'

fffy 'fol^c^^'

GKN

KRAL

HISTORY,
AND

CYCLOPEDIA

DICTIONARY
OP

FREEMASONRY;
CONTAINING

AN

ELABORATE

ACCOUffT

OF

THE

RISE

AM

PROGRESS

OF

FREEMASONRY,

AND
ITS

KINDRED ASSOCIATIONS-ANCIENT AND MODERN.

ALSO,

DEFINITIONS OF THE

TECHNICAL TERMS USED BY THE FRATERNITY.

BY ROBERT MACOY,
AUTHOB OP

33,

The Boole of the Lodge, ifaxonie ifanual, True Jfanonie Guide, Vocal Manual, eU.; Past Deputy Grand Mister of New York and Nora Smlia, P,txt Grand Secretary of New York, Grind
KtcorJf.r of the Grand Comnumdery of New York, Rrjtrtfentatirt of the Grand Lodget of Wufonirin, Illinoit, and Nova Scotia, of the Grand Cammanderie* of Tennestee and Texas, and the Grand Council of New Brunswick, etc.

Jllnstratcb

null)

npunub of 300 (Engramngs.

NEW YORK:
MASONIC PUBLISHING COMPANY, 626 BROADWAY.
1872.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, by the

MASONIC PUBLISHING AND MANUFACTURING

CO.,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the

Southern District of

New

York.

Stack

Annex

PREFACE.

TO knowledge, by
and
to

supply, to

some

extent, the increasing demand for students in the science of Freemasonry,

keep step with the irresistible progress of our instituwere the impelling motives that induced the undersigned tion, to undertake the arrangement of a work of this character.
ing
Dr. OLIVER'S Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry, notwithstandits value and usefulness, falls short of the present wants of the Fraternity. Dr. ALBERT G. MACKET'S Lexicon of

Freemasonry, better adapted to the requirements of the Fraternity in the United States than any other work of the

kind heretofore published,

is

also deficient in

many respects.

The present volume is intended to remedy many of the defects and omissions of its predecessors, and to exhibit, in
a form of easy reference, the latest developments and progress of the institution, and the results of more recent It contains a comprehensive explication of investigations.
the whole system of Freemasonry, and of kindred or similar associations ancient and modern being a careful con-

densation of

all

that has ever been written

on the subject;

intelligible to the Fraternity, and mysterious to the profane. purpose will be effectually and very satisfactorily an-

My

swered, if the definitions here given of the technical and other terms of Masonry, shall prove of sufficient value to
1

20(5331

VI

PREFACE.

irwluco the reader to increase his stock of

knowledge by a

other works, where the subjects are more the more advanced thoroughly discussed, or to confirm of those noble principles of the Craft, Mason in the truth
reference
to
to the study of

which he has devoted his time and

talents.

In the preparation of the History of the Masonic Institubeen adopted to obtain the tion, every available means has most reliable information whereon to found a truthful
chronicle of
its origin and early progress throughout The many and almost insurseveral parts of the world. mountable difficulties in arriving at precise dates, when the materials are scattered in different places, or mixed with

the

doubtful circumstances, are sufficient to almost deter any writer from attempting the undertaking. Notwithstanding the uncertainty with which much of the matter of history and careful examination of the is surrounded, a

diligent the materials, the probabilities of statements possessing set aside without of truth were too convincing to be

germs calm reflection and mature consideration. With these views the history in the accompanying pages is offered to the Fraternity, in the hope that it will prove satisfactory and useful. I have been greatly assisted in the arrangement of this work by Bro. AUG. C. L. ARNOLD, LL. D., whose knowledge

and correct discrimination upon subjects connected with the history and science of Freemasonry and its kindred
associations, will be a

guaranty for their correctness. Bro. JOHN W. SIMONS, Past Grand Master of New York, whose knowledge of the arcana of Masonry is not excelled I am also indebted for by any writer of the present age,

To

To these many valuable articles and excellent suggestions. and other brethren who have kindly aided me I tender my
hearty thanks. of the brethren Again asking the fraternal indulgence whatever defects may still be apparent, the work is refor their inspection. spectfully submitted to

ROBT. MACOY.

G-ENEKAL

HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
" Of all the institutions which have been established for the purpose of improving the condition of mankind, Freemasonry stands lireeminent in usefulness as it is in age. Its origin is lost in the abyss of unexplored antiquity. No historical records, no traditionary accounts, can with certainty point out the precise time, the place, or the particWhile some have endeavored to ular manner of its commencement. discover its footsteps amongst the master-builders and artists ensured in the construction of the first Jewish temple, others have attempted to trace it to the Eleusinian mysteries, which air said to luue taught the immortality of the soul and the other sublime truths of natural Some again have ascribed its rise to the sainted heroes of religion. the Crusades; while others have endeavored to penetrate the mysteries of the Druids, and to discover its origin amongst the wise men of DE WITT CLINTON. that institution."

THE difficulty of arriving at the precise time, place, or circumstance in which Masonry or its true prototype began, has been encountered by every writer upon the subject. Some, over-anxious for the dignity of the fraternity, have represented it as coeval with the world.* Others, more moderate, find its origin in the religious mysteries of the ancient world, and particularly in a supposed branch of those religious associations formed by the architects of Tyre, who, under the name of the " Dionysiac Fraternity," constituted an association of builders, exclusively engaged in the construction of temples and other prominent edifices in Asia Minor, and who were distinguished by the use of secret Without signs and other modes of mutual recognition. adopting any untenable opinions, we are justified in avowing that the institution must have been framed by a people who
* Anderson, Preston, and many other Masonic writers claim for the order the highest antiquity. Preston is particular in his expressions " as to the origin of the institution, by saying From the commencement of the world, we may trace the foundation of Masonry." lie undoubtedly meant that its principles were coexistent with the universe for lie qualifies the preceding sentence by the following expressions " Ever since symmetry began, and -harmony displayed her charms, our order has had a being." Regarding THUTH as the sun of the Masonic system, around which all the other virtues revolve, we may trace then its origin to GOD the fountain of all truth, with whom there is no confusion or disorder, but perfect symmetry and harmony. In that sense the origin of Freemasonry maybe reconciled with the" commencement of the world."
:

:

g

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

had made considerable advance in science. The Egyptians, the time of Moses, were proficient in all the arts and constructed in those early sciences,* as the gigantic works Their language was mystical, and still existing, prove. ages, their priests secured the mysteries of their religion from the and knowledge of the vulgar or uninitiated by symbols alone to those of their order. hieroglyphics, comprehensible The fraternity of ancient Egypt was denominated the Hieroin

Laotomi, or Sacred Builders. They .were a selected caste, and connected with the government and priesthood, being in ordinary fact Masons of the priestly order; whilst the Masons or artificers were of an inferior caste.f The intent and purpose of those stupendous fabrics, the pyramids, waa a great mystery, and a mystery. they still remain. Moses was initiated into the secrets and mysteries of the in Egypt, and some have imagined that priestly order when the Hebrews assisted in the construction of the pyramids ;
but, in all probability, these
skill

wondrous efforts of Masonic were hoary with age when the children of Israel settled in the land of Goshen, and were emblems of sublime truths to a civilized nation when Abraham was a wanderer in the
wilderness.

By Egyptian colonists, according to our biblical chronology, the arts were carried to Greece two or three centuries before the age of Moses. By the Israelites a purer knowledge of building was carried to the promised land ; and when they became a settled people, the remembrance of the beautiful and stupendous edifices they had seen in Egypt, led them to attempt constructions suited to their future home. But it is evident that by the death of their great master, Moses, the Israelites were not in full possession of the knowledge requisite to complete the glorious fabric which the G. A. O. T. U. had in vision to King David directed his son Solomon to erect as we find by Holy Writ, that " the wisest man" needed the assistance of the King of Tyre. Tyre and Sidon were the chief cities of the Phoenicians the latter boasts an antiquity anterior to any other whose site can be It was a place of considerable importance in dc'termined.
; :

The Egyptians are described to us as being the first people who advanced to any high degree of knowledge in astronomy and science and hence they acquired the means of discovering and proving the existence of the Divinity, and worshipped the Author of those sublime works which they contemplated." DR. ASHK. "A theocracy or government of priests waa f Champollion says the first known to the Kiryptians, and it is necessary to give the word
**
;
:

"

acceptation that it bore in ancient times, when the ministers were also the ministers of science and learning; so that they united in their own persons two of the noblest missions with which men could bo' invested the worship of the Deity, and the cultivation r o science."
liricxtM
if
i,

ic

religion

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
the

9

time of Joshua, who speaks of it as "great Sidon." is evident that the Phoenicians were far advanced in the arts of life, when the Israelites reached the promised When Solomon was about to build the temple, he land. communicated to the King of Tyre his wish to enter into an engagement for a supply of timber, knowing, as he said, " that there is not amongst us any that can skill to hew timber like the Sidonians." The answer of the Tyrian king is remarkable: "I will do all thy desire concerning timber of cedar, and concerning timber of fir my servants shall bring them down from Lebanon unto the sea, and I will convey them by sea in floats, unto the place that thou shalt appoint me, and I will cause them to be discharged there." Kings, v. 8, 9). Solomon was highly pleased with the answer ( of the Tyrian king, and in return he made him yearly presHiram sent him also a man ents of the most costly kinds. of his own name, a Tyrian by birth, but of Israelitish parentage, who was honored by his king with the title of father, and is called Hiram Abiff,* the most accomplished designer and operator then known in the country, who in Solomon's absence filled the chair as Deputy Grand Master, and in his presence was the Senior Grand Warden, or Principal Surveyor and Master of the work. That no confusion might

Hence ..it

;

1

owing to the great numbers employed, King Solomon selected those of most enlightened minds and comprehensive understandings, religious men, and zealous in good works, as masters to superintend the workmen ; men skilful in geometry and proportion, who had been initiated and proved in the mystical learning of the ancient sages those he made overTo carry on this stupendous work with seers of the work. greater ease and speed, Solomon ordered all the craftsmen, as well natives as foreigners, to be numbered and classed as
arise,

follows, viz

:

Ilarodim, princes, rulers, or provosts Menatzohim, overseers

300
3,300 80,000 30,000

Ghiblim, stone-squarers

The levy out of

Israel, at

work

in

Lebanon

113,600

of burden, the remains of the old Canaanites, amounting to seventy thousand, who are not numbered among the Masons.
* This inspired Master was, without question, the most cunning, and curious workman that ever lived, whose abilities were

Besides the ish sabbal or

men

skilful,

building only, but extended to all kinds of work, in gold, silver, brass, or iron. From his designs, and under Ins direction, ull the rich and splendid furniture of the Temple and iu> sever.d appendages was begun, carried on. and finished. ;n;

not confined to

whether

KM

1*

10

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

The older traditions of Masonry say, "that the only actual Freemasons who were present at the building of the Temple, were the three thousand three hundred overseers, mentioned in 1 Kings, v. 16, added to the three hundred

who were
all

called

Gl

iblimites,

and were

in fact

masters over

the operative Masons employed in the work." This arrangement produced the happiest effects, and introduced among the fraternity that perfect harmony and universal brotherhood which is so often referred to in our

ancient charges.* Masonic tradition says that the workmen were divided into classes or degrees, and to each class were assigned difThere is no doubt that ferent methods of recognition. there was an organization among the Jews which extended beyond Judea. The Bible exhibits them mixing themselves with the Tyrians or Dionysian artificers, notwithstanding the ordinary repugnance of the Israelites toward strangers, and that they recognized each other by words and secret signs similar to those employed by natives of other counThere was also between the Jews and Tyrians a tries. conformity of allegorical taste, particularly in all that affected sacred architecture. So perfect was the organization among the vast number of workmen, and so systematic the distribution of labor, that Solomon's Temple, with all its gorgeous splendor and

minute ornaments in detail, was finished in little more than seven years from the laying of the foundation-stone while the Temple of Herod, where the same accurate arrangement did not exist, occupied thirty-six years that of Diana, at Ephesus, two hundred years St. Peter's Cathedral at Rome, one hundred and fifty-five years; and St. Paul's in London, thirty-five years in building. Many of Solomon's Masons, before he died, began to travel. The royal descendants of King Solomon continued to occupy the throne and patronize the noble art of Freemasonry until the reign of Josiah, the last king of Judah. With no people did the Masons se^m to exercise a greater or more beneficial influence than the Gentiles. The Syrians built a lofty temple, and a royal palace at Damascus, and other cities on the coast and throughout Syria.
; ; ;

" * They were instructed to salute one another in a courteous manner, calling each other brother; freely giving mutual instruction, ns might be thought expedient, without being overseen or overheard, and without encroaching upon each other, or derogating from that for respect which was due to any Brother, were he not a Mason although all Masons are, as Brethren, upon the same level, yet Masonry takes no honor from a man that he had before nay, it rather adds to his honor, especially if he has deserved well of the brother;

;

hood."

ANCIENT CIIAHGES.

GENERAL HISTORY OP FREEMASONRY.

11

About thirty-five years after the death of Solomon, the Temple of Diana, built by some Japhitites, in the days of Moses, was burned down, and the kings of Lesser Asia reThis built and ornamented it in the most splendid manner. temple was regarded by all as pre-eminently magnificent, and hence became the third of the seven wonders of the
world. In the twelfth year of Jotham, king of Judah, A. M. 3256, Sardanapalus was besieged by his brothers Eser and Nabonassar, until, in despair, he burned himself, and all his treasure, in the old palace of Nimrod, when the Assyrian

In the days of the latter Prince, who ruled over much attention was given to the study of astronomy, and so great was the advancement made in the science In that after-generations styled this the astronomical era. one of the degrees of Masonry we have a tradition that after Noah safely landed on Mount Ararat, and offered up sacrifice to God on an altar which he erected, that he turned his attention to the cultivation of the earth for one hundred years ; wbon, his posterity becoming numerous, he ordered them to disperse themselves and take possession of the earth according to the partition which he made ; that they traveled a westerly course until they came to the plains of Shinar, when they counseled together, and, fearing the consequences of a separation, and being desirous to establish for themselves a name, built the city of Babylon and the Tower of Babel. will not attempt to trace Masonry into every country, and point out the various cities that were built or adorned by the traveling Masons who had assisted in the erection of Solomon's Temple, but will be content to look at some of
nassar.

Empire was divided between Tiglath Pul Eser and Nabo-

Chaldea,

We

the

in Eastern Asia, but it took a westerly direction also. Boristhenes, in" Pontus, was built about the period of which we are writing. Prusias and Chalcedon, in Bithynia, Constantinople (then called BizanThe travelers also tium), and Lampsacus, in the Hellespont. penetrated into Rome, Ravenna, Florence, and many other cities in Italy; Granada and Malaga, and other cities ofSpain ; and also on the coast of Gaul. In A. M. 3416, or B. c. 588, four hundred and sixteen years after the completion of the Temple, the powerful array of Nebuchadnezzar entered Jerusalem, after a protracted siege and took all the sacred vessels, removing the two famous pillars, Jachin and Boaz, robbed the city and the king's palace of all the riches they contained, and then set fire to the Temple and city, overthrew the walls of the towns, and carrie I away thousands of the people cap*ives to the city of

more prominent places. Masonry not only flourished

12

OKXEUAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

Babylon, among whom were many of those noble-hearted Giblemitea who descended from the builders of Solomon's Temple. And Masonic tradition informs us that they continued to hold secretly their Lodge meetings, and, in this way. taught their children the secrets of Masonry and the for it principles of the revealed religion of their fathers will be remembered that, previous to the fall of Jerusalem, the power and authority to transcribe the law were confined to the Scribes, and hence but a small portion of the people were in possession of a copy, every copy found having been destroyed by the infidel invader. The captive Jews, therefore, could only perpetuate their religion by teaching it to All the their children from tradition, as they did Masonry. captive Masons were compelled, for the space of fifty-two years, to devote their time, labor, and skill in finishing and ornamenting the buildings which the king of Babylon and his predecessor had commenced, as also the erection of new In this way the Chaldean Masons, who wrought with ones. the captive Jews, perfected themselves in architecture, for the results of their joint labor made Babylon the fourth of the seven wonders of art and the boasted mistress of the world. Thus labored and toiled the true descendants of the children of Israel, borne down with oppression and slavery, and often denied the privilege of worshiping the God of their fathers. But their long sufferings were destined to result in good for the very opposite effect to that sought by the king of Babylon was the result of their long and painful captivity, for when the proclamation of Cyrus was issued for the liberation of the Israelites, according to the word of God, these architects were better prepared to return to the land they so much loved, and lay the foundation for the rebuilding of the Temple and the, city of Jerusalem. In 536 B. c. the Jews were liberated from Babylonish captivity by Cyrus, king of Persia, who, in the first year of his
; ;

issued theWbllowing proclamation: "Thus saith Cyrus, king of Persia The Lord God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth ; and he hath charged me to build him a house a.t Jerusalem, which is in Judea. Who is there among you of all his people ? his God be with him,
reign,
:

let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judea, and build the house of the Lord God of Israel, which is in Jerusalem." These "glad tidings of great joy" were received by the

and

liberated captives with shouting and for they were praise permitted to return to their former homes. Forty-two thousand three hundred and sixty of the exiled Jews repaired, in the same year, from Babylon and the neighboring cities to Jerusalem. The leaders of these were Zerubbabel,

Joshua, and Ilaggai,

who perform an important

Uoynl Arc}} degree.

part in the

OENEKAL H18TOUY OF FKEEMASONRY.

13

From this period the fraternity of traveling Masons passed into Greece, Rome, Spain, and other countries, where their services could be employed in the erection of the famous edifices for which the ancient world is justly celebrated. In passing, in this brief outline, from the condition of the
fraternity in what we may properly denominate the ancient history, we will endeavor to trace its progress from that period to the more enlightened days of modern architecture, and the cultivation of the arts and sciences, in such chronological order as will give the most concise historical facts in detail these facts being based upon substantial documents

and the principal monuments erected by the traveling operaFreemasons. In '715 before the Christian Colleges of Constructors were established, composed of men learned in all the arts and trades necessary for the execution of civil, religious, naval, and hydraulic laws based on architecture, with their own laws and judges those of the Dyonisian artificers, whose mysteries had spread among the principal peoples of the East. Numa Pompilius, in founding these colleges, made them at the same time civil and religious societies, with the exclusive privilege of building temples and public edifices their relations to the state and the priesthood being precisely determined by the laws. They had their own jurisdiction and laws ; at their head were presidents called Masters, Overseers or Wardens, Censors, Treasurers, Keepers of the Seals, Archivists, and Secretaries ;
tive fraternities or
era, the

Roman

they had their own physicians and serving brethren, and paid monthly dues. The number of members to each college was fixed by law. Composed, principally, of Greek artisans, they surrounded the secrets of their art and doctrines by the mysteries of their country, and concealed them in symbols borrowed from these mysteries and from their own arcana, one of the characteristics of which was the symbolic employment of the utensils of their profession. 710. Numa, the great legislator Avho founded the colleges, at once assigned them^ labors of more than ordinary importance. First, the enlargement of the capitol, then the completion of the temples dedicated to the Sun, Moon, Saturn, Mars, and other divinities, commenced xinder Romuhu and other Sabine kings. On the termination of these labors Xuma directed the construction of temples to Faith, to Fidelity, to Romulus, and Janus, the god of peace, specially adored by Numa he caused the city to be fortified, and surrounded it with walls. He also continued labor on the famous temple erected by Romulus to Jupiter, on the spot where his army, about to flee, was induced to fight by the prayer addressed by Romulus to that deity. The great number of temples established in Rome since Romulus are due to the custom that the general-in-chief should erect a tempi*
;

14

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

symbolic teachings
sciences.

to the deity invoked by him in the course of a victorious battle ; this also explains the number of temples erected to the same divinity. They were learned in the religious or as well as in the arts and of the

period

010. Under the reign of the elder Tarquin temples were erected to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva ; he caused the erection of a city wall of hewn stone (614), a sewer for improvmonuing the health of the city, and many other public ments. The first circus was constructed by his order. 580. Servius Tullius again enlarged Rome by the addition of three neighboring eminences, which he surrounded by a wall he also built temples to Fortune and Diana. 500. Building of the temples of Vesta, Hercules, Pallas, and Minerva, under Junius Drusius. 490. The consuls Sempronius and Minucius cause the building by the colleges of constructors of two temples, one dedicated to Saturn, the other to Mercury they also establish the Saturnalian feasts. 451. Creation of the law of the Twelve Tables, the VHIth relating to the colleges of builders. 390. Taking of Rome by the Gauls and destruction of va: :

rious

monuments.

The ruined monuments are rebuilt, and new temples constructed under F. Quintius, who dedicated them to Mars,
385.

Juno, Health, and Concord. 312. The first paved road was constructed by the colleges, under the orders of Appius Claudius, who had it extended
to Capua. The first great aqueduct was built at this time. 290. The temple to Romulus, under the title Quirinus, was built, and in it was placed the first sun-dial, due to the conBU! Sp\irius. Carvilius, who also built a temple to FortisFbrtuna, to contain the spoils taken from the Etruscans. temple in honor of Esculapius is built on an island in the Tiber. 285. The fraternities of builders, as they were then called, attached to the Roman legions, establish themselves in Cisalpine Gaul (Venezia and Lombardy), on the conquest of that country by the Romans; these fraternities, a detachment of

A

which accompanied each legion, were charged with the duty of drawing plans for all military constructions, such as intrenched camps, strategic roads, bridges, aqueducts, dwellings, etc. they directed the soldiers and laborers in the actual execution of these works and they also made the instruments of warfare. So far as related to matters directly pertaining to the war, they were under the orders of the genorals or chiefs of the legions, but in all other matters enjoyed iheir peculiar privileges. Composed of artists and learned
;
;

GF.NK1.AL HISTORY OF FREEMASONJIY.

15

men, those fraternities propagated not only a knowledge of the G.'. A. Cv. T.-. U.'. but a taste for the proprieties of life, and for literature and the Roman arts, wherever that nation bore its victorious arms. They also taught the vanquished and the oppressed the pacific element of the Roman power art and civil law. 375. The conquest of nearly all of Cisalpine Gaul (Sardinian States) introduced the building fraternities, never remaining inactive, and ever rebuilding in better style those monuments which the legions had destroyed. 250. While Cisalpine Gaul was being covered with military colonies surrounded by fortifications, executed by the fraternities, who constructed within them habitations and palaces for the military chiefs, other legions push their conquests beyond the Alps, into Transalpine Gaul and Spain. The first causeway was built from Rome through Gaul, to the valley of Ostia. 225. The fraternities of builders continued to follow the legions and fulfil their mission ; yi Spain they founded Cordova ; in Gaul Empodorum, where they built a famous circus, to which the consul Flaminius gave his name. 220. The Romans, attacked by Hannibal, built, after his retreat, and in memory of that occurrence, a temple to Ridicule. grand strategic road was constructed by the Roman soldiers, under direction of the colleges. Flaminius, the censor, built a circus in Rome. 210. During the second Punic war the colleges, having nothing to do at Rome, where no buildings were in progress, journeyed to the conquered provinces. 200. The Roman people decided to build a temple to Mars and another to Romulus and Reims, the founders of
.

A

the

Rome. These two temples were nearly completed during same year. 148. The first marble temple was due to General Metellus,
;

who consecrated it to Jupiter, after his victory over the king of Macedonia he built another temple at his own expense, which he dedicated to Juno ;. also a remarkable sepulcher,
bearing his
125.

own name.

legions, having taken possession of Helvetia, forthemselves, and by gradually enlarging founded a number of cities.
tified

The

121. A Roman colony, commanded by Marsius, founded Narbonne, which became the principal stronghold of the Romans, until the time of Augustus. The Consul Opimius

caused the erection at

Rome of the first basilic; to him is also due the elevation of a temple to Concord. 101. Marius, after his victory over the Cimbres and Teutons, caused the erection in

Rome, under

the special direction

16

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
two temples, one dedicated
to

of the architect Musius, of

Honor, the other to Virtue.* 79. Herculaneum, an ancient city, containing many monuments erected by the building fraternities, was buried under the lava of Vesuvius. Pompeii, not less celebrated than Herculaneum, and whose monuments were fully equal to those of 'Rome, likewise disappeared beneath the ashes and lava from an eruption of Vesuvius in this year. 60. Julius Cesar became master of Transalpine Gaul (France, Belgium, and Switzerland), after ten years of struggles, during which, according to Plutarch, more than 800 Gallic cities were devastated. Cesar gave occupation to the corporations in Gaul as well as others summoned by him
to rebuild these cities, aided by his soldiers. 55. Britain, which at this time was partially conquered, received strong re-enforcements of builders sent to establish

Under command of Julius fortifications. Cesar, one of the legions pushed forward into the interior of the country, and, to defend jLhemselves, formed an intrenched camp with walls, inside of which, as elsewhere, habitations, And from it arose Ebotemples, and aqueducts appeared. racum (York), a city celebrated in the history of Freemamore extended
sonry.

While Julius Cesar, pursuing his conquests, destroyed the Celtic monuments and Druidical altars, Pompey caused the building in Rome of numerous temples and the famous marble amphitheater, capable of holding thirty thousand persons he also caused the completion by the fraternities of builders of the no less famous highway from Italy across the Alps into Gaul. When Julius Cesar returned to Rome he also built various temples to Mars, Apollo, and Venus. He sent all the colleges actually in Italy to Carthage and Corinth to raise those cities from their ruins. 45. The Roman senate, after the civil war, directed the colleges of constmictors to build various monuments in honor of Julius Cesar among others four temples, to Liberty, Con50.
all
; ;

cord, Happiness,
42. 37.

and Mercy.
to be erected to
Isis,

The Triumvirs caused a temple
The Roman
to

and another to Serapis.
legions, stationed on the banks of the guard the Gallic country against the continual aggressions of the Germans, found at various points intrenched camps, which became important colonies. Cologne thus be-

Rhine

to this period architecture had preserved the Etruscan characand the attempts to embellish the temples and other edifices conBisted only in ornamenting them with statues and other objects taken from subjugated countries, especially Greece but from this time forward the predilection of the Romans for Grecian architecture became dominant, and the Etruscan was abandoned.

*

Up

ter,

;

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
gan, and
city

17

was afterward invested

vith the rights ol a

Roman

under Claudius. 35. The Pantheon was finished under Marcus Agrippa, who also construe ted magnificent baths, which bore his name. The great Cisalpine highway was continued by hia orders, under direction of the corporations.
32. The legions established in Paris erected, alongside of the Gallic altars, temples to Isis and Mithra. 30. The reign of Augustus was fertile in splendid monu ments. The building fraternities were greatly augmented, and a certain number formed special colleges devoted to naval and hydraulic architecture. The great learning of these men initiated in all arts, the generous principles professed by them, their mysterious organization, surrounded them with so much consideration that many distinguished men sought to participate in their privileges. The most important monuments erected by them at this period were, at Rome, the temple to Jupiter, the theater commenced under the consulate of Claudius Marcellus, the mausoleum bearing the name of Augustus, two triumphal arches also bearing his name, two Egyptian obelisks in Roman provinces we will only mention the temple of Clitum at Foligni, of Jupiter at In Gaul a large numPozuoli, the triumphal arch at Susa. ber of less pretentious monuments ornamented the cities rebuilt or founded by the Romans. part of the high roads, and notably that of Emporium near the Pyrenees, were due to the orders of Augustus. The friends of this emperor ri:

A

valed him in building sumptuous monuments; Statilus Taurus built an amphitheater; Marcus Phillipus a temple to Hercules; Munatius Plancus one to Saturn; Lucius Carnifucius one to Diana; Lucius Cornelius Balbus finished his great
theater in stone. In the first year of the Christian era Augustus caused the building of a temple in honor of his friends Caius and Lucius, the remains of which are known as the square house. 5. The Jewish architects received protection at Rome, where, under Julius Cesar, they were allowed to establish synagogues. Admitted to the colleges of builders, they imparted to them a knowledge of the Hebrew mysteries. 10. Vitruvius Pollio, the celebrated architect, in his works on the subject, mentions the brilliant state of the art at Rome during this period, and speaks of its doctrines as vailed
in allegories and symbols. 14. The palace of the Cesars,

commenced under

Tiberius,

continued under Caligula (37), and finished under Domitiau Tiberius built a triumphal arch in honor of his brother (81). Claudius Drusus, also one to Augustus and another to Castor. '25. The bridge of Rimini begun by Augustus was finished by Tiberius, who also built temples in honor of Proserpine, Juuct, and the goddess of Concord.

18
41.

GENERAL HISTORY UF FREEMASONRY.

A

superb aqueduct erected under Claudius, bears his

name.
43. Detachments of builders from the fraternities along the Rhine were sent by the Emperor Claudius to Britain, where the legions experienced great difficulty in maintaining themselves against the incursions of the Caledonians ; they constructed a number of fortresses beyond the camps. 50. At this time architecture reached its culminating point in Rome ; the colleges, discouraged by the despotism of the erar.orors, who gradually deprived them of their privileges, The monuments of this period lost their cultivated taste. were far from attaining the elevated character which placed them among the most sublime creations of human intelliThe same decay was observed in the Grecian monugence. ments, from which the Romans had borrowed their finest models. The principal cause of this decay was the fact that the most skillful and highly educated architects were sent by Julius Cesar or Augustus into the conquered provinces to build imposing monuments, in order to give the people an elevated idea of the arts and sciences possessed by the conquerors ; to inspire them, in shoi't, wfth admiration. The colleges, concentrating, as they did, among their members most of the acquirements of that time, undoubtedly added as much by their labors to the glory and power of Rome as was contributed by force of arms. Among the architects, or

magistri, as they were called, of this period, a number busied themselves by writing for the information of their distant brethren works on the theory and rules of their art. The most celebrated of these were Vitruvius Pollio, Fulvitius, Varron, Publius and Septimus. The works of the first only survive. 54. Various temples, baths, and acqueducts constructed under Nero, who, after burning the city of Rome, and destroying many fine monuments, built his celebrated golden
palace.
70.

Flavins Vespasian constructed the Coliseum, at which

It held 110,000 persons, 12,000 Jewish prisoners worked. but was not completed till the reign of Titus (80). 98. Under Trajan was built the famous circus capable of

holding 260,000 persons. 120. Under the reign of Adrian many new and costly temples were erected at Rome, particularly the one devoted to the service of Venus. The superb column in honor of Ulpius Trajanus, the emperor, was constructed by the most distinguished of the builders by order of Adrian. He also constructed the mausoleum, known to this day as the castle of St. Angelo. The celebrated architect Apollodorus, to whom was due the honor of arranging the plans of that buildinor was banished for having uttered svme t;u-ts not pleasing tu

TK1UMPHAL AKCH OF

TITUS, AT

HOME.

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

21

the emperor. Adrian, with great industry and a display of unusual ability in architectural knowledge, visited the various provinces of his vast empire. In Britain he ordered the construction, by the fraternities of builders, many of which accompanied him, of an immense wall, which, extending from the Tyne to the Gulf of Solway, thus crossing the country from east to west, to protect the military colonies from the Asia is continual invasion of the Scots and other clans. indebted to him for many valuable public monuments ; but it was Greece that was particularly favored with his remarkable abilities as an architect, throughout which country he ordered the erection of many of her most celebrated temples, such as the Pantheon and the temples to Jupiter Olympus with its 122 columns. 130. After the fall of the Roman republic all the corpora tions founded at the same time as the colleges of builders, bj

Numa

Pompilius, lost their ancient privileges.

The

colleges

were somewhat restrained by Trajan and Adrian, notwithstanding most of their privileges were left that their talents might still be employed. 140. During the reign of the Emperor Antonius, temples were erected to Mars, besides many others for civic purposes. Another great wall was built in Britain, where the Roman legions were constantly menaced by the marauding bands
that then infested the country. About this period the Masonic fratei'nities, the remains of the ancient Roman colleges of builders, who, in the time of the Christian persecutions ordered by Nero, Domitian, and Trajan, sought refuge in those provinces the most distant from Rome, and which were governed by men more humane than the emperors, that those beautiful masterpieces of architectural grandeur were erected. 166. The greater part of the members of colleges at Rome

The Emperor Marcus Aurelius, irritated at the progress made by this new doctrine, and determined to destroy it by force, ordered during this year fresh persecutions against the Christians, in consequence of which many of them residing in Gaul took refuge with the corporations in Britain, where greater protection was afforded them than elsewhere. The Christian Masons at Rome sought in the catacombs a secret asylum from the edicts fulminated against them, and an escape from the tortures to which they were condemned. In these dark vaults they met with their co-religionists. During the ten years of persecution under Marcus Aurelius they transformed the catacombs into churches, ornamented with sarcophagi and encaustic painttheir faith inspired these Christian artists to build ings thapels and altar* on the tombs of the martyrs. 180-275 This period is marked in the history of arcl'itect uiv
embraced Christianity.
;

2

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

by cne of the most sublime conceptions of the artistic genius of the builders, executed under the reign and by the orders of the Emperor Aurelian the two temples of Helios at Palmyra, which, in beauty and grandeur, surpass those of HeliThe larger of these temples had 464 columns, many opolis. of them from a single block of marble. The total number of columns decorating the two temples and the galleries belonging to them was 1,450. 287-290. Carausius, commander of the Roman fleot, took To conpossession of Britain, and declared himself emperor. ciliate the Masonic fraternities, then wielding an immense influence in the country, he restored their ancient privileges ; since which time they have been called privileged or FreeMasons, to distinguish them from those not thus entitled. 293. Albanus, a converted pagan, was, by order of CarauIn this manner a sius, decapitated on account of his faith.

grand master of Freemasons became the
tyr in Britain.

first

Christian mar-

296. The city of York, in which many Lodges of Freemasons were established, was selected as the residence of Constantius Chlorus, who came to Britain, after the death of Carausius, to assume the control of the government of the country. 300. At this time there were in Rome more than 500 temples, 37 gates and triumphal arches, 6 bridges, 17 amphitheaters and theaters, 14 aqueducts, 5 obelisks, many monumental columns, mausoleums, baths, and sepulchers, all of which were built by the fraternities, or colleges of archi
tects.

were erected,

Under the reign of the Emperor Diocletian there in many of the Roman provinces, numerous aqueducts, temples, and costly baths, by the fraternities that remained in the country. This emperor was particularly
303.

distinguished for his atrocious persecutions of the Christians, many of whom were executed with cruelty in the more distant provinces. Notwithstanding the humanity of the ruling governor of Britain, the Christians, of whom a great number were members of the Masonic fraternities, f -und it necessary to seek refuge in Scotland and many of the adjacent islands,

where they were permitted to enjoy their religion and study
the arts of architecture. Many of these ai'tisans attached to the colleges established at Rome also fled to the East, or buried themselves within the catacombs their usual place of refuge in times of religious persecution where many of

them perished.

313. End of the persecutions against the Christians by edict of Constantine, who declared Christianity the religion of the State. 325. T'uj Church of the Lateran at Rome built order

by

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY

23

of Constantino, and one dedicated to St. Paul, in the form of a cross. The form of the Greek cross used by the Christian architects was chosen by them, not because it was ordered by Constantine, but because of its mysterious relation to the religion of all nations, and as a part of their symbolism and the secret teachings of their colleges. It formed the ground-plan of the temple at Jerusalem, and represented unity and trinity. For the general details of their edifices, Solomon's Temple served as a model, being recognized as a masterpiece of architecture, and the first temple erected and dedicated to one God. 360. The Emperor Julian built a magnificent temple and fast baths at Paris, where the remains still exist. 600. Foundation of Canterbury Cathedral and that at Uochester (602). 605. Foundation of St. Paul's Church, London.
620. rected

The corporations are exclusively engaged and diby the religious orders. An abbot or other ecclesi-

astic generally presided

in the lodges, and was termed venerable, or worshipful Master. 925. At this period every considerable town in Britain had its lodge of Freemasons ; but their relations to each other were not intimate, which is explained by the wars and divisions of five centuries and seven kingdoms. During the

Danish war, when the monasteries were destroyed, the fraternity suffered an irreparable loss in the destruction of all their documents. Athelstane, grandson of Alfred the Great, educated by the priest-architects, caused his son Edwin to be instructed in the art, and named him Grand Master. He convened a general assembly at York, to whom he submitted a constitution, which was discussed and accepted. 960. On the death of Athelstane the fraternity were again dispersed, many of them passing over to Germany and remaining there, under the name of Rrothers of St. John. 1001. In the early years of this period the world was in a measure paralyzed by the idea that the end of time had arrived but at last, getting the better of their superstitions,
;

especially as the earth continued to revolve on its axis, society awakened from its lethargy, and from that time (1003) our modern civilization may be said to date. 1250. remarkable period, in which were conceived the plans of those wonderful sanctuaries of the Almighty which are the admiration of posterity for their gigantic dimensions and the harmony of their proportions. The plans of the cathe-

A

drals of Cologne, Strasburg, Paris, Rlieims, Rouen, Beauvais, Amiens, and others of which the foundations were laid toward the close of the Xllth century, but which were finally executed on a larger scale and in a different style

24:

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

The striking analogy between from the original design. th these monuments and those which followed, up to the century, is explained by the bond of fraternity which united the Masons of all countries who had received their instructions from the central school in Lombardy, continued at Cologne and Strasburg, and further by the obedience of the members to the laws which governed them in the construction of all religious edifices, from which they were only al lowed to depart in the details of ornamentation. 1272. The construction of Westminster Abbey was completed this year, under direction of the grand master Giffard, Archbishop of York. 1275. A Masonic Congress was convoked by Erwin de Steinbach for the resumption of the long-interrupted labors of the Strasburg cathedral on a grander scale than that upon which the foundations were laid in 1015, and a part of the church erected. Architects from many countries arrived in Strasburg, formed, as in England and according to ancient usage, a Grand Lodge, and bound themselves to observe the laws and regulations of the craft. Near the cathedral was a wooden building (lodge), where the meetings were held and where all matters in relation to the building were discussed. Erwin de Steinbach was elected to preside, and at the meetings held a sword in his hand and was seated on a dais. Words and signs were invented, partly those used in England. Apprentices, Craftsmen, and Masters were received Avith peculiar symbolic ceremonies, beneath which were concealed or indicated the secrets of architecture. 1310. The construction of the magnificent cathedral of

XV

Cologne, begun in 1248, gave to its lodge a certain superiority and made it the school where Masons of other countries came
to study this masterpiece. The German Masons, recognizing that superiority, gave it the title of Grand Lodge (Haupthutte), and the master architect was regarded as the master

of

all

Masons

in

small number of Templars, escaped from the per1312. secutions of Philip, king of France, and the Pope, Clement
V"., took refuge in Scotland, before the death of their Grand Master, Jacques de Molay (1314), and found an asylum in

A

Germany.

authority of Robert Bruce, who also founded an order of the same name for the Masons who had fought for him. 1350. The York Constitutions were revised during the A' 1-M ward III. In an appendix it is prescribed. aiuung other things, that in future at the makincr of 4

sumed the rank of Grand Royal Lodge of Herodom, under

the Masonic lodges. 1314. The Lodge of Kilwinning, in Scotland, founded during the building of the abbey of that name in 1150, as-

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

25

brother the Master of the Lodge shall read to him the Conand Ancient Charges. 1502. Lodge of Masters convened June 24, ander direction of Henry VII., moved in procession to lay the corner-stone of a chapel at Westminster, bearing the name of Henry VII. 1535. The intelligence spread by the lodges formed outside of the corporations awakened the suspicions and hatred of the ultramontane clergy, who accused them both openly and in secret of aiding the reform of Luther, who was said to belong to them. They were accused by the priests of to introduce schisms into the Church and sedition seeking among the people, of hatred against the Supreme Pontiff and all sovereigns, and, finally, of a desire to reestablish the Order of Templars, and to avenge the death of their Grand Master on the descendants of the kings, who were the cause of it. It is said that a convention of these associations was held at Cologne June 24 in this year, at which Herman V., Bishop of Cologne, presided, when they drew up a document announcing their doctrines and the aim of their association, so that if the intolerance of their fellow-citizens should
stitution

A

prevent them from maintaining their organization they might propagate their doctrines in other parts of the globe. That document was the Charter of Cologne. 1561. Queen Elizabeth of England, being suspicious of the Masons, sent a detachment of armed men to break up the annual assembly at York. The officers sent for this purpose made so favorable a report that the queen revoked her order, and ultimately became the protectress of the Fraternity.
1607. Freemasonry flourished in England, where, under the reign of James I., who declared himself their protector, it acquired fame and importance, and many gentlemen and persons of mark were initiated. The high consideration accorded the Craft at this period was further augmented by the election of the celebrated architect Inigo Jones to the dignity of Grand Master, who infused great spirit into the lodges. 1646. The Masonic corporations in England, in whicli for a long time the majoi'ity had been composed of learned men,
artists,

men eminent

for

knowledge and

position,

who were

received as honorary members, and termed accepted Masons, no longer busied themselves with the matei'ial and primary It was at this time that the object of the association. celebrated antiquary Elias Ash mole, who founded the

museum

at Oxford, having been initiated, rectified and composed the formula for the society of Kose-Croix, consisting of ceremonies based on historical allusions, and the communication of signs of recognition after the manner of the

26
Freemasons,
posing

GENERAL

IflSTOltY

OF FKEEMASONRY.

This labor inspired him with the iiifea ol comfor the Masons, and accordingly he and substituted for the rituals in use a new mode composed of initiation, based, in part, on old Anglo-Saxon and Syriac on what manuscripts, partly on the Egyptian, mysteries, and he supposed to have been the form of initiation among the Roman architects. These rituals were adopted by the London lodges, and soon after throughout England. 1650. Freemasonry, in England, took a political bias; after the decapitation of Charles I. the Masons of England, and particularly those of Scotland, partisans of the Stuarts, labored in secret for the re-establishment of the throne destroyed by Cromwell. They used the mystery surround

new

rituals

ing their assemblies to lay their plans in security.
to

admit

all

Masons

to their projects, they

Unable composed superior

initiates, in which they alone unfolded their It was by the influence of these men, placed in high plans. wasposition, that Charles II., initiated during his exile, raised to the throne in 1660, and it was by this monarch that Masonry was termed the Royal art, because it had

degrees to the

principally contributed to his restoration. 1663. General assembly at York, Charles II. presiding, who confirmed the Grand Mastership of Henry Jermyn,

Albans, and conferred on him the Order of the series of regulations, all in conformity with past events, and maintained the high The preponderance of Accepted Masons became degrees. more evident : but having no longer to struggle against ~~ ~ 7 O political events, the superior degrees assumed a universal and humanitarian tendency. Cultivation of the arts and sciences, and sociability, under noble and elevated forms, became the features of their meetings.

Count of
Bath.

St.

The assembly passed a

'

f

1666. The great fire in London, which destroyed forty thousand houses and eighty-six churches, gave a new impetus The local craftsmen being unable to meet to architecture. the demand for labor, others were called in from all countries. They united in a Lodge, under the authority of Sir Christopher Wren, architect of St. Paul's, who furnished plans
for rebuilding the city.

1685. James II., Grand Master of the Order of Herodom of Kilwinuing, founded by Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, in 1311, in favor of the Freemasons who had fought under his banners, reestablished the Order of Knights of St. Andrew, which had been suspended, and the possessions of which were confiscated during the Reformation. It was the intention of the king to have made this Order a sign of distinction

and reward
perty.

for Masons in part icular, and it is probable that but for his misfortunes he would have returned their prop

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
1

27

corporations, except in England, were and even in that country they were no longer busy with operative Masonry. 1703. Notwithstanding the zeal displayed by Grand Master Wren, the number of Masons was continually diminishing. The annual feasts were completely neglected, and the four lodges remaining in London deserted. Differences of opinion among the Fraternity respecting the propriety of extending
700.

The Masonic

dissolved,

privileges to others than those educated in the science of architecture prevented the increase of its membership, and little progress was made until after the death of Grand
its

Master
1717.

Wren
The

(1716).

four lodges in London determined to elect a new Grand Master, and form a Grand Lodge. They, therefore, convened a general assembly of the Masons in London and its vicinity, and constituted a central authority under the title of " The Grand Lodge of England," recognizing only the three symbolic degrees. George Payne, elected Grand Master, got together a great quantity of ancient manuscripts, charts, rituals, and documents on the usages of the Fraternity, which, added to those iu possession of St. Paul's Lodge, were to form a code of laws and doctrines, certain of

which were to be published. 1720. The Grand Lodge having constituted several subordinates, in which many persons of distinction were initiated,

Grand Lodge of York became jealous of its rival, an u. proscribed its members. About this time the institution met with a severe loss in the destruction of important manuscripts committed to the flames by over-scrupulous members of St. Paul's Lodge, who were alarmed at the proposed publicity
the

about to be given them.
1721. Freemasonry began to extend to the continent. One Lodge was founded at Dunkirk and another at Mons. The Grand Lodge adopted various regulations concerning the government of the lodges, and regularity of their work. The rights of the Grand Master were determined, and he was accorded the right of naming his successor in case of his dismission or non-election. George Payne, having been again elected, gathered such documents as had escaped the flames the preceding year, and from them drew up a historical sketch of the society, which he submitted to the Grand Lodge with certain regulations. This was referred to the

committee,

who

further

referred
it,

and

he,

after

revising

was

it to Bro. Anderson, authorized to publish it

(1722). 17'21-l72c

Masonry introduced

in

France, and several

lodges constituted.
1729. The activity of the English lodges and their attrac tivcness stimulated the Masons of Ireland to greater zeal

28
"

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
ol

and they established a central authority by the name

The Grand Lodge of Ireland." 1732. The Grand Lodge at York, to which belonged the Masons calling themselves ancient, and whose constitution was more in accordance with the old corporations, recognized the necessity of conforming to the new order of things as more clearly expressed in the London Constitution. 1733. The first Provincial Grand Lodge in America was constituted at Boston. 1735. The first persecutions against Masons in modern times commenced by the States General of Holland, which interdicted Masonic assemblies. 1736. The Scottish Grand Lodge at Edinburg, in view of

the prosperous state of the English lodges growing out of their constitution .nd Grand Mastership, became desirous of introducing the same system, but was prevented by the hereditary office of patron, created by James I., for the The then Grand Master Baron Roslin family in 1430. The four oldest Sinclair, of Roslin, consented to resign. lodges in Edinburg called a general assembly, thirty-two lodges being represented, and the Baron having resigned his Grand Mastership and all the privileges attached to it, a regular Grand Lodge was formed, and he was elected its first Grand Master. 17o8. The Pope, Clement XII., issued a bull of excommunication against the Freemasons, which was followed by an edict of Charles VI., forbidding Masonic meetings in the low countries of Austria. August 15, in this year, Frederick II., King of Prussia,

was

initiated.

The Grand Lodge of England was accused of changing the ceremonies and ritual, introducing innovations, and of having named Provincial Deputies with power to establish lodges in the South of England, the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of York. A schism was the result, and a new Grand Lodge was formed with the designation
1739.

of " Ancients." The Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland sympathized with the ancients, but the moderns were decidedly the most successful. In the same year Cardinal Ferraro, in an edict intended to any misunderstanding of the Papal bull against the " no one should dare Erevent 'reeraasons, explained it to mean that to unite, assemble with, or affiliate in, the society, nor be present at its meetings, under penalty of death and confiscation of their goods, without hope of remission or pardon that all proprietors were forbidden to allow any Masonic assembly on their premises under penalty of having their houses demolished,, being fined and sent to the galleys."
:

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONBY.

29

1740. At this time there were more than two hundred lodges in France, of which twenty-two were in Paris. 1744. The Lodge of the Three Globes at Berlin, founded by Baron Bielefeld in 1740, was raised to the dignity "f a Grand Lodge by Frederick the Great^ldng of Prussia, who was elected Grand Master, and continued in office till 1747.

1751.
its

At

all civilized

this period Freemasonry had found its way into Its humane and elevating principles, countries.

dogma

of liberty, equality, and fraternity, alarmed the

kings and clergy, and they sought to arrest its progress. Edicts were fulminated against it in Russia (1731), its meetirgs forbidden in Holland (1735), and at Paris (1737, '38,

members arrested and persecuted at Rome and Florence, their meetings forbidden in Sweden, at Hamburg, and Geneva (1738) the Inquisition cast them into prison and caused the executioner to burn the books which treated
'44, '45), its
;

The Inquisition also caused knights who its doctrines. had been present at Masonic meetings to be perpetually exIn Portugal, unheard-of cruelties iled to Malta (1740). were practiced against them, including condemnation to the even the Sultan undertook to angalleys, at Vienna (1735) As a worthy climax to this series of nihilate them (1748). persecutions, Charles, king of Naples, forbid the practice of Masonry in his states Ferdinand VII., king of Spain, forbid Masonic assemblies under penalty of death and Pope Benedict XIV. renewed (1751) the bull of excommunication against the Freemasons, issued by Clement XII. in 1738. But all this violence failed to check the progress of the institution, which spread over the face of the globe with a rapidity which nothing could stop. Notwithstanding Benedict's bull,
of
; ; ;

at Tuscany, Naples, and sevof the Italian peninsula. Even at Rome there were lodges which hardly took the trouble to conceal
eral other parts

Masonry was openly practiced

themselves.
1754. A chapter of the high degrees was founded at Pans, by the Chevalier de Bonneville, under the title of Clermont. In it was revived the Templar system, invented by the parti-

sans of the Stuarts. 1755. The Grand

Lodge of England

first

issued individual

diplomas.
1756. The English Grand Lodge of France, founded in 1736, and which assumed this title in 1743, cast oft* its allegiance to England and assumed the title of Grand Lodge of France. The disorders which had arisen under the Grand

Mastership of Prince de Clermont were continued, and even augmented. By warrants delivered to Masters of lodges, as well by herself as by the Lodge of St. Andrew of Scotland, at Edinbnrg, Musonic authorities of all kinds were multiplied

3U
f

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
France;
illegal

in

warrants were delivered by pretended

'.Masters of lodges; false titles were fabricated; antedated charters, bearing falsehood on their faces, weie set afloat without any notice on the part of the Grand Lodge. she declared her independence she also announced her inten-

When

tion of adhering to the Scottish custom of giving personal warrants to Masters for life, thus putting the climax to the The result was that these Masters govexisting disorder. erned their lodges according to their own caprice, giving warrants to other Masters at Paris and in the provinces, who, in turn, constituted others; other bodies rivaling the Grand Lodge were formed as Chapters, Councils, Colleges,
at Paris and elsewhere, and they likewise So much confusion resulted established lodges and chapters. that even in France it was not known which was in reality the legitimate body. 1750. Foundation of the National Grand Lodge of Italy, In the same year the Grand Lodge of dissolved in 1790. the United Provinces (Holland) was formed. 1762. Baron de Hunde introduced in Germany the rite of

and Tribunals,

Strict

Observance (so-called Templar System), which he had

obtained from Paris.
1763. The two factions into which the Grand Lodge of France had been divided in 1761 reunited, but they were unable to stay the tide of disorder which they had previously
Bet in motion.

1764. person by the name of Johnson, a secret agent of the Jesuits, professing to have plenary powers from the authorities of the Kite of Strict Observance, established chapters of the Templar System particularly at Jena, where he He professed to called a Ma: onir Congress Dec. 25, 1763. have the sole power of creating knights by virtue of patents from unknown authorities residing in Scotland. lie convoked a second congress in 1 764, to which the Baron de Flunde was invited, and who at first believed in Johnson's he sub-equently, however, exposed him as an imauthority postor, and, at a congress held at Altenberg, in 1765, the Baron himself was elected Grand Master of Templars. 765. Foundation of the RoyalYork Grand Lodge at Berlin 1772. Foundation of the Grand Orient of France. 1783. Foundation of the Eclectic Grand Lodge at Frank tort, which promulgated a new rite made up from the vajjety then existing, and hence called eclectic. 1785. Congress of Paris, called ostensibly to reduce to fder the chaos produced by the numerous systems intro;
.

A

duced into Masonry. Without good results. 1789. Edict of the Emperor Joseph II. suppressing the lodges throughout his dominions.

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

3l

1800. The rites and systems of high degrees introduced the course of the last century, and which had the gre-i.test The Scottish Rite in Seven JJegrees, 1. success were
in
:

2. The. brought from England by Doctor Ramsay, in 1736 Rite of Sicedenbftrg, first introduced at Avignon, in 17>0; 3. The System of Strict Observance, by Baron de Huiide, 1754; 4. Schroder's Rite (rectified Rose-Croix) with magic theosophy and alchemy, Berlin, 1766. Subsequently modified and adopted by the Grand Lodge of Hamburg 5. Clerks of Strict Observance, in the interests of Catholicism, 1767 7. 6. Swedish Templar Rite, by Zinnendorf, Berlin, 1767 Illuminati of Bavaria, a political society under Masonic
;
;

;

;

The Martin System, a variant of" the Scottish The Golden Rose-Croix System, founded in 1616, by Valentine Andrea, a profound philosopher, and 10. T/te revived under Masonic forms in Germany, 1777 Scottish Rite in Nine Degrees, by Fessler, 1V98. All these rites or systems, as well as those growing out of them, have either become extinct or been greatly modified. 1 804. Foundation of a Supreme Council in France by the Count de Grasse Tilly. In 1813. Union of the two Grand Lodges in England.
forms,
1

776

;

8.

rite,

1767;

9.

;

the act of union

it is

Freemasonry consists of but three degrees low-Craft, and Master.

expressly stated that ancient and true Apprentice, Fel:

1814. Edict of Pius VII. against the Freemasons, pronouncing infamous penalties, even to death and the confiscaIt is needless to add tion of the property of its members.

that the accusations contained in this document against the society are entirely without foundation. 1822. Ukase of the Emperor of Russia against the Free-

masons.
1824. Edict of the King of Portugal against Masonic assemblies. 1825. Imposing solemnity at Boston in honor of Bro.

Lafayette. 1826. The Pope renews the edict of Pius VII. against the Freemasons. 1828. Edict of the king of Spain against the Masonic Fraternity. 1832. Foundation of the Grand Orient of Belgium at
Brussels. 1836. Contestations

German Lodges,

and discussions arose among the especially those at Berlin, in regard to the admission of Israelites. Some lodges refused to initiate them, and others to. admit those who had been regularly initiated elsewhere. Addresses were presented by Jewish orethren showing the opposition of this conduct to the true

52

GENEllAr, HISTORY OP FREEMASONRY.

principles of Masonry but without result, and the same state of affairs continues now. It seems strange that in these enlightened days u prejudice dating from the middle ages should still sway the minds of men, and stranger still that the Masonic world should not raise its voice against it. 1850. At this period we find Freemasonry spread over the surfece of the globe. In Europe it was nearly every;

On the other hand, it was prohibited in Russia, Austria, and their dependencies ; in the kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia, at Rome, in Tuscany, Spain, and Portugal. In Africa there were lodges in Algeria, at Alexandria,
Lodges.

where flourishing, protected, and respected. England, Ireland, Scotland, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Prussia, Saxony, the lesser German States, France, Switzerland, and a portion of Bavaria had about 3,000 lodges governed by 21 Grand

Cape Town, and other points. In North America it was everywhere known, and lodges were constantly springing up. In South America, beginning at a later date, it was nevertheless making great progress. It had also been established in Asia and the Ocean islands. So that the number of lodges on the globe were computed at 5,000, of which 3,000 were in Europe, 1,400 in America, and 600 in
other parts of the world.

Thus, in the course of a century,

Freemasonry was propagated over the surface of the globe, scattering in its path the seed of civilization and progress, and impressing on its adepts lessons of truth which have
been crystallized into deeds
in their intercourse with the Little wonder that the partisans of an old and effete world. order of things, astonished by its peaceful transformations, should oppose, with all their might, the establishment and development of this institution. The influence of Masonry

on social progress would unquestionably have been greater had it not, in the last century, been paralyzed by the introduction of numberless incoherent systems, which, essentially contrary to its spirit, destroyed the uniformity and equality on which it rests. These systems gave to Freemasonry a different direction from that indicated by its doctrines, and thus rendering it an object of suspicion to governments,
were, in part, to blame for the persecutions levelled against It was often abused and assimilated with secret politiit.

and religious societies which assumed its name and covered themselves with its mantle to attain an end they dared not avow, such as the Rosicrusians and Illuminati. But when the society shall have got rid of the heterogeneous elements which introduced disorder and hindered its action and influence, nothing can stop the beneficent influence it will exercise on society in general.
cal

GENERAL HISTOKY OF FRKEMASONRY.

33

The best evidence that may be adduced in favor of thj beneficent influence of the institution, is seen in the recent from the weak and narrow-minded opposition it has elicited individuals who make no pretensions to any notion beyond an idea single to a selfish and proselyting ambition. Yet, not withstanding the objections thus raised, the order will move Here we propose to give, in a sucon, spread and flourish. cinct form, an account of the organization of Grand and Subordinate Masonic bodies, dates of introduction into the several parts of the world, so far as the history could be obtained authentically, and such other facts relative to the progress of Ma sonry as are deemed worthy of record in a work of this kind.
AFRICA. Freemasonry was in- Pomfret. In Canton, Hong Kong, troduced into Africa about tho year Shanghai, and other cities of China, i73G, and is now well known in the lodges are to be found, working European colonies along the coast; under the English Constitution. In the charters for holding lodges Asia Minor, at Smyrna, two lodges, emanated from England, France, one working in the English and the and the Netherlands. At Monrovia, other in the German language. In iii the negro state of Liberia, there the East Indies there is an English are lodges of colored Masons, not Provincial Grand Lodge, with fifty recognized by the whites, but work- subordinate lodges. Lodges are ing under a Grand Lodge of their established by the Grand Lodge of own. Scotland in Bengal, Bombay, and ALABAMA. Freemasonry was Arabia. The Grand Lodge of the introduced into this State by virtue Netherlands, and the Grand Orient of charters granted from the Grand of France, have subordinate lodges Lodges of South Carolina and Ten- in Java, Sumatra, and Pondiche'ry. There is scarcely a town in Hindosnes.-,ee, dates not known. The GRAND LODGE for the State tan in which there is not a Lodge. was organized June 1-t, 1821. In the East Indies two Masonic The GRAND CHAPTFR was organ- periodicals are published "The Inized June 2, 1827. dian Mason," at Bombay, and "The The GRAND COUNCIL of Royal and Masonic Record." Select Masters was established in AUSTRALIA. Freemasonry was June, 1827. introduced on the islands of this ex-

The GRAND COMMANDEKY, Knights tensive country by the Grand Lodge Templar, was organized Nov. 29, of England soon after its discovery. I860. There are lodges now established in ARKANSAS. The GRAND LODGE Nfw South Wales, South Australia, of t'ais State was organized Feb. 22, Victoria, Van Dieman's Land, New 1832, the centennial anniversary of Zealand, West Australia, Tasmania, the Sandwich Islands, Tahati, and Washington's birthday. Tho GRAND CHAPTER of Royal other parts of the territory, by tho Arch Masons was organized April Grand Lodges of England, Scot
28, 1851.

land, Ireland, France,

and California.

Hugh de Payens Commandery,
Knights Templar, organized
20, ]?j53.

Dec.

AUSTRIA. The establishment ot
Freemasonry in Austria was accom-

The panied with great difficulty. ASIA. The introduction of Ma- first Lodge was opened in Vienna sonry had its origin in 1728, by in 1742, under a warrant from the warrant from the Grand Lodge of Grand Lodge of Germany at Berlin. The first Lodge was But this body was compelled tn England.
established at Calcutta,

by

Sir Geo.

cflase its

meetings through

tln> IB

GENERAL HISTORY OF VKKE
fluence of the papal church authoriIn 1762 several lodges were ties. established in Vienna and Prague, which, notwithstanding the hostility of the church, increased so extenThe sively as to defy its power. lodges then existing in Bohemia, Hungary, and Transylvania, declared their independence of the Grand Lodge at Berlin, and in 1784 established a Grand Lodge of Austria, with its seat at Vienna. BAVARIA. The institution of Freemasonry was introduced into

1817 the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish rite

was established in Brussels, while
the

Grand Orient, located also at Brussels, has exclusive control over The two the symbolic degrees. bodies maintain toward each other so that the brotherly intercourse, members of the Grand Orient having the high degrees are considered, on that account, members of the Supreme Council.

Bavaria about the year 1746, and flourished with moderate success until the introduction of the society of the Illuminati, in 1776, when Freemasonry became oppressed because of the attempt of the originator of the Illuminati to engraft his system upon the Masonic rite. In 1784 the lodges voluntarily suspended operations until 1806, when the influence of the institution was again felt throughout the kingdom.

BOHEMIA. In 1749 the Grand Lodge of Scotland instituted a Lodge in Fragile, Bohemia. The order was highly prosperous until the commencement of the French revolution, when it was suppressed by the Austrian government. On the restoration of peace and the
rights of civil law, the Order has been reestablished, and is highly successful.

BRAZIL.

The introduction

of

Freemasonry into Brazil began as as 1816; but, owing to the The Grand Lodge is located at early powerful influence of the church Munich. authorities, the Order ceased its BELGIUM. In 1721 the Grand work until 1820, when several lodges of England constituted the were established there. In 1822 the Lodge first Masonic Lodge in Belgium, at Grand Orient was founded. Mons, under the title of Perfect CALIFORNIA. Freemasonry Union. In 1785 there were sixteen was introduced into this State in lodges established throughout the 1849 and 1850, by warrants from kingdom. At this period the lodges the Grand Lodges of the District were composed of the elite of the
of Columbia, Connecticut, Missouri, nation but, as the sentiments of A convention of the brotherhood had become very and New Jersey. from all the lodges in tha liberal and patriotic, in May, 1786, delegates State was held in the city of Sacrathe Emperor Joseph II. abolished 1850, and on the all the lodges in Belgium except mento, April 17, three. Most of them, however, 19th of that month a Grand Lodge for the State of California was esopntinued their meetings in secret. tablished in ample form. Jonathan During the French revolution all D. Stevenson was elected Grand the lodges were interdicted, and not until 1798 did they resume Master. The first Royal Arch Chaptei operations, but with limited opIn 1814 these lodges was convened in 1850, and the portunities. of GKAND CHA.PTEE of the State was declared themselves
;

independent

the Grand Orient of France, and in 1817 organized a Grand Lodge for Belgium and the Netherlands. After the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands in 1830, the latter deBired to be entirely independent of the other, which was mutually

organized

The GRAND COMMANDEBT, Knights Templar, was founded August 10,
1858.

May

6,

1854.

CANADA.

The

first

lodges in

Canada worked under charters from the Grand Lodges of England, Scotto. In 1835 most of the land, and Ireland. The first Lodge agreed themselves under the in Quebec was organized by authorlodges placed In itv of a warrant from St. John's protection t_f King Leopold.

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
Lodge, of Boston, MassaOctober 16, 1855, a convention assembled in the city of Hamilton; forty-three lodges were
chusetts.

35

Graad

represented, when the subject of States, whose East is at Charleston, an independent organization was has instituted bodies of that rite in calmly discussed, and resolutions several parts of the country. NEW GRANADA. adopted, setting forth the circumstances and necessities of a distinct Masonry was first established in this organization. When the convention republic about the year 1820. The adopted a Constitution and elected Grand Orient was founded at CarGrand officers, William Mercer thagenia, June 19, 1833. Wilson was elected and installed was inCOLORADO. Grand Master. The newly-formed troduced into this Masonry in 1859. territory Grand Lodge, however, did not August 2, 1861, a convention was immediately receive the recognition held in Golden City, by representaof all the lodges of Canada, and, tives from the three lodges then at beside, the Grand Lodge of England labor in the territory, and organized showed an unwillingness to sur- a Grand Lodge. J. M. Chivington render her authority. In this unwas elected the first Grand Master. happy state of affairs, several bodies, DISTRICT OF. Free-

of France. The Supreme Council of the 33d degree of the Ancieni and Accepted Scottish rite for the Southern jurisdiction of the United

COLOMBIA,

claiming partial or absolute jurisdiction, arose, and much confusion
prevailed until 1858, when all dissensions happily expired, and the Order in Canada became harmoniously united under one head.
of

COLUMBIA,

The GRAND ROYAL AKCH CHAPTEE Upper Canada was organized
27, 1818.

August
in Chili

masonry was introduced into the District of Columbia by. warrants from the Grand Lodges of Maryland and Virginia. The GRAND LODGE was established by a convention oi delegates from the lodges in the district, December 11, 1810. Valentine Reintzel was elected first Grand
Master.

first Masonic Lodge The Royal Arch Chapters belong was constituted about 1840, to the Grand Chapter of Maryland. under charter from the Grand Orient The Commanderies of Knights of France. But little is known of it, were organized 1825 and as it was closed during the political Templar 1862, by warrants from the Grand struggle of the republic shortly after of the United States. it opened. A second commenced Encampment CONNECTICUT. The introducits work with a charter from the Grand Orient of France in 1851. tion of Freeemasonry into this State A third began with a dispensation occurred November 12, 1750, by authority of a warrant from the from the Grand of

CHILI. The

Lodge

California,

working in the York rite, and in the English language; it war, kept at work one year and then closed. Four other lodges were subsequenttwo from the ly established there Grand Orient of France, and two from the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. April 20, 1862, representatives iroin four lodges met at Valparaiso, in convention, and organized a Grand Lodge for the

Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. The GRAND LODGE was organized July 8, 1789, by a convention o'
delegates from fifteen lodges. Pier pont Edwards was elected and in-

Grand Master. The GRAND CHAPTER was organized May 17, 1798; Ephraim Kirby was elected Grand High-Priest. The GRAND COUNCIL of Royal and
stalled

Select Masters organized 1819.

This Grand Lodge has four lodges under its jurisdiction, and the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts two, to one of which is attached a Royal Arch Chapter. There is also one Lodge acknowledging the
republic.
jurisdiction

The GKAND COMMANDEBY, Knights
Templar, organized Sept
13, 1827.
intro-

CUBA.

Freemasonry was

of

the

A Sov. Grand Inspector General. Grand Orient Grand Consistory was established

duced into Santiago de Cuba, in 1805. by patent from Count de Graspe,

3(5

rtBNERAL HISTORY OF FIJEEMASOXKY.
prospered for about two years, and
until the political agitations of th

Since that period Masonry in 180G has had but a i'eeblo existence, by reason of the hostility of the Spanish tuthorities of the island. The Symbolic Grand Lodge, at Santiago, under the title of the Grand Lodge of Colon, was organized Dec. 5, 1859, by the delegates from the three lodges then working in Cuba. Of the earlier history of Freemasonry on this island but little is

country, and the fierce opposition of the priesthood, compelled the

known.
nte
is

The Ancient and Accepted

brethren to close their lodges and return their charters to the parent body. There are at the present time (1866) no Masonic bodies in The Supreme Counthe republic. cil of the Ancient and Accepted rite of the Southern jurisdiction of the United States has issued the ne-

the acknowledged system of cessary authority for establishing work in the jurisdiction. bodies of the rite in this republic.

The precise date of the introduction of Freemasonry into this State is not generally known. The lodges, prior to 1806,
were held under warrants from the

DELAWARE.

Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. The SRAND LODGE for the State was organized June 6, 1806. The GRAND CHAPTER of Koyal Arch Masons was established Jan.
19, 1818.

DENMARK.
first

Freemasonry was

introduced into Denmark, at

The precise time of the introduction of Freemasonry into England, or Britain, is uncertain. There is intermingled so much of fable with the early accounts of the settlement of that island that no one of the present day can distinguish between the romance and the truth. All history sustains the assumption that its introduction began during the early part of the third century, and was conveyed there by the numerous bands of
traveling artisans

ENGLAND.

Copenhagen, in 1743, by authority of a warrant from the Grand Lodge at Berlin. In 1745 a warrant was
obtained
lish

who perambulated

from Lord Cranstouu, Grand Master of England, to estab-

a Lodge. In 1749 another warrant was obtained from the Grand Lodge of England. From this time lodges multiplied with In 1792, the Landgreat rapidity. grave, Charles of Hesse, assumed the title and duties of Grand Master of all the lodges in the kingdom, and thus Freemasonry became a recognized institution of the government. After the death of Charles the Order, and procured them emthe Crown Prince, subsequently and increased wages. King Christian VIII. assumed the ploymentflourished with varied sucMasonry protectorship of the Danish lodges. cess until the 926, when DOMINICANA. The establish- King Athelstane year became King oi ment of Freemasonry in this repub- England. This king loved and lic was during the year 1845. The encouraged the Masons, and made Grand Orient was organized at the his brother Edwin overseer of the city of St. Domingo, December 11, Craft, and granted them a ctoarter. 1858. "Accordingly, Prince Edwin sumECUADOR. Of the introduction moned all the Masons in the realm of Freemasonry into this republic to meet him in a convention at little is known. In 1857 the Grand York, who came and composed a Orient of Peru issued charters for General Lodge, of which he was a symbolic Lodge, and a chapter of Grand Master; and having brought the- 18 f b de ~en* in Guayaquil, which with them all the writings and
,

every section of the country where their services could be employed. The first organization of Masons as a distinctive body occurred about A. D. 300, under the protection of the Emperor Caraucius, who conferred many privileges on the Masons; granted them a charter, and appointed Albanus, a distinguished Koman general, their Grand Master. Under the auspices of Caraucius he labored earnestly for the prosperity of the Craft; convened the annual assemblies, settled the fundamental constitutions; revised the ritual of

GENERAL HISTORY OF FKKKMASONKY.
records extant, some in Greek, some in Latin, some in French and other

languages, from the contents thereof that assembly did frame the constitution and charges of an English Lodge." From this era we may
in England.

date the reestablishment of Masonry For a long time the Grand Lodge at York exercised Masonic authority over all England, and until 1567, when the Masons in held, and Mr. Anthony Sayer was rethe southern part of the island as- gularly proposed and elected Grand sembled at a Grand Convention, and Master. Out of respect to the four elected Sir Thomas Gresham, the old lodges, the only bodies then distinguished merchant, as Grand existing in London, the privileges Master. There were now two Grand which they had always possessed Masters in England, who assumed under the old organization were Distinctive titles; the Grand Master reserved to them. The two Grand of the North (York) being called bodies of York and London kept up "Grand Master of all England," a friendly intercourse, and mutual while he who presided in the South interchange of recognition, until the (London) was called "Grand Mas- Grand Master of the latter body, in ter of England." Notwithstanding 1734, granted two warrants of conthis new appointment of a Grand stitution to a number of Masona Master in the South, the General who had seceded from the former. Assembly continued to meet in the This unfriendly act was at once city of York, where all the ancient condemned by the Grand Lodge at and valuable Masonic records were York, and produced a disruption of kept; and to this assembly appeals the harmony that had long subsisted were made on every important occa- between them. Three years later, sion. Masonry flourished and was in 1738, some disagreeable- altercaremarkably prosperous until the tions arose in the Order. A number early part of the eighteenth century, of dissatisfied brethren separated when, in consequence of the civil themselves from the regular lodges, war that agitated the country, it held meetings in different places, became neglected, and fell into de- for the purpose of initiating persons cay, pa-ticularly in the south of into Masonry, contrary to the laws The seceding Sir Christopher Wren, of the Grand Lodge. England. the Grand Master in the reign of brethren, taking advantage of the had become aged, breach between the Grand Lodges Queen Anne, infirm, jvnd inactive, and hence the of London and York, assumed, grand assemblies were entirely ne- without authority, the appellation These irreglected. The old Lodge of St. Paul, of "Ancient Masons." and a fe v others, continued to meet gular proceedings they pretended to regularly, but consisted of few mem- justify under the feigned sanction bers. To increase their members, a of the Ancient York Constitutions. proposition was made, and agreed They announced that the old landwere alone preserved by to, that the privileges of Masonry marks should i a longer lie restricted to oper- them; that the regular lodges had ative Masons, but extend to men of adopted new plans, sanctioned invarious professions, provided they novations, and were not to be were regitiarly approved and initiated considered as working under the into the Order. This is the period old system; they were, therefore, when the institution was changed branded with the title of "Modern " from the operative to the speculative Masons. They established a new character. In consequence of this Grand Lodge in 1739, in the city oi resolution many new regulations London, under the name of tut-. were established, and the society Grand Lodge of Aneieut York once more rose into notice and es- Masons," and, persevering in tu
, ' '

teem. The assembly above alluded to did not fully reestablish the Grand Lodge of England, but advised that the holding an annual feast should be revived, and that the Grand Master, according to custom, should be chosen. Accordingly, in the third year of the reign of George I. on St. John the Baptist's day, 1717, the annual assembly and feast were

38

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
such was the still prevailing hostility of the Spanish authorities, and from other causes, its existence was not

measures adopted, formed commitheld communications, and Under appointed annual feasts.
tees,

the fals The next Lodge, appellation of the York long preserved. banner, they gained the recognition of which we have any knowledge, of the Masons of Scotland and Ire- was a Mark Master's Lodge, called land, who, believing the representa- "Union Mark Lodge," established tions made to them, heartily joined in St. Augustine, in 1822, under a iu condemning the measures of the warrant from the Hon. DeWitt regular lodges in London, as tend- Clinton, General Grand High-Priest ing, in their opinion, to introduce of the General Grand Chapter of novelties into the society, and to the United States. This Masonic subvert the original plan of Ma- body worked for a short time only, The two Grand Lodges owing, perhaps, to the fact that sonry. continued to exist, in opposition to there was no symbolic Lodge in each other, to the great scandal of existence in that city, to furnish it the Fraternity, until the year 1813, with material for work ; and to the when, by the united efforts of the further fact that Masonry, at that Duke of Sussex, who was Grand time, had not recovered from th Master of the Grand Lodge termed effects of the church prejudices and Moderns, and the Duke of Kent, influences. In 1824 another appliwho was Grand Master of the Grand cation was made to the Grand Lodge Lodge known as the Ancients, the of South Carolina, by the constitutwo bodies were happily united with tional number of Master Masons, great solemnity, under the style and for a warrant to establish a Lodge " The United Grand title of Lodge entitled "Esperanza Lodge," at " of Ancient Freemasons of England. St. Augustine. This Lodge, which In no part of the world is Freema- worked in the Spanish language, more prosperous or respected became estinct after one year, by sonry than in England. the removal of the greater portion FLORIDA. The earliest record of its members to Havana. Its of the existence of Freemasonry in warrant was surrendered to the Florida, that we can trace, is that a Grand Lodge, whence it was reLodge of Ancient York Masons was ceived. From this time there was no organized Masonry in East Floorganized in the city of St. Augustine, under a warrant granted by the rida, until the establishment of a Grand Lodge of the State of Georgia, Lodge in the city of Tallahassee, by about the year 1806, to St. Fernando a warrant from the Grand Lodge of Lodge. But no certain information Alabama, under the title of Jackson can be obtained on the subject from Lodge, about the year 1826. The the records of the Grand Lodge of second Lodge was organized in the Georgia, as a part of the archives of town of Quincy, by waiTaut from that Grand Lodge, from 1805 to the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, un1817, were destroyed by the great der the title of Washington Lodge, fire which occurred in the city of and the third from the Grand Lodge Savannah, about the year 1818. This of Georgia, under the title of HarLodge worked, and made Masons, mony Lodge, in the town of Mariana. until the year 1811, when it was On the 5th of July, 1830, delegates suppressed by a mandate ot the from the three lodges in Florida asSpanish government. Notwithstand- sembled in the city of Tallahassee, ing this pointed opposition to Ma- for the purpose of organizing a sonry, a few faithful spirits cherished Grand Lodge for the Territory of in their hearts a love for the insti- Florida. After regularly organizing tution, and, in the year 1820, ob- the convention, the necessary resotained from the Grand Lodge of lutions were adopted, and July 6 the South Carolina a warrant for a Grand Lodge was legally organized, Lodge to work in the city of St. the Grand Officers elected and duly " Augustine, under the style of Flo- installed. Brother John P. Duva), ridan Virtues Lodge, No. 28." But the oldest Past Master present, was
_
.

