The Global System for Mobile communications is a digital cellular communications system. It was developed in order to create a common European mobile telephone standard but it has been rapidly accepted worldwide. GSM was designed to be compatible with ISDN services.

1.1 History of the cellular mobile radio and GSM
The idea of cell-based mobile radio systems appeared at Bell Laboratories (in USA) in the early 1970s. However, mobile cellular systems were not introduced for commercial use until the 1980s. During the early 1980s, analog cellular telephone systems experienced a very rapid growth in Europe, particularly in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom. Today cellular systems still represent one of the fastest growing telecommunications systems. But in the beginnings of cellular systems, each country developed its own system, which was an undesirable situation for the following reasons: ‡ ‡ The equipment was limited to operate only within the boundaries of each country. The market for each mobile equipment was limited.

In order to overcome these problems, the Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications (CEPT) formed, in 1982, the Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) in order to develop a pan-European mobile cellular radio system (the GSM acronym became later the acronym for Global System for Mobile communications). The standardized system had to meet certain criterias: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Spectrum efficiency International roaming Low mobile and base stations costs Good subjective voice quality Compatibility with other systems such as ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) Ability to support new services

Unlike the existing cellular systems, which were developed using an analog technology, the GSM system was developed using a digital technology. The reasons for this choice are explained in section 3


In 1989 the responsibility for the GSM specifications passed from the CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The aim of the GSM specifications is to describe the functionality and the interface for each component of the system, and to provide guidance on the design of the system. These specifications will then standardize the system in order to guarantee the proper interworking between the different elements of the GSM system. In 1990, the phase I of the GSM specifications were published but the commercial use of GSM did not start until mid1991. The most important events in the development of the GSM system are presented in the table 1 Year 1982 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 Events CEPT establishes a GSM group in order to develop the standards for a panEuropean cellular mobile system Adoption of a list of recommendations to be generated by the group Field tests were performed in order to test the different radio techniques proposed for the air interface TDMA is chosen as access method (in fact, it will be used with FDMA) Initial Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed by telecommunication operators (representing 12 countries) Validation of the GSM system The responsibility of the GSM specifications is passed to the ETSI Appearance of the phase 1 of the GSM specifications Commercial launch of the GSM service Enlargement of the countries that signed the GSM- MoU> Coverage of larger cities/airports Coverage of main roads GSM services start outside Europe Phase 2 of the GSM specifications Coverage of rural areas Table 1: Events in the development of GSM From the evolution of GSM, it is clear that GSM is not anymore only a European standard. GSM networks are operational or planned in over 80 countries around the world. The rapid and increasing acceptance of the GSM system is illustrated with the following figures: ‡ ‡ 1.3 million GSM subscribers worldwide in the beginning of 1994. Over 5 million GSM subscribers worldwide in the beginning of 1995.



Over 10 million GSM subscribers only in Europe by December 1995. Since the appearance of GSM, other digital mobile systems have been developed. The table 2 charts the different mobile cellular systems developed since the commercial launch of cellular systems. Mobile Cellular System Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT), 450> American Mobile Phone System (AMPS) Total Access Communication System (TACS) Radio COM 2000 C-Netz Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT), 900> Global System for Mobile communications> North American Digital Cellular (NADC) Digital Cellular System (DCS) 1800 Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) or Japanese Digital Cellular (JDC) Personal Communications Systems (PCS) 1900- Canada> PCS-United States of America> Table 2: Mobile cellular system

Year 1981 1983 1985 1986 1991 1992 1994 1995 1996

1.2 Objectives
a. Common radio spectrum in all countries b. Integrated European system with international roaming c. Create large single market d. Increase available cellular radio capacity e. Better security functions f. Accommodate new services

1.3 Advantages
a. GSM is mature; this maturity means a more stable network with robust features. b. Less signal deterioration inside buildings. c. Ability to use repeaters. d. Talktime is generally higher in GSM phones due to the nature of transmission. e. The availability of Subscriber Identity Modules allows users to switch networks. f. GSM covers virtually all parts of the world so roaming is not a problem.


1.4 Disadvantages
a. Pulse nature of TDMA transmission used in 2G interferes with some electronics, especially certain audio amplifiers. b. Intellectual property is concentrated among a few industry participants, creating barriers to entry for new entrants and competition among phone manufacturers. c. GSM has a fixed maximum cell site range of 35 km, imposed by technical limit.


Frequencies used in a cell will be reused several cells away. and radio frequency is handed-over by one cell to another without interrupting a call. The interference will not produce any damage to the system if a distance of about 2. several radio channels are reserved for the signaling information. The concept of cellular systems is the use of low power transmitters in order to enable the efficient reuse of the frequencies. In fact. The frequency band allocated to a cellular mobile radio system is distributed over a group of cells and this distribution is repeated in all the covering area of an operator. A cell corresponds to the covering area of one transmitter or a small collection of transmitters. The size of a cell is determined by the transmitter's power. location. the frequencies cannot be reused for hundred of kilometers as they are limited to the covering area of the transmitter. ‡ In order to exchange the information needed to maintain the communication links within the cellular network. The receiver filters must also be very per formant. The whole number of radio channels available can then be used in each group of cells that form the covering area of an operator. 5 . 2.2.5 to 3 times the diameter of a cell is reserved between transmitters. its identity. In order to work properly. the covering area of an operator is divided into cells. Neighboring cells can not share the same channels. The frequency reuse will increase considerably the capacity in number of users. a cellular system must verify the following two main conditions: ‡ The power level of a transmitter within a single cell must be limited in order to reduce the interference with the transmitters of neighboring cells. the frequencies must be reused only within a certain pattern. The distance between the cells using the same frequency must be sufficient to avoid interference. In order to reduce the interference. As a receiver(cell phone) moves from one place to the next. if the transmitters used are very powerful.CELLULAR SYSTEM Wireless communication technology in which several small exchanges(called cells) equipped with low-power radio antennas (strategically located over a wide geographical area) are interconnected through a central exchange.1 The cellular structure In a cellular system.

