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INTRODUCTION
The Global System for Mobile communications is a digital cellular communications system. It was developed in order to create a common European mobile telephone standard but it has been rapidly accepted worldwide. GSM was designed to be compatible with ISDN services.

1.1 History of the cellular mobile radio and GSM
The idea of cell-based mobile radio systems appeared at Bell Laboratories (in USA) in the early 1970s. However, mobile cellular systems were not introduced for commercial use until the 1980s. During the early 1980s, analog cellular telephone systems experienced a very rapid growth in Europe, particularly in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom. Today cellular systems still represent one of the fastest growing telecommunications systems. But in the beginnings of cellular systems, each country developed its own system, which was an undesirable situation for the following reasons: ‡ ‡ The equipment was limited to operate only within the boundaries of each country. The market for each mobile equipment was limited.

In order to overcome these problems, the Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications (CEPT) formed, in 1982, the Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) in order to develop a pan-European mobile cellular radio system (the GSM acronym became later the acronym for Global System for Mobile communications). The standardized system had to meet certain criterias: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Spectrum efficiency International roaming Low mobile and base stations costs Good subjective voice quality Compatibility with other systems such as ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) Ability to support new services

Unlike the existing cellular systems, which were developed using an analog technology, the GSM system was developed using a digital technology. The reasons for this choice are explained in section 3

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In 1989 the responsibility for the GSM specifications passed from the CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The aim of the GSM specifications is to describe the functionality and the interface for each component of the system, and to provide guidance on the design of the system. These specifications will then standardize the system in order to guarantee the proper interworking between the different elements of the GSM system. In 1990, the phase I of the GSM specifications were published but the commercial use of GSM did not start until mid1991. The most important events in the development of the GSM system are presented in the table 1 Year 1982 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Events CEPT establishes a GSM group in order to develop the standards for a panEuropean cellular mobile system Adoption of a list of recommendations to be generated by the group Field tests were performed in order to test the different radio techniques proposed for the air interface TDMA is chosen as access method (in fact, it will be used with FDMA) Initial Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed by telecommunication operators (representing 12 countries) Validation of the GSM system The responsibility of the GSM specifications is passed to the ETSI Appearance of the phase 1 of the GSM specifications Commercial launch of the GSM service Enlargement of the countries that signed the GSM- MoU> Coverage of larger cities/airports Coverage of main roads GSM services start outside Europe Phase 2 of the GSM specifications Coverage of rural areas Table 1: Events in the development of GSM From the evolution of GSM, it is clear that GSM is not anymore only a European standard. GSM networks are operational or planned in over 80 countries around the world. The rapid and increasing acceptance of the GSM system is illustrated with the following figures: ‡ ‡ 1.3 million GSM subscribers worldwide in the beginning of 1994. Over 5 million GSM subscribers worldwide in the beginning of 1995.

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Over 10 million GSM subscribers only in Europe by December 1995. Since the appearance of GSM, other digital mobile systems have been developed. The table 2 charts the different mobile cellular systems developed since the commercial launch of cellular systems. Mobile Cellular System Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT), 450> American Mobile Phone System (AMPS) Total Access Communication System (TACS) Radio COM 2000 C-Netz Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT), 900> Global System for Mobile communications> North American Digital Cellular (NADC) Digital Cellular System (DCS) 1800 Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) or Japanese Digital Cellular (JDC) Personal Communications Systems (PCS) 1900- Canada> PCS-United States of America> Table 2: Mobile cellular system

Year 1981 1983 1985 1986 1991 1992 1994 1995 1996

1.2 Objectives
a. Common radio spectrum in all countries b. Integrated European system with international roaming c. Create large single market d. Increase available cellular radio capacity e. Better security functions f. Accommodate new services

1.3 Advantages
a. GSM is mature; this maturity means a more stable network with robust features. b. Less signal deterioration inside buildings. c. Ability to use repeaters. d. Talktime is generally higher in GSM phones due to the nature of transmission. e. The availability of Subscriber Identity Modules allows users to switch networks. f. GSM covers virtually all parts of the world so roaming is not a problem.

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1.4 Disadvantages
a. Pulse nature of TDMA transmission used in 2G interferes with some electronics, especially certain audio amplifiers. b. Intellectual property is concentrated among a few industry participants, creating barriers to entry for new entrants and competition among phone manufacturers. c. GSM has a fixed maximum cell site range of 35 km, imposed by technical limit.

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CELLULAR SYSTEM Wireless communication technology in which several small exchanges(called cells) equipped with low-power radio antennas (strategically located over a wide geographical area) are interconnected through a central exchange. The frequency band allocated to a cellular mobile radio system is distributed over a group of cells and this distribution is repeated in all the covering area of an operator. if the transmitters used are very powerful. Neighboring cells can not share the same channels. The concept of cellular systems is the use of low power transmitters in order to enable the efficient reuse of the frequencies. The frequency reuse will increase considerably the capacity in number of users. The distance between the cells using the same frequency must be sufficient to avoid interference. The receiver filters must also be very per formant. The size of a cell is determined by the transmitter's power.1 The cellular structure In a cellular system. its identity. several radio channels are reserved for the signaling information. In order to reduce the interference. The whole number of radio channels available can then be used in each group of cells that form the covering area of an operator. ‡ In order to exchange the information needed to maintain the communication links within the cellular network. location. the frequencies cannot be reused for hundred of kilometers as they are limited to the covering area of the transmitter. In order to work properly. the frequencies must be reused only within a certain pattern. As a receiver(cell phone) moves from one place to the next. the covering area of an operator is divided into cells. 2. a cellular system must verify the following two main conditions: ‡ The power level of a transmitter within a single cell must be limited in order to reduce the interference with the transmitters of neighboring cells. A cell corresponds to the covering area of one transmitter or a small collection of transmitters. The interference will not produce any damage to the system if a distance of about 2. and radio frequency is handed-over by one cell to another without interrupting a call.2. Frequencies used in a cell will be reused several cells away.5 to 3 times the diameter of a cell is reserved between transmitters. 5 . In fact.