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
tho first Grand Master Since this period Masonry has flourished in Florida with remark
elected
able vigor

and permanency.

usage which prevailed in the parent body of giving warrants to Masters for life, who considered the lodges
established
property.
to

of Roya Arch Maso">; was organized Jan. llj This Grand Chapter has 1847. ever been an independent body not acknowledging the authority o: the General Grand Chapter of the

The GRAND CHAPTER

by them as personal They even sold warrants other Masters in Paris and the

United States.

The GBAND COUNCIL of Roya' and Select Masters was organized
in January, 1852.

FRANCE.

The

first

Lodge

founded in France was at Dunkirk, October 13, 1721, and was called "Friendship and Fraternity;" and %bout the same time another al Mous, called "Perfect Union." In 1726 Lord Derwentwater established the first Lodge at Paris; it had about five hundred members, and met at a restaurant kept by one Hurre two others were founded in 1729, and a fourth in 1732, in which the Duke of Aumont was initiated, and which, on that account, took his name. In 1735 Lord Derweutwater received a patent from England, constituting him Provincial Grand Master, which powers he subsequently transferred to his friend Lord Hamouester. In 173C the four lodges in Paris founded a Provincial Grand Lodge, under the authority of England, and placed Lord Hamouester at th-s head. In 1738 he was succeeded by the Duke
;

provinces, and these, in turn, constituted other bodies, which s.et up a rivalry against the Grand Lodge, and produced the utmost degree ol confusion, which was more confounded by the Chevalier Ramsay, whose system is credited as the base of all the rites which have since been The peddled around the world. Grand Lodge fell into a state ot anarchy on account of the inattention of the Grand M.ist-er, who, to rid himself of the direction of affairs appointed proxies: the first was a banker named Baure, who did no better than his master, and he was removed to give place to Lacorne, a dancing master, who took the degrees of Perfection to fit himself
for his

new

dignity.

The members
succeeded

of the Grand Lodge, however, refused to associate with him, and he

was removed, and

by

Chaillon de Joiuville, whereupon a sell ism arose, and the two parties made war upon each other with
reat bitterness.

Each party grant-

ed warrants, and a faction under the
leadership of Lacome did likewise; tavern-keepers bought the right to hold lodges; rituals and constitutions were made merchandise,

D' An tin,

death, in 1743,

who presided until his md anarchy reigned supreme. In when the Count de 1777 the two parties in the Grand
was
elected,
at

Clermont

which

period the body assumed the title of 'English Grand Lodge of France."

At this time an effort was made to suppress the Fraternity, and Louis XV. issued an edict forbidding the nobility to take part in the society, and threatened with the Bastile any who should have the temerity to accept the Granl Mastership. Notwithstanding the inconvenience a residence in the State attending Prison, und the continued activity of the police, the Craft held its own, and even increased in numbers. The

Lodge united, but Lacorue and his adherents kept aloof, .and caused much trouble, even going so far as to descend to acts of violence, in consequence of which the government closed all the lodges. Secret meetings were, however, held, and charters granted till 1771, when the Jount de Clermont died and the Duke de Chartres succeeded to the Grand Mastership. The edict ol revocation was withdrawn, and aU .he charters granted during the iuspeusion were canceled. In 1772
lie

hat of Grand Orient; and March 5, inder the gavel of the Duke de Luxgiance to the English Grand Lodge, and became the Grand Lodge of embourg, substitute of the Grand France, preserving, however, the Master, adopted "The Statutes "I

Grand Lodge changed

its title to

Grand Lodge now

cast off

its

alle-

.

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
the Royal Order of

Freemasonry in and
life

France," in which the
election substituted.
fied

Masterships were abolished, and the annual

Some

dissatis-

finally became so disorderly that the police interfered and closed At a later its halls and operations. period (1838), the Rite of Memphis

Masons continued the Grand made its appearance and pursued Lodge of France, and the quarrel its labors with varying fortunes went on as before, until both parties none of them very brilliant until, were silenced by the terrible events on the application of the Grand
of the Revolution. In 1799 Brother Montaleau being Grand Master, a concordat was signed, and the various factions were united under the In direction of the Grand Orient.
1802, however, new troubles arose with the Philosophical or Scottish rite, which refused obedience to the Grand Orient, and claimed the right to govern and direct the high degrees.

Hierophant Marcorius de Negre, it was finally absorbed by the Grand Orient (1862), and its vast system
of ninety-six degrees cut down to thirty-three, the dimensions of the Scottish rite. In 1852 Prince Lucien Murat was chosen Grand Master, who proved inefficient, and conferred no honor on the Craft. At the meeting of 1861 violent disputes arose, the majority of the represent*

Many Masons

atives being anxious to get rid 01 Morin, took part in this movement, Murat and elect Prince Napoleon iu and in 1803 the banner of the oppo- his stead, and the adherents of sition was fully displayed, and the Murat, as well as himself, being body took the name of "Scottish equally anxious to retain the power General Grand Lodge of the Ancient they had exercised for years to the and Accepted rite; " but in 1804 they evident detriment of the society. united with the Grand Orient. There The clamors reached such a bight was, however, still in existence, that the civil authorities interfered another body founded in 1802 by and closed the session before an the Count de Grasse-Tilly, with the election was held. The Prince then title "Sovereign Grand Inspectors appointed a committee of five to General of the 33d and last degree supervise the affairs of Masonry of the Ancient and Accepted Scot- until the following October, when tish rite," claiming to have derived the Grand Orient v/as again to be authority from the Supreme Council called together for the purpose of at Charleston. In 1805 the previous electing a Grand Master. The Craft concordat was broken, and thus at large, however, refused to acthere were again three governing knowledge their authority, and adbodies in France. In the same year hered to the council of the Grand Joseph Bonaparte was named Grand Master, who were, in fact, the legal Master, Cambaceres accepted the successors of the defunct funcposition of first assistant, and many tionary, and thus, for a time, the persons of distinction were thereby Fraternity had two heads. January attracted to the Fraternity. In 11, 1862, Napoleon put an end to 1814, owing to political events, the this disgraceful state of affairs, and Grand Orient found it difficult to by "the grace of God and the maintain its organization, and the national will" appointed Marshal bodies of the Scottish rite ceased Magnan Grand Master for three their meetings altogether. Advan- years. At the time of his nomination tage was taken of this state of affairs the Marshal was not a Mason but he by the Grand Orient to assume received the whole thirty-three dejurisdiction over all degrees and grees the following day, by commurites. In 1815, April 9, a new nication, in the presence of five claimant of Masonic authority ap- Masons, led by Rexes. The whole in the Rite of Misraim, in- proceeding was entirely peared illegal vented and propagated by four but there was no help for it, and brothers, Bedarride by name. This the Marshal was subsequently inrite applied to the Grand Orient for stalled, and signalized his entrance recognition, but in 1817 was refused, into official station by decapitating

among

of distinction, others the famous Stephen

;

;

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASOXRY.
Rexes and removing those who, with him, had for years mismanaged the He affairs of the Grand Orient. found the Fratemity overwhelmed and its affairs generally with debt, in a state of disgraceful confusion. By the adoption of vigorous measures he reduced this chaos to order, and, at the end of his first term, had succeeded in paying off the floating debt amounting to about $40,000. In 1861 he announced that the Emperor, at his request, had withdisgrace

upon

it,

pitiful intrigues

are due to the growing out of the

of superior degrees which have from time to time been invented and propagated there, and those who are well informed entertain no doubt of the near approach of the day when Masonrj' in France will return to its primitive organization, and practice only the sym-

many systems

bolic degrees. It is also a subject of remark that the lodges in France are gradually falling into the hands

drawn his appointment, whereupon the Grand Orient, with unanimity and good taste, elected him for a new term of three years; an honor of which he evidently felt proud, as he signed his edicts thereafter "Elected" Grand Master, etc. May
he died in office, in the 74th year of his age, honored and regretted by the Fraternity he had At the well and faithfully served. succeeding meeting of the Grand the present Orient General Mellinet, Grand Master, was elected. He has appointed on his staff some of the
29, 1865,

of the middle and working classes, and that its social status is likely a fear in to be thereby endangered which we, on this side of the Atlanon tic, are not likely to participate the contrary we see in it the indication of a healthy growth and a true progress toward the great end of the association the brotherhood of man.
;

GEORGIA.
torical

The

earliest his-

record of Freemasonry in Georgia may be found in Preston's Illustrations, during the Grand Mastership of the Earl of Strathmore, best known and respected citizens in 1733, and is in the following lanof Paris; and we hazard nothing in guage: "The history of the society saying that Masonry in France is at at this period atFords few remarkpresent in a better condition, and able instances of record. Some conits affairs in better hands, than at siderable donations were collected, any time since its introduction into and distributed among distressed the Empire. At the annual commu- Masons, to encourage the settlement nication for 18G5 a new constitution of a new colony, which had been just was adopted, which is apparently established at Georgia, America." modeled upon that of New York, The next allusion we find by the and which is decidedly better than same author in 1735, who says: "He any of its predecessors. It recog- (Lord Weymouth being then Grand nizcs the sovereignty of the lay Master) also issued warrants to open members, and the great principle a new Lodge at Lisbon, and another of Grand Lodge jurisdiction, for at Savannah, in Georgia." Thomas which we have always contended, Smith Webb, in his Freemiisoii's and which is the subject of dif- Monitor, edition of 1805, says: "The fei ence between the Grand Lodges Grand Lodge of Georgia is hokleu of America and that of Hamburg. by virtue, and in pursuance of the The subject of Masonic reform, by right of succession, legally derived triking out the high degrees, is at from the Most Noble and Most present obtaining great considera- Worshipful Thomas Thyue, Lord tion in France and throughout Viscount Weymouth, Grand Master Europe, and it is a noteworthy of England, A. D. 1730,* by his warfact that at the adoption of the rant, directed to the Right Worshipnew constitution a proposition to ful Roger Lacey; and by the renewal ignore them entirely only failed by of the said power by Sholto Charles three votes. It is claimed in France *This is evidently an error, because that the continuous difficulties Lord Weymouth was Grand Muster in which have imp jded" the progress 1735, and was (ucceeded by the Earl o< nf the Craft, and brought so much London iu 1736.
i ! | j | j [

1

i

I

|

GENFRA.L HISTORY OF FKEEMA8ONBT.
Lord Aberdour, Grand Dcniglas, Master of Scotland, lor the years 1755 and 1756; and the Grand Master of England for the years 1757 as will appear in his and 1758 warrant directed to the Right \Yor;

the results
gation,
it

of

historical

invest!

must be conceded thai the modern society is the direct descendant and successor, in an unbroken line, of the operative Fraternity of Masons of the nz ddle
ages.

Dec. 16, A. D. shipful Grey Elliot. 1786, a convention of the several lodges holden in the State assembled at Savannah, when the permanent appointments, which had been theretofore made by the Grand Master of England, were solemnly relinquished, by the Right Worshipful Sam'l Elbert, Grand Master, and the other officers of the Grand Lodge; and certain regulations adopted by which the Grand Officers are now elected annually by the Grand

"* In 1733, Preston says, eleven for authority to open a Lodge at Hamburg,

German Masons applied

under the patronage of the Grand Lodge of England, for which purpose the Grand Master, Lord Strathmore, granted a dispensation
to

Lodge." At this convention, 1787, William Stephens was elected Grand 11, 1738, a deputation of this Master. This Grand Lodge so con- Lodge was convened at Brunswick stituted was afterward incorporated for the purpose of initiating the by the legislature of Georgia. The Crown Prince, afterward Frederick warrant of Solomon's Lodge, as II. By this valuable accession of originally issued, was destroyed by nobility Masonry was greatly beneSoon fire, therefore its precise date and fited throughout Germany. authority cannot, at this time, be after his initiation, he organized a settled. in the castle of Rheinsberg, definitely Lodge GERMANY. The earliest history and, in 1740, when Frederick ascended the throne, he conducted of Freemasonry in Germany is supposed to be closely interwoven the work of a Lodge established at In with the history of the building the castle in Charlottenburg. associations of the Middle Ages: 1738-39 several Lodges were estab"as we may easily recognize a lished in Dresden, and in 1741 the strong similarity in the usages, cus- Lodge "Minerva of the Three Palm toms and peculiar terms of the Trees" was organized at Leipsic. Fraternity of Freemasons of the In 1742 the Lodge of Unity was established at Frankfort -on -the present day, and the titem-Metzen In 1741 a Provincial Grand (stone-cutters) of Germany. 1. The Main.
|

permanent Lodge, concerning which but little is now known. December 6, 1737, a Lodge was established in Hamburg, by authority of the Grand Lodge of England, which, in 1741, assumed the title of "Absalom." August

establish a

'

'

classification of their members into Masters, Fellow-Crafts, and Apprentices; 2. The government of the society by a certain number of officers; 3. The exclusion of the uninitiated

from their meetings;

4.

The

peculiar qualifications for membership; 5. The equality of all the members of the Craft; 6. Their mutual obligations to relieve suffering; 7. Their peculiar laws, jurisdiction and general regulations 8. The ceremonies of initiation; 9. The manner of opening and closing
;

1743, under the name of St. In 1744 a Lodge under George. the title "Frederick" was founded at Hanover, which did not, however, enter into active operation
in

Lodge for Hamburg and Lower Saxony was established. The second Lodge in Hamburg was founded

Lodge is still in exThe war of 1750 compelled most of the Lodges to close their work until 1758. About the year 1757 the first Lodge of the system of Strict Observance was established their assemblies; 10. The privileges in Naumburg, under the title of " of a Mason's son; 11. The examina- tho "Lodge of the Three Banners. This system, which claimed to be tion of foreign brethren, etc. Taking the true and legitimate suceesall these circumstances into consideration, and combining with them * Finder* History of Freeiaasoury.
istence.

until 1746. This

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

43

gor of t) e Order of the Knights Gvand Lodge of England. During Templar, had for a short time an the wars in which the elder Napoleon unprecedented popularity. In 1755 was the master spirit Masonry oca warrant, with ample powers to cupied a quiet and unobtrusive establish a Provincial Lodge in position throughout the country. Hamburg, was received from the Our limited space will not permit Grand Lodge of England. In 1766 us to follow the various incidents of another Provincial Grand Lodge the Fraternity. We must, therewas established at Frankfort-oii- fore, refer the Masonic student in

the-Maiu, by the Grand Lodge of his researches to the more elaborate In 1776 the society works upon the subject of Masonic England.
of Illuminati, a secret political history, and which have been preorganization, was introduced and pared with great care by many of spread throughout the country, to the most competent writers of the About present age. the injury of Freemasonry. Freemasonry is in the year 1780 the Swedish rite was high repute in Germany, embracing introduced and practiced by several within her ample folds the iiiie, of lodges in Germany. In 1789 an the country. In 1731, by virtue important event took place for the better and more peaceful condition of a special deputation from Lord of the Order. Many of the lodges, Lovel, Grand Master of England, an being dissatisfied with the immense emergent Lodge was held at the number of rites and high degrees Hague, the Earl of Chesterfield engrafted upon the plain and un- presiding, for the initiation of the presuming system of Freemasonry, Duke of Tuscany, afterward Emresolved to modify the diiferent peror of Germany. After the cereelements then in use, and as near mony the Lodge was closed. The as pi ssible to return to the original first regular and permanent Lodge or primative condition. For this established in Holland was at the From this purpose a convention of the lodges same place in 1734. of Germany was held in Frankfort, Lodge several lodges were formed. in 1783, at which convention a union In 1756 a convention of all the lodges was formed under the title of the then in the assem-

HOLLAND.

"Eclectic Union," which had for material or chief points: 1. The three Masonic degrees alone are acknowledged by all the united
its

lodges 2. Each Lodge is left free to introduce as many of the higher degrees as it may deem proper, but
;

they must not be compulsory upon the whole association; 3. None of the associated lodges are dependent on the other; they are all equal; 4. The Provincial Lodges of Wetzlar and Fraukfort-on-the-Main form a General Directory. In conseILLINOIS. The reliable history quence of this independent action of Freemasonry, and of its early inof the Provincial Grand Lodge at troduction into Illinois, is yet to be Frankfort in severing its connection and it is hoped that the subwith the Grand Lodge of England, written, ject is of sufficient interest to the plans were immediately adopted to cause to induce some enlightened renew and perpetuate the English brother, and well versed in the authority upon the soil of Germany. to favor the FraIn 1 789 a new warrant with powers knowledge thereto, with a truthful account of for the establishment of a Provincial ternity

country working bled and organized a Grand Lodge. When Holland was united to the French Empire, the Grand Orient of France sought to extend the sphere of her jurisdiction, by ignoring the existence of the lodges in Holland, and founded two lodges of her own creating in Amsterdam. This controversy was of short duration, and the Grand Orient abandoned the effort. In 1863 the Grand Lodge of Holland numbered upward of one hundred lodges upon its rolls.

Grand Lodge, giving

full jurisdiction over the whole of the Upper and Lowe* Rhine, and the circle

Masonry
territory.

in

this once far western In 1805, six years before

the organization of the territorial

wf Franconia, was granted by the

goveinmeut, a Lodge was organized

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
Kaskaskia, the oldest settlement 12, 1818. Alexander Buckner was Other elected the first Grand Master. west of the Alleghaiiies. The GRAND ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER lodges followed, and in those early days, the Lc-ige-room was the resort was organized in November, 1846. The GRAND COUNCIL of Royal and of men anxious to profit by the mystic teachings, and enjoy the Select Masters was organized in of the inner 1853. secret communion A Grand The GRAND COMMANEERT, Knight* chamber of Masonry. Lodge, in due time, was formed, Templar, was established May 6, which flourished for a time, but 1854. succumbed before the anti-Masonic IOWA. The introduction of Freetempest of 1827. From that time masonry into this Territory, as it forward, until 18-40, gloom and ob- was then called, began by authority scurity rest upon Masonic records of letters of dispensation from the in Illinois. Time, patience, and Grand and Deputy Grand Masters perseverance, will exhume them. of Missouri the first dated Nov January 20, 1840, a convention of 20, 1840, for a Lodge at Desmoines; Masons, composed of delegates from the second dated Feb. 4, 1841, for several of the subordinate lodges a Lodge at Bloomingtou; the third in the State, was held in the town dated Oct. 10, 1842, for a Lodge at of Jackson, when a resolution was Dubuque. Jan. 2, 1844, delegates unanimously adopted declaring it from the three lodges met in conaxpedient to establish a Grand vention at Iowa City, when the Lodge. The convention adjourned necessary resolutions were adopted, to, and did meet again, April 6 of the and on the 3d of the same month same year. The object of the meet- the Grand Lodge for the Territory Oliver Cock was ing having been fully considered, was proclaimed. it was unanimously "Resolved, That elected the First Grand Master. the several subordinate lodges of The GRAND ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER Ancient Freemasonry in the State of was organized June 8, 1854. Illinois here assembled, represented The GRAND COUNCIL of Royal authorized, and Select Masters was organized by delegates properly consider it as a matter of right, and in 1857. as conducive to the general benefit The GRAND COMMANDERY, Knights of Masonry, that a Grand Lodge be Templar, was organized June 6, established in the State of Illinois, 1864.
at

and that they now proceed to establish, organize, and to locate the same accordingly, to be known and name of the Grand designated by the " Abraham Jonas Lodge of Illinois. was elected the first Grand Master. The GRAND CHAPTER was organized April 9, 1850. Wm. B. Warren was elected first Grand High-Priest. The GRAND COUNCIL of Royal and Select Masters was organized in 1853. Jas. H. Hibbard was elected the first Grand Master. The GRAND COMMANDERY, Knights Templar, was organized Oct. 27, Jas. V. Z. Blaney was elected 1857. the first Grand Commander. INDIANA. The GRAND LODGE of this State was organized at Garydon, in December, 1817. The first meeting of the Grand Lodge for the election of officers, and the transaction of business, was held Jan.

IRELAND. Of
of

the early history
little
is

Masonry in Ireland so known that it would be

folly to

attempt, in this late day, to discover the footprints of its existence upon that ancient soil. Bro. Michael Furnell, than whom no living Masonic writer is better acquainted with the history of Masonry in Ire"I furnish a brief laud, says: abstract of the historic constitiition of the Masonic Order in Ireland; and though possessing irrefutable records and data, showing the existence of several self-designated 'Grand Lodges' in past centuries, and though the Lodge No. 1, on the present Itgiliniate registry, claims an uninterrupted descent from an independent lodge, which existed from time immemorial, and retains many quaint old documents in her aiv
chives,

and

is

by many

'

style'l,

The

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
First Lodge ( f Ireland,' yet I leave the task of research into the hazy mist of the past ages, to some more erudite antiquary, taking for granted that those gone-by powers were but

compelled the brethren, very geneFor rally, to close their lodges.

many years only those members who

had the courage availed themselves of their right to meet, and in the by assumption or prescription. The most secret manner. Persecutions constitution of the present Metro- of the most inhuman character were politan Grand Lodge dates from the exercised against the members of year 1729, when the entire Frater- the Order by the inquisition until
Eight Hon. Lord Kingston, Grand Master " Since that time many of Ireland. gentlemen of noble birth have occupied the chair, and directed the
nity united in electing the
1776, when, through the influence of Queen Caroline, daughter of

Masonry with substantial The Ancient York rite is tenaciously adhered to by this Grand
affairs of
effect.

Francis L, the persecutions ceased, and all the prisoners in charge of In the inquisition were released. 1805 a Supreint) Council of the Ancient and Accepted rite was
established in Milan by letters patent from Count de Grasse-Tilly Prince Eugene, viceroy of Italy accepted the office of Sovereigi

gave

established in this country, at Flor- from foreign rule in the language of the colliers themselves: "Clear ence, in 1733, by Lord Charles the forest of wolves." From 1814 Sackville, but by what authority is at present unknown. At first to 1860 Freemasonry was almost The society the Fraternity was known under extinguished in Italy. the name of the "Company of of the Carbonari absorbed every the Trowel," and, afterward, by the thought and consideration in the " Franchi Muratori." hope that they might free the counappellation of In 1735 the Grand Duke Francis try from the despotic tyranny of was initiated. This circumstance the Bourbons. In 1861 Freemasonry began again to rekindle the fires a fresh and wholesome

Grand Commander and Grand Mas Grand Orient of Italy. Carolina, and creating his Grace, the When Italy was under French rule, Duke of Leiuster, Grand Command- then did Masonry begin to rise and In 1820 a Council of thrive. er, ad vitam. Murat, King of Naples, the Rite of Misraim was instituted, assisted in the establishment of a with the Duke of Leinster as the Grand Lodge, which was opened Supreme head. This organization with marked splendor and ceremony had a very brief existence in this June 24, 1809. With the fall of country. The present Grand Master Napoleon the persecutions against (.1866) of the Grand Lodge is the the Fraternity were renewed, both Duke of Leinster, who has held the by civil and ecclesiastical authoriWithin the body ties. office since 1813. At this period the secret of the Grand Lodge is a Grand society known as the CARBONARI Conclave of Knights Templar, a (Colliers) arose. This was purely Supreme Grand Council of rites, a political organization, which had and a Grand Royal Arch Chapter. for its purpose the consolidation of ITALY. Freemasonry was first Italy under one scepter, and free it
ter of the

Lodge. In 1809, a charter for the establishment of a Supreme Council of the 33d degree, Ancient and Accepted rite, was granted by the Supreme Council, at Charleston, South

impetus

lodges were immediately established in Milan, Verona, Padua, Vicenza, Venice, and Naples. The Fraternity was not long permitted to enjoy entire freedom for the exercise of their privileges. In 1738 Pope Clement XII. issued his famous bull against the Fraternity, which, notwithstanding the influence and power of the Duke
to the Order;

upon her altars. In Palermo a Grand Orient was founded by Garibaldi, which adopted the Ancient and Accepted Scottish rite. A Supreme Council of the same rite has also
been formed in Naples. Within a few years past Masonry in Italy has undergone so many changes that it seems impossible to keep pace with its vast and extensive improvements.

GENERAL HISTORY OF FKEEMASONBY.
KANSAS. The
introduction of

surrendered to the Grand Lodge

Freemasonry into this territory be- their respective charters, and regan in 1854, by authority from the ceived new ones in lieu thereof, Grand Lodge of Missouri. Nov. 14, under the Grand Lodge there estabWin. jlurray 1855, delegates from two lodges met lished for the State. for the purpose of organizing a was elected the first Grand .Master. The GRAND ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER Grand Lodge. This convention, not having the legal number of was organized Dec. 4, 1817, at the James Moore lodges repiesented, adjourned until city of Frankfort. was elected the first Grand Highthe 27th of the next month two lodges appeared by Priest. again only The GRAND COUNCIL of Royal and delegates, when they adopted resolutions, formed a Constitution, Select Masters was organized Dec. Robert Johnson was proclaimed a Grand Lodge, estab- 10, 1827.
;

LOUISIANA. Freemasonry was reeuacted the previous proceedings, first planted upon the soil of Louiand then opened a Grand Lodge for siana by the Grand Lodge of South Bro. Carolina in the territory in ample form. 1793; the second Lodge R. R. Rees was elected the first obtained a charter from the Grand Grand Master. Lodge at Marseilles, France, in KENTUCKY. The first regular 1794. In 1800 and 1806 two charin Kentucky derived their ters were obtained from the Grand lodges authority from the Grand Lodge of Lodge of Pennsylvania, and one In the year 1800 there other composed of brethren from Virginia.. were under that authority five regu- St. Domingo. April 18, 1812, a lar lodges. But, from their remote general Masonic 'convention, comsituation from their parent Grand posed of delegates from the five Lodge, they were induced to proceed lodges, was called. The convention to the establishment of a Grand adjourned until June 6, when a Lodge for the State of Kentucky; constitution was adopted, and, July and, in pursuance of an invitation 11 following, the Grand Lodge was
from Lexington Lodge, No. 25, a regularly established. convention of delegates from all the A GRAND CHAPTER was organized regular lodges then existing in the March 5, 1813.* State was held at the Masonic Hall, The GRAND ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER, in the town of Lexington, Sept. 8, acknowledging the jurisdiction of 1800, when it was resolved that the General Grand Chapter of the it was expedient and proper to United States, was organized about establish a Grand Lodge in the the year 1828. State of Kentucky, and an address, The GRAND COUNCIL of Royal and setting forth the motives which Select Masters was established Feb. the brethren to sever 16, 1856. impelled their immediate connection from The Grand Commandery, Knights the parent Grand Lodge of Virginia, Templar, was organized February 1, was ordered to be prepared. The 1864. address was prepared, approved, * This Grand Chapter was and forwarded to the Grand organized by

lished and elected Grand Officers. These proceedings having been pronounced illegal, another convention was convened March 17, 1856, when delegates from all the chartered lodges were present, and ratified or

elected the

first Grand President. The GRAND COMMANDERY, Knights
5,

Templar, was established Oct.

Henry "VVingate was Grand Commander.
1827.

elected

Lodge

of Virginia; to which that body returned a fraternal and approving
reply.

The convention met again
same
place,

Oct. 1C, 1800, in the

and

proceeded regularly to establish a

Grand Lodge for the State of Kentucky. The delegates then severally

the "Royal Lodges," Concordia and Perseverance, and euch officers and members of the Grand Lodge of the State as were Royal Arch Masons. These lodges were originally established in the Island of St. Domingo, under charters from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, with powers to confer all the degrees from Entered Apprentice to Royal Arch inclusive.

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONKY.

MAINE.
1

Until the year 1820

Maine composed a part of the civil and Masonic jurisdiction of MassaIn that year the several chusetts.
lodges, contemplating

opened in the usual form, the folresolution was adopted unanimously Res<>lved, That the several lodges on the eastern shore
lowing
:

a

political

separation of that territory from the commonwealth of Massachusetts, having assembled, by their delegates, at Portland, Oct. 14, 1819, a
respectful memorial was drawn up, and subscribed by all the delegates, addressed to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, praying their conto the organization of an independent Grand Lodge in the State of Maine. This request being promptly and generously granted by the Grand Lodge of Massachu-

of Maryland, consider it as a matter of right, and that they ought to form a Grand Lodge, independent of the Grand Lodge at PhiladelAt a subsequent meeting phia." of the convention, held at the same place, on the 31st of July, Grand officers were chosen, of which John Coats was elected Grand Master

Bent

and Charles Gardiner was appointed

Grand Secretary. The GRAND CHAPTER, which had,
until recently, within its jurisdiction the Chapters of the District of Columbia, was organized in 1812.

Maine meet at Mason's Portland, June 1, 1820, Hall, when a Grand Lodge for the State of Maine was duly and regularly organized. The Hon. William King, Governor of the State, was elected the first Grand Master. The GRAND ROYAL, ARCH CHAPTER of the State was organized in 1821. Robert P. Dunlap was the first
setts,

the several lodges in
to

were

summoned
in

MASSACHUSETTS. The introduction of Freemasonry into this country, through warranted lodges,
established
30, 1733.

upon the

basis of legal

Masonic authority, dates from July

Grand High-Priest. cial Grand Lodge, a warrant was The GRAND COUNCIL of Royal and granted by the Eight Worshipful Select Masters was organized May Lord Viscoiint Montacute, Grand 1855. Itobert P. Duulap was the Master of Masons of 3, England, dated first Grand President. April 30, 1733, appointing Right The GRAND COMMANDERY, Knights Worshipful Henry Price, Provincial Templar, was organized May 5, Grand Master of New England, and 1852. Charles B. Smith was the first dominions and territories thereunto Grand Commander. belonging, with free power and MARYLAND. Until the year authority to nominate and appoint 1783 the lodges in this State derived his Deputy Grand Master and Grand the Grand Wardens. their warrants from On the receipt of this Lodge of Pennsylvania, except one commission, the brethren assemat Annapolis, which obtained a charter from the Grand Lodge of Massa-

Upon the application ol several brethren, Free and Accepted Masons, residing in the town of Boston, Province of Massachusetts, for authority to establish a Provin-

chusetts in 1750. * On the 17th June, 1783, the first convention was held at Talbot Court House by delegates from the five lodges then working in the State, to take into consideration the propriety of establishing an

bled July 30, 1733, at the "Bunch of Grapes" tavern, State Street, Boston, when the charter of Constitution

was read, and the Right Worshipful Grand Master duly in-

independent Masonic jurisdiction, when a Master Mason's Lodge was
* August 12, 1750, a charter was granted by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts to a number of brethren who had petitioned to form a Lod,'e in Annapolis, Maryland. History of Gi and Lodge of Massachusetts. This Lodge is not mentioned in the list of Lodges convened to establish the Grand Lodge.

vested and congratulated; a Grand " Lodge, under the title of St. John's Grand Lodge," was formed, and the Grand Officers chosen and installed in due and ancient form.

A

petition was then presented by several brethren, residing in Boston, praying to be constituted into

a regular Lodge; and it was voted that the same be granted. This

Lodge was

" The First styled Lodge in Boston," or ''St. John's Lodge.'

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
Thus was Masonry established
North America.
a
in

number

of

In the year 1751 brethren who had

at Louisburg. Of the further history of this deputation, or whether

traveled, and many of whom had been initiated into the mysteries of the Craft in ancient lodges abroad, became emulous to cultivate the royal For this art in the western world.

a Lodge under its authority was ever organized, we have 110 auther.tic record. In 1773, a commission was received from the Earl of Dumfries, Grand Master of Masons in Scotland, dated March 3, 1772,

appointing Joseph Warren Grand Master of Masons for the Conof America. tor to establish a Lodge. The prayer tinent April 19, of the petitioners being granted, 1775, hostilities commenced bethev received a dispensation, datec tween Great Britain and America. Nov. 30, 1752, from Sholto Charles Boston became a garrison, and was Douglas, Lord Aberdour.then Crane abandoned by many of its inhabitMaster, constituting them a regular ants; and the regular meetings of the Lodge, under the titte of St. An- two Grand Lodges were suspended. drew's Lodge, No. 82," to be holden June 17, by the contest of this eventat Boston, in the province of Massa- ful day on the hights of Charleschusetts Bay. The ejstablishmenl town, Masonry sustained a heavy of this Lodge was discouraged auc loss in the death of Grand Master opposed by St. John's Grand Lodge, General Warren, who was slain conwho imagined their jurisdiction in- tending for the liberties of liis fringed by the Grand Lodge of Scot- country. October 6, 1779, a petition land. They, therefore, refused any of a number of brethren, officers in communications or visits from such the American arm} praying that members of St. Andrew's Lodge as this (Massachusetts) Grand Lodge had not formerly sat in their lodges, would grant them a charter to hold and this difficulty did not entirely a traveling Lodge, was read, and subside for several years. The pros- Gen. John Patterson, Col. Benjamin perous state of St. Andrew's Lodge Tupper, and Major William Hull, soon led to great exertions for the being nominated as Master and establishment of an ancient Grand Wardens, voted that a dispensation Lodge in the Province; and this was be granted them, under the title of effected by the assistance of three "Washington Lodge," to make traveling lodges, which were holden Masons, pass Fellow-Crafts, and in the British army, then stationed raise Masters, in any of the United at Boston, under the title of 'The States where there is no Grand Massachusetts Grand Lodge. " Dec. Lodge; but in auj State where a 27, 1769. On this festival, which was Grand Master presides they must celebrated in due form, a commis- apply for his sanction. The St. sion from the Eight Honorable and John's Grand Lodge resumed its Most Worshipful George, Earl of meetings after Boston was evacuated Dalhousie, Grand Master of Masons by the British army, and continued hi Scotland, bearing date May 30, to move in harmony, granting char1769, appointing Joseph Warren to ters for the establishment of new be Grand Master of Masons in Bos- lodges, in various places. Dec. 5, ton, New England, and within one 1791, a committee of the Massahundred miles of the same, was chusetts Grand Lodge was appointread; whereupon the brethren pro- ed to confer with the officers of St. ceeded, according to ancient usage, John's Grand Lodge upon the subto instill the Eight Worshipful ject of a complete Masonic union Grand Master Warren, who at'ter- throughout this commonwealth, and ward appointed and invested the to report at the next quarterly comother Grand Officers. Nov. 13, 1758, munication. March 5, 1792, the & deputation was granted to the committee brought in their report, Eight Worshipful Edward Hunt- md presented a copy of the consti.ution and by-laws, and articles oi ingford, to hold a Lodge in his Migesty'a 28th regiment, stationed association, as agreed to by St
laudable purpose they petitioned the Grand Lodge of Scotland for a char
' '

7

,

;

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
The GBAND COMMANDERY,K nights Grand Lodge, which were and receiving the deliberate at- Templar, was organized Jan. 15, tention of the grand body, they were 1857. June 9, MINNESOTA. Freemasonry was unanimously approved. following, the two Grand Lodges introduced into this territory by to previous arrangemet, agreeably dispensation from the Grand Lodge ments, unanimously elected Most of Ohio, dated August 4, 1*<49, to Worshipful John Cutler Grand Mus- twelve Master Masons, to establish a ter of Ihe United Grand Lodge, and, Lodge, under the title of "St. Paul's
John's
read,

thereupon,
resolution
:

passed

the

following

Grand Lodge be known by the name of the Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and

''Resolved, That this shall forever hereafter

Thus wealth of Massachusetts." were the prejudices and contentious so long indulged in most happily removed, and peace and harmony restored to the Order, not only in Massachusetts, but, as far as the original bodies had planted subordinates, in the surrounding country. MEXICO. Freemasonry has ex-

Accepted Masons, for the Common-

Lodge," at St. Paul. Oct. 12. 1850, a dispensation to open a Lodge with the name of "St. John's Lodge," at Stillwater, was granted by the Grand Master of Wisconsin. During the year 1852 a dispensation was granted by the Grand Master of Illinois, to open a Lodge under the title of
"Cataract Lodge," at St. Anthony. Feb. 23, 1853, delegates from the three lodges in the territory met in convention at St. Paul and organized a Grand Lodge. A. E. Ames was elected the first Grand Master.

many years in the republic of Mexico, but in a very secluded character. In 1826 a Grand Lodge, with a few subordinates, existed in the city of Mexico, but, through the powerful influence of the church, the Order is not permitted to nourish. MICHIGAN. Of the early introduction of Freemasonry into this (then) territory, we are unable to furnish any satisfactory data, notisted for

The GRAND CHAPTER was organized Dec. 17, 1859. A. T. C. Pierson was elected the first Grand HighPriest.

The GRAND COMMANDERY, Knights Templar, was organized in 1866.
MISSISSIPPI. The Grand Lodge

of Kentucky granted the first charter for a subordinate Lodge in this Stiite, in 1817; afterward the Grand Lodge of Tennessee granted two charters for lodges. July 27, 1818, authorized delegates from the three withstanding diligent efforts have lodges then working in the State, been made to obtain historical in- convened in the city of Natchez, The Grand Lodge was and, being organized, resolved that formation. organized at Detroit, June 24, 1826; it was expedient, and highly neceswas incorporated by the legislative sary, to form and organize a Grand council of the territory, in 1827,' Lodge for the State of Mississippi. and, by a formal resolution, adopted August 25, following, the convenin 1829, suspended Masonic labor. tion met again and adopted a A general meeting of the Masons of constitution for the government of the State was called for inquiry in the Grand Lodge, when the lodges 1740; in 1841 the former Grand surrendered their charters obtained
several lodges, same year, at

from Kentucky and Temiesseee, and received others from the new Grand the constitutional Lodge. Henry Tooley was elected period, the Grand Lodge assembled the first Grand Master. and was organized by a constituThe GRAND CHAPTER was organtional number of lodges. General ized at Vicksburg, May !<*, 1846. Lewis Cass was the first Grand Mas- Benjamin S. Tappen was elected ter under the original organization. the first Grand High-Priest. The GRAND ROYAL ABCH CHAPTER THE GKAND COUNCIL of Royal and was organized in 1848. Select Masters was organized Jan. The GRAND COUNCIL of Royal and 19, 1856. Benjamin Springer waa Select Masters was organized 1858. elected the first M.P. Grand Master.
Officers granted dispensations for and in June of the

50

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

The GtAND COSTMA>TDEBY, Knights Templar, was organized Jan. 22, William H. Stevens was 1857.
fleeted

NEBRASKA. The

first

Lodge

the

first

Grand

ComLodge

mander.

MISSOURI.

The

first

established in this territory was by charter from the Grand Lodge of Illinois to Nebraska Lodge, Oct. 3, 1855, at Uellevue; the second by charter from the Grand Lodge ol

established in the territory of Upper Louisiana, as this State was originally called, was by authority of a warrant from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, in 1807, in the town of St. Genevieve. This Lodge flourished until 1816, when, owing to the unsettled condition of the country, it ceased to work. In 1809 a constitutional number of brethren obtained another charter from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania to open a Lodge in the town of St. Louis. Of the history of this Lodge nothing definite is known. A charter bearing date October 8, 1816, was granted by the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, to open a Lodge in the town of St. Louis, by the name of

Missouri to Giddings' Lodge, May Nebraska City: the third by charter from the Grand Lodge of
26, 1857, at

Iowa
at

Omaha

to Capital Lodge, June 3, 1857, Sept 13, 1857, a City.

from

convention of authorized delegates the above Lodges met in

Omaha, and established a Grand Lodge for the territory of Nebraska. R. C. Jordan was chosen the first Grand Master. NEW HAMPSHIRE. The earliest

record of the introduction of

Masonry into this State will be found upon the books of St. John's Grand Lodge, Boston, and in these
words, to wit: "A petition from the brethren residing in Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, for the erection of a Lodge there (June 24, 1734,) was

Missouri Lodge. October 6, 1819, charters were granted to open lodges
in the towns of Herculaneum and St. Charles. In 1820 a dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Indiana was granted to form a Lodge in the town of Jackson. Feb. 22, 1821, a convention of delegates from the several lodges assembled in the town of St. Louis for the purpose of consulting upon the propriety of establishing a Grand Lodge for the State. The convention appointed a committee to draft a constitution, and adjourned to meet at the same

granted, denominated 'The Holy Lodge of St. John's;' which was the beginning of Masonry in New Hampshire." A charter was granted to. a number of brethren in Portsmouth by the Massachusetts Grand Lodge, under the name of "St. Patrick's Lodge," bearing date Boston,

March

17, 1780.
its

continued
latter

This Lodge meetings until the

end of 1790, when they ceased This Lodge had nevel acknowledged the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of New Hampplace April 23, following. Pursuant shire, and the Massachusetts Grand to notice of adjournment the con- Lodge, by the charter of St. Patworking.
vention met, organized a Grand Lodge for the State, adopted the Constitution presented by the committee, and elected Grand Officers. Thomas F. Riddick was elected the first Grand Master.
ized
rick's

Lodge, claimed jurisdiction

no longer than till a Grand Lodge should be formed in New Hampshire therefore, St. Patrick's Lodgo was not, at the time of its dissolution, under the jurisdiction of The GBAND CHAPTEK was organ- any Grand Lodge. A charter was
;

The GRAND COMMAXDERY, Knights
Templar, was organized May 22, 1860. George W. Belt was elected
the first

May

18, 1846.

Grand Commander.

MONTANA. A Grand Lodge for New Hampshire the Lodge removed
was organized at VirJohn J. ginia City Jan. 24, 1866. Hull was elected the first Grand Master.
this territory

granted to several brethren at Cornish by the Massachusetts Grand Lodge, dated Nov. 8, 1781. This Lodge met a few times at Cornish, but when that town was claimed by

Windsor, Vermont, and took the A of Vermont Lodge No. 1. petition from several brethren, to erect a Lodge at Keene, was read
to

name

GENERAL HISTORY OF I'JfEEMASuNRY.
in the

51

Massachusetts Grand Lodge, Brot aer Daniel Ooxe of New Jersey, 5, 1784, and a charter granted residing, and about to reside, in the said Provinces of New York, New tb.e designation of the llising Hun Lodge. This Lodge returned Jersey, and Peusilvania, Provincial charter to the Massachusetts Grand Master, with free power to its Grand Lodge at the formation of appoint his Deputy Grand Master the Grand Lodge of New Hamp- and Grand Wardens for the space of Two other lodges Faithful two years," etc. This deputation shire. and Dartmouth were chartered by bears date London, Juno 5, 1730: the Massachusetts Grand Lodge, a certified copy of which is in posand were surrendered to the session of the Grand Lodge of New parent body after the formation of Jersey. That Bro. Coxe exercised the New Hampshire Gmud Lodge. any of the powers delegated to him July 8, 1789, deputies from the we are not informed, nor has any several lodges in the State assem- evidence of action on his part been The first authentic bled in convention, at Dartmouth, discovered. and, after due deliberation, adopted information that we have is that the folio wing: "Resolved, That there a convention of tlie Masons in the be a Grand Lodge established in State was held at the city of New the State of New Hamp> lire, upon Brunswick, Dec. 18, 1786, when a

March under

and subprinciples consistent wit ordinate to, the General Regulations and Ancient Constitutions of Free.,

The Grand Lodge, being masonry. thus organized, proceeded to the
election of

"

Grand

Officers,

when

the

Hon. John Sullivan, President of the State, was elected Grand Master. The GKAND CHAPTER was organJohn Han-is was ized in 1819.
elected the first Grand High-Priest. The Orders of Knighthood were introduced into this State in 1824.

Grand Lodge was regularly constiand the Hon. David Brearley, Chief Justice of the State, was elected the first Grand Master. The GRAND ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER was organized at Burlington, Dec. Wm. H. Doggett was 30, 1856. elected the first Grand High-Priest. The GRAND COUNCIL of lioyal and Select Masters was organized Nov.
tuted,
26, 1860.

The GRAND COMMANDEBY was
ganized Aug.
'22,

or-

The GRAND COMMANDER Y,Kuight9 Templar, was organized Feb. 14, 1860. Theophilus Fiske was elected
the
first

Grand Commander. The first recorded knowledge we have of the establishNEW JERSEY. Of the exact ment of, or the attempt to establish, date of the first existence of Masonry Freemasonry in the colonies of in this State we are compelled, as North America is the deputation in several other cases, to say that granted by the Grand Lodge of the truth of history must for a little England, in 1730, Duke of Norfolk, longer remain in the hidden and Grand Master, to Samuel Coxe, for
1860. Daniel Balch
first

was elected the mander.

Grand Com-

NEW YORK.

undeveloped record of the past. But that it had a name and an existence within the borders of the then colony of New Jersey none who are acquainted with the early
of Freemasonry in this country can doubt. The earliest the founding
history

the Provinces of

New

Jersey,

New

But the York, and Pennsylvania. fact that Brother Coxe used hi 3
authority or performed any Masonic act remains hidden beneath tho unexcavated arches of our imperfect But the faithful and dilihistory. gent craftsmen are at work, and we are confident that some valuable memento of the past will yet be the

historical record of

of the Order in America is to be found in Preston's Illustrations, under date 1729, the Duke of Norfolk being Grand Master, and in these words: "Established by deputatiou a Provincial Grand Lodge at New Jersey, in America." The

reward of their

labors.

The

first

warrant

named " Eight Worshipful

charter for the organization of a Provincial Grand Lodge in New York was granted by the Grand Lodge of England in 1737, during the Grand Mastership of the EarJ

GENERAL HISTORY OF FKEEMASONBY".
of Darnley, to Bichard RiggS as Provincial Grand Master. The precise date of this charter and the records of the Grand Lodge were, probably, destroyed during the war Neither is it \f the Revolution. known that this Provincial Grand Lodge established any subordinates. In 1747, under the Grand Master-

and many of the Grand Ofheers,
the

If ft

country. Sept. 19, 1783, a meeting of the Provincial Grand was held, when Bro. Walter Lodge

resigned

and William Cock was unanimously elected Grand Master. At the meeting of Feb. 4, 1784, Bro. Cock resigned, and the Hon. Robert R. Livingston was elected Grand

ship of Lord Byron, patents were issued for

New

provincial

Master.

YorK.

The precise date when the Grand Lodge changed its form from
is

During

this period,

and up

to 1751,

Provincial to an Independent
positively

not

Francis Goalet exercised the prerogatives of Provincial Grand Master. For the space of two years we have no knowledge of who exercised the June 9, duties of Grand Master. 1753, a commission was granted by Lord Carysfort, Grand Master of England, empowering George Harrison to superintend the affairs of the Craft as Provincial Grand Master in the Province of New York. He was regularly installed in due and ancient form Dec. 27,

known. But it is generally conceded that when the articles of peace were ratified by the two countries, the Provincial title ceased, as a natural and legal result The history of Masonry in New York has been an eventful one.
Yet, notwithstanding these alternating experiences of tranquil calms and raging tempests, the Order of

Freemasonry in New York is, to-day, immutable in its principles, nnshattered by past convulsions, unin1753. Masonry flourished under his jured by insidious decay, unawed by auspices, and several lodges were threatened tumult or turbulent disestablished in the Province. Sir sension, as securely poised upon a John Johnson was appointed Pro- stable base as the everlasting hills. The GRAND CHAPTER was organvincial Grand Master in 1760 by Lord Aberdour, Grand Master of ized Mar. 14, 1798. DeWitt Clinton England, which office he held until was elected the first Grand Highthe commencement of the war of Priest. The GRAND COTTNCIL of Royal and the Revolution, when he espoused the cause of the British, and it Select Masters was organized 1807. The GRAND COMMANDER Y. Knights is but fair to presume hat he suspended the meetings of the Templar, was organized June 18, took possession of 1314. DeWitt Clinton was elected Grand Lodge, the records, etc., and that they were the first Grand Commander. finally destroyed during the war; NORTH CAROLINA. Of the ua most of the lodges suspended existence, or supposed existence, business during the war, and the of Freemasonry in this State the work of the Craft was transferred earliest record is to be found among to the army or traveling lodges. the transactions of St. John's Grand Sept. 5, 1781, a warrant was granted Lodge, at Boston, October 2, 17G7, by the "Ancient Grand Lodge of to wit: "A dispensation was made England," the Duke of Athol, Grand out for the Right Worshipful Thos. Master, to open a Provincial Grand Cooper, Master of Pitt County Lodge in the city of New York, Lodge, in North Carolina, constiappointing Rev. William \V alter tuting him Deputy Grand Master Provincial Grand Master. The first of that Province. And he was commeeting of this Grand Lodge was missioned with power to congregate held Dec. 5, 1782, at which nine all the brethren there residing, or lodges, then in the city, and six who should afterward reside in said mil. "<iry lodges, connected with the into one or more lodges Province, British army, were present. At the as he should think fit. and in siich close of the war, and the evacuation place or places within the same as of the city of New York, by the should most redound to the benefit British army, the military lodges. f Masonry." As the early history

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
of Freemasonry in every section of this country is of great importance, and that 110 statement, however small it may appear, should be unnoticed, we copy the following, in the hope of eliciting further and more reliable facts: " In a MS. letter of Robert Williams, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, dated Jan. 9, 1808. and directed to the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, Bro. Williams says: 'The Grand Lodge of North Carolina was constituted by charter, issued from the Grand Lodge of Scotland, in the year 1761, signed by Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort, as Grand Master; and attested

55

British army, dnnng the Revolution; and, for several years, the meetings of tho grand body were suspended, and all knowledge of its early records were lost. We cannot even say whether thi? Provincial warrant was issued directly by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, as we cannot find the fact stated in the history of that grand body; but we think it not at all difficult to reconcile this seeming defect. that, in 1756, the Grand

by the

We know
Lodge
of

Scotland granted a Provincial commission to Col. John Young, who had long acted as Deputy Grand Master over all the Lodges in AmerIndies. But, as that warrant was destroyed, and for about ten years no effective attempt was made to
ica

and the West
stated,

by George John Spencer, as Grand Secretary. They were among the officers of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, although Beaufort was an English Duke, and Lord Spencer an English Earl.' As the famous altercations between the two Grand Lodges of North Carolina and Kentucky, in relation to the jurisdiction over the territory of Tennessee, in

before

'In 1787, the memJjers reorganize. of ike Craft assembled at Hillsborough, and compiled a code of laws for the government of the

Grand Lodge, and again commenced From this it Masonic labors.' would seem that they did not think

1807, etc., was finally settled, chiefly themselves incapacitated to reorby reference to the statements made ganize, or resuscitate, the Grand by Bro. Williams, in relation to the Lodge, or, which is most likely, to ubove-uained charter, it is a curious form a new Crand Lodge, because

the original document of authority "* Samuel <f the Grand Lodi/e had been destroyed of .^f<.it'iin'l. but that the Duke of: Johnson, Governor of the State, Beaufort, from 17(i7 to 1771, was was elected the first Grand Master. Grand Master of England! It is By the transactions of the Geneadmirable to see what a small ral Grand Chapter (meeting of 1847) amount of Masonic history satis- we learn that a Grand Chapter tied our fathers fifty years ago. If existed in North Carolina, as a conBeaufort signed the charter, he stituent of that grand body, in must have done so as Grand Master 1822, but that it had ceased its ui' England. hope this piece labors. The Grand Chapter was of history will yet be cleared up."* reorganized June 28, 1847, under Here is another specimen of how the General Grand Chapter of the
fact,

that the

persons above-named

were not

officers

We

Masonic history may be manufac- United States. In 1857 it withdrew tured, when it is necessary to say and became an independent Grand
something, but in the absence of Chapter.
re-liable

was established ir_ North Carolina, June 6, 1860. under the minority of the OHIO. For the introduction oi Grand Lodge of Scotland, which Freemasonry into Ohio we can give convened
in 1771,

The GEAND COUNCIL of Royal documentary evidence: "We know that a Provincial Grand Lodge and Select Masters was organized

and Newbem.
at

alternately in

archives were deposited Edentou, which, as we are informed, were destroyed
*'
i>v

The

Edenton no

better or

more

reliable history

History of Masonry in Kentucky,"

than that found in the Introduction to the republished transactions of "At the conthe Grand Lodge. *" History of Freemasonry," by J. W. 8
ititcteU. p.

R. Vwrt Morris,

pp

10, 11.

67* Ti.

i.

56

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
be to grant charters and dispensations, on proper application, to all such as shall apply and shall
shall

vention which organized the Grand Lodge delegates from six chartered lodges (the delegate from one Lodge was not admitted the reason is not
stated) appeared as representatives.

be deemed worthy

and

shall

have

The lodp.s were: Union, No.
Cincinnati, No. 13;

1;

jurisdiction over the same and shall in all respects be clothed with
full powers, as a Grand Lodge, according to ancient and due form, and agreeably to the rules and landmarks of Masonry. '' General Rufus Putnam, a hero and veteran of the Revolutionary war, was elected the first Grand Master.

Scioto, No. 2; Erie, No. 47, and Amity, No. 105. Union Lodge, No. 1, at Marietta, derived its charter from the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts.* The strong presumption is that this Lodge is the legitimate successor of the old and honored American Union Lodge organized Feb. 13, 1776, at Koxbury, Massachusetts.

ized October, 1816. was elected the first
Priest.

The GRAND CHAPTER was organSamuel Hoyt Grand HighThe GBAND COUNCIL of Royal and
Masters was organized in

As many of

its

members,

after the

10. Some time between June 24 10, 1805, the members returned their original charter and took one from the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, assuming the title of Cincinnati Lodge No. 13. Scioto Lodge No. 2, at Chillicothe, was organized in 1805, by charter from the Grand i<odge of Massachusetts. Erie Lodge No. 47, at Warren, was organized March 16, 1804, by dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Connecticut. Amity Lodge No. 105, at Zanesville, received its charter from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, about the year 1804. Jan. 8, 1808, a "con vention of delegates from all the lodges in the State met at Chillicothe to consider the propriety of establishing a Grand Lodge for the State. The convention, in its deliberations, adourned from day to day, and, on the 7th, the following resolution was unanimously agreed to: " Hesolved, That t Grand Lodge be formed, to be known and styled the Grand Lodge of Ohio, whose powers *As the charter, with a portion, if not

dispersion of the army, settled at Marietta, Cincinnati Lodge No. 13, at Cincinnati, received its warrant originally from the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, Sept. 8, 1791, under the title of Nova Cesarea Lodge

Select 1829.

The GBAND COMMANDEBY, Knights Templar, organized Oct. 24, 1843. Michael Z. Kreider was elected the
first

No.

and Dec.

OREGON.

Grand Commander. Freemasonry was

in-

troduced into this territory in 1849
or 1850. by warrants from the Grand Lodge of California. Aug. 16, 1851, a convention was held at Oregon City to take into consideration the subject of forming a Grand Lodge.

Three lodges were represented, viz: Multuomah, No. 84; Willamette, No. The 11; and LaFayette, No. 15. Grand Lodge was organized, a constitution adopted, and the officers elected. Berryman Jennings waa
elected the
first

Grand Maste*.
first

PENNSYLVANIA. The
lished
in

Lodge of which we have any authentic historical record was estab-

The deputation granted to Daniel Coxe as Provincial Grand Master

Philadelphia,

in

1734.

:

New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, in 1730, naturally leads us to the belief, and particularly when our impression is sustained with notices iu the public newspapers of the day, that lodges
for

of the records of the Lodge were burned, with the buikUug iu which it was held, a few years afterward, very little is
all,
it

knowrir of its history or origin, save that emanated from the Grand Lod^e of
It was brought by the first and seemed to be iu charge, prin-

Massachusetts.
tottlers,

cipally, of

meu

bvl'iu^uix to tu

Ajuertaaa

IfUHT.

existed in Philadelphia anterior to 1734. Notwithstanding the doubts and discrepancies existing in regard to the early development of the mystic Order in Pennsylvania, we must content ourselves with the evidences of history as presented to us until the sts that now surround the temple shall be dispelled

m

GEFERAJ, ITISTORT OF FKEEMASONRY.

57

by the discovery of the truth. The summoned the brethren to assem history of St. John's Grand Lodge, ble in Philadelphia, Dec. 20, when Bro. at Boston, furnished the following Grand Officers were elected extract: "A petition being pre- Ball being chosen Giand Master. sented from Benjamin Franklin and Sept. 13, 1786, thirteen lodges, by several brethren residing in Phila- their Masters and Wardens, met delphia, June 24, 1734, for a consti- in Philadelphia, and unanimously tution for holding a Lodge there, "Resolved, That it would be imthe R. W. Grand Master (Henry proper that the Grand Lodge of Price), having this year received Pennsylvania should remain any orders from the Grand Lodge in longer under the authority of any England to establish Masonry in all foreign Grand Lodge?" whereupon, North America, was pleased to grant the Grand Lodge closed sine die. the prayer of the petitioners, and On the day following, the delegates to <send them a deputation, appoint- of the thirteen lodges assembled ing the E. \V. Benjamin Franklin in convention, and organized the thei? first Master; which was the present Grand Lodge of Pennsylbeginning of Masonry in the State vania, and elected Grand Officers.
t

of Pennsylvania."

Franklin

received

July 10, 1749, a similar ap-

From

the

reorganization of

this

pointment from Thomas Oxnard, Provincial Grand Master of New jurisdiction has been one uninterEngland, and the successor of Henry rupted course of prosperity and In March, 1750, Wm. Allen general harmony. Price. The GRAND CHAPTER was organpresented a communication from the Grand Lodge ot England as Pro- ized Nov. 23, 1795. Until about vincial Grand Master of Pennsyl- 1820 this Grand Chapter was in its vania. Franklin afterward received government under the Grand Lodge, a commission from England as Pro- its Grand Master being ex officio

Grand Lodge, down to the present day, the history of Masonry in that

Grand Master. "In 1758, the Grand High-Priest of the Grand Lodge No. 2 was constituted, by Chapter. It has since been a Grand virtue of a warrant from the Grand Chapter with its own elective Grand Lodge of Ancient York Masons of Officers. It is sovereign and indeEngland, the Earl of Blessiugton, pendent, and has never acknowledgGrand Master, and Laurence Der- ed the supremacy of the General mott, Grand Secretary."* From the Grand Chapter of the United States. same source as the extract just Previous to the formation of this quoted, we are informed "that a Grand Chapter, a Master's wan-ant warrant for a Provincial Grand was sufficient authority for congreLodge in Pennsylvania was issued gating a Chapter, and conferring by the Grand Lodge of England, any degree of Masonry the brethren in June IT 64, directed to William had knowledge of. From this The GRAND COUNCIL of Royal and Ball, as Grand Master. period little is known of Masonry Select Masters was organized Oct. in Pennsylvania. The original ar- 16, 1847. Previous to the formation chives of the Provincial Grand of this Grand Council, it was cusLodges (for it seems there was more tomary for the Chapters to confer than one) were destroyed during the degrees on those who desired the Revolution, and while Phila- them as honorary degrees. Masonic Knighthood was introdelphia was in the hands of the British. In 1779, the Masons of that duced into Pennsylvania in 1793.*
vincial
jurisdiction, feeling the evils result-

Prior to 1797 four

Encampments
:

ing from the want of an organized body, requested William Ball to convene the Masons of the State with a view of reorganization. In compliance with their request he
* History of Masonry in Pennsylvania, presented to the Grand Lodge iu 1826.

were instituted in this State, viz two in Philadelphia, one in HarrisThese burg, and one in Carlisle. bodies were under the authority ol the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania

*" History of the Knights Templar ol Penn.," bv Alfred Creigli, Phila.. 18G7.

58
tratil

GENKKAL HISTORY OF FREEMA8ONKI

.

July 13, authority set to work. the Grand Orient of Peru was long as the Spaniards 1852, reconstituted under held an exclusive and undisputed reopened and Orient of the country (153G- the title of National Grand possession of Peru. In 1852 the Supreme 1782), and the Inquisition lent its of Scotland aid to a fanatical priesthood, it Royal Arch Chapter hold a Holy cannot be a matter of surprise that granted a charter to Arch Chapter at Callao. This Masonry was unknown in Peru. Royal The introduction of the Royal Art, was the first Masonic body of the in or even the fact of being a Mason. "Ancient York rite," opened would have been a sufficient cause the Republic. This chapter was not the governing of for the banishment, if not the death, recognized by any In May, 1857, an extensiva of the offender. During the French bodies. schism broke out among the Fraterinvasion of Spain (1807-13), and the and many lodges and chapters presence there of the English, many nity, were instituted by the disaffected lodges were instituted in that counNone of the grand bodies try, and, among the troops sent party. from Europe to quell the war of throughout the world acknowledged the schismatics. At the present Independence in Peru, there were there are no illegal time many brethren these, however, bodies(1866") in Peru, except one at Callao being subjects of Spain, admitted which is only a remnant of the none of the patriots as members, and it was not until the Declaration former schisms. There are many in Lima and of Independence, in 1821, when free lodges and chapters intercourse was established between Callao, in a healthy and prosperous Peru and foreign nations, that Free- condition. Beside the lodges and under the Supreme Counmasonry was introduced among the chapters in after Peru had cil, working in the Scottish rite In natives.
us

the 12th of May, 1797, when a of some twelve years, a number o Grand Encampment was organized brethren assembled and reopened at a convention of delegatco from several of the lodges and chapters. the several Encampments. From Jan. 30, 1849, the Supreme Council this period Templarism has existed was reopened, and lodges under its

an independent organization.

PERU. As

;

1825,

achieved her complete independence, lodges were established in Lima and other parts, by authority of letters patent from the Grand From this Orient of Colombia. Grand Orient all the other Masonic bodies in Peru afterward derived their existence. The bodies worked in the Ancient and Accepted ScotNov. 2, 1830, a Supreme tish rite. Council of this rite for the Eepublic

Lima and

Callao, the Grand Lodge of Ireland has two lodges, to one of which a Chapter of Royal Arch is

attached, under its jurisdiction, all The Grand Lodge of in Lima. Scotland has, besides the Royal Arch Chapter, a Lodge of symbolic The Grand Masonry in Callao. Lodge of Massachusetts has a Lodge All these established in Aiica. bodies, combined, form the Grand of Peru was established. June 23, Orient of Peru, which admits iuto its bosom all recognized rites, con1831, the Masters and Wardens of the symbolic lodges, as well as repre- sistent with the general principles sentatives from the councils, chap- of Freemasonry. ters, etc., assembled at the capital Freemasonry began and installed themselves into an in Poland in 1736, but was almost Independent Grand Lodge under immediately suppressed through the the title of the Grand Lodge of Peru, influence of the church. In 171219 which was in the same year changed many new lodges were established, to Grand Orient. The political agi- and in 17(i(i the institution rose to a In 1780 the Lodge tations, which soon after disturbed high position. the peace of the country, caused the of the Good Shepherd was establodges to be closed, and an attempt lished by the Grand Lodge of In 1784 thirteen lodges, wa.s made to drive Masonry fruin England. Ihu country. In 1815. after a recesf then in the country, met at Warsaw

POLAND.

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.

59

and organized a Grand Lodge. In fort, Breslau, Halle, etc. The king 1807 the Grand Orient of France assumed the office of Grand Master, founded several lodges in the king- and continued to bear the title, dom. In 1822 a decree of the Em- although during the seven years peror Alexander prohibited all secrel war, and the cares that government societies; the brethren of Poland, entailed on him, he was prevented though deeply grieved, yet submis- from attending to his Masonic In 1747, he appointed the sively closed their lodges, which, duties. since then, have remained closed. Duke of Holstein-Beck as VicePORTUGAL. The introduction Grand Master, when the statutes of Freemasonry into this kingdom were revised, and Masonry, which began at' Lisbon, in 1735, by the had somewhat declined, again re* Grand Lodge of England, but its vived. Soon afterward a new Lodge, " ia Peiite usefulness was of short duration. Concorde," was estab-

The inquisition, that great extin- lished at Berlin, and, in 1760, a guisher of liberty and enlighten- third, "The Three Doves;" the ment, had control of this country. latter being founded by Tilley de Notwithstanding this powerful op- Lerney and a number of French position the Order succeeded in prisoners of war. Dissensions soon spreading its cheerful influences, broke out between these lodges; and in 1805 a Grand Lodge was and then began in Berlin and In 1807, during the throughout Germany that lamentaorganized. invasion of Portugal by the French ble period of Masonry, when the troops, Masonry was protected, and introduction of the French degrees, until 1810, when a fresh persecution and the admixture of various sysof the Order began, which lasted tems &nd new rites, caused such until about 1837, since which time confusion among the Fraternity that the Order has been permitted to the original tendency of the institu(To enjoy some success. There exists tion was almost extinguished. in Lisbon a Grand Lodge of Portu- follow the history of Masonry in and a Provincial Grand Lodge Prussia through this period, with its gal of Ireland, which are recognized by thousand changes, systems, schisms, etc., in an manner, intelligible foreign Grand Lodges. PRUSSIA. Freemasonry was in- would require too long an article. ) troduced into Prussia by Frederick In 1765 Zinnendorf became Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the II., surnained the Great. Having been secretly initiated, while crown- Three Globes, but ihe following year abandoned it, and in 1770 instituted prince, at Brunswick, he soon after at Berlin a new Grand Lodge> called organized a Lodge in the castle of the Grand National Lodge of GerRheinsberg; and when, in 1740, he ascended the throne he himself many, for which he obtained royal wielded the gavel, and conducted sanction, and also a constitution the first work with his own hand at from the Grand Lodge of England. the castle in Charlottenburg, June In 1772 the Grand Lodge of the 20. The distinctive title of this Three Globes assumed the title of Lodge was "The First Lodge," or the "National Grand Mother Lodge " The Lodge of the King, our Grand for the Prussian States." In the Master." In the same year, Sept. meantime, the Lodge of the Three 13, at his instigation, a new Lodge Doves, which had been founded at was established in Berlin, which was Berlin in 1760, and subsequently called "The Three Globes." This added to its original title that of Lodge was principally composed of "Friendship," separated from its the members of "The First Lodge," Mother Lodge (the Three Globes) which had but a brief existence. in 1765, and assumed the title of In In 1744 "the Lodge of the Three "Royal York of Friendship." " Globes assumed the title of Royal 1798, a royal edict was issued, which, while strictly prohibiting all secret Grand Mother Lodge of the Three Globes, and constituted subordi- societies, especially excepted the nate lodges at Meiuiugen, Frank- three existing Grand Lodges witb their subordinates.

GFNERAL HISTORY OP FREEMASONRY.
affairs of a Lodge, and was regarded as an expert workman. In 1783 the lodges throughout the empire organized a National Grand Lodge. The society rose to a fullness of splendor, unequaled in any part of the world. But this state of there, which, on being read, it was prosperity was not permitted to Politics and religious voted that a charter be granted continue. them. This was the beginning of opinions were permitted to enter Masonry in Rhode Island. The the lodge-room; extravagance and second Lodge was established at speculation became uumanagable Providence Jan. 18, 1757, under among the brotherhood; the church, the title of St. John's Lodge, by with powerful influence, and some authority of the same Grand Lodge, other causes, compelled the Craft to Jeremy Gridley being Grand Master, close their lodges, yet the meetings in compliance with the petition were occasionally held, but very of several brethren residing there. secluded, until 1808-14, when the Nov. 3, 1790, a report from a joint Order again flourished with renewed committee of the two lodges in vigor, and until 1822, when, sudRhode Island, proposing a plan for denly and most unexpectedly, the the formation of a Grand Lodge of Emperor Alexander issued a decree Rhode Island, was adopted. The that all the Masonic lodges throughconstitution of the Grand Lodge out the empire should be closed, was adopted April 6, 1751. Christo- and no others permitted to be The then condition of pher Champlin was elected the first founded. Grand Master. The first charter Poland was alleged as a reason for granted by the Grand Lodge of this. The brethren, with saddened Rhode Island was in 1799, to certain hearts, calmly obeyed the command brethren in Warren, under the name of their monarch. A few years after of Washington Lodge No. 3. Not- the Fraternity ventured again upon withstanding the irregularity of the their field of philanthropy; graduformation of the Grand Lodge by ally reopened their lodges, and reonly two subordinates, Freemasonry sumed their labors, and continue to has always occupied a respectable assemble as Freemasons even to the position in Rhode Island, and her present day.

RHODE

ISLAND. December

1749, the petition of several brethren residing in Newport was presented to St. John's Grand Lodge at Boston, of which Thomas Oxnard was Grand Master, praying for the incorporation of a regular Lodge
27,

membership has been composed of SAXONY. The first Lodge was its best and most honored citizens. established at Dresden, Saxony, in The GRAND CHAPTEK was organ- 1738. In 1741 another was formed ized March, 1798. Seth Wheatou at Leipsic, and a third in 1742 at was the first Grand High-Priest. In 1805 a convention Altenburg. The GKAND COUNCIL of Royal of the lodges in Saxony assembled and Select Masters was organized for the purpose of establishing a Oct. 30, 1860. Grand Lodge; although the rules The GRAND COMMANDZEY, Knights for its organization were arranged, Templar, belonging, jointly, to Mas- yet it was not perfected, until 1811. sachusetts and Rhode Island, was The seat of the Grand Lodge is at formed in 1805. Thomas Smith Dresden. The system of Ancient of R. I., was the first Grand Craft Webb, Masonry and Schroder's rite Commander. are the work of the lodges in this RUSSIA. In 1731 the Grand country. SCOTLAND. The early history Lodge of England granted a warrant for a Lodge at St. Petersburg, and of Freemasonry in this country, named Captain John Phillips as Pro- like that of England and Germany, vincial Grand Master. For many is surrounded with the misty haze years Freemasonry flourished, and of legendary lore. The first reliable
gained strength. In 1771 the Order information we have touching the was patronized by the nobility. The Fraternity dates back to the early Emperor Peter III. conducts1 the part of the fifteenth century. They,
,

GENERAL BISTORT OF FREEMASONRY.
at that period,

61

acknowledged their continued to act independently, and kiug and sovereign as their Grand to grant charters to other lodges as This gave rise to disto his authority they sub- formerly. Master; mitted all disputes that happened putes, which it was desirable for the among the brethren. When not a credit of the Fraternity to avoid; Mason himself, he appointed one and at length, in 1807, Mother Kilof the brethren to preside as his wiuning Lodge agreed to surrender deputy at their meetings, and to her authority and acknowledge the regulate all matters concerning the Grand Lodge, thereby renouncing In 1430 King James I. was all right to grant charters in future. Craft. acknowledged as the Royal Grand Kilwinuing was placed at the head Master, who regulated the affairs of the roll of the Grand Lodge In 1441 William under the denomination of "Mother of the Fraternity. " St Glair, Earl of Orkney and Baron Kilwinniug, and its Master, for the of Roslin, obtained a grant of the time being, declared the Provincial office of Grand Master from Kiug Grand Master over the Ayrshire James II. By another grant this district, and this put an end to all office was made hereditary to the disputes about Masonic precedency. said William St. Clair. and his heirs From this time Freemasonry has and successors in the barony of prospered and increased throughout Roslin in which noble family it has the country. Besides the Grand Lodge there continued without interruption till The Masons held are: 1. Supreme Grand Royal Arch of late years. their grand courts, or, in Masonic Chapter for Scotland; 2. The Royal language, their Grand Lodge assem- Order of Scotland, Herodom of bled at Kilwinning, in the western Kilwinuing, supposed to have been country, where it is claimed that established by King Robert Bruce, the Masons of Scotland first held in 1314; 3. The General Chapter oi It the Religious and Military Order of regular and permanent lodges. is asserted, with great firmness and Knights Templar, with various Pri;

in this place the plausibility, that royal art first made its appearance. The office of Patron being hereditary
in the family of Sinclair of Roslin,

ories
cil

;

4.

The Supreme Grand Coun-

of Scotland of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish rite.

and represented to them beneficial it would be to the cause of Masonry in general, to have a Grand Master of their own electing, and intimated his intention of iv.signing his office, and setting the noxt St. Andrew's day, Nov. 30, as tlit time for holding such election. On that day thirty-three lodges met,
15, 1736,

he being advanced in years, and having no children, was anxious that the office of Grand Master should not become vacant at his death; therefore he assembled the lodges in and about Edinburg, Oct.

SOUTH CAROLINA. There is no evidence, by record or tradition, of the existence of a Masonic Lodge in the Province of South Caroliua
anterior to the year 1736. Oct. 28, of that year, the first Lodge of Masons in South Carolina was opened in the city of Charleston, then known as "Charles-Town.''*

how

In this year John Haininertou was appointed Provincial Grand Master for the Colony, which office he resigned the following year, when he was succeeded by James Graeme.

The

early history of the Order in

and, having received the resignation of St. Clair, they proceed to the election, and unanimously elected William Sinclair, of Itoslin, Grand Master, and this was also the founding of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.
generally known as the "Mother Lodge of Kilwinning,") long after '.be institution of the Grand Lodge,

The Lodge

afr

Kilwinning, (more

* This is the first Lodge that was evei established in the jurisdiction. It received its warrant from Lord Weymouth, the Grand Master of the Grand Ludye <>1 England, with the title of Solomon's Lodfie No. 45; afterward it became No. 1. From its organization, in 1736, it continued uninterruptedly to work until 1811, when it suspended labor. In 1817 it was revived, It but again became dormant in 1838. was finally revived, by a new warrant,

granted June

25, 1841.

It is

now

in activ*

uccessful operatiou.

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASOXRY.
South Oaioliua
is

shrouded in some and

donbt, particularly in consequence of the apathy of the brotherhood, and partly by reason of a large fire which occurred in Charleston in The period of inaction which 1 738. marked the Order for several years previous to 1754 was, in that year, lirought to a happy conclusion, and *ras followed by an important reacIn 1754, the Marquis of Cartion. narvqu granted a deputation "to Peter Leigh, Chief Justice of South

conferred in the Lodgt- ot Perfection, at Charleston, under the authority of the Ancient and Accepted rite. After a time the

Supreme Council relinquished
r

its

Mr. Leigh He, immediately after his arrival, appointed a Deputy Grand Master and Grand Wardens, and reorganized the Provincial Grand Lodge. Masonry, for a time, nourished with renewed The Hon. Peter Leigh died rigor. In 1761 Benjamin Aug. 21, 1759. Smith was appointed Prov. Grand Master, who resigned the office in 1767. In 1769 the Duke of Beaufort, Grand Master of England, appointed the Hon. Egerton Leigh Provincial Grand Master, which office he held until he left the country, in 1774. In 1777 the Grand Lodge elected the Hon. Barnard Elliott "Grand Master of Masons in this State."
Obrdlina, for Carolina.

'

proved an

efficient officer.

authority over the councils established in the State, and in 1860, a Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters was established. Albert G. Mackey was elected the first Most Puissant Grand Master. The order of Knights Templar was introduced into South Carolina about 1780-1803. The exact date is involved in obscurity and doubt.

There

is but one Commandery (South Carolina Commandery No. 1)

in the State.

SPAIN.