Microcells These cells are used for densely populated areas. Umbrella cells A freeway crossing very small cells produces an important number of handovers among the different small neighboring cells. 2. These cells are called selective cells.3 Types of cells The density of population in a country is so varied that different types of cells are used: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Macro cells Micro cells Selective cells Umbrella cells Macrocells The macrocells are large cells for remote and sparsely populated areas.2 Cluster The cells are grouped into clusters. In some cases. the concept of umbrella cells is introduced. In order to solve this problem.2. 7. The number of cells in a cluster must be determined so that the cluster can be repeated continuously within the covering area of an operator. The typical clusters contain 4. The number of cells in each cluster is very important. the bigger the number of channels per cell will be. 12 or 21 cells. Selective cells It is not always useful to define a cell with a full coverage of 360 degrees. The smaller the number of cells per cluster is. The capacity of each cell will be therefore increased. 6 . cells with a particular shape and coverage are needed. the number of channels available is increased as well as the capacity of the cells. However a balance must be found in order to avoid the interference that could occur between neighboring clusters. This interference is produced by the small size of the clusters (the size of the cluster is defined by the number of cells per cluster). By splitting the existing areas into smaller cells. The total number of channels per cell depends on the number of available channels and the type of cluster used.

analog systems pass the physical disturbances in radio transmission (such as fades.3.1 The capacity of the system As it is explained in section 1. cellular systems have experienced a very important growth. These disturbances decrease the quality of the communication because they produce effects such as fadeouts.3 Aspects of quality The quality of the service can be considerably improved using a digital technology rather than an analog one. 3. the best option (but not the perfect one) to handle the capacity needs in a cost-efficiency way. The improvement of digital systems comparing to analog systems is more noticeable under difficult reception conditions than under good reception conditions. 7 . On the other hand. ANALOG TO DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY In the 1980s most mobile cellular systems were based on analog systems. easily than an analog one. hisses. crosstalks. In fact. The new analog technologies proposed were able to overcome the problem to a certain degree but the costs were too important. Analog systems were not able to cope with this increasing demand. The GSM system can be considered as the first digital cellular system. In order to overcome this problem. multipath reception. 3.the implementation of future improvements and the change of its own characteristics. new frequency bands and new technologies were proposed. Additionally. other frequency bands have been allocated for the development of mobile cellular radio).2 Compatibility with other systems such as ISDN The decision of adopting a digital technology for GSM was made in the course of developing the standard. digital systems avoid these effects transforming the signal into bits. 3. But the possibility of using new frequency bands was rejected by a big number of countries because of the restricted spectrum (even if later on. it was decide that the digital technology was the best option. The digital radio was. The different reasons that explain this transition from analog to digital technology are presented in this section. spurious signals or interferences) to the receiver. The ISDN network is an example of this evolution. etc. During the development of GSM.a digital system allows. the telecommunications industry converted to digital methods. therefore. In order to make GSM compatible with the services offered by ISDN.

THE GSM NETWORK GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) uses a series of radio transmitters called Base Stations (BS) to connect you and your cell phone to your cellular network. The name or code of that network will appear on the LCD screen of the cellphone.4. the HLR immediately checks the special "signature" contained in the request against it¶s special subscriber database. it will first check the HLR to see where you are. 4. The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS). The Base Station Subsystem (BSS).1 Architecture of the GSM network The GSM technical specifications define the different entities that form the GSM network by defining their functions and interface requirements. The Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS). so that when the network¶s MSC needs to route an incoming call to your cellphone number. If your subscription is current. register and locate you as a that network's subscriber. the MSC sends a message back to the phone via the network of BSs that indicates that you¶re allowed to access the network. Every now and gain. a process called Polling. The GSM network can be divided into four main parts: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The Mobile Station (MS). the HLR also registers which BS your cellphone is currently connected to. Each BS is also termed a cell. 8 . Once it¶s received your log-on request. the cellphone will send a message to the network indicating where it is. Once this network "name" message appears on your phone¶s LCD screen. The MSC also routes all your incoming and outgoing calls to and from the fixedline networks or other cellular networks. so named because it covers a certain range within a Discrete area(cell). The entire log-on process usually takes only a couple of seconds. it means you¶re connected to the network and able to make and receive calls. The MSC also contains a critical component called the Home Location Register (HLR) which provides the administrative information required to authenticate.At the same time.

Gener al ar chit e ct ur e of a GSM net wor k HLR Home Location Register BTS Base Transceiver Station PSTN Public Switched Telecomm Network ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network MS Mobile Station EIR Equipment Identity Register 9 .Architecture of the GSM network Figur e 1.

2 The S I M The S I M is a s mar t c ard t hat i de nt if ies t he t er minal. which are continuously decreasing. Wit hou t t he S I M card. The Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). The GSM portable terminals can also be installed in vehicles.1. Their maximum allowed output power is 20 W.1.1.1 The Terminal There are different types of terminals distinguished principally by their power and application: ‡ ‡ ‡ The `fixed' terminals are the ones installed in cars. By inser t ing t he S I M card int o t he t er minal.1. f igure2 : MOBI LE S TATI ON 4.4. The handhelds terminals have experienced the biggest success thanks to their weight and volume. 4. These terminals can emit upto 2 W. t he t er minal is not oper at ional.1. t he u ser can have access t o all t he subscribed ser vice s. 10 .1 Mobile Station A Mobile Station consists of two main elements: ‡ ‡ The mobile equipment or terminal. Their maximum allowed output power is 8W.

Descr ipt ion o f eac h No. It is in charge of the transmission and reception.The S I M car d is pr ot ect ed by a f our-digit Per sonal I de nt if icat ion Numb er (PI N). 47 = Net wor k code (NC). 2 = S I M Ve nder I de nt if icat ion.1.1. 8 = Amount o f Me mor y 57 = Mont h o f Manu fact ure . I n o rder t o ide nt if y t he su bscriber t o t he s yst e m. The Base Station Controller (BSC). = Running Serial F igure3: sim 4. A BTS is usually placed in the center of a cell. t he S I M car d cont ains some par amet er s o f t he u ser such as it s I nt er nat ional Mobile S u bscriber I dent it y (I MS I ).3382. Its transmitting power defines the size of a cell. The BSS can be divided into two parts: ‡ ‡ ‡ The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) or Base Station. 23 = Count r y Code (CC).1 Base Transceiver Station The BTS corresponds to the transceivers and antennas used in each cell of the network. TRAU 4.2. 11 .2 Base Station Subsystem The BSS connects the Mobile Station and the NSS.. is give n be low: F1 = S I M De signat or . Number on t he S I M card Known as I nt egr at ed Cir cuit Car d I dent it y Number (I CCI D).

