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The Global System for Mobile communications is a digital cellular communications system. It was developed in order to create a common European mobile telephone standard but it has been rapidly accepted worldwide. GSM was designed to be compatible with ISDN services.
1.1 History of the cellular mobile radio and GSM
The idea of cell-based mobile radio systems appeared at Bell Laboratories (in USA) in the early 1970s. However, mobile cellular systems were not introduced for commercial use until the 1980s. During the early 1980s, analog cellular telephone systems experienced a very rapid growth in Europe, particularly in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom. Today cellular systems still represent one of the fastest growing telecommunications systems. But in the beginnings of cellular systems, each country developed its own system, which was an undesirable situation for the following reasons: The equipment was limited to operate only within the boundaries of each country. The market for each mobile equipment was limited.
In order to overcome these problems, the Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications (CEPT) formed, in 1982, the Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) in order to develop a pan-European mobile cellular radio system (the GSM acronym became later the acronym for Global System for Mobile communications). The standardized system had to meet certain criterias: Spectrum efficiency International roaming Low mobile and base stations costs Good subjective voice quality Compatibility with other systems such as ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) Ability to support new services
Unlike the existing cellular systems, which were developed using an analog technology, the GSM system was developed using a digital technology. The reasons for this choice are explained in section 3
In 1989 the responsibility for the GSM specifications passed from the CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The aim of the GSM specifications is to describe the functionality and the interface for each component of the system, and to provide guidance on the design of the system. These specifications will then standardize the system in order to guarantee the proper interworking between the different elements of the GSM system. In 1990, the phase I of the GSM specifications were published but the commercial use of GSM did not start until mid1991. The most important events in the development of the GSM system are presented in the table 1 Year 1982 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Events CEPT establishes a GSM group in order to develop the standards for a panEuropean cellular mobile system Adoption of a list of recommendations to be generated by the group Field tests were performed in order to test the different radio techniques proposed for the air interface TDMA is chosen as access method (in fact, it will be used with FDMA) Initial Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed by telecommunication operators (representing 12 countries) Validation of the GSM system The responsibility of the GSM specifications is passed to the ETSI Appearance of the phase 1 of the GSM specifications Commercial launch of the GSM service Enlargement of the countries that signed the GSM- MoU> Coverage of larger cities/airports Coverage of main roads GSM services start outside Europe Phase 2 of the GSM specifications Coverage of rural areas Table 1: Events in the development of GSM From the evolution of GSM, it is clear that GSM is not anymore only a European standard. GSM networks are operational or planned in over 80 countries around the world. The rapid and increasing acceptance of the GSM system is illustrated with the following figures: 1.3 million GSM subscribers worldwide in the beginning of 1994. Over 5 million GSM subscribers worldwide in the beginning of 1995.
Over 10 million GSM subscribers only in Europe by December 1995. Since the appearance of GSM, other digital mobile systems have been developed. The table 2 charts the different mobile cellular systems developed since the commercial launch of cellular systems. Mobile Cellular System Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT), 450> American Mobile Phone System (AMPS) Total Access Communication System (TACS) Radio COM 2000 C-Netz Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT), 900> Global System for Mobile communications> North American Digital Cellular (NADC) Digital Cellular System (DCS) 1800 Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) or Japanese Digital Cellular (JDC) Personal Communications Systems (PCS) 1900- Canada> PCS-United States of America> Table 2: Mobile cellular system
Year 1981 1983 1985 1986 1991 1992 1994 1995 1996
a. Common radio spectrum in all countries b. Integrated European system with international roaming c. Create large single market d. Increase available cellular radio capacity e. Better security functions f. Accommodate new services
a. GSM is mature; this maturity means a more stable network with robust features. b. Less signal deterioration inside buildings. c. Ability to use repeaters. d. Talktime is generally higher in GSM phones due to the nature of transmission. e. The availability of Subscriber Identity Modules allows users to switch networks. f. GSM covers virtually all parts of the world so roaming is not a problem.
a. Pulse nature of TDMA transmission used in 2G interferes with some electronics, especially certain audio amplifiers. b. Intellectual property is concentrated among a few industry participants, creating barriers to entry for new entrants and competition among phone manufacturers. c. GSM has a fixed maximum cell site range of 35 km, imposed by technical limit.
5 to 3 times the diameter of a cell is reserved between transmitters. The frequency reuse will increase considerably the capacity in number of users. Frequencies used in a cell will be reused several cells away. A cell corresponds to the covering area of one transmitter or a small collection of transmitters. and radio frequency is handed-over by one cell to another without interrupting a call. As a receiver(cell phone) moves from one place to the next. location. The size of a cell is determined by the transmitter's power. the covering area of an operator is divided into cells. its identity. the frequencies must be reused only within a certain pattern. several radio channels are reserved for the signaling information. In order to exchange the information needed to maintain the communication links within the cellular network. 5 . 2. if the transmitters used are very powerful. The distance between the cells using the same frequency must be sufficient to avoid interference. The whole number of radio channels available can then be used in each group of cells that form the covering area of an operator. The frequency band allocated to a cellular mobile radio system is distributed over a group of cells and this distribution is repeated in all the covering area of an operator. In fact. Neighboring cells can not share the same channels. The receiver filters must also be very per formant.CELLULAR SYSTEM Wireless communication technology in which several small exchanges(called cells) equipped with low-power radio antennas (strategically located over a wide geographical area) are interconnected through a central exchange. In order to work properly. the frequencies cannot be reused for hundred of kilometers as they are limited to the covering area of the transmitter. The concept of cellular systems is the use of low power transmitters in order to enable the efficient reuse of the frequencies. The interference will not produce any damage to the system if a distance of about 2. a cellular system must verify the following two main conditions: The power level of a transmitter within a single cell must be limited in order to reduce the interference with the transmitters of neighboring cells. In order to reduce the interference.1 The cellular structure In a cellular system.2.