In 1727 the first Lodge in

Spain was established at Gibraltar, by warrant from the Earl of Inchiquiti, Grand Master of England; the second at Madrid in 1728, and a
third in 1731), at Andalusia. In ] 74C Philip V. issued an edict againsi the Order, and several members ol the Fraternity were arrested and condemned to the galleys. Freemasonry was much oppressed in Spain until the year 1807, when Joseph Bonaparte ascended the throne; the Fraternity increased rapidly, and, in 1809, a National

Dr.Mackey strongly urges, was "the true date of the organization Grand Lodge was founded at of the Grand Lodge of South CaroMadrid, which held its meetings in lina." In 1787 the Grand Lodge the same building in which the became an independent body, and had a short time before
This,
called itself the

persecuted in the most inhuman manner. Between 1845 and 1852 the lodges increased notwithstandGrand Lodge of Ancient York ing the opposition. A Grand Orient which forms the present had been Masons, organized under the Grand Lodge of South Carolina. title of "Gran Oriente Hesperico," The GKAND ROYAL AKCH CHAPTER which acknowledges the Ancient was organized May '29, 1812. Win. and Accepted rite, and also recogYoung was elected the first Grand nizes the lodges founded by the High-Priest. Grand Lodge. The members ol The degrees of Royal and Select the Order are obliged to use fictiMasters were first introduced into tious names to escape the perseSouth Carolina iu the year 1783, cutions of tin' civil authorities N0
place between the Grand Lodge of South Carolina and the revived

Free and Accepted Masons of South Carolina. In the same year the Grand Lodge of Ancient York Masons was organized. In 1808 the two Grand Lodges united and formed the Grand Lodge of South Carolina. In 1809 the Grand Lodge of Ancient York Masons was revived. In 1817 the final union took

inquisition Grand Lodge of held its convocations. In 1811, the king, in his capacity of Grand Commander, founded a Grand Chapter of the higher degrees. The Frater-

nity flourished till the return of Ferdinand VII., who reestablished the inquisition, and in 1811 the meetings of the Order were prohibited, and many of the Masons

GENF.SAL HISTORY OF FEEEMASON14>
Lodgo
is permitted to possess any written documents, and every six U) jnths a new pass- word is selected, and communicated by the Grand Orient; brethren who are strangers are only admitted if personally known to the W. M.

and zealous member of the Ordei during his life time. Freemasonry is still protected by the crown, and is, therefore, one of the most respectable institutions in the country.

SWITZERLAND. The

intro-

But little is known he established a Provincial, Grand In 1739 the Lodge, as its operations Lodge at Geneva. wese closed in 1738 by royal de- Duke of Montacute, Grand Master cree, forbidding Masons to meet on of England, granted a wan-ant to a This prohibition number of English nobleman to pain of death. was rescinded in 1740, when the establish a Lodge at Lausanne. It Masonry flourished for a short time, Order spread and nourished. soon enjoyed a position that the when it was prohibited by the civil The lodges brethren did not hesitate to publicly authorities of Benie. acknowledge their association with remained closed for nearly twenty In 1762 King years, when the old Lodge at the institution. Adolphus Frederick declared him- Lausanne was revived, and nourBut soon self the protector of the Swedish ished for a short period. lodges, and desired to participate in the old prohibition was again issued the labors and expenses of the against the Order. Internal dissenIn 1765 Lord Blaney, sions also entered the bodies, which, Fraternity. Grand Master of England, granted for a time^ threatened its total dea deputation to Brother Charles struction. Four distinct organizaFullman, secretary to the English tions, in spirited opposition to each embassy at Stockholm, to establish other, existed at the same time iu a Provincial Grand Lodge for Swe- the republic. During the stormy den. In 1799 a union of the Grand political events between 1793 and Lodges of Sweden and England 1803 the lodges remained closed. was effected, which was the cause When Neueuburg and Geneva were of great rejoicing among the Fra- ceded to France, the Grand Lodge In 1809 Charles XIII. of Geneva censed to exist, and all ternity. ascended the throne of Sweden, the lodges placed themselves under \vho, May 27, 1811, founded an the Grand Orient of France, which order of knighthood under the immediately founded new lodges in title of "Charles the Thirteenth," various parts of the country. Peace, for the purpose, as is stated in the with its harmonious influences, was manifesto establishing the Order, restored, and Masonry immediately to do honor to those virtues which revived. In 1822 a treaty of union are not prescribed by law, and which was agreed upon between the Grand are seldom offered to the notice of Orient and the English Provincial the public. The statutes exacted Grand Lodge, which assumed the
Count Sparre.
of
this

duction of the Order into Switzerland began in 1737, by warrant from SWEDEN. troduced into this country in 1735. the Grand Lodge of England, to oy charter from the Grand Orient Sir George Hamilton, as Provincial of France, granted to the Governor, Grand Master, by authority of which

Freemasonry was

in-

that

this

Order, the

distinctive

name

badges of which were to be worn openly, shov.ld only be communicated to Freemasons; it, therefore, formed the highest degree of Swedish Freemasonry. The reigning king was always to be Grand Master
of the Order, and beside the princes of the royal house, the Order could only consist of twenty-seven secular and three ecclesiastical members. XIII. remained an active

of the Grand Lodge of Switzerland. In 1814, through the efforts of the powerful and influential Masons of Switzerland, delegates from all the lodges met at Zurich, when the treaty of union was ratified for the newlyfounded Grand Lodge under the name of "Alpina." Switzerland displays in the present day great Masonic activity, and the Fralernitj therein is much esteemed.

OEXEIIAL

FTP'rOT^Y

OF T'REEMASO'NTJY.
and the Grand Lodge of the republic was formed. By advice and
direction of this body, the three subordinate lodges transferred theii allegiance from Louisiana to theii own Grand Lodge, surrendered their charters to Louisiana, and received others from Texas. Anson Jones was elected the first Grand Master. Such is the brief sketch of the first establishment of Freein Texas. It was founded, masonry like our political institutions, amid the stern concomitants of adversity and war; but its foundations were laid broad and deep, and upon them has been raised a superstructure of strength and beauty, symmetrical in its proportions and vast in its dimensions, and which will continue as a beacon to guide and cheer worthy Masons on their jour-

Previous to Dec. the lodges in the State of Tennessee were held under charters from the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, except one which was iield under the authority of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. Pursuant to tice, a convention of delegates from the several lodges in the State assembled at Knoxville in December, 1811, for the purpose of establishing a Grand Lodge, when the following resolutions were adopted: "Resolved, That, in the opinion of this convention, the number of lodges of Ancient York Masons in this State, as well as the state of society, require the formation of a Grand Lodge within the same, for the better regulation and extension of the Craft. Resolved, That a committee be appointed for the purpose of drawing up an address to the Grand Lodge of
27, 1813,

TENNESSEE.

m

ney of

life.

North Carolina,

soliciting their as-

TRINIDAD, W. I. Henry Price, Provincial Grand Master of New
England, in 1733, on his return to

sent to the establishment of a Grand Lodge in the State of Tennessee." Other resolutions were adopted, of similar effect to the foregoing, and the convention adjourned to meet Dec. 27, 1813, when the Grand Lodge was organized, the officers elected Thomas Clairborne ajid installed. was elected the first Grand Master.

England in

1738,

went by way

of

TEXAS.
Masonry

The introduction

of

began by dispensation from John H. Holland, Grand Master of Louisiana, under the name of Holland Lodge, Dec. 17, 1835, at Brazoria. Soon after hostilities broke out between Mexico and Texas, when the Lodge was obliged to close its operations. Brazoria was abandoned; Gen.Urrea, commander of the Mexican forces, entered the city and took possession of the books, jewels, and everything belonging to the Lodge. Meanwhile the Grand Lodge of Louisiana had issued a charter for Holland Lodge No. 3G, and the Lodge was reopened
in Oct., 1837, at the city of Houston. Soon after two other lodges, with charters from the Grand Lodge

into Texas

Antigua, where, finding a number of Masons from Boston, he formed them into a Lodge, gave them a aharter and initiated the governor and several gentlemen of high distinction. In 1798 a charter was received from the Grand Lodge of France, for the Lodge United Brothers, which, in 1799, had its warrant renewed by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. This Lodge remained under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania until 1814, when, in consequence of the war between the United States and Great Britain, communications being interrupted, the brethren petitioned the Grand Lodge of Scotland to take them under their
protection, which request was comThis Lodge is still in plied with. existence, with the No. 251 on the registry of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. A Chapter of Royal Arch Masons has also been established there. The Grand Lodge of England has several lodges at work there. In 1814 a charier was granted by the Royal Grand Conclave of Scotland to the " Trinidad Grand

;

of Louisiana, were established in

I

Texas Milam, at Nacogdoches, and McFarlane, at San Augustine. Delegates from these, and from Assembly of Knights Templar, Holland Lodge, met in convention No. 29." Masonry is now in a
at

Houston, in the winter of 1837-8,

flourishing condition here.

GKXKT2AL HISTOKT OF KBEEMASONY.

65

The GKAND CHAPTEB was organTURKEY. Freemasonry was introduced into the Ottoman Empire ized Dec. 20, 1804. Jonathan Wells about 1830; but it soon ceased to was elected the first Grand Highexist. More recently several lodges Priest. Reorganized July 18, 1849. The GRAND COUNCIL of Royal and have been established at Constantinople, Smyrna, and Aleppo, and Select Masters was organized 1854. particularly among the English set- Nathan B. Haswell was elected the tlements. The lodges are pros- first Grand Master. The GKAND COMMANDERY, Knights perous, and an English Provincial Grand Lodge for Turkey has been Templar, was organized 1825 was established recently, with Sir Henry dormant for several years reorganized Jan. 14, 1852. Grand Master. The first Lodge VIRGINIA. Writers on the early was established in this republic in history of Freemasonry in the the year 1827, by the Grand Orient United States, particxilarly of the of France, under the name of. " The time when they were colonies of the " This British government, are often emChildren of the New World. Lodge is still in existence, having, barrassed in their researches, and

Bulwer

as

URUGUAY.

are unable to furnish the "tangible proof" of the first introduction of the Order into certain well-established localities among the early settlements of this country. The historian is often sorely perplexed established in the year 1855. The from the fact that the materials lodges under this authority, and the within his reach are in many solitary one which retains its alle- instances only speculations, pregiance to the Grand Orient of sumptions, or the too frequently France, are working together in the questionable statements of "the utmost harmony. Notwithstanding oldest inhabitant. " The difficulty, the opposition of the priesthood therefore, of preparing a continuous here, Masonry is fully carrying out history of Freemasonry in America its great mission of love. lies mainly in the presumptive charOf the first intro- acter of much of the evidence that duction of Freemasonry into this makes up its record. That there is State we have, at present, no im- some cause for this lack of reliable

however, changed its name to that of "The Friends of the Country."

There are several Spanish lodges in the republic, governed by the Supreme Council and the Grand Orient of Uruguay, which were

VERMONT.

mediate knowledge, unless the first is that mentioned in the following statement: "A petition from several brethren, dated at Cornish, (then claimed by Vermont, but now in New Hampshire,) was read in the Massachusetts Grand Lodge, Nov. 8, 1781, praying for the establishment of a Lodge in that place; whereupon, voted that a charter be issued accordingly. This Lodge met a few times at Cornish, but when that town was claimed by New Hampshire the Lodge removed to Windsor, Vt., on the opposite side of Connecticut river, and took the name of 'Vermont Lodge, No. 1.'" Jan. 17, 1785, the Massachusetts Grand Lodge granted a charter to a proper number of Master Masons, residing at Manchester, Vermont, to establish

evidence

is

Lodge

many

difficulties

beyond dispute. The that surrounded

the habitations of the first emigrants; the wild and unsettled condition of the country the war of the Revolution, when the merciless foe
;

burned and destroyed every kind
of property within his reach; the frequent ecclesiastical and political persecutions which have from time to time been brought against the Order, and the slight interest taken by our predecessors in the preservation of Masonic records these, with other causes, will, in some measure, account for the scarcity of reliable Masonic data, at the present time. We are led to these reflections after examining the scanty materials which we find for the subject undei discussion as well as of that already disposed of. For the matter of this sketch I am indebted to a verj

a

Lodge

at that place.

The Grand
19, 1794.

odge was organized Oct. 6

GKNERAL
ab!e

IIISTC .Ri

OF FE3RMASOKBT
liamsburg, ai^d Cabin Point BoyiJ Arch lodges, met at Williamsburg, Va., May 6, 1777, for the purpose Grand Master for the of choosing The convention State of Virginia. unanimous vote, that a decided, by
;.,

and interesting address on the "History of the Grand Lodge of Virginia, by E. W. JOHN Dove, M. D." Bro. Dove has been an

active

member

of the

Grand Lodge

of Virginia for fifty, and its Grand Secretary for more than thirty, years. Grand Master ought to be chosen He says: "The first Lodge of An- to preside over the Craft in Virginia, cient York Masons was chartered and a committee was appointed to
the village of present, to the Fraternity at large, of Eo/al the reasons for this step. May 13, Exchange Lodge, No. 172. The following, the convention received second Lodge was chartered by the the committee's report, which preGrand Lodge of Scotland for Port sented four reasons for the course 1. That the Royal, by the name of Kilwinning contemplated, viz The third was lodges in Virginia were working Cross, in 1755. chartered by the same Grand Lodge under jive distinct and separate aufor Petersburg, by the name of thorities, viz: the Grand Masters of Blandford Lodge No. 83, in 1767. England, Scotland, Ireland, PennThe fourth was chartered by the sylvania, and America, the last at Grand Lodge of Massachusetts second hand; consequently, they for Fredericksburg, July 21, 1758, could not assemble in annual comhaving some years before obtain- munication to manifest the distined a dispensation. The fifth was guishing characteristics of Masonry, chartered by the Grand Lodge of or settle whatever differences might England for Hampton, Nov. 6, 1773, arise among the respective lodges by the name of St Tamany; and, for want of a common tribunal. on the same day, by the same grand 2. No precedent could be found by body, the sixth Lodge was chartered the committee where Masonry had for Williamsburg, by the name ever derived any benefit from the The seventh foreign appointment of a Grand of Williamsburg. was chartered by the same for Master in this country, those officers Gloucester, Nov. 6, 1773, by the being but little known and slightly name of Botetourt. The eighth was regarded. 3. There was no tribunal chartered by the Grand Lodge of for the correction of abuses, and no Scotland for Cabin Point, April 5, settled authority for the establish1775, by the name of Cabin Point ment of new lodges. 4. The Grand Eoyal Arch. Beside these are found Lodges of England, Scotland, and on the registry of the Grand Lodge Ireland, having established their of Scotland that St. John's Lodge own right of election upon the No. Ill was constituted at Norfolk inherent privilege of Masons, disin 1741; also there was a Lodge at tinct from all foreign power whatFalmouth, and one chartered for ever, the committee conceive that Yorktown, Aug. 1, 1755, by the the Masons of Virginia have the Grand Lodge of England. That same rights and privileges which there were others in the State (mili- Masons in other lauds, hi all times, tary lodges no doubt) is proven by heretofore had confessedly enjoyed. a letter written in 1843, by K. W. After the discussion of this able John Barney, the Grand Lecturer paper, the convention then adof Ohio, in which he says Capt. journed to meet at Williamsburg, Hngh Maloy, aged ninety-three, is June 23, ensuing. Upon that day, now living in or near Bethel, Clei- the delegates of five lodges assemmont Co., who was initiated in 1782, bled, agreeably to adjournment, and in Gen. Washington's Marquee; declared themselves unanimously Gen. Washington presided in per- of opinion that a Grand Master of son, and performed the initiatory Virginia is essential to the prosperity " ceremonies. At a convention of and dignity of Masonry in general; delegates from Norfolk, Kilwinuing but. the-re not being a majority of Port ltov.il Cross, Blandford, V r il- the Virginia lodges represented

Dec.

22,

1733,

in

Norfolk,

by the

title

:

'

:

'

GENERAL HISTORY OF FBEEMASONRF.
they declined proceeding at that WASHINGTON, TERBITOBT oy. time to an election. The conven- A convention of delegates fiom tion recommended, however, that Olympia Lodge No. 5; Steilacoom each lodge petition its own Grand Lodge No. 8 Grand Mound Lodge Master (in England, Scotland, etc. No. 21, and Washington Lodge No. as the case might be,) to appoint 22, all having received charters from some one worthy Mason, resident the Grand Lodge of Oregon, met in in .this State, as Grand Master Olympia, territory of Washington, thereof, with power to resign such Dec. 6, 1858, for the purpose of authority to a convention of all considering the propriety of estab the lodges when they should meet lishing a Grand Lodge for said terand elect a Grand Master. And for ritory. The convention appointed this purpose the convention re- the usual officers, and committees, commended that GENERAL GEORGE and on the 7th regularly organized WASHINGTON, commander-in-chief of a Grand Lodge, adopted a constithe revolutionary army, should be tution, elected and installed Grand
;

,

the individual to whom the charter of appointment should be made, but he declined. The convention reassembled, Oct. 13, 1778, four lodges being represented, and adopted a resolution, unanimously, that there was a sufficient number of lodges present to proceed to business. Decided that the power and authority of Cornelius Harnet, as Deputy Grand Master of America,

Officers.

the

first

T. F. McElroy was Grand Master.

elected

WEST VIRGINIA. A
on Wednesday, April

conven-

tion of delegates from nine lodges of West Virginia met at Fairmount,
12, 1865, when,

after the transaction of other busi-

ness, the convention elected
Officers.

Grand

Grand Grand

Bates was elected Master, and T. H. Logan
J.

W.

had ceased

to exist.

John

Secretary.

The

couventioii

Blair,

of Williamsburg, was then unanimously elected Grand Master. He
M'as installed Oct. 30,

adjourned to meet again
of the same year,

Virginia regularly established.. WISCONSIN. The introduction accomplished. of Freemasonry into this territory Royal Arch Masonry was intro- began in January, 1843, by dispenduced into Virginia under the sations granted to Mineral Point auspices of Joseph Myers, one of Lodge, at Mineral Point; Melody the Inspectors General of the AnLodge, at Platteville, and Milcient and Accepted rite, of the waukee Lodge, at Milwaukee, by southern jurisdiction, at Charleston, the Grand of Missouri. A S. C. The SUPREME GRAND ROYAL, convention Lodge of the delegates from ARCH CHAPTER was organized at the lodges just named assembled at This grand the Norfolk, May 1, 1808. city of Madison, on Monday, body is not in affiliation with the Dec. 18, 1843, when the convention General Grand Chapter of the adopted the resolution that it waa United States. to form a Grand Lodge The GRAND ENCAMPMENT was or- expedient in the territory of Wisconsin. A about 1823; was represented constitution was ganized adopted, officers in the Grand Encampment of the elected and installed. Rev. B. T. United States in 1826; soon became Kavanaugh was elected the first dormant. Organized new Grand Grand Master. Encampment in 1845, without apThe GRAND CHAPTER of Royal proval of the Grand Encampment Arch Masons was founded Feb. 13, of the United States. In 1851 1850. DwightF. Lawton was elected united again with the Grand Enthe first Grand High-Priest. of the United States; campment The GRAND COUNCIL of Royal and seceded again in 1861 renewed her Select Masters was organized in to the Grand Encampallegiance James Collins was elected 1857. ment of tLe United States in 1866. the first Grand Master.

thus the long-desired object of an

Grand Officers were installed in ample and form, and the Grand Lodge of West ensuing,
the

when

May

10,

Independent

Grand

Lodge

was

;

68

GENERAL HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.
;

cient ability, under the sanction of delegates who compose this cona Master's warrant, exercised the vention, being invested with ample will establish a Grand rights and privileges of Royal Arch powers, Arch Chapter, for the Statea Chapters, wherever they thought it Royal of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, expedient or proper. This unrestrained mode of proceeding was Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, and New York, to be denosubject to many inconveniences and of great injury to the society. Fully minated the Grand Royal Arch sensible of the many irregularities Chapter of the northern States of America." A constitution was then to which the Order was^ exposed, and wjth the view of preventing adopted for the government of Royal In 1806 the title of these difficulties in the future, in Arch Masonry. the year 1797, a convention of the body was changed to "The General Grand Chapter of Royal representatives from the several Arch Masons for the United States." chapters in the State of Pennsylvania met at Philadelphia, and From this period this grand body has prospered, and its influence organized a Grand Chapter for the State. This was the first Grand spread throughout the whole counGrand Chapter Chapter in the United States. Ac- try. Nearly every tuated by similar motives, Oct. 24, in the United States acknowledges its jurisdiction and authority. 1797, a convention of delegates from several chapters in the northern OF States, met at Boston to deliberate THE UNITED STATES. The convenupon the propriety of forming a tion for organizing the Grand EnGrand Chapter of Royal Arch campment of the United States was Masons for the States of New Hamp- held June 20-1, 1816, in the city shire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, ot New York, consisting of delegates Connecticut, Vermont, and New from the following Encampments, York. The convention having taken viz Boston, at Boston, Mass. St. the subject into consideration came John's at Providence, R. I. Temto a determination to forward to ple, at Albany, X. Y. Montgomery, each of the chapters within the at Stillwater, N. Y., St. Paul's, at States before mentioned an address, Newburyport, Mass. Newport, R. This I., and Darius Council, at Portland, expressive of their opinions. address was issued, and the con- Maine when a constitution was vention adjourned to meet again at adopted and officers chosen. The Hartford, Conn., January 24, 1798. Hon.DeWitt Clinton, then Governor to the recommendation of New York, was elected the first Agreeably of the convention of October, and, Grand Master. as requested Of the early or first introduction by the circular, issued by that body, delegates assembled of the Masonic Knighthood into this at the city of Boston, Jan. 24,. 1798, country but little of its true history from the following chapters, viz: is known. That it existed previous St. Andrew's Chapter, Boston, Mas- to 1790 in Pennsylvania is fully sachusetts, instituted 1769; King authenticated. Tradition affirms Cyrus Chapter, Newburyport.Mass., that the orders were conferred in instituted 1790; Providence some of the army lodges of the Chapter Providence, R. L, instituted revolutionary war.

Solomon Chapter, Derby, The GRAND COMMANDEBY, Knights 1793 Templar, was organized Oct. 20, Conn., instituted 1794; Franklin 1859. Henry L. Palmer, was elected Chapter, Norwich, Conn. instituted the first Grand Commander. 1796; Franklin Chapter, New Haven, Hudson 1796 CHAPTER Conn., instituted N. GENERAL Y., instituted or THE UNITED STATES. Until the Chapter, Hudson, 1796 Temple Chapter, Albany, year 1797 no Grand Chapter of N. Y. Horeb Royal Arch Masons was organized N. Y. The Chapter, Whitestown, convention, after due in America. Previous to that period, a competent number of companions deliberation, adopted the following of that degree, possessed of suffi- resolution: ''Resolved, That the
,

GRAND

;

;

;

GRAND ENCAMPMENT

:

;

;

;

;

CYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY.

A.

hereditary in his family. He died on Mount Hor, at and was buried so privately that his sepulcher still continues to be unknown. His son Eleazar succeeded him in the office of High-Priest.

made

who accompanied and work of emancipating the Jews from Egyptian bondage. He was the first High-Priest of the Hebrew Church, and the dignity of the priesthood was
brother of Moses,
assisted

AARON. The
him

in the great

the age of 123,

ABACISCUS. In ancient architecture, the checkered or square divisions of the Mosaic pavement. The material of which the ground-floor of King Solomon's Temple was supposed to have been made.

ABACUS.

1.

column and its capital; 3. A game among Romans; so called from its being played on a board, somewhat in the manner of
the
chess; 4. tray or flat board, perforated with holes for carrying cups, glasses, etc.; 5. In the Templar system of Masonic Knighthood it is the name of the Grand Master's staff of office.

An instrument to facilitate computations in arithmetic; 2. In architecture, a table constituting the upper or crowning member of a

A

"In

his

hand he bore that singular Abacus."
of the staff
is gilt,

IVANHOE.

usually of metal, with a Templar's cross, enameled red, and edged with gold, within a circle; upon the center of the cross a black shield, bearOn the circle is the ing a silver square. motto of the Order " IN HOC SIGNO VIXCES." Among the early Templars this staff bore a mystic and significant symbolism, and ^ns held in high veneration by the members of tlut Order

The upper part

70

ABB.

MASONIC. The form to which a word, The or phrase is reduced by contraction and omission. Mas. )ns of Europe are much more addicted to the tise of this method of contracting Masonic writing than American Masons. The abbreviations among our foreign brethren are usually distinguished by the use of three periods, placed in the form of a triangle thus.', or thusv as the writer may This peculiar form of contraction was first introprefer. duced by the Grand Orient of France, in 1774. The following list embraces all the abbreviations commonly made use of by the Fraternity at the present day. When an abbreviation stands for a foreign word or phrase, of which the English explanation is a translation, such word or phrase is given in italics:

ABBREVIATIONS,

title,

A.

C

M., or A. Y. M. Ancient Craft

A.

.

L.

.

G.
I'

.

D.

-.

G.

.

A.

.

D.

.

L'U.

.

01 Ancient

York Masonry.
S.
.

f Fr.

A la

A.

and A.

.

R.

.

Grand Architect of the Universe, Usually found on French A D. (Anno Domini. ) Year of our Masonic documents. The date used in common L.ord. A. L'OK. fFr. A I'Orient.) At the with all Masonic dates.
Accepted Scottish
rite.

Ancient and

tede de

Oloire du Univers. )

Grand ArchiTo the Glory

of the

.

East; the location of the Lodge. Year The date used A. M. (Anno Mundi.) Year of the of the Deposit. World. Used with the preceding in Cryptic Masonry. (A. H.) in documents of the AnA. G. M. Acting Grand Master. cient and Accepted rite. A. H. (Anno Hebraico.) Hebrew A. O. (Anno Ordinis.) Year of the year. The date used in the Ancient Order. The date used in the Orand Accepted rite. The Hebrew ders of Masonic Knighthood. To in September, which year begins find this date subtract 1118 from

A

i)EP.

(Anno

Deposittonis. )

the first of Tisri. To find this date add 3760 to the present year -thus 3760 + 1866=5626. After * September 15 add one year more.
is

the present

year
.

thus
-.
.

1118

1866=748.
A.

(Anno the Discovery. Used by Roy.il Arch Masons. To find this date add 530 to the present year thus Ancient and Accepted rite. 530 + 1866=2396. A. L. ( Anno Lucis. ) Year of Light, B. L. R, T. Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth. or year of the Creation. The common or ordinary date of Masonry, B. B. Burning Bush. Used on documents of the Ancient and and, like the vulgar era, may bte used in all Masonic documents. Accepted rite.
. .

A. INV.

Inventionis. )

Year of

U. T. O. -. S. A. G. (Ad universiterrarum orbis summi Architeoti Gloriam. ) To the Glory of the Grand Architect of the Universe. The caption for documents of the
-.
-

.

It is particularly appropriate to BR. or BRO. Brother. (Ger. Bruder Ancient Craft Masonry. To find or Briider.) (Fr. Frtre.) this date add 4000 to the present C. C. Celestial Canopy. Used on 4000 + 1866=5866. year thus, documents of the Ancient ana *Tlie Jewish people usually employ id Accepted rite. the era of the Seleucid;e until the niter-nth iciitury, when a new mode of computing C. F. C. Committee on Foreign Corv as adopted by them. They date from the respondence.
.
.

creation,

which they consider to have been

8760 yearn and three months be/ore the poinmeiiceiuent of the vulgar era.

C. G.

Captain General; Captain

of

the Guard.

ABB.
C. H. Captain of the Host. COMP. Companion.

71
S.
;

G. K. G. L.

Grand Keeper of the Seals. GG. LL. (Fr. Grande Logej

D. A. F.

Due and Ancient Form.
Deputy Grand
G.

D. D. G. M. District Master.

Grandes Loges. ) (Ger. Gross-Loge; Grand Lodge; Grand Lodges.

G ross-Logen.}
.

M.

.

(.Fr.

Grand Mattre.) Grand

DEG. Degree, or Degrees.
D. G. B. A. W. (Ger. Der Grosse Baumeister aller Welten. ) To the Glory of the Grand Architect of the Universe.
.

Master; Grand Marshal.

.

.

.

G. M. V. Grand Master of the Vails.
G. O.

Grand Orient; Grand Orator; Grand Organist. G. P. Grand Prelate; Grand PurD. G. H. P. Deputy Grand Highsuivant; Grand Patron. Priest. G. P. K. T. Grand Priory of the D. G. M. Deputy Grand Master. Knights of the Temple. The SuM. J. D. preme body in Scotland. (Deus Meumque Jus. ) God and my right. The motto of G. P. S. Grand Principal Sojourner. the 33d degree, Ancient and Ac- G. R. Grand Kecorder; Grand Re.
. .

cepted
E.

rite.

gistrar.

East, the place or
light.

emblem

of G. R. A. C.
tain.

Grand Eoyal Arch Cap;

E.A.orE.A.P. Entered Apprentice.
F.

G.

S.

W. Grand Senior Warden. G. STD. B. Grand Standard-Bearer. Accepted Masons. G. SWD. B. Grand Sword-Bearer. P. C. Fellow-Craft. G. T. Grand Treasurer Grand Tiler. F. H. C. Faith, Hope, and Charity. G. W. Grand Warder. F. U. A. M. (Ger. Freie und
G.
S.

or FF. . (Fr. Frere ou Freres. ) Brother or Brethren.
.

Scribe-,

Grand Secretary Grand Grand Sentinel; Grand
(Fr.

Steward.

Grand

Secretaire.)

F. A.

M. or F. and A. M. Free and

;

.

.

.

.

Angenommene Maurer.) Free and H.
Accepted Mason.
;
;

J. (Ger. Saints John.
. .

HeUige Johannes.)

G. Grand Guard Guardian; Ge- H. K. T. Hiram, King of Tyre. H. P. High-Priest. ometry; Generalissimo. G. A. Grand Architect; Grand Al- H.R.A.C. Holy Royal Arch Chapter. moner. H-R-M. rite of. G. C. Grand Chaplain; Grand Chapter; Grand Council; Grand Conductor; Grand Conclave. G. COM. Grand Commander; Grand

Heredom,
.

INS.

.

GEN.

One who has
degree.
I.

Inspector General. received the 33d

Commandery. G. C. G. Grand Captain General; Grand Captain of the Guard. G. C. H. Grand Captain of the Host Grand Chapter of Harodim. Q. E. Grand East; Grand Encamp;

N. R. I. (lesus Nazarenus Rex ludceorum.) Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. Motto of the Order of the Knights of Malta,
Inside Sentinel.

I. S.

An officer in

ment.

I.

English Lodges. T. N. 0. T. G. A. O. T. U. In the

name
the

Grand Geometrician; Grand Generalissimo; Grand Guardian. G. G. C. General Grand Chapter. G. H. P. Grand High-Priest. G. J. W. Grand Junior Warden. G. K. Grand King.
G. G.

of the Grand Architect ol Initials usually Universe.
in

found on Masonic documents the English language.
J.

D. Junior Deacon.
G. D. Junior Grand Deacon.

J.

J-

G.

W. Junior Grand Waruen.

ABB.
J.
.

V.-. S.-. P.-. L.-. N.-.
.

M.-. Q.-

(Fr. Je vous salw par les noms Ma$onniques que noui seid ionnoissons. ) I salute you bj

N.

S.

.

C.

.

t.he

onlj
f.

W

Masonic names, which we know. Or.-. Junior Warden.
P. C.

A.-. C.-. (Ordo ab Chao ) Order out of chaos. A motto ol the 33d degree. 0. C. S. Oriental Chair of Solomon. 0. G. Outside Guardian.

O.-.

K. C S. Knight of the Order o Charles XIII. of Sweden.
K.

The (Orient.) The East. station of the Master; Orator.

W.

Principal Conductor of th

Works.
P. G. M. Past Grand Master; vincial Grand Master.

K-D-H. Knight Kadosch.

KT. or

KN T.
T

Pro

Knight.

K. E. P. Knight of the Eagle Pelican. K.

and

P. J. Prince of Jerusalem

;

Provost
ou

M. Knight of Malta.

and Judge. P. M. (Fr.
. .

Mallre, Pass*?,

Ex

K. R. C. Knight of the Bed Cross Knight of the Rose-Croix. K. T. or KNT. T. Knight Templar.
It.CZi; LL.,[Ep.
u.

Venerable.} (Ger. Altmeister or Passirmeister.} Past Master; Perfect Master.

Lodge; Lodges.

E. T. (Lux e Tenebris. ) of Darkness.

LT. G. C. Lieutenant

Grand Com-

R. A. Royal Arch: Royal Art. R. A. C, Royal Arch Captain, or Light out Chapter. R. |, or R. C. Rose Cross.
R-s-y C-s. Rosy Cross. order of Scotland.
.
. .

mander.

The Royal

et A. R. E. A. ( Rite Ecossais Ancien et Accept^.) Ancient and Mark. Accepted Scottish rite. M. C. Master of Ceremonies; Mark R. E. G. C. Right Eminent Grand of the Craft
.

M.

Maitre.) (Ger. Meister.) (Sp. Maestro.} Master; Marshal;
.

(Fr.

M.E.G.H.P. Most Excellent Grand
High-Priest. M. E. M. Most Excellent Master.
.

Commander.

R. L., or R.

a

(Respectable Lodge. )

Worshipful Lodge. R. O. S. Royal Order of Scotland. M. K. G. (Ger. Maurer Kunst R. W. Right Worshipful. Oesette.) Fellow-Craft. L. Maurer Lehrlinrj. ) R. W. M. Right Worshipful Master. M. (Ger. The title of a Provincial Grand Entered Apprentice. Master in England, and of the M. Master Mason Mark Master M. Master of a Lodge in Scotland. Masonic (Mois Ma$onnique.) Month. The French Masons be- Sec. Secretary. gin the year with March. (Ger. S.-.C.-.S.-. G.-.I.-.G.-. Supreme Meisler Maurer.) (Sp. Maestro Council Sovereign Grand InspecMason. ) tors General. M. W. M. W. G. M. Most WorshipSenior Grand Deacon. ful Most Worshipful Grand S. G. D.
. .
.

.

;

;

;

:

Master.
N.

S.

G.
.

W.

Senior Grand
.
.

Warder

North East Corner. P. V. D. M. No. (Fr. Nowbliez pas vos decorations MaqonThis abbreviation is used nlques. ) an ong French Masons, and when
C.
. . .

G. Sovereign Grand Inspector General. A member 01 the 33d degree. S. M. Secret Master; Select Master: Secret Monitor; Sovereign Master. Speculative Masonry. placed in the left hand corner of the notice for a meeting of a S.-. P.-. R.-. S.-. Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret. Lodge means: "Do " not forget SS. John. Saints John. your Masonic regalia.

E

S.

G.

.

I.

.

.

ABD ABE.
B. S.

(Sanctum Sanctorum.)

Holy W.

of Holies. SSS. (Fr. Troifi fois FaluU) Thrice Greeting, or thrice Welcome; salutation. Often found in French

M. (Ger. Wurdigcr Meisier.) Worshipful Master.
.

.

].

Masonic documents.
Surv.
l er (Fr. Premier Surveillant. ) Senior Warden.
.
. .

This symbol is often substituted for the word Lodge. This symbol represents the
Lodges.
delta
is

plural

A. The

the

emblem
The
of

of the

Surv.-. 2 e
S.

(Fr.

Second SurveUlanL)

Chapter.

Junior Warden.

W. Senior Warden.
ouV.-.F.-. (Fr. Tres cher ou Venerable Frtre.) Dearest or Venerable Brother.

t

Passion Cross.
the
signature

prefix to

a

Knight

Templar.
T.-. C.-.

T. G. A. O. T. U. The Grand Architect of the Universe.

used before !j " Templar's Cross, the signature of an officer o a State Grand Cominandery.
i

Treas. Treasurer.
T.

The S. (.Ti-es Sage.) Wisest. presiding officer in the French
.
.

Patriarchal Cross, used before the signature of an officer of the Grand Encampment of the United States.

rite.

V.-. (Vtnfrdble.) Worshipful.
title

The

of the Master in France.
.

Cross oi Salem, used before the signature of the Grand Mastei of Knights Templar.

V.

.

L.

(Fr. VraiQ Lumiere.)

When these crosses are used oa docuTrue ments relating to Templar Masonry, the)
should be made in red ink.

Light.

Besides the generally current abbreviations given above, other short methods of statement are frequently employed The meaning of unexplained contracin particular cases. tions will be sufficiently obvious from the connection in

which they may stand.

ABDITOEUM. In Archaeology, a secret place, where important documents may be concealed and preserved. The two columns at the entrance of Solomon's Temple were supposed to be used for this purpose.
called from Abel, the son of Adam. of a sect in Northern Africa, which 2. This was the professed a certain form of gnosticism. name also of a secret, or quasi Masonic Society, which sprang up jiu Germany about the year 1746. pamphlet called "The Abelite," setting forth the character and purposes oi the Order, was published at Leipzig, in the same year. From this it appears that it was founded on the highest principles of Christianity, morality, and philanthropy. It had secret fiigns, ceremonies, pass-words, and symbols, and was, for a
1.

ABELITES. So
It

was the appellation

A

short time, remarkably popular; but the country in which it originated.

never extended beyond of the Order was " Sincerity, Friendship, and Hope."
it

The motto

74

ABI ACA.

to green ears of corn by the Jews, of the first month of their our March because, at that time, corn ecclesiastical year was in the ear. This month was afterward called Nisan.

and was adopted as the name

ABTB- The name given

ABIF. A Hebrew word, signifying "his father." It is It was often used in the Scriptures as a title of honor. given to Hiram, the Tyrian builder, probably on account of
his distinguished skill.

ABLUTION. Washing,
making one clean from

or, literally, a washing off, i. e., In the ancient mysteall pollution.

ries it constituted a part of

the preparation for initiation,

and was a symbolical representation of moral purification. The ceremony is known in some of the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted rite.
signification usually applied to this term that of being absent by permission, for a specified time, during the regular meetings of the Lodge, and in such a manner as not to interfere with the harmony or working of the body. Long or continued absence from the Lodge meetings is contrary to the duties inculcated by the ancient charges of the Order, which prescribe, as a rule, "that no Master or Fellow could be absent from the Lodge, especially when warned to appear at it, without incurring a severe censure, until, it appeared to the Master and Wardens that
is

ABSENCE. The

pure necessity hindered him."

ACADEMIE DES ILLUMINES D'AVIGNON.

Academy

of the llluminati of Avignon. This society, was established at Avignon, in 1785. It admitted both sexes to membership, and the teachings of its ritual were a mixture of the Hermetic

Philosophy and Swedenborgian ideas.

ACADEMIE DES SUBLIMES MAITRES DE L'ANNEAU LUMINEUX. Academy of the Sublime Masters of the
Luminous Ring. This is the name of a high degree introduced into the Lodge of Douay, France, in 1815, by the Scotch Baron Grant, of Blairfindy, who was a member of Contract Social Lodge, and Chief of the Scottish Philosophical rite. He formed the eighth and highest degree known in the Lodge of Douay into three Orders. In one of the first Orders of this Academy, they employed themselves in
a study of the true history of Freemasonry, but in the third they explained the various sciences, and applied themselves to the acquirement of the highest wisdom.

ACADEMIE DES VEAIS MACONS.
Mavons.

Academy of True This was a French Chapter of the high degrees,

ACA
at Montpellier,

AGO.

75

with Alchemistical tendencies, which, in 1778, was founded by Boileau, the distinguished pupil of Pernetti. This rite had six degrees beyond the symbolic degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry, which were essential for admission, but not practiced. In it the Hermetic Science was taught. The degrees were: 1. The True Mason; 2. The True Mason in the Right Way; 3. The Knight of the Golden Key; 4. The Knight of the Rainbow;. 5. The Knight of the Argonauts; 6. The Knight of the Golden Fleece.

OF ANTIQUITY, OR OF THE MYSTEBIES. An Alchemistical Brotherhood, with a Masonic form, founded at Rome, by Thoux de Salverte, in the sixteenth century, and at Warsaw, Poland, in 1763.

ACADEMY

ACADEMY OF

SAGES. A

society for the interpretation

and propagation of the high degrees, introduced into France in 1776, by the Scotch Mother-Lodge of the Philosophical rite.
herbaceous plant vulgar name, bearsbearing large whitish flowers, and pinnatifid leaves. A species of it is found in the East, and is supposed to be the beautiful classic plant of antiquity, to which Masonio
breech
tradition attributes the model of the Grecian architect who invented and formed the leaves of the Corinthian Capital; and the idea of so applying it

ACANTHUS. An

was derived from the following incident: "It happened that a basket, covered with a tile, was left upon the crown of the root of an Acanthus
plant, which when it began to grow, finding itself unable to arrange its leaves in the usual manner, turned them up around the sides of the basket, until, encountering the under side of the tile, they gradually curved back in the form of a volute."

ACCHO, OR ACRE. An ancient city, situate on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, thirty miles south of Tvre. During the Crusades this place was usually known to Europeans by the name of Aeon; afterward, from the occupation of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, as St Jean d'Acre, or It was the last fortified place in the simply Acre. Holy Land wrested from the Christians by the Turks.

ACCLAMATION. An exclamation of admiration, approval, welcome, or reverence among Masons. In French Lodges the expression is "viuat." In the Ancient and Accepted rite it is "J3ou,sa," or "Hothea," and in English Lodges "So mote it be."

76

ACC ADO.

ACCOLADE. An interesting ceremony formerly used in conferring the h jnors of knighthood, by the King, the Grand Master, or other authorized person laying his arms about the neck of the young knight, and This familiar embracing him. expression of regard was the practice before the introduction of the more stately act of touching, or gently striking, with the sword, the neck or shoulder of the kneeling knight. The present ceremony of conferring the honors of Masonic knighthood, is evidently derived from it. The custom is of great antiquity, and is regarded by some writers as the blow which the Roman slave received on manumission.

ACELDAMA.

Field of Blond.

A

small piece of land, lying

on the south side of Jerusalem, called also Potter's Field, which was used as a cemetery for strangers. In the time of the crusades it was appropriated as a burial-place for pilgrims, and since, it has been used for the same purpose by
It is referred to instructively in the lesthe Armenians. sons of the Templars' degree.

ACHISHAR. An
of Solomon.

officer
is

Allusion

made

having charge of the household to him in the degree of Select

Master.

ADEPT, from the Latin Adeptus. A name given to members of the Order of the Uluniinati. The Rosicrucians also employed the titles of Adeptus Adoptatus, Adeptus Coronatus, and Adeptus Exemptus. The title of Prince Adept is given to the chief of the Consistory of the 28th degree.
STAT. Tt stands yet. often found on Masonic medallions.

ADHUC

A

Latin motto which

is

ADONIS, THE
to

MYSTERIES OF. Adonis is supposed by some be identified with Osiris, the grand figure in the Egyptian

and the mystical rites, celebrated by his priests, and performed at initiations, are thought to be the same as, or a reproduction of, the mysteries of Isis. There are, indeed, some points of resemblance; but there are also radical differences. They were both slain, but Osiris met his death by the deliberate machinations of Typhon, or Evil, while Adonis was killed by a wild boar. The meaning of the myth cA
mysteries;

ADO.
Osiris is plain enough.

77

The struggle between Osiris and eternal struggle between Truth and Error, the destruction of Osiris by Typhon represents the temporary triumph of Evil over the Good, and his return to life and the downfall of Typhon show forth the final triumph of virtue over vice, of life over death. The myth of Adonis is not so comprehensive, and all parts of the legend are not The mysteries of Adonis were celeso readily interpreted. brated throughout all the countries of Syria, and formed a part of the ceremonies of the Tyrian architects, by whom " they were introduced into Judea. Duncan, in his Religions of Profane Antiquity," says: "The objects reprssented in these mysteries were the grief of Venus and the death and An entire week was consumed in resurrection of Adonis. these ceremonies; all the houses were covered with black drapery; funeral processions traversed the streets, while the Typhon was the
devotees scourged themselves, uttering frantic cries. The orgies were then commenced, in which the mystery of the death of Adonis was depicted. During the next twentyfour hours, all the people fasted, at the expiration of which time the priests announced the resurrection of the god.

Joy now prevailed, and music and dancing concluded the festivals." Some writers regard the story of Adonis as an
astronomical allegory, representing the seasons of the year, transition through which the earth passes, in consequence of these changes. But the rites had, undoubtedly, a deeper meaning, and related to the supreme ideas of religion. The early Christian writers evidently regarded them as having relation to the great Christian mystery. Fermicius, who lived in the fourth century, says: "On a certain night an image is placed upon a bed, and is mourned over by many with sorrowful cries. Then, when wearied by this simulated grief, light is brought in, and the mouths of those who were weeping are anointed by a priest, who breathes forth in a low murmur: 'Trust ye, disciples! for the god having been " saved, out of his sufferings, salvation shall be ours.'

and the

Order of Freemasonry, through relatives who are members of Adoptive Masonry first made its appearance in France, in the early part of the 18th century, and there is still a legaJ and regular branch of the institution in that country. The French rite has four degrees: 1. Apprentice; 2. Companion;
it.

ADOPTIVE MASONRY. A name given to certain degrees resembling Masonry, and Masonic in spirit, which have, at times, been invented for ladies who have claims upon the

3.

Mistress;

4.

Perfect Mistress.

The

officers of a

Lodge

of

Adoption are a Grand Master and a Grand Mistress; an
7

IS

ADO.

a Depositor and Orator; an Inspector, and Inspectress; a Conductor and Conductress. They wear blue Depositrex; therefrom, white aprons, collars, with a gold trowel pendant and gloves. The members also wear the jewel of the Order, which is a golden ladder with five rounds, on the left breast. have been, Many of the most distinguished ladies of Europe them were and are now, members of this Order. Among the Duchess of Bourbon, the Empress Josephine, Lady and the Empress Montague, Duchess Elizabeth Chesterfield, The Adoptive Lodges were at first rapidly diffused Eugenie. of Europe except the British throughout all the countries But the American Adoptive rite is better adapted empire. to the United States, and has excited considerable interest, and found many powerful advocates in this country. It consists of five degrees, as follows: 1. Jephthah's daughter, or the Daughter's degree, illustrating respect to the binding force of a vow; 2. Buth, or the Widow's degree, illustrating devotion to

religious principles; 3. Esther, or the Wife's degree, illustrating fidelity to kindred and 4. Martha, or the friends
;

Sister's

degree,
5.

illustrating

undeviating faith in the hour
of
trial;

Electa,

or

the
8EAL OF THE OBDE
!AS

Benevolent degree,

illustrat-

STAB-

ing charity and courage, with patience and submission under " Rite wrongs. All the degrees together are called the the Eastern Star," and are very beautiful and impresof Ladies who have received these degrees have a sive. ready and efficient means of commanding the services of Freemasons whenever and wherever they may need them. The moral teachings of the Eastern Star degrees are excellent, and cannot fail to make a good impression. Notwithstanding there is among some Masons a strong feeling against any form of Adoptive Masonry, it cannot be questioned that the Masons spirit of the age demands something of the kind. cannot find a surer safeguard and protection for their wives, sisters, arid daughters, than is furnished by the American Adoptive rite or Order of the Eastern Star. To the objection that the degrees are not Masonic, it may be replied that they are as much so as any degree outside of the Symbolical Lodge. All degrees above the first three are Masonic,

only by adoption.

ADO AGA.
ADORATION.
reverence which a

79

Worship, the expression of that supreme man should feel toward his Creator. Although in different parts of the world the attitudes oi worship differ, in some respects, yet there is a strong resemblance between them. One may bow his head, another may kneel, and others may bend the body toward the earth, or throw themselves prostrate thereon, with the face downward, the act is still the same, a symbol most expressive of dependence, and reverence, and filial obedience.

AFFILIATED. A word
member
of

some Lodge. A Mason who does not belong " any Lodge is styled Non- Affiliated."
;

that designates a

Mason

as a to

AFFILIATION. Initiation indicates the first reception of a person into a Masonic Lodge affiliation denotes the reception of one already a Mason into some other Lodge than the one in which he received the Light.

AFRICAN MASTER BUILDERS. A secret society with a Masonic form which came into being about the year 1756, and ceased to exist in 1786. It professed to be devoted to
the discovery of truth, and the cultivation of virtue, and was a very worthy and respectable order. They set forth that: " When the architects were by wars reduced to a very small number, they determined to travel together into Europe, and there to form, together, new establishments. Many oi

them came to England with Prince Edward, son of Henry III., and were shortly afterwards called into Scotland by Lord Stewart. Their installation in this kingdom falls about the Masonic year 2307." They received the protection of the King of Sweden in 1125, of the King of England in 1190, and
of Alexander III., of Scotland, in 1284. There were five initiations into their Apprentice's degree: 1. The Apprentice to the Egyptian Secret, Menes Musae; 2. The Initiation into the Egyptian Secret; 3. The Cosmopolite; 4. The Christian Philosopher; 5. The Lover of Truth. The higher degrees followed these, of which there were three. They had Chapters, whose officers were chosen for life.

early Christians.

A banquet of charity, among the Chrysostom thus describes its origin and purpose: "At first Christians had all things in common;
AGAPE.
Love-feast.
St.

but when that equality of possession ceased, as it did even in the Apostle's time, the Agape, or love-feast, was instituted
instead of
provisions,
it.

Upon

were closed, they met at a

These meetings were held

and the poor, who had nothing, being invited. in secret." The Agape cannot b.it

certain days, after the religious services common feast, the rich bringing

80
call to

AGA

ALC.

these

mind the Table-lodges of Freemasonry, and, in truth, owe their origin to the love-feasts of the primitive

Christians. distinguished German scholar, A. Kestner, professor of Theology at Jena, published a work in 1819, Weltentitled, "The Agape, or the Secret World-Society bund, of the primitive Christians" i.e., a society apart from
their spiritual organization "founded by Clemens, at Rome, in the reign of Domitian, having a hierarchical constitution, and a ground system of Masonic symbolism, and mysteries." In this work he establishes the fact of a direct connection between the Agape and the Tablo-loge of Freemasons.

A

This Order was founded about the middle of the fifteenth century, and aimed to avoid, equally, the fanaticism of both the Catholic and Protestant churches. Many persons, distinguished by rank and talent, became members. Among them, it is claimed, were the Prince of Epinoi, the Duke of Bournonville, Marshal Moritz, of Saxony; P. P. Rubens and Voltaire. The old Brotherhood became extinct in 1837, at the death of the Advocate, Pins, who, a few months before that event, initiated his friend Schayes, through whom the Order of the New-Agathopades was constituted Sept. 29, A. D. 1846. The Chief of the Society bears the peculiar name of " Hog," and all the members are called by the name of some wild beast. The motto of the Order is " Amis camme cochons,"
in Brussels

AGATHOPADES, THE ORDEB OF.

and the Pentastigma

f

.

'.

.

\ is

the holy sign.

Latin participle, signifying "things to be In Masonry it means small books in which certain virtues or precepts are written, and which it is the duty of
done."
all

AGENDA. A
Masons

to inculcate

and

practice.

AGNUS

also of the seal of the old Order of jewel of the Generalissimo.

DEI. Lamb of God. The name of an amulet, and Knights Templar, and the
art of changing base metals into gold.

ALCHEMY. The
Among

the things that men the most earnestly desire are the means of physical comfort or luxury that is to say wealth, and freedom from disease, and long life. The hope of discovering among the secrets of Nature the art of making gold, and that magic liquor, which would secure perpetual youth, called the Elixir of Life, gave birth to the science of A class of Hermetic philosophers arose who Alchemy. prosecuted their researches with ardor and seriousness; for it is not necessary to assume that the Alchemists were imposters. They were enthusiasts, and taught their doctrines through mystical images and symbols. To transmute

ALC ALM.

81

metals they thought it necessary to find a substance which, containing the original principle of all matter, should posThis general sess the power of dissolving all its elements. solvent, or menstruum universal^, which, at the same time, was to possess the power of removing all the seeds of disease out of the human system, and renewing life, was called the
"

Philosopher's Stone

"

Lapis Philosophorum

and

its

pos-

The more obscure the ideas sessors were styled Adepts. the Alchemists themselves had of the appearances resulting from their experiments the more they endeavored to express themselves in symbolical language, which they afterward employed to conceal their secrets from the uninitiated. The science of Alchemy is as old as the history of philosophy The Egyptian Hermes, the son of Anubis, who was itself. ranked among the heroes, has been claimed as its author, and many books on the subject of magic are to be attributed
though not on sufficient grounds. The name, howand it is well known that the Arabs prosecuted the science with ardor, and to their labors many valuable discoveries in chemistry are to be attributed. Paracelsus, Roger Bacon, Basilius, Valentinus, and many other distinguished men were believers in the art. And even to this day science cannot positively decide that the
to him,

ever, is Arabian,

not within the circle of possibilities. less connected with Freemasonry since the middle of the last century, chiefly through the One of the most interesting degrees in FreeRosicrucians.
Philosopher's Stone
is

Alchemy has been more or

is

" Adepts, or Knights of the Eagle and the Sun masonry founded on this Hermetic Philosophy, and cannot be

"

understood without a study of the mystic science of the
Alchemists.

ALCORAN. The sacred book of the Mahommedans, or rather a sacred book; for they recognize the old Hebrew Scriptures as of greater authority. The Alcoran contains the revelations made to Mahommed, his doctrines and preIn a Masonic Lodge of Mahommedans it should lay cepts. on the altar as the Bible does- in a Lodge of Christians.
ALLAH. The Arabic name of Grod. The Alcoran describes his character and attributes thus: "He alone is self-existent ; has no rival ; is from everlasting to everlasting; fills the universe with his presence; is the center in which all things unite, as well the visible as the invisible; is
infinite;

Almighty, all-wise, all-merciful, tender-hearted, his decrees are unchangeable."

and

AT MOND-TKEE. The
budded, was a branch.

tree of

Its flowers

which Aaron's rod, that were pure white.

82

ALM AMU.
and monastic
formerly applied to an official in reorders, whose business was to distribute It is also the title of an officer in the Templar System.

ALMONER. A name
ligious

alms.

Prince of the Assassins, or Arsacides, comOld Man of the Mountain. He was Sheik of a Syrian tribe, professing the Mahornrnedan religion, but blindly devoted to the will of their chief. Many fabulous stories are related of him, from whose followers the word

ALOADIN.

monly

called the

assassin

is

derived.

[See art. ASSASSIN.]

ALPHABET OF ANGELS. The Jewish mystics affirmed that the patriarchs had a knowledge of such an alphabet, communicated to them by the angels themselves. Several degrees in the Scottish rite allude to this alphabet.
The name of the horn of the Cretan goat. " Cornu Copia" It is the mythological horn of plenty which signifies an abundance of things necessary to life. It is the jewel of the stewards of a Lodge of Master Masons.

AMALTHEA.

AMAZONS, ORDER or. A system of Androgyne Masonry, which for a time excited some interest in South America during the last century.

AMBURVALIA.
They had an

Religious festivals

among

the Romans.

The rites were celeagricultural reference. brated in the latter part of May, and consisted of processions through the fields, and solemn invocations of the goddess Ceres, that she would bless the labors of the husbandmen, and grant them an abundant harvest.

AMENTHES, OR AMENTI. In the Egypthian Mythology, the place of departed spirits, corresponding to the Hades oi the Greeks. It was also the place of judgment where Osiris presided, and announced the decisions of eternal justice.

AMERICAN MYSTERIES.
among
the

There unquestionably existed
of

more enlightened

the Aborigines of

the

Western Continent fraternities which were bound together by mystic ties and formed a kind of rude Freemasonry. The Peruvian and Mexican mysteries resembled very strongly the rites of the ancient nations of Northern Europe.

AMULET. A piece
marked with
persons
well as
Arabic,

A.mong

of stone or metal, or other substance, certain figures, which people wear about their as a protection against danger, etc. The name, as the thing, comes from the East. It is from the hamail, a locket anything hung around the neck. the Turks and other nations every person thinks an

AND.

83

Amulets were in voguo among A-mulet necessary to safety. tue Greeks, the Egyptians, and Eomans. They were introduced into Christendom by the Basilideans. The Amulets of this sect were stones with the mystic word Abraxas engraved upon them. They were highly valued by the Jews; and in past times Christians have worn them, having the mark of a fish or a symbol of the Savior. In many qiiasi Masonic societies they have been largely used, and are not wholly unknown in Masonry itself e. g., the Tyriau Signet,
H. T.

W.

S. S. T.

K.

S.

ANDERSON, JAMES, D. D., was born at Edinburg, ScotThe time of his death is uncertain; land, August 5, 1662. but, from the most reliable sources at our command, it is He was a man of a high believed that he died in 1738. His first work was an " Essay order of literary talent. showing that the Crown of Scotland is Imperial and Independent," for which the Parliament of Scotland gave him a vote of thanks. At what time, or in what Lodge, Bro. Anderson became a Mason is not known. At the meeting of the Grand Lodge at London, September 29, 1721, he was ordered to arrange and more fully digest the old Gothic Constitutions into a new and better method than had before existed. This duty he performed most satisfactorily to the
Fraternity, and the work was issued " The Constitutions of the Freemasons; containing the History, Charges, Regulations, etc of that most Ancient and Right Worshipful Fraternity. Foi the use of the Lodges." In 1738, a second edition, enlarged and corrected, was published under his supervision. These are regarded as the basis of Masonic Constitutions for the government of the Fraternity to the present time. He was, for many years, Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge. His most elaborate work was a folio volume entitled, " Royal Genealogies; or, the Genealogical Tables of Emperors, Kings, and Princes, from Adam to these times. London, 1732."

Grand Lodge and the
in 1723,

under the

title,

ANDREW, DAY
Saint,

OF ST.

November 30

is

sacred to this

day the Scottish Lodges, and many others, hold their festivals and elect their officers. The Grand Lodge of Scotland was organized Nov. 30, 1736. and on
this

ANDREW DEGREE,

OR ANDREW'S MASONRY. Degrees ol

Scottish Masonry, introduced into France and Germany by " the followers of the Pretender, in 1736. The Apprentice of St. Andrew," and " the Companions of St. Andrew," form the 4th degree of the Swedish system; " Master of Si Andrew " is the 5th degree of the same. " The Favorit

84
Brothers of
St.

AND

API.

Purple Band/ make the 9th degree

" The Knights of the Andrew," and also of Swedish Masonry.

ST. Brother of St. Peter, one of the Twelve The Russians hold him in the highest reverence, Apostles. as also do the people of Scotland, and the Freemasons of that country honor him as one of their patrons. Tradition says that he was crucified on a cross, shaped thus X. In both countries there is an order of knighthood named in his honor.

ANDREW,

ANDROGYNAL MASONRY.
ANOINTING
the

[See ADOPTIVE MASONRY.]

Hebrews and other oriental nations, and its omission was significant of mourning. They anointed the hair, head, and It was a customary mark of beard, and sometimes the feet.
Kings and High-Priests were anointed at This ceremony indicated their being set apart and consecrated to the service of God. The custom of anointing with oil or perfume was common among the Greeks and Romans, and is practiced in the higher mysteries of the Masonic institution with sublime effect.
respect to guests. their inauguration.

was a custom extensively practiced among

ANTIQUITY OF FREEMASONRY.
much
siastic

that

Notwithstanding claimed as true in Masonic history, by enthubrothers, must fall before the stern tests of sound
is

philosophical criticism, yet the high antiquity of the institution is incontestably established. A part of the ritual of Freemasonry originated in Egypt, and was engrafted on the system of the Sidonian builders. This society also adopted a portion of the rituals of Eleusis and Adonis, and through this Order Freemasonry was introduced into Judea, and constructed Solomon's Temple. fail to find a vestige of Masonry among the Jews previous to this period. In the time of Numa Pompilius, King of Rome, a branch of the Order of Hiram appeared in Italy, and formed the Collegia Fabrorum and Artificum. This society of builders continued in uninterrupted succession till the downfall of the Roman empire, when its members spread over all Europe, a portion of whom settled in Britain. Here the society had a plain and tangible history till 1717, when the Brotherhood laid aside its

We

operative character, and
It

it

became

entirely speculative.

APIS. A bull to which divine honors were paid in Egypt. was necessary that he should be black, with a triangle of white on his forehead, a white spot in the shape of a crescent on his side, and sort of knot, like a beetle, u inter his tongue. When one was found, he was fed four moutuis in a building

BROS.

WASHINGTON AND LAFAYETTE.

MASONIC AJfKON PRESENTED TO GEN. WASHINGTON

BY MADAME LABI'S ETTE.

APR.
facing the East.

87

At the new moon ho was led to a splendid with great solemnity, and conveyed to Heliopolis, where he was fed forty days more by priests and women. After this no one was permitted to approach him. From Heliopolis he was taken to Memphis, where he had a temple, two chapels to dwell in, and a lai'ge court for exercise. He had the gift of prophecy. The omen was good or bad as he went into one chapel or the other. Notwithstanding all this His reverence, he was not suffered to live beyond 25 years. death caused universal mourning. He was an important symbol in the mysteries of Isis.
ship,

pure white lambskin apron is to the operaspotless emblem. The investiture of this symbol of the purity of the order, being the first gift bestowed upon the candidate, is made in behalf of the whole Fraternity, while the recipient, in return, is required to keep himself pure in all his actions, so that he may prove to the world that it is " more honorable than the star or garter," or any other order that can be conferred upon him. It is worn by operative Masons to protect their garments from The investiture of the candidate with injury, spot, or stain. the apron, among the primitive Masons, formed an essential part of the ceremony of initiation, and was attended with rites equally significant and impressive. This badge received
tive

APRON. The

Mason an ancient and

'

a characteinstic distinction from its peculiar color and matei'ial. With the Essenian Masons, it was accomplished by a process bearing a similar tendency, and accompanied by illustrations not less imposing and satisfactory to the He was clothed in a long white robe, which neophyte. reached to the ground, bordered with a fringe of blue ribbon, to incite personal holiness, and fastened tightly round the waist with a girdle, to separate the upper from the lower parts of the body. With feet bare and head

88

ARC.

uncovered, the candidate was considered the personification of modesty and humility, walking in the fear of God. The Masonic Apron is a pure white lambskin, 15 inches wide and 13 inches deep, with a flap of triangular shape about 5 inches deep at the point, square at the bottom. For the symbolic degrees the trimmings are blue, and in the Royal Arch degree the trimmings are scarlet, or blue and scarlet.

nickname of the PELLETERIE. so-called Orient of Clermont, or old Grand Lodge of France, before its union with the Grand Orient, 1799.

ARCADE DE LA

A

ARCH.

Part of a

circle.

supported by its curve. The Arch the .ritual of Royal Arch Masonry.

In architecture a construction is a prominent idea in

ARCH OF ENOCH
:

explained

in the

degree of the

Knights of the Ninth Arch, the ritual of which says " Enoch was the seventh in descent from
lived in the fear and love of his Maker. Being inspired by the Most High, and in commemoration of a wonderful vision, this holy man builto a nine-fold temple under ground, and dedicated the same to God. He was assisted in the construction of

HER

MRS

Adam, and

Si

|j

this subterranean temple by Jared, his father, and Methuselah, his son, without being acquainted with his motives. This happened in that part of the country which was afterward called Canaan, or the Holy Land." The here

used

is

engraving copied from an old Masonic publication, and appears

to allude to this event.

ARCH OF STEEL. In the Templar system, and also the French, the Arch of Steel is formed during certain ceremonies, by the members, arranged in two ranks, with their swords raised and crossed.
ARCHEOLOGY. From the Greek words Arche, the beginning, and Logos, word, i. e., a discourse concerning the primitive times; in other words, the science of antiquities. This science is peculiarly interesting to Freemasons, inasmuch as through the investigations of Archaeologists the antiquity of Masonry is vindicated.

AEG.

89

ARCHIMAGUS. In other words, Chief of the Sages, and High-Priest of the Chaldean Mysteries. In the ceremony of initiation he represented Ormuzd, the god of beauty, light, and truth, and the rite was intended to illustrate the struggles of that god with Ahrirnan, the god of darkness and evil, and his final victory over him.
ARCHITECTURE. The art of construction or building, according to certain proportions and rules, determined and regulated by nature, science, and taste. It is divided into

THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCH1TECTUBE.

three distinct branches civil, military, of building had its origin in the desire

and

naval.

The

art

implanted in man to procure protection from the outward elements and the vicissitudes of the changing seasons. There is something divine in man, which prompts him to look beyond the mere supply of his necessities, and to aim continually at higher objects. He, therefore soon expected from his habitation and hip

90

ARE ARK.

temples more than mere utility. He aimed at elegance, and architecture became by degrees a fine art, differing essentialother tine arts in these respects: I. ly, however, from the That it is based on utility; 2. that it elevates mathematical laws to rules of beauty, correct proportion, and perfect symmetry. It is difficult, perhaps now impossible, to fix the exact period of the invention of architecture, as everv art is perfected by degrees, and is the result of the labors of many. In the early ages of the human race, the habitation must have been rude and imperfect; yet each nation, at every age, possessed its peculiar style of architecture, and marked its character by its symbolic monuments. Among such monuments we should place, as the chief, the Temple of Sol-

omon, from which the true knowledge of architecture became diffused throughout the world. Thus through ages has the institution been transmitted; and though deprived of its operative character, it is none the less efficient in its symbolism and importance. The working-tools of an operative Mason have, therefore, become our symbols. There are five orders of architecture, viz: The Doric, the Tuscan, the
Ionic, the Corinthian,

and the Composite.

AREOPAGUS. The hill of Mars, the seat of the supreme tribunal of Athens, which was also called Areopagus. This famous court had sovereign jurisdiction over all the affairs of Grecian society, and from its decrees there was no
In Freemasonry, the name in France and Belgium applied to a council or assembly of the 30th degree of the Scotch rite.
appeal.
is

ARGENT. French for silver. An heraldic term used in describing coats of arms, thus: The arms of the Company of Freemasons in the reign of King Henry IV. "Azure, on a chevron, between three castles, Argent."

ARGONAUTS, ORDER
founded
in

OF.

An Androgyne Masonic

Society

in 1775, by some members of the Strict Observance. Its chief officer was called Grand Admiral, the place of meeting was called a ship, and till the appointments were named from various parts of a vessel. The motto of the Order was: " Es lebe die Freude," they live to promote happiness. The seal was a silver anchor inlaid with green.

Germany,

ARK OF THE COVENANT.

The sacred

chest, or coffer,

which Moses constructed by command of God, wherein were deposited the two tables of stone on which were graven the Ten Commandments, Aaron's rod, and a pot of manna. The ark was a symbol of the Divine presence, and a protec-

AEK
tion to the people, so long as they
-

91

adhered to the articles of the covenant, which the ark contained. It was made of shittiin-wood, covered with plates of gold; nearly four feet in length, and two feet three inches in width and height. On It had the top of it, all round, ran a kind of gold crown. four rings of gold, two on each side, through which staves were put, whereby it was carried. These also were overlaid with the finest gold, and were not to be removed from the The lid of the ark, glistening with gold, was called rings.

the Mercy-seat; and upon its opposite ends were two golden cherubim, fronting each other, with their wings so extended as to cover the Mercy-seat. It was borne from place to place during the journeys of the Israelites, with great solemnity, and deposited in the most sacred places in the
It was finally placed by Solomon in the Holy of tabernacle. Holies, and was supposed to have been lost at the destrucThe idea of the contion of the temple by the Chaldeans. cealment of an ark and its accompanying treasures always prevailed in the Jewish sect. The use of this sacred symbol, and the important moral lessons its discovery inculcates, are exceedingly interesting to Royal Arch Masons.

American degree, sometimes given a preparation for the Royal Arch. The appellation Noachite, by which it is sometimes designated, is improperly The term Noachite belongs to the 21st degree of applied. the old English system, and the 35th of the rite of Misraim. Dr. Oliver conjectures that it was derived from a more ancient degree called the "Ark Mariner," and was of an honorary character
as

ARK AND DOVE. An

92

ARM.

MARINER, ROYAL. This is a speculative degree given in a Royal Arch Chapter. It is founded on the Mosaic account of the deluge, which is explained through questions and answers. This degree, however, is considered modern, and to have first appeared toward the end of the last century.

AEK

ARMS OF FREEMASONRY. The armorial bearings oi the order have undergone some changes in the lapse of ages, varying more or less from the original, in consonance with the country or the times. They are described in several works
on heraldry as follows: " The Company of Masons, being otherwise termed Freemasons of ancient standing, and good reckoning, by means of affable and kind meetings, at divers times did frequent this mutual assembly in the time of King Henry IV., viz: the 12th of
his reign. Their arms, azure on a chevron, between three castles,

argent, a pair of compasses somewhat extended of the first, were granted by William Hawkslow, Clarencieux King of Arms." GUILLAM. The Arms of the Operative or Stone Masons. Azure on a chevron between three castles argent, a pair of compasses somewhat extended of the first. Crest, an arm extended,

ASA AST.

93

grasping a trowel, proper. Supporters, two beavers, proper. DERMOTT. The arms of the Grand Lodge of England, and used by several of the Grand Lodges of this country, are similar to those adopted by Eoyal Arch Masons, which are described as follows: Party per cross vert, voided or; in the first quarter azure, a lion rampant or, for the tribe of Judah in the second or, an ox passant sable, for Ephraim in the third or, a man erect proper, for Reuben; in the fourth Crest, an ark of the covazure, a spread eagle or. for Dan. enant; supporters, two cherubim, all proper: motto, Holiness The banners which adorn the Royal Arch Chapto the Lord. ters of England, representing the twelve tribes of Israel, are as follows: Scarlet, a lion couchaut, for Judah; blue, an asa crouching beneath its burden, for Issachar; purple, a ship, for Zebulon; yellow, a sword, for Simeon; white, a troop of horsemen, for Gad; green, an ox, for Ephraim; flesh-color, a vine, by the side of a wall, for Manasseh; green, a wolf, for Benjamin; purple, a cup, for Asher; blue, a hind, for Naph,

;

tali;

green, an eagle, for Dan.

ASAROTA. A kind of pavement in variegated colors, used by the ancients for floors of temples. ASIATIC SYSTEM, OB BROTHERS OF ASIA. A Masonic sect with somewhat mystical theories, which arose in Germany about the year 1780. It explained somewhat fancifully the There were symbols, rites, and words of Freemasonry.
several degrees, all more or less tinctured with the speculations of the Rosicrucians and hermetic Masonry.

seeker of Masonic light, who has applied ASPIRANT. for admission to the mysteries of the Order, and, having been accepted, is preparing himself for the induction.

A

ASS. An emblem of stupidity and ignorance. In the Egyptian system it represented the uninitiated, ignorant, and profane.

ASSASSINS. A

Mahommedan
religions. for their
less

religion,

daring bravery, but were still nothing more nor than a band of plunderers and cut-throats.

They

secret order of Ishmaelites, professing the and yet at heart repudiating all had a remarkable organization, were noted

ASTROLOGY bears the same relation to astronomy as alchemy does to chemistry. It is the art of reading the future and discovering the destinies of mortals by the stars. Many learned men have been believers in thr art, as Tycho de Brahe and Kepler. It held a high place in the hermetio system of Masonry.

94:

ATE BAH.
the

ATELIER. French
of the degrees, especially in
it is

name

In symbolic Masonry for workshop. Lodge, and also in many of the higher France and Germany. In the French
denotes council, tribunal, consistory,

and Scotch

rites

it

college, court,

and areopagus. ATHERSADA. A Persian word meaning the strong hand.

This name in the Septuagint is given to the Persian governors of Jerusalem who accompanied Zerubbabel and NeheIn the Order of miah. (See Esdr. ii. 63; Neh. vii. 65-70.) Heredom of Kilwinning, it was the appellation of the chief of the Order; and in French Masonry it is the official name of the head of a Chapter. ATHOL MASONS. The seceders from the Grand Lodge " Ancient of England, in 1739, having assumed the title of Masons," and organized a Grand Lodge, elected the Duke of Athol, then Grand Master of Scotland, Grand Master of the new Grand body. Hence they were called Athol Masons.

AZURE.

Sky-blue.

bolic Lodge. blazonry.

A

The appropriate

favorite color in heraldry;

color of the symemployed in

B.

BAAL. A Hebrew

or Canaanitish

name

The Phoenicians or Sidonians who went into Judea to build Solomon's Temple carried with them the mysteries of Baal represented by the sun, and many of the decorations of the temple referred to his system of worship. The sun was a significant symbol of the Tyrian architects, and also of the
Druids, as
ancient.
it is

signifying lord.

now

of the

Masonic Brotherhood.

low rank of knighthood, yet the most does not often appear now except in heraldic It description in connection with knightly or social rank. was originally accounted the first of military dignities, and the foundation of all honors. The word was added to the
It

BACHELOR. A

dignity of knighthood by King Henry III. of England, because the title died with the person to whom it was given, and did not descend to his posterity. It is now conferred

indiscriminately on persons in civil or military stations, and may be granted even to a child as soon as he is baptized.

system of Freemasonry consisting some of the Lodges of Germany by Carl Friedrich Bahrdt, a learned divine, and author of a large number of works on theology, ethics, philology, etc. His system found for a time many adherents, but is
of six degrees, introduced into

BAHRDT'S RITE. A

not

now

practiced.

BAL BAN.
BALDACHIN. The
oriental

95
is

canopy which

placed

over the

the Master's Lodge, and also denotes the covering of the Lodge itself, which is a symbol of the star-decked heavens, and a sign of the unichair in

Pritchard's catechism we meet with the following: "What has " Anthe Lodge for a covering ? "The vaulted skies of swer various colors, or the clouds." It is remarked by Klause that the " sense of this beautiful system of symbols is not well understood. Some think that the primitive Lodge was not covered above, and that the skies
:

versality

of Freemasonry.

In

were

literally its covering; hence the ceiling of a Lodge-room is generally made to represent the celestial planisphere." The Baldachin, in this sense, is also a symbol of the extent of Freemasonry; for as the skies, with their troops of stars, spread over all regions of the earth, so Freemasonry holds in its embrace all the world, and reaches through all time.

BALUSTER. A small column or pilaster. In the higher degrees of the French system, proclamations and decrees are thus named.
row of balusters. Although archseological researches have failed hitherto to discover this architectural invention among the ruins of ancient buildings, "yet it is difficult to conceive that an arrangement of such obvious utility should be wholly unknown to the architects of antiquity.

BALUSTRADE. A

Grand Lodges, and

ribbon worn around the neck of the officers of also of individual Lodges, to which are attached the official jewels. The color of the band differs in different Lodges, but blue is predominant.

BAND. A

BANNER-BEARER.
BANNERET.
in the

In the high degrees of the French
is

and English systems, a Lodge-officer whose duty enough described by the word itself.
3.

well

1. A small banner; 2. a justice of the peace; Knight-Templar system an officer who, together with the Marshal, led all warlike enterprises; 4. in France

96

BAN

BAT.
of

and England the word formerly designated an order knighthood of great dignity. The title is now extinct.

custom of banqueting after Lodge meetvery generally abolished in American Lodges, except upon installation nights, or, on the festivals of the Sts. John, on the 24th June and the 27th of December, when social gatherings of the brethren take place similar to the The brethren are encarnival meetings of other bodies. joined not to convert the hours of recreation and refreshment into that of abuse or intemperance.
ings
is

BANQUET. The
now

BAPHOMET. Among

the charges preferred against the

Order of the Knights of the Temple was that of worshiping an idol or image called Baphomet. The word is probably a corruption of Mahomet, and the image itself, with its mystical embellishments, was without doubt a cabalistic talisman, which the Templars had brought from the East, and which had some connection with the hermetic philosophy of the Arabians. That it was an object of worship among the members of that Order there is not a shadow of proof.