1. 4. It is able to compress speech from 64 Kbps to 16 Kbps. Note that the TRAU is not used for data connections. frequency hopping. A BSC is principally in charge of handovers.1. The used method is called regular pulse excitation±long term prediction (RPE-LTP). The task of the TRAU is to compress or decompress speech between the MS and the TRAU.2 Base Station Controller The BSC controls a group of BTS and manages their radio resources.2. in the case of a full rate channel (net bit rate with full rate is 13 Kbps) and to 8 Kbps in the case of a half rate channel (net bit rate with half rate is 6.5 Kbps).Figure 4:BTS 4. which typically is located between the BSC and the MSC. exchange functions and control of the radio frequency power levels of the BTSs. 12 .2.3 TRAU ( Transcoder Rate Adaptation Unit) One of the most interesting functions in GSM involves the TRAU.

1. ISDN users.1. The GMSC is the interface between the mobile cellular network and the PSTN.2 Gateway Mobile services Switching Center (GMSC) A gateway is a node interconnecting two networks. It also includes data bases needed in order to store information about the subscribers and to manage their mobility.3. fixed telephony users. It also stores the current location of these subscribers and the services to which they have access.3.1.1 Mobile services Switching Center (MSC) It is the central component of the NSS.Figure 6: TRANSCODER RATE ADAPTI ON UNI T 4.3 Home Location Register (HLR) The HLR is considered as a very important database that stores information of the subscribers belonging to the covering area of a MSC. It also provides connection to other networks. 4. The location of the subscriber corresponds to the SS7 address of the Visitor Location Register(VLR) associated to the terminal.1. 4. etc. The MSC performs the switching functions of the network. 13 . It is in charge of routing calls from the fixed network towards a GSM user. The GMSC is often implemented in the same machines as the MSC. such as mobile users. 4. The different components of the NSS are described below.3 Network and Switching Subsystem Its main role is to manage the communications between the mobile users and other users.3.

4 Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) The OSS is connected to the different components of the NSS and to the BSC. More particularly.1.3. However. The VLR is always implemented together with a MSC. The VLR will then have enough information in order to assure the subscribed services without needing to ask the HLR each time a communication is established.2 Geographical areas of the GSM network The GSM network is made up of geographic areas. It is a register containing information about the mobile equipments. 4. the increasing number of base stations. so the area under control of the MSC is also the area under control of the VLR. As shown in Figure 8 these 14 . 4.6 Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The EIR is also used for security purposes.1. It provides the parameters needed for authentication and encryption functions. in order to control and monitor the GSM system. During these communications. due to the development of cellular radio networks.5 Authentication Center (AuC) The AuC register is used for security purposes. 4. has provoked that some of the maintenance tasks are transferred to the BTS.1. the transmission of speech and data can be alternated.1. A terminal is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI).4. When a subscriber enters the covering area of a new MSC. This transfer decreases considerably the costs of the maintenance of the system. the VLR associated to this MSC will request information about the new subscriber to its corresponding HLR. 4.4 Visitor Location Register (VLR) The VLR contains information from a subscriber's HLR necessary in order to provide the subscribed services to visiting users. These parameters help to verify the user's identity.7 GSM Interworking Unit (GIWU) The GIWU corresponds to an interface to various networks for data communications. it contains a list of all valid terminals. 4. It is also in charge of controlling the traffic load of the BSS.

It is the area in which the subscriber is paged. The location area is a group of cells. yet only by a single MSC (see Figure 8). and public land mobile network (PLMN) areas. MSC/VLR service areas. Figure 7: GSM net wor k ar eas The cell is the area given radio coverage by one base transceiver station. Each LA is assigned a location area identity (LAI) number.areas include cells. location areas (LAs). Each LA is served by one or more base station controllers. Figure 8: Location Areas An MSC/VLR service area represents the part of the GSM network that is covered by one MSC and which is reachable. 15 . as it is registered in the VLR of the MSC (see Figure 9). The GSM network identifies each cell via the cell global identity (CGI) number assigned to each cell.

3. five main functions can be defined: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Transmission. 4.3 GSM functions In this paragraph. Mobility Management (MM).1 Transmission The transmission function includes two subfunctions: ‡ ‡ The first one is related to the means needed for the transmission of user information. In GSM. Figure 10: PLMN Network Areas 4. Administration and Maintenance (OAM). the description of the GSM network is focused on the differents functions to fulfil by the network and not on its physical components. Communication Management (CM). Radio Resources management (RR). 16 .Figure 9: MSC/VLR Service Areas The PLMN service area is an area served by one network operator (see Figure 10). Operation. The second one is related to the means needed for the trasnmission of signaling information.

‡ 4. However in order to avoid unnecessary signalling information. This procedure of changing the resources is called handover.3. the power level of the mobile is increased. In order to perform the handover.3 Mobility Management The MM function is in charge of all the aspects related with the mobility of the user. a handover is performed.e the signal is deteriorated).3. Four different types of handovers can be distinguished: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Handover of channels in the same cell.4.2 Handover The user movements can produce the need to change the channel or cell. 17 . the mobile station controls continuously its own signal strengh and the signal strengh of the neighboring cells. The mobile station and the AuC compute a SRES using the secret key. Handover of cells controlled by the same BSC. This is done until the increase of the power level has no effect on the quality of the signal. stored in the SIM card and the AuC. The power measurements allow to decide which is the best cell in order to maintain the quality of the communication link. 4. The mobile station is the active participant in this procedure. When the quality of the transmission decreases (i. Two basic algorithms are used for the handover: ‡ The `minimum acceptable performance' algorithm.3. and a ciphering algorithm called A3 are used in order to verify the authenticity of the user. Handovers are mainly controlled by the MSC.3. The `power budget' algorithm. the MSC is only notified of the handover). The list of cells that must be monitored by the mobile station is given by the base station. Handover of cells controlled by different MSCs. instead of continuously increasing the power level.1 Authentication and security The authentication procedure involves the SIM card and the Authentication Center. specially when the quality of the communication is decreasing. A secret key. When this happens. This algorithm performs a handover. Handover of cells belonging to the same MSC but controlled by different BSCs. specially the location management and the authentication and security. the algorithm A3 and a random number generated by the AuC. the first two types of handovers are managed by the concerned BSC (in this case. in order to obtain a good communication quality.