In some cases. The typical clusters contain 4.2 Cluster The cells are grouped into clusters. By splitting the existing areas into smaller cells.3 Types of cells The density of population in a country is so varied that different types of cells are used: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Macro cells Micro cells Selective cells Umbrella cells Macrocells The macrocells are large cells for remote and sparsely populated areas. The number of cells in a cluster must be determined so that the cluster can be repeated continuously within the covering area of an operator.2. Selective cells It is not always useful to define a cell with a full coverage of 360 degrees. cells with a particular shape and coverage are needed. 6 . the bigger the number of channels per cell will be. The capacity of each cell will be therefore increased. However a balance must be found in order to avoid the interference that could occur between neighboring clusters. This interference is produced by the small size of the clusters (the size of the cluster is defined by the number of cells per cluster). Umbrella cells A freeway crossing very small cells produces an important number of handovers among the different small neighboring cells. 7. the concept of umbrella cells is introduced. These cells are called selective cells. The total number of channels per cell depends on the number of available channels and the type of cluster used. the number of channels available is increased as well as the capacity of the cells. 2. 12 or 21 cells. Microcells These cells are used for densely populated areas. The number of cells in each cluster is very important. The smaller the number of cells per cluster is. In order to solve this problem.

3 Aspects of quality The quality of the service can be considerably improved using a digital technology rather than an analog one. other frequency bands have been allocated for the development of mobile cellular radio). The improvement of digital systems comparing to analog systems is more noticeable under difficult reception conditions than under good reception conditions.2 Compatibility with other systems such as ISDN The decision of adopting a digital technology for GSM was made in the course of developing the standard. The different reasons that explain this transition from analog to digital technology are presented in this section. it was decide that the digital technology was the best option. digital systems avoid these effects transforming the signal into bits. Additionally. The digital radio was. The ISDN network is an example of this evolution. The GSM system can be considered as the first digital cellular system.3. etc. On the other hand. spurious signals or interferences) to the receiver. ANALOG TO DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY In the 1980s most mobile cellular systems were based on analog systems.1 The capacity of the system As it is explained in section 1. The new analog technologies proposed were able to overcome the problem to a certain degree but the costs were too important. analog systems pass the physical disturbances in radio transmission (such as fades. crosstalks. the best option (but not the perfect one) to handle the capacity needs in a cost-efficiency way. therefore. cellular systems have experienced a very important growth. These disturbances decrease the quality of the communication because they produce effects such as fadeouts. In fact. In order to make GSM compatible with the services offered by ISDN. new frequency bands and new technologies were proposed. Analog systems were not able to cope with this increasing demand.the implementation of future improvements and the change of its own characteristics.a digital system allows. During the development of GSM. In order to overcome this problem. 3. 7 . multipath reception. 3. easily than an analog one. 3. hisses. But the possibility of using new frequency bands was rejected by a big number of countries because of the restricted spectrum (even if later on. the telecommunications industry converted to digital methods.

8 . The name or code of that network will appear on the LCD screen of the cellphone. Once this network "name" message appears on your phone¶s LCD screen. register and locate you as a that network's subscriber.At the same time.1 Architecture of the GSM network The GSM technical specifications define the different entities that form the GSM network by defining their functions and interface requirements. the HLR also registers which BS your cellphone is currently connected to. the MSC sends a message back to the phone via the network of BSs that indicates that you¶re allowed to access the network. Every now and gain. The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS). a process called Polling. so that when the network¶s MSC needs to route an incoming call to your cellphone number. Each BS is also termed a cell. 4. Once it¶s received your log-on request. the HLR immediately checks the special "signature" contained in the request against it¶s special subscriber database. The GSM network can be divided into four main parts: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The Mobile Station (MS). The Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS). it means you¶re connected to the network and able to make and receive calls. The Base Station Subsystem (BSS). the cellphone will send a message to the network indicating where it is. so named because it covers a certain range within a Discrete area(cell). If your subscription is current.THE GSM NETWORK GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) uses a series of radio transmitters called Base Stations (BS) to connect you and your cell phone to your cellular network. The MSC also routes all your incoming and outgoing calls to and from the fixedline networks or other cellular networks.4. The MSC also contains a critical component called the Home Location Register (HLR) which provides the administrative information required to authenticate. The entire log-on process usually takes only a couple of seconds. it will first check the HLR to see where you are.

Architecture of the GSM network Figur e 1. Gener al ar chit e ct ur e of a GSM net wor k HLR Home Location Register BTS Base Transceiver Station PSTN Public Switched Telecomm Network ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network MS Mobile Station EIR Equipment Identity Register 9 .

f igure2 : MOBI LE S TATI ON 4. t he t er minal is not oper at ional.1. Their maximum allowed output power is 20 W. These terminals can emit upto 2 W.1. The handhelds terminals have experienced the biggest success thanks to their weight and volume. 10 .4. The GSM portable terminals can also be installed in vehicles.2 The S I M The S I M is a s mar t c ard t hat i de nt if ies t he t er minal.1 Mobile Station A Mobile Station consists of two main elements: ‡ ‡ The mobile equipment or terminal.1.1. Their maximum allowed output power is 8W. By inser t ing t he S I M card int o t he t er minal. which are continuously decreasing. The Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). 4.1 The Terminal There are different types of terminals distinguished principally by their power and application: ‡ ‡ ‡ The `fixed' terminals are the ones installed in cars. Wit hou t t he S I M card.1. t he u ser can have access t o all t he subscribed ser vice s.

I n o rder t o ide nt if y t he su bscriber t o t he s yst e m. 11 . is give n be low: F1 = S I M De signat or . 47 = Net wor k code (NC). TRAU 4. t he S I M car d cont ains some par amet er s o f t he u ser such as it s I nt er nat ional Mobile S u bscriber I dent it y (I MS I ). 2 = S I M Ve nder I de nt if icat ion.1.Descr ipt ion o f eac h No. Its transmitting power defines the size of a cell. 8 = Amount o f Me mor y 57 = Mont h o f Manu fact ure .2.The S I M car d is pr ot ect ed by a f our-digit Per sonal I de nt if icat ion Numb er (PI N). = Running Serial F igure3: sim 4. 23 = Count r y Code (CC).1 Base Transceiver Station The BTS corresponds to the transceivers and antennas used in each cell of the network. The Base Station Controller (BSC).1. Number on t he S I M card Known as I nt egr at ed Cir cuit Car d I dent it y Number (I CCI D).3382. It is in charge of the transmission and reception.2 Base Station Subsystem The BSS connects the Mobile Station and the NSS. The BSS can be divided into two parts: ‡ ‡ ‡ The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) or Base Station.. A BTS is usually placed in the center of a cell.