BAREFEET. Putting off the shoes has a threefold signification in Scripture. First, it was usual to put them off in token of mourning and grief, as David is said to have gone from Jerusalem barefoot, when he fled from Absalom. Secondly, it signified the yielding of one's right to another,
and is so prescribed in Deuteronomy, and matured by Boaz; the third, was a token of respect and reverence, as appears by the command of God to Moses, and the reason assigned for it was that the ground whereon he stood was holy, 01 sanctified by God's immediate presence. See DISCALCEATION.

BASILICA. By
justice,

this

name market-houses and

halls oi

erected after the fashion of religious edifices andChristian churches, were called in the middle ages. These buildings were of an oblong rectangular form, with a narrow side suitable for a semicircular niche. Anderson, in his Book of Constitutions, remarks that " Our modern temple las arisen from the Basilica, having the same interior arch."

BATON. staff or truncheon, about two feet long, generally ornamented or gilt at each end, and the middle enveloped in a scroll; it is usually carried in the right hand, and
the distinguishing mark or emblem of authority of Marshals in Masonic and other processions. The badge of a Marshal in a subordinate Lodge is two cross batons, and that of the Marshal in the Grand Lodge two cross batons encircled in a wreath.
is

A

BEA BRA.

97

BEAUSEANT. The name given to the banner which the ancient Knights Templar carried before them to battle. It was divided across the center the upper half being black, and the lower half white, intended to signify that they were fair and favorable to the friends of Christ, but black and The idea is quite an oriental one, terrible to his enemies.
white and black being always used among the Arabs metaphorically, in the sense above indicated. Their customary salutation is, "May your day be white!" i. e., May you be happy! Beauseant was not merely the name of the banner, but it was also the battle-cry and the most sacred oath of the emplars, in
allusion to the seal,

whereon two

brethren were represented as riding on one horse, which was considered by the order as a " fair seat" bien scant that is, as a seal of true fraternal
alliance.

The

seal of this

with the word Beauseant
It

Order was always accompanied both standing in close relationship.

would seem natural, therefore, to refer the word to this token of brotherly love, where two Templars were represented as united in close friendship, and seated on one horse. This device, then, "the fair seat" "beau scant" served as a symbol
of intimate union, the word was adopted as their battle-cry and the name of their banner, and finally it formed an appropriate formula of oath, signifying "By the fraternal bond

of the Temple Order

Beauseant."

BELLS were the most notable ornaments on the robe of " the chief pontiff of the Hebrews. And it shall be unto Aaron to minister, and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in into the Holy Place before the Lord, and when he cometh out, that he die not."
BORDER. The ornaments of a Lodge are said to be the Mosaic pavement, the indented tessel, and blazing star- The indented tessel represents the beautiful border that embellished the outer edges of the Mosaic pavement^ This border
of small stones of various colors, artistically arranged, so as to produce the most pleasing effect.

consisted

BRAHMINS. The members
dostan are thus named.
the

of the priestly caste in

Hinfor foT

most

part,

They are a well educated class, and many among them are distinguished

98

BRA BRE.

In this respect they are superior to many of the learning. missionaries who have been sent there to convert them. They were early celebrated for their attainments in philosophy and science, and their ideas have entered largely into the various philosophical systems of the West.

BRASSART. A piece of armor worn by the Knights Templar, to protect the upper part of the arm, from the elbow to the shoulder.

BREASTPLATE. A splendid piece of ornamental embroidered cloth, of the same material of which the ephod was made, ten inches square, and worn by the Jewish High-

breast, when dressed in full sacerdotal vestfront was set with twelve precious stones, in golden sockets, arranged in four rows, three in each row, on

Priest

on his

ments.

The

BRI BRO.
each of which was engraved the
tribes of Israel.

99

of one of the twelve sardius, red, for Judah; a topaz, pale green, for Issachar; an emerald, green, for Zebulon; on the second row a carbuncle, deep red, for Reuben; a sapphire, deep blue, for Simeon a jasper, green, clouded with white, for Gad; on the third row, a ligure, dull red, for Ephraim; an agate, gray, spotted with different colors, for Manasseh; an amethyst, purple, for Benjamin; on the fourth row a chrysolite, pale green, for Dan; an onyx, bluish white, for Asher; a beryl, bluish green, for Naphtali. The breastplate was double, or composed of two pieces, forming a kind of purse or bag, in which, according to the learned rabbins, the Urirn and Thummim (Light and Truth), were inclosed. It was fastened at the four corners, those at the top to each shoulder, and a golden ring at the end of a wreathed chain; those below, to the girdle of the ephod, by four blue ribbons, two at each corner. This ornament was never to be severed from the priestly garments; and it was called the "Memorial," being designed to remind the priest how dear those

name

On

the

first

row a

;

tribes should be to heart. It was also

him whose names he bore upon his named " the Breastplate of Judgment,

was believed that by it was discovered the judgthe will of God, or because the high-priest who wore it was revered as the fountain of justice, and put it on when he exercised his judicial capacity in matters of great importance, which concerned the whole nation.
because
it

ment and

BRIDGE. In the higher degrees of Freemasonry the Bridge has a Masonic u.->e, and is an important symbol.
KISS. At the close of their meetings the Christians were accustomed to kiss each other; this took place also at the holy evening banquet agape of the community of brothers and sisters. To this practice the Apostles Paul and Peter refer in their epistles: "Greet each other with the holy kiss" "philsmate agio," Rom. xvi., 16, 1 Pet. This holy kiss, as a sign or token of brotherly love, v., 14. is found likewise as a venerable custom in many Lodges, a kiss particularly in Europe, where the Master greets with
first

BROTHERLY

each newly-initiated member.

BRIDGE. A charitable and reliBROTHERS OF gious Brotherhood, which arose in the south of France in the mediaeval age, the members of which devoted themselves to the work of building bridges, roads, hospitals, the maintaining ferries, and otherwise providing for the comfort and protection of travelers and pilgrims. Two bridges, in particular, are mentioned as having been constructed by tkem;

THE

100

BUR

BYL.

that of " Bon-Pas," three miles from Avignon, and the bridge over the Rhone, "Pont-St. -Esprit," in the department ol

Gard, which was commenced Aug. 21, 1265. Pope Clement granted them peculiar favoi's in consideration of their works of mercy and humanity. The peculiar token or jewel of the Order was a pick-axe worn upon the breast. RAMSAY, in a discourse published in Paris, 1741, affirms that this Order united or established relations with the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, and afterward with the Roman builders, and thus establishes a direct connection between them and Freemasonry. Many of the high degrees of the French system have borrowed some of their decorations from the Order of the Brothers of the Bridge.
III.

BURIAL. The right to be conducted to the last restingplace on earth, by his brethren, and to be committed to the grave with the ceremonies of the society, belong alone to Master Masons. Among the old regulations is the following: " No Mason can be interred with the formalities of the Order, unless it be at his own special request, communicated to the Master of the Lodge of which he died a member foreigners and sojourners excepted; nor unless he has been advanced to the third degree of Masonry, from which there
can be no exception."

BURNING- BUSH. In the ceremonies of the Royal Arch degree, the Burning Bush is represented. It was on Mount Horeb that the angel of the
Lord appeared
a
to

Moses

in

burning bush, not one leaf of which was consumed. Here it was that the unutterable name, which was never known or heard of before GOD told it to Moses,

was revealed.

Supreme

Councils of the Ancient and Accepted Rite, date their documents "near the B. B." or " Burning Bush" this being the great source of true Masonic light, and the place whence all Masonic instruction must emanate.

BY-LAWS. The power of framing its own by-laws is inherent in every Subordinate Lodge, provided they are made in accordance with the ancient statutes and regulations of the Grand Lodge. As the validity of by-laws rests ou the authority of the Grand Lodge, it is required that they should first he submitted for approval.

CAA CAB.
C.

101

CAABA. The name of a talismanic and sacred stone, which has been an object of reverence among the Arabians from time immemorial. Previous to the time of Mohammed it was the recipient of divine honors ; but after the remarkable conversion of those idolaters to theism, by the labors of the Prophet, he consecrated it as a symbol of the Eternal Mysteries, and an emblem of the perpetual duration of the truth " that G-od is one and his name one." Many fabulous stories are told of the building in which it is enclosed; but although all relating to its origin are too absurd for belief, yet it is certain that it is a temple of very great antiquity. The Caaba is not an object of worship among the Mohammedans; for
they are more strict and earnest in opposition to idolatry than ever were the ancient Hebrews. It is simply the type of invisible verities and virtues which should be objects of
the profoundest reverence. The pilgrims who visit Mecca march around the mystic stone in procession, and salute it with kisses, and believe that its very touch imparts a divine influence efficacious at the same time curing the diseases of the body and working a moral purification of the heart.

CABAL. From the French Cabale. It means, primarily, a society of men who profess to have a knowledge of secret things. Politically, it signifies a clique of unprincipled poli ticians; and, in the reign of Charles II., was applied to the ministers of that monarch, Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, ArUngton, and Lauderdale, because their initials form the word.
CABIKI. Gods, or deified heroes, held in great esteem by the Phrygians. The secret ceremonies performed in their sacred grottoes were called the mysteries of the Cabiri. Herodotus and Strabo both speak of these rites; and it is probable that most of the mysteries of antiquity were only variations of the Phrygian, which were celebrated in the obscurity of night, and with the most profound secrecy. These rites were spread through all the cities of Syria, and it has been said that Hiram, King of Tyre, was a High-Priest of these mysteries, and through him the leading feature of the Cabirian initiation was incorporated into Masonry, and perpetuated in the legend of the third degree. Many conjecture that the Order of the Essen, or the Essones, grew out of the Cabirian rites.

CABUL. A country in Galilee ceded to Hiram, King ol Tyre, by Solomon, as a reward for his assistance in building the temple. The history of this event is given in the degree of Intimate Secretary of the Ancient and Accepted rite9

1C2

CAL CAN.

almanac a method of marking exactly division of the years, starting from some great epoch. Thus Christian nations reckon their time from the birth of Christ, while those of the Mohammedan faith reckon theirs from the hegira, or, the flight of Mohammed from Mecca. The Masonic era commences with the creation of the woiid
blie

CALENDAR. An

(Anno Mundi),

or,

asonically expressed,

of light, or year of the

Lodge.

Anno Lucis, year Between the creation of the

world and the advent of Christ 4000 years intervene; thus A. D. 1866 added to 4000 gives the Masonic year, 5866. The Bite of Misraim adopts the chronology of Archbishop Usher, which adds 4 years to the common era, and makes 5870 The Scotch rite employs the Jewish the Masonic year. chronology; thus the Hebrew year 5826 is the A. L. of Scotch This rite also adopts the Hebrew manner of Masonry. dividing the year into months, and closes the year Sept. 17, and begins the new on the 17th (Tisri, 1st). The York rite commences the year with Jan. 1; the French with March 1. The Royal Arch degrees begin their computation with the year in which Zerubbabel began to build the second temple, which was 530 years before Christ. So that 530 + 1866=2396, The Royal and Select the Masonic year of the Royal Arch. Master's degree reckons time from the year in which Solomon's Temple was completed, viz: 1000 years before Christ. Thus, 1000 + 1866=2866, the year of the Royal and Select Master. The Knights Templar compute time from the founding of the Order, A. D. 1118; so that A. r. 18661118-= 748 the year of the Order of the Temple. Others (Strict Observance) commence their reckoning from the destruction of the Templars, in 1314; therefore, A. D. 1866 1314=:
552. The following will place these Masonic years directly before the eye: A. D. 1866=A. L. 5866, the common Masonic year; A. D. 1866= A. L. 5870 of the Rite of Misraim; A. D. 1866= A. M. 5826 of the Scottish rite; A. D. 1866= A. i. 2396 of the *loyal Arch; A. D. 1866= A. D. 2866 of the Royal and Select Master; A. D. 1866= A. o. 748 of the Templars; A. D. 1866= o. 552 of the Strict Observance.
..

CALLED,

OK CALLING OFF. This term can have but

application, and denotes the ceremony which summons tho Craft from labor to refreshment. To "call off'" for any ther purpose is neither legal nor Masonic.

CALLED,

OR CALLING

ON.

When

moned to their labors, after the hours of refreshment, summons is designated by the term " calling on."

the brothers are sumthe

CANCELLARIUS. An
nuddie ages.

office in Templar Masonry of the Each Province and Prefect had its Chancel-

CAN -CAP.

103

lor; he conducted the correspondence; was also properly the custodian of the mysteries, and had to instruct the newlyinitiated knights in regard tc their duties.

CANDLESTICK, GOLDEN. The candelabrum which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, after the model shown him on the Mount. The material of which it was made was fine gold, of which an entire talent (about was expended on the candelabrum and its appen$2,000) The mode in which the metal was to be worked is dages. described by a term =_=___ which appears to mean wrought with the hammer, as opposed to cast by fusion. It consisted
of a base;

of a shaft rising out of it; of six

arms, which came out by threes from two
opposite sides of the shaft; of seven lamps

which were supported on the summits of the central shaft and the

CANDLESTICK, ABK AND FURNITURE.

six arms.

The arms were adorned

with three kinds of carved ornaments, called cups, globes and blossoms. Its lamps were supplied with pure olive oil, lighted every evening, and extinguished every morning. It was placed in the Holy Place, on the south side (i. e., to the left of a person entering the tabernacle), opposite the table of shew-bread. In the first temple there were ten candelabra of pure gold, five on the north and five on the south side, within the Holy Place. These were carried away to Babylon. In the second temple there was but one, This was carried, with resembling that of the tabernacle. other spoils, to Rome, on the destruction of Jerusalem; it was lodged in Vespasian's temple to Peace, and copied on the The seven-branched candlestick triumphal arch of Titus. is an indispensable emblem in the Royal Arch degree, also in several of the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted rite.

CAPITULAR DEGREES. The appellation, in France, of certain degrees of the Scotch rite, from the 4th to the 18th,
and which the French rite has contracted to four. These degrees are divided into four series, viz: First series, 4th degree (Scotch rite), Secret Master; 5th, Perfect Master; 6th, Intimate Secretary 7th, Provost and Judge 8th, Intendant of the Building. Second series, 9th degree (Scotch rite), Master Elect of Nine; 191h, Grand Elect ol
inclusive,
;
;

104
Fifteen; llth, Sublime

CAP CAR.
Knight
Elect.

Third

series,

12th

degree (Scotch
of the

rite),
;

Grand Master

Architect; 13th, Knight

Fourth series, 14th, Scotch Elect. Royal Circle 15th degree (Scotch rite), Knight of the East; 16th, Prince of Jerusalem; 17th, Knights of the East and West; 18th, Knight of the Rose Cross.

CAPTAIN-GENERAL.

In a Commandery of Knights

Templar the third officer, and who, in the absence of the Commander and Generalissimo, presides over the same. By
virtue of his office, he is one of the representatives of his Commandery in the Grand Commandery. His station is on the left of the Commander; his jewel, a level surmounted by a cock, emblematic of courage; his duties are to see that everything is properly prepared for the conclave, and to communicate all orders from the Council.

CAPTAIN OF THE HOST. The

fourth officer in a

Chapter of Royal Arch Masons; his station is at the right, in front of the Council; his duty corresponds with that of a Marshal, having charge of the Chapter when in procession; to receive orders from the Council, and see that they are
properly executed. The preservation of the essential traits of the ancient customs, usages, and landmarks of Royal Arch Masonry is entrusted to his charge.

Great Britain, A. r>. 300. A Roman knight, named Albanus, being much interested in the prosperity of the Craft, influenced the Emperor to confer on the Brotherhood peculiar privileges. He granted the Masons a charter, and Albanus became their Grand Master, during whose administration many of their fundamental constitutions were settled, and the ritual revised.

CARAUCIUS. A Roman Emperor who
of

patronized the

Masons

CANEPHOROS. The bearer of the round flat
basket, containing the sacred cake, chaplet, frankincense, and the implements of sacrifice,

usually a young Athenian maiden, who walked in the processions of the Dionysia, Panathenea, and the other public festivals, in which all marriageable women offered small baskets to their favorite deities. The attitude in which they appear in works of art was a favorite one with the ancient artists and familiarly described by classic authors the figure elevates both arms to support the basket carried on the head.
;

CARBONARI, OB COLLIERS. A political society, with a Masonic form, which, for a long time, exercised a powerful

CAB GEN.

105

The date of its origin is unknown. 14 influence in Italy. was inspired with the noblest ideas of liberty and religious freedom, and labored for the regeneration of Italy, the emancipation of the conscience, and the purification of " Historic, d' Botta, in his Italia," says that during religion. the reign of Murat most of the republicans joined the Order, and in one month the society was increased by the addition The essence of tho of over six hundred thousand members. oath of administration was, " Hatred to all tyrants." There were four degrees. The place of meeting was called baracc, e., hut or lodge, the exterior parts were called the icood; the interior was called the vendita or colliery. The conThe federation of all the lodges was called the Republic.
i.

religious
'

character

is

revealed in the following statute:

Every Carbonaro has the natural and inalienable right to worship the Almighty according to his own sense of duty and the dictates of his own conscience. The grand idea of the society has at last triumphed; it has united the Italian No society has States, and given them free institutions. ever existed which succeeded so well in working out its ideal.

CARPET A Kind oi map, on which are pictured the emDlems illustrative of the several degrees of Freemasonry, and by reference to which the neophytes are instructed. They were formerly traced upon the floor, hence the term
carpel

In Germany, a steward or superintendent Masonic buildings. He has charge of the furniture of the " Lodge, and also has the direction of the Agape, or Tableof

CASTELLAN.

lodge."

CENTAINE, ORDRE DE LA. The Order of the Century. An Androgyne system of Masonry, which came into notice, at
Bordeaux,
A. D.

1735.

central force or authority men together. In most the center of unity is a visible material organizations, power. In the Papal Church, it is the hierarchy of Rome. But the Masonic center of unity is not material nor visible. It is an internal principle or sentiment, which dwells in all

CENTER OF UNITY.

The

which keeps a society or order of

all altogether in one harmonious virtue of the omnipotence of this principle the Masonic Order has resisted all attacks from without, and all treachery within, and is more powerful than ever before.
its parts,

and binds them

whole.

By

CENTER.
this

OPENING
is

phrase

ON. The explanation usually given ol not satisfactory. It is too far fetched ami

106
fanciful.

CEP CHA.

A better exposition may be
societies,

found by a reference

to

kindred

and

especially ancient orders that are

now

represented either wholly or in part by Freemasonry. Let it be observed that a Lodge of Entered Apprentices or of Fellow Crafts is never said to be "opened on the center," but only The reason for this is obvious. a Master Mason's Lodge. The Apprentice Lodge is the exterior circle the Fellow-Craft, fche inner circle; the Master Mason's Lodge, the center. While in the first two the truth is but partially revealed, and is seen through a shadowy vail, in the third circle the Master Mason's Lodge the great center of Masonic Light " it shines with cloudless luster. Opening on the center" means opening in the interior or central circle of simply
;

The intelligent Mason is referred to the Freemasonry. Constitution of the Order of Essenes, of the Pythagcveans, and the "Apostolical Constitutions," and "Arcana Disciplina,"of the primitive church.

CEPHAS. A Grseeo-Syriac word, meaning
as petros.

stone

;

the same
it is

In the Masonic degree of Iloyal Master in connection with the cubical stone.

used

SOCIAL. Social Circle. An order which sprang at Paris, in 1790, and endeavored, though happily without effect, to tempt the Masonic Brotherhood to play an important part in the French Revolution. The society published a journal, called " The Mouth of Iron" the object of which was, as it claimed, " to establish a universal confederation of the friends of truth."

CERCLE,

up

CHAMBER OF REFLECTION. A room used in the Temsurrounded with gloomy and somber emblems, to reflect on the solemn responsibilities he is about to assume.
.

plar system; also in the Ancient before initiation, the candidate

and Accepted
is
left,

rite,

where,

CHANCELLOR. The name
Knights of the Red
Crosfi.

of

an

officer in

a Council of

CHAOS, OR CAHOS. The 1st and 2d names of the 49th and 60th degrees of the Rite of Misraim.

CHAPTER,

GENERAL GRAND. This supreme body
officers of

is

com-

posed of the principal

the past officers of the Grand Chapter of the United States was organized in 1798.

Grand Chapters and General Grand Chapter. The General
the State

GRAND. An organization consisting of the the subordinate chapters under its jurisdiction and the past officers of the Grand Chapter.

CHAPTER,

officers of

CHA.

107

OBDEB OF. An Order of Knighthood, by Charles the Thirteenth, King of Sweden, May 27, 1811, as an encouragement and reward for social and benevolent efforts to the advantage of the people, and particularly to those who may need assistance. The order is conferred only on the members of the Masonic Fraternity who have attained to a high rank in the institution in Sweden.
instituted

CHARLES XHL,

In the original statutes instituting the order,
the

King

said:

"To

give to this society (the

Masonic) an evidence of our gracious sentiments toward it, we will and ordain that its first dignitaries, to the number which we may determine, shall in future be decorated with the most intimate proof of our confidence, and which shall be for them a distinctive

mark of the highest dignity." The King of Sweden is the perpetual Grand Master, and the number of knights is limited to 27.
Knights can be installed only on Jan. 28. Carlisle, in his "Account of the Orders of Knighthood," says: "The King, who is always Master of the Order, is bound to wear it, as well as the heir apparent and the Princes of the House oi Sweden, appointed to that dignity by the King. It is also conferred upon thirty native Swedes, being 36 years of age, appointed by the King, of whom three are of the Ecclesiastical Order." The badge is a cross of four points, of ruby red, with a golden border, surmounted by the regal crown. In the center of the obverse, on a white ground, are the initials of the royal founder, viz: the number XLTL, between two C's, intertwined with each other; on the reverse, in a It is. worn pendant to a red watered triangle, the letter B.
ribbon.

CHARTER. In Freemasonry, a document issued by a Grand Lodge, or Chapter, or other grand body, to a certain number of members, empowering them to organize a Lodge or Chapter, etc., and confer degrees. A Lodge can never be opened for labor unless the Charter is present; and it ia
the right of every visiting brother to see the Lodge.
it

before he

ntera

CHASIDEES, CHASIDIM. A class or order of men mentioned in the 1st Book of Maccabees, chap, vii., 13. The Septuagint designates it by the Greek name Assidai. The word means skilled in all wisdom, human or divine. This association was composed of the great and learned men of
Israel,

who were eminent

for their charitable

and peaceful

108

CHL

dispositions ; and their superior knowledge of the law; especially were they distinguished by their ardent zeal for Dr. Oliver sees the purity and preservation of the temple. in this Order a kind of Masonic society, and Scaliger thinks the Chasidim were the predecessors of the Essenes.

CHIEF OF TABERNACLE. The 23d degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. This is the first of a series of three degrees giving a full description of the setting up of the Tabernacle in the wilderness, its form, materials, furniture, etc., the sacerdotal and sacrifical ceremonies performed by the Priests in their worship of the Deity, as described in the instructions delivered to Moses in Exodus xxix and XL. The ceremonies of this degree commemorate the institution of the order of the High-Priesthood in Aaron
his sons Eleazar and Ithamar. Assemblies in this The hangings are white, supdegree are styled Courts. ported by red and black columns, by twos, placed at intervals. The court represents an encampment of the twelve tribes, in the desert, near Sinai. The standards of the tribes, made after the accompanying model, are planted round the room near the walls, in the following order: In the east, that of Judah; the color of the standard being crimson, in stripes or waves; and the device a lion, couchant, between a crown and scepter. Next to Judah, on the side toward the north, that of Issachar color, greenish device, an ass, couchant, beneath its yellow burden. Next to Judah, on the side toward the south, that of Zebulon color, light green device a ship. Next toward the south, that of Simeon; color, yellow; device, a naked sword. In the south, that of Reuben; color, a brilliant Next to Reuben, on crimson; device, a man. the side toward the west, that of Gad; color, bluish-green; device, a field covered with stars. Next toward the west, that of Manasseh; color,
; ; ;
;

THE

and

variegated, like agate; device, a vine running over a wall. In the west,, that of Ephraim color, variegated, like opal; device a bull. Next toward the north that oi Next toward the Benjamin; color violet; device a wolf. north, that of Asher; color, blue; device, a tree in full leaf. In the north, that of Dan; color, that of the gold-stone; Next to device, an eagle, holding a serpent in his benk. Dan, toward the east, that of Naphtali; color, bluish-green;
;

In the center of device, a female deer running at speed. the Court is a representation, reduced in size, of the Tabernacle of Moses, described in Exodus, chapters xxvi and xxxvi. The furniture of the Court consists of an altar of

CHI.
sacrifice; a laver, or large

109

basin of bronze, filled with water; the table of shew-bread; the seven-branched candlestick; an On the altar altar of incense, and the ark of the covenant. of incense are the roll of the Book of the Law and a poniard and on the Book of the Law, the square and compasses. The presiding officer sits in the east, represents The Aaron, and is styled Most Excellent High Priest. Wardens sit in the west, and represent his two sons, Eleazar and Ithamar, and are styled Excellent Priests. The Orator, Secretary and Treasurer sit on the east of the tabernacle, the Master of Ceremonies on the west of it, the Captain of Guards on the south of it, and the Sentinel on the north. The other officers and members sit on the north, south and west of it. All except the three first officers are styled Worthy Levites. Aaron is dressed in full priestly robes. The Wardens wear the same dress, except the breastplate and the miter, instead of which they wear plain turbans of The High-Priest and Wardens do not wear white linen. aprons. The other officers and members wear white aprons lined with scarlet, and bordered with red, blue and purple ribbons. In the middle is painted or embroidered the They also wear a golden candelabrum with seven lights. red leather belt, fringed along the lower edge with gold; from which hangs a small silver censer, or ornamented cup, with a long handle, the end whereof, on which the cup sits, is shaped like an open hand. This is also the form of the jewel of the degree. For receptions an extra apartment is required, with an altar, a feeble light, and other appropriate
;

emblems.
.

CHIVALKY. This word indicates an institution which arose in Europe very soon after Christianity had destroyed the old religions and brought most of the nations under its benignant influence, and seems to owe its existence to several elements. Its military and outward form was derived from the Equestrian Order of ancient Rome. Its system of symbols, and ceremonies, and fraternal bonds was contributed by the Masonic Order, and the spirit of reverence for woman, which it cultivated so earnestly, and illustrated with so many brilliant examples, was derived from the Teutonic and Scandinavian nations. In all countries of the world, except the north of Europe, woman had ever been regarded as a slave. But Tacitus informs us that the Teutons and Northmen held that there was something divine in the female sex, and therefore regarded woman with a luve which approached to reverence. In the worship which thev paid to the goddess Frigga, they expressed their devotion to the sex. Frigga was the type of woman deified and enthroned in tha

j

10

CHR

CLP:

hearts of men. Thus the Romans and Scandinavians, ami Masons, contributed equal parts in the creation of this institution. The Rite of Induction was in the Masonic form and the Order was divided into three circles, corresponding to the These three circles or three degrees of ancient Masonry. degrees were those of Page, Squire, and Knight. The ceremony of reception took place in a room called a chapter, and strongly resembled the Masonic rites. The Knight, at the time of his full investiture, bound himself, by a solemn oath, to protect tne weak, defend the right, love God, and reverence and shield from harm the female sex. The influence of the institution on the manners of society was very salutary. It disenthralled woman; invested her with the charms of romance, and threw around her a drapery of poetic beauty. It elevated love from the character of an instinct to that of a It created the troubadours, and called sublime sentiment. into being, in European society, music and poetry, the most powerful agencies of human civilization. [See KNIGHTHOOD.]
;

Chronos, time, and Logos, a word the science of time, or rather the science The chronology of of computing time and arranging dates. Christians dates from the nativity of Christ Anno Christi. The Romans began their computation, Anno Urbis, from the building of the city. Masons date their documents, Anno Mundi, year of the world, or Anno Lucis, year of light. [See

CHRONOLOGY. From
i.

or discourse,

e.,

CALENDAR.]
piece of land remarkable for the situated between Succoth and Zeredatha, about 35 miles from Jerusalem. The pillars and sacred vessels of the Temple were cast there by Hiram Abiff.

CLAY GROUND. A
its clay;

character of

CLEFTS IN THE ROCKS. The
lem
is

clefts,

country around Jerusamountainous and broken, and abounds in caves and which afford convenient hiding-places for robbers and

assassins;

CLERIC! ORDINIS TEMPLARIORUM. A name adopted
Strict Observance system after the close of the seven years' war. The author of this arrangement was a person by the name of Stark. For a time this new system oi Temple-Masonry flourished and drew to itself considerable attention, but, at length, it fell into disfavor and passed into

by the

obscurity.

CLERMONT, CHAPTER OF. Under this name the Chevalier de Bonne ville founded, in 1754, at Paris, a chapter of the high dogiees.

COG CON.

Ill

COCK. This fowl was considered by the ancients as the companion of Mars. He is a symbol of courage and vigilance. His image is the jewel of the Captain General of a Commandery of Knights Templar.

COLLEGES, IRISH; OK IRISH CHAPTERS. These Chapters were established at Paris about the year 1730, and soon Their object was to spread over the whole of France. propagate a form of the Ancient and Accepted rite; but they were soon superseded by the Scottish Chapters.
COLLOCATIO. Anciently, a ceremony at the funerals of Greeks and Romans, who were accustomed to place the corpse, laid on a bier, near the threshold of the house, that all might see whether he had met his death by violence or not.
In councils or assemblies of the high degrees, this is the common name of the Chief of the Order. The presiding officer of a Commandery of Knights Teuiplar is called Eminent Commander. His official jewel is a passion cross suiTounded by a halo of rays.
assembly of Knights Templar. It nine members, authorized by a dispensation or charter from some competent power to conle^ the degrees of knighthood. The officers are a Commander, Generalissimo, Captain General, Prelate, Senior Warden, Junior Warden, Treasurer, Recorder, StandardBearer, Sword-Bearer, Warder, three Guards, and a Sentinel.

COMMANDER.

COMMANDERY. An

must consist of

at least

COMMANDERY, GRAND. A body of Knights Templar, formed by three or more subordinate Commanderies in a state or province, and which exercises jurisdiction over all
the Councils of the

Red

Cross,

and the Commanderies

of

Knights Templar and Knights of Malta.
assembly. The college of cardinals thus called when assembled, especially for the election of a Pope. The name is also given to a Commandery of
is

CONCLAVE. A secret

Knights Templar, when in session.
OF. Several societies have borne this one that could lay any claim to a Masonic character was the " Order of Concord," or of "United Hosts." This was a fraternity founded on Masonic principles, in 16 J6, by the Prince of Nassau. Prince Swartzburg-Rudolstadt founded another of the same name, which admitted ladiea to membership, in 1718, and in 1759 another arose in Hamburg, where it still flourishes.

CONCORD, ORDER
first

uame, but the

(

112

CON.
Masons are

In Europe, particularly on the continent, in the habit of meeting occasionally for the purpose of consulting together in regard to the These assemblies they call Coninterests of Freemasonry. ferences. In the last century the most important ones were those of Copenhagen, Hamburg, and Mattisholm.
intelligent

CONFERENCE.

CONGRESS, MASONIC. A modern name for assemblies like those described in the preceding article. Congress of Washington, convoked but a sufficient number of Grand in the year 1822, at the call of seve- Lodges did not accede to the proporal Grand Lodges, for the purpose sition to give it efficacy. of recommending the establishment Third Congress of Paris, convoked of a General Grand Lodge of the by order of Prince Murat, in 1855, United States. The effort was an for the of various
unsuccessful one.

purpose effecting reforms in the Masonic system. Congress of Baltimore, convoked At this Congress, ten propositions, in the year 1843, with the object of some of them highly important, establishing a uniform system of were introduced, and their adoption work. Perhaps there was not, in recommended to the Grand Lodges any of the preceding Congresses, a of the world. The meeting has been greater instance of failure than in too recently held to permit us to this, since not a year elapsed before form any opinion as to what will be
the most prominent members of the Congress disagreed as to the nature and extent of the reforms which were instituted; and the Baltimore system of work has already become
its final results.

North American Masonic Congress, convened in the city of Chicago,
Sept. 13, 1859, at the call of a large

number

a myth. Second Congress of Baltimore, convoked in the year 1847, the object being again to attempt the establishment of a General Grand Lodge. This Congress wnt so far as to adopt a "Supreme Grand Lodge Constitution," but its action was not supported by a sufficient number of

Grand Lodges

to

cany it

into effect.

of prominent members of the Fraternity, for the purpose of organizing a General Grand Lodge of the United States. The Convention held two sessions, adopted articles of confederation, which proposed that the Congress should meet triennially; take cognizance of all cases of difference which may have arisen between two or more Lodges consult and advise on qiiestions of
;

law and jurisprudence, in 1853, at Lexington, Ky., for the without power of enforcement of its decrees. No subsequent session was purpose of again making the attempt to form a General Grand Lodge. A held; the project, therefore, failed
plan of constitution was proposed,
of establishing any definite results.

Masonic Congress of Lexington, convoked

CONSECRATION, ELEMENTS OF. Corn, wine, and oil are the materials used by Masons for consecrating purposes. Corn is the symbol of nourishment; wine is the symbol of refreshment, and oil is the symbol of joy. They are also emblematic of peace, health,

and plenty.

CONSECRATION is the act of solemnly dedicating a person or thing to the service of God. It was one of the most widely-spread religious ceremonies of the ancient world. The ceremonies of consecratinga Lodge-room are imposing

CON.

US

of

and necessary, and should be performed before the purposes Freemasonry can be consistently exercised.

CONSERVATOR, GRAND. The name of an Grand Orient of France. He was a counselor Master, and in some cases could restrain his

officer of the

of the Grand This action.

appellation was also given to a triumvirate of three Grand Conservators of the Grand Orient, in 1814, when Joseph Napoleon, then Grand Master, and his adjunct, Prince Carobaceres, were called

away by public

duties.

CONSISTORY. The name
ization of

Masons in the higher degrees, especially Ancient and Accepted rite, and the Rite of Misraim.

given to an assembly or organ of the

CONSOLIDATION LODGES. About the middle of the past century a large number of Scottish Lodges, with alchemistical tendencies, were constituted under this name. One of the most interesting of our Masonic degrees was derived from them.
CONTRACT, SOCIAL, i. e., SOCIAL CONTRACT. A Lodge, 01 rather a union of lodges, for purposes of instruction, founded in Paris about the year 1776. It made a new arrangement of the degrees.

CONVENTION. A Masonic convocation, now called a Congress, was formerly designated by this name. The following are the principal Conventions, mentioned in chronological order: of the labors on the Convention at York. In the year continuation cathedral of Strasburg, and it was 926, Prince Edwin, a brother of concourse of attended by a King Athelstane, of England, con- Masons from large Germany, England, voked a Masonic Convention at the and Italy. It was at this Convencity of York, which, under the name established tion that the German builders and of a General
Assembly,
the celebrated Gothic constitutions, which are the oldest Masonic document extant. These constitutions have always been recognized as containing the fundamental law of Masonry. Although transcripts of these constitutions are known to have been taken in the reign of Richard II., the document was for a long time lost sight of until a copy of it was discovered in the year 1838, in the British Museum, and published by Mr. J. 0. Hailiwell.
First Convention of Strasburg, convoked at Strasburg, in 1275, by

in imitation of their English brethren, assumed the name of Freemasons, and took the obligations of fidelity and obedience to the ancient laws and regulations of
architects,

the Order.
First Convention of Eatisbon, con-

voked in 1459, by Jost Dotzmger, the master of the works of the Strasburg cathedral. It established some new laws for the government of the Fraternity in Germany.
Second Convention of Ratisbon, con-

voked in 1464, by the Grand Lodge
of Strasburg, to define the relative rights of, and to settle existing difficulties between, the

Edwin Von
the

work.

Steiubach, master of The object was the

Grand Lodges

10

CON.
of Strasburg, Cologne, Vicuna, and Berne.
Convention of Spire, convoked in by the Grand Lodge of Strasburg, for the consideration of the condition of the Craft, and of the edifices in course of erection by
1469,

establishment of tb of Scotland.

Grand Lodge

Convention of the Hague, convoked

by the Royal Union Lodge, in 1756 and the result was the establishment of the National Grand Lodge of the
United Provinces.
First Convention of Jena, convoked in 1763, by the Lodge of Strict Observance, under the presidency of Johnson, a Masonic charlatan, but

them.
Convention of Cologne, convoked in 1535, by Hermann, Bishop of Cologne. It was one of the most important conventions ever held, and was attended by delegates from nineteen Grand Lodges; it was engaged in the refutation of slanders at this time circulated against the Fraternity. The result of its deliberations was the celebrated document known as the "Charter of Cologne."

whose real name was Becker. In this Convention the doctrine was first announced that the Freemasons were the successors of the Knights
Templar, a dogma peculiarly characteristic of the rite of Strict Observance.

Second Convention of Jena, con-

Convention of Basle, convoked by the Grand Lodge of Strasburg, in 1563, principally for the purpose of settling certain difficulties which had arisen respecting the rights of the twenty Lodges which were its subordinates. Some new regulations

voked in the following by Johnson, with the

year, 1764, desire of authoritatively establishing his doctrine of the connection between

Templarism

and Masonry.

The

were adopted at this Convention.
Second
Convention

empirical character of Johnson or Becker was here discovered by the celebrated Baron Huude, and he

of Strasburg,

convoked by the Grand Lodge of
It appears to Strasburg, in 1564. have been only a continuation of the preceding one at Basle, and the same matters became the subjects of its consideration.

was denounced, and subseqently punished at Magdeburg by the public

authorities.

Convention of London, convoked by the four Lodges of London, at the Apple-tree tavern, in February, Its history is familiar to all 1717.

Convention of AUenberg, convoked in 1765, as a continuation of the preceding. Its result wra the establishment of the Rite of Strict Observance, and the emotion of Baron Hunde as Grand Master. Convention of Brunswick, convoked in 1775, by Ferdinand Duke of Brunswick. Its object vas to effect a fusion jof the various i.'tes; but it terminated its labors, aft-ra session of six weeks, without success.
1778,

American and English Masons.

Its

results were the formation of the

Grand Lodge

of England, and the organization of the institution upon that system, which has since been pursued in England and in this

Convention of Lyons, convoked in by the Lodge of Chevaliers
Its object ^vas to pro-

country. ChutMitioH of Dublin, convoked by the Lodges of Dublin, in 1730, for the purpose of forming the Grand Lodge of Ireland.
Convention of Blinburgh, convoked in 1736, by the four Lodges of Edinburgh, for the purpose of receiving from Sinclair, of Roslin, his abdication of the hereditary Grand Mastership of Scotland, and for the election of a Grand Master. The result of tliis Convection wan the

btenfaisants.

duce a reform in the ritoals of the Masonic system, but r. does not appear to have been spacious in its means, nor successful in its
results.

Convention of the Lover* of Truth, held at Paris, in 1784, nnder the auspices of the "Lod^e of the United Friends." The Puke of Brunswick, St. Martin, and th* celebrated Mesmer, were active por
j

ticipants in its discussion*.

CON
Convntion of Wvlfenbuttd, convoked in 1778, by 'the Duke of Brunswick, as a continuation of that which had been held in 1775, and with the same view of reforming the
organization of the Order.

COT.
masons

115

How-

ever, after a session of five weeks,
its labors with no it terminated other result than an agreement to call a more extensive meeting at

wew not the successors of the Knights Templar. Conventions at Paris, convoked in 1785 and 1787, with the laudable view of introducing a reform in the rituals and of discussing important points of doctrine and history.
Both Conventions
closed, after sesresult.

sions of several months, without

Wilhelmsbad.
Convention of

producing any practical

Wilhelmsbad, con-

voked in 1782. Its avowed object was the reform of the Masonic system, and its disentanglement from the confused mass of rites with which French and German pretenders or enthusiasts had sought to overwhelm it. Important topics were proposed at its commencement, but none of them were discussed, and the Convention was closed without coming to any other positive determination than that Freemasonry was not connected with Templarism, or in other words,
that, contrary to the doctrine of the rite of Strict Observance, the Freej

the foregoing lists, it wiL be seen that a large number of the Masonic conventions and congresses which have been held were productive of little or no effect. Others of them, however, such, for instance, as those of York, of Cologne, of London, and a few others,

From

have certainly

left their

mark, and

there can, we think, be but little doubt that a general convention of the Masons of the world, meeting with an eye single to the great object of Masonic reform, and guided by a spirit of compromise, might be of incalculable advantage to the interests of the institution at the

present day.

meetings of Chapters of Royal Arch Masons and Councils of Koyal and Select Masters are called Convocations. The term is applied to several of the bodies
of the higher grades.

CONVOCATION. The

CORNUCOPIA, or the HORN OF PLENTY. A source whence, according to the ancient poets, every production of the earth was lavished. In the Masonic system it is the symbol It is the official jewel of the of joy, peace and plenty.
Stewards of the Lodge.

CORRESPONDENCE.
lodges.

Intercommunication between

of attending to this is usually assigned to an officer called Corresponding Secretary. In the Masonic Grand Bodies the subject is in charge of a committee.

The duty

CORYBANTES. Priests who are supposed to have derived their origin from Corybas, who appointed them to perform religious service to his mother, the goddess, Cybele, in the The ceremonies bore a strong island of Crete and Phrygia. resemblance to those of the Cabiri. r
COTYS, MYSTERIES OF. Cotys was a goddess worshiped at Corinth and Chios. Her mysteries were celebrated in the
night.

116

COU CUL.

COUNCIL. An appellation given to assemblies of many ol the higher degrees of Freemasonry, as "Council of Royal and Select Masters; Council of the Trinity," etc.
COUSINS, COLLIER, THE GOOD. An old order which nourished in the western part of France. Their book of laws ritual, and catechism, were a mixture of religious and mystica
ideas.

COVERING.

[See BALDACHIN.]

In the orders of chivalry the recipient of the honor of knighthood is said to be " created." The term is used in the degrees of Red Cross, Knights Templar, and

CREATED.

Knights of Malta.

CREED.
simple.

Articles of faith. The It is belief in a GOD "in

whom we

"Creed "of a Mason is live, and move,

and have our being."

CROSS-LEGGED. The effigies on the tombs of the ancient Knights Templar are always represented with the legs crossed, in allusion to their character as Knights of the
Cross.

Consequently, in the sixteenth century,

when some

Knights Templar in Scotland joined the Masonic Lodge, at Stirling, they were called cross-legged Masons.

CROW. An
stances.

Employed

instrument of iron used to raise heavy subas a symbol in Royal Arch Masonry.

CROWN, PBINCESSES OF THE. A system of Adoptive Masonry which appeared in Saxony, in 1770. It nourished for a short time, and then became extinct.
order which at one period had establishin almost every part of Great Britain and Ireland. Some derive the name from the Latin cultor Dei, a worshiper of GOD. Others, however, think they can trace its origin to the Gaelic kyldee, from cylle, a cell, and dee, a house, that is a building composed of cells. They were much persecuted, and lived in as retired a manner as possible. society of them settled at York, and were found there by King Athelstane on his return from Scotland, in 936. They are described as holy men " viros santce vitce et conversationes ho-

CULDEES. An

ments

A

nestcB dictos adhunc Calideas" Fessler thinks he has discovered a connection between them and the building corporations of Great Britain, and thus brings them into the category oi Ma-sonic societies.

DAC DEA.
D.

117

Priests of Cybelein Phrygia; so-called because they were five in number, thus corresponding with the number To them is of the fingers, from which the name is derived. ascribed the discovery of iron, and the art of working it by means of fire. Their ceremonies were similar to those of the Corybantes and Curetes, other priests of the same goddess iu Phrygia and Crete. Their number appears to have beeu originally three: Celmis (the smelter), Damnameneus (the

DA.CTYLL

hammer), and Acmon (the anvil). Their number was afterward increased to five, ten (male and female), fifty-two, and
one hundred.
Priests of Ceres, who, at the feasts and sacrithat goddess, ran about the temple with lighted torches, delivering them from hand to hand, till they had passed through the whole company.
fices of

DADUCHI.

DAIS. The platform or raised floor in the East, on which the presiding officer is seated. In a Lodge the dais should be reached by three steps; in a Eoyal Arch Chapter by seven
In the constitutional list are two officers Deacon and Junior Deacon. Their duties are a general superintendence over the security of the Lodge;

DEACONS.

known

as Senior

the introduction of distinguished visitors and strangers; assist in the ceremonies of the Order; carry messages about the Lodge, and to see that proper accommodations are afforded to every member. The S. D. should be appointed by the Master, and the J. D. by the Senior Warden, as they are the special messengers of those two officers. There is no knowledge of these officers in Masonry prior to 1777 in this
country,

and

still

more recently

in England.

DEATH. That event in the life of man which marks the transition from the material and visible to the invisible and In point of fact, there is no such thing as spiritual world. death it is simply a progress, or a change in the manner ot existence. The ancients were more earnest believers in
immortality than the moderns.

With them immortality was

a fact which admitted of no doubt; consequently all the literature of the old Pagans deals largely with the awful mysteries of eternity. It invariably represents the future life as a continuation of this.* In the mysteries, and also in
* Dr. Oliver has allowed himself to repeat the assertions of ignorant

and prejudiced minds in his article on this subject. Both of the authors to whom he refers, and from whom he makes quotations, wei-e earnest believers in immortality. These quotations aie garbled extracts.

118

DEB DEM.
It signifies

Freemasonry, death has a symbolical meaning.
the

of stupidity and ignorance and the introduction to a life of virtue, and to the enjoyments of knowledge; in other words, to that higher sphere of intellectual and moral perfection which is the result of those labors and trials which are symbolically represented in the initiation.

end

of a profauo

and

vicious

life

a

life

DEBATE. An exchange of opinions or a war of words. Freemasonry forbids all improper debates in the Lodge, i. e., the discussion of those ideas which divide men into religious and political sects. Seeking the harmony and concord of society it tolerates no practice which would destroy its object. Fraternal debates on literary, scientific, and philosophical subjects are always in order, in a Masonic Lodge, when they tend to the improvement of the brethren.

DECALOGUE. The
livered

ten

commandments

or precepts de-

to Moses on Mount Sinai. They are engraved on two tables of stone, and are important symbols in the ceremonies of the Royal Arch degree.

by God

DECANUS. An honorary officer in the Knights Templar system of Baron Hunde. In the absence of the Grand Master and the Prior, he presided as chief of the Chapter. When a vacancy occurred in the office of Grand Master, he was one of four vicars who governed a province.
DELTA. The name of the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. In form it is a triangle (A), and was considered by the ancient Egyptians a symbol of fire, and also of God. In the Scottish and French systems, and also that of the Knights Templar, the triangle or delta is a symbol of the
Unspeakable Name.
hoMdicraftsman. The name given in the of the Gnostics to the creator or former of the world of sense. He was conceived as the archon or chief of the lowest order of the spirits or aeons of the pleroma; mingling with chaos, he formed in it a corporeal animated

DEMIURGE. A

cosmogony

world.

H

created man, but could impart to

him only

his

principle, the psyche or sensuous soul; therefore the highest, the really good God, added the divine rational soul, or pneuma. But the power of evil in the material body, and the hostile influence of the merely sensuous demiurge, prevented the development of that higher element. The demiurge, holding himself to be the highest God, could not bring his creattires to the knowledge of the true godhead; as the Jehovah of the Jews, he gave them the imperfect law

own weak

DEP

DTO.

110

of Moses, which promised merely a sensuous happiness, and even that not attainable; and against the spirits of the hyle, or world of matter, he sent only a psychical, and therefore

powerless Messiah.

Assemblies composed of depufor the purpose of accomplishing some common object deemed important to the interests of all concerned. These lodges afforded opportunities for intelligent Masons to exchange thoughts, and in the last century were useful in purging the institution of many customs and practices which were foreign to it. The Deputation-Lodge, we believe, is not known in the United States.
tations from

DEPUTATION-LODGES.
several lodges

who meet

DEPUTY. An
represent States he

officer

appointed by the Grand Master to

him
is

In the United in a certain Masonic district. styled District Deputy Grand Master.

DEUS MEUMQUE JUS. God and my Eight. Motto of the Supreme Council 33d degree of the Ancient and Accepted
Scottish
rite.

badge, in heraldry, derived from the old probably so-called because a symbol united with a word or words describes more graphically and forcibly what is desired than any other invention possibly could. A device is, therefore, a painted metaphor, and is used on banners, seals, medals, shields, armorial bearings, etc. Almost every degree in Freemasonry has its device, as Adhuc Slot, Deus Meumque Jus, etc. All knightly orders have their devices that of the French Order of the Star, founded in 1351, was a star with the words: " They show to kings the way to the stars."

DEVICE. A

French word

deviser, to talk, to discourse familiarly;

(French). God wills it. The battle-cry the Crusaders, and, in imitation of them, a common expression in the Knight Templar system.
>f

DIEU LE VEUT

DIGNITAIEES
the
first five

Grand
act of

(French). Dignitaries. In French Lodges call-ed by this name, and in the Lodge the same are styled Grand Dignitaries.
officers are

the Latin dimitto. To permit to go. The withdrawing from membership. The dimission of a Mason from his Lodge does not cancel his Masonic obligations to the Order. He is still subject to the imperative law
once a Mason, always a Mason.

DIMIT. From

DIONYSIAN AKCHITECTS.
also

named Dionysus.

Becoming

Priests of Bacchus, who is skilled io the science oi

120

DIG

DIS.

architecture they founded the order of Sidonian Builders, n considerable period before the time of David, King of Israel From this society which built the Temple of Solomonsprung the Roman Colleges of Architects, and these, in thei. turn, gave birth to the building corporations of the middl ages, from which the present order of Freemasonry is Thus the society of Dionysian Builders is the derived. connecting link between Modern Masonry and the Ancient

Mysteries.

DIONYSIAN MYSTERIES. The ceremonies of this order of mystagogues appear to have been a mixture of the rituals The ritual of of the Egyptian mysteries and the Cabriri. Freemasonry preserves, in its central circle, the leading Hiram and Dionysus, features of the Dionysian institution. or Bacchus, are names, representing and illustrating in The initiation their history and experience, the same ideas.
was a symbolical progress, from the dark, dead, and North to the refulgent East a pilgrimage
"Through darkness
dread, and terrors wild. horrors that appall, f o Bacchus' shrine, where splendors mild Around the accepted fall. "

frigid

And

'

'

The moral teaching of these mysteries of the Mysteries of Isis, which see.

was the same as that

Greek diploo, 1 fold up; literally a It signifies a document signed and sealed, conferring certain rights and privileges on the holder. In Freemasonry this would designate a certificate of membership, and of good standing, issued by a Lodge to its members, to be used by them when traveling among strangers. These documents have been in vogue since 1663, and in some
the
letter folded

DIPLOMA. From

but once.

jurisdictions traveling brothers, who are strangers, are not permitted to visit Lodges, if they are not provided with one. The great body of Masons, however, seem reluctant to make the presentation of a diploma a necessary condition of admission to the Lodge as a visitor

of the of the

OR DAGGER. An attribute of the clothing or costume of the Degree of the elect the 4th degree French rite and of the Knights Kadosch -the 30th degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite.

DIRK,

members

DISCALCEATION. Denuding or making bare the feet as an act of religious reverence. This custom appears to have been universal among ancient nations, and is, at least, as old as the tune of Moses; for it is said, Exod. iii. 5, that the angel of the Lord called to Moses from the burning bush.

DIS.

121

not nigh hither; put off thy shoes from off thy feet; whereon thou standest is holy ground." But among all peoples the custom was observed as an act of reverence and a sign of humility. Even among Christians An Ethiopian bishop, an envoy the practice has prevailed. from the King of Abyssinia to John III., Portugal, is repre" Non datur nobis potestas adeundi templum sented as saying: nudibus pedibus," i. e., " The power or privilege of going nisi into the temple is not given us unless we go with naked
for the place
feet."

"Draw

DISCIPLINA ARCANA. The name
ritual

given to the secret

ciples

and practices of the first Christian Church. The disof Christ had scarcely formed themselves into a

brotherhood, before the instinct of self-preservation compelled them to retire into secrecy, and throw over themselves and The ancient docuall their proceedings the vail of mystery. " ments known as the " Apostolical Constitutions and Canons often speak of the Disciplina Arcana, or secret discipline of the most ancient church. Irenseus, Tertullian, Clemens, Origen, and Gregory, of Nyssa, also furnish abundant proofs that the primitive church was a secret society. Indeed, so well known was this peculiar organization that nearly all ancient writers, Christian or Pagan, have noticed the fact. Lucian of Samosata speaks of Christ as a magician who established new mysteries. Pliny, also, informs us that the Christians were persecuted in the reign of Trajan, not on account of their religion, but as a secret society, under a general law of the empire which prohibited all "secret associations." The arcana of the primitive disciples were comprised in four circles, which the neophyte was required to traverse before he could participate in the most sacred mysteries of the church. The central light of truth shone in its full splendor only on those who had attained to the highest degree. They were styled: 1. Oi pistoi, the Faithful; 2. Photizomenoi, the Enlightened; 3. Memue The 4. Teleioumenoi, the Perfect. menoi, the Initiated terms mustai, and musta gogetoi are often used in this connection, and, in short, all the phraseology which profane writers employ in describing an initiation into their mysteries. Indeed the right of baptism itself has an evident relation, as Cyril of Jerusalem represents, to the initiatory rites of Isis,
;

Eleusis,

Samothrace and Phrygia.*
[See DEPUTY.]
5, et seq, et

DISTRICT DEPUTY.
*

Cyril. Hierosol, Catech, Mystagog, Primitive Christians.

Jamieson, Manners of

122

DOV DUE.

DOVE, KNIGHTS AND LAI/IBS OF THE. A kind of Adoptive or Androgynal Masonry which appeared in France, A. D. 1784.
KNIGHTS OF THE. A degree in Knight-Ternwas popular in Strasburg, Lyons, and Bordeaux from 1766 to 1783. It had a history and a cypher of

DRAGON,

plarism, which

a peculiar character.

order of priests resembling the Brahmins o1 whose principal seat was in Great Britain. The name seems to have been derived from the Greek drus the oak or from derw the Celtic word for the same tree, which they held in the highest reverence, as a symbol of wisdom and strength. They were divided into three castes. 1. Those who were peculiarly priests, and directed the public worship.
India,
3. The vates, 2. The prophets, who foretold future events. holy singers, bards, or poets. According to Julius Csesar,* they were the learned men and philosophers of the Gauls and Celts, and possessed great authority also in the government of the State. The instruction of the people save in the art of war was intrusted to them. Their teachings were often communicated in verse, and had a double sense. They believed in the immortality of man, and the transmigration of souls, and a restoration of all to purity and happiness. Their reverence for the parasitical plant mystletoe amounts almost to worship. At a certain season of the year the Arch-druid ascended the oak, on which it was usually found, and cut it with a golden knife. This was the holiest thing in nature, and a panacea for every disease. Their temples and altars were constructed of unhewn stones, and the former had no roofs or coverings. Their ceremonies were symbolical, which has led some writers, as Lawrie, Preston, Hutchinson, and Oliver,. to see a connection between

DRUIDS. An

them and Freemasonry.

DUE FORM. When a Lodge is constituted, and
installed, or

its officers

any Masonic service

is

performed, such as laying

corner-stones, consecrating halls, by the Grand Master and his officers, it is said to be done in ample form; if by deputies of the Grand Master, it is said to be done in due form.

GUARD. The "due guard" of Masonry teacbeg every brother to set a watch over his words, his acts, and his thoughts, and constantly warns him to remember his solemn obligations, and never to forget the penalty of broken vows
and violated
faith.

DUE

*

C^sar, Bell, GalL

BAG ECL.
E.

EAGLE, KNIGHT
in

OF THE AMERICAN. Texas, and the Western States.

A quasi-military degree

EAGLE, KNIGHT OF THE BLACK. The name of a Prussian Order founded in 1701; also of the 38th degree of the Kite of Misraim, the 66th of the Metropolitan Chapter of France, and of the 27th degree of the Primitive Scotch rite.
EAGLE, KNIGHT
de
la Sincerite.

OF THE RED.

A

title in

the French Ordre

EASTEEN STAR,
in 1778,

system of Freemasonry.

ORDER OF THE. An American adoptive It was introduced into this country

and

since that

time thousands of persons have participated The in its ceremonies. theory of the Order of the Eastern Star is founded upon the Holy Five promiwritings. nent female characters,
as many illustrating Masonic virtues, are

and selected, adopted placed under Masonic
Its obligaprotection. tions are based upon the honor of the female

and framed upon the principles of Equality and Justice. Those who are entitled to receive the degrees are Master Masons, their wives, widows, sisters and daughters. [See
sex,

ADOPTIVE MASONRY.]

ECLECTIC MASONRY. Soon after the convention of Wilhelmsbad, 1782, some German Masons, with the celebrated Baron Knigge at their head, conceived the idea of such a reform in the system of degrees as would confine Freemasonry, in its original and legitimate character, to the three symbolical degrees, governed by the English constitution of 1721, and in this way escape from the tyrannical The usurpations of the Circles of the Strict Observance. Lodges, however, according to this plan, were allowed to select or choose any of the higher degrees, and work them This invention did as a kind of amusement or recreation. not meet with the success anticipated, and has nearly disappear 1. It was never introduced into the United Statea

124

ECO EGY.

(French), Scotch. A term applied to the Anand Accepted rite, and the name of the fifth degree of the French system. This system has a very curious history, and at different times has promulgated nearly a hundred degrees, and through their agency all sorts of ideas and theories of a mystical character were propagated by their The apocryphal degrees, however, have gradually inventors. been discarded.

ECOSSAIS

cient

MYSTERIES. According to Herodotus, the secret institution of Isis, with its wonderful mysteries and
imposing ceremonies, made its appearance simultaneously with the organization of Egyptian society and the birth of Egyptian civilization. At first the initiation into these mysteries was, probably, simply a mystic drama, representing the progress of man, from a barbarous to a civilized state,

EGYPTIAN

and his advancement and struggles through gloom and toil, toward the supreme perfection, whether in time or eternity. This is seen in the hieroglyphical representation of the judgment of Amenti. It is a picture of an ordeal or scrutiny to which the candidate was subjected preparatory to initiation. The ceremony of initiation itself was a progress through gloom and terror, and all possible mortal horrors, to scenes of indescribable beauty and glory. The principal seat of the mysteries was at Memphis. They were of two kinds the former taught by the the Greater and the Less
;

and Serapis, the latter by those of Isis. The candidate was required to furnish proofs of a pure and moral life as an evidence that he was fitted for admission or enrollment. When these conditions were fulfilled, he was required to spend a week in solitude and meditation, abstain from all unchaste acts, confine himself tc a light diet, and to purify the body by frequent ablutions and severe mortifications of the flesh. Being thus prepared, the candidate was ordered to enter the pyramid during the night, where he had to descend on his hands and knees through a narrow
priests of

Osiris

passage \rithout steps, until he reached a cave-like opening, through which he had to crawl to another subterranean cave, on the walls of which he found inscribed the following words: "The mortal who shall travel over this road alone, without hesitating or looking behind, shall be purified by fire, by water and by air, and if he can surmount the fear of death he shall emerge from the bosom of the earth; he shall
revisit the light, and claim the right of preparing his soul for the reception of the mysteries of the great goddess Isis."

At the same time three priests, disguised in masks resembling the neads of jackals, and armed with swords, sought to frighten him, first by their appearance and noise, and after-

EGY.

127

ward by enumerating the dangers that waited him on his If his courage did not fail him here, he was pei Tiis Avas a large mitted to pass on to the Hall of Fire. apartment lined with burning stuffs, and whose floor was a grate painted flame color; the bars of this grate were so narrow that they offered scarcely room enough for him to croos. Through this hall he was obliged to pass with the greatest speed to avoid the effects of the flames and heat. Having overcome this difficulty, he next encountered a wide channel fed from the waters of the Nile. Over this stream he had to swim, with a small lamp, which furnished all the On reaching the opposite side, light that was afforded him. he found a narrow passage leading to a landing place about six feet square, the floor of which was made movable by mechanism underneath. On each side were walls of rough In front stone, and behind wheels of metal were fixed. was a gate of ivory, opening inward, and preventing any farther advance. On attempting to turn two large rings annexed to the door, in hopes of continuing his journey, the wheels came into motion, producing a most terrific and stunning effect, and the floor gave way, leaving him suspended by the arms over apparently a deep abyss, from which proceeded a violent and piercing current of cold air, so that the lamp was extinguished, and he remained in comjourney.

In this process of trial, it will be observed plete darkness. that the candidate was exposed to the action of the four great purifying elements Earth, Fire, Water and Air. After the risk of falling into an unknown depth had continued for a moment or two, the floor resumed its original position, the
wheels ceased to revolve, and the door of ivory flew open, disclosing the sanctuary of Isis, illuminated with a blaze of light, where the priests of that goddess were assembled drawn up in two ranks, clothed in ceremonial dresses, and 'caring the mysterious symbols of the Order, singing hymns iu praise of their divinity, who welcomed and congratulated him on his courage and escape from the dangers which had surrounded him. The entrance to the sanctuary was constructed in the pedestal of the triple statue of Isis, Osiris and Horus; and the walls were ornamented with various allegorical figures, symbols of the Egyptian mysteries, among
i

which were particularly prominent: 1. A serpent throwing an egg out of its mouth; a symbol of the production of all 2. A serpent curled up in things by the heat of the sun. the form of a circle, holding its tail in its mouth; an allusion

and to the uninterrupted revolution of the sun. The double tau, which is meant to represent the active and passive power of nature in the generation of all thinga
to

eternity,

3.

128

EGY.

There he was made to kneel before an altar, and required pronounce the following solemn obligation: "I swear never to reveal to any uninitiated person the things that I have seen in this sanctuary, nor any of the mysteries which have been or shall be communicated to me. I call ou all the deities of earth, of heaven, and of the infernal
to

regions, to be witnesses of this oath;

and I

trust that their

should I ever become a villain so base and perjured." He was then retained for several months in the temple, where moral trials of different kinds awaited him. The object of this was to bring out all

vengeance

will

fall

on

my head

the traits of his character, and to test his fitness for his After he had passed through this trial, then came what was called his Manifestation. This consisted of a number of ceremonies, of which the novice was the subject He was dedicated to during the space of twelve days. Osiris, Isis and Horus, and decorated with the twelve consecrated scarfs (stolen) and the Olympic cloak. These scarfs were embroidered with the signs of the Zodiac, and the cloak with figures that were symbolic of the starry heavens as the abode of the gods and happy spirits. A crown of palm leaves was placed upon his head, and a burning torch in his hand. Thus prepared, he was again led to the altar, where he renewed his oath. Now came the time when he had a right to appear as victor before the people, and to this end they prepared for him a solemn procession, called the Triumphal March of the Initiated, which was proclaimed by heralds in every quarter of the city. On the morning of the day appointed for the ceremony, the priests assembled in the temple, when the most precious treasures belonging to the sanctuary were displayed, and repaired to the chapel of Isis to bring a sacrifice to the goddess, covered with a vail of white silk, and embroidered with golden hieroglyphics, and this again concealed beneath a black gauze. After the sacrifice, the procession left the temple and moved First in the train came an image of Isis seated westward. upon a triumphal car drawn by six white horses, next to which walked the priests in the order of their rank, dressed in their most gorgeous attire, and carrying the sacred oymbols, the utensils of the temple, the books of Thot, and tlie sacred tablet of Isis, which was a silver plate with the hieroglyphics that referred to the mysteries of this goddess engraved on it. The priests were followed by all the native and foreign adepts, dressed in white linen garments. The no \vly-initiated walked in their midst, distinguished l>y a white vail which extended from his head down to his All the houses of the streets through which the shoulders.
vocation.

"

procession passed were decorated as

oil

festal

occasions.

Flowers and perfumes were everywhere thrown over the person of the novice, and his arrival greeted with shouts of After his return to the temple, he was placed rejoicing. upon an elevated throne, before which immediately afterward u curtain descended. While the priests chanted during the interval hymns in favor of the goddess, he divested himself of his holiday suit, and assumed the white linen garb which The curtain was now again he was henceforth to wear.

and the renewed shouts of the spectators greeted him an adept. The ceremonies concluded Avith a festival, which lasted three days, during which the newly-made At a subsequent brother occupied the seat of honor. period the Mysteries were augmented by the introduction of The ceremony consisted of funereal the tragedy of Osiris. rites, expressive of the wildest grief on account of his death; a search for his body, which is at last found, the return of Osiris to life, and the destruction of Typhon, his assassin. Osiris was the symbol of truth or goodness; Typhon of error or evil the murder of Osiris signified the temporary subjugation of virtue, and his resurrection the ultimate This was the parent of all those triumph of the good. Grecian rites which represent a death and a resurrection, and whose principal features are perpetuated in the legend These Mysteries exercised a of the Sidonian builders. They gave powerful influence over the Egyptian mind. unity to the Egyptian character, consistency to their religious establishments, stability to their political institutions, and
raised,

as

/

vigor

and directness

in the pursuits of philosophy, science

and

art.

ELECT OF PERIGNAN. A degree of the French rite, nearly identical witli the degrees Elected Knights ol Nine, and Illustrious Elected of Fifteen, in the Ancient and
Accepted
rite.

ELECT OF TRUTH, OK LODGE
name given

OF PERFECT UNION, \vas the

to a rite adopted in the Lodge Perfect Union, al Rennes, in France, about 1779, and for a time extended to The object of the system was to throw aside other cities. the Templar degrees, and everything that related to magic, alchemy and the cabala. It was divided into three classes, which contained fourteen degrees; the first class comprising the Entered Apprentice, Fellow-Craft, Master and Perfect Master; the second, the Elect of Nine, Elect of Fifteen, Master
Elect,

Minor Architect, Second Architect, Grand Architect, Knight of the East, Rose Croix; and the third class, Knighi Adept and Elect of Truth. Tins rite has ceased to exist,.

ISO

ELK.

tLe

~En

and il and he ;pitahty
"Pries\

The name of the fifth degree of the Order ol stern Star. She was a lady of high repute in Judea, ustratos the Masonic characteristics of bevevolence
in the

American Adoptive

rite.

The Rite of "Elected Cohens," or was founded some time between 1754 and 1700 by Mar inez Paschalis, by whom it was introduced into the Lodges *f Bordeaux, Marseilles and Toulouse. Of its principles v\ ry little is known, but it is said to have been divided into twi classes; in the first of which was represented the fail of n.an from virtue and happiness, and in the second his
;,"

ELEOTED COHENS.

final

restoration. It consisted of nine degrees: Entered Apprentice, Fellow-Craft, Master Mason, Grand Elect, Apprentice Cohen, Fellow-Craft Cohen, Master Cohen, Grand Clavel tells us this rite Architect, and Knight Commander. was rather popular among the litterateurs of Paris for a short time, bnt it has now ceased to exist.

ELEC1ED KNIGHTS OF NINE.
'

Called by the French

The body is termed a Chapter. J he presiding officer represents King Solomon, and is styled " Thrice Illustrious." ^The room represents the audience chamber of King Solomon; it is illuminated by nine lights of yellow wax. The apron is of white lambskin, spotted with red, and lined and bordered with black. On the flap ia painted or embroidered au arm holding a dagger; and in the middle of the apron an arm holding a bloody head by the Lair. The sash is a broad black watered ribbon, worn from
Master Elect of Nine."

JUDGMENT HALL.
F.r.K(TKt)

KNIGHTS OF NINE.

ELE.

183

At the lower end of this the right shoulder to the left hip. are the nine i-ed rosettes, four on each side and one at the bottom; and from the end of the sash hangs the jewel, which The object is a dagger, its hilt of gold, and its blade of silver. of this degree is to exhibit the mode in which a certain workman, who, in order prematurely and improperly to obtain the knowledge of a superior degree, engaged in an execrable deed of villainy, received his punishment. It exemplifies the truth of the maxim that the punishment of crime, though
is ever sure; and it admonishes us, by tbo historical circumstances on which it is founded, of the binding nature of our Masonic obligation. The symbolic colors in the regalia are white, red, and black; the white being emblematic of the purity of the Knights, the red of the

sometimes slow,

atrocious crime committed, and the black of grief for its results. In the French rite this is the 4th degree it requires three chambers, and in some respects has similitude to the llth degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite, being also preparatory to the degree of Sublime Knight Elect.
;

A. An island, called by the natives Gharipoor, situated between the west coast of Hindostan and Bombay. It is celebrated for its wonderful cave, and Hindoo mythoThe largest of the excavations on this logical inscriptions. island is nearly square, measuring 133 by 132 feet and
;

ELEPHANT

immediately fronting its main entrance stands a bust or third-length of a three-headed deity, with a height of 18 feet, and a breadth of 23. It was the seat of the ancient mysteries
of India.

ELEUSINIA. The name by which the
*

rites

and ceremonies

originally celebrated at Eleusis were known, and by way of eminence called "The Mysteries."* These, like the Egyptian

Amidst all the institutions which have been denominated Mysteries, those of Eleusis hold the highest rank, erpally imposing from their origin and their results: they alone appear in relation withfhe primitive source of religious ideas, and alone formed the mysticism of polytheism Never did the ancients by the name of mysteries so thoroughly under stand any other than the Eleusiuian. The others, with a few exceptions were nothing more, originally, than the mysterious practices of selfish and interested persons, the object of whose mission was accomplished in the deception of a confiding and credulous people. The mysteries of Eleusis hrtd alone, and within its own organization, attained the object of every All Greece hastened to be initiated; and gi eat religious association. Plato, who had penetrated into the secrets of the sanctuary, did not "The knowledge of nature." says Bpeak of them without admiration. St. Clemens of Alexandria, "is taught in the Gi-eat Mysteries." If it were possible to lift the vail which covers the mysteries of Eleusis, we should possess a key to the mysteries of Egypt and of the E.tst; a clue; which, having once been lound, would lead on to the last moments of The time when the mysteries of Elsusis were |M)lytheism.

134:

ELE.

mysteries, were of two kinds the lesser and the greater which were also esoteric and exoteric* held at different periods of the year, and at different places; the lesser, which was introductory to the greater, being celebrated at Agrse, on the banks of the Ilyssus; the greater at Eleusis, a town of Attica in Greece. They were subsequently extended into
Tertullian attriis equally uncertain as the name of their founder. butes them to Musteus; St. Epiphany to Cadmus and Inachus; whik> t'lemens of Alexandria informs us, that the mysteries were traced to an Some declare that one Eumolpus waF the Egyptian named Melauipus. (bander and first Hierophaut of the mysteries; and others believe that Orpheus introduced them from Egypt into Greece. The writers, however, most worthy of credit, ascribe to Ceres herself the foundation of We shall not here repeat the different fables the Eleusiuian mysteries. that have been told concerning the manner in which Ceres established these mysteries. By attributing them to the goddess or to Earth, tho epoch of their foundation was removed beyond the bounds of history, and the impossibility of ascertaining it was acknowledged. An uncertainty still more great hangs over the year of their institution; those who have discussed this subject offering various opinions--, all equally deficient in proofs and even in the appearance of probability. Memers and Dupuis have already shown that this research is no less frivolous than useless. In support of the assertion here made, we shall observe, that the lesser mysteries having undoubtedly preceded the great, he epoch of their true development should be that of the organization of the
I

Grecian republics. It is, therefore, infinitely more interesting to study We may remark the mysteries in their maturity than in their infancy. also, that however remote the date of their transmigration from Egypt, however symbolical the name of Ceres, the mysteries must have been anterior to the epoch which has been assigned for their foundation, if we consent to place the germ of them in the festivals and popular practices of those who first inhabited Greece, and who, like them, had issued from the East. The religion of the Greeks was not formed without succes^ive acquisitions; and of their worship and of their ceremonies much had been transmitted to them by the Egyptians. The mysteries of Ceres, according to Lactantius, very strongly resemble those of Isis. The Attic Ceres is the same as the Egyptian Isis, who, in the time of Herodotus, was the only divinity in Egypt honored by the celebration From these, therefore, we may partly derive the mysteries of mysteries. of Ceres but this depository of ideas can have developed itself but slowly; and it was late in assuming those mystic forms which always announce a maturity of thought. In this we clearly see the ordinary progress of the human mind, that departs from the idea of infinitude, aud ranges through an immense space ere it resumes its station before this s.ime idea, which seems to embrace the two extremities of its career. OUVAROFF, Essay on the Mysteries of Keusis.
:

'I he mysteries of Eleusis were divided, like the philosophy of the ancients, into two parts; the one esoteric, the other exoteric; aud these two parts were the greater and the lesser mysteries. It is generally allowed that the lesser were the more ancient, and this progression is consistent with the nature of things. M. de St. Croix, supported by It Aleursius, regards the lesser mysteries as preparatory ceremonies. is, however, more probable that the greater and lesser mysteries were distinct. Some writers contend that the lesser mysteries wera absolutely celebrated annually and the greater once in five years. On this poin*.

*

though, there

is

no absolute authentic information.

ELE.
Italy

155

and oven to Britain.* These mysteries were instituted honor of Cores and Proserpine, and commemorated the search of Ceres after her daughter Proserpine, who had been
iu

CEBES, TiiiFroLEMtis, (on the car of CERES,) PROSERPINE AND CYBELJS. From an ancient Etruscan vase.

forcibly carried by Pluto to the infernal regions. The exoteric celebration of the greater mysteries occupied nine days, chiefly devoted to sacrifices, processions and other acts of worship; and during this period the judicial tribunals were closed; an armistice was proclaimed; private enmities were hushed; and death was decreed by the Athenian senate against any one, .high soever in rank, who should disturb the sanctity of the rites. The esoteric ceremonies of initiation into both the lesser and greater mysteries were conducted by four priests of the most illustrious families of Greece, called the Hierophant or Mystagogne, who wore the emblems of the supreme deity; the Daduchus, or Torch-bearer, who was a type of the sun the Hiero-Ceryx, or Sacred Herald, who enjoined silence on (hose who were candidates for initiation, and commanded the profane to withdraw; the Altar-Minister, who attended at the altar, and bore the symbol of the moon; Basileus, IT kiug, who judged and punished those who disturbed the
;

* The mysteries of Eleusis, celebrated at Athens in honor of Ceres, swallowed up, as it were all the others. All the neighboring nations neg'ected their own, to celebrate those of Eleusis; and in a little while all Greece and Asia Minor were filled with the initiates. They spread into the Roman Empire, and even beyond its limits, "those holy and Eleusiniau Mysteries," said Cicero, "in which the people of the august remotest lands are initiated." Zosimus says that they embraced the whole human race, and Aristides termed them the common temple ot. the wh-il world. PIKE, Gnosticism und My.-iteriex.

136

LLE.