3 Short Message Services management In order to support these services.4. 4. maintaining and releasing as well as for selecting the type of service. The GMSC asks the HLR for information helping to the call routing.3.4. a user dials the Mobile Subscriber ISDN (MSISDN) number which includes: ‡ ‡ ‡ a country code a national destination code identifying the subscriber's operator a code corresponding to the subscriber's HLR The call is then passed to the GMSC (if the call is originated from a fixed network) which knows the HLR corresponding to a certain MISDN number.3.4. 4.2 Supplementary Services management The mobile station and the HLR are the only components of the GSM network involved with this function. The different Supplementary Services (SS) to which the users have access are presented in section 6. Supplementary Services management. Enciphering is another option to guarantee a very strong security but this procedure is going to be described in section 5. One of the most important functions of the CC is the call routing. In order to assure user confidentiality. 4.3. In order to reach a mobile subscriber.Another security procedure is to check the equipment identity. the user is registered with a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) after its first location update procedure. This VLR allocates temporarily a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) for the call.3. the mobile station is allowed to connect the network. 4. a GSM network is in contact with a Short Message 18 .4 Communication Management (CM) The CM function is responsible for: ‡ ‡ ‡ Call control.1 Call Control (CC) The CC is responsible for call establishing. The HLR requests this information from the subscriber's current VLR.3. Short Message Services management. If the IMEI number of the mobile is authorized in the EIR.

usually incorporated in the components of the BSS and NSS. 4. Administration and Maintenance (OAM) The OAM function allows the operator to monitor and control the system as well as to modify the configuration of the elements of the system. in charge of controlling several BTSs. ‡ ‡ 19 . It has the same role as the GMSC. Not only the OSS is part of the OAM. The SMS-IWMSC for Mobile Originating Short Messages (SMS-MO/PP). This information is then passed to the OSS which is in charge of analize it and control the network. also contribute to the OAM functions. also the BSS and NSS participate in its functions as it is shown in the following examples: ‡ The components of the BSS and NSS provide the operator with all the information it needs. The self test tasks. The BSC. is another example of an OAM function performed outside the OSS.4 Operation.Service Center through the two following interfaces: ‡ ‡ The SMS-GMSC for Mobile Terminating Short Messages (SMS-MT/PP).

of 25 MHz each one. 5. It is one of the most important interfaces of the GSM system. so 1800 band introduced. THE GSM RADIO INTERFACE The radio interface is the interface between the mobile stations and the fixed infrastructure. In 1800 band Airtel has 10 channels. Two frequency bands. 5. The spectrum eficiency depends on the radio interface and the transmission. This is due principally to military reasons and to the existence of previous analog systems using part of the two 25 Mhz frequency bands. The specification of the radio interface has then an important influence on the spectrum efficiency. of 75 MHz each one. in order to obtain a complete compatibility between mobile stations and networks of different manufacturers and operators. have been allocated for the GSM system: ‡ The band 1710-1785 MHz has been allocated for the uplink direction(transmitting from the mobile station to the base station). The above band is not sufficient for all the operators. the radio interface must be completely defined.5.2 Multiple access schemes 20 . In 900 band Airtel has 40 channels. ‡ The band 1805-1880 MHz has been allocated for the downlink direction(transmitting from the base station to the mobile station). But not all the countries can use the whole GSM frequency bands. have been allocated for the GSM system: ‡ The band 890-915 MHz has been allocated for the uplink direction (transmitting from the mobile station to the base station). One of the main objectives of GSM is roaming. Total 50 channels for communication.1 Frequency allocation Two frequency bands. Therefore. ‡ The band 935-960 MHz has been allocated for the downlink direction(transmitting from the base station to the mobile station). more particularly in aspects such as the capacity of the system and the techniques used in order to decrease the interference and to improve the frequency reuse scheme.

a frequency is assigned to a user. It is defined by its frequency and the position of its corresponding burst within a TDMA frame.1 FDMA and TDMA Using FDMA. So the larger the number of users in a FDMA system. The control channels used for network management messages and some channel maintenance tasks.2. into 8 bursts. Each carrier frequency is then divided in time using a TDMA scheme.2. consequently. A TDMA frame is formed with 8 bursts and lasts. the larger the number of available frequencies must be.The multiple access scheme defines how different simultaneous communications.2.In GSM. using a FDMA scheme.A burst is the unit of time in a TDMA system. with a width of 200 kHz. that form a TDMA frame.1 Traffic channels (TCH) Full-rate traffic channels (TCH/F) are defined using a group of 26 TDMA frames called a 26-Multiframe. Each of the eight bursts. In GSM there are two types of channels: ‡ ‡ The traffic channels used to transport speech and data information.2.2.577 ms. share the GSM radio spectrum. Normally a 25MHz frequency band can provide 125 carrier frequencies but the first carrier frequency is used as a guard band between GSM and other services working on lower frequencies. are then assigned to a single user. and it lasts approximately 0. explain why the number of users in a FDMA system can be "quickly" limited. a 25 MHz frequency band is divided. in this 26. the traffic channels for the downlink and uplink are separated by 3 bursts.615 ms. This scheme splits the radio channel.Multiframe structure.2 Channel structure A channel corresponds to the recurrence of one burst every frame. The limited available radio spectrum and the fact that a user will not free its assigned frequency until he does not need it anymore. The 26-Multiframe lasts consequently 120 ms. 5. between different mobile stations situated in different cells. combined with frequency hopping. 5. has been adopted as the multiple access scheme for GSM 5.2 Control channels 21 . 4.2. A mix of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). into 124 carrier frequencies spaced one from each other by a 200 kHz frequency band. 5.