12 or 21 cells. This interference is produced by the small size of the clusters (the size of the cluster is defined by the number of cells per cluster).2 Cluster The cells are grouped into clusters. 2. These cells are called selective cells. the concept of umbrella cells is introduced. The smaller the number of cells per cluster is. Microcells These cells are used for densely populated areas. By splitting the existing areas into smaller cells.3 Types of cells The density of population in a country is so varied that different types of cells are used: Macro cells Micro cells Selective cells Umbrella cells Macrocells The macrocells are large cells for remote and sparsely populated areas. The number of cells in a cluster must be determined so that the cluster can be repeated continuously within the covering area of an operator. Selective cells It is not always useful to define a cell with a full coverage of 360 degrees. the bigger the number of channels per cell will be. However a balance must be found in order to avoid the interference that could occur between neighboring clusters. In order to solve this problem. Umbrella cells A freeway crossing very small cells produces an important number of handovers among the different small neighboring cells. The capacity of each cell will be therefore increased. The number of cells in each cluster is very important. 6 . The typical clusters contain 4. In some cases. cells with a particular shape and coverage are needed.2. The total number of channels per cell depends on the number of available channels and the type of cluster used. 7. the number of channels available is increased as well as the capacity of the cells.
cellular systems have experienced a very important growth. The ISDN network is an example of this evolution. the best option (but not the perfect one) to handle the capacity needs in a cost-efficiency way. 3. multipath reception. new frequency bands and new technologies were proposed. it was decide that the digital technology was the best option. 7 . During the development of GSM. hisses. On the other hand. the telecommunications industry converted to digital methods. In order to overcome this problem. other frequency bands have been allocated for the development of mobile cellular radio). ANALOG TO DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY In the 1980s most mobile cellular systems were based on analog systems. digital systems avoid these effects transforming the signal into bits. crosstalks. The improvement of digital systems comparing to analog systems is more noticeable under difficult reception conditions than under good reception conditions. The different reasons that explain this transition from analog to digital technology are presented in this section. therefore. analog systems pass the physical disturbances in radio transmission (such as fades. In fact. 3.2 Compatibility with other systems such as ISDN The decision of adopting a digital technology for GSM was made in the course of developing the standard. spurious signals or interferences) to the receiver. The digital radio was.3 Aspects of quality The quality of the service can be considerably improved using a digital technology rather than an analog one. These disturbances decrease the quality of the communication because they produce effects such as fadeouts. etc.1 The capacity of the system As it is explained in section 1. The new analog technologies proposed were able to overcome the problem to a certain degree but the costs were too important. 3. But the possibility of using new frequency bands was rejected by a big number of countries because of the restricted spectrum (even if later on.3. In order to make GSM compatible with the services offered by ISDN. The GSM system can be considered as the first digital cellular system.a digital system allows. Additionally.the implementation of future improvements and the change of its own characteristics. easily than an analog one. Analog systems were not able to cope with this increasing demand.
Every now and gain. 4. The Base Station Subsystem (BSS). so named because it covers a certain range within a Discrete area(cell). the MSC sends a message back to the phone via the network of BSs that indicates that you¶re allowed to access the network. The MSC also contains a critical component called the Home Location Register (HLR) which provides the administrative information required to authenticate.THE GSM NETWORK GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) uses a series of radio transmitters called Base Stations (BS) to connect you and your cell phone to your cellular network. a process called Polling. it will first check the HLR to see where you are. Each BS is also termed a cell. The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS). the HLR also registers which BS your cellphone is currently connected to.4.1 Architecture of the GSM network The GSM technical specifications define the different entities that form the GSM network by defining their functions and interface requirements. 8 . The GSM network can be divided into four main parts: The Mobile Station (MS). If your subscription is current. The entire log-on process usually takes only a couple of seconds. The name or code of that network will appear on the LCD screen of the cellphone. The MSC also routes all your incoming and outgoing calls to and from the fixedline networks or other cellular networks. Once this network "name" message appears on your phone¶s LCD screen. the cellphone will send a message to the network indicating where it is. Once it¶s received your log-on request. The Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS). register and locate you as a that network's subscriber. the HLR immediately checks the special "signature" contained in the request against it¶s special subscriber database.At the same time. so that when the network¶s MSC needs to route an incoming call to your cellphone number. it means you¶re connected to the network and able to make and receive calls.
Gener al ar chit e ct ur e of a GSM net wor k HLR Home Location Register BTS Base Transceiver Station PSTN Public Switched Telecomm Network ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network MS Mobile Station EIR Equipment Identity Register 9 .Architecture of the GSM network Figur e 1.
The Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).1. Their maximum allowed output power is 8W.1. 4.1. Wit hou t t he S I M card. Their maximum allowed output power is 20 W. By inser t ing t he S I M card int o t he t er minal. which are continuously decreasing.1 The Terminal There are different types of terminals distinguished principally by their power and application: The `fixed' terminals are the ones installed in cars.1.1 Mobile Station A Mobile Station consists of two main elements: The mobile equipment or terminal. 10 .2 The S I M The S I M is a s mar t c ard t hat i de nt if ies t he t er minal. The handhelds terminals have experienced the biggest success thanks to their weight and volume. t he t er minal is not oper at ional.4. f igure2 : MOBI LE S TATI ON 4. t he u ser can have access t o all t he subscribed ser vice s. These terminals can emit upto 2 W.1. The GSM portable terminals can also be installed in vehicles.
3382. 8 = Amount o f Me mor y 57 = Mont h o f Manu fact ure . TRAU 4. A BTS is usually placed in the center of a cell. 47 = Net wor k code (NC).. 23 = Count r y Code (CC).2.The S I M car d is pr ot ect ed by a f our-digit Per sonal I de nt if icat ion Numb er (PI N).1.Descr ipt ion o f eac h No. The BSS can be divided into two parts: The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) or Base Station. t he S I M car d cont ains some par amet er s o f t he u ser such as it s I nt er nat ional Mobile S u bscriber I dent it y (I MS I ). The Base Station Controller (BSC). = Running Serial F igure3: sim 4. 2 = S I M Ve nder I de nt if icat ion. Number on t he S I M card Known as I nt egr at ed Cir cuit Car d I dent it y Number (I CCI D).2 Base Station Subsystem The BSS connects the Mobile Station and the NSS. It is in charge of the transmission and reception. I n o rder t o ide nt if y t he su bscriber t o t he s yst e m.1 Base Transceiver Station The BTS corresponds to the transceivers and antennas used in each cell of the network.1. 11 . is give n be low: F1 = S I M De signat or . Its transmitting power defines the size of a cell.