3 TRAU ( Transcoder Rate Adaptation Unit) One of the most interesting functions in GSM involves the TRAU.2. which typically is located between the BSC and the MSC. Note that the TRAU is not used for data connections. in the case of a full rate channel (net bit rate with full rate is 13 Kbps) and to 8 Kbps in the case of a half rate channel (net bit rate with half rate is 6. 4.2 Base Station Controller The BSC controls a group of BTS and manages their radio resources.1. A BSC is principally in charge of handovers. frequency hopping. The used method is called regular pulse excitation±long term prediction (RPE-LTP).1. The task of the TRAU is to compress or decompress speech between the MS and the TRAU. It is able to compress speech from 64 Kbps to 16 Kbps.2.5 Kbps).Figure 4:BTS 4. exchange functions and control of the radio frequency power levels of the BTSs. 12 .

4. The location of the subscriber corresponds to the SS7 address of the Visitor Location Register(VLR) associated to the terminal. 13 . 4. etc.3. fixed telephony users. The GMSC is often implemented in the same machines as the MSC. 4. such as mobile users. It also includes data bases needed in order to store information about the subscribers and to manage their mobility.1.1. It also provides connection to other networks. It is in charge of routing calls from the fixed network towards a GSM user. It also stores the current location of these subscribers and the services to which they have access.3 Home Location Register (HLR) The HLR is considered as a very important database that stores information of the subscribers belonging to the covering area of a MSC. The MSC performs the switching functions of the network.Figure 6: TRANSCODER RATE ADAPTI ON UNI T 4.3.2 Gateway Mobile services Switching Center (GMSC) A gateway is a node interconnecting two networks. ISDN users.1.3.1.3 Network and Switching Subsystem Its main role is to manage the communications between the mobile users and other users. The GMSC is the interface between the mobile cellular network and the PSTN. The different components of the NSS are described below.1 Mobile services Switching Center (MSC) It is the central component of the NSS.

4. The VLR will then have enough information in order to assure the subscribed services without needing to ask the HLR each time a communication is established. More particularly.6 Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The EIR is also used for security purposes.5 Authentication Center (AuC) The AuC register is used for security purposes. These parameters help to verify the user's identity. A terminal is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI).1. 4.4.4 Visitor Location Register (VLR) The VLR contains information from a subscriber's HLR necessary in order to provide the subscribed services to visiting users. it contains a list of all valid terminals. the increasing number of base stations.1.4 Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) The OSS is connected to the different components of the NSS and to the BSC. The VLR is always implemented together with a MSC. When a subscriber enters the covering area of a new MSC.2 Geographical areas of the GSM network The GSM network is made up of geographic areas. 4. due to the development of cellular radio networks.3.3.3. It is a register containing information about the mobile equipments. During these communications. in order to control and monitor the GSM system.1. 4. This transfer decreases considerably the costs of the maintenance of the system. the transmission of speech and data can be alternated. As shown in Figure 8 these 14 . has provoked that some of the maintenance tasks are transferred to the BTS. It provides the parameters needed for authentication and encryption functions. so the area under control of the MSC is also the area under control of the VLR. It is also in charge of controlling the traffic load of the BSS.7 GSM Interworking Unit (GIWU) The GIWU corresponds to an interface to various networks for data communications.1.1. the VLR associated to this MSC will request information about the new subscriber to its corresponding HLR.3. 4. However.

MSC/VLR service areas. It is the area in which the subscriber is paged. 15 . Each LA is assigned a location area identity (LAI) number. location areas (LAs). as it is registered in the VLR of the MSC (see Figure 9). Figure 7: GSM net wor k ar eas The cell is the area given radio coverage by one base transceiver station.areas include cells. The location area is a group of cells. yet only by a single MSC (see Figure 8). Figure 8: Location Areas An MSC/VLR service area represents the part of the GSM network that is covered by one MSC and which is reachable. and public land mobile network (PLMN) areas. Each LA is served by one or more base station controllers. The GSM network identifies each cell via the cell global identity (CGI) number assigned to each cell.

Operation. The second one is related to the means needed for the trasnmission of signaling information.3 GSM functions In this paragraph. In GSM. 16 . Administration and Maintenance (OAM).1 Transmission The transmission function includes two subfunctions: ‡ ‡ The first one is related to the means needed for the transmission of user information.3.Figure 9: MSC/VLR Service Areas The PLMN service area is an area served by one network operator (see Figure 10). Communication Management (CM). Mobility Management (MM). 4. the description of the GSM network is focused on the differents functions to fulfil by the network and not on its physical components. Figure 10: PLMN Network Areas 4. Radio Resources management (RR). five main functions can be defined: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Transmission.

When the quality of the transmission decreases (i. the power level of the mobile is increased.3 Mobility Management The MM function is in charge of all the aspects related with the mobility of the user. Two basic algorithms are used for the handover: ‡ The `minimum acceptable performance' algorithm. specially the location management and the authentication and security.2 Handover The user movements can produce the need to change the channel or cell. 4. Handover of cells belonging to the same MSC but controlled by different BSCs.3. ‡ 4. However in order to avoid unnecessary signalling information. Handover of cells controlled by different MSCs. The power measurements allow to decide which is the best cell in order to maintain the quality of the communication link. instead of continuously increasing the power level. This procedure of changing the resources is called handover. stored in the SIM card and the AuC.3. The mobile station and the AuC compute a SRES using the secret key. The list of cells that must be monitored by the mobile station is given by the base station. the algorithm A3 and a random number generated by the AuC.4. This is done until the increase of the power level has no effect on the quality of the signal. the mobile station controls continuously its own signal strengh and the signal strengh of the neighboring cells. specially when the quality of the communication is decreasing. The `power budget' algorithm.1 Authentication and security The authentication procedure involves the SIM card and the Authentication Center. the MSC is only notified of the handover). Handover of cells controlled by the same BSC. 17 . and a ciphering algorithm called A3 are used in order to verify the authenticity of the user. the first two types of handovers are managed by the concerned BSC (in this case. When this happens. Four different types of handovers can be distinguished: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Handover of channels in the same cell.3. in order to obtain a good communication quality.e the signal is deteriorated). In order to perform the handover. This algorithm performs a handover. The mobile station is the active participant in this procedure.3. A secret key. Handovers are mainly controlled by the MSC. a handover is performed.