Besides these leading ministers there was a solemnities. multitude of inferior priests and servants. Priestesses were The examinalso mentioned in connection with these rites. ation of those who had been purified by the lesser mysteries, and who were preparing for the greater, was exceedingly All foreigners, all who had even involuntarily rigorous.

committed homicide, all who had been declared infamous by the laws, or had been guilty of a notorious crime, were excluded. Women and children were admissible; and a child, " Child of Holiness," whose innocence, it was styled the
believed, of itself endowed him with capacity to fulfill the requirements of the mysteries, was selected to conciliate the deity in the name of the initiated. The ceremonies of Into this branch of admission were performed at night. the mysteries the qualifications for initiation were maturity of age, perfectness in physical conformation, and purity of conduct.* The postulant was held under a solemn obligation to conceal whatever he saw or heard within the hallowed precincts; and he who violated the obligation was not only put to death, but devoted to the execration of all posterity. Crowned with myrtle, and enveloped in robes, which from this day were preserved as sacred relics, the neophyte was conducted beyond the boundary impassable to the rest of men. Lest any should be introduced not sufficiently pre-

pared for the rites, the Herald proclaimed, Far from hence the profane, the impious, att who are polluted by sin !" If any .such were present, and did not instantly depart, death was
the never-failing doom. The skins of new-slain victims were now placed under the feet of the novice; be was thus duly prepared, and amid the singing of hymns in honor of Ceres, he passed on, when soon the whole scene changed; utter darkness surrounded him a low deep sound rose from the earth; the lightning flashed, mighty winds were heard, terrific thunder broke forth, and specters glided through the vast obscurity, moaning, sighing and groaning. Mysterious shades, the messengers of the infernal deities- flitted Anguish, Madness, Famine, Disease, and Death uround; and the explanations of the Hierophant, delivered in a solemn voice, added to the horrors of the scene. This was intended as a representation of the infernal regions, where misery had its seat. As they advanced, amidst the groans which issued from the darkness were distinguished
;

"

* Purity of morals and elevation of soul were required of the initiates. Candidates were required to be of spotless reputation and irreproachable virtue. Nero, after murdering his mother, did not dare to be present at tiic celebration of the mysteries; and Antony presented himself to be initiated, as the most infallible mode of proving his innocence of the death of Avidiiis Cassias. PIKE, Gnosticism and Mysteries.

ELE KLU.

137

those of the suicides thus punished for cowardly deserting the post which the gods had assigned them in this world. But the scene which the novice had heretofore beheld seemed to be a sort of purgatory, where penal fires and dire anguish, and the unutterable horrors of darkness, were believed, after countless ages of suffering, to purify from the guilt acquired in this mortal life. Suddenly the bursting open of two vast gates, with a terrific sound, dimly displayed to his sight, and faintly bore to his ears, the torments of those whose state was everlasting who had passed the bounds beyond which there is no hope. On the horrors of this abode of anguish and despair a curtain may be dropped; the subject is unutterable. Onward proceeded the novice, and was soon conducted into another region; that of everlasting bliss, the sojourn of the just of those who had been purified and whose minds had been enlightened by "the Holy Doctrine."* This was ELYSIUM the joys of which were equaUy unutterable, equally incomprehensible, to mortals not admitted into Here a vail was in like manner thrown these mysteries. These over this scene, and the ceremonies were closed. rites inculcated the doctrine of one God, and the dignity and destiny of the human soul; they instructed the people in the knowledge of nature and of the universe, and taught them to see the presence of the Eternal in the splendor and beauty of the natural world. It is evident that these mysteries constituted the great educational institution of ancient Greece. They formed the Grecian mind, and led in the Nearly all ancient writers development of Grecian ideas.

speak of their eminent utility and salutary influence. Arrien, Pausanias, Euripedes and Cicero, unite their testimony in their favor, and speak of them as peculiarly calculated to " reform the manners, and perfect the education of mankind."
festival celebrated at Platsea, in honor of Jupiter Eleutherius, or the asserter of liberty, by delegates from almost all the cities of Greece. There was also a festival of the same name observed by the Samiaus, in

ELEUTHEKIA. A

honor of the god of love. Slaves also, when they obtained their liberty, kept a holiday, which they called Eleutharia.

ELU. A French

participle, signifying "elected."
its

It is the

4th degree in the French rite, and resembles in the degree of " Maitre elu des neufs."
*

teachings

The Holy Doctrine

is

held by

all

the mystic ceremonies of tha

ancients, not only to purify the heart from sin, and expel ignorance from the mind, but to insure also the favor of the gods, and to open the gatofl of immortal felicity to the initiated.

12

138

BMP

EPH.
order

EMPERORS OF THE EAST AND WEST. An

calling itself a "Council of Emperors of the East and West" was instituted in Paris, A. D. 1758. Its adepts styled themselves "Sovereign Prince Masons Substitutes General of

Grand Superintendents and Officers of the Grand and Sovereign Lodge of St. John of Jerusalem." The rito consisted of 25 degrees, the first 19 of which were the same as those of the Scottish rite. The 20th was named Grand Patriarch Noachite; the 21st, Key of Masonry; 22d, Prince of Lebanon 23d, Knight of the Sun 24th, Kadosh 25th, Prince of the Royal Secret. This rite had some success, and was propagated in Germany, particularly in Prussia, and was accepted by the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes. The assumption that Frederick II. King of Prussia, ever
the Royal Art
; ;

;

,

had any connection with intelligent Mason.

it

will

not be acknowledged by the

GRAND. The Grand Encampment of the United States was organized on the 22d of June, 1816. It
consists of a Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master, Grand Generalissimo, Grand Captain General, Grand Prelate, Senior Grand Warden, Junior Grand Warden, Grand Treasurer, Grand Recorder, Grand Standard-Bearer, Grand SwordBearer, Grand Warder, Grand Captain of the Guards; all Past Grand Masters; all Past Deputy Grand Masters all Past Grand Generalissimos, and all Past Grand Captains General of the Grand Encampmen-t of the United States. Likewise,
;

ENCAMPMENT. ENCAMPMENT, ENCAMPMENT,

[See COMMANDER?.] GRAND. [See COMMANDERY, GRAND.]

all Grand Commanders, Past Grand Commanders, Deputy Grand Commanders, Grand Generalissimos, and all Grand Captains General of each State Grand Commandery that acknowledges the jurisdiction of the United States Grand Encampment. Also, the first three officers of each Cominandery that holds its charter immediately from the Grand Encampment of the United States. No person shall be eligible to any office in the Grand Encampment of the United States, unless he shall be at the time a member oi some subordinate Commandery under the general or immediate jurisdiction of the Grand Encampment of the United

States.

Tuesday

Its conclaves are held triennially, on the second of September, at such place as may have been

previously designated.

EPHOD. A vestment worn by the Jewish high-priest over It was without sleeves, and open the tunic and the robe. below the arms on each side, consisting of two pieces, one oi

EPO

ESP.

139

A girdle or band, of one piece with the ephod, fastened it round the body. Just above this girdle, in the middle of the ephod, and joined to it bj golden chains, rings, and strings, rested the square oracular breastplate, originally intended to be worn by fhe high-priest exclusively. Ephods of an inferior material were in use among the ordinary priests. Even David, when bringing the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem, was "girt with a linen ephod." The Jews had a peculiar superstitious regard for this garment, and employed it in connection with idolatrous worship, and held that no worship, true or false, could subsist without
liueu, with rich embroidery.
its

which covered the front of the body and the other the back, and reaching down to the middle of the thighs. They were joined together on the shoulders by golden buckles set with gems, and two large precious stones set in gold, on which were engraved the names of the twelve tribes of Israel, six The material of on each stone, according to their order. which the ephod was wrought was extremely costly and magnificent gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined
;

presence.

EPOPTJE. A Greek word, formed from epi and apiamai. I see, or rather, look upon. It was the name given to those who were initiated into the greater mysteries of Eleusis, to distinguish them from the mustce disciples who had only
It signifies the "spectators been received into the lesser. of the mysteries," or the illuminated. Epopt was also used by the lUuminati, to distinguish the members of the sixth

degree.

EQUES. Latin for Knight. In the system of Strict Observance, established in Germany, in 1754, by Baron von Hund, it designated all the members of the sixth degree. On being invested with the honor of knighthood the^ received an order-name, an escutcheon, and a device.
ESOTERIC. Greek, EsoUrikos. That which is secret, revealed only to the initiated. In the secret societies of the an ci ants,' the doctrines were divided into the esoteric and vxoteric; the former for the initiated, who were permitted to look upon the most sacred mysteries of the arcana; and the latter for the uninitiated, who remained in the outer court
the
of organized in

(French).. Lodges of Hope. Under Knights and Ladies of Hope, an order was France early in the last century, and established Lodges bearing this title. This was the commencement of tbat system now known as Adoptive Masonry (q. v. ).

ESPERANCE-LOGES
name

140

ESC,;

EST.

ESQUIRE.
good

Anciently the person that attended a Knight

in time of war, and carried his shield. In the days of chivalry this title was honorable, and generally borne by persons oi

Heads of ancient families were considered family. esquires by prescription; and hence originated the use of the word, in the present day, as a common addition to the names It is a title of all those who live in the rank of gentlemen. in the English Knights Templar system.

HADASSAH. A damsel of the tribe Benjamin, born during the exile, and whose family did not avail itself of the permission to return to Jerusalem, The reigning king of Persia, under the edict of Cyrus. Ahasuerus, having divorced his former queen, Vashti, search

ESTHER, Hebrew name

of

was made throughout the empire for the most beautiful maiden to be her successor. The choice fell on Esther, who found favor in the eyes of the king, and was advanced to the Her Jewish origin was perhaps at the station of queen. time unknown; when she avowed it to the king, she seemed to be included in the doom of extirpation which a royal edict had pronounced against all the Jews in the empire.
This circumstance enabled her to turn the royal indignation upon Haman, the chief minister of the king, whose resentment against Mordecai had led him to obtain from the king this monstrous edict. The laws of the empii-e would not allow the king to recall a decree once uttered; but the Jewa were authorized to stand on their defense; and this, with the known change in the intentions of the court, averted the

EUN
fearful

FEL.
The Jews

,

141

established a of this deliverance, Such is the which is observed among them to this day. substance of the nistory of Esther, as related in the book which bears her name. Esther is also the title of the third degree of the order of the Eastern Star, which illustrates the Masonic characteristic of fidelity to kindred and friends in the American Adoptive rite.

Consequences of the decree.

yearly feast called PURIM, in

memory

EUNUCH. The

emasculation produces in men is of a most marked character. The whole nature is degraded. The affections are blunted,

physical and moral deterioration which

generous dispositions are destroyed, the intellect is impaired, and the man is entirely incapacitated for performing any deeds which require a high and magnanimous disposition. For this reason they were excluded by the Jewish law from " the congregation of the Lord," and for this reason cannot be received into the Masonic brotherhood.

EXPERT. The name of an officer in French Lodges, who The superintends the examination of visiting brothers. office is not known in the United States. Strangers seeking admission to the Lodge are usually examined by a committee of brothers appointed by the Master.
P.

FAMILY-LODGES.
peculiar to

The same

as Conference-lodges

Germany.
of priests at

FECIALES. A number

declaring war and making peace.

the Romans thought themselves injured, one of the sacerdotal body was empowered to demand redress, and, after the allowance of thirty-three days to consider the matter, war was declared, if submissions were not made, and the Feciolis hurled a bloc ;ly spear into the territories of the enemy in proof of
iiu't'iided hostilities.

When

Rome, employed

in

FELICITE, OKDKK OK. A society with a Masonic form, established at Paris A. D. 1742, by some naval officers. It Its official titles and the names of its admitted females. degrees were borrowed from the nomenclature of the sea, and its initiation represented a "voyage." It was a symbolical journey in search of the Island of Happiness. The seal of the Order was an anchor, suspended from three silken cords, and its pass- word was schaluw lecJca, i. e., "peace be with thee." It had four degrees viz: L Cabin-boy;

142
2.

r

FEM.
;

Fiitron

3.

was merged

in a

Commander 4. Vice-Admiral. In 1748 it new organization, called the " Knights and
;

Ladies of the Anchor."

DEGREES. About the year 1730 societies imitating Freemasonry for the admission of women were instituted in France. By whom they were invented or who first introduced them history or tradition does not enlighten us. They are evidently the product of the French mind. The forms of these associations were, however, not definitively settled until 1760; and they were not recognized or sanctioned by the administrative authority of Masonry until the year 1774, when the Grand Orient of France established a new system called the "Rite of Masonic Adoption," which was Rules and placed under the control of the Grand Orient. regulations were thenceforth provided for the government of these bodies, one of which was that no men should be permitted to attend them except regular Freemasons, and that each Lodge should be placed under the charge, and held under the sanction and warrant of some regularly-constituted
Masonic Lodge, whose Master, or, in his absence, his Deputy, should be the presiding officer, assisted by a female PresiAt first these organizations adopted dent or Mistress. divers names and rituals; some of which were ingenious and chaste, while others were puerile, and sometimes of a character not to merit countenance. In 1743 the emblems and vocabulary were nautical an orient was called a Roadstead, and a Lodge, Squadron and the sisters made the fictitious voyage to the island of Felicity, under the sails of the In 1747, the Chevalier Beauchaine, the most brethren. famous and zealous of the Masters in Paris, the same who had established his Lodge in a cabaret, where he slept, and for six francs gave at one sitting all the degrees of Masonry, instituted the order of Woodcutters; the ceremonies whereof were borrowed from the society of the Carbonari, or Coalburners, which had been previously established in Italy. The Lodge was styled a Woodyara, and was supposed to represent a forest. The officers were known by the following titles: Father Master, President; Cousin of the Oak, Godfather Cousin of the Elm, Introductor Cousin of the Beech, Keeper of the Wine ; Cousin of the Service-tree, Keeper of the Bread; Cousin of the Yoke-Elm, Guard oi Hospitality; Cousin of the Maple, Guard of the Chair; Cousin of the Ash, Guard of Honor. The brethren and sisters were called Cousins, and the candidate was called a This rite had an extraordinary success; the meetings Brick. were held in a large garden, in the quarter of New France, Dut of Paris the most distinguished men and women ol
;
;
;

FEMALE

FEM
of frieze,

FER.

France went there in crowds, wearing blouses and petticoats and heavy wooden shoes, and indulged in all the fun and noisy merriment of the common people. Upon a reception, the Father Master sat on a log of oak, his left elbow resting on a table a slouched hat and a crown of oak leaves were on his head. Round his neck was a cordon of green silk, at the end of which hung a wedge of box-wood. He held an axe in his hand, and a pipe in his mouth, and was dressed in coarse linen. All was so arranged as to call the attention of the adepts to the lower classes of society, to make them acquainted with their poverty and misery, and induce them to labor to improve their lot. Among these people, apparently so utterly disinherited by fortune, were
;

The design

nevertheless practiced virtue, friendship, love and gratitude. of this degree was to call the attention of the candidates, who then belonged chiefly to the noblesse, or the

and who were soon to be called on to regenerate France, to their true relations to the people. All these mysteries, all these odd ceremonies tended to impress the minds of the candidates, to instruct them, and to bring the higher and lower classes together, in the bonds of equality and fraternity. Other societies of both sexes succeeded this, such as the orders of the Hatchet, of Fidelity, the formd of which more fully resembled those of the ordinary FreemaIn 1775 a Lodge of Masonic Adoption was instituted sonry. at Paris, with imposing solemnities, under the auspices of the Lodge of St. Anthony, and in which the Duchess oi Bourbon presided, and was installed Grand Mistress. This rite consisted of four degrees, viz: 1. Apprentice; 2. ComIn 1785, under panion; 3. Mistress; 4. Perfect Mistress. the patronage of several members of the Court of France, the Lodge "La Candeur" was opened at Paris, as Grand Mistress of which the Duchess of Bourbon was installed with unusual pornp and solemnity. The revolution checked the progress of Adoptive Lodges; but they were revived in 1805, when the Empress Josephine presided over a Lodge at Strasburg. For some years past the rite of Adoption has been confined to the limits of Paris, as a distinct and recognized institution. At the meeting of the Grand Orient of France, in 1866, formal application was made to have the degrees of Adoptive Masonry reorganized and administered
rich Bourgeoisie,

by that body.

honor of the dead, observed at February. It continued for eleven days, daring which time presents were carried to the graves of the deceased, marriages were forbidden, and the templo* of the gods were shut.
in

FERALIA. A festival Rome the 17th or 21st of

1

M

FER

-FID.
earlj

FERLE. Solemn religious festivals celebrated by the
Romans.

They met on the Alban mount, where, under the direction of the magistrates of Rome and the several cities, they offered sacrifices to Jupiter, and under sanction of this ceremony took oaths to preserve their mutual friendship and
alliance. It continued but one day originally, but in process of time four days were devoted to its celebration, and during that time it \ras unlawful for any person to work. The days on which the ferice were observed were called by the liom&nsfesti dies, because dedicated to mirth, relaxation and
festivity.

or, as it is sometimes called, the most elaborate, learned and philosophical illustration and application of the Masonic Bro. Fessler was a professor of the civil law and degrees. Deputy Grand Master of the Lodge Royal York a 1' Amitie, at Berlin. He was a man of profound learning, and took great interest in all things pertaining to Masonry. He at first undertook to destroy the high degrees, but finding it impracticable, he accepted, in 1798, an appointment to revise and rectify them. He thus created nine degrees, the first three of which, Apprentice, Fellow-Craft and Master Theosoph, are the symbolic degrees, with slight variations. After these came 4th, the Holy of Holies; 5th, Justification; Gth, Celebration, 7th, The True Light, or Passage; 8th, The The last degree Country, or Fatherland; 9th, Perfection. was never completed; and the six last were taken from the rituals of the Rose Croix of Gold, those of the Strict Observance, of the Chapter Illuminatus of Sweden, and the It is said that the system, Ancient Chapter of Clermont.

FESSLER'S SYSTEM,
This
is

"FESSLEK'S RITE."

though incomplete, was approved by Frederic William in It is at present practiced by only a small number of 1797. Lodges in Prussia.

FEUILLANTS.

1.

A

statutes of St. Bernard;

2.

Masonic order, governed by the A kind of Androgynous Masonry.

FIDELITE, ORDER OF. One of the many forms of Adoptive Masonry which appeared in France during the last century. It was instituted at Paris, about 1748, and was styled "The Order of Knights and Ladies of Fidelity." It flourished for a long period, and was propagated considerably in Germany and on the continent.
FIDES. Latin
fidelity.

It

was

Romans, who

for faith or faithfulness, that is to say, also the name of a goddess amftig the presided over contracts, sanctified oaths, aucl

FIE

FOR

143

punished their violation. Nuraa Pompilius, the second King of Home, 714 to 672 B.C., is said to have erected temples, and consecrated altars to her service. The goddess wa
usually represented
figures holding each other

by two hands joined together, or by two by the right hand.

FIELD-LODGES. Also called "Army Lodges," "Traveling Lodges," "Military Lodges." These are Masonic bodies organized in armies, and which move with them. They are eminently iiseful in relieving the monotony of the soldier's In the war of the Life, and mitigating the horrors of war. American Revolution they were found in both of the belligerent armies, and also in the civil war of 1861-5. During the Bonapartean wars they sustained and illustrated the principles of Freemasonry in the allied and French armies.
FINANCE. The funds of a Lodge are deposited with the Treasurer, who pays them out on the order of the Master, and with the consent of the brethren. According to an uncient practice the funds are first received by the Secretary, who transfers them to the Treasurer, taking his receipt for the same. His yearly accounts are examined by an auditing committee.

FIVE SENSES. The

brain

is

wonderfully adapted by

its

perfect system of nervous sympathy to give the intellectual powers their force, and enable the mind to receive perceptions of every object in the wide creation, that comes within the sphere of 'hearing, feeling, smelling, tasting, and seeing ; these "being the five human senses explained in the lecture of the Fellow-Craft's degree.

large chart on which the emblems of the are painted, for the purpose of illustrating the instructions given to neophytes. It is the same as the Master's Carpet, and is called " flooring," because these emblems were formerly delineated on the floor.

FLOORING. A

second degree

FORESTERS. Several societies have borne this name, with symbols and ritual borrowed from the various departments of woodcraft. They styled themselves "Colliers," " " Woodcutters," and Sawyers." The most extensive of these brotherhoods is the " Ancient Order of Foresters," known in England and the United States.
The form of a Masonic Lodge said to be a parallelogram or oblong square its greatest length being from East to West its breadth from Noitli to South. A square, a circle, a triangle, or any other form but
is

FORM OF THE LODGE.

FOR.
that of aa oblong square, would be eminently incorrect and unmasonic, because such a figure would not be an expression of the symbolic idea which is intended to be conveyed. At the Solomonic era the era of the building of the Temple at Jerusalem the world, it must be remembered, was supposed to have that very oblong form, which has been here symbolized. If, for instance, on a map of the world, we should inscribe an oblong figure whose boundary lines would circumscribe and include just that portion which was known and inhabited in the days of Solomon, these lines running a short distance -North and South of the Mediterranean sea, and extending from Spain in the West to Asia Minor in the East, would form an oblong square, including the southern shore of Europe, the northern shore of Afi'ica, and the western district of Asia, the length of the parallelogram being about sixty degrees from East to West, and its breadth being about twenty degrees from North to South. This oblong square, thus inclosing the whole of what was then supposed to be the habitable globe, would precisely represent what is symbolically said to be the form of the Lodge, while the Pillars of Hercules in the West, on each side of the straits of Gades or Gibraltar, might appropriately be referred to the two pillars that stood at the porch of the Temple.

Masonic Lodge is, therefore, a symbol of the world symbol is sometimes, by a very usual figure of speech, extended, in its application, and the world and the universe are made synonymous, when the Lodge becomes, of course, a symbol of the universe. But in this case the definition of the symbol is extended, and to the ideas of length and breadth are added those of hight and depth, and,. the Lodge
i'his

A

FKA FBE.

147

The solid is said to assume the form of a double cube.* contents of the earth below and the expanse of the heavens above will then give the outlines of the cube, and the whole created universe be included within the symbolic limits of a
Mason's Lodge.
MACKEV.

FRANKS, ORDER OF REGENERATED. In the last half of tho year 1815, a political brotherhood, with forms borrowed from Freemasonry, was organized in France, and had for its motto, "For God, the King, and Fatherland." It flourished for a short time.

FREEMASONRY,

DEFINITIONS OF.

The

definitions of Free-

masonry have been numerous, and they all unite in declaring it to be a system of morality, by the practice of which its members may advance their spiritual interest, and mount by the theological ladder, from the Lpdge on earth to the Lodge in heaven. Subjoined are a few of the most important
is a beautiful sys"Freemasonry is an institution tem of morality, vailed in allegory, calculated to benefit mankind." " HEM- ANDREW JACKSON. and illustrated by symbols. MING. "Freemasonry is amoral order, "The grand object of Masonry instituted by virtuous men, with is to promote the happiness of the the praiseworthy design of recalling to our remembrance the most subhuman race." WASHINGTON. lime in the midst of the "Masonry is an art, useful and most truths, innocent and social pleasures, extensive, which comprehends within its circle every branch of useful founded on liberality, brotherly love and charity." ARNOLD. knowledge and learniug,and stamps "I have ever felt it my duty to an indelible mark of preeminence on its genuine professors, which support and encourage the princi-

definitions " Freemasonry
:

can bestow.

neither chance, power, nor fortune "

ples

of

Freemasonry,

because

it

PRESTON.

"Freemasonry is an establishment founded on the benevolent intention of extending and conferring mutual happiness upon the best hour, in all its vicissitudes, Masonry and truest principles of moral life has been the stead y, unvarying friend and social virtue." CALCOTT. of man." REV. ERASTUS BURR.
* The form of a Lodge should always be an oblong square, in length, between the East and West; in breadth, between the North and the South; in hight. from earth to heaven; and in depth, from the surface to the center. This disposition serves to indicate the prevalence of Freemasonry over the whole face of the globe, guarded by its laws, and ornamented by its beautiful tenets. Every civilized region is illuminated by its presence. Its charity relieves the wretched; its brotherly love unites the Fraternity in a chain of indissoluble affection, and extends its example beyond the limits of the Lodge-room, to embrace, in its ample scope, the whole human race, infolding them in its arms of universal lovt The square form vras esteemed by our ancient operative brethren as one of the Greater Lights, and a component part of the furniture of the Lodge. The double cube is an expressive emblem of the united powers of dark.

powerfully develops all social and benevolent affections." LORD DURHAM. " From its origin to the present

ness

and

lighfein the creation.

148

FEE.
study of Freemasonry is the man as a candidate for a

"The
study of

blessed eternity. It furnishes examples of holy living, and displays the conduct which is pleasing and The doctrine acceptable to God. and examples which distinguish the Order are obvious, and suited to

"Freemasonry is a science 01 symbols, in which, by their proper study,- A search is instituted after
truth
that truth consisting in the

knowledge of the divine and human " nature, of God and the human soul. Du. A. G. MACKEY.
' '

every capacity. It is impossible for the most fastidious Mason to misunderstand, however he may slight or neglect them. It is impossible for the most superficial brother to say that he is unable to comprehend the plain precepts, and the unanswerable arguments which are fur" nished by Freemasonry. OLJVEB.

Masonry superadds
it

to our other
ties

obligations

the strongest

of
Cul-

connection between
tivation of virtue,
ness.

and the

and furnishes the most powerful incentives to good"

DE WITT

CLINTON.

is an order whose is philanthropy, and whose principles inculcate an un-

"Freemasonry

leading star

ceasing devotion to the cause of vir"Freemasonry is an institution tue and morality." LA FAYETTE. based on that never-failing charity which upholds universal love, calms "Freemasonry is an institution the troubled sea of our evil pas- essentially philanthropic and prosions, and leaves a smooth surface, gressive, which has for its l~asis the
in which all men, who are sincere existence of God and the immorand conscientious worshipers of tality of the soul. It has for its obGod, and unexceptionable in moral ject the exercise of benevolence, the deportment, may unite, bless each study of universal morality, and the Constiother, and rejoice in practically practice of all the virtxies." realizing the sublime sentiment that tution Grand Orient of France. God hath made mankind one "I regard the Masonic institution Mighty brotherhood, as one of the means ordained by the Himself their Master, and the World his Lodge." Du. J. BUKNS. Supreme Architect to enable mankind to work out the problem of "Freemasonry is an ancient and destiny; to fight against, and overrespectable institution, embracing the weaknesses and imperfecindividuals of every nation, of every come, tions of his nature, and at last to religion, and of every condition in attain to that true life of which life. Wealth, power and talents, death is the herald, and the grave are not necessary to the person of a Freemason. An unblemished the portal." JOHN W. SIMONS.

character and a virtuous conduct are the only qualifications for admis" sion into the Order. LAUBIE.

"It

is

noble in

its

administration

;

to think

beyond the narrow contracted prejudices of bitlet think,

and

"Freemasonry
fourded on
truth
;

is

eternal

an institution reason and

civilization of

have the culated to reach by extending tkt immovable support of those two beneficent hand.'' LORENZO Dow. The prosperity 01 Masonry as a mighty pillars, science and moDB. DODD. means of strengthening our religion, rality." "I highly venerate the Masonic and propagating true brotherly love, is one of the dearest wishes of my institution, under the fullest persuasion that where its principles heart, which, I trust, will be gratified are acknowledged, and its laws and by the help of the Grand Architect of the universe." CHRISTIAN, King precepts obeyed, it comes nearest to the Christian religion, in its moral of Denmark. " The effects and influence, of any instituprecepts of the Gospel we tion with which I am acquainted." universally the obligations of Ma UKV. FHED. DALCHO REV. I)B. HUSSELI. soury.''
everlasting glory
it

whose deep basis is the which no other mankind, and whose
is to
' '

ter sectarians in these modern times. It is general or universal language, fitted to benefit the poor stranger,

institution is cal-

FEE.
sublime

149

"A Mason's Lodge is a school of 'Masonry is one of the most and perfect institutions piety. The principal emblems are that ever was formed for the ad- the teachers." EEV. Dit. NORVAL. vancement of happiness, and the "The aims of Freemasonry are general good of mankind, creating, ttot limited to one form of operain all its varieties, universal beneatiou, or one mode of benevolence. " volence and brotherly love. DUKE Its object is at once moral and social.
OF SUSSEX.
li

centuries had Freemasonry existed ere modern political controversies were ever heard of, and when the topics which now agitate society

"For

proposes both to cultivate tho
"

mind and
heart.

REV.

enlarge and purify the J. O. SKINNER.

"The Masonic system exhibits a stupendous and beautiful fabric, were not known, but all were united founded on universal To piety. in brotherhood and affection. I rule and direct our to passions know the institution to be founded have faith and love in God, and " on the great principles of charity, toward man. STEPHEN charity
;
.

philanthropy, and brotherly love."

BULWEB.
bine

JONES.

"There are Great Truths at the "Everything which tends to com- foundation of Freemasonry truths men by stronger ties is useful which it is its mission to teach to humanity; in this point of view, and which as constituting the very Masonry is entitled to respect." essence of that sublime system LA LANDE. which gives to the venerable insti" I think we are warranted in tution its peculiar identity as a contending that a society thus con- science of morality,, and it behooves stituted, and which may be rendered every disciple diligently to ponder so admirable an engine of improve- and inwardly digest. ALBERT PIKE. ment, far from meriting reproach, "Its laics are reason and equity, deserves highly of the community." its principles benevolence and love; EEV. Dr. MILNE. and its religion purity and truth; its "Charity, or brotherly kindness, intention is peace on earth; and its is as much a Masonic as it is a disposition good- will toward man." " Christian virtue. B.F.V. DR. SLADE. KEV. T. H. HARRIS.

KITE. The French or Modern rite was established by the Grand Orient of France about the year 1786. to preserve the high degrees; and for the purpose of simplifying the system the number was reduced to seven, vizEntered Apprentice, Fellow-Craft, Master Mason, Elect, or First Order of Rose Croix, Scotch Order, or Second Order of Rose Croix, Knight of the East, or Third Order of Rose The peculiar Croix, and the Rose Croix, or ne plus ultra. signs and secrets of the two first symbolical degrees under this rite are in reverse of those adopted by the Grand Lodge, or Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted rite, of France, in which the practice is the same as in our own Grand Lodge. In the 3d degree the Lodge has a very solemn appearance, being hung with black drapery, and displaying many somber and awe-inspiring emblems. The Master is
designated Tres Respectable (Very Worshipful), aiid the members Venerable Masters; all the brethren appear covered. In the 4th degree there are three chambers the Room oi The Preparation, the Council Chamber, and the Cavern.

FRENCH

13

150

FEE FRL

lesson inculcated in this degree is intended forcibly t imprint on the mind of its recipient the certainty with which punishment will follow crime. The 5th degree requires also three chambers, the second of which is most elaborately furnished and decorated with various Masonic attributes; in the East is a triangular pedestal, on which is placed the cubical stone; in the center of the chamber is a column, and by it a table, having upon it the corn, wine, and oil; and in the North is a sacrificial altar. The Lodge is ilhiminated by twenty-seven lights, in three groups of nine each; it represents the Temple completed, and its whole appearance is most gorgeous. The Lodge is denominated Sublime; the presiding officer is Ti-es Grand (Very Great), and the brethren are Sublime Masters. The 6th degree also requires three chambers; the second, which is called the Hall of the East, represents the council of Cyrus at Babylon, and is composed of that prince, seven principal officers, and other Knights.

The decoration

is green, and requires fifteen lights. Behind the throne is a transparency, representing the vision of " Cyrus, in which he received the injunction, Restore liberty to the captives." The candidate, in passing from the second to the third chamber, has to cross a bridge of timber over a stream choked with rubbish; and having at length arrived at the last, or western chamber, he perceives the Masons reposing among the ruins of Jerusalem. The room is hung with red, and illuminated by ten groups of candles of seven each. In the center is the representation of the ruined Temple. The Sovereign Master represents Cyrus; the chief Officer, Daniel the Prophet. The badge is of white satin, bordered with green; the sash, of water green, is worn from left to right; the jewel is the triple triangle, crossed by two swords. The 7th degree is precisely like that of the 18th degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. A rite, slightly differing from the preceding, and called the " Ancient Reformed rite," is now practiced in Holland and Belgium.

PONTIVES. community of operative and speculative Masons, who, as a religious house of brotherhood, established themselves at Avignon, at the close of the twelfth century; they devoted themselves, as the name denotes, to the construction and repair of stone bridges. It is on record that the community existed as late as 1590. John de Medicis, who was Master in 156jO, may perhaps have been a son of Cosmo, Duke of Florence, who died 1562, and vas made a cardinal shortly before.

FRERES

A

FRIENDLY ADMONITIONS. As useful knowledge is the great object of our desire, let us diligently apply to the

FKI-FUR.

151

practice of the art, and steadily adliere to the principles which Let not the difficulties that we have to encounit inculcates. ter check our progress, or damp our zeal; but let us recollect that the ways of wisdom are beautiful, and lead to pleasure.

attained by degrees, and cannot everywhere seeks the secret shade, the lonely cell, designed for contemplation. There enthroned she sits, There let us seek her, and delivering her sacred oracles. pursue the real bliss. Though the passage be difficult, the farther we trace it the easier it will become. Union and harmony constitute the essence of Freemasonry; while we enlist under that banner, the society must flourish, and private animosities give place to peace and good fellowship. Uniting in one design, let it be our aim to be happy ourselves, and contribute to the happiness of others. Let us mark our superiority and distinction among men, by the sincerity of our profession as Masons; cultivate the moral virtues, and improve in all that is good and amiable.

Knowledge
be found.

is

Wisdom

FRIENDLY SOCIETIES.

Associations with

some Masonic

features, formed chiefly among mechanics for mutual protection and assistance. They help their members in sickness and misfortunes, and at their death furnish assistance to their families. The most important of these societies, and the most efficient in its organization, is the Ancient and Independent Order of Odd Fellows. All of them seem to have borrowed their idea of mutual relief from the Masonic brotherhood.

FKIENDS, ORDER OF PERFECT. A society of distinguished Masonic Savans in Germany, in the last century, the chief The society was sometimes spirit of whom was Knigge. " called The Seven Allies."
SERVICES. No Mason can be interred with the ceremonies of the Order, unless it be by his own request, made while living to the Master of the Lodge of which he died a member; nor unless he has been raised to the third degree of Masonry; sojourners and officers high in the Order excepted. A dispensation has first to be obtained from the Grand Master before any public procession can be allowed to take place.
Every well-regulated furnished with the Holy Bible, the Square, and the Compasses. These constitute the furniture of the Lodge being the three Great Lights of Masonry. The first is designed to be the guide of our faith ; the second to regulate our actions; and the third to keep us within proper bounds with all mankind.

FUNERAL

FURNITURE OF THE LODGE.
is

Lodge

152

G.

G.
v

x

"'

.$

Cmost
i^Hj|

This letter is deservedly regarded as one oi the sacred of the Masonic emblems. Whe^e it is used, however, as a symbol of Deity, it must be

remembered that it is the Saxon representative of the Hebrew Yod and the Greek Tau the initial

letters of the

name

of the Eternal in those languages.

This

symbol proves that Freemasonry always prosecuted its labors with reference to the grand ideas of Infinity and Eternity By the letter G which conveyed to the minds of the brethren, at the same time, the idea of God and that of Geometry it bound heaven to earth, the divine to the human, and the infinite to the finite. Masons are taught to regard the Universe as the grandest of all symbols, revealing to men, in all ages, the ideas which are eternally revolving in the mind of the Divinity, and which it is their duty to reproduce in their own lives and in the world of art and Thus God and Geometry, the material worlds industry. and the spiritual spheres, were constantly united in the They, consequently, speculations of the ancient Masons.
labored earnestly and unweariedly, not only to construct and embellish them with magnificent edifices, but also to build up a temple of great and divine thoughts and of ever-growing virtues for the soul to dwell in. The symbolical
cities,

letter

G

*

*

*

" That hieroglyphic bright,
ever saw,"

Which none but craftsmen

and before which every true Mason reverently uncovers, and bows his head is a perpetual condemnation of profanity, impiety and vice. No brother who has bowed before that

emblem can be profane. He will never speak the name of the Grand Master of the Universe but with reverence,

He will learn, by studying the mystic respect and love. meaning of the letter G, to model his life after the divine
plan; and, thus instructed, he will strive to be like God in the activity and earnestness of his benevolence, and the broadness and efficiency of his charity. "The letter occupies a prominent position in several of the degrees in the American system; is found in many of the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish rite; in Adonhiramite Masonry; and, in fact, in every one of the many systems in which the people of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were so prolific in manufacturing. "Wherever we find this recondite symbol in any of the Masonic rites, it has the sanae significance a substitute for the Hebraic jod, the

G

GAV.
initial letter of
tb<*

153

the Divine name, and a monogram t) at Uncreated Being, principle of all things; aui, inclosed in a triangle, the unity of God. We recognize Uie same letter G in the Syriac Gad, the Swedish G ud, tne

expressed

all names of the Deity, Gott, and the English God derived from the Persian Goda, itself derived from the absolute pronoun signifying himself. The young FellowCraft is the representative of a student of the sciences, and to him the letter G* represents the science of Geometry."

German
all

and

in the degree of Entered Apprentice. as is used by stone-masons to break off the corners of stones, in preparing them for the In the Masonic system it is employed as a builder's use. symbol by which the Mason is constantly admonished to divest his mind and conscience of all the vices and errors of life ; thereby fitting his body as a living stone for that eternal in the building, "that house not made with hands It is also an emblem of authority, and is used heavens." It is sometimes by the Master in governing the Lodge.
It is a

GAVEL. An emblem

hammer with an edge such

erroneously confounded with the setting-maul, which is quite The name gavel is probably derived a different instrument. from the German Giebel, the gable or apex of the roof which its edge resembles. The form of the gavel used by the presiding officer 01
a Masonic
different

Lodge varies in sections of the country, as displayed in the
annexed engravings, viz: 1. Is sometimes found among our French and Spanish brethren, and is
familiarly known as the president's hammer; 2. The setting-maul, which is frequently found in use ; 3.

1.

-2.

3.

The stone-mason's hammer. FORMS OF GAVELS USED IN MASONIC BODIES. This is the appropriate emblem of authority in the hand of the Master of the Lodge. The gavel is also called a
Hiram, which
*" In
see.

my own opinion, the letter G, which is used in the Fellow-Craft's degree, should never have been permitted to intrude into Masonry; it presents an instance of absurd anachronism, which would never have occurred if the original Hebrew symbol had been retained But being there now, without the possibility of removal, we have only to remember " that it ie in fact bu* the symbol of a symbol. MACKEY.

154:

GEN
A

GEL.

title conferred by the French, oc GENERALISSIMO. the commander-in-chief of a grand division of an army, This dignity was first assumed by Cardinal Richelieu on the occasion of his leading In the the French army into Italy.

He is the assistant cer of a Commandery. of the Grand Commander, presides in his absence, and is ex-officio a member of the
Grand Coraniandery.
His jewel
is

Knights Templar system the second

offi-

a

square surmounted with a paschal lamb.

The
and

bending of the knee, or kneeling. act of kneeling has, among all people, and in all ages, been a token of reverence, a sign of dependence, supplication,
humility.

GENUFLEXION. A

GIBEON. A city of Judea which was situated in a northerly
liarly sacred,

It had a place of worship pecuHence perhaps the seat of the Tabernacle. the name is used symbolically in France, as the apellation of the Master, who must have a pure heart, in which the High and Holy One may dwell. In the Swedish ritual it is also used in the same sense.

direction from Jerusalem.

GIBLEMITE. The Giblemite* were the people of Gebal or Giblos, a city on the coast ol Phoenicia, between Tripoli and Berytus, called Byblos by the Greeks and Romans, now known by the name of Jiblah. At the present time it is but little more than a mass of ruins, which are sufficiently magIndeed nificent tq indicate its former greatness and beauty. it was famous in former times for the skill of its masons and builders, who excelled all others in the knowledge of architecture. They are frequently mentioned in Scripture as "stone-squarers," a term applied to them as being eminently The people of the distinguished in that kind of work.
ancient city of Gebal were famous for their worship of Adonis, who was believed to have been wounded by a wild The river Adonis, boar while hunting on Mount Libanus. whose waters are at some seasons as red as blood, passes by it; and when this phenomena appeared the inhabitants lamented the death of Adonis, pretending their river to be colored with his blood.

GILEAD. A
south from

part of the ridge of mountains which runs

Mount Lebanon, on the east of Palestine. They gave their name to the whole country which lies on the east of the sea of Galilee. Gilead is the name of the keeper of the
^eals, in the Scottish

degree of the Sacred Yctult of James VI.

GNO GOD.

155

GNOSTICISM, OR GNOSTICS, from the Greek word, gndsis, knowledge. This name was assumed by a philosophical sect which sought to unite the mystical notions of the East with ideas of the Greek philosophers, and teachings of The system has features which show concluChristianity. sively that it was a development of the old Persian or Chaldean doctrine. According to the gnostics, God, the highest intelligence, dwells in the fullness of light, and is the source
good; matter, the crude, chaotic mass of which all things were made, is like God, eternal, and is the source of all evil. From these two principles, before time commenced, emanated beings called seons, which are described The world and the human race were as divine spirits. created out of matter by the aeons and angels. They made the body and sensual soul of man, of this matter; hence the origin of evil in man. God gave man the rational soul; hence the constant struggle of reason with tho senses. What are called gods by men as Jehovah, the god of the Jews they say are only aeons or creators, under whose dominion man becomes more and more wicked and miseraTo destroy the power of these malicious gods, and ble. redeem man from the thraldom of matter, God sent the most exalted of all seons Christ who, in the form of a dove, descended upon a Jew Jesus and revealed, through him the doctrines of Christianity; but before the crucifixion of Jesus separated from him, and at the resurrection of the dead will be again united with him, and lay the foundation of a kingdom of the most perfect earthly felicity, to continue a thousand years. There have been no gnostic sects since the fifth century; but many of their principles and ideas reappear in later philosophical systems. There are some traces of gnosticism in several parts of Freemasonry, particularly in the degree of the Adepts of tho Eagle or Sun, andalso in the rite of the mystic Slason. Fessler, and his friends Krause and Mossdorf, were much interested in gnosticism, and Fessler's rite is tinctured with some of its ideas.
of all
.

highest and most perfect intelligence in which things exist, and from which all things depend. The belief in God is not the result of teaching, not the result of the exercise of reason, not a deduction from the order and regularity of the universe ; for faith in a Supreme Being was universal among men in the infancy of the race, and before the Imrnan mind was capable of that power oi analysis, or had attained to that degree of science which this study of the universe and of the laws of nature supAs the notion of an Infinite Being transcends poses. the circle of sensible and material objects, and is clearly
all

GOD. The

156

GOL GRA.

beyond the power of a finite being to create, therefore, that notion must have been communicated directly to man by God himself. Man believes in a God, therefore God exists; because, were there no God the notion of such a being could not exist. The crowning attribute of man, and what distinguishes him from the brute, is not the faculty of reason; for that, the brute has in common with man; but the power of seeing and aspiring to the ideal. Thus man had no sooner looked upon the grandeur, and glory, and beauty of the world, than he saw enthroned far above the world that which was vaster, more beautiful, more glorious than the world, the IDEAL, that is to say, God. Therefore, Freemasonry accepts the idea of God, as a supreme fact, and
bars
its

deny his

gates with inflexible sternness against those existence. No atheist can become a Mason.

who

GOLGOTHA. The place of Skulls. A retired sj.ot near Jerusalem, commonly called Calvary, where Jesus was cruciThe word is found fied, and which contained his sepulcher. in the Swedish, and also in the Templar rite.
These comprise all the and regulations enacted for the government of Masons, from the convention of York, A. D. 926, down to the revival, A. D. 1717. These were revised by Dr. Anderson, and published for the first time in 1722.
statutes, laws,

GOTHIC CONSTITUTIONS.

BODIES, MASONIC. The organization of Grand bodies for the government of Masonry in its representative character is of recent date, as compared with the age of the institution. Every Lodge or body of Masons was originally independent, as "a sufficient number of Masons not less than seven met together within a certain district, with the consent of the sheriff or chief magistrate of the place, were empowered at this time to make Masons and practice the rites The privilege of Masonry without warrant of constitution. was inherent in them as individuals." The custom prevailed in the early period of Masonic history for the brethren to assemble annually for the purpose of consulting on the general concerns of the Craft. At these yearly meetings the Grand Master, or Grand Patron of the Order for the kingdom or province, was elected by the whole brotherhood then assembled. These gatherings were called Annual Assemblies, and were attended by members of the Craft without regard to grade or position. At a general assemblage of the
Fraternity of England in 1717, adopted a regulation that every Lodge, except the four old Lodges then existing, should thereafter obtain a warrant from the Grand Lodge.

GRAND

DEGREE OF PERFECTION.

OBAND ELECT, PERFECT AND SUBLIME MA8OH.

GKA.

159

GRAND ELECT, PERFECT AND SUBLIME MASON.
The 14th degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite, sometimes called the "Degree of Perfection." In France it is called " Grand Scotch Mason of Perfection of the Sacred Vault The degree is considered to be the of James VI."
ultimate rite of ancient Masonry, as it is the last of the Ineffable degrees that refer to the first temple. The Masons who had been employed in constructing the temple acquired immortal honor. Their association became more uniformly established and regulated after the completion of the temple than it had been before. In the admission of new members their prudence and caution had produced great respect, as merit alone was required of every candidate. With these principles firmly established many of the Grand Elect left the temple after its dedication, and, traveling into other countries, disseminated the knowledge they had acquired, and instructed in the sublime degrees of ancient Craft

The Masonry all who applied and were found worthy. Lodge is styled the Secret Vault. The hangings are crimson,
with white columns at regular intervals. 24 lights 9 in the East; 7 in the West; 5 in the South; and 3 in the North. The apron is white, lined with crimson; in the middle is a square flat stone, in which is an iron ring. The collar is crimson; 'the jewel, a gold compass, open on a circle of forty-five degrees;' between the legs of the compass is a medal representing the sun on one side, on the other the flaming star. On the circle is engraved the figures 3, 5, 7, 9. The compass is surmounted with a pointed crown. The ring of alliance is of gold. On the inside is engraved: "Virtue unites what death cannot separate;" with the name and date of initiation of the owner.

GRAND INQUISITOR COMMANDER.'

The

31st degree

of the Ancient and Accepted rite. It is not an historical degree, but is simply administrative in its character; the duties of the members being to examine and regulate the proceedings of the subordinate lodges and chapters.

The meeting is designated a "Sovereign Tribunal," and is composed of nine officers, viz: a Most Perfect President, a Chancellor, a Treasurer, and six Inquisitors one being
elected to perform the functions of Inspecting Inquisitor. The decoration of the Lodge is white, with eight golden columns; on the dais above the presiding officer's throne are the letters J. E. there is also an altar covered with white drapery. In the East, on a low seat, is placed a case containing the archives of the Order, covered with blue drapery, having on its front a large red cross; on the right of the altar is the table of the Chancellor, on the left that of the Treasurer. The floor of the Sovereign Tribunal is covered by a painting,
;

160

GRA.

the centre of which represents a cross, encompassing all the attributes of Masoniy. There is no apron; the members wear a white collar, on which is embroidered a triangle with rays, having in its center the figures 31, to which is suspended the jewel a silver Teutonic cross. In France the regulations direct a white apron, with aurore (yellow) flap, embroidered with the attributes of the degree.

GRAND LODGES, JURISDICTION OF. At first there were no clear nor well defined notions in regard to the territorial jurisdiction of Grand Lodges. Until within a few years each Grand Lodge claimed the right to constitute lodges in any part of the world. At the time of the breaking out of oui revolutionary war the Grand Lodges of England, Ireland, and Scotland had lodges in Massachusetts and other colonies. The principle, however, is now well settled that the Grand Lodge of a Province or State has exclusive jurisdiction within such territory, and that no other Grand Lodge can A Grand Lodge is supreme legally charter lodges therein. over its own affairs. There is no Masonic authority or power above it: it is subject only to the unchangeable laws of the Order, the acknowledged constitutions, and the Ancient Landmarks.

GRAND LODGES,
consists of the

ORGANIZATION

OF.

A

Grand Lodge

Master and Wardens of all the lodges under its jurisdiction and such Past Masters as may be elected members. The officers are a Grand Master, Deputy Grand
Master, Senior Grand "Warden, Junior Grand Warden, Grand Treasurer, Grand Secretary, Grand Chaplain, Senior Grand Deacon, Junior Grand Deacon, Grand Stewards, Grand Marshal, Grand Standard Bearer, Grand Pursuivant, Grand Sword Bearer and Grand Tyler. In a country or state where there is no Grand Lodge three or more legal lodges may meet in convention and organize a Grand Lodge. Then these lodges surrender their charters to the Grand Lodges from which they received them, and take others from the new Grand Lodge.

GRAND MASTER ARCHITECT.
and Accepted rite. In operative Masonry become prominent;
the Ancient

The 12th degree of this the principles oi

it is a purely scientific degree, in which the rules of architecture and the connection of the liberal arts with Masonry are dwelt upon. Although the lectures on the Fellow-Craft degree illustrate architecture from the same point of view, the subject is susceptible of great extension, and under the "Grand Master Architect" numerous details illustrative of the temple dedicated to the Most High by the wisest man might be worked out. In the

GRA.

161

absence of distinct information upon many points, there is some exercise for the imagination in furnishing a complete description of Solomon's Temple, which was an astonishing and magnificent work for the time in which it was built; and it seems to have been distinguished from all other temples The of remote antiquity by its suniptuousness of detail. principal officers of this degree are the Master, denominated Thrice Illustrious, and two Wardens. The body is styled chapter, and is decorated with white hangings, strewed with crimson flames; the ornaments are the columns of the five orders of architectTire, and a case of mathematical instruments. The jewel is a heptagonal medal of gold. In each In angle, on one side, is a star, enclosed in a semicircle. the center, on the same side, is an equilateral triangle,

formed by arcs of
&i.

circles, in the center of which is the letter the reverse are five columns or different orders of architecture. This is suspended by a blue ribbon.

On

GRAND MASTER OF ALL SYMBOLIC LODGES.

The

20th degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. This degree affords a thorough exemplification of the philosophical spirit of the system of Freemasonry. Philosophy and Masonry, being one and the same principle, have the same object and mission to attain the worship of the Great Architect of the Here the universe, and the disenthralment of mankind. candidate is charged with the responsible duties of instructor of the gi-eat truths of the universality of Masonry, inspired

by an upright and enlightened reason, a firm and rational judgment, and an affectionate and liberal philanthropy. This degree bears the same relation to Ineffable Masonry
that the Past Master's degree does to the symbolic degrees. Veneration, Charity, Generosity, Heroism, Honor, Patriotism, The body Justice, Toleration, and Truth are inculcated. is called a The Lodge; the hangings are blue and gold. presiding officer is styled Venerable Grand Master, and is seated in the East. A Lodge cannot be opened with less 14

GRA.
In the East is a throne, ascended by nine steps, and surmounted by a canopy the Lodge ia The apron is yellow, lighted by nine lights of yellow wax. bordered and lined with blue; the sash is of broad yellow and blue ribbon, passing from the left shoulder to the right hip; the jewel is a triangle, of gold, on which is engravec the initials of the sacred words.
; 1

than nine members.

The 19th degree" of the Ancient and The degree is founded on the mysteries of the Apocalypse, relating to the new
Accepted
rite.

GRAND PONTIFF.

Jerusalem, as set forth in the Revelation of St. John, xxi. and xxn., which it illustrates and endeavors to explain.

The assembly

is

styled a chapter;

two

apartments are required. The presiding officer is styled Thrice Puissant

Grand

Pontiff. The members are The jewel is called Faithful Brothers. an oblong square, of solid gold, with the letter on one side, and Q on the other.

A

engraved

GRAND PRIORY.

The
etc.

title
is

Templars in Scotland.

It

applied to the head of tne synonymous with Granr

Encampment, Conclave,

GRAND SCOTTISH KNIGHT OF ST. ANDREW. The It is also 29th degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. " Patriarch of the Crusades," in allusion to its supcalled posed origin during those wars, and it is also sometimes known by the name of "Grand Master of Light." This degree is devoted to toleration and freedom of man in the great moral attributes. It inculcates equality representing the poor Knight equal to the monarch, and exhibits the requisites of knighthood; protection to the defenseless and
innocent; the possession of virtue, patience, and firmness and represents the Knight as the exponent of truth, and one The assembly is alike without fear and without reproach. Two apartments are required. It> the called a chapter.

HAI HAK.

163

first apartment the hangings are crimson, supported by white columns. During the reception this room represents the court of Saladin, the great Sultan of Egypt and Syria. The second apartment should be a well-furnished room, decorated in the eastern style. The presiding officer is The Knights styled Venerable Grand Master. are all dressed in crimson robes, with a large white cross of St. Andrew on the breast.

is two interlaced triangles, formed by arcs of large circles, with the concave outward, of gold, and enclosing a pair of comAt the passes open to twenty-five degrees. bottom, and to one of the points is suspended a St. Andrew's Cross, of gold, surmounted by a Knight's helmet; on the center of the cross is the letter i, inclosed in an equilateral triangle, and this again in a ring formed by a winged serpent; between the two lower arms of the cross may be suspended a key.

The jewel

H.
HAIL, or HELE. The Masonic word usually spelt hail ia more properly the old English word hele, from the ancient German hehlen, to conceal. From this comes our word hell, corresponding to the Greek hades, and the Hebrew sheol,
the invisible, the unseen. "These words thou shalt publish and these thou shalthele."
ESDBAS.

pronounced hale should be used in the catechism. The fact that this Saxon word is found in the ritual of Freemasonry proves the relation and connection between the modern system of Freemasonry and the German Building
Hele

Corporations.
Praise the Lord. Expression of applause the Apprentice degree of Misraim, in the degree of Sublime Scotch, Heavenly Jerusalem, and others.
in

HALLELUIAH.

HAND CLAPPING. Among Masons the common expression of applause, approval, universal in the Order.

and agreement.

Its

use

is

HARMONY, ORDER OF. An order embracing both men and women, founded in 1788, by Grossinger, under the auspices The Duchess of Newcastle of Augusta, Countess of Staff. was Grand Mistress. They bound themselves by a solemn
oath to be eternally faithful to the obligations of friendship

and

love.

164

HAR

HAT.

HARMONY, ORDER OF UNIVERSAL. A new French rite which, in 1806, arose out of a stock company, through which they hoped to cultivate an East Indian trade. It could not have less than 26 degrees, with military rank up to marshal of the empire.
HAKODIM. In 2d Chronicles, n. 18, it is recorded that Solomon "set three score and ten thousand people to be bearers of burdens, and four score thousand to be hewers in the mountains, and three thousand six hundred overseers to
set the

people at work."

These

overseers were called

Harodim, or Princes.

HARPOCRATES. Among the Greek writers he was compared with Apollo, and identified with Horus, the Egyptian god of the sun, the youngest son of Osiris and Isis. Both were represented as youths, and with the same attributes and symbols. He was believed to have been born with his finger in his mouth,
and The Greeks and mystery. Romans worshiped him as the god of quiet life, repose and secrecy. He is described
as indicative of secrecy

by Plutarch as lame in the
lower limbs when born, to indicate the weak and tender
shootings of corn. He also symbolizes the sun when in its early or feeble condition.

He

is

sometimes represent-

ed, in sculpture, as a child wearing the skull cap or pschent, the crown of the upper and lower world, and holding in his hands the whip and crook, He is also represented mounted to expel evil influences. upon a ram, which carries a ball upon its head his left hand is armed with a club, while he presses the two fore-fingers of the right hand upon his lips, as the symbol of silence, and intimates that the mysteries of religion and philosophy ought never to be revealed to the profane or uninitiated. Being armed with the club identifies him as the Hercules of the
;

Egyptians.

HAT. Among the Romans the hat was a sign of freedom. Formerly Masons wore hats in the Lodge, as a symbol of freedom and brotherly equality. In English and American Lodges it is now exclusively an attribute of the Master's
costume.

HEA HER.
HEAL. An
act of a legally constituted

105

by which a person who has been irregularly admitted to the mysteries of Freemasonry is made a lawful Mason. When " healed" has been initiated into a self-conthe person to be stituted or false lodge he can be healed only by a reinitiation. Members, however, of schismatic Lodges may be recognized There is a as legitimate by the action of a Grand Lodge. difference between a clandestine (or sham) Lodge and one The founders and members of the that is simply schismatic. first are impostors; the latter are regular Lodges, but from Borne cause or other not recognized by the legitimate Masonic
authorities.

body

of

Masons

HECATESIA. An annual festival observed by the StraThe Athenians paid tonicensians in honor of Hecate. particular attention to this festival, and worshiped this goddess under the name of Diana, who was deemed the From this circumpatroness of families and of children. stance statues of the goddess were erected before the doorfe of the houses, and upon every new moon a public suppei was always provided at the expense of the richest people, and set in the streets, which the poorest of the citizens were
permitted to enjoy.

HECATOMBOIA. An ancient festival, celebrated in honor of Juno, by the Argians and people of Jilgina. A hundred bulls were saci-ificed as an offering to the goddess, whence its name. The flesh of the animals was distributed among the poor citizens of the country.

HECATOMPHONIA. A solemn sacrifice offered by the Messenians to Jupiter, when any of them had killed an hundred enemies.

HERMANDAD. Brotherhood. This Spanish society was founded A. D. 1295, in the cities of Castile and Leon. It was based on the Masonic principle of secrecy, having ceremonies of admission, secret signs of recognition, and secret places of meeting, where causes were tried and offenders against It invested itself in a justice were judged and punished. garment of mystery, and the blow of justice fell from its hand surely and swiftly, like the bolt of lightning. It sought not only to punish crime, but to prevent it. It warned every nobleman who showed a disposition to wrong a citizen of thf certain destruction that awaited him if he persisted. Should he rob or injure a member of the Order, or a citizen, and refuse to make restitution, or give security for better conduct in future, his cattle, his vineyards and gardens were destroyed.
The mysterious power
of this terrible but righteous brother-

16G

HER.

hood penetrated every place through barred and bolted gates and armed sentinels and often dealt its retributions in the royal presence itself. Of the utility of this Spanish Fraternity there cannot be a doubt, arid its beneficial effects Its ideas were in those stormy times were immeasurable. justice, absolute justice, in the administration of the laws' and equality in society and before God.

HERMAPHRODITE. This word is often used, although improperly, in Masonic lodges; for in the human species there is no such thing. Among the lower races such monsters
are sometimes found, though rarely.

HERMETIC MASONRY. The Hermetic philosophy was introduced into the Masonic system very early in the 18th century, and for a time was very popular with the most distinguished members of the Order. It even now constitutes the substance of one degree, and is taught in the philosophical and moral lodges of the degree of Prince Adepts. [See
ALCHEMY.]

HERODEM, ROYAL OBDEE OF. Dr. Oliver claims that this Order was instituted by Robert Bruce, after the battle of Bannockburn, which took place on St. John's day, 1314. He Herodem had says: "The Royal Order of H. R. D. M. formerly its seat at Kilwinning, and there is reason to think that it and St. John's Masonry were then governed by the same Grand Lodge. But during the 16th and 17th centuries Masonry was at a very low ebb in Scotland, and it was with the greatest difficulty that St. John's Masonry was preserved. The Grand Chapter of H. R. D. M. resumed its functions about the middle of the last century, at Edinburg; and in order to preserve a marked distinction between the Royal Order and Craft Masonry, which had formed a Grand Lodge there in 1736, the former confined itself solely to the two degrees of H. R. D. M. and R. S. Y. C. S., i. e., Herodem and Rosycross." It is more probable, however, that Chevaliei Ramsay had more to do with the creation of this Order than Robert Bruce. This appears to be the opinion of Ragon. Something of the nature of this Rite may be gathered from the following extracts, taken from the lectures:
Qes. In -what place was the Grand and Holy Order of H. R. D. M.
first

established? Ans. Upon the holy summit of Mt. Moriah, in the kingdom of Judea
(fries.

What

qualifications are requisite for admission into this sublim
justice.

Order? Ans. Patience, prudence, firmness,
Qites.

afterward reestablished? Ans At I-colm-kill, and afterward at Kilwinning, where the King Scotland presided in person aa Grand Master.
it

Where was

HER.
Ques.

167

Ans. To reform the abuses and correct the errors which had been introduced among the brethren of the first three degrees.

Why

was

it

reestablished,

and why were changes made ?

Ques.

In the third section we find the following: What symbol in Masonry represents the Son of Man ?

Ans. The corner-stone. Ques. "What is the corner-stone ? Ans. It is the stone which the builders rejected, and which is no'w become the principal stone of the corner, or the most perfect model by which the workmen can fashion their moral jewels. Ques. How do you know it to be the most perfect model? Ans. By three grand principles of Masonry. Ques. Will you name them ? Ans. Fraternal love, assistance, and truth.
Ques.

Why

fraternal love ?

who

Ans. Because no person can show more love for his brethren than ha is ready to sacrifice himself for them. Ques. Why the second? Ans. Because he has come to deliver us from slavery and sin. Ques. Why the truth? Ans. Because he is himself the truth in his own essence.
Ques.

What

is

his

name ?

Ans. Immanuel. Ques. What does it signify? Ans. God with us.

These extracts afford a very clear view of the tone and Royal Order of H. R. D. M. There is no reason for believing that this Order has any conspirit of the entire ritual of the

nection with that of

the Culdees, notwithstanding that monastic society once had an establishment at I-colm-kill.

HERODEN. This word is identical with Heredom, Haeredom, Haeredum. It is thought by some to be derived from the Greek words "ieras domos," i. e., holy house. In the
catechism of the degree of Grand Architect given to a mountain near Kilwinning. Ques. What do they call these mountains ? Ans. Mount Moriah in the land of Gibeon, Mount
it

is

a

name

Sinai, and the mountain of Heroden. Ques. Where is the mountain of Heroden? Ans. Between the west and north of Scotland, at the end of the ecliptic, where the first Lodge of Masonry was erected.

It is inferred from this that King Robert I. of Scotland united the Knights Templar with St. Andrew's Order of the Thistle, and called it the Order of Heroden, or of the Holy

House,

i.

e.,

Holy Temple.
degree conferred

HEROINE OF JERICHO. An adoptive

It waa on the wives and widows of Royal Arch Masons. never widely propagated, and is now almost entirely superseded by the American Adoptive rite of the Eastern Star.

105

HIE HOL.

chief director of the ceremonies of the doctrines in the mysteries of Eleusis. ' No one but a descendant of Eumolpus could hold this office. It was necessary for him to have the experience and gravity of age, and to be perfect in his physical organization. In the inferior mysteries, he introduced the novice into the Eleusinian temple, and initiated those who had undergone the final probation into the last and great mysteries. He represented the Creator of the world, and explained to the novice the various phenomena that appeared to him. In the great mysteries, he was the sole expounder of the secrets of the interior of the sanctuary, and of those esoteric doctrines which it was the only object of the institution to communicate to its adepts. No person was permitted to pronounce his name in the presence of an uninitiated person. He sat in the East, and wore, as a symbol of authority, a golden globe, suspended from his neck. He was also called Mystagogue.

H1EKOPHANT. The

and expounder

HIGH PLACES. It seems natural to man to regard mountains and high places with a certain degree of reverence; and the sentiment of religion has always, and everywhere,
impelled him to consecrate them as places of worship. Solomon went to Mount Gibeon to offer sacrifice, because The Druids, too, were partial to hills, it was a high place. and erected their altars on their highest summits. And thus Masons are said to have met on "lofty hills or in low valleys" in the olden time, when the earth, with its carpet of variegated flowers, was literally the mosaic pavement, and the star-decked heavens the only covering of the Lodge. order of the High-Priesthood conferred only on Past High-Priests of Chapters, as an honorary degree, and corresponds to that of Past Master.
is

HIGH-PEIESTHOOD. The

HIRAMITES. A name sometimes
disciples or followers of

given to Freemasons as

Hiram, the Tyrian Builder.

He took the vows himself, and the infirm, and foundlings. gave a rule to the order. Pope Innocent III., confirmed it The dress of both in 1198, and founded a hospital at Rome. sexes is black, with a double white cross of twelve points on the left breast. 2. The principal military order in France, The revolution of 1830 instituted in 1574, by Henry III. swept it away. Several brotherhoods have borne this name, which is also known in some Masonic systems.

GHOST, ORDER OF. 1. An order of male and female It was founded in the twelfth century by Guy, hospitallers. son of the Count of Montpellier, for the relief of the poor,

HOLT

HOL HON.

169

ANCIENT CHARACTERS OF THE INSCRIPTION.

HOLINESS TO THE LORD. An inscription worn on the forehead of the High-Priest, as described in Exodus xxxix. 30: "And they made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and wrote upon it a writing like to the engraving of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD."

HONORABLE.
of Fellow-Craft,

In former times a

title

given to the degree
character.

on account of

its scientific

HONORARY DEGREE. A degree like
ter,

that of Past Masor the Order of the High-Priesthood, conferred as a
for official service.

reward

MASTER. An honorary title given to learned and worthy brothers, who have not filled the oriental chair, as a recognition of their Masonic science and worth. An honor not known in the United States.

HONORARY

HONORS, GRAND. A peculiar ceremony among Masons by which they applaud, or express their agreement, satisfaction or sorrow. They are divided into private and public. The first can only be given in a Master's Lodge, and cannot be The public grand honors, as their name described here.
imports, do' not partake of this secret character. They consist of clapping of the hands three times, in rapid succession, and are given on all public occasions in which the ministrations of the Fraternity are required, in the presence The funeral grand of the profane as well as the initiated. honors are given in the following manner: Both arms are crossed on the 'breast, the left uppermost, and the open palms of the hands touching the shoulders; the hands are then raised above the head, the palms striking each other, and then made to fall sharply on the thighs, with the head This is repeated three times. While the honors bowed. are being given the third time, the brethren audibly pronounce the following words when the arms are crossed on the breast: "We cherish his memory here;" when the hands are extended above the head "We commend his spirit to God who gave it;" and when the hands are extended toward the ground "And consign his body to the earth."

170

HOS--ILL.

HOST, CAPTAIN OF THE. Among the Jews a military rank. In a Royal Arch Chapter the title designates a kind oi master of ceremonies.
I.

island, situated near the Hebrides, in a southerly direction therefrom. In ancient times it was the seat of the Order of Culdees, and contains the ruins of the

I-COLM-KILL. An

monastery of
the Rite of

St. Columba, which was founded A. Herodem, it is claimed, originated.

D. 565.

Here

IDIOT. This word did not always have the meaning which
is

now

attached to

it.

It is derived

from the Greek,

idiotes,

In Sparta it denoted one signified a private citizen. who felt no interest, and took no part, in public affairs, and hence came to mean an ignorant person. It was used in this sense in the middle ages, and this is its Masonic meaning. The modern meaning fool would be out of place; for it would be as absurd to establish a rule that no fool should be made a Mason as it would be to enact a law that no horse, or infant, or dead man, should be admitted to the mysteries of

which

Freemasonry.
a

The word means, masonically, not a
ignorant, fellow,

fool,

but

listless, indifferent,

who could only be a

disgrace to the Craft.

This system was organized Masonry intermingled with the reveries of Swedenborg, somewhere about the year 1760, by Pernetti (who was a Benedictine Monk), and the Baron Gabrianca, a Polish nobleman. Very little is known of the institution, and it might have been forgotten but for the Marquis de Thorme,in 1783, taking up the system that had been adopted in the Avignon Lodge, and from it framing what is now known as the Swedenborg rite which see.
as a species of

ILLUMTNATI OF AVIGNON.

ILLUMINATI,

OE THE ENLIGHTENED. During the second

half of the eighteenth century, among the numerous secret societies which were more or less connected with Freemasonry there was not one that attracted so much attention, received the support of so many distinguished men, and created so It was founded in 1776 by Adam rich a literature, as this. Weishaupt, professor of law, at Ingolstadt, a man of great originality and depth of thought, and remarkable for the earnestness of his character. The objects which he sought to effect by this association were the highest and noblest ever entertained by the human mind. He desired to assert the and hence individuality of man as a fundamental principle

TT.T
xvaa

TMM.

171

an apostle of civil and religious liberty- -to discover the of advancing human nature to a state of higher perfection to bind iu one brotherhood men of all countries, ranks, and religions, and to surround the persons of princes

means

with trustworthy counselors. Apostles, styled Areopagites, were sent into various parts of Europe to make converts, and in a short time the Order was flourishing in Germany, Hoilaud, and Milan. Protestants, rather than Catholics, were
preferred as members. 1. Novice; 2. Minerval;

The degrees were eight
3.

in

number:

Illuminatus Minor; 4. Illundnatus Major; 5. Knight; 6. Priest; 7. Regent; 8. King. Attracted by the liberality of its doctrines, and the grandeur of its

numbers of illustrious Masons, and among them the celebrated author Knigge, became active members of it. In 1784 the society was dissolved by order of the Bavarian government. No association of men was ever more calumniated and misrepresented than the Order of Illuminati. It is common to dismiss them with the remark that they were "a body of men united together for the purpose of destroying society and religion," whereas, they were men of the profoundest religious convictions, and only desired such a reform in politics as would give man a greater degree of freedom, and afford him larger opportunities and facilities for the
objects, large

development of his

faculties.

It is

some Masonic writers have repeated the infamous calumnies of those high-priests of the lying fraternity, Robison and If they were infidels and Baruel, in regard to them. anarchists, then the whole American people are; for they were only inspired with, and sought to propagate, the ideas which we hold in the highest reverence, and have embodied in our institutions. This name has been borne by other
orders, as the religious society of the Alombrados, in Spain, founded in the sixteenth century; the Order of Gueriuet:}, iu France, in the seventeenth; and many others before and since.

humiliating to see that

ILLUSTRIOUS ELECT OF FIFTEEN. The
of the Ancient

and Accepted rite. The body is called a chapter. The decorations are black, sprinkled with red and white tears; there are 15 lights, 5 in the East, and 5 before each Warden, and 1 in the center all of yellow wax. The officers are: Thrice Illustrious, Senior and Junior Inspectors, Orator, Secretary and Treasurer, Hospitaller, Master of Ceremonies, and Captain of the Host. This tlegx-ee is devoted to the same objects as the Elective Knights of Nine the conclusion of the punishment of the traitors, who, just before the completion of the temple, had committed an infamous crime.

10th degree

IMMANUEL. A name
vith us."

" applied to Christ, and means

God

172

INI>.

OF. The leading idea of the India that a state of absolute quiescence or rest constitutes the most perfect bliss, and that it can be attained only by the most complete self-abnegation. This idea naturally grows out of the pantheistic nature of their religion. They believe in unity existing in all things, and all things in unity; God in the universe, and the universe in God; and regard nature as a revelation of the divine intelligence. Everything is thus the perpetual transformation or metamorphosis of God. This doctrine is taught in all their mysteries, and upon this theory rests the idea of the reciprocal influence of worlds upon each other, and their central light, and the conception of the universe as a perpetual creation, as does, likewise, the belief in metempsychosis, or the transmigration of souls after death. Beginning and end are mingled, and mind and matter are continually striving for predominance in the universe, which, therefore, exhibits an eternal struggle between good and evil, light and darkness. The notion of God taught in the highest Hindoo mysteries is pure and elevated. He is called Brahm, Atma, Bramatma. Before the creation he reposed in silence, and absorbed

INDIA, MYSTEBIES
is

philosophy

"This world," says Menou, "was all darkness, undiscernible, undistinguishable, altogether as in profound sleep, till the self-evident and visible God, making it manifest with five elements, and other glorious forms, perfectly dispelled the gloom. He, desiring to raise up vaiious creatures by an emanation from his own glory, first created the waters, and impressed them with the power of motion; by that power was brought the wondrous egg, bathed in golden splendors and blazing like a thousand suns, from which sprang Brahma, the self-existing, the parent of all rational In the Hindoo mysteries God is represented under beings. three forms: Vishnu, Siva, and Brahma; for that is the order in which the three are expressed by the letters A M, that form the mysterious and ineffable name, OM, which is never spoken, but is the object of silent and constant contemplation. The Lingam is worshiped in these rites the same as the Phallus in the Egyptian. The Lotos, too, is a sacred attribute in these mysteries, as it was in those of Isis. The whole initiation represented the same idea as the Egyptian. The eternal combat between the opposing forces of good and evil, of light and dark, and the ultimate triumph of the former, is the leading feature of both, showing conclusively, that the Egyptian system, which is the parent of the
in himself.

U

Roman, and, consequently, of our Masonic system, was itself the offspring of the old Indian mysteries. The most celebrated temples where these rites were performed were those of Elo*a, Salsette, and Elephanta.
Grecian,

IND
INDUCTION.
the Cross," the

INF.

173

In a Council of the " Illustrious Order of word has a significance similar to the following. The word also occurs in a Lodge of Past Masters, wherein the newly-elected Master is inducted into the oriental chair of King Solomon.

INDUCTION, KITE OF. Those acts and ceremonies by which the novice is first introduced into the Lodge are called by this name. They are highly instructive when properly explained, and have an important symbolical meaning.*

INEFFABLE.
Accepted

Unutterable.

The

ineffable

degrees,

so-

called, are the eleven conferred in a Lodge of Perfection, known as the second series of degrees in the Ancient and
rite. The third series are historical, and conferred The fourth series are in a Council of Princes of Jerusalem. philosophical, and conferred in a Chapter of Rose Croix de The fifth series are chivalric, historical, and H.-R.-D.-M. philosophical, and are conferred in a Consistory of Sublime

Princes of the Royal Secret. The last grade is official, and is conferred in the Supreme Council of the thirty-third degree.

INFLAMED URN. An emblom in the alchemistical degree
"Knight of the Sun or Black Eagle." It teaches that the Hermetic Mason should, by his knowledge and virtue, exercise an influence on the world as acceptable as the perfume of the burning urn.
of

LAWFUL. No stranger can be permitted he has been examined and tried in the usual form, unless some brother present knows him to be a Mason, by previous trial, or by having met him in a legally constituted Lodge, and vouches for him. This voucher, by a known brother, is called "lawful information." The examination of strangers should be made by intelligent Masons

INFORMATION,
Lodge

to visit a

until

* The Rite of Induction signifies the end of a profane and vicious life the palintjemsia (new birth) of corrupted human nature the death of vice and all bad passions, and the introduction to a new life of purity mid virtue. It also prepares the candidate, by prayer and meditation, for that

mystic pilgrimage, where he must wander through night and darkness, before he can behold the golden splendors of the Orient, and stand iu unfettered freedom among the Sons of Light. The rite further represents man in his primitive condition of helplessness, ignorance, and moral blindness, seeking after that mental and moral enlightenment which aloup can deliver his mind fron? all thralldoms, and make him master of the material world. The Neophyte, in darkness and -with tremblings, knocks at the portals of the Lodge, and demands admission, instruction, and light. So man, born ignorant, and helpless, and blind, yet feeling stirring within him unappeasable longings for knowledge, knocks at the doors of the temple of science. He interrogates Natiire, demands her secrets, and at length becomai the proud possessor of her mysteries.