It is able to compress speech from 64 Kbps to 16 Kbps. exchange functions and control of the radio frequency power levels of the BTSs.Figure 4:BTS 4.3 TRAU ( Transcoder Rate Adaptation Unit) One of the most interesting functions in GSM involves the TRAU. The task of the TRAU is to compress or decompress speech between the MS and the TRAU.2.2. A BSC is principally in charge of handovers. in the case of a full rate channel (net bit rate with full rate is 13 Kbps) and to 8 Kbps in the case of a half rate channel (net bit rate with half rate is 6. Note that the TRAU is not used for data connections.1. 4.5 Kbps).1. which typically is located between the BSC and the MSC. 12 .2 Base Station Controller The BSC controls a group of BTS and manages their radio resources. The used method is called regular pulse excitation±long term prediction (RPE-LTP). frequency hopping.
Figure 6: TRANSCODER RATE ADAPTI ON UNI T 4.3 Network and Switching Subsystem Its main role is to manage the communications between the mobile users and other users.3. fixed telephony users.1. such as mobile users. The GMSC is often implemented in the same machines as the MSC.1. 4. It also provides connection to other networks. 4. The MSC performs the switching functions of the network.1. It also stores the current location of these subscribers and the services to which they have access. 4.1 Mobile services Switching Center (MSC) It is the central component of the NSS.2 Gateway Mobile services Switching Center (GMSC) A gateway is a node interconnecting two networks. 13 .3 Home Location Register (HLR) The HLR is considered as a very important database that stores information of the subscribers belonging to the covering area of a MSC. It is in charge of routing calls from the fixed network towards a GSM user. etc.1. ISDN users.3.3. The location of the subscriber corresponds to the SS7 address of the Visitor Location Register(VLR) associated to the terminal. The GMSC is the interface between the mobile cellular network and the PSTN. It also includes data bases needed in order to store information about the subscribers and to manage their mobility. The different components of the NSS are described below.
4. the transmission of speech and data can be alternated.1.5 Authentication Center (AuC) The AuC register is used for security purposes. the increasing number of base stations.1.1. It is also in charge of controlling the traffic load of the BSS. has provoked that some of the maintenance tasks are transferred to the BTS. During these communications.4 Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) The OSS is connected to the different components of the NSS and to the BSC. When a subscriber enters the covering area of a new MSC.4.4 Visitor Location Register (VLR) The VLR contains information from a subscriber's HLR necessary in order to provide the subscribed services to visiting users. so the area under control of the MSC is also the area under control of the VLR.6 Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The EIR is also used for security purposes. 4.3. the VLR associated to this MSC will request information about the new subscriber to its corresponding HLR. More particularly.1. it contains a list of all valid terminals.1. in order to control and monitor the GSM system.2 Geographical areas of the GSM network The GSM network is made up of geographic areas. The VLR will then have enough information in order to assure the subscribed services without needing to ask the HLR each time a communication is established. As shown in Figure 8 these 14 . 4. 4.3. It is a register containing information about the mobile equipments.7 GSM Interworking Unit (GIWU) The GIWU corresponds to an interface to various networks for data communications. The VLR is always implemented together with a MSC. 4. However.3. It provides the parameters needed for authentication and encryption functions. This transfer decreases considerably the costs of the maintenance of the system. These parameters help to verify the user's identity. A terminal is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). due to the development of cellular radio networks.3.
yet only by a single MSC (see Figure 8). location areas (LAs). Each LA is served by one or more base station controllers. MSC/VLR service areas. The GSM network identifies each cell via the cell global identity (CGI) number assigned to each cell. Each LA is assigned a location area identity (LAI) number. as it is registered in the VLR of the MSC (see Figure 9). Figure 7: GSM net wor k ar eas The cell is the area given radio coverage by one base transceiver station. The location area is a group of cells. It is the area in which the subscriber is paged. 15 .areas include cells. and public land mobile network (PLMN) areas. Figure 8: Location Areas An MSC/VLR service area represents the part of the GSM network that is covered by one MSC and which is reachable.
16 .1 Transmission The transmission function includes two subfunctions: The first one is related to the means needed for the transmission of user information. Mobility Management (MM). five main functions can be defined: Transmission. Operation. 4.3.3 GSM functions In this paragraph. the description of the GSM network is focused on the differents functions to fulfil by the network and not on its physical components. In GSM. Figure 10: PLMN Network Areas 4.Figure 9: MSC/VLR Service Areas The PLMN service area is an area served by one network operator (see Figure 10). Radio Resources management (RR). Communication Management (CM). Administration and Maintenance (OAM). The second one is related to the means needed for the trasnmission of signaling information.
specially when the quality of the communication is decreasing.2 Handover The user movements can produce the need to change the channel or cell.3. The list of cells that must be monitored by the mobile station is given by the base station. The power measurements allow to decide which is the best cell in order to maintain the quality of the communication link. 17 . the mobile station controls continuously its own signal strengh and the signal strengh of the neighboring cells. 4. The mobile station and the AuC compute a SRES using the secret key. Handover of cells controlled by different MSCs. Two basic algorithms are used for the handover: The `minimum acceptable performance' algorithm. the MSC is only notified of the handover). This is done until the increase of the power level has no effect on the quality of the signal. Handover of cells belonging to the same MSC but controlled by different BSCs. the power level of the mobile is increased.3. The mobile station is the active participant in this procedure. the first two types of handovers are managed by the concerned BSC (in this case.3 Mobility Management The MM function is in charge of all the aspects related with the mobility of the user. Four different types of handovers can be distinguished: Handover of channels in the same cell. 4. In order to perform the handover. When the quality of the transmission decreases (i. This procedure of changing the resources is called handover. The `power budget' algorithm.e the signal is deteriorated).4. instead of continuously increasing the power level. When this happens. and a ciphering algorithm called A3 are used in order to verify the authenticity of the user. stored in the SIM card and the AuC. the algorithm A3 and a random number generated by the AuC. Handovers are mainly controlled by the MSC.3. specially the location management and the authentication and security. This algorithm performs a handover. in order to obtain a good communication quality.1 Authentication and security The authentication procedure involves the SIM card and the Authentication Center. However in order to avoid unnecessary signalling information.3. a handover is performed. Handover of cells controlled by the same BSC. A secret key.
