iun Januaq: 1997 RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE Rig Safety 9:2:6. Inspection During pre-operation inspection. positive closures such as blind flanges. it should be thoroughly cleaned to remove as far as possible any residue which could foreseeably cause ignition. or hot slag is likely to be blown or fall onto combustible material or equipment which could be ignited and cause damage. that it has been purged and cleaned and that there is no possibility of pressure rebuilding in the pipe during the operation. No person IS permitted to enter the compartment if there IS the slightest doubt that sufficient air to support life Without self contained breathing apparatus is available. Make sure all connecting valves are correctly closed and any flanges to be used are correctly installed. • • • • • • • 21 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St. • No spark. Welding in Confined Spaces Welding in confined spaces will require that the supervisor ensures. At least one other observer is in attendance while the job is in progress and that the welder has a life-line to signal for rescue should difficulties arise. Service or connecting pipe is inspected and is to the requirements stated in the above. no damage to the specification of the equipment will result so that the strength or efficiency of the member is in any way reduced. another opinion will need to be sought from a higher authority. Air blowers are placed strategically to pick up and discharge any produced fumes.

A ground return connection is not made through a conductor such as a pipe or other object which may contain inflammable liqUids or gases. chains. and ultra violet rays are necessary and should cover the whole body below a mask. Clothing which is protective of sparks. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362238789. and the connection is similarly not to be made through other cables.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400039 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Di\:ision RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE Rig Safety 9:2:8. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . radius of the well head while drilling is in progress. Shirt sleeves are to be rolled down. hoi slag. ground terminals and the environment where the work is to be carried on are satisfactory for the completion of the work. leads. condUits. Electric Arc Welding Inspection by the supervisor should ensure that: • • The welder on the job IS experienced and qualified to carry on the work which has been planned. The welding equipment. 22 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle 51. Operator safety The welder and his assistant observer are required to be correctly attired and equipped for the duties of carrying on welding operations. Welding masks and goggles for electric welding and flame torch welding and cutting as well as gloves are to be supplied for the welder and his observer with any welding rig. Where welding operations are to be permitted within a 15 m. The work area should be recovered on completion of the Job. 9:2:9. The Use of an Observer Welding operations on the rig unit and within a 15 meter radius of the well head shall not be permitted unless an observer is present to watch for flying sparks and falling slag so that no fire hazard is permitted from such an occasion. Shielding to protect other crew members from any harmful effects arising from welding practice must also be provided. the welder and his observer are to arrange a system of signals which will provide for a job to be shut down in the event that a hazardous situation arises. and It is important to dispose of any rod ends that have been discarded. wire rope or carriers of this nature • 9:2:10.

Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL. 23 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle SI. The cylinders should be stored and secured in an up-right position and capped unless they are in use. Don't use oxygen as a source for compressed air or permit acetylene to escape into an enclosed space. Supervise each job until inspection confirms correct procedures for handling the equipment are being observed.Acetylene Flame Cutting and Welding Gas cylinders are to be stored outside a 15 metre radius of the well head and should be handled in a cradle to prevent the possibility of damage. Don't permit any torch work using equipment which is leaking or defective in any other way. and a full written report is to be made of each incident involving detection of the gas. Never allow an oxygen regulator to be used on an inflammable gas bottle. Oxy . 0362 23 8789. away from corrosive chemicals and out of work areas where they may be exposed to sparks or naked flames The cylinders are never to be used for jobbing to act as rollers or supports for other equipment. Safety Responsibility It is the responsibility of the operating company to provide its emergency response programme for the handling of tOXIC hydrogen sulphide gas which may be vented while drilling. If leaks are to be explored. The occurrence of the gas is to be fully reported in the daily log. Always keep the thread area on bottles and regulators clean and away from harm when they are not in use. use a soap solution to detect any lea. Cylinders should be stored in a protected location on the rig. not an inflammable solution. since these materials on the bottles and hoses will present a fire risk.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400040 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD En gi nccrin gDi \: i 5 i oil Janlury 1997 RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE Rig Safety 9:2:11. It is important to match regulators and gauges correctly for the gas rig. and that the work is being carried out in accordance with the job detail. The storage area at the location should be one that is free from grease or other lubricants. The operating company may delegate duties for the safe handling of the gas to the Contractor Rig Supervisor in any situation which involves its occurrence during drilling operations. outside any fire risk area. and ensure the rig personnel are familiar with colour codes for the appliance. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . Ensure that cylinders which have been in use and are to be transported off a location. out of the direct rays of the sun. Ensure that the welder is experienced in the work that has been scheduled and that he is qualified to carryon the work. have been recapped for transport. Never force threads or connections when breaking down or assembling the regulators. 9:2:12.