15

174:

INN
An
examination

INT.

who know how
courteous.
officer,

to be, at the

same

may be

through an excess of modesty on or it may be needlessly rigid and pedantic. these extremes should be avoided.

time, thorough and careless and inefficient the part of the examining

Both

of

can never be permitted in Freein the beginning, so it is now, and so it must forever remain. This is particularly true .of symbolic Masonry. It has resisted all attempts of reformers, as these innovators style themselves, to add to, or take from,
masonry.

INNOVATIONS. These
As
it

was

or introduce, changes. The high degrees are developments of the first three, and complete the fabric in all its beauty. Among the innovators who, in the last age, attempted to change the character of the Masonic rites, Cagliostro and the Chevalier Kamsay were the chief. But their efforts were unavailing, and their inventions soon forgotten.
I. N. R. I., i. e., Jesus Nazarenus Bex ludaeorum. Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews, the inscription which was placed upon the cross of the Savior. In the Philosophical Lodge they represent Fire, Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury. In the " system of the Rosicrucians they had a similar use Igne Natura Eenovafur Integra" "by fire nature is perfectly renewed." This idea is also found in the degree of " Knights Adepts of the Eagle or the Sun."
:

INTENDANT OF THE BUILDING,
MASTER
IN

sometimes called

The 8th degree in the Ancient and Accepted rite. The body is called a Lodge, and its decorations are crimson; the room is lighted with 27 lights, arranged in three groups of 9 each, and each group
ISRAEL.

forming a triple triangle; on the altar are 5 other

lights.

The Master

styled Thrice Potent, and represents King Solomon. This degree was instituted to supply the loss of the <5hief architect of the temple.
is

INTIMATE SECRETARY. The
and Accepted
rite.

6th degree of the Ancient

The place in which the Lodge is held represents the audience chamber of King Solomon. It is hung with black, strewed with white tears. There are but three officers, who represent King Solomon, King Hiram, and a Captain of the Guards. The ceremony and legend are intended to preserve the remembrance of an instance of
unlawful curiosity, the due punishment of the offender being averted only in consideration of his previous fidelity. The degree also teaches that Masons should cultivate the virtues of Silence, Justice, Humanity, and Secrecy; and that in the execution of justice they should not be unmindful of mercy.

IEI

IVO.

175

IRISH DEGEEES. These degrees appeared in Franca between the years 1730-40. They had a political element, and were intended to aid the Pretender in his efforts to regain the English throne. There were three degrees: Irish Master, Perfect Irish Master, and Puissant Irish Master.

A monument of ancient Egypt, on which represented the worship of the goddess Isis, with he* It is a square table of copper, ceremonies and mysteries. covered with silver mosaic, skillfully inlaid. The prindp: This table is said to bo figure of the central group is' Isis. now in the royal museum at Turin.
ISIAC TABLE.
is

ISIS. The chief goddess in the Egyptian mysteries, the symbol of nature, and mother and nurse of all tilings. Diodorus says that Osiris, Isis, Typhon, Apollo and Venus were the children of Jupiter and Juno. Osiris, who identical with the Dionysus (Bacchus) of the Greeks, married Isis, the moon, and they both made the improvement of society their especial Men were no longer butchered, after care.
Isis

had discovered the valuable

qualities of

wheat and barley, and Osiris had taught how Isis and Osiris were unto prepare them. doubtedly persons superior in mind and intelligence to the age in which they lived, who organized society, and contributed largely to the improvement of mankind, on which account

ISIS

the gratitude of after ages elevated them to the rank of gods. Her priests were bound to observe perpetual chastity. Her festivals were celebrated in

AND HOBUS.

In her terrestrial parts of Egypt, Greece and Rome. character, she wears upon her head the throne which reprein her celestial, the disc and horns, or sents her name tall plumes, and nursing Horus. The mysteries of Isis are interesting to Masons, as being the foundation of those of
all
;

the Sidonian builders, or Dionysian architects, which have contributed so many elements to the Masonic rites.

IVORY KEY. A symbol in the Philosophical Lodge, or degree of Knights Adept of the Eagle or the Sun. It teaches that one should exercise due caution in
opening his heart, and expressing his opinions. The Ivory Key, with the letter Z on the wards, in black, is the jewel of the degree of Secret Master, Ancient and Accepted rite.

176

JAC JEH.
J.

JACHIN, CQrr)' T^16 name f one f the br&zen pillars " placed at the porch of Solomon's Temple. It signifies, he The other pillar was that .strengthens," or "will establish." called BOAZ, (]^D), "in strength" the two words signifying " in * strength shall this my house be established."

JEHOVAH

(ni!T)-

The name

of

God, ineffable and

declared to Moses, from the burning Its ancient pronunciation was bush on Mount Horeb. Yahveh; its meaning is HE is, the same as I AM, the person only being changed. In reply to the request of Moses that

mysterious, which

God

God would
I

reveal to

him

his

name,

"

God
it

AM THAT I AM."
*"Stieglitz, in his

Ex.

in.

14.

Thus

said unto Moses, denotes the selfinfinite fullness

existence, independence, immutability,
illustration of

and

Architecture,' gives an two celebrated pillars, as they are now standing in th cathedral of Wurzburg, one of the oldest cities of Germany, and formerly He dates them from capital of Franconia.

work 'On Ancient German

The inner man is likewise invisible unfathomable. The lower portion of the shaft rises from the earth, and again returns thither; (so shall the dust return to the earth as it was;) while the upper portion returns again within itself, and is bound with an endless band (the spirit, being also without beginning or end, waits hopefully for its union with th everlasting spirits above; it embraces eternity, and is by it embraced)." STEINBKENNER, Hist, of Masonry.
invisible.

Boaz is triparand yet constitutes but one whole (Trinity); the central portion of the shaft reenters within itself (God iciihout beginning or end). Jachin consists of only two actual parts, Body and Soul, which are united by a mysterious entwined bond or tie. The interior of these pillars is
to represent
tite,

j

the time of the construction of the old cathedral, in 1042, by the Fraternity of Steinmetzen, the peculiar form and ornamentation of the capitals and bases being characteristic of the architecture of that They were originally situated, like period. the brazen columns of Solomon's Temple, on either side of the porch Jachin on the right, and JBoaz on the left; but at the present time they are placed in an inverse position, within the body of the cathedral, not far from the main entrance, on either side of a Gothic door-way, leading to a small vaulted chamber. He says, that they were intended to bear a symbolic reference to the Fraternity, which reference is .revealed to the initiated in their peculiar proportions, in the ingenious construction and combination of the shafts and capitals, as well as by the names sculptured on the abacus.' Bernewitz, disagreeing with Stieglitz in his explanation of the symbolism of these pillars, says, that the artist intended by them
' '

God and man.

'

JEP.

177

It never has the article before it, nor of the divine Being. found in the plural form. The Jews, with a deep reverence for the Deity, never pronounce this name; and .whenever it occurs in the Hebrew Scriptures, they substitute for it, in reading, the word ADONAI, Lord, or ELOHIM, God. That Jehovah is specifically the God of the Hebrews is clear from the fact, that the heathen deities never receive this name; they are always spoken of as Elohim Moreover, the altars, the sacrifices, the festivals, the tabernacle, the temple, the priesthood and the prophets, all belong emphatically to Jehovah. The word is sometimes called the TETRAGRAMMATON, (from the Greek telra, four, and gramma, letter,) as it was
is it

ancient nations, the mystic number four, which was often symbolized to represent the Deity, whose name was expressed in several languages by four letters. The

among some

investigation of

this subject is exceedingly interesting tc

Royal Arch Masons.

The name of the first degree JEPHTHAH'S of the Order of the Eastern Star, or American Adoptive rite. It illustrates, in a beautiful and impressive manner, the ready obedience of a child to the obligations of the parent; of the sacredness of a solemn vow or promise, and, at the same time, the great care, deliberation and discretion
with which
it

DAUGHTER

should be formed and offered.

Its symbol, ja]

color is blue. There is a touching the history of Jephthah's daughter.

and thrilling interest in The Scriptures give a

simple statement of facts and circumstances, without orna-

178

JEB.

merit or impassioned comments, and the narrative excites the deepest attention. The question has often been propounded, What ivas the precise nature of Jephthah's vow? Amidst all the uncertainty which may attend the interpretation of this question, there is enough to stamp character upon it, and to invest it with peculiar interest. Important moral and spiritual lessons are involved in it. Painful as ia the impression produced by the thought of the young, lovely, and only daughter sacrificed at the hands of her father in the fulfillment of a rash and unlawful vow, yet, under that impression, relief is at once afforded as we sympathize with the spirit and mark the conduct of the destined the beauvictim, and we acknowledge Jephthah's daughter tiful Adah as one of the illustrious heroines of Scripture, in the most appropriate sense of the term. The incidents of the degree are recorded in the book of Judges, chap. xi.
Habitation or foundation of peace. The most The old traditions city of Palestine. and natural prepossessions both of Jews and Christians connect it with that Salem of which Melchizedek was king. It is situated on elevated ground south of the center of the

JERUSALEM.

famous and important

country, about 37 miles from the Mediterranean, and about 24 from the Jordan. About a century after its foundation, it was captured by the Jebusites, who extended the walls,

and constructed a castle, or citadel, on Mount Zion. By In the conquest of Canaan, them it was called Jebus. Joshua put to death its king, Aclonizedek, and obtained posoe^bion of the town, which was jointly inhabited by Jews and Jebusites until the reign of David, who expelled the latter, and made it the capital of his kingdom, under the
Its highest historical of Jebus-Salem, or Jerusalem. importance dates from the time of David, who transported to it the ark of the covenant, and built in it an altar to the Lord. The building of the temple by King Solomon was the consummation of the dignity and holiness of Jerusalem, which was further enlarged, strengthened and beautified by After the death of Solomon this king and by his successors. (B.C. 975), it suffered a diminution of political importance through the revolt and secession of the ten tribes. It waa

name

by Shishak, king of Egypt, and by and finally (B.C. 588), it was taken, after a siege of three years, by Nebuchadnezzar, who razed its walls, and destroyed the temple and palaces, and carried all
jjillaged
(B.C. 972),

Athaliah

(B.C. 884),

the holy vessels of the temple, together with thousands oi cap tives, to Babylon. Having been rebuilt alter the Captivity (B. j. 536), it was again taken and pillaged under Ptolemy Lagos (B. c. 320), and under Antiochus Epiphanes (B. c. 161)

JEE

JES.

181

Pompey took the city (B. c. 63), put 12,000 of the inhabitants to the sword, and razed the walls to the ground, sparing, at few years the same time, the treasures of the sanctuary. later (B.C. 51) it was pillaged by Crassus; and from these beginnings date the continued series of Roman aggressions, which terminated in the complete destruction of the city and dispersion of the Jewish race, under Vespasian and

A

Titus,

A. D.

70.

JERUSALEM, HEAVENLY. The City of God. In several of the higher degrees the Heavenly Jerusalem is frequently In the fifth alluded to, and occupies a prominent place. section of the 2d degree of the Rite of Herodem the Thersata says: "Brothers, may we all, whether present or absent, so labor that we shall come at last to Mount Zion, to the city of the living God; the Heavenly Jerusalem * * * *, where the sun shall set no more, nor the moon deprive us of her light, and where the days of our affliction, and the fatigues of our pilgrimage shall find an end." This celestial city is also referred to in the 19th degree of the Ancient and
Accepted
rite.

JERUSALEM, NEW. Some professors of the doctrine of Swedenborg formed a society in London under this name,
having relations with a mystical-magnetical-spiritual brotherhood, in Stockholm. It had some Masonic symbols, and its spirit is seen in some of the degrees of the Swedish rite.
of. This celebrated society was -founded by Ignatius Loyola, a Spaniard of ardent imagination and earnest spirit, and was confirmed by Pius III. in 1540. There can bo but little doubt that he intended it to be a mystical and contemplative association, resembling, in many things, the colleges of Egyptian priests; and the original objects of the Order, as promulgated by Loyola, were To defend and propagate certainly entitled to respect.

JESUITS, OKDEK

in 1534,

the faith, to educate the young, to assist each other, to renounce the honors of the world, and ecclesiastical dignities; such was the basis upon which was erected a fabric that destroyed itself as soon as it lost sight of its first ideal, and ceased to be what it promised at the commencement of its career. The Jesuits appear to have taken the Egyptian Like them, they were the conpriests for their model. servators and interpreters of religion. The vows, they pronounced, bound them to their company, as indissolubly as the interest and politics of the Egyptian priests fixed them in the sacred college of Memphis. Like those ancient priests, they subjected all who aspired to membership in the

182

JEW.

Order to the severest trials; like them, they sent forth missionaries to propagate and interpret the faith; they were the counselors of princes, and the educators of statesmen. But the Order lost its power, and received the condemnation of the world as soon as it became the ally of despots and made a traffic of the rights of man. After the Order of Jesus had fallen from its high estate, and became merely a secret
society of political agitators and intriguers, some ardent and enthusiastic men conceived the idea of superseding it by a new Order that should retain all the good of the old, and be better adapted to the circumstances of modern times, and the wants of modern society. The Society of the Uluminati and that of the Rosecrucians were formed with this aim and purpose. The adepts of the Illuminati were governed by rules nearly identical with those of the Jesuits, and the whole machinery of the two orders was constructed after the

same

idea.
is

JEWELS. Every Lodge
six jewels; three

furnished, symbolically, with

movable and three immovable. The three immovable jewels are the square, level, and plumb; they are so-called because they are the permanent and unchangeable jewels of the Lodge, and can never be taken or removed from their proper places. They belong, permanently and immovably, to the three principal offices and chairs. The movable jewels are the rough ashlar, the perfect ashlar, and
the trestle-board.

emblems worn by the

Jewels are the names applied to the officers of Masonic bodies as distinctive

badges of their offices. For the purpose of reference, the jewels used by the several Masonic bodies most popular in the United States are herewith described:
SYMBOLIC LODGE.
cross-batons.
lyre.

sword.

GRAND LODGE.
YELLOW METAL (Suspended
within a
circle).

opened on a quar. circle, sun in center, (compass,
square
level,

plumb,
cross-keys, cross-pens, open Bible.

scroL and sword crossed

LODGE JEWELS.

1NIOB

WARDEN.

JTJNIOB

WARDEN

TREASURER.

SECRETABY.

HENIOR DEACON.

JUNIOR DEACON.

MISTERS OF CEREMONIES.

CHAPLAIN.

GRAND LODGE JEWELS.

GRAND MASTER.

DBF. OB. MASTER.

BEN. OR.

WABDKH.

UTS. GR. WAIIDEN.

GB. TREASURER.

GB. SECBETARY.

GR. CHAPLAIN.

GR. MARSHAL.

OB.

STANDARD BEABEB.

GB.

SWORD BEARRB.

GB. STEWARDS.

OB. DEACONS.

GR. PURSUIVANT.

GB. LECTURES.

GB. TILEB.

CHAPTEE JEWELS.

PBINC. SOJOTJB,

E. A, OAPT.

KAST8. OF

THE

TAILS.

tBEASUKKB.

BECBETAET.

CHAPLAIN.

BTEWAKDg.

SENTINEL.

COMMANDERY JEWELS.

OO1CMAUDEB.

OENEBALISSIMO.

4-

IKK.

WABDEN.

JtTN.

KTAKDEN.

TEEASUBEB.

EECOBDEB.

ffTAJJD.

BEABBft.

SWOKD BEABER.

WAEDEB.

16

186

JOA JOH,

G.Std.B. wears a banner. G. Sword B. straight sword, G. Stewards cornucopia, dove, bearing olive G. Deacon branch,

Sentinel trowel and sword. Of yellow metal, and suspended within an
equilateral triangle.

G. Pursuiv.
G. Tyler

sword and

trurn't

crossed, cross-swords.

COMMANDERY OF KNIGHTS TEMPLAR. Em't Commander wears a passion
cross, with rays of light at the

ROYAL AllCH CHAPTERS.
H. P.

crossings.

wears

a miter.
level,

Gen'simo wears

King
Scribe
Capt. of

"

surmounted
"

by a crown. Capt. Gen. plumb, surmounted by a turban. Prelate

surmounted by paschal lamb, surmounted level, by a cock,
sq'e.,

triple triangle with

Host"
"

triangular plate, inscribed with a
soldier.

a passion cross in each,

Sen. War.

Princ. Sojr.

triangular plate, inscribed with a
pilgrim.
i

Jun. War.

j
j

hollow square and sword. eagle and flaming sword,
cross-keys, cross-pens.

R. A. Captain

'

Treasurer sword, with signet Recorder

!

rm g.

Mast, of Vails' ' Treasurer Secretary Chaplain
' '
'

swords.
cross-keys. cross-pens. open Bible. cross-swords.

Stand. B.

plumb, surmounted by a banner,
triangle

Sword B.
Warder
Guards
Sentinel The jewels
all

and cross-

swords.

Sentinel
All the

square plate, with

above jewels for Grand or Subordinate Chapters are of yellow metal, and suspended within an equilateral triangle.

trumpet and
cross-swords,

square plate, with
battle-ax,

ROYAL AND SELECT MASTERS.
G. Mast, wears a trowel and square. Hir. of Tyre " trowel and level, C'dr.ofWks. trowel and plumb, trowel and crosskeys,

sword. for Grand Commandery are the same, enclosed within a circle, and
of yellow metal.

Treasurer

Recorder
Capt. of Grd.

trowel and crosspens, trowel and bat. ax.

description of the jewels belonging to the Ancient and Accepted rite may be found attached to the name of each degree, respectively, in this work.

A

of Solomon and Hiram. The in several of the high degrees in connection with the above-mentioned illustrious Masons.

JOABERT. The companion

name appears

JOACHIM, ORDER OF ST. An offspring of the Order of tnio and perfect friendship of St. Jonathan. It was composed of Knights and ladies, and, in 1804, had its seat in Bamberg. One of the vows of the members required them to believe in the Trinity and avoid waltzing.

JOHANNITE MASONRY. The lodges of symbolical Masonry which were formerly dedicated to King Solomon are now dedicated to St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. Hence the first three degrees are called Johaumte Masonry.

JOP KAD.

187

JOPPA. One of the most ancient seaports in the world; en the Mediterranean sea, about 35 miles north-west of Here the materials for building the first and Jerusalem.
second
temples, sent

from Lebanon, Tyre and other places, were landed, and conveyed
to Jerusalem. Its harbor is shoal and unpro-

tected from the winds; but on account of its convenience to Jerusalem, it became the principal port of Judea, and is still the great landing-place of pilgrims arid travelers to the Holy Land. The place is now called Jaffa. The peculiarly hilly and even precipitous character of Joppa is preserved in the traditions of the degree of Mark Master, and a benevolent moral deduced, in accordance with the entire instructions of the grade.

JUDAH. The fourth son of the patriarch Jacob, whose descendants became the most distinguished of the twelve tribes. On account of this the whole of Palestine is sometimes called Judea, or the land of Judah. The device on the banner of this tribe was a lion. It appears in the
symbolism of Freemasonry.

JUDAH AND BENJAMIN.

Of the twelve tribes of

Israel,

which were carried away captive by Nebuchadnezzar, only two (Judah and Benjamin) ever returned to Palestine. No traces of the lost tribes have ever been found.

K.
Hebrew word, signifying holy, consecrated, separated; the designation of the 30th degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite, or Knight of the White and Black Eagle. There are several degrees bearing [See KNIGHT OF KADOSH.] this name, but they all seem to be allied to the Knights Templar system. In the history of the high degrees we find: 1. The Knight Kadosh; 2. Kadosh of the Chapter of Clermont; 3. Philosophical Kadosh; 4. Kadosh Prince of Death; 5. Kadosh of the Scottish rite. It is also the name of the 10th degree of Martin's system ; the 24th of the Council of Emperors of the East and West; 9th of the Scotch Philosophical rite, and 65th of the system of Misraim.

KADOSH. A

188

KAL

KIN.

KALAND, BROTHERS OF. A lay brotherhood which originated in Germany in the thirteenth century. The name is derived from the Latin word kalendae, which, among the ancient Romans, designated the first day of the month. On this day the brethren assembled to pray for their deceased friends, and to meditate and discuss religious, moral, and philosophical subjects. The meeting was closed with the
agape, or Table-lodge.

KIL WINNING. A small town in Scotland, of no importance or influence, but which fills a large place in Masonic history, although it is doubtful whether the greater portion of the Masonic events said to have transpired there ever As Kilexisted, except in the regions of the imagination. winning, however, was the seat of a monastery, founded in 1140, it is not unlikely that a Lodge of Masons might have been organized there at that time; although there are no authentic records existing showing this to be the fact. Thory Acta Latainorum says that: "Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, under the title of Robert I., created the Order of St. Andrew of Chardon, after the battle of Bannockburn, which was fought June 24, 1314. To this Order was afterward united that of Heroden, for the sake of the Scotch Masons, who formed a part of the thirty thousand troops with whom
he had fought an army of one hundred thousand Englishmen. King Robert reserved the title of Grand Master to himself and his successors forever, and founded the Royal Grand Lodge of Herodeni at Kil winning." The whole subject of the connection of Kil winning with the history of Freemasonry is involved in great obscurity but it is generally believed by Masons that the first Lodge in Scotland was opened at Kilwiniiing at the time of the building of the
;

abbey.

[See

HEROD EM.]

second

the Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, he is the and represents Zerubbabel, governor of Judea, and a lineal descendant of the royal race of King David. In the Lodge of Mark, Past and Most Excellent Masters, the King acts as Senior Warden.
officer,

KING. In

dogree.
office

KING OF THE SANCTUARY. An honorary or side A Mason can only receive this degree from five

Masters of Lodges, who have each served a year in that without interruption. No King of the Sanctuary can confer this degree, until after the expiration of nine years from the time of receiving it, unless he who presided at his reception knowing him to be the only person in possession of the degree, in the place where he resides, relieves him of this restriction before finally parting with him permanently;

KNI.
and this is moreover to be assisted at his reception.

189
the presence of those who

done

in

KNIGHT.
attendant;
2.

1.

A young servant, or follower; a military A young man when admitted to the privilege

of bearing arms; hence one of a certain chivalric or feudal rank; a champion; 3. One on whom knighthood is conferred by the sovereign or authorized military power, or, masonically, within the body of a just and legally constituted Commandery of Knights Templar, entitling the recipient to be addressed as Sir Knight.

KNIGHTHOOD, MASONIC. There is much difference of opinion as to the origin of this branch of the Masonic Institution, and* without attempting to show that the form of conferring the order is identical with that of the gallant and devoted soldier-monks of the Crusades, it cannot be controverted that their Institution possessed some features of similarity to Freemasonry. The connection between the Knights Templar and the Masonic Institution has been repeatedly asserted by the friends and enemies of both. Bro. Lawrie says: "We know the Knights Templar not only possessed the mysteries, but performed the ceremonies, and inculcated the duties of Freemasons;" and he attributes the dissolution of the Order to the discovery of their being Freemasons, and assembling in secret to practice the rites of the Order. He endeavors to show that they were initiated into the Order by the Druses, a Syrian Fraternity which existed at that date, and indeed now continues. In a French MS. ritual of about 1780, in the degree of Black and White Eagle (30th), the transmission of Freemasonry by the Templars is most positively asserted. The history of the Templars and their persecution is minutely described in the closing address, and the Grand Commander adds: "This is, my illustrious brother, how and by whom Masonry is derived and has been transmitted to us. You are now a Knight Templar, and on a level with them." The Order of the Temple, in the twelfth century, was divided into three classes Knights, Priests, and Serving Brethren. Every candidate for admission into the first class must have received the honor of knighthood in due form, and according to the laws of chivalry, and consequently the Knights TemThe second class, or the plar were all men of noble birth. Priests, were not originally a part of the Order, but by the bull of Pope Alexander, known as the bull omne datum optimum, it was ordained that they might be admitted, to enable the Knights more commodiously to hear divine eer ^ce, and to receive the sacraments. Serving Brothers,
:

190
like the Priests,

KNI.

were not a part of the primitive institution. their existence to the increasing prosperity and luxury of the Order. Over this society, thus constituted, wag placed a presiding officer, with the title of Grand Master. His power, though great, was limited. He was in war the commander-in-chief of all the forces of the Temple. In his hands was placed the whole patronage of the Order, and as the vicegerent of the Pope, he was the spiritual head and bishop of all the clergy belonging to the society. He was,

They owed

however, much controlled and guided by the chapter, without whose consent he was never permitted to draw out or expend the money of the Order. The Grand Master resided originally at Jerusalem; afterward, when that city was lost, at Acre, and finally at Cyprus. His duty always required him to be in the Holy Land; ho, consequently, never resided in Europe. He was elected for life from among the Knights in the following manner: On the death of the Grand Master, a Grand Prior was chosen to administer the affairs of the Order until a successor could be elected. When the day, which had been appointed for the election, arrived, the chapter usitally assembled at the chief seat of the Order; three or more of the most esteemed Knights were then proposed, the Grand Prior collected the votes, and he who tiad received the greatest number was nominated to be the An Assistant was then associated with him electing Prior. in the person of another Knignt. These two remained all night in the chapel, engaged in prayer. In the morning, they chose two others, and these four, two more, and so on until the number of twelve (that of the Apostles) had been selected. The twelve then selected a chaplain. The thirteen then proceeded to vote for a Grand Master, who was elected by a majority of votes. When the election was completed, it was announced to the assembled brethren, and when all

had promised obedience, the Prior, if the person was present, said to him " In the name of God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, we have chosen, and do choose thee, Bro. N., to be our Master." Then, turning to the brethren, he said: " Beloved sirs and brethren, give thanks unto God, behold here our Master." The mode of reception into the Order is described to have been exceedingly solemn. novitiate was enjoined by the canons, though practically it was in general dispensed with. The candidate was received in a chapter assembled in the chapel of the Order, all strangers being rigorously excluded. The Preceptor opened the business with an address to those present, demanding if they knew any just cause or impediment why the candidate should not be admitted. If no objection was made, the candidate was conducted into an adjacent chamber, wher^ two or
:

A

ADMISSION OK A NOVICE TO THE VOWS OP THE ORDER OF THE

TEMPLE.

KNL

193

admission. He advanced, and kneeling before the Preceptor, with folded hands, said: "Sir, I am come before God, and before you and the brethren; and I pray and beseech you, for the sake of God, and our sweet Lady, to receive me into your society and the good works of the order, as one who, all his life long, will be the servant and slave of the order." The Preceptor then inquired of him if he had well considered all the trials and difficulties which awaited him in the order, adjured him on the Holy Evangelists to speak the truth, and then put to him the question which had already been put to him in the preparation-room, further inquiring if he was a Knight, and the son of a He Knight and gentlewoman, and if he was a priest. then asked him the following questions: " Do you promise to God, and Mary, our dear Lady, obedience, as long as you live, to the Master of the Temple, and the Prior who shall be set over you? do you promise chastity of the body? do you further promise a strict compliance with the laudable customs and usages of the order now in force, and such as the Master and Knights may hereafter add ? will you fight for and defend, with all your might, the Holy Land of Jerusalem, and never quit the order but with the consent of the Master and Chapter? and lastly, do you agree that you never will see a Christian unjustly deprived of his The answers inheritance, nor be aiding in such a deed?" to all these questions being in the affirmative, the Preceptor then said: "In the name of God, and of Mary, our dear Lady, and in the name of St. Peter of Rome, and our Father the Pope, and in the name of all the brethren of the Temple, we receive you to all the good works of the order, which have been performed from the beginning, and will be performed to the end, you, your father, your mother, and all those of your family whom you let participate therein. So you, in like manner, receive us to all the good

three of the Knights, placing before his view the rigor and austerities of the order, demanded if he still persisted in entering it. If he persisted, he was asked if he was married or betrothed, had mader a vow in any other order, if he owed more than he could pay, if he was of sound body, without If his answers proved any secret infirmity, and free? satisfactory, they left him and returned to the chapter, and the Preceptor again asked, if any one had anything to say If all were silent, he asked if against his being received. On their assenting, the they were willing to receive him. candidate was led in by the Knights who had questioned him, and who now instructed him in the mode of asking

works which you have performed and

will perform.

Wo

194

KNL

133d Psalm: "Behold, how good and how pleasant it is " and the prayer of the Holy Spirit, Deus qui corda Jidelium;" each brother said a pater, and the Preceptor and Chaplain kissed the
for brethren to dwell together in unity "
!

assure you of bread and water, the poor clothing of the and labor and toil enow." The Preceptor then took the white mantle, with its ruddy cross, placed it about his neck, and bound it fast. The Chaplain repeated the
order,

candidate.

He

then placed himself

at

the feet of the

Preceptor, who exhorted him to peace and charity, to chastity, obedience, humility, and piety, and so the ceremony was ended. The secret mysteries of the Templars, most of the historians say, were celebrated on Good Friday; aoa what those mysteries were, we discover from those who still carry them on as" their successors the order as kept up in France and other countries on the continent not the Masonic institution. They are accustomed in these secret rites to act over the events which took place on Thursday, Friday and Saturday of the Holy Week, and then solemnize with great pomp the resurrection of Christ. One writer, Rosetti, distinctly asserts that the Templars were a branch of the Masonic institution, whose great object in that age was the overthrow of the papal tyranny, and the monstrous fabric it had erected of idolatry, superstition, and impiety; and hence he traces the determination of the Pope to crush, at all hazards, the order of the Temple, with all its daring innovations. Though there is a great probability, if not a certainty, that Masonry was a leading feature in the Templar institution, we are inclined to believe that the mysteries of the craft were the

only secrets of their practice. The wonderful architectural and engineering worlds which, both in Asia and Europe, were constructed under the direction of the Templars and Hosmore particularly the former are, it seems to us, pitallers very striking evidence of the Masonic origin of the Knights. Gervase of Canterbury, who wrote in the twelfth century, speaks of both French and English artificers, skillful to work in stone and in wood, who traveled in guilds or societies, for the purpose of proffering their services wherever the architect's and builder's art required to be exercised. These were the
possessed the requisite knowledge, and from and princes frequently impressed by violence workmen whom they required to construct their palaces or fortresses. They were the operative Freemasons, to whose surpassing skill and knowledge of the laws of beauty and just proportion we are indebted for the magnificent cathedrals which adorn many parts of Europe. They met in Lodges close tiled from the vulgar gaze, and pursued the

only

men who

their ranks kings

KNI

195

under the sanction of the throne practice of their mystic rites and the church. The traveling bodies of Freemasons, which we have mentioned, consisted of brethren well skilled in every branch of knowledge; among their ranks were many learned ecclesiastics, whose names survive to the present day in the magnificent edifices which they assisted to erect. The Knights of the Temple, themselves a body of military monks, partaking both of the character of soldiers and a rank exclusively clerical, priests, preserved in their Order the individuals belonging to which took no part in warfare, who were skilled in letters, and devoted themselves to the civil and religious affairs of the Order; they were the historians of the period, and we know that all the learning of the time was in their keeping, in common with the other
can be little doubt that these learned clerks introduced the whole fabric of Craft Masonry into the system of knighthood, and that not only was the speculative branch of the science by them incorporated with the laws and organization of the Knights, but to their operative skill were the Templars indebted for their triumphs in architecture and fortification. We have shown that the early Freemasons were the architects of all structures above the hovels of the peasantry; and we have endeavored to trace to Masonic influence the eminence
in structural science by the various knightly orders. In our opinion, there is little room to doubt that the practice of Masonry soon became a prominent feature of the Order, and that Masonic secrets alone were the far-famed mysteries of the Templars. As it is evident that these pursuits would not in the eyes of the world appear to further the original objects of the chivalric orders, we cannot be surprised that the knights made no profession of their Masonic studies; pexiiaps, even at that remote period, there was a well-grounded fear of the animosity which has been since so fearfully developed in the church of Home That power has ever trembled against all secret societies. at the progress of liberality and science, knowing full well that in proportion as the intellect of man is strengthened by freedom of thought, her influence, founded upon blind
ecclesiastics of their day. From the best information possessed of regarding the Order, we believe there

we

are

attained

superstition and puerile credulity, must gradually disappear from the earth. In illustration of the alarm of the papal church at societies of this kind, we will refer, though not strictly belonging to our subject, to the Academy of Secrets, established in Italy in the sixteenth century, by Baptista This association Porta, for the advancement of science. was called I Secreti, and was accessible only to such as had

made some new

or discover}' (real

supposed) in physical

196

KNL

science. Porta did not content himself with this private of instruction and education; he also, to the utmost of his power, promoted public academies, wherein were taught the then recondite sciences of chemistry, optics, and

means

His voluminous works extended his fame, and he was visited by the learned from all parts of Europe. Such a man, in that age, could not escape the notice and pressing attentions of the Holy Church. Writing, of course, much that was perfectly incomprehensible to the ignorant priests of the time, he was summoned to Rome to answer for his conduct and opinions.
natural history.

KNIGHT OF THE BRAZEN SERPENT. The 25th The history oi degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. this degree is founded upon the events described in the Book
of Numbers xxi. 6-9.* The body is styled the Council, and represents the camp of the Israelites in the wilderness, after the death of Aaron. The camp, standards, and tabernacle with its court, are arranged as in the 23d and 24th degrees. In the East is a transparency on which is painted a cross, with a serpent coiled round it and over the arms. The teaching and moral of the degree is FAITH. The presiding officer represents Moses, and is styled "Most Puissant Leader." The candidate is called "A Traveller." The hangings of the council are red
* "And the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died. Therefore, the people came to Moses, and said, We have sinned, for we have spoken against the Lord, and against thee; pray unto the Lord, that he take away the serpents from us. And Moses prayed for the people. And the Lord said unto Moses, make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole: and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he looketh upon And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a it, shall live. pole, and it came to pass that if a serpent had bitten any man, when h beheld the serpent of brass, he lived." The ritual says that Moses, in obedience to the divine command, placed the brazen serpent upon the tau, and every one who looked upon it was directed to pronounce the word hatathi, "I have sinned;" and having done this, he was immediately

healed.

KNL

197

Hud blue. The jewel is a tau cross, of gold, surmounted by a circle the Crux Ansata round which a serpent is entwined, suspended by a red ribbon. The legend states that this degree was founded during the time of the crusades in the Holy Land, as a military and monastic order, and gave it the name it bears, in allusion to the healing and saving
virtues of the brazen serpent* among the Israelites in the wilderness it being part of the obligation of the Knights to receive and gratuitously nurse sick travelers, protect them against the attacks of the infidels, and escort them safely through Palestine.

Rome by Pope Alexaudei*, for the defense and the Holy See. Circumstances, however, occurred which rendered some changes necessary, and he called on the worthy Knights of St. John to assist him, as they were well known to be faithful and zealous followers of the Lord. That no stranger should gain admission and discover the secrets of this august assembly, the Order of the Christian Mark was conferred on the members. The motto of the Order is " Ghristus regnal, vincit, triumphal" "Rex regum, et Christ reigns, conquers, and triumphs. Dominus dominorum." King of kings, and Lord o lords. The body is called a conclave. The officers are 1. Invincible Knight; 2. Senior Knight; 3. Junior Knight; 4. Six Grand Ministers; 5. Recorder; 6. Treasurer; 7. Conductor; 8. Guard The jewel is a triangular plate of gold with seven eyes engraved on one side, and the letter G within a five-pointed star on the other.
was
first

KNIGHT OF THE CHRISTIAN MARK, AND GUARD OF THE CONCLAVE. According to the traditions of this degree it
created at

of his person

:

KNIGHT OF CONSTANTINE. This degree, sometimes, but improperly, styled " Knight of Constantinople," is an auxiliary or side degree; the legend thereof refers to the time of Constantine Perphyrogenitus, who became Emperor A. D. 911. It may be conferred on any Master Mason in good standing, by any one who is legally in possession ol who are it, with the aid of at least five other Master Masons
also Knights of the degree. The body is styled a Preceptoi-y and the presiding officer is called Preceptor.
set up was preserved as a memorial the time of Hezekiah more than 7UO years who, in removed the high places, and brake the images, and extirpating idolatry, cut down the groves, and brake in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made; for until those days the children of Israel did burn incense to it." This was a bold measure; for some kings, however determined on the extirpation of idolatry, would have hesitated at the destruction oi that which was certainly in itself an interesting memorial of a remarkable uiainlesstation of tho power of God.
*

The brazen serpent which Moses
till
' '

of the miracle

17

198

KNL

KNIGHT OF THE EAST OR SWORD.
of the Ancient

The 15th degree

and Accepted

rite.

It refers to those valiant

Masons who, with trowels

in hand and swords by their sides, were ever ready to construct and defend the Holy City and Sanctuary. It is founded on the circumstance of the assistance rendered' by Darius to the Jews, who, liberated from their captivity by Cyrus, had been prevented by their enemies from rebuilding the temple. This degree requires three apartments, styled Hall of the West and Hall of the East, between which must be an ante-chamber or passage, repreThe first senting the road from Jerusalem to Persia. apartment represents the encampment of the Masons among the ruins of Jerusalem. The hangings are crimson. The room is lighted with 70 lights, disposed in groups of 7 each, in commemoration of the 70 years captivity. The second apartment represents the council chamber of Cyrus, King of Persia, and should be decorated according to the customs of the Orientals. In the ante-room, separating the two apartments, must be a solid bridge, resembling stone, with a The jewel, of representation of running water under it. gold, is three triangles, one within the other, diminishing in size, and inclosing two naked swords, crossed hilts downward, resting on the base of the inner triangle. From Scripture and tradition is derived the following legend of this degree: The Knights of the East derive their origin from the captivity, when the whole land was a "desolation and an astonishment," and the nation did " serve the King of Babylon seventy years." And when the seventy years were accomplished, the Israelites were restored to liberty by Cyrus, in fulfillment of the prophecy of Jeremiah. Cyrus permitted the Jews to return to Jerusalem for the purpose jf rebuilding the temple, and he caused all the holy vessels

KNI
to

199

and ornaments which had been carried away by Nebuzaradan "be restored, and brought again into the temple which is at Jerusalem, every one to his place, and place them in The king committed the the house of God" (Ezra vi. 5).
charge of the holy vessels, as well as of the returning captives, to Sheshbazzar, the prince of Judah; this is the Babylonian us me of Zerubbabel, who was of the royal line of David. When the Israelitish captives were assembled they numbered
42,300, exclusive of slaves and servants amounting to 7,33'~ This traditional history relates that Zerubbabel, for the protection of his people, armed 7,000 Masons, and placed them in the van to repel such as should oppose their march to Judea. Their march was unimpeded as far as the banks of the Euphrates, where they found an armed force opposed to their conflict ensued, and the enemy was cut to pieces passage. or drowned at the passage of the bridge. The emblematic color of the degree is in allusion to this circumstance. The journey occupied four months, and in seven days from their arrival the work of restoring the temple was commenced. The workmen were divided into classes, over each of which a chief, with two assistants, was placed. Every degree of each class was paid according to its rank, and each class had its distinctive modes of I'ecognition. The works had scarcely

A

commenced

before the

neighboring Samaritans,

workmen were disturbed by who were determined to oppose
edifice.

the the reconstruction of the

Zerubbabel

therefore ordered, as a measure of precaution, that the Masons should work with a

sword in one hand and a trowel in the other, that they might be able at any moment to defend themselves from the attacks of
their enemies.
THE 80LDIKK MASONS BUILDING THE SECOND TEMPLK.

The

gecond temple OCCU-

pied about 20 years in its construction, and was consecrated in a like manner to that of the Temple of Solomon. Those Masons who constructed it were created by Cyrus Knights of the East, and hence the title of this degree. Thia degree appears in both the French rites; in the Grand Orient it is the 6th; in both it is termed Knight of the East. The assembly is called a Council. Everything bears a Hebrew character; there are the candlestick with seven branches, the brazen sea, and the table of shewbread. etc

200

KNI.

of the Council is designated Sovereign, and repreZerubbabel and two others sents Cyrus, King of Persia. receive the authority from the King of Persia to rebuild the

Tho Chief

Holy City and Sanctuary.

THE TBACTNG-BOABD OF THE DEGKEE.*

KNIGHTS OF THE EAST AND WEST.
of the
ical,

The 17th degree

Ancient and Accepted

rite.

It is entirely philosoph-

and makes no pretense

Its origin dates

1118

in its history with Freemasonry. back to the time of the crusades; that in the same year that the Order of the Temple was

* The Tracing-board of the degree is a heptagon within a circle, the upper portion forming a rainbow. At the angles of the heptagon, on the are the initials of the seyen words which are on the capitals of the outside, Columns; at the angles, on the inside, are the initials of the seven words Thich are on the bases of the columns. Near the center of the heptagon is the figure of a man in a long white robe, with a golden girdle round his waist, and standing on a section of the globe; hair and beard white is snow his right hand extended, holding seven stars surrounding the i his head encircled by a glory emanating from a delta; a two-edged flaming sword in his mouth. Around him stand seven golden candlesticks, with candles burning and over each of these, one of the letters E. S. P. T. S. P. L. the initials of the names of the seven churches Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatria, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea. The sun and moo
;

;

;

,

are >Uso depicted,

and the basin and chafing

dish.

KNI.
instituted

201

eleven Knights took the vows of secrecy, friendbetween the hands of the Patriarch oi Jerusalem. The Lodge-room is in the shape of a heptagon, hung with crimson, sprinkled with stars of gold. In each angle is a square column; on the capitals of which are the initials, respectively, of the following words Beauty, Divinity, Wisdom, Power, Honor, Glory, Force; and on the bases of these columns are the initials, respectively, of the words
ship,

and

discretion,

:

Friendship, Union, Resignation, Discretion, Fidelity^ Prudence, and Temperance. On each column is a brilliart light. Bodies of this degree are called Preceptories. The Master is styled Venerable, and represents John the Baptist. The jewel is a heptagonal medal of gold and silver. On one side are engraved, at the angles, the same letters as are upon the square columns, with a star over each. In the center of it on the same side, is a lamb, lying on a book with seven seals; on the seals are, respectively, the same letters. On the reverse side are two swords crosswise, points upward, and the hilts resting on an even balance; iu the corners are the initials of the seven churches.

KNIGHT OF THE HOLY SEPULCHER. St. Helena, daughter of Coylus, King of Great Britain, visited Jerusalem
in 296, in

search of
it

the cross

and sepulcher

of

Christ.

she instituted this order in 302, which was confirmed by Pope Marcellinus in 304. The duties enjoined on the Knights were; 1. Feed the Hungry; 2. Give chink to the thirsty; 3. Clothe the naked; 4. Visit and ransom captives; 5. Harbor the homeless, and give the widow and orphan where to lay their heads; 6. Visit and relieve the sick; 7. Bury the dead.

Having been, as

is

said, successful,

KNIGHT KADOSH, OR KNIGHT OF THE WHITE AND BLACK EAGLE. The 30th degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. There are several degrees known as Kadoshes. The French rituals mention seven: 1. That of the Hebrews; 2. That oi the first Christians; 3. That of the Crusades; 4. That of the Templars; 5. That of Cromwell, or the Puritans; 6. That oi the Jesuits; 7. The Grand Veritable Kadosh, "apart from every sect, free of all ambition, which opens its arms to all men, and has no enemies other than vice, crime, fanatic-ism, asid superstition." Its ritual furnishes the history of the destruction of the Templars by the united efforts of Philip of France and Pope Clement V. In this degree, wjen there is a reception, four apartments are used. In the first and secctid apartments, the Lodge is termed Council; in the The presiding third, Areopagus; in the fourth, the Senate.
officer is styled

Most

Illustrious

Grand Commander.

Thf

202

KNI.

jewel is a Teutonic cross, and is thus described, in heraldic " A cross potent sable, charged with another crosa language double potent or, surcharged with an escutcheon, bearing
:

the letters J. B. M. ; the principal cross surmounted by a azure seme of France." On the reverse, a skull transpierced by a poniard. The stated meetings of all councils of Kadosh are held January 6; on Good Friday; on Ascension day, and on November 2, in each year. No one of these is ever, on any account, to be omitted.
chief,

KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF THE DOVE. In the year 1784 a secret society of both sexes was framed on the model of Freemasonry; its meetings were held at Versailles under the title of Chevaliers et Chevalieres de la Colombe. Its existence

was

of brief duration.

of St. John of as Knights of Rhodes, and This society was organized finally called Knights of Malta. as a military order about the year 1048, for the protection of pilgrims who visited Jerusalem. They became eminent for their devotion to the cause of religion, their boundless charity, and noble hospitality; rapidly increased in numbers and in wealth. After long and bloody contests with the

KNIGHTS OF MALTA.

The Knights

Jerusalem, afterward

known

they were finally driven from Palestine, when they took possession of Cyprus, which they soon lost again, and hen established themselves on the island of Rhodes; at ^hich time (1309) they took the name of Knights of Rhodes. They held this island for a period of two hundred years, when they were attacked by the Turks and driven from it. After this disaster they successively retired to Castro, Messino, and other places, until, in 1530, when the Emperor Charles V. bestowed upon them the island of Malta, on the condition of their defending it from the depredations of the Turks and pirates who then infested the Mediterranean. At this time they assumed the title of Knights of Malta, by which name they have ever since been known. In 1565, the island of Malta was besieged by Soliman II. and thirty thousand Turkish soldiers, on which occasion the Knights suffered immense loss, from which they never entirely recovered. After one of the most persistent and noble defenses known in modern warfare, the brave Knights were overcome, the fort of St. Elmo was taken, and the island was, for a time, in the hands of the infidels. At length the promised succor came; the viceroy of Sicily, with a large army, reached the island in safety, the troops disembarked; and, though the Turks still possessed the advantage of numbers, a panic seized them.
infidels

DEFENSE OF FORT SAINT ELMO, MALTA, AGAINST THE TURKS, IN 15C5, BY THE KNIGHTS OF MALTA, UNDER THE COMMAND OF JOHS DE LA VALETTE, GRAND MASTER.

KNL
and they

205

fled. Joy and triumph succeeded to danger and dread. This may justly be regarded as the last great event in the military history of the Order of St. John. The siege was raised Sept. 8, 1565, and so late as the year 1784, at Malta on that day, an annual procession was solemnly made in memory of their deliverance. June 9, 1798, the island ol Malta was taken by the French, under Bonaparte. In the same year the Knights chose Paul I., Emperoi of Russia, as

his protection. Upon the reduction of the island by the English, in 1800, the chief seat of the Order was transferred tc Catania, in Sicily, whence in 1826, it was removed by authority of the Pope to Ferrara. The last public reception of the Order took place at Sonne-

Grand Master, who took them under

burg in 1800, when Leopold, King of Belgium, Prince Ernest, and several other noblemen were created Knights according to the long-established customs of the Order. The assembly is called a Council. The officers are: 1. Com2. Generalissimo; 3. Captain General; 4. Prelate; Senior Warden; 6. Junior Warden 7. Treasurer; 8. Recorder; 9. First Grand; 10. Second Grand; 11. Standard The Order must be Bearer; 12. Warder; 13. Sentinel. confei'red in an asylum of a legal Comrnandery of Knights a Council of the Order of Malta, regularly conTemplar, or vened for the purpose, distinct from, and after, the Templar's Order. The ancient ceremonies of reception were simple and impressive: "The novice was made to understand that he was 'about to put off the old man, and to be regenerated;'
5.
;

mander;

m

and having received absolution, was required

to present himself in a secular habit, without a girdle, in order to appear perfectly free on entering into so sacred an engagement, and with a burning taper in his hand, representing He then received the holy communion, and afterchastity. ward presented himself 'most respectfully before the person who was to perform the ceremony, and requested to be received into the company of Brothers, and into the Holy Order of the Hospital of Jerusalem.' The rules of the Order, the obligations he was about to take upon himself, and the duties that would be required of him being explained, he, <vith great solemnity, vowed and promised to render henceforward, by the grace of God, perfect obedience to the Superior placed over him by the choice of the Order, to live without personal property, and to preserve his chastity.' The brother who received him then said &s f< illows We acknowledge you the servant of the poor and sick, and as having consecrated yourself to the service of the church.'
'
' :

To which he answered:

'I acknowledge myself as such.' He then kissed the book and returned it to the brother, who received him, in token ul' personal obedience. He was then

206

KNL
A

invested with the mantle of the Order, in such a manner as that the cross fell on his left breast. variety of other minor ceremonies followed, and the whole was concluded with a series of appropriate and solemn prayers." The Order of the Knight of Malta is conferred in a Commandery of Knights Templar, and is acknowledged in the United States as one of the orders of Masonic knighthood.

KNIGHT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN
times called KNIGHT OF ST. PAUL.

PASS, some

degree, conIts cereferred on Knights Templar and Knights of Malta. monies are very impressive, and its organization into councils, governed by appropriate officers, assimilates its forms to that of on 3 of the regular degrees of Masonry. The ritual of this degree informs us that it was founded about the year 1367, in consequence of certain events which occurred to the Knights of Malta. In an excursion made by a party of these Knights in search of forage and provisions, they were attacked while crossing the river Offanto (the ancient Aufidio), by a large body of Saracens, under the command of the renowned

An honorary

The Saracens had concealed themselves in Ainurath I. ambush, and when the Knights were on the middle of the bridge which spanned the river, they were attacked by a sudden charge of their enemies upon both extremities of the bridge. A long and sanguinary contest ensued; the Knights fought with their usual valor, and were at length victorious. The Saracens were defeated with such immense slaughter that fifteen hundred of their dead bodies encumbered the bridge, and the river was literally stained with their blood. In commemoration of this event, and as a reward for their
Knights were affranchised in all parts of the Mediterranean coasts, that is to say, had free permission to pass and repass, wherever and whenever they pleased, from which circumstance the degree, which was then founded, received its name of "Mediterranean Pass." It will be seen from these details that there is no real connection between this degree and that given under the same name to Royal Arch Masons, although there is some internal evidence that the latter was surreptitiously obtained from, and is only a corruption of, the former. "[See MEDITERRANEAN PASS.]
valor, the victorious

KNIGHT OF THE NINTH ARCH,
tlu

sometimes called

AXCIENT ROYAL ARCH OF SOLOMON. The 13th degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. The ceremonies of this degree afford abundant information on certain points, in which the sacred volume is not entirely free from obscurity, and these have reference to the mode in which Enoch, notwithstanding the destruction caused by the deluge, and the

KNI

207

lapse ol ages, was enabled to preserve the true name in its purity; that it might eventually be communicated to the first possessors of this degree. The body is called a Chapter,and represents the audience chamber of King Solomon. The hangings are altei-nately red and white. The presiding officer
is

styled

Solomon.
white.

Grand Master," and represents King The apron and collar are purple, bordered with The jewel is a gold triangle: on one side is engraved
Thrice Potent

"

the delta of Enoch, surrounded with rays; on the obverse ia a representation of two persons letting down a third through a square opening into an arch. Around this device are the " K. letters: S. R. S. T. P. S. R. I. A. J. S., Anno Enochi, 2995."

KNIGHTS AND NYMPHS OF THE ROSE. An
A

Order

of Adoptive or Androgynous Masonry, established in Paris toward the close of the eighteenth century; but its exfull history of the ceremonies are istence was brief. furnished for the benefit of the curious. The place of meeting " was called The Temple of Love." It was ornamented with garlands of flowers, and hung round with escutcheons, on which were painted various devices and scenes of gallantry.

There were two presiding

officers,

Hierophaut, the female the High-Priestess.

initiated men, the latter women. of the men was called Sentiment, that of the women DiscreThe Knights wore a crown of myrtle; the Nymphs a tion. crown of roses. The Hierophant and High-Priestess wore, in addition, a rose-colored scarf, on which were embroidered two devices within a myrtle wreath. One dull taper was the only light during the initiation; at the closing business the hall was illuminated by numerous wax candles. When a candidate was to be initiated, he or she was taken in charge by Sentiment or Discretion, divested of all weapons, jewels, or money, hoodwinked, and loaded with chains, and conducted to the door of the Temple of Love, where admission was demanded by

being styled The former The Conductor Assistant

the

man

two knocks. When admitted and presented, the candidate was asked his or her name, country, condition in society, and having answered these questions was asked, "What are you now seeking?" to this the answer was, "Happiness."

The interrogatory then proceeds a little further, "What ia your age?" and the candidate has, if a male, to reply, "The age to love;" the female, "The age to please and to be loved." The candidate's feelings and opinions on matters of gallantry are further probed, and all being satisfactory, the chains are removed and replaced by garlands of flowers, which are After some other probationary called "the chains of love."
exercises of a like character, the

OB

is

promise and swear by

tbf>

Grand Master

administered: "I of the Universe

208

KNI.

never to reveal the secrets of the Order of the Rose, and should I fail in this my vow, may the mysteries I shall receive add nothing to my pleasures, and, instead of the roses of of repentance." happiness, may I find nothing but thorns The candidates were then conducted to the mysterious groves in the neighborhood of the Temple of Love, and during the time there spent, slow and delicious music in march style These trials ended, the novice is next conis played. ducted to the altar of mystery, placed at the foot of the Hierophant's throne, and there incense is offered to Venus and her son Cupid; a brief space spent there, and after some more ceremonies of a like character, the bandage is removed from the novitiate's eyes, and with delicious music, and in a are brilliantly lighted apartment, the signs and secrets

communicated.

KNIGHT OF THE BED CEOSS. This degree is intimately connected with the circumstances related in the Eoyal Arch degree, and cannot be conferred upon any one who has not been exalted to that sublime degree. Its history dates from the close of the captivity of the Jews at Babylon, when Cyrus, King of Persia, at the solicitation of Zerubbabel, the Prince of Judah, restored the Jews to liberty, and permitted them to return to Jerusalem, to rebuild their city and temple. The ceremonies of the degree forcibly illustrate some of the difficulties and interruptions encountered by them in their labors. A full history of the degree will be found in Josephus, and in the 3d and 4th chapters of the first Book
of Esdras.
It is the initiatory

grade to the Templar's degree.

The body is

called a Council.

The presiding

officer is styled

Sovereign Master.

KNIGHT OF THE ROYAL AXE,
The 22d degree
of the Ancient

OB PRINCE OF LIBANUS.

and Accepted rite. The legend of this degree informs us that it was instituted to record the memorable services rendered to Masonry by the mighty cedars of Lebanon, as the Sidonian architects cut down the

cedars for the construction of Noah's ark. Our ancient brethren do not tell us how the Israelites had the wood conveyed to them from the land of promise to the mountains in the wilderness. They say, however, that the descendants of the Sidonians were employed in the same place, in obtaining materials for the construction of the ark of the covenant; and also, in later years, for building Solomon's Temple; and, lastly, that Zerubbabel employed laborers of the same people in cutting cedars of Lebanon for the use of the second temple. The tradition adds that the Sidouians formed colleges on Mount Libanus, and always

KXI

209

adored the G. A. O. T. U.* Bodies of this degree are styled There are two apartments; the first representing the workshop at Lebanon, with axes, saws, mallets, planes, wedges, and such like implements. The room should be lighted with lamps or candles. In this apartment the Senior Warden presides, and is styled Master Carpenter. He and all the brethren wear blouses and aprons. The second apartment represents the council-room of the round table. It is hung with red, and lighted with 36 lights, arranged by sixes and each 6 by twos. In the center of the room is a round table around which the brethren sit; on the table are plans and mathematical instruments. The presiding officer is Chief Prince, who is styled Thrice Puissant The sash, to be worn from right to left, is a broad rainbowcolored ribbon, lined with The apron is white, purple. lined and bordered with purple; in the middle a round table is painted, on which are mathematical instruments,
Colleges.

and plans

unrolled.

On

the

flap is a serpent with three

heads. The jewel is a golden having on the blade and handle the initials of several personages illustrious in the history of Masonry.
axe, crowned,

KNIGHT OF THE
known by
*

the

OF THE SUN,"

"KEY TO MASONRY."

SUN, OB PRINCE ADEPT. Sometimes names "THE PHILOSOPHICAL LODGE," " PRINCE
It is the 28th degree of

Sidon was one of the most ancient cities of the world, and even in the time of Homer, the Sidonians were celebrated for their trade and commerce, their wealth and prosperity. The allusion to the on Mount Libanus may have some reference to the secret "Colleges" sect of tha Druses, who still exist in that country, and whose mysterious ceremonies, travelers affirm, have considerable to Freemasonry. affinity

210
the Ancient and Accepted

KXI.
rite,

and

is strictly

philosophical

and

scientific.

The ceremonies and

lecture,

which are

oi

great length, furnish a history of all the preceding degrees, and explain in the fullest manner the various Masouio emblems. The great object of the degree is to inspire men with the knowledge of Heavenly Truth, which is the pure source of all perfection, and as this virtue is one of the three great tenets of Masonry it deserves commendation. The body is styled a Council, and consists of not less than ten members. The walls should be painted to represent the

chamber
glass, in

jpen country, mountains, plains, forests and fields. The is lighted by a single light, a great globe of ground

the South; this represents the sun. The only In the East light is from the transparencies. is suspended a transparency, displaying the sign of the macrocosm, or of the seal of King Solomon the interlaced In the West is triangles ; one white and the other black. suspended a transparency displaying the sign of a microcosm, or the pentagram traced on a pure white ground with lines of vermilion, and with a single point upward. Many other
additional transparencies, symbolizing objects of great importance, are appropriately arranged around the chamber, particularly the accompanying figures, which are placed in the North. On the right hand of the presiding officer, in the East, on a gilt a Caducetis, pedestal, is gilded, the upper part of it a cross, surmounted by a
;

and with two serglobe pents twining around il> their heads rising above the cross. The ceiling should represent the heavens, with the crescent moon in the West, the principal planets, and the stars, in the constellations Taurus and Orion and those near the The polar star. presiding officer is styled Father Adam. The Warden sits in the West, and is called Brother Truth; there are seven Kher officers, who are styled Brothers Gabriel, Auriel, Michael, Gamaliel, Raphael, Zaphiel and Zarakhiel. The collar is a broad white watered ribbon; on the right side

KNI.

sn

painted or embroidered BJ eye, The apron is of pure in gold. white lambskin, with no edging or ornament, except the pentagram, which is traced on the middle of it with vermilion. The
jewel
globe.
ferred,
is

a

medal

side a full sun,

of gold, on one on the other a
is

When

the degree

con-

no jewel or apron is worn.

The natural desire of visiting KNIGHTS those holy places which have been sanctified by the presence, and rendered memorable by the sufferings of the founder of the Christian religion, drew, during the early ages of
crowds of devout worshipers and pilgrims to this religious enthusiasm arrive that, in 1064, not less than 7,000 pilgrims assembled from all parts of Europe around the holy sepulcher. The year following Jerusalem was conquered by the wild Turcomans, three thousand of the citizens were massacred, and the command over the holy city and territory was confided
Christianity,

TEMPLAR

Jerusalem.

To such a height did

to the

Emir Ortok, the chief of a savage pastoral tribe. the iron yoke of these fierce northern strangers, the Christians were fearfully oppressed; they were driven from their churches and plundered, and the patriach of the holy city was dragged by the hair of his head over the sacred pavement of the Church of the Resurrection, and cast into a dungeon, to extort a ransom from the sympathy of his flock. The intelligence of these cruelties aroused the religious

Under

chivalry of Christendom; "a nerve was touched of exquisite feeling, and the sensation vibrated to the heart of Europe." Then arose the wild enthusiasm of the Crusades, and men

and even priests and monks, were animated with the "pious and glorious enterprise" of rescuing the holy sepulcher of Christ from the foul and polluting abominations of the heathen. When the intelligence of the capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders (A. D. 1099) had been conveyed to Eui'ope, the zeal of pilgrimage blazed forth with increased fierceness. The infidels had, indeed, been driven out of Jerusalem, but not out of Palestine.
of all ranks,

The

lofty mountains bordering the sea coast were infested by warlike bands of fugitive Musselmeu, who maintained themselves in various impregnable castles and strongholds, from whence they issued forth upon the high roads, cut off the communication between Jerusalem and the seaports, and revenged themselves for the loss of their habita-

tions

aud property by the indiscriminate

pillage

of

all

212
travelers.

KNI.

temple on Mount Moriah; thenceforward they became known " by the name of THE KNIGHTHOOD OF THE TEMPLE OF SOLOMON." The views and exertions of the Order now became more extensive, and it added to its profession, of protecting poor pilgrims, that of defending the kingdom of Jerusalem, and the whole eastern church, from the attacks of infidels. Hugues de Payens was chosen by the Knights to be the superior of the new religious and military society, by the " The Master of the title of Temple," and he has, consequently, generally been called the founder of the Order. The name and reputation of the Order spread rapidly through Europe, and many princes, nobles, and gentlemen of the best houses of France, Germany, Italy, and England, became members of it. In 1128 they received rules and regulations for their governance from the Pope, which had been expressly arranged for them by St. Bernard. The illustrious Order of the Temple has, through many vicissitudes, survived to our times; and, indeed, of late years a great, and we may say an astonishing, influence has been exercised in the Masonic Craft by this brotherhood in England, on the continent of Europe, and in the United States. Notwithstanding the persecution the Order was subjected to, consequent upon the machinations of Philip le Bel and Pope Clement, it continued to exist, if not to flourish. Jaques de Molay, the martyred Grand Master, in anticipation of his fate, appointed his successor to rule the Fraternity, and from that time to the present there has been an uninterrupted succession of Grand Masters.
It is time that as years passed on, and clouds arose still more ominous to the existence of the society, the Templars were amalgamated with their ancient brothers in arms, the Knights of Malta. The Knights Templar degree is highly valued in all countries, and its ritual is nearly identical. The candidate for its honors must be a Royal Arch Mason, and as such he presents himself at the Commandery as the bodies are called in the character and garb of a pilgrim, palmer, as they were designated in the Holy Land; h
i

mountains, to the Holy City. Warmed with the religions and military fervor of the day, and animated bj the sacredness of the cause to which they had devoted their Bwords, they called themselves the Poor Fellow-soldiers of Jesus In 1118 Baldwin EL, King of Jerusalem, granted Christ. them a place of habitation within the sacred inclosure of the
defiles of the

To alleviate the dangers and distresses to which were exposed, nine noble gentlemen, who had greatly they and capture of Jerudistinguished themselves at the siege into salem, formed a holy brotherhood in arms, and entered a solemn compact to aid one another in clearing the highthe passes and ways, and in protecting the pilgrims through

i-

KNI.

213

figuratively undergoes seven years' travel, and then seven years' warfare, when, having conducted himself courageously through his trials, he is finally admitted into the Order. There is not a vestige of Freemasonry, as such, in the degree, save the absolute necessity of candidates having been admitted The throne is situated in the East, into the Royal Arch.

above which is suspended a white banner, on which is painted a red passion cross, edged with gold and irradiated at the crossings with rays of light; on the right and left are two sky-blue banners, on one of which is painted a Paschal Lamb and a red Templar's Cross, with the words " The will of God." On the other, the emblems of the Order are displayed. The symbolic colors of the Order are white and black, properly interspersed with gold and silver. The Grand Standard of the Order is displayed in the West, in charge The Beauseant, or battle-flag of of the Standard-bearer. the Ancient Templars, is displayed in the South, in charge The following is the Templar of the Senior Warden. uniform adopted by the Grand Encampment of the United BLack frock coat, black States, September, 1862: Full Dress
pantaloons, scarf, sword, belt, shoulder-straps, gauntlets and chapeau, with appropriate trimmings. Fatir/ue Dress Same as full dress, except for chapeau a black cloth cap, navy form, with appropriate cross in front, and for gauntlets white gloves. In the United States, the assembly is called a Cornmandery, and has the following officers: 1. Eminent Commander; 2. Generalissimo; 3. Captain General; 4. Prelate; 5. Senior
6. Junior Warden; 7. Treasurer; 8. Recorder; Standard-Bearer; 10. Sword-Bearer; 11. Warder; 12. Three Guards; 13. Sentinel. Commanderies are dedicated to Saint John the Almoner. The candidate receiving this Order is said to be " dubbed and created a Knight of the valiant and

Warden;
9.

magnanimous" Order
the Order
is,

of

Knights Templar."

In hoc signo vinces"

in this sign

The motto of we conquer.

honorary or moral character. Its history connects it with the completion and dedication of the first temple. The presiding officer represents King Solomon. It is intended, by an appropriate ceremony and interesting legend, to portray the beauty of that harmony and peace which should exist among all Masons, and it has been often used in a judicious manner, and on appropriate occasions, to reconcile differences amonjy Masons, and to subdue that spirit of strife which will sometimes exhibit itself in despite of the philanthropic lessons of our Order. -It may be communicated by one Master Mason to another, but to be conferred in ample t'oini the presence of at least five Knights is necfcbs;;ry.
Bide degree of high

KNIGHT OF THE THREE KINGS. An

2H

KNL
Tin's

founded in 3080. It is held in a Sovereign Council. The Master is styled Grand Commander; the Wardens Sublime and the Knights; the Master of Ceremonies Grand Esquire, other members Knights. The jewel is three crosses arranged in a square. History In 1080, Solyman, Prince of the
Turks, established the seat of his Empire, or rather of his tyranny, at Nicopolis, in Syria Minor. Among many pilgrims who then resorted to the holy places of Palestine a Frenchman, named Pierre Clement, made the journey to Jerusalem, in 1093, and then, conferring with Simon the patriarch, offered to convey letters from him to_the Pope and all the western princes, to arouse them to expel from the Holy Land those barbarians and infidels. The good patriarch accepted his offer, and entrusted to him all the letters for which he asked. Pierre Clement embarked without delay, and repaired to the court of the Pope, where he presented the letters of the patriarch to Urban II., who sent him into all the provinces on either side of the Alps, to negotiate with the princes, and publicly to preach the crusades. All who were made acquainted with the designs of the Pope exhibited much zeal for so holy an undertaking; but Urban thought it fitting to convoke a council, in which he himseli During this council, which was held in 1095, presided. he addi'essed the members in the great hall of the city, and so excited the council, that all cried out together, as if in " concert, Dieu le Veut!" The Pope willed that a cry, which was so good an omen, should become the device of the whole army, be borne on the flags and standards, and be the warcry of the soldiery, and even of their captains in battle, to animate each other to deeds of daring. And he determined that those who enlisted in this service should wear a red cross upon the right shoulder, to show that they were the soldiers of him who had conquered the cross. Many princes took up the cross, and they were conjointly the chiefs of that holy enterprise, without any one of them claiming to have the right to command the others.
mystical Order by Baron Hans Heinrich and some of his friends. Its ritual and teachings were a mixture of the mysteries of Rosi crucians and Asiatic brothers. It had five degrees: 1. Knight Novice of the third y<?ar; 2. Knight Novice of the fifth year; 3. Knight Novice of the seventh year; 4. Levite; 5. Priest. This Order belongs to the Hermetic or Alchemistical system of Masonry.

KNIGHT OF THE TRIPLE CROSS.

Order was

KNIGHT OF THE TRUE LIGHT. A
A. D.

founded in Austria,

1780, probably

LAB.

215

L.

LABARUM. The
Emperor commemoration
Great,

imperial standard of Constantine the of Rome, which he caused to be formed in of the vision of the cross in the heavens. It is described as a long pike surmounted by a golden

first letters

crown, inclosing a monogram which contains the t\ro of the name of Christ, and is at the same time a representation of the figure of the cross. The
silken banner which depended from it was embroidered The with the figure of Constantine and his family. labarum is engraved on some of his medals with the

inscription, EN TOYTO NIK A; and it was preserved for a considerable time, and brought forward at the head of the armies of the emperor on important occasions as the palladium or safe-guard of the empire.*

famous

LABYRINTH. place full of inextricable windings. In the ancient mysteries the passages through which the initiate made his mystical pilgrimage.
*Dr. Oliver, in his "Historical Landmarks," (Am. ed., p. 89,) furnishef the following illustration and explanation of the vision of Constantine. "Tho lied Cross of Constantine commemorates the following circumstance, which is attested

A

by Eusebius:

The army
the
cross, it

march happened one evening when the sun was declining, and the emperor was engaged in devotion, that there suddenly appeared a pillar ol light in the heavens like a cross,

of Constantine being on to meet the enemies of the

whereon was an inscription expressed in letters formed by a configuration oi stars TOTTO NIKA, in this overcome. Constantine was not a little startled at this sight, and so was the whole army that beheld it. They looked upon it as an inauspicious omen, and even the emperor himself was confounded
in a dream, with the cross in his hand, commanding him to make a standard like that which he had seen in the heavens, and cause it royal to be borne before him in his Avars as an ensign of victory."

But him

at night our

Lord appeared

t<

"Constantine, in his contest with Maxeutius, and on his march to is said to have seen in the sky a luminous cross with the inscription, tV rovrtii VIKO., by this, conquer and on the night before the last and decisive battle with Maxentius a vision is said to have appeared to Constantine in his sleep, bidding him inscribe the shields of his soldiers with the sacred monogram of the name of Christ. The miracle of his conversion to Christianity was commemorated by the imperial standard of tue labarum, at the summit of which was the monogram of the name of Christ" -SMITH'S CLASSICAL DICTIONARY.

Rome,

;

210

LAN.

LANDMARKS, MASONIC. Literally, and in a general sense, a property is defined. anything by which the boundary of In ancient times the correct division of lands was an object of great importance. Stones, trees, and hillocks were the usual landmarks. The removal of a landmark was considered a heinous crime by the Jewish law, as may be judged by the denunciation of Moses: "Cursed be he that removeth his of neighbor's landmark." Of the nature of the landmarks there has been some diversity of opinion; yet the Masonry conviction has become settled that the true principles constituting landmarks are those universal customs of the Order which have gradually grown into permanent rules of action, and originally established by competent authority, at a period so remote that no account of their origin is to be found in the records of Masonic history, and which were considered
essential to the preservation and integrity of the institution, Dr. Albert to preserve its purity and prevent innovation. G. Mackey, who has devoted much study and attention to the subject, enumerates the following as the unchangeable Landmarks of Masonry:
"1. The modes of recognition are, all symbolic Masonry. In 1813, the Grand Lodge of England vindicated all the landmarks, the most legitimate and unquestioned. They admit the ancient landmark, by solemnly of no variation and if ever they have enacting that Ancient Craft Masonry
of
;

suffered alteration or addition, the evil of such a violation of the ancient

law has always made itself subsequently manifest. An admission of this is to be found in the proceedings of the late Masonic Congress at Paris, where a proposition was presented to render these modes of recognition once more universal a proposition which never would have been necessary if the integrity
of this important landmark had been rigorously preserved. "2. The division of symbolic Mnsonry into three degrees is a landmark that has been better

consisted of the three degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow-Craft, and Master Mason, including the Holy Koyal Arch. But the disruption has never been healed, and the

landmark, although acknowledged in its integrity by all, still continues to be violated. "3. The legend of the third degree is an important landmark, the integrity of which has been well

taught. The lectures may v.xry, and, preserved than almost any other, indeed, are constantly changing, but even here the mischievous the legend has ever remained subalthough And it is spirit of innovation has left its stantially the same. truces, and by the disruption of its necessary that it should be so, for concluding portion irom the third the legend of the temple builder degree, a want of uniformity has constitutes the very essence and been created in respect to the final identity of Masonry. Any rite which teaching of the Master's order; and should exclude it, or materially alter the Koyal Arch of England, Scot- it, would at once, by that exclusion land, Ireland, and America, and the or alteration, ee;ise to be a Masonic of France and Ger- rite. 'high degrees' "4. The government of the Fratermany are all made to differ in the mode of which they lead the neo- nity by a presiding officer called a phyte to the great consummation of Grand Master, who is elected from

There is no rite of Masonry, practiced in any country or language, in which the essential elements of this legend are not
preserved.

LAN.
body of the Graft is a fourth landmark of the Order. Many persons ignorautly suppose that the election of the Grand Master is held in consequence of a law or regulation of the Grand Lodge. Such, howthe

217
lodges
is

and holding another landmark. He
opening
in

may

grant,

virtue of this, to a sufficient of Masons, the privilege of meeting together and conferring The lodges thus estabdegrees. The office is lished ore cal\ed 'lodges under ever, is not the case. indebted for its existence to a land- dispensation.' They are strictly mark of the Order. Grand Masters creatures of the G>-;ind Master, are to be found in the records of created by his autho'ity, existing the institution long before Grand only during his will aud pleasure, Lodgos were established; and if the and liable at any nioment to bt present system of legislative gov- dissolved at his command. They ernmont by Grand Lodges were to may be continued for a day, a month, be abolished, a Grand Master would or six months; but whatever be the still be necessary. In fact, although period of their existence, they are there has been a period within the indebted for that existence solely to records of history, and, indeed, of the grace of the Grand Master. "8. The prerogative of the Grand very recent date, when a Grand Lodge was unknown, there never Master to make Masons at sight is has been a time when the Craft did a landmark which is closely connot have their Grand Master. nected with the preceding one. "5. The prerogative of the Grand There has been much misapprehenMaster to preside over every assem- sion in relation to this landmark, bly of the Craft, wheresoever and which misapprehension has somewhensoever held, is a fifth landmark. times led to a denial of its existence It is in consequence of this law, in jurisdictions where the Grand derived from ancient usage, and not Master was, perhaps, at the very from any special enactment, that time substantially exercising the the Grand Master assumes the chair, prerogative, without the slightest ' It is not to or, as it is called in England, the remark or opposition. throne,' at every communication of be supposed that the Grand Master the Grand Lodge; and that he is can retire with a profane into a also entitled to preside at the com- private room, and there, without munication of every subordinate assistance, confer the degrees of No such lodge, where he may happen to be Freemasonry upon him. present. prerogative exists, and yet many be"6. The prerogative of the Grand lieve that this is the so-much-talkedMaster to grant dispensations for of right of making Masons at sight.'

number

'

conferring degrees at irregular times is another, and a very important, landmark. The statutory law of Masonry requires a month, or other determinate period, to elapse between the presentation of a petition and the election of a candidate. But the Grand Master has the power to set aside or dispense with this probation, and to allow a candidate to be initiated at once. This prerogative
all

the only mode of exercising the prerogative is this: The Grand Master summons to his assistance net less than six other Masons, convenes a Lodge, and withreal

The

mode and

out any previous probation, but on
sight of the candidate, confers the degrees upon him, after which he

he possessed, in common with Masters, before the enactment of the law requiring a probation, and, as no statute can impair his preroThe prerogative gative, he still retains the power, Mason at sight.' although the masters of lodges no is dependent upon that of granting longer possess it. dispensations to open and hold "7. The prerogative of the Grand lodges. If the Grand Master has Master to give dispensations for the powftr of granting to any othej
'
]

dissolves the Lodge, and dismisses the brethren. Lodges thus convened for special purposes arc called occasional lodges.' This is the only way in which any Grand Master within the records of the institution has ever been known to 'make a

218

LAN.