One of the most important functions of the CC is the call routing.126.96.36.199. 4. The HLR requests this information from the subscriber's current VLR.3 Short Message Services management In order to support these services. Short Message Services management. Enciphering is another option to guarantee a very strong security but this procedure is going to be described in section 5. The GMSC asks the HLR for information helping to the call routing.4.3. 4. 4.4.Another security procedure is to check the equipment identity. Supplementary Services management. the mobile station is allowed to connect the network. a user dials the Mobile Subscriber ISDN (MSISDN) number which includes: a country code a national destination code identifying the subscriber's operator a code corresponding to the subscriber's HLR The call is then passed to the GMSC (if the call is originated from a fixed network) which knows the HLR corresponding to a certain MISDN number. 4. a GSM network is in contact with a Short Message 18 .3. The different Supplementary Services (SS) to which the users have access are presented in section 6.1 Call Control (CC) The CC is responsible for call establishing. In order to reach a mobile subscriber.4 Communication Management (CM) The CM function is responsible for: Call control.2 Supplementary Services management The mobile station and the HLR are the only components of the GSM network involved with this function. maintaining and releasing as well as for selecting the type of service. This VLR allocates temporarily a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) for the call. the user is registered with a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) after its first location update procedure. In order to assure user confidentiality. If the IMEI number of the mobile is authorized in the EIR.
also contribute to the OAM functions. It has the same role as the GMSC. Administration and Maintenance (OAM) The OAM function allows the operator to monitor and control the system as well as to modify the configuration of the elements of the system.4 Operation. The self test tasks.Service Center through the two following interfaces: The SMS-GMSC for Mobile Terminating Short Messages (SMS-MT/PP). This information is then passed to the OSS which is in charge of analize it and control the network. 4. usually incorporated in the components of the BSS and NSS. also the BSS and NSS participate in its functions as it is shown in the following examples: The components of the BSS and NSS provide the operator with all the information it needs. in charge of controlling several BTSs. 19 . is another example of an OAM function performed outside the OSS. Not only the OSS is part of the OAM. The BSC. The SMS-IWMSC for Mobile Originating Short Messages (SMS-MO/PP).
The band 1805-1880 MHz has been allocated for the downlink direction(transmitting from the base station to the mobile station).5. have been allocated for the GSM system: The band 890-915 MHz has been allocated for the uplink direction (transmitting from the mobile station to the base station).2 Multiple access schemes 20 . This is due principally to military reasons and to the existence of previous analog systems using part of the two 25 Mhz frequency bands. in order to obtain a complete compatibility between mobile stations and networks of different manufacturers and operators. Two frequency bands. Total 50 channels for communication. of 75 MHz each one. so 1800 band introduced. 5. The spectrum eficiency depends on the radio interface and the transmission. It is one of the most important interfaces of the GSM system. THE GSM RADIO INTERFACE The radio interface is the interface between the mobile stations and the fixed infrastructure. The above band is not sufficient for all the operators. have been allocated for the GSM system: The band 1710-1785 MHz has been allocated for the uplink direction(transmitting from the mobile station to the base station).1 Frequency allocation Two frequency bands. But not all the countries can use the whole GSM frequency bands. In 900 band Airtel has 40 channels. Therefore. the radio interface must be completely defined. One of the main objectives of GSM is roaming. 5. more particularly in aspects such as the capacity of the system and the techniques used in order to decrease the interference and to improve the frequency reuse scheme. of 25 MHz each one. The specification of the radio interface has then an important influence on the spectrum efficiency. The band 935-960 MHz has been allocated for the downlink direction(transmitting from the base station to the mobile station). In 1800 band Airtel has 10 channels.
615 ms. The 26-Multiframe lasts consequently 120 ms. Each carrier frequency is then divided in time using a TDMA scheme.2. combined with frequency hopping.In GSM.2. share the GSM radio spectrum. It is defined by its frequency and the position of its corresponding burst within a TDMA frame. in this 26. and it lasts approximately 0.2 Channel structure A channel corresponds to the recurrence of one burst every frame. The control channels used for network management messages and some channel maintenance tasks. the traffic channels for the downlink and uplink are separated by 3 bursts.2. are then assigned to a single user. that form a TDMA frame. consequently.1 Traffic channels (TCH) Full-rate traffic channels (TCH/F) are defined using a group of 26 TDMA frames called a 26-Multiframe. In GSM there are two types of channels: The traffic channels used to transport speech and data information. explain why the number of users in a FDMA system can be "quickly" limited. The limited available radio spectrum and the fact that a user will not free its assigned frequency until he does not need it anymore. a 25 MHz frequency band is divided. A mix of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). 5.2. 4. A TDMA frame is formed with 8 bursts and lasts.The multiple access scheme defines how different simultaneous communications.Multiframe structure. the larger the number of available frequencies must be. has been adopted as the multiple access scheme for GSM 5. using a FDMA scheme. a frequency is assigned to a user. So the larger the number of users in a FDMA system.2 Control channels 21 .2. into 8 bursts. 5. between different mobile stations situated in different cells.577 ms. with a width of 200 kHz. 5. This scheme splits the radio channel. into 124 carrier frequencies spaced one from each other by a 200 kHz frequency band.1 FDMA and TDMA Using FDMA. Normally a 25MHz frequency band can provide 125 carrier frequencies but the first carrier frequency is used as a guard band between GSM and other services working on lower frequencies.A burst is the unit of time in a TDMA system.2. Each of the eight bursts.
The normal burst is used to carry speech or data information.25 bits. 5. the burst is the unit in time of a TDMA system. which gives to the mobile station the training sequence needed in order to demodulate the information transmitted by the base station The Frequency-Correction Channel (FCCH).3 Broadcast channels (BCH) The base station. The random access burst is used on the RACH and is shorter than the normal burst. which gives to the mobile station the parameters needed in order to identify and access the network The Synchronization Channel (SCH). Its structure is presented in figure 6. It has the same length as the normal burst but a different structure. which supplies the mobile station with the frequency reference of the system in order to synchronize it with the network.577 ms and has a length of 156. four different classes of control channels are defined: Broadcast channels.3 Burst structure As it has been stated before. It has the same length as the normal burst but a different structure.2. It lasts approximately 0.Three different types of BCHs can be distinguished: The Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH).2. Associated control channels. Dedicated control channels. The synchronization burst is used on the SCH. to provide the mobile station with the sufficient information it needs to synchronize with the network. Four different types of bursts can be distinguished in GSM: The frequency-correction burst is used on the FCCH.According to their functions. Common control channels.2. uses the BCH channels. 22 . 5.