uses the BCH channels. It has the same length as the normal burst but a different structure. Four different types of bursts can be distinguished in GSM: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The frequency-correction burst is used on the FCCH. ‡ 5. which supplies the mobile station with the frequency reference of the system in order to synchronize it with the network. the burst is the unit in time of a TDMA system. Associated control channels. to provide the mobile station with the sufficient information it needs to synchronize with the network. which gives to the mobile station the training sequence needed in order to demodulate the information transmitted by the base station The Frequency-Correction Channel (FCCH). Its structure is presented in figure 6.According to their functions. The normal burst is used to carry speech or data information.3 Broadcast channels (BCH) The base station. 5. The synchronization burst is used on the SCH. 22 .2.577 ms and has a length of 156.3 Burst structure As it has been stated before. Dedicated control channels.25 bits.Three different types of BCHs can be distinguished: ‡ ‡ The Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). It has the same length as the normal burst but a different structure. which gives to the mobile station the parameters needed in order to identify and access the network The Synchronization Channel (SCH). four different classes of control channels are defined: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Broadcast channels. It lasts approximately 0.2.2. The random access burst is used on the RACH and is shorter than the normal burst. Common control channels.

a base station does not have to support it necessarily On the other hand. There are different types of frequency hopping algorithms. t he TDMA f r ame and t he nor mal burst The tail bits (T) are a group of three bits set to zero and placed at the beginning and the end of a burst. The guard period (GP). with a length of 8. is used to avoid a possible overlap of two mobiles during the ramping time.Figure 11: S t r uct ure o f t he 26 -Mult if r ame.2. of 57 bits each. the slow frequency hopping is introduced. containing signaling or user data.25 bits.4 Frequency hopping The propagation conditions and therefore the multipath fading depend on the radio frequency. The frequency hopping also reduces the effects of co-channel interference. a mobile station has to accept frequency hopping when a base station decides to use it. 5. Even if frequency hopping can be very useful for the system. The algorithm selected is sent through the Broadcast Control Channels. The coded data bit corresponds to two groups. 23 . In order to avoid important differences in the quality of the channels. They are used to cover the periods of ramping up and down of the mobile's power. A fast frequency hopping changes the many times per frame but it is not used in GSM. The slow frequency hopping changes the frequency with every TDMA frame.

in order to obtain blocks of 260 bits. which has a rate of 13 kbps. The final choice for the GSM speech code is a code named RPE-LTP (Regular Pulse Excitation Long-Term Prediction). these blocks are then passed to the speech code.1 Speech coding The transmission of speech is. 24 ‡ ‡ ‡ . at least as good as the one obtained with previous cellular systems.3 Fr om source inf or mat ion t o r adio wave s The f igu re 4 pr es ent s t he dif f e r e nt ope r at ions t h at have t o be per f or me d in ord er t o pass f r om t he sp eech source t o radio waves and vice ve r sa. To reduce the redundancy in the sounds of the voice.3. The GSM speech codec. This code uses the information from previous samples in order to predict the current sample. This reduction is essential due to the limited capacity of transmission of a radio channel. which will transform the analog signal (voice) into a digital representation. the most important service of a mobile cellular system. at the moment.The speech signal is divided into blocks of 20 ms. has to meet the following criteria: A good speech quality.5. Figure 12: Fr om speech sou rce t o radio waves 5. The speech codec must not be very complex because complexity is equivalent to high costs.

2. n to 2 and K to 5. R.2. The block code corresponds to the block code defined in the GSM Recommendations 05. is then applied. used for error detection. Let's consider a convolution code with the following values: k is equal to 1. This convolution code uses then a rate of R = 1/2 and a delay of K = 5. The output of the block code is consequently a block of 244 bits. 25 . The value n corresponds to the number of bits at the output of the encoder. These 488 bits are punctured in order to produce a block of 456 bits.3. The least important is the class II.. 31 The block of 456 bits produced by the convolution code is then passed to the interleaver.03. Thirty two bits. The different classes are coded differently.3..5. First of all. which contains the remaining 78 bits. The most important class is the class Ia containing 50 bits. the class Ia bits are block-coded.1 Channel coding for the GSM data TCH channels The channel coding is performed using two codes: a block code and a convolution code. A convolution code can be defined by three variables: n. The block code receives an input block of 240 bits and adds four zero tail bits at the end of the input block. which contains 132 bits. The resultant 53 bits are added to the class Ib bits.3. 1. k and K. with r = 1/2 and K = 5. obtained as follows. which means that it will add a redundant bit for each input bit. The convolution code uses 5 consecutive bits in order to compute the redundancy bit. Four zero bits are added to this block of 185 bits (50+3+132). A convolutional code. k to the number of bits at the input of the block and K to the memory of the encoder. Next in importance is the class Ib. are not transmitted: C (11 + 15 j) for j = 0. The ratio.2 Channel coding Channel coding adds redundancy bits to the original information in order to detect and correct. obtaining an output block of 378 bits. As the convolution code is a 1/2-rate convolution code. of the code is defined as follows: R = k/n. Three parity bits. errors occurred during the transmission. are added to the 50 class Ia bits. if possible.The classII bits are added.2 Channel coding for the GSM speech channels Before applying the channel coding.A block of 488 bits is generated. 5. 5. the 260 bits of a GSM speech frame are divided in three different classes according to their function and importance.

2. and four zero bits are added to the 184 bits before applying the convolutional code (r = 1/2 and K = 5).5. 5.4 Ciphering Ciphering is used to protect signaling and user data. Secondly. Section 5. a 114 bit sequence is produced using the ciphering key.3 Burst assembling The burst assembling procedure is in charge of grouping the bits into bursts.3.3. In order to decipher correctly. which does not need to be punctured. The output of the convolutional code is then a block of 456 bits. Forty parity bits. This bit sequence is then XORed with the two 57 bit blocks of data included in a normal burst. 5. obtained using a fire code. the receiver has to use the same algorithm A5 for the deciphering procedure. First of all. 5.3.3 Channel coding for the GSM control channels In GSM the signaling information is just contained in 184 bits. Figure 13: GMSK modulat or 26 . an algorithm called A5 and the burst numbers. the subscriber key and a random number delivered by the network (this random number is the same as the one used for the authentication procedure).3.5 Modulation The modulation chosen for the GSM system is the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK).3 presents the different bursts structures and describes in detail the structure of the normal burst.2. a ciphering key is computed using the algorithm A8 stored on the SIM card.