the driller is retained to work the string.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400041 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Divi!'lion Jan uar y199 7 RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE Production Testing 9:3:1. and are grateful for quiet assistance offered by drill crews 24 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PfL 12 Newcastle SI. The supervisor will inform crews of their assigned duties in the event of any emergency. • fire fighting equipment which has already been strategically positioned should also support the drill floor and the gas separator locations and • all available water outlets and hoses need to be run tested before the test is commenced. This is not the case for wire line Formation Interval Testing however. The Operator is often obliged to provide self sustaining breathing apparatus and gas masks on the location in many areas for test operations. Only persons directly connected with the test are permitted in the area of testing or on the drill floor. Some Operators have especially prepared emergency response procedures tor test operations and these may be distributed on the location. Procedures The Contractor Rig Supervisor is required to notify all crew and operator personnel that the tool is positioned down hole. • the signs should also warn that no naked flame IS permitted on the location during this period. 9:3:2. and crews for drill stem testing are supplied by service companies who supply down hole tooling and specialise in these operations. • no smoking is permitted on the location during the test. Production Testing Well testing is supervised by the Operator. either in or away from designated areas. 0362 23 8789. During the testing. Great Southland Minerals Pty Ltd may be requested to provide this equipment in the event and should have access to and be able to supply the necessary items Frequently one oxygen mask tor every three men working on the test will be required. Contractor personnel are provided to assist in the operation. The supervisor is required to ensure that. • adequate signs are placed on the rig to inform all personnel that all welding operations are suspended for the duration of the test. Reporting tor a drill stem test is from the time the string reaches the down hole location in the well. Batlel\' Point TAS 7004 TEL. Great care is required by crews working on the rig floor in order that no articles of equipment are carelessly permitted to slip down the hole. and the supervisor and or driller are generally required to run the down hole string with the assistance of a normal floor crew. Maintain the drill floor so that all tools and other test tool Items are handled away from the well head. until the test tool is brought back and laid down on the surface. Drill stem tests are not scheduled to commence during hours of darkness and are programmed to be completed during daylight hours. and that testing is to commence. • smoking is confined to enclosed accommodation areas only. Test supervisors and service personnel conducting these tests are frequently working under difficult conditions. FAX: 0362 24 2227 .

Once a tourniquet is applied it IS not removed until a doctor has been called to the Victim. Even minor injuries should be treated and reported on an accident report form. Should this fail it may be necessary to apply a tourniquet. to assist an accident victim prior to any requirement for additional professional medical assistance.5 cm above the wound. Rinse after cleaning with clean water and dry. A First Aid Certificate is a valuable qualification to have and can result in the saving of a life. First Aid at the Rig Site Personnel at the rig site are trained to perform First Aid in the event of an accident during operations. Wash your hands before attempting any first aid. 25 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle 5t Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL. making sure to wash away from the wound and not towards it. Tape or bandage the gauze firmly but not so tight as to interfere with Circulation. Minor or Superficial Cuts. Do not use skimpy dressings but make sure the wound and surrounding area IS adequately covered Do not use cotton wool or adhesive tape directly to any part of the wounded area. cream or lotion to cover the wound and hold a gauze pad firmly to cover the damage.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400042 GREAT SOUTHLAND M1NERALS PTY LTD Engineering Division Jilnuar)' 1997 RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE Basic First Aid 9:4: 1. Deep or Extensive Wounds Control the bleeding using a clean gauze pad and pressure over the wound If one pad becomes saturated place another on the top of the first pad and continue to apply pressure. in width and is applied to the normal skin about 2. and are assisted by contractors to obtain the certificate. A tourniquet is made of flat material about 5 cm. All crew personnel are encouraged to train for this certificate. It may be loosened for short periods from time to time on the adVice of a doctor before he reaches the victim In order to permit ctrculation to the rest of the limb. Apply antiseptic spray. It is important the accident victim complete a Workers Compensation Report Form as soon as possible after any accident which involves such a claim. apply pressure to the artery which supplies the limb. 9:4:2. Watch for any impending sign of shock and treat immediately if signs become obvious. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . Obtain medical assistance as soon as possible. When the bleeding stops bandage the wound firmly but not too tightly If bleeding from a wound on a limb continues unabated. 0362 23 8789. Scrapes or Scratches Cleanse the wound with a clean gauze pad or cotton wool using warm soapy water or a mild disinfectant. Basic First Aid for Wounds Any break in the skin can become infected if it is not promptly treated and the first aid treatment should be aimed at stopping any such Infection from happening. Emergency procedures (including communications with head office) need to be fully explained by the person in charge at a location and strictly adhered to.