the slow frequency hopping is introduced. is used to avoid a possible overlap of two mobiles during the ramping time. a mobile station has to accept frequency hopping when a base station decides to use it. a base station does not have to support it necessarily On the other hand. t he TDMA f r ame and t he nor mal burst The tail bits (T) are a group of three bits set to zero and placed at the beginning and the end of a burst.4 Frequency hopping The propagation conditions and therefore the multipath fading depend on the radio frequency. The coded data bit corresponds to two groups. with a length of 8. of 57 bits each. The slow frequency hopping changes the frequency with every TDMA frame. Even if frequency hopping can be very useful for the system.Figure 11: S t r uct ure o f t he 26 -Mult if r ame.25 bits. 5. The frequency hopping also reduces the effects of co-channel interference. In order to avoid important differences in the quality of the channels. They are used to cover the periods of ramping up and down of the mobile's power. A fast frequency hopping changes the many times per frame but it is not used in GSM. 23 . The algorithm selected is sent through the Broadcast Control Channels. containing signaling or user data.2. There are different types of frequency hopping algorithms. The guard period (GP).
the most important service of a mobile cellular system. at the moment. has to meet the following criteria: A good speech quality. which has a rate of 13 kbps. This code uses the information from previous samples in order to predict the current sample. these blocks are then passed to the speech code. The final choice for the GSM speech code is a code named RPE-LTP (Regular Pulse Excitation Long-Term Prediction). The GSM speech codec. This reduction is essential due to the limited capacity of transmission of a radio channel. at least as good as the one obtained with previous cellular systems.3. The speech codec must not be very complex because complexity is equivalent to high costs. To reduce the redundancy in the sounds of the voice. in order to obtain blocks of 260 bits.5.3 Fr om source inf or mat ion t o r adio wave s The f igu re 4 pr es ent s t he dif f e r e nt ope r at ions t h at have t o be per f or me d in ord er t o pass f r om t he sp eech source t o radio waves and vice ve r sa.The speech signal is divided into blocks of 20 ms.1 Speech coding The transmission of speech is. Figure 12: Fr om speech sou rce t o radio waves 5. which will transform the analog signal (voice) into a digital representation. 24 .
The output of the block code is consequently a block of 244 bits.1 Channel coding for the GSM data TCH channels The channel coding is performed using two codes: a block code and a convolution code. The block code corresponds to the block code defined in the GSM Recommendations 05. is then applied. The convolution code uses 5 consecutive bits in order to compute the redundancy bit. The different classes are coded differently. 5. of the code is defined as follows: R = k/n. which contains 132 bits. A convolution code can be defined by three variables: n. with r = 1/2 and K = 5. Next in importance is the class Ib. The least important is the class II. Three parity bits. The ratio. The most important class is the class Ia containing 50 bits. The value n corresponds to the number of bits at the output of the encoder. k and K. Thirty two bits. 1. The block code receives an input block of 240 bits and adds four zero tail bits at the end of the input block. the class Ia bits are block-coded. the 260 bits of a GSM speech frame are divided in three different classes according to their function and importance. are added to the 50 class Ia bits. errors occurred during the transmission. These 488 bits are punctured in order to produce a block of 456 bits. which means that it will add a redundant bit for each input bit. obtaining an output block of 378 bits.3. if possible. n to 2 and K to 5. Let's consider a convolution code with the following values: k is equal to 1. are not transmitted: C (11 + 15 j) for j = 0.5. A convolutional code. used for error detection. k to the number of bits at the input of the block and K to the memory of the encoder.2. 25 .. R. As the convolution code is a 1/2-rate convolution code.3.03. obtained as follows.The classII bits are added.2 Channel coding Channel coding adds redundancy bits to the original information in order to detect and correct.. which contains the remaining 78 bits. 31 The block of 456 bits produced by the convolution code is then passed to the interleaver.2 Channel coding for the GSM speech channels Before applying the channel coding. This convolution code uses then a rate of R = 1/2 and a delay of K = 5. The resultant 53 bits are added to the class Ib bits. 5.2.A block of 488 bits is generated.3. Four zero bits are added to this block of 185 bits (50+3+132). First of all.
5.3 Channel coding for the GSM control channels In GSM the signaling information is just contained in 184 bits. the receiver has to use the same algorithm A5 for the deciphering procedure.5. Section 5.3 presents the different bursts structures and describes in detail the structure of the normal burst.3 Burst assembling The burst assembling procedure is in charge of grouping the bits into bursts. and four zero bits are added to the 184 bits before applying the convolutional code (r = 1/2 and K = 5).5 Modulation The modulation chosen for the GSM system is the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK).3.2. First of all. a 114 bit sequence is produced using the ciphering key. The output of the convolutional code is then a block of 456 bits.2. This bit sequence is then XORed with the two 57 bit blocks of data included in a normal burst. which does not need to be punctured.3. 5. Secondly.3. Forty parity bits.3. the subscriber key and a random number delivered by the network (this random number is the same as the one used for the authentication procedure). In order to decipher correctly. obtained using a fire code. a ciphering key is computed using the algorithm A8 stored on the SIM card. Figure 13: GMSK modulat or 26 . 5. an algorithm called A5 and the burst numbers.4 Ciphering Ciphering is used to protect signaling and user data.
The GMSK modulation has been chosen as a compromise between spectrum efficiency. a total silence is heard at the receiver. 5. This can be very annoying to the user at the reception because it seems that the connection is dead. the base station tells. on their distance. Mobiles are at different distances from the base stations. complexity and low spurious radiations (that reduce the possibilities of adjacent channel interference). Figure 5 presents the principle of a GMSK modulator. The function of the DTX is to suspend the radio transmission during the silence periods. This can become quite interesting if we take into consideration the fact that a person speaks less than 40 or 50 percent during a conversation. only brief aspects of the GMSK modulation are presented in this section. It also extends the life of a mobile's battery. the transmitter is turned off producing then. The DTX function is performed thanks to two main features: The Voice Activity Detection (VAD). If the bursts corresponding to a mobile station arrive too late and overlap with other bursts. even if the background noise is very important. The base station measures the timing delay of the mobile stations. The GMSK modulation has a rate of 270 5/6 kbauds and a BT product equal to 0. the transmitter is turned off and therefore.5 Timing advance The timing of the bursts transmissions is very important. The comfort noise. the receiver creates a minimum of background noise called comfort noise. an unpleasant effect called clipping. Their delay depends.3. 27 . In order to overcome this problem. 5. The DTX helps then to reduce interference between different cells and to increase the capacity of the system. Therefore. The aim of the timing advance is that the signals coming from the different mobile stations arrive to the base station at the right time. which has to determine whether the sound represents speech or noise. this mobile. An inconvenient of the DTX function is that when the signal is considered as noise. to advance the transmission of its bursts. If the voice signal is considered as noise. consequently.The aim of this section is not to describe precisely the GMSK modulation as it is too long and it implies the presentation of too many mathematical concepts.4 Discontinuous transmission (DTX) This is another aspect of GSM that could have been included as one of the requirements of the GSM speech codec. The comfort noise eliminates the impression that the connection is dead.