Landmark. To show the influence of this ancient law. it may be observed, by the w.iy. that a cotigiv^ition of Masons meeting together under any other government, as that for instance of a president and vice-president, or a chairman and jab-chairman, would not be recog-

nized as a Lodge. The presence ol a Master and two Wardens is as sation, he may assume this privilege essential to the valid organization ct presiding to himself; and as no of a Lodge as a warrant of constione can deny his right to revoke his tution is at the present day. The in different dispensation granted to a numbei names, of course, vary of brethren at a distance, and to languages, the Master, for instance, dissolve the Lodge at his pleasure, being called 'Venerable' in French it will scarcely be contended that Masonry, and the Wardens, 'Surhe may not revoke his dispensation veillants,' but the officers, their for a Lodge over which he himsell number, prerogatives and duties aro has been presiding within a day, and everywhere identical. "11. The necessity that every dissolve the Lodge as soon as the business for which he had assembled Lodge, when congregated, should The making be duly tiled, is an important Laudis accomplished. it of Masons at sight is only the con- mark of the institution, which is The necessity of ferring of the degrees by the Grand never neglected. Master, at once, in an occasional this law arises from the esoteric Lodge, constituted by his dispensing character of Masonry. As a secret power for the purpose, and over institution, its portals must, of which he presides in person. course, be guarded from the intru"9. The necessity for Masons to sion of the profane, and such a law congregate in lodges is another must, therefore, always, have been Landmark. It is not to be under- in force from the very beginning of stood by this that any ancient Land- the Order. It is, therefore, properly mark has directed that permanent classed among the ancient LandThe office of tiler is wholly organization of subordinate lodges marks. which constitutes one of the features independent of any special enactof the Masonic system as it now ment of Grand or Subordinate revails. But the Landmarks of Lodges, although these may and do Ihe Order always prescribed that prescribe for him additional duties, Masons should, from time to time, which vary in different jurisdictions. congregate together for the purpose Bnt the duty of guarding the door, of either operative or speculative and keeping off cowans and eaveslabor, and that these congregations droppers, is an ancient one, which should be called Lodges. Formerly constitutes a Landmark for his these were extemporary meetings governmAit. " 12. The called together for special purposes, right of every Mason to and then lissoived, the brethren de- be represented in all general meetparting to meet again at other times ings of the Craft, and to instruct his and other places, according to the representatives, is a twelfth Landuec.-ssity of circumstances. But war- mark. Formerly, these general meetran ts of constiti itiou, Lj -uiws, perma- ings, which were usually held ouce nent officers and annual arrears are a year, were called General Assemmodern innovations wholly outside blies,' and all the Fraternity, even the Landmarks, and dependent en- to the youngest Entered Apprentice, tirely on the special enactments of were permitted to be present. Now * comparatively recent period. they are called Grand Lodges,' and " 10. The government of the Craft, only the Masters and Wardens of the when so congregated in a Lodge by ubordinate lodges are summoned. H Master and two Wardens, is also a But this is simply as the representa-

Mueon the privilege of presiding over lodges working by his dispen-

1

'

'

tives

ol'

their

members.

each Mason represented himself; now he is represented by his officers. This was a concession granted by the Fraternity about 1717, and ol course does not affect the integrity
1

Originally,

the Landmark, for the principle of representation is still preserved
of

LAN.
The concession Tvas only made for purposes of convenience. "13. The right of every Mason to appeal from the decision of his brethren in Lodge convened, to the Grand Lodge or General Assembly of Masons, is a Landmark highly
essential to the preservation of justice,

219

members of other

This is lodge .s. undoubtedly an ancient Landmark, founded on the great principles of
courtesy and fraternal kindness, which are at the very foundation of our institution. It has been repeatedly recognized by subsequent statutory enactments of all Grand Lodges. "17. It is a Landmark that every Freemason is amenable to the laws and regulations of the Masonic

sion. in

and the prevention of oppresA few modern Grand Lodges,

adopting a regulation that the decision of subordinate lodges, in cases of expulsion, cannot be wholly jurisdiction in which ho resides, set aside upon an appeal, have and this although he may not be a Nonamliaviolated this unquestioned Land- member ol any Lodge. mark, as well as tho principles of tiou, which is, in fact, in itself, a Masonic offense, does not exempt a just goverment. "li. The right of every Mason to Mason from Masonic jurisdiction. " 18. Certain in every regular Lodge visit and sit qualifications of canis an unquestionable Landmark of didates for initiation are derived the Order. This is called the right from a Landmark of the Order. of visitation.' This right of visita- These qualifications are that he shall be nnmutition has always been recognized as shall be a man an inherent right, which inures to lated, free-born, and of mature ago. every Mason as he travels through That is to say, a woman, a cripple, the world. And this is because or a slave, or one born in slavery, ia lodges are justly considered as only disqualified for initiation into the divisions for convenience of the rites of Masonry. Statutes, it is This true, have from time to time been universal Masonic family. right may, of course, be impaired enacted, enforcing or explaining or forfeited on special occasions by these principles; but the qualificavarious circumstances; but when tions really arise from the very admission is i-efused to a Mason in nature of the Masonic institution, good standing, who knocks at the and from its symbolic teachings, and door of a Lodge as a visitor, it is have always existed as Landmarks. "1'J. A belief in the existence of to be expected that some good and sufficient re!)on shall be furnished God, as the Grand Architect of the of what is in gene- Universe, is one of the most imfor this violation ral a Masonic right, founded on the portant Landmarks of the Order. It has been always deemed essential Landmarks of the Order. "15. It is a Landmark of the that a denial of the existence of Order that no visitor, unknown to a Supreme and Superintending the brethren present, or to some one Power is an absolute disqualificaof them as a Mason, can enter a tion for initiation. The annals of Lodge without iirst passing an the Order never yet have furnished or could furnish an instance in examination according to ancient Of course, if the visitor is which an avowed atheist was ever usage. known to any brother present to be made a Mason. The very initiatory a Mason in good standing, and if ceremonies of the first degree forbid that brother will vouch for his and prevent the possibilty of so qualifications, the examination may monstrous an occurrence. "20. Subsidiary to this belief in be dispensed with, as the Landmark refers only to the cases of strangers, God, as a Landmark of the Order, who are not to be recognized unless is the belief in a resurrection to a after strict trial, due examination or future life. This Landmark is not so positively impressed 011 the canlawful information. " 16. No can interfere in didate by exact words as the preLodge the business of another Lodge, nor ceding; but the doctrine is taug'-t giv degrees to brethren wbo are by very plain implication, and
'

220

LAN.

or th through the whole symbolism of monarch, the nobleman, To believe in Masonry, gentleman is entitled to all the inthe Order. all the respect and not to believe in a resurrection, fluence, and receives wonld be an absurd anon aly, which which rightly belong to his exalted could only be excused by the reflec- position. But the doctrine of Maas chiltion, that* he who thus confounded sonic equality implies that, his belief and his skepticism was so dren of one great Father, we meet that in the Lodge upon the level ignorant of the meaning of both theories as to have no rational founda- on that level we are all traveling to one predestined goal that in the tion for his knowledge of either. "21. It is a Landmark that a Lodge genuine merit shall receive ' Book of the Law shall constitute more respect than boundless wealth, an indispensable part of the fur- and that virtue and knowledge alone I say, ad- should be the basis of all Masonic niture of every Lodge. and be rewarded with previsedly. Book of the Law, because honors, When the labors of the ferment. it is not absolutely required that everywhere the Old and New Testa- Lodge are over, and the brethren ments shall be used. The 'Book have retired from their peaceful reof the Law is that volume which, treat, to mingle once more with the by the religion of the country, is world, each will then again resume believed to contain the revealed that social position, and exercise will of the Grand Architect of the the privileges of that rank, to which Universe. Hence, in all lodges in the customs of society entitle him. "23. The secrecy of the instiChristian countries, the Book of the Law is composed of the Old and tution is another, and a most imNew Testaments; in a country where portant, Landmark. There is some Judaism was the prevailing faith, difficulty in precisely defining what the Old Testament alone would be is meant by a 'secret society." II sufficient and in Mohammedan the term refers, as, perhaps, in countries, and among Mohammedan strictly logical language it should, Masons, the Koran might be sub- to those associations whose designs stituted. Masonry does not attempt are concealed from the public eye, to interfere with the peculiar reli- and whose members are unknown, gious faith of its disciples, except which produce their results in darkso far as relates to the belief in the ness, and whose operations are existence of God, and what neces- carefully hidden from the public a definition which will be sarily results from that belief. The gaze Book of the Law is to the specu- appropriate to many political clubs lative Mason his spiritual trestle- and revolutionary combinations in board; without this he cannot labor; despotic countries, where reform, whatever he believes to be the re- if it is at all to be effected, must be vealed will of the Grand Architect effected by stealth then clearly constitutes for him this spiritual Freemasonry is not a secret society. trestle-board, and must ever be Its design is not only publicly before him in his hours of .specula- proclaimed, but is vaunted by its tive labor, to be the rule and guide disciples as something to be venerof his conduct. The Landmark, ated its disciples are known, for therefore, requires that a Book of its membership is considered an the Law, a religious code of some honor to be coveted it works for kind, purporting to be an exemplar a result of which it boasts Ihe of the revealed will of God, shall civilization and refinement of man, form nn essential part of the furni- the amelioration of his condition, ture of every Lodge. and the reformation of his manners. "22. The equality of all Masons is But if by a secret society is meant another Landmark of the Order. and this is the most popular underThis equality has no reference to standing of the term a society in any subversion of those gradations which there is a certain amount ol of rank which have been instituted knowledge, whether it be of methods The of recognition, or of legondary and by tho usages of society.
'
'

;

LAN.
traditional learning, which is imparted to those only who have

221

mark of the Order. The Temple of Solomon was the cradle of the
institution, and, therefore, the re-

ference to the operative Masonry, which constructed that magnificent edifice, to the materials and implements which were employed in its construction, and to the artists who were engaged in the building, are all competent and essential parts of the body of Freemasonry, which its secret character, it would lose could not be subtracted from it and would cease to be without an entire destruction of the its identity, Freemasonry. Whatever objections whole identity of the Order. Hence, may, therefore, be made to the in- all the comparatively modern rites stitution, on account of its secrecy, of Masonry, however they may differ and however much some unskillful in other respects, religiously prebrethren have been willing in times serve this temple history and these

passed through an established form of initiation, the form itself being also concealed or esoteric, then in this sense is Freemasonry undoubtedly a secret society. Now this form of secrecy is a form inherent in it, existing with it from its very foundation, and secured to it by its ancient Landmarks. If divested of

of

trial, for the sake of expediency, to divest it of its secret character, it will be ever impossible to do so,

tum

operative elements, as the substraof all their modifications of the

even were the Landmark not standing before us as an insurmountable obstacle because such change of its character would be social suicide, and the death of the Order would
;

mark

Masonic system. "25. The last and crowning Landof a 1 !
is

that these

Landmarks

follow

its

legalized exposure.

Free-

masonry, as a secret association, has lived unchanged for centuries as an open society it would not last
for as many years. 24. The foundation of a speculative science upon an operative
' '

and the symbolic use and explanation of the terms of that art, for purposes of religious or moral
art,

teaching, constitute an' cher Land-

can never be changed. Nothing can be subtracted from them nothing can be added to them not the slightest modification can be made in them. As they were received from our predecessors, we are bound by the most solemn obligations of duty to transmit them to our successors. Not one jot or one tittle of these unwritten laws can be repealed; for, in respect to them, we are not only willing, but compelled to adopt the language of the sturdy old barons of England 'nolumus leges mutari.'"

Dr. Oliver, than no Masonic writer is better qualified to render a correct opinion on this important subject, favors us with these as the Landmarks of Freemasonry:

whom

"In the absence of positive evi- lated number of brethren; or by any dence we will endeavor to ascertain, other than the proper officers, and
on the authority of ancient documents, what were considered Landmarks by the Craft at the earliest on record, as they were colEeriod and handed down to us in icted the Lectures which were used during unaccompanied by the prescribed
batteries or reports : if this essential

ceremony be performed without enumerating the principal and assistant officers, together with a description of their several duties, and including a reference to the cardinal points of the compass; if it be done in an untiled Lodge, or without the brethren appearing in Order as Masons; or if the solemn invocation to T. G. A. O. T. U. be omitted; then the meeting would forfeit the character of a Lodge of Masons, ity transactions would be illegal, and

AND CLOSING THE To begin with the beginThe opening and closing of ning: the Lodge include many important
LODGE.

the last century. "1. OPENING

Landmarks, which are absolutely indispensable to the integrity of the Order. For instance, if a Lodge be opened in the alwence of a stipu19

222
(he brethren

LAN.
would become
liable

a disappointed candidate would then have it in his power to say that he had been inveigled into the marks. At the closing of the Lodge, Order for the sake of the fee which similar ceremonies have been trans- would bring upon it a scandal, mitted to us from the most ancient rather than a bent fit. Every person times, and their observance invests who offers himself for initiation is, the proceedings with solemnity and therefore, bound by another strindecorum; until the members are fi- gent Landmark, which the Grand nally dismissed with an exhortation Lodge of England has invested with to fidelity --which is an unchange- the authority of a law, solemnly to able Landmark and they depart in declare that he has not been biased peace, harmony, and brotherly love. by the solicitations of friends, or by "2. MEET ON THE LEVEL AND PART any mercenary or other unworthy ON THE SQUARE. This Landmark motive; and that his request for was originally introduced into the admission is made from a favorable
to an indictment for irregularity and a violation of the established Land;

lectures, to

show

that the Order,

he must freely and voluntarily ask, if he would have seek, if he would find; and knock, if he wishes the door of Masonry to be opened lor his admission into the Order. "4. ADMISSION OF CANDIDATES. was so ardently desired by Condor- To prevent disappointments of this cec. 'when the sun shall shine on nature from being of frequent ocnone but free men; when a man currence, another Landmark directs snail recognize no other master than the brethren of a Lodge to proceed with great deliberation in the adilia reason; when tyrants and their slaves when priests, together with mission of candidates, by making
;

although confessedly based on the principle of equality, is not the exponent of that species of communism which would destroy rank, equalize property, and reduce society to the common level of a savage state. Nor do its members look forward to the period which

opinion of the institution, and a desire of knowledge. Thus, in the beautiful language of the lectures,

the furtherance of that common obiect the acquisition of knowledge. But having met on the level, they part on the square. "3. CONCERNING CANDIDATES. By studying the Landmarks, an industrious brother will acquire an accurate knowledge of the boundaries within which his investigations

stumd and hypocritical agents, a strict perquisition, before the have no further existence but in ballot is taken, into the character history or on the stage.' It is only they sustain among their neighbors when the Lodge is open that the and friends. This may be ascerbrethren, without any reference to tained with sufficient accuracy by a a diversity of rank, are equal and careful ex, uiinatiou of their anteduring the process of working the cedents, and the testimony of those lectures, each bears the burden with whom they have been conassigned to him by the Master for nected in the affairs of business or
their
will
;

ought
of

to

be confined.

And for want
training,

some such incipient
a zealous

many

Mason has aban-

doned the Order in despair. There is one rule respecting candidates which every brother ought to understand distinctly, us an inalienable been subsequently enjoined by SpecLandmark in Masonry, that ix> <n> ulative Grand Lodges, no difficulty
'

the pursuits of pleasure. The most ancient Landmarks that we are acquainted with provide that -the son of a bondman shall not be admitted as an apprentice, lest his introduction into the Lodge should causo dissatisfaction among the brethren; and that the candidate must be of good morals, without blemish, and have the full and proper use of his limbs; for 'a maimed man,' as ti:o York Constitutions express it, -can do the Craft no good. By the assistance of these plain and simple directions, added to others which have
1

cun, nnil-r
*"'

nmj

<'i,-<-ui>i.-<t<iiic<'s,

invite

friend

t<j

bfcouteu Mason, because

can arisn in estimating the quuluications of a candidate for initiation

LAN.
"5.
is

223
al-

THE BALLOT.

afforded for

inquiries.

Every facility recorded in the Book which :s making the necessary ways expanded on the pedestal The laws and Landmarks the East.

in

equally provide that, before a candidate can be admitted, he must be proposed in open Lodge, and a notice to that effect served on each individual member in the ensuing

summons, with his name, occupation, and place of abode, distinctly And to afford ample specified.
time for deliberate investigation, the ballot cannot legally be taken, except in cases of emergency, till the next regular lodge-night; when, if approved, the candidate may receive the first degree; because it is presumed that every brother, before he records his vote, has made

"7. THE BADGE. In the lodges of the last century, some trifling varieties existed in the arrangements during the process of initiation; for a perfect uniformity, however deTo sirable, had not been attained. explain them here would be superfluous, and, perhaps, not altogether
Suffice it to say that in prudent. some lodges the investiture took before the candidate was enplace trusted with the peculiar secrets of the degree, whiie others practiced a

formula similar to that which was enjoined at the Union in 1813. The Senior Warden performed the duty, due inquiry, and is perfectly satisfied and recommended the candidate to that the candidate possesses the wet.r the apron as a badge of innonecessary qualifications to become cence and bond of friendship, in the fall assurance that if he never a good and worthy Mason. "6. PREPARATION. Every existing disgraced that badge it would never There are other eleinstitution is distinguished by some disgrace him. preliminary ceremony of admission mentary Landmarks embodied in which is inaccessible to those who the initiation, but they are so well are unable to establish an indis- known and generally understood putable claim to participate in its that it will scarcely be necessary to privileges. The approved candidate enumerate them, much le*s to g< into in Freemasonry having sought in the detail of a particular illustration, his mind and asked of his friend, which, indeed, would be unauthorits tiled door is now about to be ized, and constitute, if not a legal opened and its secrets disclosed. offense against the Constitutions of The preparation is accompanied by Masonry, at least a moral infringeceremonies which, to a superficial ment of the O. B. "8. TESTS OF INDUSTRY. Every thinker, may appear trifling and undignified, although they embody candidate at his initiation, should to certain sub- carefully note the particulars of the a series of references lime matters, which constitute the ceremony; and if there should hapvery essence of the institution, and pen to be some things which appear contribute to its stability and per- to his inexperience unnecessary, manent usefulness, if, in accordance and others that he cannot exactly with the advice of St. Paul, every- comprehend, he may conceive it to thing be done decently and in be within the bounds of probability Order. But ceremonies, considered that they will admit of a satisfactory
>

abstractedly, are of little value, except as they contribute their aid to impress upon the mind scientific And beauties and moral truths. this is the peculiar characteristic of

explanation.

For

it

is

scarcely to

Freemasonry, which, although its rites and observances are studiously complicated throughout the whole
routine of its consecutive degrees, does not contain a single ceremony that is barren of intellectual im-

be supposed, even by the most obtuse intellect, that in the nineteenth century educated men would meet together periodically to waste their time in unprofitable discussions; to lend the sanction of their names to propagate a fiction, or to engage in pursuits which lead to no advan tageous result. Let the candidate use the means at his disposal to

provement; for they

all bear a direct reference to certain ancient usages

remove

all

false

impressions, by

studying his elementary exeiviso

LAN.
f first degree, which dustry, and a desire o knowledge, intended to convey enjoined by the authority of for they are many Grand Lodges and ought some preliminary insight into our to be by all as a proof of his in- allegorical system."

the tests ef the
u-e

John W. Simons, in his excellent and popular work on the Principles and Practice of Masonic Jurisprudence," offers the following to be the Landmarks of Masonry, in the proper
"

sense of the term:
"1. A belief in the existence of a likely to disturb the harmony 01 Supreme Being, and in the immor- interrupt the working of the Lodge
tality of the sonl.

he proposes
"9.

to visit

"2. That the moral law, which inculcates, among other things, charity

and
is
'

probity, industry and sobriety, the rule and guide of every Mason.
3.

Respect

for, and

obedience to,
j

the civil law of the country, and the Masonic regulations of the juris- lodges. "10. That no one can be made a diction where a Mason may reside. "4. That new-made Masons must Mason, save in a regular Lodge, be free-born, of lawful age, and hale duly convened, after petition, and and sound at the time of making. acceptance by unanimous ballot, "5. The modes of recognition, except when made at sight by the the rites and ceremo- Grand Master. and, generally, "11. That the ballot for candidates nies of the three degrees of Ancient is strictly and inviolably secret. Craft Masonry. 12. That a Lodge cannot try its 6. That no appeal can be tiken to the Lodge, from the decision of Master. "13. That every Mason is amenable the Master, or the Warden occupy nig to the laws and regulations of the the Chair in his absence. "7. That no one can be the M;is- jurisdiction in which he resides, ter of a Warranted Lodge till he even though he be a member of a has been installed and served one particular lodge in some other jurisdiction. year as Warden. "8. That when a man becomes a "14. The right of the Craft at large Masou he not only acquires mem- to be represented in Grand Lodge, bership in the particular Lodge that and to instruct their representatives. 15. The general aim and form admits him, but, in a general sense, he becomes one of the whole Masonic of the society, as handed down to family; and hence he has a right to us by the fathers, to be by us previsit, musonically, every regular served inviolate, and transmitted to Ixxlge, except when such visit is our successors forever."
'
j
|
;

prerogative of the Grand Master to preside over every assembly of the Craft, within his jurisdiction, to make Masons at sight in a regular Lodge, and to grant Dispensations for the formation of new

The

j

I
i

!

Bro. Rob. Morris, in his "Code of Masonic Law," deduces these boundaries, marks of distinction, or immemorial laws, as the unalterable landmarks: "1. The Masonic Landmarks are "5. The Masonic Lodge and ths Masonic institution are one and unchangeable and imperative. "2. Masonry is a system, teach- indivisible. "6. Masonic qualifications regard ing, symbolically, piety, morality, science, charity and self-discipline. the mental, moral, and physical "3. The Law of God is the rule nature of man. and limit of Masonry. "7. Personal worth and merit are "A. The civil law, so far as it ac- the basis of official worth and merit cords with tht: Divine, is "8. The official duties of Masonrj obligatory upon Masons. are esoteric.

LAN.
The selection of Masonic maand the general labors of the Masonic Craft are exoteric. "10. The honors of Masonry are the gratitude of the Craft and the
"9.
terial

225

cation between the head and th body of the Lodge is the Wardens, duly elected by the Craft. "15. Obedience to the Master and Wardens is obligatory upon the

approval of God. "11. Masonic promotion,
private
a

members.
1 (j. Secrecy is an indispensable element of Masonry.
; '

both

and

" 12. The Grand Master may have Deputy. "13. The head of the Lodge is the Master, duly elected by the Craft. "14. The medium of communi-

official, is

by grades.

"17.
in
its

The Grand Lodge is supreme

sphere of jurisdiction, and controls both the subordinate lodgea and individual Masons, but always subject to the Ancient Landmarks."

The Constitution of the Grand Lodge of New York sets and masterly manner, the following as the Landmarks of the Order:
forth, in a concise
"1. That belief in the

Supreme be
1

Being, 'The Great Architect of tlu Universe,' who will punish vice and reward virtue, is an indispensable
pre-requisite sonry.
to

at least twenty-one years of age, free-born, of good report, hale and sound, not deformed or disinein-

admission

t<>

Ma-

"2. That the moral law which inculcates charity and probity, indus-

and no woman, no eunuch. "10. That no one can be made a Mason except in a lawful Lodge, duly convened, acting (except when made by the Grand Master at sight)
be.-ed,

and sobriety, and obedience to law and civil government, is the rule and guide of every Mason, and to which strict conformity is required. "3. That obedience to Masonic law and authority, being voluntarily assumed, is of perpetual obligation, and can only be divested by the
try

under an unreclaimed Warrant or
Dispensation, and at the place therein named. " 11. That the Grand Master may

make Masons
and

at sight, in person, in a lawful Lodge, and may grant a dispensation to a Lodge, for the sajne purpose; but in all other

sanction of the supreme government
iii

Masonry.

"4. That the rites and ceremonies (which include th' unwrittenlanyuag$ meeting following, by the scrutiny of the true system of the Ancient of a secret ballot, and an unanimous York rite, and which cousin <it>' a vote, and must pay a fixed price part of the body of Masonry, are before admission. 12. That the ballot for candidates immutable, and that it is not in the power of any man, or body of men, or for membership is strictly and to make innovations therein. inviolably secret. "13. That a petition to be made "5. That contention and lawsuits between brethren are contrary to a Mason, after being presented and the laws and regulations of Masonry. referred, cannot be withdrawn, but ti. That charity is the right of a must be acted upon by report oj
'
'

cases a candidate must be proposed in open Lodge, at a stated meeting, and can only be accepted at a stated

'

'

Mason, his widow, and orphans, committee and ballot. " 14. That a ballot for each when poor and destitute, to demand, degree an. the duty of his prosperous separate!}' is an undeniable right, to bestow. when demanded. brother " 15. That initiation makes a man 7. That Masonic instruction is, like charity, a reciprocal right and a Mason; but he must receive the Master Mason's degree, and sign duty of Masons. "8. That the right to visit, nia- the By-Laws, before he becomes a sonically, is an absolute right, but member of the Lodge. "16. That it is the duty of every may be forfeited 01 limited by parMaster Mason to be a contributing ticular regulations. Masoiw must member of a Lodge. "9. That men made
I
' '

IAN.
Lodge under dispensatemporary and inchoate body, and is not entitled to representation in the Grand Lodge, and those who work it do not forfeit their membership thereby in any other Lodge, while it so continues, but such membership is thereby suspended. "18. That the Master and Wardens of every warranted Lodge imist be chosen annually by its members, and if installed, cannot resign their offices during the term for which they were elected; and are, of right,
'

17. That a

tion is but a

"25. lh&*, the disciplinary powers of a Lodge may not be exercised for a violation of the moral law (as distinguished from the law of the land) until the offender has been thrice admonished by the Master or Wardens of his Lodge. "26. That a failure to meet by a

Lodge for one year is cause for the forfeiture of its Warrant. ' ' 27. That it is the duty, as well as
the right, of every warranted Lodge to be represented in the Grand Lodge
at its annual

Communication.

"28. That a Grand

Lodge haa
jurisdiction,

and inalienably, representatives in, and members of, the Grand Lodge; and in case they do not attend the Grand Lodge a proxy may be appointed by the Lodge to represent it in the Grand Lodge, who in such

supreme and exclusive

within its territorial limits, over all matters of Ancient Craft Masonry. "29. That no appeal lies from the decision of a Grand Master in the chair, or his Deputy or Warden occase shall have three votes. cupying the chair in his absence. "30. That the office of Grand "19. That no one can be elected Master of a warranted Lodge (except Master is always elective, and should at its first election) but a Master be rilled annually by the Grand Mason who shall have served as Lodge. "31. That a Grand Lodge, comWarden. 20. That no appeal to the Lodge posed of its Officers and of Reprecan be taken from the decision of sentatives, nrist meet at least once the Master, or the Warden occupying in each year to consult and act conthe chair in his absence. cerning the interests of the Frater"21. That every Mason must be nity in its jurisdiction. "Besides these, there are various tried by his peers; and hence the Master cannot be tried by his Lodge. Landmarks, which constitute the "22. That Masonic intercourse frame-work of the government of the with a clandestine or expelled Ma- Fraternity; and the indispensable son is a breach of duty, and an discharge of various duties and reoffense against Masonic law. lations growing out of them; and "23. That a restoration to the also those matters regulating and the Grand attending the ceremonies and work privileges of Masonry by t Lodge does not restore to member- of Masonry, which are not proper to be written; and various other ship in a Subordinate Lodge. "24. That a Mason who is not a duties and rights more fully set member of any Lodge is still sub- forth in the "ANCIENT CHAKGES," ject to the disciplinary power of being a part of the Constitutions of Freemasons." Masonry.
' '

Dr. Mitchell, in his "History of Freemasonry," disposes of the subject of Landmarks in the following brief manner:

"The Landmarks of Masonry are 'fundamental laws of the society. those immemorial laws which have The unwritten Landmarks comprise been handed down from age to age, all those essential rituals and teachand from generation to generation, ings of the lod;*e-rooru, and which no one knowing whence they origi- can be learned nowhere else. The Dated, and no one having the right written Landmarks are six in numto alter or change them, but all ber, and are to be found under the Masons being bound by a fair and head of The Old Charges of a Freeliberal construction ot them. They mason,' first published in 1723, by consist of the written and unwritten order oT the Gr. Lodge of Ea land.'
j
!

;

'

'

LAN.
Bro.

227

Luke

Law and
1.

A. Lockwood, in his work entitled "Masouio Practice," gives tbe following as the Landmarks:
to
its

Belief in the existence of a in some revelation of his will, in the resxirrection of the body and in tbe immortality of the soul. 2. The obligations and modes of recognition, and the legend of the third degree. 3. The inculcation of the moral virtues, of benevolence and of the doctrines of natural religion, by means of symbols derived from the Temple of King Solomon and its tradition, and from the iisages and customs observed, and from the implements and materials used in its construction. 4. That Masons must obey the moral law and the government of the country in which they live. 5. That the Grand Master is the head of the Craft. 6. That the Master is head of the

Supreme Being,

make Masons, and to administer own private affairs.

10. That every candidate must be a man, of lawful age, born of free parents, under no restraint of liberty, and bale and sound, as a man ought to be. 11. That no candidate can be received except by unanimous balafter due notice of his applilot, cation and due inquiry as to his

qualifications.
12. That the ballot is inviolably secret.
13.

That

all

Masons, as such, are

peers.
14.

15.

That all Lodges nre peers. That all Grand Lodges are

peers.

That no person can be inMaster of a Lodge unless he be a Past Warden, except by dis16.

stalled

pensation of the Grand Master.
17. That the obligations, means of recognition, and the forms and ceremonies observed in conferring degrees are secret.

Lodge.

That the Grand Lodge is the supreme governing body within its
7.

territorial jurisdiction.
8. That every Lodge has an inherent right to be represented in Grand Lodge by its first three officers, or their proxies. 9. That every Lodge has power

That no innovation can be the body of Masonry. 19. That the Ancient Landmarks are the Supreme Law, and cannot be changed or abrogated.
18.

made upon

The late Bro. Charles Scott, in "The Keystone of the Masonic Arch," thus discusses the character of Landmarks"The ancients set great value ated among our landmarks; also apon the landmarks or boundaries our universal or common laws. of their property. To deface or These laws cannot be repealed or
remove any of them was regarded * * * *
as a grievous offense.

Even
'

among

was sacred

the heathen the landmark so sacred, they made a of it. * * * * The sons of light deity have their landmarks and so clearly may they be traced that a friend may always be distinguished from a foe. The better opinion is that the rites, forms, or ceremonies are enumer'

;

modified, and are, or ought to be, the same in every Lodge. Any attempt to repeal or alter them would be a violation of Masonic faith; for it is a fundamental principle of our ancient constitution that no innovation can be made in the body of Masonry, and every member of the Fraternity is religiously obligated to observe and enforce it."

its

the present standing of our order; to secure vigorous existence, and extend its benefits, much depends upon the vigilance with which we watch over its concerns, and the means employed to preserve its Ancient Landmarks

To maintain

from innovation, and

its

principles from corruption.

228

LAV

LEW.

LAYER, BRAZEN. Muses was directed to make, among other articles of furniture for the services of the tabernacle, a laver of brass. It was held as a vessel which water of great sacredness, in was kept for the ablutions of the priests before entering upon 'the actual discharge of their sacred duties of offering sacrifices before the Lord. In the ancient mysteries the laver with its pure water was used to cleanse the neophyte of the impurities of the outer world, and to free him from the imperfections of his past or sinful life. It is a necessary article in many of the higher degrees, for the ablut ion of the candidate in hie
progress to a higher and purer system of knowledge.

LAY BROTHERS. An order bearing this name, and appearing to have some connection with the corporations of builders and stone masons, was founded in the llth century. It became a numerous bodv, the members of which were divided into two classes. They were skilled in all the arts, There was especially those connected with architecture. also an order of Lay Brothers in the Strict Observance.
LAZARUS, ORDER OF.
2.
1.

of this name belonging to the 9th century is celebrated, February 21, by the Roman church, because neither the threats nor violence of Theophilus, Emperor of Constantinople, could prevent him from painting This monk afterward became the images of the Saints. patron of the sick, particularly of lepers, and in Palestine " was instituted the United Order of St. Lazarus and of our beloved Lady of Mt. Carmel" the members of which were sailed Knights Hospitallers of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem. The founder of this Order is unknown. Its object was the care of the sick and of poor pilgrims. Lewis VTL of France introduced it into Europe, where it established numerous 3. This is hospitals for the same class of diseased persons. also the name of a Masonic degree, the members of which wear an emerald cross upon the breast.

The memory

of a

monk

A Sardinian Order of Knighthood.

New

of the Ritual-book of the Parisian Templars, in which the secret instructions of the Order, and the ceremonial forms for the reception of members, in

LEVITICON. Name

the several degree's, are preserved.

LEWIS,

OR LOUVETEAU. The words Lewis and Louveteau,

which, in their original meanings, import two very different

LEW.

229

the things, have in Masonry an equivalent signification former being tised in English, and the latter in French, to designate the son of a Mason. The English word lewis is a term belonging to operative Masonry, and signifies an iron cramp, which is inserted in a cavity prepared for the purpose in any large stone, so as to give attachment to a pulley and hook, whereby the stone may be conveniently raised to any In this country liight, and deposited in its proper position. the lewis has not been adopted as a symbol of Freemasonry, but in the English ritual it is found among the emblems placed upon the tracing-board of the Entered- Apprentice, and ia used in that degree as a symbol of strength, because by its assistance the operative Mason is enabled to lift the heaviest stones with a comparatively trifling exertion of physical power. Extending the symbolic allusion still further, the son of a Mason is in England called a lewis, because it is his duty to

support the sinking powers and aid the failing strength of his father, or, as Oliver has expressed it, "to bear the burden and heat of the day, that his parents may rest in their old age, thus rendering the evening of their lives peaceful and happy." By the constitutions of England, a lewis may be initiated at the age of eighteen, while it is required of all other candidates that they shall have arrived at the maturer age of twenty-one. The Book of Constitutions had prescribed that no Lodge should make "any man under the age of twenty-one years, unless by a dispensation from the Grand Master or his Deputy." The Grand Lodge of England, in its modern regulations, has availed itself of the license allowed by this dispensing power, to confer the right of an earlier initiation on the sons of Masons. The word louveteau signifies in French a young wolf. The application of the term to the son of a Mason is derived

from a peculiarity hi some of the initiations into the ancient In the mysteries of Isis, which were practiced in mysteries. Egypt, the candidate was made to wear the mask of a wolf's head. Hence, a wolf and a candidate in these mysteries were often used as synonymous terms. Macrobius, in his Saturnalia, says, in reference to this custom, that the ancients perceived a relationship between the sun, the great symbol in these mysteries, and a wolf, which the candidate represented at his initiation. For, he remarks, as the flocks of sheep and cattle fly and disperse at the sight of the wolf, so the flocks of stars disappear at the approach of the sun's light. The learned reader will also recollect that in the Greek language lukos signifies both the sun and a wolf. Hence, as the candidate in the Isiac mysteries was called a wolf, the son of a Freemason in the French lodges is called a young wolf or a lou-vetf.au. The louveteau in France, like the lewis in England, is invested with peculiar privileges He also is permitted

230
to unite himself

LIB LIL.
with the order at the early age of eighteen

The baptism of a louveteau is sometimes performed by the Lodge of which his father is a member, with impressive The infant, soon after birth, is taken to the ceremonies.
years.

lodge-room, where he receives a Masonic name, differing from that which he bears in the world; he is formally adopted by the Lodge as one of its children, and should he become an orphan, requiring assistance, he is supported and educated by the Fraternity, and finally established in life. In this country, these rights of a lewis or a louveteau are not recognized, and the very names were, until lately, scarcely known, except to a few Masonic scholars. MACKEY.

LIBATION. Latin libatio, from libare, to pour out. Properly a drink offering. Libations were frequent at meals among the ancient Greeks and Romans, and consisted generally of wine, though libations to the dead consisted sometimes of blood or milk. In sacrifices, the priest was first obliged to taste the wine, with which he sprinkled the victims, and caused those to do the same who offered the sacrifice. They Libationa consisted in offerings of bread, wine, and salt. are in use in several of the high degrees of Freemasonry, particularly in the Templar system.

LIBERTAS. The name of the Goddess of Liberty among the ancient Romans. According to Hyginus, she was the Crowned with a diadem daughter of Jupiter and Juno. and covered with a vail, she personifies liberty in general. The modern Libertas, or Goddess of Liberty, is a female The cap has always figure, the head covered with a cap. been a symbol of liberty, and in the Masonic brotherhood it is also a sign of equality, and hence, in former times, the figure of Libertas was often found among the decorations of the Lodge, and Masons wore their hats while engaged in the labors of the Craft.

LIBERTINE.
is

By this name is designated a person who governed by no principle, and restrained by no laws of
who
selfishly

morality and virtue,
gratification

and basely seeks

his

own

whatever cost to others. Such a man is, of course, in every sense unfit to be a Mason. In the Ancient Charges it is laid down as a fundamental rule that " a Freemason is obliged by his tenure to obey the moral law; and if he rightly understands the art he will never be a stupid atheist nor an irreligious libertine" Here the word implies a person who rejects all religious truths, i. e., an infidei.
at

and advancement,

LILY OF THE VALLEY. A
system of France.

side degree in the

Templar

LIN LYO.

231

LINGAM. The symbol of the creating aud producing power, sacred in the Egyptian, Grecian, and Indian mysteries. [See PHALLUS.]
It is difficult to ascertain the exact etymology The word occurs in the Ancient Charges of of this term. the Lodge of Antiquity, London, as follows: "Twelvethly:

LOWEN.

That a Master or Fellow make not a mould stone, square, nor rule to no lowen, nor let no lowen work within their lodge, nor without to .mould stone." It is evident the word is employed to designate an ignorant, reckless, wild fellow, wholly unsuited to be the companion of Masons. It may be the old Saxon word lowen, lion, sometimes used as a general term for wild beasts. Hence, metaphorically, it may properly be applied to an ignorant, stupid, brutish person.
purification, or ceremony of expiation, the Mysteries, of preparation. The word is deA solemn purification or rived from lustrare, to expiate. consecration of the Roman people, by means of a sacrificium It consisted of lustrale, was performed after every census. The ram was a bull, a sow, a sheep or ram suoveta urilia. dedicated to Jupiter, the swine to Ceres, and the bull to Mars. This solemn act was called lustrum condere. In Masonry the word means a purification, and is of a moral character, although in some degrees an actual lustration by

LUSTRATION. A
also, in

and

water

is

performed.

LUX.
Masonry

Latin for Light. It is applied to Freemasonry because It has is a fountain of intelligence and wisdom.
all

been a favorite word in the symbolism of

mystic orders.

E TENEBRIS. Light out of Darkness. This device teaches that when man is enlightened by reason he is able to penetrate the darkness and obscurity which ignorance and superstition spread abroad.
L. V. C. LABOR VIRIS CONVENIT. "Labor is useful to men." A device in the Templar system of Baron Hunde, which was engraved on the inside of the rings worn by the Knights, and also upon their seals and escutcheons. It is also the device of the "Scottish Lodge of Nine Sisters," in Brunswick.

LUX

LYONS, THE
ritual

de la the convention of Lyons,- A.

SYSTEM OF. The name applied to the reformed and regulations adopted by the " Chevaliers bienfaisants Sainle Cite," benevolent Knights cf the Holy City, at
D.

1778.

232

MAC MAG.
M.

MACBENAC. A word well known to Masons.
from the Hebrew, and
signifies

It is derived

"He

lives in the

SON."

MAGIANS. The name of the members of the priestly order among the ancient Medes and Persians. The word is of Indian origin, being derived from mag, which, in the In the last half of the Pehlvi language, signifies priest. seventh century before Christ, Zoroaster reformed and reorganized the order, and divided the members into three classes or degrees: 1. Herbeds, or Apprentices; 2. Mobeds, or Teacher and Master; 3. Destur Mobeds, or Perfect Master. The Magians claimed to have the gift of prophecy, a supernatural wisdom, and power to control the secret forces of nature. They were held in the highest reverence among the people, and no transaction of importance took place without Hence their almost unbounded or against their advice. influence in private as well as in public life and, quite apart from the education of the young princes being in their hands, they also formed the constant companions of the ruling Their mode of life was of the simplest and monarchs. The food, especially of the severest, befitting their station. lower classes, consisted almost entirely of flour and vegetables; they wore white garments, slept on the ground, and were altogether subjected to the most rigorous discipline. The initiation consisted of the most imposing and mysterious ceremonies. Purifications of several months duration, and fastings of the severest test, had to precede it; and it was long before the candidate could be led into the realms of the dead, where all is darkness and misery, thence to the higher stages of glory and perpetual life. Gradually, however, their influence, which once had been powerful enough to raise them to the throne itself, began to wane, and in the course of time, its members dwindled down to the number of seven, and In the seventeenth century an order finally to extinction. of Magians was established in Florence, and still later u sub -division of the order of Rosicrucians bore this name. We find, also, the appellation Magus applied to the 8th degree, or the 1st degree of the Grand Mysteries of the Uluminati, to the 9th and last degree of the German, Gold and Rose-Cross, and to the 7th grade of the Clerical system of the Strict Observance. Thory also mentions a Sovereign Magus of the 5th degree of the Clerical-Cabalistic system.
;

MAGNA CHARTA. The great charter, so called, obtained by the English barons from King John, June 5, 1215, and confirmed by his successor, Henry III. It has been viewed

MAH MAR
by

233

crown), unless by the authority of the common council of The remaining and greater part of it is the kingdom. directed against abuses of the king's power as feudal superior.

Its most after ages as the basis of English liberties. important articles are those which provide that no freeman " shall be taken or imprisoned or proceeded against, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land," and that no scutage or aid should be imposed in the kingdom (except certain feudal dues from tenants of the

MAHER-SHALAL-HASH-BAZ. A
:

mystical

name

that

speed to the prey." A prophetic intimation of the speedy invasion and victory of the Assyrians over Syria and Israel. As a warrior, devoted to the cause of honor and justice, we should be ever ready to hasten to the relief of the destitute

was to be given to one of the sons of the prophet Isaial. which he had previously written by divine command, on a " He hasteth to the spoil ; tablet, the meaning of which is

and oppressed.

MAITRESSE AGISSANTE.
system of Cagliostro, this
to the presiding sister.
title,

(M.\ A.-.} In the Egyptian "Acting Mistress," is given

MAKE. When a candidate is initiated into the mysteries An expression of the order, he is said to be made a Mason. in use among the operative Masons in the ancient times. It is a term synonymous with the word "initiate."
MALLET. One of the working tools of a Mark Master; an instrument of practical architectural labor. As an emblem of morality it is synonymous with the common gavel of the Entered Apprentice.
MANES. In Roman antiquity, the gods of the lower world; the benevolent deities; generally applied to the souls of the departed. According to Apuleius, the Manes were the originally called Lemures, and consisted of two classes Lares and the Larvce; the former of whom were the souls of those who had led virtuous lives, and the latter of those who had lived improperly. At a later period the term J/anes came to be a general designation for both.

MARK. The Mark-Master's medal, or the Tyrian Signet, which Hiram is said to have sent to King Solomon. It is in the form of a keystone, and has engraved upon it a circle the emblem of an eternal compact of friendship and a mark or device chosen by the possessor. A MarkMason who receives this mark from a destitute brother is bound by the most solemn obligations to assist him to the
extent of his ability.

In this respect

it

resembles the

20

234
"

MAE.
"
"

Tessara among the anof Hospitality," and the with whom hospitality was considered a most sacred cients, entered into contracts of friendship, duty. Individuals often to assist and protect binding themselves and descendants each other in adverse circumstances; and, as was the case among the Greeks, ratified the alliance by breaking a ring into

Ring

two
half.

parts, each party taking one The visitor was kindly re-

and entertained. After nine days, if the stranger had not previously made himseli known, the question was put to " him, who and whence art thou ?" If, in reply, he could show the half of the broken ring, he
ceived, clothed,

was welcomed

still

Among the early Christians, marks were

in general use,

more warmly. and in

the existing circumstances of the Brotherhood were of the highest importance and utility. In Rev. ii. 17 allusion is made to the Christian mark, as follows: "To him that overcometh will I give a white stone, and in it a new name written, which no man knoweth, saving he that receiveth it." That is, " To him who passes triumphantly through all the trials, discipline, and proofs of discipleship, will I give the mystical stone, which will secure to him protection and assistance, and brotherly love, in this world; and in the world to come, will open to him the eternal mysteries, and admit him to a more perfect fellowship in the grand circle of the just.

MARKMAN.
now
in use. of Solomon's

The nam*e of a Masonic degree which is not The markmen were Wardens at the building

Temple.

MARK OF THE
the
\ie

Mark

Master's degree, each

^iark

Temple upon

to the traditions of in building of Solomon was required to place a peculiar his work, to distinguish it from that of others.

CRAFT. According

Mason employed

has always been the practice with the various corporations of builders from the earliest periods down to quite modern times. Most of the edifices constructed in the middle ages, particularly those of Strasburg, Worms, Rheims, bear these marks, which appear to have been of two classes, viz: monograms, which to
It is probable that this

overseers; and emblems, as the trowel, mallet, square, etc.,that belonged to the workmen. writer, describing the

belonged

A

MAE.

235

walls of the fortress of Allahabad, in the East Indies, erected &. D. 1542. says: "The walls are- composed of large oblong blocks of red granite, and are almost everywhere covered with Masonic emblems, which evince something more than mere ornament. They are not confined to any particular spot, but are scattered over the walls of the fortress, in many It is places as high as thirty or forty feet from the ground. quite certain that thousands of stones on the walls, bearing these Masonic symbols, were carved, marked, and numbered in the quarry before the erection of the building.

MARSHAL. A term, in its origin, meaning a groom or manager of the horse, though eventually the king's marshal became one of the principal officers of state in England.
In France, the highest military officer is called a marshal, a dignity which originated early in the thirteenth century. Originally, the Marechal de France was the first companion of the king, and commanded the vanguard in war; in later times, the command became supreme, and the rank of the highest military importance. After the deposition of Louis XVI. the dignity of marshal ceased; but was revived by Napoleon, with the title of Marshal of the Empire. 2. An officer known to Masonic bodies, whose duty is to have charge
of processions and other public ceremonies. As a badge of special distinction he wears a scarf and carries a baton.

MARTHA. The name
of the Eastern Star, or

of the fourth degree of the order

American Adoptive rite. It illustrates undeviating friendship and the power of faith to console the

236

MAR.

heart in seasons of affliction. Its symbolical color is green, representing at the same time, the immortality of the soul The incidents of the degree are reand of its affection.

corded in John

xi. 26.

form of Freemasonry the founder of the rite, the adepts of this order were modest men, and, although
tical

of a philosophical and myswere called by this name, from Marquis de Saint Martin.* Tie earnest, pious, and remarkably they promulgated ideas, startling in that material and skeptical age, were never fanatical in their advocacy of them, nor ill-tempered when ridiculed. Like the Rosicrucians, the Illuminati, and some other

MAETINISTS. The members

similar societies, they aspired to a higher and more positive philosophy, and sought a foundation for the ideas of religion and morality in the eternal fitness of things, and the interior experiences of the soul, rather than in tradition. They believed that the very existence of religious ideas in the human mind demonstrated their eternal truthfulness; for all subjective notions must be the reflex of an objective reality. Thus the vast orb of the sun is mirrored in the tiny dewdrop. The reflected image of the sun is a demonstration of the sun's existence. In like manner the notion of God that exists in the mind is a reflex of God himself, and could no more exist in the mind were there no God than the image of the sun could be found in the dew-drop if there were no Like Goethe, they believed that " Die geisterwelt ist sun. nicht verschlosaan" "the world of spirits is not shut." It was their belief that an invisible sphere a world of superior environs man; that beneficent spirits are always intelligence near him, the constant companion of his actions, and witnesses of his thoughts; that the highest science all the ideas
'Louis Claude de Saint Martin was born at Arnboise, of a noblo French family, in 1743, and died in 1803. He adopted the nom de plume of " le PhUosophe inconnu," which we read Philosopher of the unknown. He possessed vast original genius and metaphysical insight, and as a thinker he digested and assimilated, in a masterly manner, whatever he found to his taste. The first and most valued of his numerous writings was a work entitled Des Erreurs et de la Verite, published at Lyons, in 1775, in which may be found, under the most enigmatic style, that ancient doctrine which so universally prevails, of a good and a bad principle, of an ancient state of perfection of man, of his fall, and of the possibility of his restoration. For many years he devoted his best energies to

reforming the system of his teacher, Martinez Paschalis, the founder of the sect of Martinists; and to that end instituted a new system that became famous under the name of Martinism, which had its center .it Lyons, in the Lodge of Beneficent Knights. This rite was extended into the principal cities of France, Germany and Russia. Saint-Martin, Like many other of the noblesse of France, suffered by the French revolution, and, being implicated in a conspiracy, owed his life to the revolution of Thermidor.

MAS.

237

of religion, art, and philosophy are revelations of this overworld, whose ineffable splendors are ever streaming downward to meet humanity, which, impelled by its immortal needs, is aspiring upward to the fountain of light. The Order of St. Martin was a modification of a society founded by It had ten degrees, divided Paschalis, at Marseilles, 1754. into two divisions, called " Temples." Those of the 1st temple were Apprentice, Fellow-Craft, Master, Ancient-Master Those of Elect, Grand Architect, and Mason of the Secret. the 2d temple were the Prince of Jerusalem, Knights of Palestine and Kadosch. The object of the initiation was the regeneration of men, and the instructions to neophytes embraced the whole circle of human knowledge.

MASON, ETYMOLOGY OF. The speculations of many Masonic writers respecting the origin and derivation of this word are too puerile to be repeated. It is evidently the German " metzen " to cut. In Germany the operative Masons were called " stein-metzen," stone-cutters, and sometimes "mauern," wall-builders. The term Mason is simply the German word
anglicized,

by softening the
its

tz

sound.

Every grade of Masonry is furpeculiar and emblematic color. An important and mystic meaning has always been applied to colors, and they are used as the distinguishing mark of different nations. The colors best known, and almost universally adapted to Masonry, are seven, viz:
nished with
1. BLUE. This is the great color of Masonry. It is the appropriate tincture of the Ancient Craft deIt is to the Mason an emgrees. blem of universal friendship and benevolence, teaching us that in the mind of a brother those virtues should be as extensive as the blue arch of heaven itself. It is, therefore, the only color, except white, which should be used in a Master Mason's Lodge. Besides the three degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry, this color is also to be found in several other degrees, especially of the Ancient and Accepted rite, where it bears various symbolic significations; all, however, more or less related to its original character, as an emblem of universal friendship and benevolence. This tincture was held in high veneration among all the nations of It antiquity. symbolically expressed heaven, the

MASONIC COLORS.

firmament,
fidelity.
2.

truth,

constancy,

and

PURPLE,

being formed by a
of blue

due admixture
is

and

scarlet,

intended to remind us of the intimate connection and harmony that exists between symbolic Masonry and the Royal Arch degree. In the religious services of the Jews purple is employed on several occasions. It is one of the colors of the
curtains of the tabernacle, and is symbolical of the element of water. used in the construction of the ephod and girdle of the High Priest, and the cloths for divine service. Among the Gentile nations of antiquity purple was considered rather as a color of dignity than of
It is also

veneration, and was deemed an emblem of exalted office. Pliny says it was the color of the vestments worn by the early kings of Rome, and it has ever since, even to the

238

MAS
in the sick

presept tiine, been considered as the becoming insignia of regal or

man, humility; in the

woman,

chastity.

We see,

therefore,

the propriety of adopting this color supreme authority. in the Masonic system, as a symbol 3. SCARLET, RED, OB CBIMSON, of purity. This symbolism comfor it is indifferently called by each mences in the York rite, where the of these names, is the appropriate lambskin or white apron is precolor of the Royal Arch degree, and sented to the Entered Apprentice symbolically represents the ardor as an emblem of purity of life and and zeal which should actuate rectitude of conduct, and terminates all who are in possession of that in the Ancient and Accepted rite, sublime portion of Masonry. Scarwhere the Sovereign Inspectors of let was used as one of the vails ol the 33d degree are invested with xhe tabernacle, and was an emblem a white scarf as an emblem of of the elements of fire. Scarlet was, that virtuous deportment, above the among the Jews, a color of dignity, of all reproach, which should appropriated to the most opulent tongue or honorable. In the middle ages, distinguish the possessors of that those Knights who engaged in the exalted grade. 5. BLACK. As white is wars of the crusades, and especially universally the Templars, wore a red cross as a the emblem of purity, so black, in symbol of their willingness to un- the Masonic ritual, is constantly the dergo martyrdom for the sake of symbol of grief. This is perfectly Scarlet is in the higher consistent with its use in the world, religion. degrees of Masonry as predomi- where black has, from remote antinating a color as blue is in the quity, been adopted as a garment lower. These three colors BLUE, of mourning. In Masonry this color PUKPLE, and SCAKLET were called, is confined to but a few degrees, but in the early English lectures, the everywhere has the same single old colors of Masonry," and were meaning of sorrow. Black is in the said to have been selected "because world the symbol of the earth, darkthey are royal, and such as the ness, mourning, wickedness, negaancient kings and princes used to tion, death, and was appropriate to wear; and sacred history informs the Prince of Darkness. White and us that the vail of the temple was black together signify purity of life, and mourning or humiliation. composed of these colors."
4. WHITE is one of the most ancient as well as most extensively diffused of the symbolic colors. It is to be found in all the ancient mysteries, where it constituted, as it does iii Masonry, the iuvesture of the candidate. It always, however, and everywhere has borne the same signification, as the symbol of purity and innocence. White was the color of one of the curtains of the
6. GREEN, as a Masonic color, ia confined to a few of the degrees. employed as a symbol of the immutable nature of truth and vicIn the evergreen the Master tory. Mason finds the emblem of hope and immoitality. In all the ancient mysteries, this idea was carried out, and green symbolized the birth of the world, and the moral creation or resurrection of the initiate.

It is

tabernacle, where
of

it

was a symbol

7.

YELLOW.

Of

all

the Masonic

the element of earth. Among colors, yellow appears tc be the the ancients the highest reverence least important, and the least used. was paid to this color. It was, in It is a predominating color in a the garment of the Gentile few of the general, degrees of the Ancient as well as ol the Hebrew in and Accepted rite. It was a signipriests the performance of thsir sacred rites. ficant symbol of the sun, of tho It is regarded as the emblem of of God, of initiation or goodness light, religions purity, innocence, marriage, faith, or faithfulness. In Iii an i> iproper sense, yellow siguifiei virginity, faith, joy, and life. the judge, it indicates integrity; inconstancy, jealousy, and deceit.
j

MAS.

239

MASON'S DAUGHTER. This degree, conferred on Master Masons, their wives, sisters, and daughters, in some things resembles the degree of Martha of the American Adoptive
rite.

The Scripture lesson of the degree llth and 12th chapters of the Gospel of

is

selected from the

St John.
the len the the

MASTER OF CAVALRY. An officer in a Council of Knights of the Red Cross, equivalent to the Senior War in the Commandery. His position is in the south, on right of the first division when separately formed, and on right of the whole when formed in line.

An officer first instituted at the court of England, in 1603, for the more honorable reception of Ambassadors and persons of distinction. This officer is found in most of the Lodges in England and on the continent, and has lately found a place in the Lodges of the United States. He assists the Senior Deacon when conducting the candidate, and performs the duties usually belonging to the office of Steward.

MASTER OF CEREMONIES.

MASTER OF DISPATCHES.
of the Knights of the

MASTER
in a Council

The Recorder of a Council Red Cross. OF FINANCES. The name of the Treasurer of Red Cross Knights.

MASTER OF INFANTRY. An officer known in the Council of the Knights of the Red Cross, equivalent to the Senior Deacon in a Lodge, or Junior Warden in a Commandery. His station is in the north, on the right of the second division when separately formed, and on the left of
the whole

when formed

in line.

Lodge

The presiding officer of a of Freemasons, whose style is "Worshipful." In the whole series of offices recognized by the Masonic institution, there is not one more important than that of the Master. Upon the skill, integrity and prudence of the presiding To officer, depend the usefulness and welfare of the Lodge. become the Master of a Lodge, with the title " worthy and well qualified," is a legitimate object of ambition for every young brother who takes an interest in the prosperity of the The powers of the Master are very great; far more society. varied and positive than those of any organization now in existence. From his decisions there can be no appeal to the Lodge ; he is amenable for his conduct to the Grand Master
or the

MASTER OF A LODGE.

Grand Lodge.

Equally important with the proper

qualifications for the discharge of the duties of the Master, are experience, a thorough knowledge of the ritual and

240

MAS.

the parliamentary rules of the Craft, the service of ft full term as a Warden, except in the case of a newly-constituted Lodge, when there is no Warden or Past Master to serve; a legal election; a compliance with the covenants of the installation service and induction into the oriental chair. The prerogatives of the Master of a Lodge are: 1. To congregate or assemble his Lodge; 2. To preside therein; 3. To fill temporary vacancies in office; 4. To regulate the admission of visitors; 5. To control and terminate discussions 6. To determine all questions of order and the order of business, without appeal, except to the Grand Lodge or
;

Grand Master; 7. To appoint all committees; 8. To open and close the Lodge; 9. To be the custodian of the warrant; 10. To order the issuing of summonses, and compel the attendance of members; 11. To give the casting vote in
case of a tie, in addition to his own vote: 12. To sign all drafts upon the Treasurer for the payment of Lodge expenses, with the consent of the Lodge; 13. To refuse to initiate a candidate, if, in his judgment, such initiation would be
14. In company with the Senior and Junior Wardens, to represent the Lodge at all communications of the Grand Lodge; 15. To appoint the Senior Deacon, and such other officers as may be prescribed in the by-laws of the Lodge 16. To install his successor and assist in conHis duties are ferring the official Past Master's degree. to attend all communications of the Lodge; to open the Lodge at the time designated in the by-laws, and close it at a reasonable hour; to preserve order in the Lodge; to obey, enforce and defend the landmarks, the laws and edicts of the Grand Lodge, the orders of the Grand Master, and the by-laws of the Lodge to preserve the charter of the Lodge, and transmit it to his successor; to perform the ritualistic work of Masonry, and instruct the brethren; to cause an investigation into all Masonic offenses committed by the initiated candidates, by members of the Lodge, or by Masons residing within the jurisdiction of the Lodge; to visit the sick, and perform the Masonic burial service over the remains of a deceased member of the Lodge; to perfect himself in Ibe ritual, laws and usages of the order; to use his best Mideavors to preserve and promote peace and harmony iu the Lodge, and, by his Masonic deportment in and out of tho Lodge, be a good example to the brethren. He is exempt from discipline for his official acts, exctspt to the Grand He cannot dimit or resign during his term of Lodge. office, for if a vacancy should occur in the office of Master, bv death or removal from the jurisdiction, the Senior Warden assumes, by virtue of immemorial practice, all the pre-

improper;

;

;

MAS MAIL

241

His jewel is rogatives and responsibilities of that officer. the square, because, as that instrument is dedicated to the Master, and is the proper Masonic emblem of his office, it symbolically teaches him official and individual responsibilities, to

regulate his actions by rule
to

and

harmonize his conduct by tie principles of morality and virtue, BO that no ill-feeling or angry discussions may arise to impair the harmony and good fellowship that should ever distinguish a Masonic Lodge, for he
line,

and

"Who wears
Does

the

in the sight of GOD attest, And in the face of man, That all his actions will compare

SQUABE upon his

breast,

With the Divine,

th'

unerring square,
virtue's plan."

That squares great

MORBIS.

jewels, furniture and other property of the Lodge are in his charge, and he has a general control over all its

The

affairs.

MASTER OF THE PALACE.

The

title

of

an

officer in

a Council of Red Cross Knights. He is the Captain General in a Commandery of Knights Templar.

VAILS. In a Royal Arch Chapter MASTERS OF three officers whose duties are to guard the blue, purple and scarlet vails of the tabernacle. Each is armed with a sword, and carries a banner of a color corresponding with that of the vail before which he is stationed. Their jewel is a sword within a triangle.
general designation of any superb and The name is derived from the tomb erected at Halicarnassus by Artemisia, to the memory of her husband Mausolus, king of Caria, B. c. 353. It was one of the most magnificent monuments of the kind, and was esteemed one of the seven wonders of the world. When the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, in 1404, took possession of the site of Halicarnassus, then occupied by a small village called Cleesy, while excavating among the ruins for building materials, they discovered a large chamber with marble The sarcophagus pilasters, and with richly inlaid panels. of the founder was also discovered; fragments of lions, dogs, etc.. and a beautiful sculpture of a horse, have been found.
stately sepulchral

THE

MAUSOLEUM. A

monument.

242

MED.

Mausoleums of rare beauty and strength, bearing Masonic symbols and sentiments of fraternal affection, have been erected in several parts of Europe and America.

MEDAJJS, MASONIC. This term is applied to pieces of metal, of various forms, but generally similar to coins, not intended for circulation as money, or means of exchange, struck and distributed in commemoration of some important The study and a thorough knowledge of medals event. recognized by the Craft, especially those bearing emblems and perpetuating valuable Masonic historical eras or events, are indispensable to prevent our ancient legends, traditions and history from falling into decay or passing into oblivion. So far as our investigations have extended in Masonic medals or numismatics, there is nothing extant in this department This may be explained earlier than the eighteenth century. from the fact that before that period the ancient or operative form of the institution existed; then Masons made their medals of mighty blocks of stone; their symbols were wrought in the ground-plans of extensive and beautiful edifices; their marks were deeply cut upon the living rocks " with an iron pen and lead in the rock forever." The first Masonic medal
of which we have any account (an impression of which will be seen in the accompanying engraving) was struck about Its history is substantially as follows: In 1733 a A.D. 1733. Lodge was established at Florence, by Lord Charles Sackville, son of Lionel Granville Sackville, great grandson of Thomas Sackville, who, in 1561, was Grand Master of the Masons

acknowledging the jurisdiction of the

Grand Lodge

at

This Lodge was not founded by regular authorYork.
ity;

was no by the Grand Lodge of England, then governed by James Lyon, Earl
certainly there
it

order for

of Strathmore. The formation of the Lodge, however,

was the origin of this medal, a copy of which exists in the
valuable collection of Masonic medals in possession of the Lodge Minerva of the Three Palms, at Leipsic. The obverse, not given here, has " a bust of Lord Sackville, with the Carolvs inscription, The reverse exhibits Harpocrates, Sackville, Magister, Fl." the god of silence, who, as the son of Isis and Osiris, stood

MASONIC MEDALS.

STRUCK IN

1832.

STRUCK IN

1812.

STBUCK IN

1811.

STRUCK IN

1787.

STUUCK IN

1774.

STRUCK IN 1774

STRUCK IN

1763.

STRUCK IN

1774.

STRUCK IN

1781.

MED MEN.

247

at the entrance of most Egyptian and Roman temples, in his well-known attitude, leaning upon a broken column, with the fore-finger of his right hand, the emblem of silence, upon his lips, and holding in his left arm the cornucopia, The cubic block, filled with the rich fruits of the earth.

around which are grouped the stone-hammer, the compas ses, the square, the level, the chisel, the plumb and mallet, is at The thyrsus, staff and the serpent, rest behind his feet. " from the beginning." An him. The motto is Ab Origins, number of Masonic medals have been immensely large struck, for as many memorable occasions, during the past century; a brief notice of which would be very far beyond our limits to give. Medals are frequently given to brothers as a reward for efficient official services and distinguished Masonic
virtues.

MEDITERRANEAN PASS. An honorary or side degree conferred on Royal Arch Masons. Its legend and ritual are identical with the more imposing and interesting degree of the Knight of the Mediterranean Pass, from which this ia
supposed to be extracted.
Pontiff-king of Salem, and prototype of Christ. The name and his history are referred to in the Order of the High-Priesthood; also, in the 5th degree of the Asiatic Brothers, and in the Order of the Illuininati.

MELCHIZEDEK.

MELEK-MELOCHIM. King of Kings. A sacred several of the higher degrees of the French rite.

word in

MELITA. The ancient Greek name of the Island of Malta; referred to in the Order of the Knights of Malta.

MEMPHIS, RITE OF. Sometimes called the Oriental rite. A modification of the rite of Misraim, organized in Paris,
iii

by Messieurs Marconis and Mouttet. It afterward extended to Brussels and Marseilles, thence to New York. It was composed of 90 working and 6 official For degrees. a time it excited some interest in Paris, and then fell into obscurity until 1860, when it was reorganized, the 9(> degrees reduced to 30, and then merged into the Grand Orient of France, where it is permitted to slumber. It may now bo
1839,

regarded as extinct.

MENATZCHIM,
French
rite of

The The

COUXCIL OF. The principal degree in the the "VIEILLE BRU" was called by this name. word is Hebrew, and means consoler, or comforter overseers at the building of the Temple were called

Menatzchim.

348

MEN

MIS.

MENU, INSTITUTES OF. The name given to tne n.ost celebrated code of Indian civil and religious law; so called from Menu, Menou, or Manu, the son of Brahma, by whom it is supposed to have been revealed. The Hindoos, themselves, ascribe to this system the highest antiquity; and many of the most learned Europeans are of opinion that of all known works there is none which carries with it more convincing Sir W. Jones proofs of high antiquity and perfect integrity. assigns the date of its origin somewhere between Homer and the Twelve Tables of the Romans; and Schlegel asserts it as his belief that it was seen by Alexander the Great in a state not materially different from that in which we possess it. The Institutes of Menu are of a most comprehensive nature: they embrace all that relates to human life; the history of the creation of the world and man; the nature of God and spirits; and a complete system of morals, government and
religion.

MESMERIAN MASONRY. A name applied to
rite

a Masonic
A. D.

invented by some of the disciples of Mesmer,

1784.

of the transactions at each meeting These proceedings that is, all which it is lawful to write should be carefully entered on the records, and at the opening of the next meeting, read to the brethren, that errors, if any, may be corrected.
of the

MINUTES. Records
Lodge.

MISCHCHAN, MISCHPHERETH, MISCHTAR. Hebrew terms, signifying Tabernacle, Most Powerful, and Fountain, used as sacred words, in several of the high degrees of the French
rite.

MISRAIM, RITE OF. This rite was introduced into France near the commencement of the present century. It made considerable progress, and, in 1817, application was made on
fche part of its friends, to the Grand Orient, to accept it as a The application was denied, legitimate branch of Masonry. partly on the ground that the antiquity of the rite had not been proved, and partly because of the 90- degrees which its ritual comprised 68 were already included in the French system. The rite of Misraim is interesting and instructive, but many of its degrees are too abstruse to be popular. The initiation is a reproduction of the ancient rite of Isis, and represents the contests of Osiris and Typhon, the death, resurrection, and triumph of the former, and the destruction of the latter. There are 90 degrees, divided into four series symbolic, philosophical, mystical and cabalistic, and aga.n divided into seventeen cla.'Ses.

MIT.

-249

The traditions of this system are full of anachronisms, historical events and characters, separated by hundreds of years, being made to figure ou the same scone, at the same " time. The work entitled De t'Ordre Maqonnique de Misraun," at Paris, in 1835, by Mons. Marc Bedarride, purpublished
porting to give the history of the Order, is a mere romance, and full of puerilities. Nevertheless, many of the degrees are highly interesting and instructive.
in the ancient Zeud and mediator between Ormuzd, the god of light, and Ahriman, the god of darkness, through whom the latter with his kingdom of evil will be destroyed, and the former will establish his empire of light and happiness throughout the His symbols are the sun type of truth and universe. on his head; the mace emblem of power in his justice hand, or the sacrificing dagger, and the bull of the world, on whose back he lies. The mysteries of Mithra were dramatic and scenic illustrations of the Persian religion, and were divided into seven degrees. The principal dogmas, as revised by Zoroaster, are as follows: From the beginning there have existed two beings, Ormuzd and Ahriman, the principles of the
religion,

MITHKA, MYSTERIES OF. The Sun-God

universe.

Ormuzd

is

pure eternal

light, the spirit of

beauty

and original source of all perfection. Ahriman was also originally of the light, and so far good; but as he envied the light of Ornmzd he obscured his own, became an enemy to Ormuzd and the father of evil, and of all evil beings who joined him in a contest with the good. Ormuzd and Ahrimnu performed the work of creation at different epochs, and

and

love,

brought into existence various species of beings.

Ormuzd

created th e community of good spirits; first six immortal spirits of light; then twenty-eight subordinate spirits, representatives of the months and days; and, at last, a multitude of human souls. Ahriman produced a number of bad spirits, six arch-devs, spirits of darkness, and innumerable devs of lower rank. The good dwell with Ormuzd in light. Ahrimau lives with his creatures in the kingdom of darkness. 3,000 years Ormuzd ruled alone; after which he created material beings, in their various degrees; at last man, and after the labor celebrated the first festival of creation with the good Again he ruled in this world of innocence and spirits. happiness 3,000 years. In the next period of equal length begins the contest between light and darkness, Ormuzd and Ahriman, who in a continual struggle divide the dominion of the world. The following 3,000 years extend and confirm the power of Ahriman; afterward his power declines; the dcrx sink to nothing; their former prince, through the influence of Mithra, the mediator, does homage to Ormuzd, and the

J50

MIT MON.

The dead arise, empire of darkness and vice disappears. and all darkness, sin, and misery are ended forever. The initiation into the mysteries of Mithra :md the entire ceremonial of the seven degrees were symbolical representations

of the everlasting struggle between g >od and evil, their alternate triumph and defeat, until at last evil is overwhelmed in a final overthrow, and the splendor of truth tills, and tho all worlds. songs of triumphant virtue resound through, Tho rites of Mithra seem to combine some of the features of the Indian, Egyptian, and Cabiriaii mysteries. They were and it is said widely extended through Asia and Europe, that traces of the worship of Mithra are found at the present

time iu those parts of Germany that were anciently under the dominion of the Romans.

sacred covering for the head of the Jewish was made of fine linen or silk of a blue color, wrapped in several folds, in the manner of a Turkish turban. In front and around the base of the mitre, as a band, secured with blue

MITRE: The

High-Priest.

It

ribbon, was a plate of pure " gold, called the plate of the crown of pure gold," holy

HOLINESS TO THE LORD." This important vestment was worn by the High-Priest on occasions of solemn and imposing services only. This
the proper form of the mitre which sLould be worn by the High-Priest in a
is

upon "

which

is

inscribed

Royal Arch Chapter when officiating in the ceremonies of the Royal Arch degree, and when dressed in the other appropriate priestly garments. MONITOR. A name given to books which contain the charges, regulations, emblems, and exoteric ceremonies of Freemasonry. Numerous works of this character have been published, some of them very valuable; works arranged on A he principle that "the initiated know what is meant,''' which, by ingenious methods of suggestions, places before the mind of the intelligent Mason the whole ritual of the order, with its profound and varied meanings, while it reveals nothing
to the profane.

MONUMENTS,

SEPUTCHRAL AND MASONIC.

An emblem

erected over the grave, to

mark the

resting-place and per-

MON.

25J

In the earliest ages and petuate the memory of the dead. among the eastern nations, it was the practice to place the remains of the dead in excavated sepulchres, with monumental structures over them. Egypt, Palestine, Greece, Persia and Rome abounded with monuments of this character. In Egypt the monarch's burial-place began to be excavated as soon as he ascended the throne, and the excavation and decoration went on year by year until the / king's death, when it was suddenly broken off, the torn); Ihus becoming an index both of the king's magnificence and
i/

/

ol lae length of his reign. Masonic monuments, as memorials of fraternal affection, and rewards of well-merited honor are often erected over the remains of the illustrious dead,

with appropriate hieroglyphic symbols, or the following emblematic legend delineated thereon A virgin weeping over a broken column, with the book open before her; in her right hand a sprig of acacia, in her left an urn; Time is behind her with his hands enfolded in tho ringlets of her
:

5/52

.dOP
The weeping
;

MOS.

hair.

the temple

virgin symbolizes the unfinished state of the broken column, that one of the principal book implies supporters of Masonry has fallen; the open that his memory is recorded in every Mason's heart; the of his remains; the sprig of acacia refers to the discovery urn shows that his ashes have been carefully collected, and

Time behind her implies that we
life

are rapidly passing from

to a blessed immortality.

MOPSES. From the German mops, a young mastiff. It is intended to indicate the mutual fidelity and attachment of the brethren those virtues being characteristic of the noble animal. This order originated in the following manner: Pope Clement XII. having issued a bull against the Freemasons in 1738, the people were alarmed, and hesitating to join a society which had been thus proscribed, formed another on
the same principle, which would afford them equal gratificawithout subjecting them to the thunders of the Vatican. Freemasonry was the model, with pretensions of devotion to the papal hierarchy, and thus, under the assumed appelSome of the lation, they evaded the papal denunciation.
tion,

illustrious personages in Germany countenanced and extended their patronage to the scheme; many of the princes of the empire became its Grand Masters. In 1776 this organization assumed an androgynous character, and admitted The ceremonies of females to its ceremonies and offices. this order were highly interesting. It had forms of initiation,

most

t

signs, pass-words and tokens, and other marks of recognition; and the symbols admitted of an intellectual and moral

explanation.

STAR, KNIGHT OF. This degree is a modificaKadosh, according to the nomenclature of " Fustier, which is preserved in the archives of the Lodge of
tion of the

MORNING

the Philosophical rite."

MOSAIC WORK. The Mosaic pavement, so frequently alluded to in the rituals of the order as the ornaments of a Lodge, are the productions of artistic designs, by setting small and variously shaped stones, glass or wood of different The floor of the colors, so as to give the effect of painting. tabernacle and the pavement of Solomon's temple were thus ornamented. Mosaic or tesselated pavements were common among the ancients; the Egyptians, the Greeks and especially the Romans most ingeniously decorated the floors and
walls of their temples in this manner. In commemoration of the flooring of the temple and tabernacle, the Mosaic pavement is always preserved as an ornament of the Masonic Lodge, with the blazing star in the center, and the beautiful

MOS.

25S

H IMSTnlSlSJ E raiMolBl 51 B
i

tesselated border* surrounding the whole, as a symbol of the manifold blessings and comforts which constantly surround us. The Mosaic pavement of a Lodge is placed there as an emblem of the vicissitudes of human life; that however prosperity may favor us with smiles to-day, it is uncertain how long it will continue to bless us. Adversity

may come when we least expect it, and penury and distress may follow joy and pleasure. The latter period of life may be subjected to want and misery, when we are most unfit to
encounter it; and instead of resting in peace after a long and troublesome journey, we may be compelled again to encounter the burden and heat of the day.

MOSQUE OF OMAR,
splendid edifice on
*

OR THE NOBLE SANCTUARY.

This

Mount Moriah,

covers a portion of the

border of stones, of various colors, around from the Latin tessela, means a small square stone, and to indent is to cut or notch a margin into inequalities resembling teeth, a tesseb.ted border is, therefore, a notched border oi A limited numbei of samples of Mosaic ^voik is variegated colors. represented in the above engraving.
tessel is a

The indented

the pavement.

Tessel,

254

MOS.

more brilliant Temple of Solomon. space once occupied by the It is believed to have been commenced by the Caliph Omar, the first of that name, and father-in-law of Mahomet, between the years 638 and 644, and very much enlarged, beautified and enriched, in fact, quite rebuilt by the Caliph Abd-el Melek, in 686. It was seven years in building: the Moslems believe it to stand over the rock on which Jacob

INTERIOR VIEW OF THE MOSQUE OF OMAB.

was sleeping when he saw the vision of the heavenly ladder, it is still more sacred to them, as to us, from having been the sacred rock beneath the altar of Solomon's Temple, whereon the daily sacrifice was offered. During the time ol the Latin kingdom in Jerusalem this mosque became a Christian cathedral, where the service was daily sung and an altar erected on the summit of the rock. The building waa called by the Crusaders the "Temple of the Lord." The
but
fanciful

and

intricate patterns of the porcelain walls of the

MOW.