26 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle SI. Request immediate medical attention 9:4:3. • where there is deformity in the limb or • where the limb is abnormally positioned or shows swelling or discolouration. Lay the injured person down and cut away the clothing from the injury. using a sterile gauze held in place with tape or a bandage. It is belter to cover the wound. Keep the injured part of the body elevated. Handle slowly and gently onto a stretcher In case of a compound fracture. Do not attempt to probe for toreign bodies but pick off any particles which may be obviously removed. Injuries Caused by Crushing. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789. Compound fractures are generally more serious and involve broken bones with piercing of the skin. Never altempt to push a protruding bone back into place. • where pain or tenderness exists in the region of the break. Where possible merely place a bag of Ice over the fracture and seek Immediate medical assistance. • where a victim heard the bone snap and can feel grating. Control bleeding with gauze pads and treat the victim for shock. it is first necessary to apply splints to immobilise the limb.Metal.ary 1997 RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE Basic First Aid Deep Puncture Wounds Encourage bleeding by applying pressure around the wound. Seek medical assistance. splint the limb before moving the victim. • where partial or complete loss of the use of the limb exists. In the case of the simple fracture a bone may be broken but the skin is not pierced. In these cases there is likely to be a wound above the break with bleeding. Fractures Fractures may be either simple or compound.Ilnu. the wound is covered with gauze or a clean cloth and pressure is applied to control the bleeding before any required splinting is applied. First Aid Treatment Do not move the injured person more than is necessary.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400043 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD En g i Deer i n g Oi \'j s ion J. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . If a fracture exists. including foreign bodies. and the bone end may protrude from the skin Fractures may be recognised. unless a doctor tells you otherwise Treat for Shock After the Injury If the injured person needs to be moved. Rinse the wound with clean water and cover with a sterile pad held in place with tape or a bandage. Sand or Glass etc. Wounds with Foreign Bodies . If a fracture is suspected. Wrap the injury with gauze pads and bandage well. Seek medical assistance as soon as is practical. treat it as the real thing.

Seek immediate professional medical treatment for the victim. 0362 23 8789.analgesic burn ointment. tannic or picric acid based ointments • don't but absorbent cotton or blankets directly on a burn with broken skin • don't break or drain blisters • don't delay first aid treatment for shock in cases of serious burns • don't delay obtaining professional medical assistance Treatment of First Degree Burns Apply antiseptic. Third Degree Burns Immediately administer treatment for shock. • don't touch the burn with anything which is not clean • don't use butter. cover with a sterile gauze pad and bandage firmly Treatment of Second Degree Burns Administer first aid for treating shock If the victim is conscious and thirsty and there are no abdominal wounds it is advisable to give. Bums & Scalds Burns and scalds are classified in degrees of severity. Do nothing to the burn but cover it With sterile gauze pads or cloth. preventing infection and preventing or treating for shock. being careful to cut around any cloth sticking or fused to the burn. FAX: 0362 24 2227 . freely. Prepare the solution using half a teaspoon of bicarbonate and 2 heaped teaspoons of salt in a litre of water Remove clothing from the burn. Cover the burn area With sterile gauze or a suitable substitute such as a freshly laundered sheet or pillow case. Make the victim comfortable and warm while seeking immediate professional medical assistance. oils or boric.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400044 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Di\-"ision Januar): 1997 RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE Basic First Aid 9:4:4. There are a number of important 'DON'TS' associated with the treatment of burns. First aid in the treatment of burns should be aimed at relieving pain. 27 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle SI. • • • First Degree Burns are where the skin IS reddened Second Degree Burns are where blistering occurs Third Degree Burns are where skin is charred or cooked. a weak saline and bicarbonate of soda solution. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL.