5.7 Discontinuous reception It is a method used to conserve the mobile station's power. If the mobile station does not receive correctly the signal. The mobile station measures the strength and the quality of the signal between itself and the base station. The paging channel is divided into sub channels corresponding to single mobile stations. 28 . the base station changes its power le ve l. they also perform measurements on the power level of the different mobile stations.5. A base station also controls its power level. These power levels are adjusted so that the power is nearly the same for each burst. Each mobile station will then only 'listen' to its sub channel and will stay in the sleep mode during the other sub channels of the paging channel.6 Power control At the same time the base stations perform the timing measurements.
a message of a maximum of 93 characters can be broadcast to all mobiles in a certain geographical area. a message of a maximum of 160 alphanumeric characters can be sent to or from a mobile station. -Facsmile group 3(E1).6. 6. Eh: introduced on availability of half-rate channels.Teletex . Using these services.Voice mail. A: these services are optional. . the subscriber can receive fax messages at any fax machine. E2: introduced at the end of 1991. Supplementary Services. The GSM Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) defined four classes for the introduction of the different GSM services: E1: introduced at the start of the service. 29 .Short Message Services (E1. . the mobile is powered off. . -Emergencycalls(E1®Eh). Bearer services. With the SMS Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB). GSM SERVICES It is important to note that all the GSM services were not introduced since the appearance of GSM but they have been introduced in a regular way.1 Teleservices -Telephony(E1® Eh). A). This service corresponds to an answering machine. Thanks to this service. E2. Three categories of services can be distinguished: Teleservices. the message is stored.Fax mail.
Connected Line identification Presentation.Closed User Group. Call forwarding can also be applied unconditionally (CFU). BAIC (E1) Barring of incoming calls when roaming (A).3 Supplementary Services . BOIC (E1). 300-9600 bps (E1). . AoC (E2). The subscriber can forward incoming calls to another number if the called mobile is busy (CFB). Barring of Outgoing International Calls. CLR (A). 30 . It enables the calling user to restrict the presentation. Barring of All Incoming Calls. . There are different types of `call barring' services: Barring of All Outgoing Calls.2 Bearer services A bearer service is used for transporting user data. Possibility of establishing a multiparty conversation. . Puts an active call on hold. Some of the bearer services are listed below: Asynchronous and synchronous data. It supplies the called user with the ISDN of the calling user. . during a conversation. 300-9600 bps (E1) Asynchronous packet-switched assembler access. unreachable (CFNRc) or if there is no reply (CFNRy). CW (E2).Calling Line Identification Presentation. It supplies the calling user with the directory number he gets if his call is forwarded. 6.Advice of Charge. BOIC-exHC (E1). CUG (A).Call Forwarding (E1). It enables the called user to restrict the presentation. . CLIR (A). CLP (A). Provides the user with online charge information. Alternate speech and data.Call Waiting. 2400-9600 bps (E2). .Call hold (E2). Informs the user. BAOC (E1). Barring of Outgoing International Calls. about another incoming call.300-9600 bps (E1) Synchronous dedicated packet data access. .Call Barring. . .6.Calling Line Identification Restriction. CLIP (A). .Connected Line identification Restriction. It corresponds to a group of users with limited possibilities of calling (only the people of the group and certain numbers).Multiparty service (E2).
Omni cell A cell with an omni-directional BTS antenna system. Sector cell A cell with uni-directional BTS antenna system. Figure 15:BT S with antennas 31 . 3-Sector site A site with equipment for three sector cells. Site The geographical location where the RBS(radio base station subsystem)equipment is stored and the BTS antennas are mounted .7. Cell The area that is covered from a BTS.CELL PLANNING Radio coverage Received signal strength in the mobile station from BTS above a chosen value .
we obtain a straight line. i. 32 .1 The hexagon cell shape If we have two BTSs with omni-antennas and we require that the border between the coverage areas of each BTS is a set of points where the signal strength from both BTSs is same. the cell has a hexagonal shape see figure 16: The hexagon becomes the symbol of cells in radio network. Still the first geometrical plan based on hexagons (the nominal cell plan) gives a good view of planning of system.e. If we repeat the procedure placing 5 more BTSs around the original one. the obtained coverage area.7. Real-world planning must however. consider the fact that radio propagation is very much dependent on the terrain and that hexagons are extremely simplified models of radio coverage patterns.
7. It is used when wanting to find out the third factor.1 Traffic calculations The input for the traffic is mentioned above.The erlang table is used for calculating the traffic. The output should be information about how many sites and cells are needed.3 Traffic and coverage analysis The cell planning process starts with some sort of traffic and coverage analysis. and the expected capacity (traffic load). normally the value for GOS is between 2% and 5%.Available number of frequencies per cell can be decided when knowing which cell pattern should be used (see cell pattern figures fig: 19 & 20). GOS is defined as allowed percentage of unsuccessful call set-ups due to congestion. CME 20 system) is needed .3. for example by operator. when knowing two of the three factors: number of traffic channels.000 Number of available frequencies=24 Cell pattern= 4/12(12 frequency groups) GOS = 2% How many 3-Sectors-sites needed? Frequencies per cell=24/12=2 frequencies Traffic channels per cell= 2*8-2(CCH) =14 TCH 33 . traffic (in erlangs). the available number of frequencies per cell.Then.In order be able to decide this. as well as the GOS (Grade of service). as below: Where: n= number of calls per hour T=average conversation time A= offered traffic from one of several users in the system If n=1 and T=90s: A=1*90/3600=25mE Example of traffic calculation Indata: Traffic per subscriber =25mE Number of subscribers=10. the total number of available frequencies are evenly divided into frequency groups.The analysis should also produce information about the geographical area of interest. 7. have to be known. and GOS Traffic per subscriber is calculated with the erlang formula. showing that a cellular network (in our case.