3.5 Timing advance The timing of the bursts transmissions is very important.4 Discontinuous transmission (DTX) This is another aspect of GSM that could have been included as one of the requirements of the GSM speech codec. an unpleasant effect called clipping. It also extends the life of a mobile's battery. This can become quite interesting if we take into consideration the fact that a person speaks less than 40 or 50 percent during a conversation. The GMSK modulation has a rate of 270 5/6 kbauds and a BT product equal to 0.The aim of this section is not to describe precisely the GMSK modulation as it is too long and it implies the presentation of too many mathematical concepts. this mobile. 27 . If the voice signal is considered as noise. the transmitter is turned off producing then. only brief aspects of the GMSK modulation are presented in this section. the base station tells. This can be very annoying to the user at the reception because it seems that the connection is dead. The aim of the timing advance is that the signals coming from the different mobile stations arrive to the base station at the right time. The comfort noise eliminates the impression that the connection is dead. Mobiles are at different distances from the base stations. Their delay depends. 5. The DTX function is performed thanks to two main features: ‡ The Voice Activity Detection (VAD). Therefore. The DTX helps then to reduce interference between different cells and to increase the capacity of the system. to advance the transmission of its bursts. consequently. ‡ 5. on their distance. a total silence is heard at the receiver. In order to overcome this problem. The comfort noise. Figure 5 presents the principle of a GMSK modulator. The function of the DTX is to suspend the radio transmission during the silence periods. even if the background noise is very important. the transmitter is turned off and therefore. The base station measures the timing delay of the mobile stations. the receiver creates a minimum of background noise called comfort noise. If the bursts corresponding to a mobile station arrive too late and overlap with other bursts. which has to determine whether the sound represents speech or noise. complexity and low spurious radiations (that reduce the possibilities of adjacent channel interference). An inconvenient of the DTX function is that when the signal is considered as noise. The GMSK modulation has been chosen as a compromise between spectrum efficiency.

they also perform measurements on the power level of the different mobile stations. Each mobile station will then only 'listen' to its sub channel and will stay in the sleep mode during the other sub channels of the paging channel.7 Discontinuous reception It is a method used to conserve the mobile station's power. 5. A base station also controls its power level. the base station changes its power le ve l. 28 . The mobile station measures the strength and the quality of the signal between itself and the base station. The paging channel is divided into sub channels corresponding to single mobile stations.6 Power control At the same time the base stations perform the timing measurements. These power levels are adjusted so that the power is nearly the same for each burst. If the mobile station does not receive correctly the signal.5.

.Voice mail. -Emergencycalls(E1®Eh). GSM SERVICES It is important to note that all the GSM services were not introduced since the appearance of GSM but they have been introduced in a regular way.6. With the SMS Cell Broadcast (SMS-CB). Thanks to this service. . This service corresponds to an answering machine. The GSM Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) defined four classes for the introduction of the different GSM services: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ E1: introduced at the start of the service.Fax mail. a message of a maximum of 93 characters can be broadcast to all mobiles in a certain geographical area. ‡ Supplementary Services. 6. a message of a maximum of 160 alphanumeric characters can be sent to or from a mobile station. E2. ‡ Bearer services. Eh: introduced on availability of half-rate channels. A).Short Message Services (E1.Teletex . A: these services are optional.1 Teleservices -Telephony(E1® Eh). Three categories of services can be distinguished: ‡ Teleservices. the subscriber can receive fax messages at any fax machine. . Using these services. E2: introduced at the end of 1991. 29 . the message is stored. the mobile is powered off. -Facsmile group 3(E1).

. . . CLR (A).Call Barring.Multiparty service (E2).Connected Line identification Restriction.Calling Line Identification Restriction. BAIC (E1) Barring of incoming calls when roaming (A). Provides the user with online charge information. . BOIC-exHC (E1). AoC (E2).Advice of Charge.Call Forwarding (E1). The subscriber can forward incoming calls to another number if the called mobile is busy (CFB).2 Bearer services A bearer service is used for transporting user data. . There are different types of `call barring' services: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Barring of All Outgoing Calls. It enables the called user to restrict the presentation. It supplies the calling user with the directory number he gets if his call is forwarded. . Barring of Outgoing International Calls. 30 .Call hold (E2).6. CLIR (A). It enables the calling user to restrict the presentation. Alternate speech and data. CUG (A). CLIP (A). 6. Informs the user. Call forwarding can also be applied unconditionally (CFU). BOIC (E1). Barring of Outgoing International Calls.Calling Line Identification Presentation.3 Supplementary Services .300-9600 bps (E1) Synchronous dedicated packet data access. It supplies the called user with the ISDN of the calling user.Closed User Group. CLP (A). 300-9600 bps (E1) Asynchronous packet-switched assembler access. . Puts an active call on hold.Connected Line identification Presentation. 2400-9600 bps (E2). 300-9600 bps (E1). Some of the bearer services are listed below: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Asynchronous and synchronous data. Possibility of establishing a multiparty conversation.Call Waiting. . CW (E2). Barring of All Incoming Calls. . BAOC (E1). . about another incoming call. during a conversation. unreachable (CFNRc) or if there is no reply (CFNRy). It corresponds to a group of users with limited possibilities of calling (only the people of the group and certain numbers).

Site The geographical location where the RBS(radio base station subsystem)equipment is stored and the BTS antennas are mounted . 3-Sector site A site with equipment for three sector cells.CELL PLANNING ‡ ‡ Radio coverage Received signal strength in the mobile station from BTS above a chosen value . ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Figure 15:BT S with antennas 31 . Omni cell A cell with an omni-directional BTS antenna system.7. Cell The area that is covered from a BTS. Sector cell A cell with uni-directional BTS antenna system.

we obtain a straight line. Real-world planning must however. the cell has a hexagonal shape see figure 16: The hexagon becomes the symbol of cells in radio network.e. 32 . i. Still the first geometrical plan based on hexagons (the nominal cell plan) gives a good view of planning of system. consider the fact that radio propagation is very much dependent on the terrain and that hexagons are extremely simplified models of radio coverage patterns.7.1 The hexagon cell shape If we have two BTSs with omni-antennas and we require that the border between the coverage areas of each BTS is a set of points where the signal strength from both BTSs is same. If we repeat the procedure placing 5 more BTSs around the original one. the obtained coverage area.