No alcohol or stimulants should be administered. eyes vacant and dull or dilation of pupils. nausea and/or vomiting. warm and with an adequate supply of fluids. or may develop over a period of time after the event: • • • • • • • weakness. or. Attend any injuries and keep the victim quiet and comfortable while waiting for professional medical assistance. provided they are not nauseous or vomiting. drooping eyelids. paleness with cool or clammy skin. For a head injury elevate the head instead of the feet. 9:4:6. mental sluggishness or collapse. irregular or weak pulse. or orange juice and other soft fluids may be used. 28 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle SI. Responsibility First aid practiced at a drilling location is the responsibility of the rig Safety Officer who First Aid Orderly IS trained as a The Officer IS responsible for carrying out first aid on any victim injured at the location. Batlery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362238789. and for the requesting of medical assistance for the victim of an aCCident This person is also responsible for reporting accidents and dispatching all correspondence associated with the mishap at the location. Allor any of the following symptoms may be present immediately following an accident. Conscious victims without abdominal wounds should be provided as much fluid as them to take. for dispatch of any seriously injured victim in an accident. In hot weather do not make the victim uncomfortably warm. Treatment for Shock Shock is a serious depression of vital functions that can often a=mpany even moderate injury. first aid for shock should be given immediately. faintness. For chest injUries and breathing difficulties elevate head and shoulders Keep victim comfortable and warm with top and bottom blankets. rapid and shallow breathing.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400045 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD l<: n g i ne e r i n g D i \-' i s ion Jahuarl1997 RIG SAFETY & EMERGENCY RESPONSE Basic First Aid 9:4:5. It is Important not to wait for shock to develop and to act immediately by keeping the victim lying down. IS comfortable for A teaspoon of baking soda with half a teaspoon of salt in a litre of water is suitable as a fluid. or unconsciousness. rapid. or pulse too weak to feel. Loosen clothing and elevate the feet about 30 to 50 cm. Treatment Lay the victim on his back with the face upward. In all cases of severe injury. FAX: 0362 24 2227 .

~nult . DIVERTER & KILL LINE DIAGRAMS OF HYDRIL BOP CLOSING UNIT WORKING SKETCH OF CHOKE MANIFOLD 29 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastie SI.. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400046 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Enginc~ring Di\ision J. FAJC 0362242227 . y 1997 STRATIGRAPHIC SLlMHOLE DRILLING PROGRAM BLOWOUT PREVENTION AND WELL CONTROL RIG SAFETY AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE APPENDICES WORKING SKETCH OF BOP.

LTD En~ineering Division Febr:uarY··1997··1 I "}~.'l \ ':·iJ~o.cl..-. V=\I. to .~=:=:::==== .:"::Y~1 .)7. I~ II -lo GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle St Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL. 0362 23 8789 FAX: 0362 24 2227 .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 40004? I GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY. "~.

. TEL: 0362 23 8789 FAX: 0362 24 2227 STRIPPING GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PIL 12 Newcastle SI. Bener pressure surge control may be achieved with the appticatlon of an accumulator to the clos· Ing line.al seal ott in GKS blowout preventers. and laking subsequent measurements each lime the BOP Is tested. the paoKing unit BOP can be carried out with long packing" should be replaced since any further in· unit life i._~ 10 seal off.~~. To obtain maXimum pooKlng unit :%.. :.ves th. MEASUREMENT If full stroke 01 Ihe piston is reached Routine functional testing 01 the GKS before a seal is obtained..000 ~'I GKS FigIJrt 94 Exterior View 01 ~'/~c"·5000 2'I."-1 0.000. Hydraulic pressure applied to the 0105Ing ohamber rsises the piston squeezing the packing unll into a Sealing engagement..£. Initial closIng pressures are in Table 22. snubbing and stuffing pipe and tUbing can be rotated and tooi joints or tUbing connections can be safely stripped through lne sealed ott GKS paCking unit.'-' 0. Hydril Annular Biowout Preventers .. .10..ore equipped with a drilled passage in th."·5000 end . The GKS BOP is seli-opening. use 450 PS'I oc 3'/. 4' /. sure (psi) required to establish inlt. head 01 the BOP through Which piston stroke can be measured. The 2'/. higher oIoslng pressure will be reo quired to close the lower unit. stuffing.OOo and and 10. Precharge the accumulator to one-half the required closing pressure. The packing unit will seal off around any diameter within tho bore or seal off the open hole to rated working pressure...000 psi GKS aOPISlflpper OPERATION OF THE GKS The GKS Annular BOP/Stripper is an an· nular BOP with partioular applioation to workover oporallons..BOps are provided with an a API studded top connector and API flanged bOl1om connector.at will effect a seal.ir. This fluid lubrioates the paoking unit to minimize wear.f propgroperatlng procedu\. The remaining iife of the packing unit is proportional to the amount 01 pls:on TESTING/PISTON STROKE stroke left.. ~+.000 and 4'/1"·5000 and 10. When two GKS BOPs are used one above the other.. Optimum packing unit life will be realized by uSing the lowest closing pressure required to elfect a seal.~1.' creases of oloslng preesur. use the recommended closing pressure end test pipe diameler. For example.fo~·'O. Table 22 g. The pres· sures given in these tables are guidelines. The condition 01 the paoking unit can be determined by measuring the piston stroke on a new pacKing unit using the appropriete test pipe diameter. snUbbing.!'!!~11-. tions through the unit will allow e pressure regulalor valve 10 more effectively limit pressure surges.-". and wirellne opera tions.000. The pre>· sure reqUired will equal the normai closing pressure piUS the amount of pre••ure above the pecKing unit.2".ad. The GKS BOP has e sorewe<! head. As a larger diameter oonnection passes thrOugh the closed paoklng unit it ex· pands. as in olubflcator instaliation.The top and bottom oonnections of the . wlli not causn foIlO\Y8d.API 2'10' 00 external upset temale tubing !. Closing pressure should be proportionally reduced as well pressure IS in· creased. Stripping. TYPE OKS ANNULAR BLOWOUT PREVENTER!STRIPPER Figure 95 Cro5&i·SoeCllon Of 2 ail. The piston stroke has a direct correiation to the oondition of the packing unit. Maximum packing unit life will be obtained by using tM lowest closing pressure t~.3pOO and 2"·5000 are furnished with .clo.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400048 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Enginccrin~ Djviliion February 1997 " HYDRII. thus it reopans when all olosing pressure is released. on a GKS 4'/. The closing presSures shoUld be low enough to permit a slight leakage of drilling/completion fluid as the toollolnt or tUbing conneotion passes througn the olOSEld packing unil.e."-5000 BOP. The hydreulic pressure surge oaused by the paoking unit expansion should be controlled by a responsive pressura regulator valve. Controlling the rate of stripping oonneo. Battery Point TAS 7004 . This BOP/Stripper is espeoially applicable for stripping.' driii pipe [0 establish initial seal o~ Reduction 01 closing pressure after stabilizalion of test pressure reduces rubber stress and increases packing unit lifo.