4/12 and 3/9. The cell pattern and frequency plan are worked out not only for initial network but also for successive growth phases. The antenna pointing azimuths of the cells are separated by 120 degrees and the cells are arranged with antennas pointing at one of the nearest site location thus forming cells in 34 .4 Frequencies re-use Based on traffic calculations.000/328 = 30 cells Needed number of 3-sector-sites = 30/3 = 10 7.025E = 328 subscribers per cell Needed number of cells = 10. F.4.5 Cell patterns The distribution of the C/I ratio desired in a system determines the number of frequency groups. a smaller number of frequency groups (F) would result in more channels per set and per cell.8.2 E/cell (From the erlang table) Subscribers per cell=8. If the total allocation of N channels is partitioned into F groups. which may be used. 7.2E/0.1 Interference A fundamental principle in the design of cellular systems is the frequencies re-use patterns. An initial network must be planned to adapt smoothly to demands of traffic growth. 7. The growth of traffic demand is an important input for network planning. Traffic per cell=14 TCH. 2%GOS . These areas must be separated from one another by a sufficient distance so that any co-channel or adjacent channel interference that may be encountered is not objectionable. Since the total number of channels (N) is fixed. To avoid the expensive re-engineering of the system the network must be designed from the beginning to accommodate the growth. Only 4/12 and 3/9 are interesting for CME 20. Frequency re-use is defined as the radio channels on the same carrier frequency covering geographically different areas. Ericsson uses three types of frequency re-use patterns 7/12. then each group will contain N/F channels. In all three cases the site geometry has following features: Three cells (sectors)at each site. It is only when the system has matured to many thousands of subscribers within one single city area that the problems of the re-using frequencies to increase system capacity arise.
cloverleaf fashion. The cell radius R (= side of hexagon) is always one-third of site-to-site distance when 3-sectors sites are used. A group of neighboring cells using all the channels in the system. according to the patterns described below is called a cluster. See fig 22. Example of how to divide the available frequencies into frequency groups: 24 f r eque nc ie s in 3/ 9 cell pat t er n Frequency gr oups Channels A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3 1 10 20 2 11 21 3 12 22 4 13 23 5 15 24 6 16 7 17 8 18 9 19 35 . The cell size is normally given in terms of the distance b/w two neighboring sites. The 4/12 cell pattern uses 12 frequency groups in a 4 site re-use pattern. The 3/9cell pattern uses 9 frequency groups in a 3 site re-use pattern. See fig21. Each cell approximates the shape of hexagon We assume that the traffic is homogenously distributed within the cells. Each cell uses one 60-degree transmitting antenna and two 60-degree diversity receiving antennas with the same pointing azimuths. but not reusing them.
Figur e 2 0 : 4 / 12 cell pa t t er n Figur e 2 1 : 3/ 9 cell pa t t er n 36 .
37 .r. Land usage factors that identify different type of surfaces.6 Nominal plan Having come this far in the cell planning process. The theoretical predictions are supplemented with measurements which are used to optimize the parameters in the propagation model. as a second theoretical analysis step. the proposed site location should be changed or measured w. This is a theoretical first cell plan. it is time to produce the nominal plan. it should be analyzed with a ³C/R (carrier-to-reflection ratio) prediction´ tool. but as described above. a nominal cell plan. Such planning needs powerful measurement facilities and CAD analysis tools for radio propagation studies.7. a lot of work lies behind it. which is produced without the help of advanced planning tools or computers. If there are doubts about the risks of time dispersion. is included in tenders. together with one or two examples of coverage predictions. Quite often. 7. Ericsson¶s planning tool EET (Ericsson Engineering Tool) includes the prediction package capable of Coverage prediction Composite coverage synthesis Co. The Ericsson concept to establish an interactive relationship b/w survey measurements and theoretical propagation models.channel interference predictions Adjacent-channel interference predictions The propagation model is an improved version of the well-known Okumura-Hata model and takes also into account: Edge diffractions through the analysis of elevation contours.t time dispersion or.1 Coverage and interference predictions Nominal plans are only a theoretical first basis for further planning successive planning must take into account the radio propagation properties of actual environment. The nominal cell plan looks simply as a cell pattern on the map.6.
and then the signal strength is measured while driving around in the area.Cell Design Data. including antennas Cable runs Power facilities Contract with owner Also. the results from the measurements can be compared with the values the planning tool produces when simulating the same type of transmitter and the Parameters for planning are adjusted to match reality. it is time to produce the final cell plan. 38 .2 Radio measurements Radio measurements are performed to be able to adjust the parameters used in the planning tool to reality.7. this plan is used when installing the system. A test transmitter is mounted. it is time to visit the area of interest 7.7 Site surveys and radio measurements Having produced a nominal cell plan. 7. would be different to the ones to be used in a tropical country. Many issues have to be checked and verified. so that there is no other radio equipment on the site that will cause intermodulation problems or too high buildings (or else) surrounding the possible site. As the name says.9 Final cell plan Now. are run. a document called CDD.such as: Exact location Space for equipment.7. when we know that the predictions run by the planning tool can be trusted. both on coverage and interference. and roughly verified it with coverage and interference predictions.1 Site surveys Site surveys are performed for all proposed site locations.8 Evaluation of measurements Back in the office. 7. for example.New predictions. containing all cell parameters for each cell. the radio environment has to be checked. is filled out. to specific climate and terrain in in the area of interest. Parameters used in Sweden. 7.7. Also.
. 39 . a new traffic and coverage analysis has to be performed. This is called system tuning.10 System tuning Some time after the system has been installed and started up . When adding more and more subscribers. if needed 7. it is time to once again look at how well the system is adjusted to reality.11 System growth Most CME 20 networks that have been installed up till know. have grown significantly. This leads to that we have to ³ start all over again ³ and that: ³The cell planning work never ends´. The tasks included are: Checking that the final cell plan was realized Evaluating possible customer complaints Checking that the network performance is acceptable Changing parameters and performing other measures.7. getting more and more traffic in the network and possibly also wanting to increase the coverage area.