This VLR allocates temporarily a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) for the call.3. 4.4. 4. the user is registered with a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) after its first location update procedure.3. maintaining and releasing as well as for selecting the type of service. The HLR requests this information from the subscriber's current VLR. Short Message Services management.3. The different Supplementary Services (SS) to which the users have access are presented in section 6. In order to reach a mobile subscriber.1 Call Control (CC) The CC is responsible for call establishing. In order to assure user confidentiality.3. a GSM network is in contact with a Short Message 18 .Another security procedure is to check the equipment identity. Supplementary Services management.2 Supplementary Services management The mobile station and the HLR are the only components of the GSM network involved with this function. the mobile station is allowed to connect the network. 4. If the IMEI number of the mobile is authorized in the EIR. a user dials the Mobile Subscriber ISDN (MSISDN) number which includes: ‡ ‡ ‡ a country code a national destination code identifying the subscriber's operator a code corresponding to the subscriber's HLR The call is then passed to the GMSC (if the call is originated from a fixed network) which knows the HLR corresponding to a certain MISDN number.4. Enciphering is another option to guarantee a very strong security but this procedure is going to be described in section 5.3 Short Message Services management In order to support these services.4.3.4 Communication Management (CM) The CM function is responsible for: ‡ ‡ ‡ Call control. One of the most important functions of the CC is the call routing. 4. The GMSC asks the HLR for information helping to the call routing.

It has the same role as the GMSC. Not only the OSS is part of the OAM.Service Center through the two following interfaces: ‡ ‡ The SMS-GMSC for Mobile Terminating Short Messages (SMS-MT/PP). This information is then passed to the OSS which is in charge of analize it and control the network. The BSC. Administration and Maintenance (OAM) The OAM function allows the operator to monitor and control the system as well as to modify the configuration of the elements of the system. ‡ ‡ 19 . The self test tasks. usually incorporated in the components of the BSS and NSS. also contribute to the OAM functions. also the BSS and NSS participate in its functions as it is shown in the following examples: ‡ The components of the BSS and NSS provide the operator with all the information it needs. The SMS-IWMSC for Mobile Originating Short Messages (SMS-MO/PP). 4. is another example of an OAM function performed outside the OSS.4 Operation. in charge of controlling several BTSs.

This is due principally to military reasons and to the existence of previous analog systems using part of the two 25 Mhz frequency bands. Total 50 channels for communication. In 900 band Airtel has 40 channels. It is one of the most important interfaces of the GSM system.5. But not all the countries can use the whole GSM frequency bands. In 1800 band Airtel has 10 channels. the radio interface must be completely defined. ‡ The band 1805-1880 MHz has been allocated for the downlink direction(transmitting from the base station to the mobile station).1 Frequency allocation Two frequency bands. of 75 MHz each one. ‡ The band 935-960 MHz has been allocated for the downlink direction(transmitting from the base station to the mobile station). have been allocated for the GSM system: ‡ The band 1710-1785 MHz has been allocated for the uplink direction(transmitting from the mobile station to the base station). The specification of the radio interface has then an important influence on the spectrum efficiency. 5. THE GSM RADIO INTERFACE The radio interface is the interface between the mobile stations and the fixed infrastructure. so 1800 band introduced. of 25 MHz each one. 5. Therefore. The spectrum eficiency depends on the radio interface and the transmission. One of the main objectives of GSM is roaming. more particularly in aspects such as the capacity of the system and the techniques used in order to decrease the interference and to improve the frequency reuse scheme.2 Multiple access schemes 20 . The above band is not sufficient for all the operators. Two frequency bands. in order to obtain a complete compatibility between mobile stations and networks of different manufacturers and operators. have been allocated for the GSM system: ‡ The band 890-915 MHz has been allocated for the uplink direction (transmitting from the mobile station to the base station).

In GSM there are two types of channels: ‡ ‡ The traffic channels used to transport speech and data information. in this 26. The limited available radio spectrum and the fact that a user will not free its assigned frequency until he does not need it anymore.1 Traffic channels (TCH) Full-rate traffic channels (TCH/F) are defined using a group of 26 TDMA frames called a 26-Multiframe. and it lasts approximately 0.2.2. the larger the number of available frequencies must be. that form a TDMA frame.2. explain why the number of users in a FDMA system can be "quickly" limited.1 FDMA and TDMA Using FDMA. into 8 bursts. between different mobile stations situated in different cells. Each of the eight bursts. A mix of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). into 124 carrier frequencies spaced one from each other by a 200 kHz frequency band. The control channels used for network management messages and some channel maintenance tasks. So the larger the number of users in a FDMA system.2.2. The 26-Multiframe lasts consequently 120 ms. 5. the traffic channels for the downlink and uplink are separated by 3 bursts. a 25 MHz frequency band is divided.A burst is the unit of time in a TDMA system.2 Channel structure A channel corresponds to the recurrence of one burst every frame. consequently. Each carrier frequency is then divided in time using a TDMA scheme.2. has been adopted as the multiple access scheme for GSM 5.Multiframe structure. share the GSM radio spectrum. are then assigned to a single user. using a FDMA scheme.The multiple access scheme defines how different simultaneous communications.615 ms. A TDMA frame is formed with 8 bursts and lasts. Normally a 25MHz frequency band can provide 125 carrier frequencies but the first carrier frequency is used as a guard band between GSM and other services working on lower frequencies. 5.2 Control channels 21 . with a width of 200 kHz. It is defined by its frequency and the position of its corresponding burst within a TDMA frame. a frequency is assigned to a user. combined with frequency hopping.577 ms. 5.In GSM. This scheme splits the radio channel. 4.

It has the same length as the normal burst but a different structure.3 Burst structure As it has been stated before.577 ms and has a length of 156.Three different types of BCHs can be distinguished: ‡ ‡ The Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). 5. which gives to the mobile station the parameters needed in order to identify and access the network The Synchronization Channel (SCH).3 Broadcast channels (BCH) The base station. Its structure is presented in figure 6. which gives to the mobile station the training sequence needed in order to demodulate the information transmitted by the base station The Frequency-Correction Channel (FCCH). It lasts approximately 0. The normal burst is used to carry speech or data information. 22 . It has the same length as the normal burst but a different structure. Dedicated control channels.25 bits.2. Associated control channels.According to their functions. Four different types of bursts can be distinguished in GSM: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The frequency-correction burst is used on the FCCH. uses the BCH channels. The synchronization burst is used on the SCH. The random access burst is used on the RACH and is shorter than the normal burst. which supplies the mobile station with the frequency reference of the system in order to synchronize it with the network.2. to provide the mobile station with the sufficient information it needs to synchronize with the network. the burst is the unit in time of a TDMA system. ‡ 5. four different classes of control channels are defined: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Broadcast channels. Common control channels.2.