the total number of available frequencies are evenly divided into frequency groups. for example by operator. 7.Then. when knowing two of the three factors: number of traffic channels. have to be known. the available number of frequencies per cell. normally the value for GOS is between 2% and 5%.000 Number of available frequencies=24 Cell pattern= 4/12(12 frequency groups) ‡ GOS = 2% How many 3-Sectors-sites needed? ‡ ‡ Frequencies per cell=24/12=2 frequencies Traffic channels per cell= 2*8-2(CCH) =14 TCH 33 . It is used when wanting to find out the third factor.3 Traffic and coverage analysis The cell planning process starts with some sort of traffic and coverage analysis. showing that a cellular network (in our case. as below: Where: n= number of calls per hour T=average conversation time A= offered traffic from one of several users in the system If n=1 and T=90s: A=1*90/3600=25mE Example of traffic calculation Indata: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Traffic per subscriber =25mE Number of subscribers=10.1 Traffic calculations The input for the traffic is mentioned above. The output should be information about how many sites and cells are needed.The analysis should also produce information about the geographical area of interest. CME 20 system) is needed . traffic (in erlangs).Available number of frequencies per cell can be decided when knowing which cell pattern should be used (see cell pattern figures fig: 19 & 20).In order be able to decide this.The erlang table is used for calculating the traffic. and GOS Traffic per subscriber is calculated with the erlang formula. and the expected capacity (traffic load). GOS is defined as allowed percentage of unsuccessful call set-ups due to congestion.7. as well as the GOS (Grade of service).3.

which may be used. The cell pattern and frequency plan are worked out not only for initial network but also for successive growth phases.8. Since the total number of channels (N) is fixed. F.1 Interference A fundamental principle in the design of cellular systems is the frequencies re-use patterns. In all three cases the site geometry has following features: ‡ Three cells (sectors)at each site.5 Cell patterns The distribution of the C/I ratio desired in a system determines the number of frequency groups.000/328 = 30 cells Needed number of 3-sector-sites = 30/3 = 10 7.4. The growth of traffic demand is an important input for network planning. Only 4/12 and 3/9 are interesting for CME 20. then each group will contain N/F channels.025E = 328 subscribers per cell Needed number of cells = 10. To avoid the expensive re-engineering of the system the network must be designed from the beginning to accommodate the growth. 2%GOS . Ericsson uses three types of frequency re-use patterns 7/12. An initial network must be planned to adapt smoothly to demands of traffic growth.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Traffic per cell=14 TCH. 7.2E/0. 7.2 E/cell (From the erlang table) Subscribers per cell=8.4 Frequencies re-use Based on traffic calculations. Frequency re-use is defined as the radio channels on the same carrier frequency covering geographically different areas. It is only when the system has matured to many thousands of subscribers within one single city area that the problems of the re-using frequencies to increase system capacity arise.4/12 and 3/9. a smaller number of frequency groups (F) would result in more channels per set and per cell. These areas must be separated from one another by a sufficient distance so that any co-channel or adjacent channel interference that may be encountered is not objectionable. The antenna pointing azimuths of the cells are separated by 120 degrees and the cells are arranged with antennas pointing at one of the nearest site location thus forming cells in 34 . If the total allocation of N channels is partitioned into F groups.

A group of neighboring cells using all the channels in the system. ‡ Each cell approximates the shape of hexagon We assume that the traffic is homogenously distributed within the cells. The cell size is normally given in terms of the distance b/w two neighboring sites. The 4/12 cell pattern uses 12 frequency groups in a 4 site re-use pattern. See fig21. See fig 22. but not reusing them. The 3/9cell pattern uses 9 frequency groups in a 3 site re-use pattern. ‡ Each cell uses one 60-degree transmitting antenna and two 60-degree diversity receiving antennas with the same pointing azimuths. according to the patterns described below is called a cluster. The cell radius R (= side of hexagon) is always one-third of site-to-site distance when 3-sectors sites are used.cloverleaf fashion. Example of how to divide the available frequencies into frequency groups: 24 f r eque nc ie s in 3/ 9 cell pat t er n Frequency gr oups Channels A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3 1 10 20 2 11 21 3 12 22 4 13 23 5 15 24 6 16 7 17 8 18 9 19 35 .

Figur e 2 0 : 4 / 12 cell pa t t er n Figur e 2 1 : 3/ 9 cell pa t t er n 36 .

it should be analyzed with a ³C/R (carrier-to-reflection ratio) prediction´ tool. This is a theoretical first cell plan. but as described above.r. 37 . The theoretical predictions are supplemented with measurements which are used to optimize the parameters in the propagation model. is included in tenders. the proposed site location should be changed or measured w. The nominal cell plan looks simply as a cell pattern on the map. Ericsson¶s planning tool EET (Ericsson Engineering Tool) includes the prediction package capable of ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Coverage prediction Composite coverage synthesis Co. Such planning needs powerful measurement facilities and CAD analysis tools for radio propagation studies.t time dispersion or. which is produced without the help of advanced planning tools or computers.6.7. Quite often. together with one or two examples of coverage predictions. it is time to produce the nominal plan.6 Nominal plan Having come this far in the cell planning process. a lot of work lies behind it. The Ericsson concept to establish an interactive relationship b/w survey measurements and theoretical propagation models.channel interference predictions Adjacent-channel interference predictions The propagation model is an improved version of the well-known Okumura-Hata model and takes also into account: ‡ ‡ Edge diffractions through the analysis of elevation contours. as a second theoretical analysis step. 7. Land usage factors that identify different type of surfaces. a nominal cell plan.1 Coverage and interference predictions Nominal plans are only a theoretical first basis for further planning successive planning must take into account the radio propagation properties of actual environment. If there are doubts about the risks of time dispersion.

a document called CDD. for example. it is time to visit the area of interest 7.7. it is time to produce the final cell plan. are run. A test transmitter is mounted. 7.8 Evaluation of measurements Back in the office.Cell Design Data. the radio environment has to be checked. and roughly verified it with coverage and interference predictions. to specific climate and terrain in in the area of interest. the results from the measurements can be compared with the values the planning tool produces when simulating the same type of transmitter and the Parameters for planning are adjusted to match reality.New predictions.1 Site surveys Site surveys are performed for all proposed site locations. this plan is used when installing the system. so that there is no other radio equipment on the site that will cause intermodulation problems or too high buildings (or else) surrounding the possible site. Also. 38 . both on coverage and interference.7. when we know that the predictions run by the planning tool can be trusted. 7.7.2 Radio measurements Radio measurements are performed to be able to adjust the parameters used in the planning tool to reality.7 Site surveys and radio measurements Having produced a nominal cell plan. including antennas Cable runs Power facilities Contract with owner Also. is filled out. Parameters used in Sweden. Many issues have to be checked and verified.9 Final cell plan Now.such as: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Exact location Space for equipment. and then the signal strength is measured while driving around in the area. As the name says. 7. containing all cell parameters for each cell. would be different to the ones to be used in a tropical country.