10.8. as in the case of a normal call set up. (B) Mobile Originated SMS. 1. 6. 7. MS establishes a connection to the network. Start ciphering equipment identification. It also provides information about the delivery of the short message. 9. Marking the MS ³active´ in MSC/VLR. which establishes a connection in PSTN to the B-subscriber. Mobile originated SMS transfers a short message submitted by the MS to a service centre. since the connection already exists. 3. Checking if the subscriber has the service ³ Barring of outgoing calls´activated. Data call and sending of a short message are described separately. Sending the B-number (the number to the called subscriber. either by a delivery report or failure report. This is a Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH). The authentication procedure. MS uses Random Access Channel (RACH) to ask for a signaling channel. If B answers. BSC allocates a signaling channel using Access Grant Channel (AGCH). 2. the connection is established. Below is the description of signaling used for voice call setup. (This setup is not performed if the MS is in active mode. 40 . MSC/VLR asks the BSC to allocate an idle TCH. Mobile Originating Call This section describes what happens when a mobile subscriber wants to set up a call. MS sends a call setup request via SDCCH to the MSC/VLR. which are told to activate the TCH. 5.in this case o f PSTN subscriber) 8. This includes: 4. This is forwarded to the BTS and MS. 11. MSC/VLR forwards the B-number to an exchange in the PSTN. Over SDCCH all signaling preceding a call takes place. MOBILE TRAFFIC I. (A) Voice Call.
HLR requests a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) from the serving MSC/VLR. 4. 41 . MSRN identifies the MSC/VLR. If the service is activated. Mobile Terminated Call. The PSTN subscriber keys in the MS¶s telephone number (MSISDN). most likely via PSTN. A connection is established to the Gateway MSC (GMSC). 2.³call forwarding to Cnumber´. The major difference between making a call to a mobile subscriber and making a call to a PSTN is that the location of the mobile subscriber is unknown. Therefore the MS must be located & paged before a connection can be established. 1. the call is rerouted by the GMSC to that number. (A) Voice call Below is the description of the call setup procedure for a call from a PSTN subscriber to a mobile subscriber. The MSISDN is analyzed in the local PSTN exchange. 3. GMSC analyzes MSISDN to find out which HLR the MS is registered in.Figure 23:mobile originated cell II. and queries the HLR for information about how to route the call to the serving MSC/VLR. and determines which MSC/VLR is currently serving the MS. The PSTN exchange knows that this is a call to a GSM subscriber. HLR also checks the service. HLR translates MSISDN into IMSI. whereas the location of the PSTN subscriber is known.
(B) Mobile Terminated SMS. The HLR returns routing information to the SMS-GMSC. SMS-GMSC queries the HLR for routing information. GMSC reroutes the call to the MSC/VLR. MSC/VLR returns the MSRN via HLR to the GMSC. (This step is not performed if the MS is in active mode). directly or via the PSTN. 1. SMS-GMSC reroutes the message to the MSC/VLR.5. or a failure report. Re-transmission can also be ordered. It also provides information about the delivery of the short message. This information is either a delivery report. which confirms the delivery of the message to the recipient.C to a MS. as in the normal call setup case. Figure 24: mobile terminated call 42 . A user sends a message to a SMS-C. 6. MS is paged and a connection is set up between the MS and the network. 3. 6. 5. which informs the originator that the short message was not delivered and the reason why. 2. Mobile Terminated SMS has the capacity to transfer a short message from the SMS. SMS-C sends the message to the SMS-GMSC. 4.
As with any overview. to anyone. whose objective can be stated as the availability of all communication services anytime. and supplementary services. industry. It is a standard that ensures interoperability without stifling competition and innovation among suppliers. The SIM card is a novel approach that implements personal mobility in addition to terminal mobility. by using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) microprocessor technology. that I gave the general flavor of GSM and the philosophy behind its design. however. Telecommunications are evolving towards personal communication networks. many functions of the mobile station can be built on one chipset. and operating in North America).9 GHz (called GSM1900 or PCS1900. not to mention the convenience to people of carrying just one communication terminal anywhere they go.9. by a single identity number and a pocketable communication terminal . and its sibling systems operating at 1. but that is probably the price that must be paid to achieve the level of integrated service and quality offered while subject to the rather severe restrictions imposed by the radio environ 43 . are a first approach at a true personal communication system. the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). and one that has proven a success. showing that international cooperation on such projects between academia. fax. Together with international roaming. regardless of national boundaries. anywhere. The economies of scale created by a unified system are enough to justify its implementation. GSM comes close to fulfilling the requirements for a personal communication system: close enough that it is being used as a basis for the next generation of mobile communication technology in Europe.CONCLUSION In this paper I have tried to give an overview of the GSM system. there are many details missing. and especially one covering a standard 6000 pages long. The GSM system.8 GHz (called DCS1800) and 1. and support for a variety of services such as telephony. and more energy-efficient terminals. I believe. to the benefit of the public both in terms of cost and service quality. GSM is a very complex standard. For example. more compact. Having a multitude of incompatible systems throughout the world moves us farther away from this ideal. and government can succeed. data transfer. Short Message Service. resulting in lighter. It was a monumental task that the original GSM committee undertook.
Data in the GSM cellular network. Artech House. 1993.V. Artech House. y y y y y y I. 2nd Quarter 1993. Scheller. Macario. 1991. Macario. Balston and R. In D. Telcom Report International. 1992. June 1988. Peter Peregrinus. Macario.10. Balston and R. Electrical Communication. June 1988. Griffiths.V. In D. P. Cellular Radio Systems. In EUROCON 88. Balston and R. Cellular Radio Systems. Network aspects of the GSM system. Electrical Communication. 2nd edition.V. 2nd Quarter 1993.V. D. In R. What are GSM and DCS. London. In R. Artech House. GSM base station system. y y 44 . M. Boston. Advanced equipment for an advanced network. GSM network systems and overall system integration. Déchaux and R. 2nd Quarter 1993. Harris. David M. 15(3-4). C. Thomas Haug. London.REFERENCES y Jan A.C. Josef-Franz Huber. Audestad. editors. y y y M. Balston.C. Balston. Peter Peregrinus.V. Personal and Mobile Radio Systems. editor. editors. The pan-European system: GSM. editor. Cellular Radio Systems. Facsimile over cellular radio. John M. The pan-European cellular technology. In EUROCON 88.C. 1993. M.C.C. The pan-European cellular mobile radio system. Boston. Boston. Rissen. editors. David Cheeseman. Chichester. 1991. Macario. Harris. Personal and Mobile Radio Systems. M. I. Electrical Communication. M. Bezler et al. Macario. 1993. John Wiley &Sons. M. ISDN Explained: Worldwide Network and Applications Technology. 1992. In D. Feldmann and J. Overview of the GSM project.
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