The frequency hopping also reduces the effects of co-channel interference. The coded data bit corresponds to two groups.Figure 11: S t r uct ure o f t he 26 -Mult if r ame.25 bits. of 57 bits each. There are different types of frequency hopping algorithms. 5. A fast frequency hopping changes the many times per frame but it is not used in GSM. a mobile station has to accept frequency hopping when a base station decides to use it. Even if frequency hopping can be very useful for the system. is used to avoid a possible overlap of two mobiles during the ramping time.2. with a length of 8. t he TDMA f r ame and t he nor mal burst The tail bits (T) are a group of three bits set to zero and placed at the beginning and the end of a burst. containing signaling or user data. The algorithm selected is sent through the Broadcast Control Channels. a base station does not have to support it necessarily On the other hand.4 Frequency hopping The propagation conditions and therefore the multipath fading depend on the radio frequency. In order to avoid important differences in the quality of the channels. 23 . The guard period (GP). The slow frequency hopping changes the frequency with every TDMA frame. They are used to cover the periods of ramping up and down of the mobile's power. the slow frequency hopping is introduced.

has to meet the following criteria: A good speech quality.3 Fr om source inf or mat ion t o r adio wave s The f igu re 4 pr es ent s t he dif f e r e nt ope r at ions t h at have t o be per f or me d in ord er t o pass f r om t he sp eech source t o radio waves and vice ve r sa. Figure 12: Fr om speech sou rce t o radio waves 5.The speech signal is divided into blocks of 20 ms. the most important service of a mobile cellular system. these blocks are then passed to the speech code. The GSM speech codec. The speech codec must not be very complex because complexity is equivalent to high costs. which will transform the analog signal (voice) into a digital representation. The final choice for the GSM speech code is a code named RPE-LTP (Regular Pulse Excitation Long-Term Prediction). This reduction is essential due to the limited capacity of transmission of a radio channel.1 Speech coding The transmission of speech is. This code uses the information from previous samples in order to predict the current sample. in order to obtain blocks of 260 bits. which has a rate of 13 kbps. at the moment. at least as good as the one obtained with previous cellular systems. 24 ‡ ‡ ‡ . To reduce the redundancy in the sounds of the voice.5.3.

A convolution code can be defined by three variables: n. 25 ... obtained as follows. if possible. the 260 bits of a GSM speech frame are divided in three different classes according to their function and importance.5. which contains 132 bits. 5. which contains the remaining 78 bits. A convolutional code. 1. The block code receives an input block of 240 bits and adds four zero tail bits at the end of the input block.3.2 Channel coding Channel coding adds redundancy bits to the original information in order to detect and correct. The most important class is the class Ia containing 50 bits.2 Channel coding for the GSM speech channels Before applying the channel coding.The classII bits are added.2. As the convolution code is a 1/2-rate convolution code. The ratio. k to the number of bits at the input of the block and K to the memory of the encoder. Four zero bits are added to this block of 185 bits (50+3+132). is then applied. errors occurred during the transmission. Three parity bits. These 488 bits are punctured in order to produce a block of 456 bits. R. The resultant 53 bits are added to the class Ib bits. with r = 1/2 and K = 5. Thirty two bits. The least important is the class II. obtaining an output block of 378 bits. the class Ia bits are block-coded. are added to the 50 class Ia bits.3. of the code is defined as follows: R = k/n.2. Let's consider a convolution code with the following values: k is equal to 1. First of all. The convolution code uses 5 consecutive bits in order to compute the redundancy bit.1 Channel coding for the GSM data TCH channels The channel coding is performed using two codes: a block code and a convolution code. which means that it will add a redundant bit for each input bit.03. The output of the block code is consequently a block of 244 bits. 31 The block of 456 bits produced by the convolution code is then passed to the interleaver. This convolution code uses then a rate of R = 1/2 and a delay of K = 5. n to 2 and K to 5. Next in importance is the class Ib. The block code corresponds to the block code defined in the GSM Recommendations 05. The value n corresponds to the number of bits at the output of the encoder. k and K. used for error detection. are not transmitted: C (11 + 15 j) for j = 0. 5. The different classes are coded differently.3.A block of 488 bits is generated.

5 Modulation The modulation chosen for the GSM system is the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK). The output of the convolutional code is then a block of 456 bits.3. 5. In order to decipher correctly.2. the subscriber key and a random number delivered by the network (this random number is the same as the one used for the authentication procedure). a ciphering key is computed using the algorithm A8 stored on the SIM card. the receiver has to use the same algorithm A5 for the deciphering procedure.5. obtained using a fire code.3 presents the different bursts structures and describes in detail the structure of the normal burst. 5. and four zero bits are added to the 184 bits before applying the convolutional code (r = 1/2 and K = 5). a 114 bit sequence is produced using the ciphering key. Figure 13: GMSK modulat or 26 . 5. This bit sequence is then XORed with the two 57 bit blocks of data included in a normal burst.4 Ciphering Ciphering is used to protect signaling and user data. Section 5.2.3. Forty parity bits.3 Channel coding for the GSM control channels In GSM the signaling information is just contained in 184 bits. First of all.3. Secondly.3 Burst assembling The burst assembling procedure is in charge of grouping the bits into bursts. an algorithm called A5 and the burst numbers. which does not need to be punctured.3.

The aim of this section is not to describe precisely the GMSK modulation as it is too long and it implies the presentation of too many mathematical concepts. the transmitter is turned off and therefore.5 Timing advance The timing of the bursts transmissions is very important. even if the background noise is very important. The DTX function is performed thanks to two main features: ‡ The Voice Activity Detection (VAD). The DTX helps then to reduce interference between different cells and to increase the capacity of the system. which has to determine whether the sound represents speech or noise. This can be very annoying to the user at the reception because it seems that the connection is dead. Figure 5 presents the principle of a GMSK modulator. The base station measures the timing delay of the mobile stations. the base station tells. only brief aspects of the GMSK modulation are presented in this section. 5. It also extends the life of a mobile's battery. If the bursts corresponding to a mobile station arrive too late and overlap with other bursts. The GMSK modulation has a rate of 270 5/6 kbauds and a BT product equal to 0. The aim of the timing advance is that the signals coming from the different mobile stations arrive to the base station at the right time. an unpleasant effect called clipping. to advance the transmission of its bursts.3. ‡ 5. The GMSK modulation has been chosen as a compromise between spectrum efficiency. This can become quite interesting if we take into consideration the fact that a person speaks less than 40 or 50 percent during a conversation. Mobiles are at different distances from the base stations. on their distance. a total silence is heard at the receiver. An inconvenient of the DTX function is that when the signal is considered as noise. The function of the DTX is to suspend the radio transmission during the silence periods. the receiver creates a minimum of background noise called comfort noise.4 Discontinuous transmission (DTX) This is another aspect of GSM that could have been included as one of the requirements of the GSM speech codec. The comfort noise. this mobile. If the voice signal is considered as noise. complexity and low spurious radiations (that reduce the possibilities of adjacent channel interference). In order to overcome this problem. The comfort noise eliminates the impression that the connection is dead. 27 . Therefore. the transmitter is turned off producing then. Their delay depends. consequently.