~1 8 {L. :. b.i. TABLE 24 PARTS LIST-HYDRIL elKS BOPISTRIPPEFI 4 $1npllIr Mud CB~ Slnol ItY<l C.80lii PI~~" ..1 """ S1n>" 10 9 101-----11 ---"_ _ . 11l '" 1111 . :~e ~~I ~ad..~I~I $1I1~. Bore Size 4.M Il.de Ie IUlile ~plil'lw'll pac~lnt: URltl.' Figure 96 Exta-rior Vj~ of ~-3000 Figure 97 CrOII-Seel!on 01 2'''·3000 .'.Oll~ f~ "IUIIIIII'" ION'et 'ile'..·1Q..~C :sll ~iil PIO~I tlilhllr Ijller :I~"RJ 1PUllS.tIiIln:1 F~t rwl 'Qily nilmMllr W'i..r w-- lLia~~ flml1. Connector a...r rlIl~~ ~I~"'-' ~Ri[ li!~_ Ttil cia'~n \~owld ~ m. H'IRtr P'UllIfIl l:teVerllJ ~~~HG 1S. 7 6 7--"~!!iiii TABLE 23 ENGINEERING AND PHYSICAL DATAGKS BOP/STRIPPER Full Dllln ioN U.. Bottom 6.:lvp lIine I.. Battery Point TAS 7004 TEL: 0362 23 8789 FAX: 0362242227 .t '.. 0' GKS ~OPiSt"" .. Nominal Sit.. Type: GKS 2.".jl!n~ Upper s.nd 5000 psi GKS eNl 5OQO GKS TABLE 22 INITIAL CLOSING PRESSURES (PSI) FOR GKS BOP/STRIPPER ~'. Unit ....$ I..llll ..e 3.IIIIII'l' ~..J'~ U~ll .~ t1Q11~1 ~reU~ltI 1M"'" J~ l~t la~le ~t>Q. b~l .II1. Top b...R.~( HOW TO ORDER rHE GKS BOP Specify the following: . Working Pressure 5. m 5~--( ~.'. Figure 9f1 UIll* PiJ~~ [j.f...I~ '" . 4'I. 3 ".. GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle St.e.:. PacKing Unit Material: Np~"ra! Rubber or Nitrile Rubber E><pl<X1o<l Vi• ..I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 400049 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTY LTD Engineering Di\'ision February 1997 '.

cl .ok.·~.V\JoJJ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I A A -.->-L-J kL· ~ : ~ 11v..I I 400050 IGKEAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS PTYLTD Engine c ring·. t VGS . - J}&II ~oJt-.J.(L V. 00.('30POr' Choke 1~(J..". . 10 _ (/C. TEL: 0362 23 8789 FAX: 0362 24 2227 GREAT SOUTHLAND MINERALS P/L 12 Newcastle S' Battery Point TAS 7004 .-.. ~ cl.~.o. A~ c- 1>. b~U tJO-ltJ~s. Di'Vi!l ion Febr u a r yt9 9 7 I : R't..

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