topic ~ carbon compound (fav spm) bab 2 form 5 alkane - CnH2n + 2 (n = 1,2,3,....) alkene - CnH2n (n = 2,3,4,....) alchohol - CnH2n + 1 OH (n = 1,2,3,....

) carboxylic acid - CnH2n+1 COOH (n= 0,1,2,3...) esters - CmH2m+1 C00CnH2n+ 1(m = 0,1,2,...) (n = 1,2,3...) ________________________________________________________ WAJIB HAFAL warna2 metal Cu - brown Cu0 - black Zn0 - when hot : yellow , when cold : white Mg0 - when hot : brown , when cold : yellow Pb0 - when hot : brown , when cold : yellow Fe2+ ~ pale green Fe3+ ~ brown / pale yellow * all metal shiny grey but/ except Cu !!! ________________________________________________________ WAJIB TAU ! CATION KALAU - K+ (POTASSIUM) NAK - Na+ (SODIUM) KAWIN - Ca2+ (CALCIUM) MESTI - Mg2+ (MAGNESIUM) ADA - Al3+ (ALUMINIUM) ZAKAT - Zn2+ (ZINC) FITRAH - Fe2+ (IRON) SUPAYA - Sn2+ (TIN) PERKAHWINAN - Pb2+ (LEAD) HALAL - H+ (HYDROGEN) CUKUP - Cu2+(COPPER) ASYIK - Ag+ (SILVER) ANION FAIZOL - F- (FLUORINE) SOLEH - S04 2- (SULPHURIDE) NOK - N03 - (NITROGEN) CARI - Cl- (CLORINE) BINI - BR- (BROMINE) ISTERI - I- (I0DINE) ORG - 0H- (HYDROXIDE)

NH4+ which ionises partially to form lower concentration of 0HSTRONG ALKALI . HCl .H2SO4 .KOH .ACID N BASES FORM 4 ACID WEAK ACID . HNO3 which ionises completely to form higher concentration of H+ ACIDIC PROPERTIES ~ PH <>~ BLUE LITMUS PAPER TURNS RED ACID + BASE------> SALT + H20 ACID + METAL----------> SALT + H20 ACID + CARBONATE------------> SALT + H20 + C02 ALKALI WEAK ALKALI . NaOH which ionises completely to form higher concentration of OH ALKALINE PROPERTIES ~ PH > 7 ~ RED LITMUS TURNS BLUE ALKALI + ACID------------> SALT + H2O ALKALI + METAL ION-----------------> METAL HYDROXIDE ALKALI + AMMONIUM SALT --------------> SALT + H20 + NH3 .BAB 7 .CH3COOH which ionises partially to form lower concentration of H+ STRONG ACID .