6 Power control At the same time the base stations perform the timing measurements. These power levels are adjusted so that the power is nearly the same for each burst. 28 . they also perform measurements on the power level of the different mobile stations. The mobile station measures the strength and the quality of the signal between itself and the base station. 5. A base station also controls its power level. The paging channel is divided into sub channels corresponding to single mobile stations. Each mobile station will then only 'listen' to its sub channel and will stay in the sleep mode during the other sub channels of the paging channel.5. If the mobile station does not receive correctly the signal.7 Discontinuous reception It is a method used to conserve the mobile station's power. the base station changes its power le ve l.

The GSM Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) defined four classes for the introduction of the different GSM services: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ E1: introduced at the start of the service. . Eh: introduced on availability of half-rate channels. 6. the subscriber can receive fax messages at any fax machine.Teletex .Short Message Services (E1. . a message of a maximum of 93 characters can be broadcast to all mobiles in a certain geographical area. A: these services are optional.1 Teleservices -Telephony(E1® Eh). E2: introduced at the end of 1991. A).6. Using these services. the message is stored. This service corresponds to an answering machine.Fax mail. GSM SERVICES It is important to note that all the GSM services were not introduced since the appearance of GSM but they have been introduced in a regular way. Three categories of services can be distinguished: ‡ Teleservices. With the SMS Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB). the mobile is powered off. a message of a maximum of 160 alphanumeric characters can be sent to or from a mobile station. ‡ Supplementary Services. -Facsmile group 3(E1). 29 . Thanks to this service. E2. -Emergencycalls(E1®Eh).Voice mail. ‡ Bearer services. .

300-9600 bps (E1) Synchronous dedicated packet data access. Informs the user. 300-9600 bps (E1). It supplies the calling user with the directory number he gets if his call is forwarded. 300-9600 bps (E1) Asynchronous packet-switched assembler access. . The subscriber can forward incoming calls to another number if the called mobile is busy (CFB). BAIC (E1) Barring of incoming calls when roaming (A). unreachable (CFNRc) or if there is no reply (CFNRy). Alternate speech and data. CLR (A). CLIR (A). There are different types of `call barring' services: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Barring of All Outgoing Calls. . .Connected Line identification Restriction.3 Supplementary Services . .Calling Line Identification Restriction. during a conversation. Barring of All Incoming Calls. CLIP (A). 30 . It enables the called user to restrict the presentation.Advice of Charge. BOIC-exHC (E1).Multiparty service (E2). BAOC (E1). BOIC (E1).6.Call Forwarding (E1). . Possibility of establishing a multiparty conversation.Connected Line identification Presentation.Calling Line Identification Presentation. Some of the bearer services are listed below: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Asynchronous and synchronous data. It enables the calling user to restrict the presentation. Call forwarding can also be applied unconditionally (CFU).Call Waiting. AoC (E2).Closed User Group. CUG (A).Call hold (E2). .Call Barring. 6. .2 Bearer services A bearer service is used for transporting user data. about another incoming call. Barring of Outgoing International Calls. It corresponds to a group of users with limited possibilities of calling (only the people of the group and certain numbers). . CLP (A). It supplies the called user with the ISDN of the calling user. 2400-9600 bps (E2). Provides the user with online charge information. . Barring of Outgoing International Calls. . Puts an active call on hold. CW (E2).

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Figure 15:BT S with antennas 31 .7.CELL PLANNING ‡ ‡ Radio coverage Received signal strength in the mobile station from BTS above a chosen value . Omni cell A cell with an omni-directional BTS antenna system. 3-Sector site A site with equipment for three sector cells. Cell The area that is covered from a BTS. Site The geographical location where the RBS(radio base station subsystem)equipment is stored and the BTS antennas are mounted . Sector cell A cell with uni-directional BTS antenna system.

7.e.1 The hexagon cell shape If we have two BTSs with omni-antennas and we require that the border between the coverage areas of each BTS is a set of points where the signal strength from both BTSs is same. consider the fact that radio propagation is very much dependent on the terrain and that hexagons are extremely simplified models of radio coverage patterns. Real-world planning must however. the obtained coverage area. the cell has a hexagonal shape see figure 16: The hexagon becomes the symbol of cells in radio network. If we repeat the procedure placing 5 more BTSs around the original one. 32 . i. we obtain a straight line. Still the first geometrical plan based on hexagons (the nominal cell plan) gives a good view of planning of system.

7. normally the value for GOS is between 2% and 5%.1 Traffic calculations The input for the traffic is mentioned above. and GOS Traffic per subscriber is calculated with the erlang formula. The output should be information about how many sites and cells are needed. have to be known.7.3. traffic (in erlangs). It is used when wanting to find out the third factor. as below: Where: n= number of calls per hour T=average conversation time A= offered traffic from one of several users in the system If n=1 and T=90s: A=1*90/3600=25mE Example of traffic calculation Indata: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Traffic per subscriber =25mE Number of subscribers=10. for example by operator. as well as the GOS (Grade of service).The analysis should also produce information about the geographical area of interest. the available number of frequencies per cell. when knowing two of the three factors: number of traffic channels.The erlang table is used for calculating the traffic.Then. showing that a cellular network (in our case.In order be able to decide this.3 Traffic and coverage analysis The cell planning process starts with some sort of traffic and coverage analysis. the total number of available frequencies are evenly divided into frequency groups.000 Number of available frequencies=24 Cell pattern= 4/12(12 frequency groups) ‡ GOS = 2% How many 3-Sectors-sites needed? ‡ ‡ Frequencies per cell=24/12=2 frequencies Traffic channels per cell= 2*8-2(CCH) =14 TCH 33 . GOS is defined as allowed percentage of unsuccessful call set-ups due to congestion. and the expected capacity (traffic load). CME 20 system) is needed .Available number of frequencies per cell can be decided when knowing which cell pattern should be used (see cell pattern figures fig: 19 & 20).