11 System growth Most CME 20 networks that have been installed up till know. getting more and more traffic in the network and possibly also wanting to increase the coverage area. When adding more and more subscribers.7.10 System tuning Some time after the system has been installed and started up . have grown significantly. 39 . The tasks included are: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Checking that the final cell plan was realized Evaluating possible customer complaints Checking that the network performance is acceptable Changing parameters and performing other measures. a new traffic and coverage analysis has to be performed. This is called system tuning. it is time to once again look at how well the system is adjusted to reality.. if needed 7. This leads to that we have to ³ start all over again ³ and that: ³The cell planning work never ends´.

10.in this case o f PSTN subscriber) 8. MSC/VLR asks the BSC to allocate an idle TCH. as in the case of a normal call set up. Mobile originated SMS transfers a short message submitted by the MS to a service centre. which establishes a connection in PSTN to the B-subscriber. 3. MOBILE TRAFFIC I. MSC/VLR forwards the B-number to an exchange in the PSTN. (B) Mobile Originated SMS. the connection is established. Sending the B-number (the number to the called subscriber. either by a delivery report or failure report.8. 6. This includes: 4. Checking if the subscriber has the service ³ Barring of outgoing calls´activated. Start ciphering equipment identification. 1. BSC allocates a signaling channel using Access Grant Channel (AGCH). 9. This is a Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH). (This setup is not performed if the MS is in active mode. (A) Voice Call. This is forwarded to the BTS and MS. MS uses Random Access Channel (RACH) to ask for a signaling channel. MS establishes a connection to the network. 40 . Data call and sending of a short message are described separately. 2. The authentication procedure. Over SDCCH all signaling preceding a call takes place. If B answers. since the connection already exists. Marking the MS ³active´ in MSC/VLR. 11. Mobile Originating Call This section describes what happens when a mobile subscriber wants to set up a call. which are told to activate the TCH. It also provides information about the delivery of the short message. 7. Below is the description of signaling used for voice call setup. 5. MS sends a call setup request via SDCCH to the MSC/VLR.

A connection is established to the Gateway MSC (GMSC). 1. MSRN identifies the MSC/VLR. 41 . (A) Voice call Below is the description of the call setup procedure for a call from a PSTN subscriber to a mobile subscriber. HLR translates MSISDN into IMSI. Therefore the MS must be located & paged before a connection can be established. 3.Figure 23:mobile originated cell II. Mobile Terminated Call.³call forwarding to Cnumber´. 2. and queries the HLR for information about how to route the call to the serving MSC/VLR. most likely via PSTN. and determines which MSC/VLR is currently serving the MS. If the service is activated. GMSC analyzes MSISDN to find out which HLR the MS is registered in. HLR requests a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) from the serving MSC/VLR. HLR also checks the service. The PSTN subscriber keys in the MS¶s telephone number (MSISDN). The MSISDN is analyzed in the local PSTN exchange. whereas the location of the PSTN subscriber is known. The PSTN exchange knows that this is a call to a GSM subscriber. 4. The major difference between making a call to a mobile subscriber and making a call to a PSTN is that the location of the mobile subscriber is unknown. the call is rerouted by the GMSC to that number.

6. GMSC reroutes the call to the MSC/VLR. as in the normal call setup case. MSC/VLR returns the MSRN via HLR to the GMSC. 5. directly or via the PSTN. 3. 2. SMS-C sends the message to the SMS-GMSC. Mobile Terminated SMS has the capacity to transfer a short message from the SMS. Figure 24: mobile terminated call 42 . which informs the originator that the short message was not delivered and the reason why.5. Re-transmission can also be ordered. (B) Mobile Terminated SMS. SMS-GMSC reroutes the message to the MSC/VLR. It also provides information about the delivery of the short message. MS is paged and a connection is set up between the MS and the network. This information is either a delivery report.C to a MS. 4. which confirms the delivery of the message to the recipient. The HLR returns routing information to the SMS-GMSC. SMS-GMSC queries the HLR for routing information. or a failure report. A user sends a message to a SMS-C. (This step is not performed if the MS is in active mode). 1. 6.

many functions of the mobile station can be built on one chipset. to anyone. by using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) microprocessor technology. not to mention the convenience to people of carrying just one communication terminal anywhere they go. whose objective can be stated as the availability of all communication services anytime. and one that has proven a success.8 GHz (called DCS1800) and 1. GSM comes close to fulfilling the requirements for a personal communication system: close enough that it is being used as a basis for the next generation of mobile communication technology in Europe. fax. and operating in North America). anywhere.9. and its sibling systems operating at 1. but that is probably the price that must be paid to achieve the level of integrated service and quality offered while subject to the rather severe restrictions imposed by the radio environ 43 . Having a multitude of incompatible systems throughout the world moves us farther away from this ideal. and especially one covering a standard 6000 pages long. and government can succeed. showing that international cooperation on such projects between academia. data transfer. the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). resulting in lighter. The GSM system. however. by a single identity number and a pocketable communication terminal [25]. and support for a variety of services such as telephony. and more energy-efficient terminals. The economies of scale created by a unified system are enough to justify its implementation. I believe. more compact. to the benefit of the public both in terms of cost and service quality. For example. are a first approach at a true personal communication system. As with any overview. regardless of national boundaries. there are many details missing.9 GHz (called GSM1900 or PCS1900. industry. and supplementary services. GSM is a very complex standard. that I gave the general flavor of GSM and the philosophy behind its design. Together with international roaming. It was a monumental task that the original GSM committee undertook. It is a standard that ensures interoperability without stifling competition and innovation among suppliers.CONCLUSION In this paper I have tried to give an overview of the GSM system. Short Message Service. The SIM card is a novel approach that implements personal mobility in addition to terminal mobility. Telecommunications are evolving towards personal communication networks.

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