Frequency re-use is defined as the radio channels on the same carrier frequency covering geographically different areas. The growth of traffic demand is an important input for network planning.025E = 328 subscribers per cell Needed number of cells = 10.4/12 and 3/9. which may be used.8. The cell pattern and frequency plan are worked out not only for initial network but also for successive growth phases.5 Cell patterns The distribution of the C/I ratio desired in a system determines the number of frequency groups. F. Ericsson uses three types of frequency re-use patterns 7/12. then each group will contain N/F channels. 7. If the total allocation of N channels is partitioned into F groups.4 Frequencies re-use Based on traffic calculations. The antenna pointing azimuths of the cells are separated by 120 degrees and the cells are arranged with antennas pointing at one of the nearest site location thus forming cells in 34 . 7. a smaller number of frequency groups (F) would result in more channels per set and per cell. 2%GOS . In all three cases the site geometry has following features: ‡ Three cells (sectors)at each site. To avoid the expensive re-engineering of the system the network must be designed from the beginning to accommodate the growth. It is only when the system has matured to many thousands of subscribers within one single city area that the problems of the re-using frequencies to increase system capacity arise.000/328 = 30 cells Needed number of 3-sector-sites = 30/3 = 10 7. Since the total number of channels (N) is fixed.2 E/cell (From the erlang table) Subscribers per cell=8. These areas must be separated from one another by a sufficient distance so that any co-channel or adjacent channel interference that may be encountered is not objectionable.1 Interference A fundamental principle in the design of cellular systems is the frequencies re-use patterns.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Traffic per cell=14 TCH. An initial network must be planned to adapt smoothly to demands of traffic growth.4.2E/0. Only 4/12 and 3/9 are interesting for CME 20.

A group of neighboring cells using all the channels in the system. The 4/12 cell pattern uses 12 frequency groups in a 4 site re-use pattern. Example of how to divide the available frequencies into frequency groups: 24 f r eque nc ie s in 3/ 9 cell pat t er n Frequency gr oups Channels A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3 1 10 20 2 11 21 3 12 22 4 13 23 5 15 24 6 16 7 17 8 18 9 19 35 . ‡ Each cell approximates the shape of hexagon We assume that the traffic is homogenously distributed within the cells. See fig 22. The cell radius R (= side of hexagon) is always one-third of site-to-site distance when 3-sectors sites are used. The cell size is normally given in terms of the distance b/w two neighboring sites. ‡ Each cell uses one 60-degree transmitting antenna and two 60-degree diversity receiving antennas with the same pointing azimuths. See fig21.cloverleaf fashion. according to the patterns described below is called a cluster. but not reusing them. The 3/9cell pattern uses 9 frequency groups in a 3 site re-use pattern.

Figur e 2 0 : 4 / 12 cell pa t t er n Figur e 2 1 : 3/ 9 cell pa t t er n 36 .

it is time to produce the nominal plan.6 Nominal plan Having come this far in the cell planning process.6. is included in tenders. as a second theoretical analysis step.t time dispersion or. 7. This is a theoretical first cell plan. the proposed site location should be changed or measured w. If there are doubts about the risks of time dispersion. The nominal cell plan looks simply as a cell pattern on the map. a lot of work lies behind it. but as described above. 37 . Land usage factors that identify different type of surfaces. a nominal cell plan. together with one or two examples of coverage predictions. Such planning needs powerful measurement facilities and CAD analysis tools for radio propagation studies. it should be analyzed with a ³C/R (carrier-to-reflection ratio) prediction´ tool. Ericsson¶s planning tool EET (Ericsson Engineering Tool) includes the prediction package capable of ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Coverage prediction Composite coverage synthesis Co.1 Coverage and interference predictions Nominal plans are only a theoretical first basis for further planning successive planning must take into account the radio propagation properties of actual environment.r. Quite often. The theoretical predictions are supplemented with measurements which are used to optimize the parameters in the propagation model.channel interference predictions Adjacent-channel interference predictions The propagation model is an improved version of the well-known Okumura-Hata model and takes also into account: ‡ ‡ Edge diffractions through the analysis of elevation contours.7. which is produced without the help of advanced planning tools or computers. The Ericsson concept to establish an interactive relationship b/w survey measurements and theoretical propagation models.

when we know that the predictions run by the planning tool can be trusted.1 Site surveys Site surveys are performed for all proposed site locations.7. and then the signal strength is measured while driving around in the area. it is time to visit the area of interest 7.New predictions. is filled out. the results from the measurements can be compared with the values the planning tool produces when simulating the same type of transmitter and the Parameters for planning are adjusted to match reality. for example. the radio environment has to be checked. Many issues have to be checked and verified.8 Evaluation of measurements Back in the office. including antennas Cable runs Power facilities Contract with owner Also.such as: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Exact location Space for equipment. a document called CDD. so that there is no other radio equipment on the site that will cause intermodulation problems or too high buildings (or else) surrounding the possible site. and roughly verified it with coverage and interference predictions. 7.7.7. containing all cell parameters for each cell. A test transmitter is mounted.9 Final cell plan Now.Cell Design Data.2 Radio measurements Radio measurements are performed to be able to adjust the parameters used in the planning tool to reality. Also. 38 . both on coverage and interference. 7. it is time to produce the final cell plan. 7. are run. Parameters used in Sweden.7 Site surveys and radio measurements Having produced a nominal cell plan. to specific climate and terrain in in the area of interest. this plan is used when installing the system. would be different to the ones to be used in a tropical country. As the name says.

When adding more and more subscribers. have grown significantly.7. if needed 7..10 System tuning Some time after the system has been installed and started up . This leads to that we have to ³ start all over again ³ and that: ³The cell planning work never ends´. 39 . This is called system tuning. The tasks included are: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Checking that the final cell plan was realized Evaluating possible customer complaints Checking that the network performance is acceptable Changing parameters and performing other measures. it is time to once again look at how well the system is adjusted to reality. getting more and more traffic in the network and possibly also wanting to increase the coverage area.11 System growth Most CME 20 networks that have been installed up till know. a new traffic and coverage analysis has to be performed.

MS uses Random Access Channel (RACH) to ask for a signaling channel. 5. Start ciphering equipment identification. MSC/VLR asks the BSC to allocate an idle TCH. MOBILE TRAFFIC I. either by a delivery report or failure report. Checking if the subscriber has the service ³ Barring of outgoing calls´activated. If B answers. (A) Voice Call. This is a Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH). Mobile Originating Call This section describes what happens when a mobile subscriber wants to set up a call. 1. Sending the B-number (the number to the called subscriber. Over SDCCH all signaling preceding a call takes place. BSC allocates a signaling channel using Access Grant Channel (AGCH). MS sends a call setup request via SDCCH to the MSC/VLR. Below is the description of signaling used for voice call setup. MS establishes a connection to the network. 7. MSC/VLR forwards the B-number to an exchange in the PSTN. as in the case of a normal call set up. This is forwarded to the BTS and MS. which establishes a connection in PSTN to the B-subscriber. 40 . 9. (This setup is not performed if the MS is in active mode. The authentication procedure. Mobile originated SMS transfers a short message submitted by the MS to a service centre. Marking the MS ³active´ in MSC/VLR. since the connection already exists.in this case o f PSTN subscriber) 8. 6. This includes: 4. which are told to activate the TCH. (B) Mobile Originated SMS. the connection is established. Data call and sending of a short message are described separately. 11. It also provides information about the delivery of the short message. 10. 2.8. 3.

HLR translates MSISDN into IMSI. The PSTN subscriber keys in the MS¶s telephone number (MSISDN). Therefore the MS must be located & paged before a connection can be established. the call is rerouted by the GMSC to that number. Mobile Terminated Call. The MSISDN is analyzed in the local PSTN exchange. GMSC analyzes MSISDN to find out which HLR the MS is registered in.³call forwarding to Cnumber´. HLR requests a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) from the serving MSC/VLR. HLR also checks the service. A connection is established to the Gateway MSC (GMSC).Figure 23:mobile originated cell II. most likely via PSTN. whereas the location of the PSTN subscriber is known. and determines which MSC/VLR is currently serving the MS. 4. 41 . 3. If the service is activated. (A) Voice call Below is the description of the call setup procedure for a call from a PSTN subscriber to a mobile subscriber. and queries the HLR for information about how to route the call to the serving MSC/VLR. 2. MSRN identifies the MSC/VLR. The PSTN exchange knows that this is a call to a GSM subscriber. 1. The major difference between making a call to a mobile subscriber and making a call to a PSTN is that the location of the mobile subscriber is unknown.

MS is paged and a connection is set up between the MS and the network. 5.C to a MS. 6. directly or via the PSTN. 6. SMS-C sends the message to the SMS-GMSC. Figure 24: mobile terminated call 42 . or a failure report. This information is either a delivery report. 3. A user sends a message to a SMS-C. which informs the originator that the short message was not delivered and the reason why. GMSC reroutes the call to the MSC/VLR. (B) Mobile Terminated SMS. which confirms the delivery of the message to the recipient. SMS-GMSC queries the HLR for routing information. (This step is not performed if the MS is in active mode). It also provides information about the delivery of the short message. Mobile Terminated SMS has the capacity to transfer a short message from the SMS. 1. 2. The HLR returns routing information to the SMS-GMSC. SMS-GMSC reroutes the message to the MSC/VLR.5. Re-transmission can also be ordered. 4. MSC/VLR returns the MSRN via HLR to the GMSC. as in the normal call setup case.

and especially one covering a standard 6000 pages long. and its sibling systems operating at 1. GSM is a very complex standard. GSM comes close to fulfilling the requirements for a personal communication system: close enough that it is being used as a basis for the next generation of mobile communication technology in Europe. I believe. resulting in lighter. fax. showing that international cooperation on such projects between academia. whose objective can be stated as the availability of all communication services anytime. more compact. and supplementary services. The GSM system. and government can succeed. but that is probably the price that must be paid to achieve the level of integrated service and quality offered while subject to the rather severe restrictions imposed by the radio environ 43 . not to mention the convenience to people of carrying just one communication terminal anywhere they go. Short Message Service. to the benefit of the public both in terms of cost and service quality. Having a multitude of incompatible systems throughout the world moves us farther away from this ideal. The SIM card is a novel approach that implements personal mobility in addition to terminal mobility. and support for a variety of services such as telephony. The economies of scale created by a unified system are enough to justify its implementation. to anyone.9 GHz (called GSM1900 or PCS1900. and operating in North America). however. by a single identity number and a pocketable communication terminal [25].9. industry. and more energy-efficient terminals. anywhere. It is a standard that ensures interoperability without stifling competition and innovation among suppliers. It was a monumental task that the original GSM committee undertook. regardless of national boundaries. Together with international roaming. there are many details missing. data transfer. the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). are a first approach at a true personal communication system.8 GHz (called DCS1800) and 1. Telecommunications are evolving towards personal communication networks. For example. by using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) microprocessor technology. many functions of the mobile station can be built on one chipset. As with any overview.CONCLUSION In this paper I have tried to give an overview of the GSM system. that I gave the general flavor of GSM and the philosophy behind its design. and one that has proven a success.

Thomas Haug. London. y y y y y y I. GSM network systems and overall system integration. D. Peter Peregrinus. editor. M. editors. M.V. editor. John Wiley &Sons. Scheller. y y 44 . Data in the GSM cellular network. In D.C. 1993. y y y M. C. Electrical Communication. In R.V. In D. Balston and R. Harris. Griffiths. M. 2nd Quarter 1993. London. Overview of the GSM project. GSM base station system. 2nd edition. 1992.C.C. I. Balston. Artech House. 15(3-4). In EUROCON 88. Personal and Mobile Radio Systems. M.C. Bezler et al. 1993. P.V. Rissen. David Cheeseman. The pan-European cellular mobile radio system. Feldmann and J. Boston. Boston. Déchaux and R. Artech House. Facsimile over cellular radio. Macario. Macario. 1992. What are GSM and DCS. Audestad. Telcom Report International. Harris. Chichester. John M. June 1988. The pan-European cellular technology. 2nd Quarter 1993. Cellular Radio Systems. 1991. 2nd Quarter 1993. M. Macario. Advanced equipment for an advanced network. Balston and R. Boston. editors. Cellular Radio Systems. Peter Peregrinus. In EUROCON 88. In R. Artech House.V. Macario. Electrical Communication. Balston. Personal and Mobile Radio Systems.C.V. In D. Electrical Communication. 1991. The pan-European system: GSM. David M. Network aspects of the GSM system. editors. Josef-Franz Huber. Cellular Radio Systems. 1993.REFERENCES y Jan A. June 1988. Balston and R.10. Macario. ISDN Explained: Worldwide Network and Applications Technology.

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