255

mosque, the graceful letters of the inscription round it, and the tracery of the windows are still more beautiful en a closer inspection nothing can be more perfect of their kind, or more peculiarly charming than the harmony of the colors; the windows are filled with stained glass of the very richest and most brilliant colors, that even the palmiest days Two rows of the medieval ages could produce in Europe. of columns encircle the center, forming a double corridor, and support the clerestory and the" dome: these columns have evidently belonged to some other building their capiThe rock itself is tals are mostly of acanthus leaves. enclosed in a metal screen of lattice work about six feet high, and to it, we are told by. the Bordeaux Pilgrim, in 3315, the Jews came every year, anointing the stone with oil, wailing and rending their garments, thus proving its authenminds; it had been for many years polluted by an equestrian statue of the Emperor Adrian elevated on the very rock itself. The Bordeaux Pilgrim specially mentions that this rock adored by the Jews was pierced: below it is the " noble cave" spoken of in the Mishna, into which the blood, etc., from the altar drained, and descended thence by a conduit into the valley of Siloam, the gardens of which were enriched by this drainage.*
ticity in their

*Dr. JAMES T. BARCLAY, for many years a resident missionary in Jerusalem, and favorably known in Europe and this country, for the valuable discoveries he has made in the temple enclosure, to which he was admitted by special firman, gives the following description of the Mosque of Omar, in his invaluable work, "THE CITY OF THE GREAT KINXJ:" "The superb edifice called by Moslems Kubbet es-Sakhrah (Dome of the Rock), and by Franks the Mosk of Omar, is situated rather below the middle of the platform being nearest to the western The lower story, or main body of side, and farthest from the northern. the building, is a true octagon, of sixty-seven feet on a side; but the A more graceful and symmetrical central and elevated portion is circular. dome than that which covers the building is perhaps nowhere to be found; and the lofty bronze crescent that surmounts the whole gives a Immediately beneath the center pleasing architectural finish. of the dome is the venerated rock about which so much has been written. In the estimation of the Jew, this is by far the most hallowed spot on earth; for, according to the Rabbins, this is the identical rock upon which Jacob pillowed his head, and set it up for a pillar and poured oil upon the top of it; and he called the name of that place Bethel House of God. It is the general belief, also, that it is the threshing lloor of Arauuah the Jebusite the spot where the faith of Abraham was so sorely tried in his determined obedience to God to offer up Isaac; and the site of the Holy of Holies of the temple which glowed beneath the When the divine manifestation of Deity in the Shekinah. rock was brought to light by Omar, it was exhumed beneath an immense mound of rubbish and dirt. But it had previously been crowned by The present noble Hadrian's splendid Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. structure over ancl around it is undoubtedly the work of the munificent /Jhaliff Abd-el Melek, though often supposed to be a Christian edifice. * * * * " There are various recesses cut in the rock, b< th above and

*****

*****

256

MOS MUS.
The honorary
title

MOST EXCELLENT.
degree of

of the

HighOth the

Priest of a Chapter of Royal

Arch Masons.

MOST EXCELLENT MASTER.
Masonry. Temple by Solomon.
of a

The title of the It illustrates the dedication of

MOST WORSHIPFUL.

The title of the presiding officer Grand Lodge, and sometimes applied to the body.

MUSIC. A combination or succession of sounds, so arranged as to please the ear.* The pleasure derived from music arises from its exciting agreeable sensations, and Apart from raising pleasing mental images and emotions. words, it expresses passion and sentiment, and linked to words, it loses its vagueness and becomes a beautiful illustration of language. This science is truly congenial to the
below, indicating the spots where Abraham, Elijah. David, Solomon and other renowned Hebrews were in the habit of praying; and a prayer offered there, even by us infidels, as all Christians are termed, they say, must be effectual. * * * * * The Moslem tradition concerning the Sakhrah is thai fell it from heaven about the time that the spirit of prophecy was This holy stone, they say, wished to accompany the prophet imparted. in his nocturnal flight to heaven, and actually started; but in response. to the great prophet's prayers, the angel Gabriel was dispatched to stay its flight; and so firm was the grasp by which it was retained, that the impression of the angel's hands are to be seen there to this day. They allege also that the mosk contains the scales for weighing the souls of men, the shield ot Mahommed, the birds of Solomon, the pomegranates of David, the saddle of el-Borak, and an original copy of the Khoran, the parchment leaves of which are four feet long. A well of soul-

is also alleged to exist there. A green slab of marble also shown, formerly nailed down by eighteen silver nails, three oi which still remain. This, it seems, is a kind of chronological table; a nail having been withdrawn for each grand epoch in their history, and

refreshing water
is

the last nail takes its flight, the consummation of all things will Such are a few of their legends concerning the marvelous rock. They serve, at least, to exhibit the puerility of Moslem ideas, and the strength of their credulity."
occur.
* Lucretius ascribes the invention of music to the whistling of the winds in hollow reeds. Franckinus, to the various sounds produced by the hammers of Tubal Cain. Cameleon Poutique and others to the It is, singing of birds; and Zarlino to the sound of rushing waters. however, agreed that music was first reduced to rules by Jubal, sixth in descent from Cain, who was "the father of all such as handle the harp and organ" (B. c. 1800). The flute, and harmony and concord in music were invented by Hyagnis, B. c. 150G. Vocal choruses of men are tirst mentioned B.C. 556. Pythagoras maintained that the motions of the twelve spheres must produce delightful sounds inaudible to mortal ears, which he called "the music of the spheres." St. Cecilia, a Roman lady, is said to have excelled so eminently in music that an angel was enticed from the celestial regions by the fascinating charms of her melody; and from this tradition she has been esteemed *s the patroness of music and

when

mufriciaiiR.

MUS

MYS.

257

nature of man; for by its powerful charms the most discordant passions may be harmonized, and brought into unison; but it never sounds with such seraphic harmony as when employed in singing hymns of gratitude to the Creator In praise of this science the great poet of of the universe. nature says,

"The man
Nor
Is
fit

is

that hath no music in himself, not mov'd with concord ot sweet sounds, for treasons, stratagems, and spoils;

The motions

And

of his spirit are dull as night, his affections dark as Erebus:

Let no such man be trusted."

MUSTARD SEED, ORDER
Count Zinnendorf

OF. .This

order was founded by

in 1739, under the title of 'Die Association of Moravian Brothers of the Order of Religious Freemasons, afterward styled The Order of the Grain of Mustard Seed.

belongs to the department of mystic Masonry. The rite drawn from the parable of the mustard seed (Mark rv.), where Jesus compares the kingdom of God to a grain of mustard seed, which, though the smallest of all seeds, sends forth so great branches that the birds of heaven may repose one engraved on under its shadow. It had two mottoes a ring, " No one of us lives for himself;" and the other,
It
is

before? nothing," was engraved on a cross of members wore as the jewel of the order, suspended from a green watered ribbon.
it

"What was

gold, which the

In the Eleusinian mysteries, the official the candidates for initiation, showed the interior of the temple, and explained the doctrines, bore this name. Hence any one who deals in mysteries is called

MYSTAGOGUE.

who introduced

Mystagogue.
Since the establishment of the Christian civilized nations the moral and religious instruction of the people has been confided to its care. The church, although one, yet among different nations exists in a great variety of forms forms adapted to the peculiar wants and genius of the people whose improvement it seeks to advance. Previous to the advent of the church this great work was accomplished among the civilized nations of antiquity by organizations which are designated under the general name of MYSTERIES. It appeal's that all the perfection of civilization, and all the advancement made in philosophy, science, and art among the ancients are due to those institutions which, under the vail of mystery, sought to illustrate the sublimest truths of religion, morality and virtue, and impreoa them on the hearts of their disciples. Although

MYSTERIES.

church among

all

22

258

MYS.

the kind, as the history speaks of several institutions of Eleusinian mysteries, the mysteries of Mithra, etc., jet all had a common origin, and a like purpose, and never exhibited a greater variety of forms than the Christian church. The principal of these mysteries are: 1. The Indian Mysteries; 2. The Egyptian; 3. The Orphic; 4. The Cabirian; 5. The Phrygian or Samothracian; 6. The Eleusinia; 7. The Sidonian The civilization, arid or Dionysian; 8. Pythagorean.* the social institutions of India, Egypt, Greece, and Syria, and the degree of enlightenment in religion, morality, and science, to which they attain can be traced directly to the salutary From the foregoing it will be influence of the Mysteries. seen that to a certain degree following the opinion of many of the early Christian fathers they realized the idea of a church. As none but the just and virtuous were eligible to membership, the initiated were at least were reported to be the wisest and best of all countries, and constituted the ancient Pagan Ecclesia if one may so speak the church, or assembly of the wise and good; a body competent to teach and enforce the everlasting truths of religion. Their chief object was to teach the doctrine of one God, the resurrection of man to eternal life, the dignity of the human soul, and to lead the people to see the shadow of the deity, in the beauty, magnificence, and splendor of the universe. By the most solemn and impressive ceremonies they led the minds of the neophytes to meditate serioiisly the great problems of human duty and destiny; imbued them with a living sense of the vanity and brevity of life, and of the certainty of a future state of retribution set forth in marked contrast the beauty of virtue and truth, and the deep bitterness and tormenting darkness of vice and error; and enjoined on them, by the most binding obligations, charity, brotherly love, and inflexible honor, as the greatest of all duties, the most beneficent to the world, and the most pleasing to the gods. They also, by these rites rites magnificent and
;

impressive, and startling, by sudden transitions and striking contrasts rites commencing in gloom and sorrow, and ending in light and joy, dimly shadowed forth the passage ol man from barbarism to civilization, from ignorance to science,

and

his constant progress onward and upward through the ages, to still sublimer elevations. The trembling and helpless neophyte, environed with terror and gloom, and pursuing his uncertain and difficult way through the mystic journey of initiation, which terminated in light and confidence, was a type or representative of humanity marching upward from the gloom and darkness of the primitive state
*

See articles on the above under their proper heads.

MYS.

259

jf barbarism, to a high degree of enlightenment, of social The mystic ceremony was, refinement and perfection. therefore, emblematical of the progressive development of man, and was intended as an aid to that development. The initiatory rituals of Orpheus, of the Cabiri, and of Isis, typifying thus the development of man and the progress of society, were in a sense prophetic announcements of a golden age to come a more perfect state, where virtue, triumphant over vice, and truth, victorious over error, would be installed on the throne of the world, and direct all human actions and relations. The idea which these rites presented of future retribution is not in harmony with modern opinions, at least so far as most of our Protestant communions are concerned. All the ancient systems of religion and philosophy held that all

punishment was purgatorial* a means of purification and consequently finite and limited in its character and duration, and was graduated according to the degree of moral turpitude attached to each offense. Hence, in the initiation, the neophyte represented the progress of the soul through the various stages of discipline, upward from the receptacles of sorrow to Elysian beatitude and purity. In all these rites, indeed, the idea seemed to prevail that man, society, humanity, could be perfected only by the ministry of gloom and suffering. The soul's exaltation, and highest good and truest repose, were to be approached only by the way of tears, and sacrifice, and toil. Those mystic dramas symbolized the
profoundest mysteries of the soul the deepest experiences human heart. They taught that through darkness and difficulty, in the midst of obstacles and opposition, man should ever struggle upward and onward onward from the shadowy vale of doubt, and fear, and perplexity, to the golden Orient, whence comes the light of eternal truth Some writers have contended that the mysteries, and, indeed, all the myths of antiquity, have no reference whatever to religious ideas, or to a spiritual sphere, but are merely allegorical representations of the phenomena of the physical
of the
!

Dupuisf explains all the mysteries in this way, and carries his theory so far as finally to assert that Christ is only an astronomical sign, and that the mystical woman oi " the Revelations, whom St. John describes as clothed^ with the sim, and the moon Tinder her feet, and on her head a
world.

crown

That of twelve stars," is but the constellation Virgo portions of the Tsiauic and Cabirian mysteries had reference to astronomical ideas is undoubtedly true; but this fact by
!

*

rAntiquite

Vide Eufield's History of Philosophy. Also Guigaiant: Religions de considered principalement dans leur Trcnnes Symboliquey el
f

Mytlioloijiqne.

Origin des tous les cultes.

}

Rev.

xii. 1.

260

MYS.

uo moans justifies the conclusions of Dupuis and others, that On the contrary, it at all. they have no spiritual reference was the deep, earnest, and positive faith of the ancients, in the unseen and spiritual, which led them to blend in this of niTinner unfortunately so foreign to our modern habits And the ideas of science with those of religion. thinking have divorced here we fall far below the ancients. science and philosophy from religion, and seem to regard them as quite different and distinct things, the deplorable results of which are seen in our modern systems of education, which are entirely material, and end in skepticism, if not in absolute irreligion. On the other hand, the ancients conAll templated the universe from the religious point of view. the phenomena of life all the motions of the heavenly bodies the whole stupendous spectacle of the world revealed to them the presence of an unseen Intelligence. Hence, their religion embraced all the facts of physical science ; art and philosophy were necessary parts of religion, and reposed on a spiritual basis. Keace, instruction with them was religious and moral. And were they not The mysteries were established for human instrucright ? tion; and there all the sciences were studied with reference to a higher sphere of thought. Nature, with all its laws, its motions, and its mysteries, which science attempts to explore, was, in their views, only a shadow or reflex, or projection, of the more substantial verities of the unseen the eternal

We

world; philosophy itself was religion. Such was education among the ancients, so far as it went. It was eminently Hence the dramas, represented in the mysteries, religious. and in the rites of initiation, took note at the same time of the facts of science and the verities of religion. And because thes.e dramas and rites shadowed forth some of the phenomena of nature, and the motions of the heavenly bodies, we are not to infer that those who celebrated them had no faith in God, accountability, or a future life but rather, on the contrary, that those old Grecians and Egyptians saw in all the phenomena of nature in all the motions of the starry spheres, and in all the miracles of the world the awful shadow of that mysterious One, who, although infinite and indivisible, yet in some manner incomprehensible to human intelligence, individualizes himself to every human thought, and localizes himself in every place. The mysteries were established then to assist the education and development of man. And with this intention the mystagogues employed every resource to stimulate the moral energies and awaken the noble instincts of those they sought -to elevate. The ancients all claimed for these mysteries a divine origin.
;

MYS.

261

Bacchus, in Euripides,* responds to the questions of Penwho demanded from whom he received his new worship and his mysteries, that he received them from the son of Jupiter. All the ancient educators of the race affirmed the same of their teachings. Rhadamanthus says that he received from heaven the laws that he gave to the Cretans, f Minos shut himself up in a sacred cave, to compose his code of laws, which ho affirmed were revealed to him by the divinity. Zoroaster, the Persian Seer, claims also to have been divinely inspired. J He separated himself from society, and gave himself up to sacred meditations. He invoked the supernal powers, and at length the light of a heavenly inspiration descended upon his soul, and a divine messenger visited him and instructed him in celestial things. Thus, according to Chandemer, he received from heaven the Zend Avesta, that great depository of sublime maxims so revered by the ancient Persians. Ardheshir, desiring to reform the religious code of his kingdom, appointed one of the sages to accomplish the work. The new reformer, not wishing to make innovations which might not be authorized by heaven, invoked the aid of the spiritual powers. He sunk away into a mysterious sleep, and experienced an ecstacy, during which his soul seemed to go forth out of his body. At the end of seven days he awoke, and declared that he had been in communication with the unseen world of spirits, and employed a scribe to write the new revelations which he had received from the gods. Pythagoras also professed to receive the divine direction in the foundation of his famous society. He affirms of himself what Titus Livius|| asserts of Numa, viz: that the secrets of nature, which others knew by opinion and conjecture, were communicated to him by the direct interposition of the gods, and that Apollo, Minerva, andthe Muses, had often appeared to him. Whatever we may think of these professions and claims to a divine enlightenment, on the part of the ancient reformers, we cannot but respect that faith and piety which always led them to refer all wisdom and virtue to a divine influence. Their maxim seemed to be that whatever is useful to men is divine. And as the mysteries and the rules of virtue, which they cultivated and enforced, were useful to humanity, they were, of a consequence, providential institutions created by the will of the Eternal. After what we have now said, it cannot be difficult, to see clearly the true end and purpose of the mysteries, the fiist and greatest fruits of which were, according to the
theus,
f *
t

Euiipid: Bacch., p. 460.
vet, Pers. p. 317.

f

Strabo

1, x.

p. 476.

Hyde do

Phil:
.

I. i. c.

1 Vit. Apoll.

HPlut-VitaNura

262

MYS.

ancients, to civilize savage people, soften their ferocious manners, render them social, and prepare them for a kind Cicero places, in of life more worthy of the dignity of man. Athenians enjoyed, tty number of supreme benefits which the

the establishment of the mysteries of Eleusis, the effect of

which was, he tells us, to civilize men, and to make them comprehend the true principles of morality, which initiate man into an order of life which is alone worthy of a being destined The same philosopher, in another place, to immortality. where .he apostrophizes Ceres and Prosei'pine, says that we owe to these goddesses the first elements of our moral life, as well as the first aliment of our physical life, viz: the knowledge of the laws, the refinement of manners, and the examples of civilization, which have elevated and polished Their moral end was well the habits of men and of cities. perceived by Arrien, who tells us that all these mysteries were established by the ancients, to perfect our education and reform our manners. Pausanias,* speaking of the Eleusinia, says that the Gi'eeks, from the highest antiquity, had established them as an institution the most effectual to inspire

men with the sentiments of reverence and love And among the responses that Bacchusf makes
whose
curiosity
is

for the gods. to Pentheus,

excited by his mysteries, he tells

him that

be widely known, and that one of the greatest advantages resulting from it is the proscription of all impiety and crime. From the above it appears that the mysteries must have been of the highest utility in advancing the civilization of our race, in promoting the arts, and stimulating a taste for science and letters. We have seen that the cultivation of music commenced with the establishment of the mysteries, and formed a great portion of tke ceremonies. Sculpture and painting were encouraged, and received their first impulse in these institutions. Literature and philosophy were pursued with ardor by the disciples of Orpheus and Eumolpus, and through them religion shed a benign and gentle radiance over all of life. Through the mysteries society received wise and wholesome laws, and that moral and mental impulsion which raised Greece to the
this new- institution merits to

summit of human greatness. The drama also owes its birth to these institutions. The first plays, symbolical of man and his progress, his struggles, his trials, his labor, his combats
and triumphs, were performed within the secret enclosures, secure from the intrusion of profane eyes. The ceremonies were themselves dramas, shadowing forth, more or less perfectly, the great truths of God, of nature, and the soul, pointing man forward to his great destiny, acquainting him
Pans. Phoc. p. 384.

fEuripid: Bacch

vi.

p

460.

MYS.
advancing toward
if

2(53

with the conditions of moral perfection, and aiding him in
it.

KITE OF THE. The eighteenth century, considered in connection with its intellectual activity, the immense progress made in the sciences and arts, and in relation to the general advancement of the human mind, must bo recognized as the most remarkable epoch in the history ol It was the golden age of science, and of scientific the world. men. And yet, such were the negative character of its speculations, and the habit that prevailed, of studying the mysteries of the universe, and investigating the laws of nature, apart from the ideal, or without reference to a higher sphere of thought, that the human mind became almost entirely materialized, and at last sunk into the abyss of skepticism. But unbelief is not natural to the heart of man; and even when the intellect is cursed with the demon of infidelity, the heart yearns with deeper intensity to penetrate the occult realms of nature, and hold communion with the awful mysteries of those invisible regions which have no boundaries, and on which philosophy and science, that are simply material, can throw no light. Thus, toward the end of the last century an age noted at the same time for its splendid achievements in science, and its fearful harvest
of irreligion

MYSTIC MASON,

numeixms

sects of Mystics ai'ose, particularly

on the European continent, whose doctrines, however crude and extravagant, were the solemn protest of the heart against the skeptical spirit of the times, and the agonizing cry of
the soul for a more intimate communion with the infinite. Many of the first minds of the age were moved by this

impulse, and sought peace and quiet, and consolation, and hope, in the golden realm of the ideal. The Rosicrucians, Illuniinati, the Order of St. Martin, and many bodies strictly Masonic, entered with ardor into these high speculations, which were so well calculated to exalt, refine, and expand To these men the soul, and fill it with a divine enthusiasm. the worlds revolved in a sea of light the emanation from the infinite mind the. natural and spiritual were united iu

an everlasting embrace. Myriads of spiritual beings walked the earth, and dwelt with men, and occupied themselves with human affairs, as in the days of old. "Whatever we may think of some of their theories and operations, it cannot be denied that they accomplished a great work in arresting that furious tide of atheism which threatened, at one time, to sweep all things into its horrible abysses of darkness and despair, and in establishing a harmony between reason and the profoundest mysteries of religion. It was at this time
that the " Bite of the Mystic

Mason" made

its

appearance.

2(54

MYS.

It recognizes the thrte Its character is strictly MaSonic. symbolical degrees as the groundwork of its system. It has a strong infusion of Swedenborgian ideas, repudiates all Sadducean doctrines, and asserts the existence of angels and invokes them spirits, their constant presence with men, and Like the in the Lodge, at the commencement of labor. 28th degree of the Scotch rite, it is somewhat alchemistical. It believes the Philosopher's Stone and the Elixir of Life among the possibilities of science. Thus, in the instructions of the 2d degree, the disciple is informed that Solomon learned, by the opening of the first and second circles, the

that is, transmuting metals, wherewith to art of purifying enrich and embellish his temple. This rite consists of three
1. Mystic Apprentice; 2. Mystic Fellow-Craft; Mystic Master. Something of their character may be learned from the following extracts taken from the lectures:

degrees:
3.

Ques. What else have you done ? Ans. I have invoked the spirits their names.

Ques. Are you a Mystic Apprentice ? Ans. I know the northern part of the Temple of Solomon, and the four quarters of the circle. Ques. How were you received a Mystic Apprentice? Ans. By striking three blows with the gavel upon

who

preside there, by pronouncing

Ques. Can you repeat them ? Ans. Mahir is that of the East, over the part of the South; Haouzay is spirit of the West, over the part of the North; and Mahal Marainto ia the spirit of the East, over the same part.
Ques.

What

is

of the covenants of God with men. signify the four spirits? Ans. They represent to us that without the assistance of the guardian angels, that God has given to all men to direct their conduct, we cannot succeed in any undertaking.

Ans.

The knowledge

Masonry ?

Ques.

What

In the instructions of the 2d degree we find the following:
Ques. Ques.

vice; to know the relations of man with his creator; to practice faithfully his precepts; penetrate into those mysteries it is permitted us to discover, and to uiiij/loy our knowledge for the instruction and improvement of mankind

know the column of Boaz. What are the five perfect points of Masonry? Ans. To build temples to virtue, and dungeons to
Ans. I

Are you a Mystic Fellow-Craft?

NAB NAP.
N.

265

NABI1M,
tion

COLLEGES OF THE.
to the few,

Among ancient nations instruc-

and generally the schools were Moses was educated in a priestly school, in Egypt; Cyrus in a seminary, under the direction of the magi the Indian Bramins imparted instruc-

was confined

controlled entirely by the priests.

tion in secret schools.

In Palestine those conversant with

Hebrew,
of

and the Scriptures, taught in the colleges the Nabiim. or schools of the prophets and rabbins.*
science,

NAHAKDA, BROTHERHOOD OF. The Hebrew Rabbins relato that the captive tribes of Israel, during their exile from their"' own country, after the destruction of the first temple, in order to strengthen the bonds of fraternity, and to enjoy the consolations of friendship, founded a brotherhood at Naharda, on the banks of the Euphrates. On the return of the Jews from the captivity, Zerubbabel, Jeshua, and Esdras, carried away all the secret knowledge which was so carefully preserved within the closed recesses of this mysterious institution with them to Jerusalem, and established in that city a similar society for the same purpose.
This brotherhood was founded by the adherents of the Emperor Napoleon. Its ritual comprised three degrees: 1. Knight; 2. Commander; This last was divided into tnree classes, viz: 3. Grand Elect. 2. Perfect Initiate 3. Knight of the Oaken 1. Secret Judge Crown. All of them had reference to Napoleon. In the
at Paris, 1816,
;

NAPOLEON MASONRY.

;

catechism of the degrees

we

find the following questions

and answers: Que.f. How many
Ans. Eight.

stories had the temjle?

* These institutions are said to have been established by the prophet Samuel, to counteract the progress of the spurious Freemasonry which was introduced into Palestine before his time. They were seminaries in which the most talented and pious youths of Israel were educated to become tb.e future teachers of the nation. For this purpose young mon of superior capacity were invited to enter these institutions from all parts of Israel; the system of instruction comprising a thorough knowledge of the law and writings of Moses, natural philosophy, music, and poetry and as this last was altogether devoted to celebrate the power and goodness of God, Samuel, in the 99th Psalm, is enumerated amongst thosa worthies who promoted divine knowledge. After the death of Samuel, the Nabiim spread widely over the land, and similar lodges or seminaIn the days of Elijah three of ries were founded in every part of Israel. these institutions are spoken of; and though little is known of their internal economy, their rites and ceremonies being strictly concealed, there can be no doubt that they were in many respects similar to our Manonic lodges, and in some of their features they bore a resemblance to Iho colle iate institutions of our own country.

266
Qucs.

NAR NEV.
What were
their

names ?

Ans. Adam, Eve, Noah, Lamech, NaamaL Phaleg, Obal, Orientr-tba hiitial letters of Napoleon. Ques. What is your age ? Ans. I have lived only teu years, i.e., 1804-14.

General Bertrand was elected the first Grand Master, without his knowledge, and in his absence the Order was governed by a Supreme Commander and two Lieutenants.
Primitive Rite, or Philadelphians This Order was established " First at Narbonne, 1780, under the name of Lodge of St. John." In 1784 it entered into relations with the Philaletheans, at Paris, and was deeply occupied with the Hermetic Philosophy. It had ten degrees, the higher ones strongly alchemistical divided into three classes, viz: 1st class, 1. Apprentice; 2. Fellow-Craft; 3. Master. 2d class, 4. Perfect
OF.

NAIJ DONNE, RITE

Friendly Brothers

of Narbonne.

Master; Elect; Architect; 5. Sublime Scotch; 6. Knight of 3d the Sword; Knight of the East; Prince of Jerusalem. class, 7. 1st Chapter of Rose-Croix; 8. 2d Chapter of RoseCrcix; 9. 3d Chapter of Rose-Croix. In this, Masonic and physical science, philosophy, and whatever can contribute to
the improvement and happiness of mankind, were made 10. 4th Chapter, called Brothers objects of special study. Rose-Croix of the Grand Rosary. The brothers of this degree devoted themselves chiefly to an investigation of the sciences of Ontology, Psychology, Pneumatology, in a word, all those sciences that are named occult or secret. Their professed object was the general enlightenment of man, and his ree'stablishment in his primitive rights.

NEBUZARADAN. According to Gesenius the name means "Prince and Lord of Nebo." He was the chief of the lifeguard of Nebuchadnezzar, and general of his armies. He captured and sacked Jerusalem, burned the temple, and carried most of the inhabitants to Babylon. In the degrees of Knight of the East and West and Prince of Jerusalem the second Overseer bears this name, and also in the degi ee of Sovereign Prince of Masonry it is an important word.
also NEKAM-NETAK OK NEHAM-NATOR. A expression, equivalent to "Vengeance is accomThe word is plished, the punishment has been executed." found in several of the higher degrees of Masonry.

NEKAM-NEKAH;

Hebrew

NEOKOROS. A name derived from the Greek " neos and koreo" keeper or warder of the temple. The Priest of the 2d class in. the Egyptian Mysteries bore this name.

NEV
NEOPHYTE. From
the Eleusiiiia

NIV.

267

In neos, young, and phuton, plant. and other mysteries a newly-initiated person

was tl.us designated. Among the early Christians the name meant a new convert from paganism; in the monasteries a novice; a title sometimes applied to the candidate for the
privileges of Freemasonry.

NE VARIETUR. That it may not be changed. When a brother receives a certificate from his Lodge he is required to write his name on the margin, so as to guard against imShould a person claim to be a Mason, and present posture. a certificate to a Lodge he desired to visit, he would be asked If the to write his name in a book kept for the purpose. corresponded with the name that is, was ufac simile writing of it it would be a proof of the brother's identity; but if the hand writing were different it would be a proof that the person was an impostor, and had either stolen or found the
certificate.

These words, "ne varietur," refer to

this practice.

TEMPLARS. A name given to a Masonic society organized in France, in the early part of the present century, and which claims to be legally descended from the ancient These pretensions, however, Order of Knights Templar. The ritual has five degrees, as follows: are not recognized. 1. Initiati; 2. Intimi Initiati; 3. Adepti; 4. Orientales Adepti; 5. Magni aquilae nigrse sancti Johannis Apostoli Adepti. These are mere Masonic degrees disguised under latin names.
is respectable in point of numbers and the character of the members who are affiliated with it; and its objects, the enlightenment and improvement of mankind, and the relief of the suffering, are certainly worthy of ap-

NEW

The Order, however,

proval.

NINE, Ta

that

is,

the nine muses.

In the ritual of the

"Royal Order of Herodem of Kilwinning," the following questions and answers are found in the 2d section of the
catechism of the
first

degree:
Chapter of the

Ques. many Knights are necessary to constitute a lloyal Order of Heiodeai?

How

Ans. Nine.
fyies

Why?

Ans. For three reasons. Ques. Will you tell me the first? Ans. Because there are three divisions in numbers which teach us so to number our days as to apply ourselves to wisdom. QMS. Will you give me the second ? Ans. Because there are nine muses in harmony, which refine and polisb

human
tins.

nature.

QMSS.

Will you

name them

to

me ?
Melpomene, Terpsichore, Erato. Polv-

C.illiop), Clio, Euterpe, y /mnia, Urania, and T.ialia.

268

NOA.
Will yon give me the third reason? Because there are nine orders of angels in the
celestial hierarchy.

A ns.

Ques Will you name them? Ans. Cherubim and Seraphim, Thrones, Dominions, Principalities, Powers, Virtues, Archangels and Angels.

NOACHITE, OR PRUSSIAN KNIGHT, sometimes called The Very Ancient Order of Noachites. The 21st degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. The traditional history of this degree is carried back to an early period; for it commemorates the destruction of the Tower of Babel. It is founded upon the immutable principles of Justice. The meeting is called Grand Chapter, and must be held in a retired place, on the night of the full moon, in each" month. The place is lighted by a large window or opening, so arranged as to admit the The presiding light of the moon, the only light allowed. officer sits facing the moonlight; he is styled Lieutenant Commander; the other officers are Warden, Knight of Eloquence, Knight of the Chancery, Knight of the Finances, Master of Ceremonies, Warder, and Standard-Bearer. The sash, worn from right to left, is a broad black ribbon the jewel is a golden triangle traversed by an arrow, point downward; on the jewel is an arm upraised, holding a naked sword, and around it the motto "Fiat Justitia, Ruat Coelum."
;

NOAH,

PRECEPTS

OF.

Certain

commandments transmitted

documents of the ancient stoneThey require: 1. The renunciation )f all idols; 2. The worship of the true God; 3. The commission of no murder; 4. Freedom from the crime of incest;
to the present time, in masons, bear this name.
5. 7.

The avoidance of theft; 6. The practice The abstaining from flesh with blood in it.*

of

justice;

* The Rabbins affirm that God gave Noah and his sons certain precept?, which contain the natural duty common to all men; the observance of which, alone, will be suffic'snt to save them. The Hebrews would not suft'er any stranger to dwell in their country unless he would conform to them. Maimouides says that the first six of these precepts were given by Adam; the seventh WHS added by Noah. What inclines us to doubt of their antiquity is that no mention is made of these precepts in Scripture, in Onkelos, in Josephns, or in Thilo; nor iu any ancient father. GAT-MCT.

NOM
NOMINATION.
as a candidate for

NOV.

269

Literally the act of designating a person Nominations for any particular office. office are, by the usages of Masonry, unlawful, and should be so declared by the presiding officer whenever attempted. The election of officers in a lodge to be strictly within the rules of Masonic consistency must be conducted upon the Fitness for a proper discharge of the principles of secrecy. duties of the office should be the only qualification to entitle the candidate, for Masonic preferment, to the suffrages of his brethren; and the brother so elected will be more honored in the silent yet appreciative action of his brethren

than by an open showy acclamation.

NORMAL,
right angles;

from the Latin Norma. A. square for measuring employed by masons, carpenters, builders, etc.,
to prove that the angles are true.
It

piece of trations

was formed in its original adaptation, by the ancient operative craft, in two ways; either by two rules joined together at right angles, or by a flat board with a right angle cut out of it. The illusare from ancient sculptured monuments.
In the Masonic symbolism the North
is

NORTH.
believe
it

the place

of darkness. Intelligent Masons understand why this is so. On this word L' Encyclopedic Magonnique thus speaks:

"We

was to England that Freemasonry was first transported by the Saxons. It here took a new language, new forms modified upon the ancient. It cast its roots deep in that classic land of modern liberty. At a later period it was transplanted into France, where its authentic existence dates only from 1725; we know not whether it came then for the first time, or whether it was a return from a long exile produced by the catastrophe of the Templars. We owe this benefit to an Englishman, Lord Derwentwater, who returned to his country to die for his king. Let us remark, besides, that during the last age the North has been the true East of It is in the British Islands, and in the north of light!

Germany

that liberty of thought, elevated ideas. Philosophy

and Masonry, in fine, have the most numerous partisans; and we can easily make a climoMc scale of the philosophical
spirit.''

NOVICE, NOVITIATE. 1. The same as Neophyte. 2. In the Knight Templar system of Baron Hunde, and also in the Swedish rite this word was the name of the 5th degree. 3. In the Order of Chevaliers de la St. Cite certain member? were distinguished by this name. 23

270

QBE OBL.
O.

Schauthe Greek obelitskos and obelos. Handburh d<>r Si/mbolik d ie Freimauretci, says: "It was a frequent custom in Egypt to place before the main entrance to a temple two high obelisks, which obelisks were called 'the rays of the sun.'" This species of temple ornaments belongs to the oldest and most simple monuments of Egyptian architecture, and are

OBELISK. From

berg, in his

high four, sided pillars, diminishing as they It is probable that these monuments were first built before the time of Moses. There ai-e still several obelisks in Egypt; at Alexandria, at Matarea, and at Thebes. The two finest are at Luxor, at the entrance of the
ascend.

temple. These Egyptian obelisks are generally constructed of reel granite, from 30 to 100 feet in hight, and occupy at their base a space of from ii to 12 feet square. Some are plain, while others are adorned on all sides with

nothing is Probably the first images of the gods, which at an early period were nothing but stones of a pyramidical form, furnished the idea of them. According to Herodotus they were first raised in honor of the sun, and meant to represent its rays. This is confirmed by their name and form. They might also have been raised to perpetuate
hieroglyphics.

Of

their origin

known with

certainty.

the memory of certain events, since the hieroglyphics contained the praises of the gods and kings, or inscriptions They were generally relating to their religious notions. hewn out of a single stone in the quarries of Upper Egypt, and brought on canals to the place of their erection. Old quarries are still found there with obelisks already hewn out, or with places whence monuments of this form must evi-

dently have been taken out. The two columns, Jachin and Boaz, which stood at the entrance of Solomon's Temple, were fac similes of these Egyptian obelisks, and from them arose the fashion in the middle ages of surmounting cathedrals and churches with two towers.

OBLATE. In ecclesiastical antiquities, 1. A person who, on embracing a monastic order, had made a donation ol all his goods to the community. 2. One who is dedicated to a religious order by his parents from an early period of his life. 3. A layman residing as an inmate in a regular community to which he had assigned his property. In France,
in ancient times, the

king possessed the privilege of recomof (Mali, chiefly invalided soldiers,

mending a certain number

OBS ODD.

2fl

In to monasteries, whom they were bound to maintain. several parts of Europe Masonic asylums are established for the express purpose of maintaining the orphans of deceased Master Masons, and the indigent of the Order, upon similar principles to the above.

OBSECRATO. In Roman antiquity, a solemn ceremony performed by the chief magistrates of Rome, to avert any impending calamity. It consisted of prayers offered up to the gods, whom they supposed to be enraged. So exact were they in observing the prescribed form on these occasions that a person was appointed to read it over to the man who was to pronounce it, and the most trifling omission was held sufficient to vitiate the whole solemnity.
OCCULT. Something
secret, hidden, or invisible, as the

The ceremonies of occult quality of matter. among the occult mysteries.

Masonry are

ODD-FELLOWS, INDEPENDENT ORDER OF. This Fraternity, fashioned after the model of the Masonic Brotherhood, ia
a widely-extended

and

influential

society.

Its

motto

ia

It first appeared in "Friendship, Love, and Truth." England, near the close of the last century, and at that time was a social and mutual relief society. It continued to increase until 1840, when, perhaps, the Order in England was in its highest stage of prosperity. It was introduced into the United States as early as 1799, at which time a Lodge was constituted in Connecticut. In 1802 it made its appearance in Baltimore, and in 1800 in New York. It did not, however, attract any attention till 1814, when Thomas " Father of American Odd-Fellow"SVildey, who is styled the became an earnest propagator of the Order, and ship," founded lodges in a large number of important places. In 1821 the Grand Lodge of Maryland, and of the United States, was formed, and in 1822 the institution assumed its present form. A peculiar feature of the Order is its system of In addition to the fees of benefits, or of health insurance. admission a quarterly tax is collected from its members; which, together, form a fund of relief; and when a brother is sick he receives from his Lodge a certain sum per week, ranging from $3 to $8, or such a sum as the by-laws of the Lodge have determined on. There is, also, a funeral benefit which is paid to the family ol a brother in the event of his

The organization of the Order in the United States 1. The Subordinate Lodge, which has five degrees; 2. The Patriarchal or Encampment grade, which has three degrees; 3. The Grand Lodge of a State; 4. The Grand
death.

stands thus:

272
;

ODL

system of symbolism of a highly interesting character, and a In the United States tha ritual instructive and impressive. Order has had a brilliant career, and awakened, at times, a Its excellent moral teachings, large degree of enthusiasm.
the intelligence and character of its members, and the salutary influence it has exercised in the community, have made it one of the most popular institutions of the age.

Encampment of a State 5. Grand Lodge of the United States; 6. Grand Encampment of the United States. The Order has a

ODINIC MYSTERIES. The northern mythology, in the systematic condition in which we now possess it, is the work of Scalds that is, of the ancient minstrels of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Iceland. Religion and civilization here, as is often the case, sprang from poetry, and were propagated and nourished, and improved by the mysteries. The rites of Odin had an Oriental origin. Odin was the name of the supreme god of the Scandinavians. It appears from the northern chronicles that in the first century of the Christian era Sigge, the chief of the Aser, an Asiatic tribe, emigrated from the Caspian sea and the Caucasus into northern Europe. He directed his course northwesterly from the Black sea to Russia, over which, according to the tradition, he placed one of his sous as a ruler, as he is said He then to have done over the Saxons and the Franks.
advanced through Cimbria to Denmark, which acknowledged his fifth son Skiold as its sovereign, and passed over to Sweden, where Gylf, who did homage to the wonderful stranger, and was initiated into his mysteries, then ruled. He soon made himself master here, built Sigtuna as the capital of his empire, and promulgated a new code of laws, and established the sacred mysteries. He, himself, assumed the name of Odin, founded the priesthood of the twelve Drottars (Druids?) who conducted the secret worship, and
the administration of justice, and, as prophets, revealed the The secret rites of these mysteries celebrated the future. death of Balder, the beautiful and lovely, and represented the grief of gods and men at his death, and his restoration to life The neophytes were instructed in regard to the creation of the heavens and earth, of man and woman, by three Drottars, who " are called the " the

High," "Equally High," and the Highest." They discoursed to the initiates of the mysteries of the world, of day and night, of the sun and moon, of the golden age, of the winds and seasons, of the gods and goddesses, of the destinies, the twilight of the gods, the conflagration and destruction of the world. The ceremony of initiation ended
with a sublime representation of the restoration of the universe, the return of all things to purity, harmony, and

GDI.

273

The wonderful ash tree Yggdrasil, on which the peace. earth is supposed to rest, was the most notable and significant symbol in these mysteries. Dr. Oliver seems to think that it is the analogue of Jacob's Ladder, but without sufficient

It was the reason. to the ancient Edda,

symbol of universal
it

life.

According

stands over the well of time; its branches extend over the world, its top reaches above the heavens. It has three roots, one among the gods, another among the giants, and a third under Hela. Near the middle

274

OFF.

Near root is the fountain of wisdom the well of Hymir. the heavenly root is the sacred fountain by which the goda hold their council and make known their decisions. From the Norns or this fountain rise three beautiful maids Fates whose names are Urdur, the Past; Verdandi, the Present; and Skuld, the Future. On the top of the tree,
immediately under its lofty branches, sits an eagle with a hawk, the symbol of watchfulness, between his eyes, which possesses great power and wisdom; the squirrel Ratatosk (mischief) runs up and down the tree, fanning strife between the eagle and the serpent at the root, by whispering to the one what the other says; four harts, which represent the four winds, roam through its branches and bite the buds; the serpent Nidho'gge (darkness) is perpetually gnawing at its roots; the trunk of the tree decays, but the holy maidens constantly water its roots from the sacred fountain, that it may not wither. The city on the mountain is Asgard, the name of the abode of the gods, access to which is only gained by crossing the bridge Bifrost the rainbow. On one end of the bridge is a citadel in which dwells Heimdall, the warden appointed by the gods to watch without ceasing, that no enemy cross or even approach it. At the foot of the hill of Asgard lies Midgard middle earth the dwelling place of mortals. The earth thus formed is round and flat, and the arched heaven above is supported by four dwarfs called A ustri, east; Vestri, west; Northri, north and Suthri, south. The sea forms a belt around the earth, and beyond this belt is Jotenheim, the abode of the giants. Incessant warfare is carried between the wicked giants who live in the gloomy region and the noble heroes of Axgard, who defend the inhabitants of Midgard from their invasions. Thesa rites were celebrated periodically, in the temple of Thor, at Qpsal, Sweden, and in that of Frigga, on the Island of Rugen. They exercised a profound influence on the life and thought of the Scandinavian people. They taught the immortality of man, and -this conviction of eternity so possessed the Northmen that the y sought, rather than avoided, death. Looking forward to the golden-roofed palace of heroes, the glorious Valhalla, the residence of Odin, gleaming in the splendor of an everlasting morning, where, as they were taught by their mysteries, they should join the innumer;

company of the brave, whom the beautiful Valkyrse had previously conducted thither, they stood, undismayed, in the face of the most appalling dangers, and, with joyful songs, entered the gloumy shades of the valley of death.
able

OFFERINGS, THE THREE
vslrich

man

GRAND. Offerings are gifts brings to the Deity, thus symbolically giving

OHE

OPE.

275

himself up to him. This was the first mode of openly recognizing the divinity, and a principal part of the service of God in all the religions of antiquity; and even to this day the inhabitants make offerings to the Supreme being, as they make presents to their temporal lords. The idea that God

has physical wants, and finds pleasure in food, drink, and perfumes, was the origin of such offerings, which took their character from the mode of life of those who presented them. The three grand offerings referred to in Masonry were those of Abraham, David and Solomon, which were There Abraham offered up presented on Mount Moriah. his son Isaac there David built an altar, and offered thereon peace and burnt offerings to regain the favor of the Almighty, and move him to stay the plague which was destroying the people; and there Solomon, at the consecration of the These are temple, presented costly offerings to the Lord. the three grand offerings of Freemasonry.
;

OHEB-ELOAH. A Hebrew expression, which denotes "one
loves." It is a sacred word in several Masonic degrees. In the 30th degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite the symbolical ladder with seven steps has these worda upon the right side.

whom God

OPENING OF THE LODGE. All rites and ceremonies should have for their aim the instruction and improvement of those concerned. They should be simple in character, adapted to the purposes designed, and easy of performance; they should be performed with earnestness, precision, correctness,

and

in proper time.

The ceremony

of

opening a

important, instructive and impressive. To conduct this ceremony with propriety ought to be the peculiar study of all Masons, especially of those who have the honor to To those who are thus dignified, preside in our assemblies. every eye is directed for regularity of conduct and behavior; and from them other brethren, less informed, may naturally From a share in this cereexpect to derive instruction. mony no Mason is exempted; it is a general concern, in which all must assist. This is the first request of the Master, and the prelude to business. Precisely at the appointed time, the presiding officer should take the chair, and give the proper signal, then every officer should repair to his proper station, and the brethren appropriately clothe themselves and take their seats. Punctuality in this matter is of the highest importance. Our first care is directed to the external avenues of the Lodge and the officers, whose province it is to discharge that duty, are required to execute the trust with fidelity. "In the ancient mysteries (those

Lodge

is

;

276
sacred rites

OPE.

which have furnished so many models for Masonic symbolism), the opening ceremonies were of the The sacred herald most solemn and impressive character. commenced the initiatory ceremonies by the solemn formula: 'Depart hence, ye profane!' to which was added a that proclamation which forbade the use of any language might be deemed of an unfavorable character to the approaching rites." At the opening of the Lodge two purposes are effected; the Master is reminded of the dignity of his character and position, and the brethren of the respect and veneration due to him in their sundry stations. Thes' are not, however, the only advantages resulting from a due observance of the ceremony; a reverential awe for the Deity is inculcated, and the eye is fixed on that object from whose radiant beam alone light can be derived. Hence, in this ceremony, we are taught to adore the Great Architect of the universe, and to supplicate that the labors then begun may be continued in peace and closed in harmony. A Lodge must always be opened on the third degree, and in due form, for the transaction of any business, except for initiating and passing a candidate into the mysteries of the first and second degrees. The first business after opening, if it be a regular communication, is the reading of the minutes of the previous communication, for the information of the brethren. The
transactions of the evening should always be read before the Lodge is closed, that the brethren may know that they have

been properly recorded, and then duly approved. OPEEATIVE MASONEY. The physical wants of man originally compelled the establishment of operative Masonry. When by transgression man forfeited his primeval home and was obliged to seek shelter from the storms and from the winds, from the cold and from the heat, in winter, the caves of the earth in summer, the bower of twined foliage, would be his dwelling; next, his inventive mind did conceive the rude tent, then the cabin, afterward the house and the splendid palace, the adode of elegance and skill. Masonry, in its character as an operative art, is familiar to every one: as such, it is engaged in the application of the rules of
architecture to the construction of public and private edifices. It abounds in the use of technical terms, and makes use of implements and materials whicli are peculiar to itself. It is the popular theory that the operative Masons were the founders of the system of speculative Masonry, in which they applied the language and ideas of their art of building to a spiritual and religious sense. At first operative MaThen the sonry existed simply as an art of building. operative Masons, with the assistance of learned and pious

OPH

ORA.

277

men, invented the speculative science, or .Frvemasonry, and then each became an integrant part of one undivided system. Not, however, that there ever was a time when every operative Mason, without exception, was acquainted with or There are, even now, initiated into the speculative science. thousands of skillful (operative) stone-masons who know nothing of the symbolic meaning of the implements they employ. Speculative Masonry, now known as Freemasonry, is, therefore, the scientific application and the religious consecration of the rules and principles, the technical language and the implements and materials, of operative Masonry to the worship of God as the Grand Architect of the universe, and to the purification of the heart and the
inculcation of the

dogmas

of a religious philosophy.

OPHITES. An Egyptian

Gnostic brotherhood, sometimes

called "Brothers of the Serpent," because the serpent was an important symbol in their mysteries. It made its appearance in the second century, and held, in common with the Valentinians, the doctrines of the two principles, of seons and of the theogony therewith connected. They were peculiar by the reverence in which they held the serpent, a living one being employed in their ceremonies. It was an emblem of wisdom sophia and not, as in other systems, a symbol of evil.

This name was first used by the Catholics an apellation of their Protestant countrymen, who adhered to the house of Orange. It has since been assumed by a political order which was founded in 1794. In 1795 the rules and regulations of the Lodges were published by Thomas, who had privately been made a Mason at Dyon, At first the order had but one in the county of Tyrone. degree; later 1796 the purple degree was added" by John " Alarkman," and Heroine Teinpleton, and still later that of of Jericho." The ritual is Masonic in its character, and the organization of the society imitates the Masonic model. The object of the society is to defend the interests of Protestants in Ireland, and propagate Protestant ideas among the Irish. The initiate is required by a solemn oath to renounce all allegiance to the Pope and sympathy with popery, and to declare his unwavering loyalty to the Protestant dynasty of Great Britain.
of Ireland as

OEANGEMEN.

ORATOR. An officer in most of the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted and French rites. His duties are to explain the history and lectures of the degrees to the candidate during the ceremony of initiation

278

OKD.

ORDER. Lexicographers thus define this word, "a regulai government; a society of dignified perrons, distinguished by marks of honor; a religious fraternity." The military orders are societies, the members of which are bound by certain vows and rules, and distinguished by particular badges. They originated from the institutions of chivalry and the ecclesiastical corporations, and were in the beginning fraternities of men, who, in addition to particular duties enjoined by the law of honor, united for the performance of patriotic,
charitable, or religious purposes. The oldest Christian orders of which history speaks are the order Sanctce ampullae, which Clovis founded in the year 499; the Order of the Oak, which Garcias Ximenes, King of Navarre, founded in 722, and the Order of the Genet, the date of whose origin is uncertain. The first orders after these arose during the time of the crusades, and were an example for all future orders. From societies, established under certain rules, for the cure of sick persons as well as the diffusion of the Christian religion, first proceeded the religious military orders, of which the oldest is the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Their rules are similar to the laws of the monastic orders. The celebrated Order of Templars arose at this period, and distinguished itself by its zeal and bravery through the whole duration of the ci'tisades. The Orders of St. John and of the Knights of the Temple are reproduced in the orders of Masonic Knighthood. The name, order, is applied to a vast number of societies, secular and religious, and also to a considerable number in which the secular and religious are united. O1

theee Freemasonry is the most ancient and most distinguished. In the Manuel da Franc Maqon we find the following reasons why Freemasonry is entitled to be called an order: "An order is a body whose character is known, its practices observable, its rules fixed, its purposes declared, its utility proved, and whose credit is found in the protection of the government. It enters not into the principles of Masonry to unvail its mysteries to the public; but the kings who are members of the order attest that its mysteries would be honored if they were revealed. Its rules are fixed. No one is received into its circle who is not well-born and of good reputation. Its purpose is plain to all; to love God, serve the country, and do good to all. Its utility is proved by its excellent precepts, and the services it renders to humanity. Its credit is not doubtful, since it is protected by sovereigns, and everywhere the title of Freemason is a powerful recommendation. Freemasonry is, therefore, an Order. Religion is a virtue which moves us to render to God the worship that is his due. Freemasons adore the Grand Architect of the universe, therefore, the Order of Freemasonry is religious in its teach-

ORD--OKN.
ings

279

Freemasonry is an art, since it draws. and illustration from the building oi the Temple of Solomon. The art is royal, since Solomon was the conductor of the labors and the chief of the -workmen, and the princes and kings who are Masons, are, as Masons, simple artisans. Freemasonry is a society, for ita members are elected and are brothers. This society is perfect; for it has existed from time immemorial, and ita
practice.
historically, its origin

and

principles are immutable."

ORDER-NAME. In the Orders of Strict Observance, the lllummuti, and the Royal Order of H-R-D-M. of Kilwinning, each member received at his reception a kind of baptismal name expressive of some quality or virtue. Thus Baron " Knigge, in the Strict Observance, bore the name of Ci/f/i><>."

ORDO AB CHAO.
Supreme Council,
Accepted
rite.

Order out of Chaos. motto of the thirty-third degree of the Ancient and

A

ORIENT. From the Latin participle " Orient," rising, i. e., the rising of the sun the East. The Lodge, being a source of light, is called the Orient or East. A Grand body is called the Grand East; thus the Grand Lodge of France is called "Grand Orient." This title is applied to most of the Grand
bo .lies in Europe.

CHAIR SOLOMON. In the East, the seat of the Master in a symbolical Lodge. When the Master of the Lodge is installed he is said to be inducted into the oriental chair of King Solomon.

ORIENTAL

OF

ancient royal standard of France. Originally it was the church banner of the abbe} of St. Denis, which was presented by the Lord Protector of the convent whenever it was necessary to take up arms for the preservation of its It was a piece of red rights and possessions. silk hence the name fixed on a golden spear, in the form of a banner, and cut into five points, each of which was adorned with a tassel of green silk. The banners of several orders imitating the ceremonies of Freemasonry are of this name Oriflamme upon description, and sometimes bear the

ORIFLAMME. The

them.

ORNAMENTS OF A LODGE.
indented tessel, and the blazing of a Lodge..

The Mosaic pavement, the
the ornaments

star, are called

280

OHN OSL

Jebusite, from whom David purchased the on Mount Moriah, on which to erect an altar threshing-lloor to God 2d Chron. xxi. 18-25. The site of the threshing-lloor afterward became the location of the temple.

ORNAN. A

OKPHIC MYSTERIES. The founder of these mysterieslived about forty years before the Trojan war. His mysteries were of the Egyptian type, he having been initiated by the priests of Egypt, to which country he went The Orphic rites were of a mystical in search of wisdom. and philosophical character, and, in after ages, united with the Pythagorean, were widely diffused in both Europe and The Orphic mysteries were the fountain of Grecian Asia.

Orpheus

civilization.

Through

their influence the

untamed

tribes of

Greece were trained to the habits of civilized life, and were united in towns and cities, and instructed in useful arts. In his mystic society commenced the development of those great ideas which regenerated that celebrated country, placed it at the head of the civilization of the world, and made it preeminent in science, literature, philosophy, and poetry, and These in all the arts that enrich society and embellish life. The rites were the foundation of the mysteries of Eleusis. Orphic poems embrace the whole cycle of the esoteric
religious principles,

and the doctrines
or.

of the mysteries.

OSIRIS, LEGEND
mysteries

In the articles Isian and Egyptian

we have given an account of this chief figure in the Egyptian mythology. Most writers who have expressed
opinions on this subject seem to think that the legend has solely an astronomical sense, and simply means the contest between light and darkness, the conservative and destroying Bowers of nature. Thus, when the sun Osiris sets, darkness Typhon appears to triumph, and when the sun risea Typhon or darkness is vanquished, and so the eternal contest goes on. During the last age it was a fashion among the material philosophers to explain all ancient mythology, and ehe mysteries in this manner, in order to show that they had ^o religious sense. This was carried so far that even Christ was declared to be nothing but a symbol of the sun, and the twelve apostles were the twelve signs of the zodiac We cannot admit that the Osirian myth is to be explained ttoleiy from the astronomical point of view. It had a higher meaning, and shadowed forth the great mystery of the world, the conflicts of good and evil, of vice and vii'tue, and announces that even through persecution and death, justice and truth, and virtue, shall advance to a perfect victory; and that the night of death shall yield to an immortal day.
!

OVE PAL.

281

OVERSEER. Iii the system of Strict Observance, and several others, each of the first two officers of the Lodge, The name is also after the Master, is called "Overseer." given to the Senior and Junior Wardens in English Lodges. In a Mark Master's Lodge three officers bear this title, namely: Master, Senior and Junior Overseers. The duties of these officers are performed by the three Masters of the
Vails.

Their

official

emblem

is

a square.

P.

PALESTINE. 1. The Land of Canaan Judea. There are two periods in the history of this country which are peculiarly interesting to Freemasons, viz: that which included the reign of Solomon, during which the temple was built, and the one when that country was the theater of the exploits of the crusades, from which time many knightly orders date their existence. The Christian kingdom of Jerusalem was founded in 1099, by the Crusaders. Its constitution was European: a patriarchate, four archbishoprics, several earldoms and baronies, and three orders of
knighthood, were instituted; an army of from 12,000 to 20,000 men was kept on foot; and the mosque built by the caliph Omar, in 638, upon the site of Solomon's Temple, was

changed into a magnificent cathedral. During this period the order of Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem 2. Palestine arose, and also that of the Knights Templar. has been styled the Father-land of the Masonic orders; and a large number of degrees derive their names from its cities and other noted localities, and events that have transpired
in its history.

ORDER OF THE. The date of the origin of this society is unknown. It first appeared at Doua}r , France. Its ritual and statutes are ascribed to Fenelon; the rules

PALLADIUM,

admitted both sexes to membership; its professed objects were spiritual and moral improvement. The male members were called the "Companions of Ulysses," and the female tin "Sisters of Penelope." The seal of the order was a heart, crowned with flowers, upon an altar, ornamented with a garland, with a branch of laurel at the right, and another of palm, at the left. Upon the heart was the inscription: "Je sais aimer," I know how to love. This device and the intimacy which prevailed between the Companions of Ulysses and the Sisters of Penelope indicate with sufficient plainness the certain end and principal object of the order of the
Palladium.
Its existence

was

of short duration.

982

PAN.

PANATHENJ3A. One of the famous festivals of Greece, celebrated at Athens in honor of Athene, patron goddess oi the city, and intended to remind the people of Attica ol Before the time their union into one community by Theseus. of Theseus, or before the formation of the Attic confederacy, this festival was celebrated only by the citizens of Athens, and called simply Athencea. According to tradition, the Athensea owed its origin/to King Erichthonius, about 1506 or 1521 B. c. The later Panathensea appears to have been a double festival. All writers who mention it speak of a Lesser or Greater Panathenaea, the former held annually, the latter every fourth year. Both took place in the month Hecatombceon The Lesser Panathensea (July), and lasted several days. was celebrated with gymnastic games, musical compositions, declamations, and a torch-light race in the evening, the whole concluding with the sacrifice of an ox contributed by every one of the Athenian boroughs, from which the whole company enjoyed a sumptuous entertainment. During the
no person was permitted to appear in dyed prize of the victors was a vessel filled with The Greater oil, from the sacred tree on the Acropolis. Panathenaea only differed from the Lesser in being more bolemn and magnificent. Homeric poems were sung; dramatic representations were given, and on the last day of the festival a splendid procession took place, in which Athene's This garment (Minerva) sacred garment was carried. was woven by a select number of virgins called epyao-xai, from ipyov, work. It was of a white color, without sleeves, and embroidered with gold. Upon it were described the achievements of the goddess, particularly her victories over the This garment was carried in procession in such a giants. manner as to give it the appearance of the sail of a vessel, to the temple of Ceres Eleusiania, thence to the citadel, where the peplus was placed upon the statue of Minerva, which was laid upon a bed strewed and artistically decorated with flowers. Not alone the Athenians, but the whole population of Attica poured forth on this occasion. It was usual to set all pi-isoners at liberty, and to present golden crowns to such as had deserved well of their country.
celebration,

garments.

The

PANTHEISTIC BROTHERHOOD. Toland, in his celebrated essay, "Pantheisticon," describes a fraternity whose ritual, as well as principal features, had a strong likeness to Freemasonry; and, thereby, the society gained much credit, but its pretensions to a Masonic character were exposed on 'he establishment of the Grand Lodge in London, A. D. 1717, ad the society was soon abandoned.

PAR
PAROLE.
It is well in addition to its

PAS.

283

known that the order of Odd-Fellows,

permanent and unchangeable pass-words, has an annual traveling "word," and also term pass- words. The Masonic fraternity in the United States has no arrangement of this kind. But the order in France has a system of this character. The parole is of two kinds "mot de semektre" annual word tho half-yearly word and "mot annuel" first of which is given to all the Lodges at the semi-annuul festival of the brotherhood, and the second is communicated to the higher orders in November.

PASSED. A word used to describe the advancement of an Entered Apprentice to the degree of Fellow-Craft. It alludes to his passage between the symbolical columns and through the porch to the middle chamber of the temple. PAST HIGH -PRIEST, an honorary title by which a companion who has served in the office of High-Priest for the official term of one year is known. The honors and
special privileges pertaining to the office are conferred in a convention called the Order of High-Priesthood,, composed of present and past High-Priests, which is held to be the bond of brotherly love that unites those who have been

elevated to the highest station in a Royal Arch Chapter by their companions, and are engaged in one common task of preserving the landmarks of the order unimpaired, and in protecting, by their high authority, the integrity and honor of the institution. The jewel of a Past High-Priest consists

of a plate of

gold in the form of a triple triangle, a breastIn front, on the plate being placed over the point of union. face of each triangle is inscribed, with the tetragrammaton, nil""!* ? on the other side the upper triangle has the following mystical notation, ,,, *7*70 the two lower triangles have the Hebrew letters ft and p inserted upon them. Each side of each triangle should be one inch in length, and may be ornamented at the fancy of the wearer. The breastplate may be plainly engraved or set with stones.
1

;

234

PAS.

on MasLodges before they can assume the duties of the chair. The same degree is also the second of the series known as the Royal Arch degrees. This somewhat anomalous arrangement has led to a confusion of ideas, and considerable controversy in regard to the rights of these two classes of Past Masters Is a brother who has received the degree of Past Master in a Royal Arch Chapter, but who has never been elected to nor installed into the office of Master of the Blue Lodge, The eligible to the elective offices in the Grand Lodge? constitutions of most Grand Lodges confine the honors of
ters of
official station to
is
it refer solely to those actually passed the oriental chair, or does it include others who are not actual Past Masters, but who are entitled to the name, from the fact that they have received the degree in the Royal Arch Chapter ? It would seem to be a plain conclusion that, as neither the Grand Lodges nor their subordinates know anything of such a body as the Chapter, the authors of those constitutions could have had no reference to the Chapter whatever, nor to any of its degrees. When designating those who should be eligible to office in the Grand Lodge, they must have had in their minds those, and only those, who had actually served a term as Master of a Blue Lodge. In point of fact, the degree of Past Master is out of place in the Chapter, and has no right there. It belongs to the Blue Lodge, and should be conferred only upon actual Masters of Lodges when installed into office. As a degree of the Lodge, used as above, it is fit and proper.

PAST MASTEE. The name of a degree conferred

what construction must be put on Does as used in the constitutions.

Past Masters. The point to be determined this term Past Master,

who have

In the Chapter it has no significance nor pertinence whatever it is simply an act without meaning, and mars greatly the beauty of Royal Arch Masonry. The degree, itself, furnishes strong internal evidence that it never was intended for any persons but Masters of Lodges. It deals solely with the duties of Masters and with Masonic labors which belong exclusively to Blue Lodges, and is nothing more nor less than the beginning of the installation service.

PASTOPHORAI. From the Greek words pastes, a couch or chest, and pherd, I bear, equivalent to couch-bearers. The priests of the first class in the Egyptian mysteries bore this In the performance of certain ceremonies they name. carried an image of a god Osiris whose allegorical death had been represented on an enclosed couch, or rather, perThis title was also applied to other haps, in a kind of coffin. persons who carried images of their deities through the public streets for the purpose of eliciting charity.

PAT.

285

PATENT. A warrant of
f.rid

by the authority of which

ineir peculiar functions.

constitution conferring privileges, societies and companies exercise All Masonic bodies work under a

patent or charter, derived from some legitimate authority having full power to grant the same. It must be confessed that not a few of the Masonic patents and charters of the

Lestwitz, De Bruggen and Hohenthal, who pronounced it legitimate, and Kessler, in a funeral oration pronounced over the deceased Grand Master, relates thai the Brothers Smith brought it from England or Scotland
Firks,

The one that Baron Humle before the Convention of Kohlo, June, 22, 1772, was written in cipher, and no person has ever yet beeu It was examined, however, by able to explain or read it.
last

century were forgeries.

laid

about the year 1754 Many other patents arid charters that are sometimes spoken of had an origin equally lofty in the clouds of doubt and ambiguity.
!

PATMOS, KNIGHT OF. A degree which belongs to a series of degrees that the ancient Grand Encampment of Templars in Scotland conferred. It is historical, and has reference to the banishment of St. John and the visions of the Apocalypse.
the Greek patria, family, and arch&n, The heads of the antediluvian families, ami the three fathers of the Hebrew race, are thus designated. The celebrated Charter of Cologne speaks of an unknown or invisible Patriarch, and also a Supreme Master Elect, who

PATRIARCH. From
chief.

head or

are to be recognized as the legitimate governors of the Craft. is found also in the encampment degrees of the Order of Odd Fellows; in several of the high grades of Freemasonry, and in the 20th degree of the Councils of the Emperor of the East and West. At Paris there is an officer who bears the name of Grand Patriarch.

The name

the

PATRON. A protector. The Latin patronus signified, in Roman Republic, a patrician, who had plebeians called
under his immediate protection, and whose interests

I'lii'iitis

he supported by his authority and influence. The historj cf Freemasonry in Great Britain shows that the Order, at a very early period, recognized the king as its patron, or some one appointed by the king to represent him. The constitutions of York also ordained that " All legitimate societies" " of Masons shall labor under a patron." Charles I. was patron of the English Masons from 1625 to 1644. The changed cii'cumstances of the times, the growth of democratic ideas, and the overwhelming political power now possessed by the masses of the people, have rendered the expression, "patrou of Masonry," very nearly an obsolete notion.

286

PEL PER.

PELICAN. It was formerly believed that this bird, when food could not be found, would sacrifice itself to its young Hence the Pelican and nourish them with its own blood. often been used nourishing its young ones with its blood has various societies as a symbol of self-sacrificing benevoby lence. Eagon says that in the hieroglyphic language the Eagle signified a wise, and the Pelican a benevolent, man, and therefore concludes that the Eagle and Pelican of the
Rose Croix degrees symboMze perfect Wisdom and perfect
Lovo.

denarius, was mentioned in the parable of the " vineyard," with which the laborers were paid for their day's work. " Every man received a penny." The value of this coin was twelve to fourteen cents United States currency. It plays an important part in the degree of Mark Master.*

PENNY.
name

The Greek drachma, or Roman

the

of the coin

This was the name that Weishaupt gave to that branch of the order which was afterward exchanged for that of Illuminati.

PERFECTIONISTS.

first

PERFECTION, DEGREE
fect

OF.

Also called Grand Elect, Perstyle it Grand Ecossais It is the 14th degree of the

and Sublime Mason.

The French

de
*

la

voute sacre'e de Jacques VI.

erroneous impression prevails respecting the real value of money on account of our associations with its present value. A penny, equivalent to twelve or fourteen cents, seems to us to be a mean for ten or twelve hours toil in the vineyard, and the two compensation pence (Luke x. 35) affords very equivocal evidence to our minds of generosity in the good Samaritan; but when it is considered how much of the comforts and necessaries of life these apparently trifling sums could As lately as the year 1351 the price obtain, the case appears differently. of labor was regulated in England by act of Parliament, and "haymakers, corn-weeders, without meat, drink, or other courtesy" (in model n In many places phrase, finding themselves, ) were to have a penny a day. these were the highest wages paid for any kind of agricultural labor, some kinds being still less. The pay of a chaplain in England, in 1314, was three half pence, or about three cents a day. At the same time wheat was sixteen cents a bushel, and a fat sheep only twelve cents. A ponny a day under such circumstances would not be inconsiderable wages. In the time of Christ a penny or Roman denarius would have bought, it is estimated, at least ten times more than it would have done in England in the year 1780 and prices then were very much lower than at the present day. BIBLE DICTIONARY.
in olden times,

An

CHAMBBB OF DEATH.

PERFECT MASTER

TOMB OP HIRAM.

PER

291

Ancient and Accepted rite, and the 20th of the Kite of Misraim. Chevalier Ramsay and other political associates of the Pretender were undoubtedly the authors of the degree.

PERFECTION,

RITE

OF.

A French

system founded by

De

Bonneville, 1754, which assumed that the Freemasons were the lineal descendants of the Templars, and therefore that
all Masons were Knights Templar. It had 25 degrees. Stephen Morin and others introduced some modifications and additions into the rite, and transplanted it in the United States under the name of the Ancient and Accepted rite.

Accepted

The 5th degree of the Ancient and The legend of this degree is founded upon the circumstances of King Solomon's efforts in establishing
rite.

PERFECT MASTER.

appropriate obsequies as a grateful tribute of respect to the memory of a worthy departed brother. The Master is styled

Most Venerable, and represents Adoniram. The hangings are green; in each corner of the room is a white column; the altar is covered with a black cloth, strewed with tears. The apron is white lambskin, lined and bordered with green; in the center of which is painted, within three circles, a square stone, on which the letter J is inscribed; the flap of the apron is green, symbolically to remind the neophyte that, being iead in vice, he must hope to revive in virtue. The jewel is a compass open to GO. degrees, the points on the arc of a circle. The solemn ceremonies of an interment take place during the progress of this degree.

PERFECT UNION, LODGE OF. A new arrangement of Masonic degrees which made its appearance in France during the latter part of the last century, under the auspices of the Lodge of Perfect Union at Rennes. It received the title of the Elect of Truth, and had 14 degrees, divided into
three classes. Perfection.

This

rite is

but a modification of the Rite of

PERSECUTION. No society or order of men has been the object of greater abuse or more malicious misrepresentation and unreasonable persecution than that of Freemasonry. Even among the Jews, not many years after the building of the temple, Freemasons were accused of idolatry, the temples where they practiced their mysteries were destroyed, and many of them were put to death. This arose in a great degree from the ignorance of the Jews of that age. They misapprehended the lofty ideas of their greatest king and wisest sage, Solomon, and were made to believe, after his death, that the symbolical decorations of the temple were of a profane and idolatrous character. They were also taught

2U3

FEB.

to distrust the liberal views entertained in regard to other nations, and saw in his friendly and fraternal intercourse

Hiram of Tyre, and other distinguished Gentiles, a departure from the strictness of the Hebrew faith. During the life of Solomon the company of Hiram continued to practice their rites unmolested; but after his death a strong and bitter opposition sprang up against them. Their mys" abominations," teries, not being understood, were called extermination of the and a general movement for the Sidonian architects was organized. This ancient persecution of the Sidonian Masons finds its parallel in the persecutions of modern Masons by the Roman Church and other religious In 1738, Pope Clement XII. fulminated his celebodies. brated bull against the Order, in which he shows himself as fanatical and ill-informed in regard to the nature of Freemasonry as those who headed the persecutions of the Sidonians among the ancient Jews. He says: "We have learned that a society has been formed under the name of
with
all religions and aD. sects are indiscriminately admitted, and whose members have established certain laws which bind themselves to each

Freemasons, into which persons of

other, and which, in particular, compel their members, under the severest penalties,' by virtue of an oath taken on the Holy Scriptures, to preserve an inviolable secrecy in relation to The bull everything that transpires in their meetings." concludes with a command to all bishops to inflict on Masons "the penalties which they deserve, as people greatly suspected of heresy, having recourse, if necessary, to the secular power." The "penalty" here alluded to is plainly enough explained by the following Jranscript from an edict published in the following year: " No person shall dare to assemble at any lodge of the said society, nor be present at any of their meetings, under pain of death and confiscation of goods, the said penalty to be without pardon." This bull, however, failed to stay the progress of the institution, and wheu

Benedict XIV., 1751, renewed ,it, and ordered its enforcement, his proclamation was treated with derision and contempt. In Germany, Spain, Turkey, Portugal, France aiiJ Switzerland the order has, at times, been persecuted, but it has outlived all opposition, and is now master of those who once trampled it under foot. The anti-Masonic movement
in the United States is familiar to all. It was a real benefit to Masonry, and has overwhelmed its authors with infamy and scorn. But the last (and we hope it will be the last) and probably the most ridiculous attempt at persecuting the Masonic institution emanated from the Secret Consistory of the

.Vatican,
of

a Papal Allocution to his

by Pope Pius IX., September 25, 1865, in the form " Venerable Brethren." This

PER.

293

dreadful anathema pronounces, ex-cathedra, that Freemasonry " monstrous, impious and criminal, full of snares and frauds a dark society; the enemy of the Church and of God, and dangerous to the security of kingdoms; inflamed with a burning hatred against religious and legitimate authority; desirous of overthrowing all rights human and It may not be necessary to waste much time or divine," etc. space to the refutation of the charges displayed in this silly and odious papal address. Such accusations against a public body of men spread over the whole surface of the civilized
is

world and in all classes of society, among whom may be numbered monarchs, princes, senators, prelates, and the great and good of all countries, accompanied by the awful
sentence of eternal perdition, are detestable, and not worthy any serious notice. The Pope and his venerable brethren do not like Freemasonry. Very well; nobody blames them for that; and least of all, the members of the Masonic Order; for it is not a proselytizing institution. He objects to it because it is a secret society. Has RomanVery well ism no secrets? Then it has no confessional, and it never
of
!

had an

this Allocution, in which secret inquisition. societies are subjected to such severe invective, was actually delivered in his own Secret Consistory. But as the Roman

Why

Church is hostile to freedom of conscience, its doctrines are therefore incompatible with the tolerant and liberal princishall patiently await another ples of Freemasonry. " Thunder from the (although another may never occur) Vatican," but in the meantime the Order of Freemasonry

We

must move

on.
OF.

PERSEVERANCE, ORDER

-An Order of Knights and

Ladies, which was founded at the Court of Louis XV., A.D 1771, by the Polish Countess, Potoska, Count Brostosky, and the Marquis de Seignelay. Its existence was short.

PERSIAN PHILOSOPHICAL RITE. A new system of Masonry which arose at Paris in the year 1819. It was not much encouraged, and has now ceased to exist. Little is known of its ritual, and whether the three symbolic degrees were essential to its members, or whether they were included in the fanciful names of the degrees adopted, we are unable
1. Listening Benevolence; from the 29th degree of the Scotch 3. aster of the Sun rite; 4. Architect of all Rites, Knight of the Philosophy of the Heart enthusiasm; 5. Knight of Eclecticism and of Truth; 6. Master Grand Shepherd; 7. Venerable Grand Elu. 25

to learn.

Apprentice;

M

It consisted of seven degrees, viz: 2. Companion Adept, Esquire of

294

PHA

PHI.

PHALLUS. An image of the virile member, which, fastened to a pole, was carried in the religious processions of many of the nations of antiquity. It was not an object of worship, as some have thought, but was reverenced as a symbol of the male productive principle. This symbol, under the name of Lingain, was first employed in the Indian Mysteries; thence it was introduced into Egypt, and made still more conspicuous in the Mysteries of Isis. The legend of Osiris relates that, on being overcome by Typhon, his body was dismembered, and the several parts of it and among them the virile member were concealed by Typhon in the
four quarters of the globe. Isis, after a long search, succeeded in finding all the members except the one in question, and of this she made a wooden image, which was carried in the processions peculiar to the festivals of Osiris, as an emblem of the productive energies of nature. In the Grecian Mysteries, also, it was used in the same sense, and traces ofit are even found among the Jews. The Phallus was not associated in the minds of the people with any low, vulgar Dr lascivious ideas, but rather represented, as we have before observed, that plastic power, that creative force of nature, that mysterious and inexhaustible fountain of life from

which all things proceed. This sign has been prominently associated with the symbol of the Point within a Circle.
order composed of students in society of the kind was, we believe, organized by the members of William and Mary's College in Virginia, and under the auspices of Thomas Jefierson. It has a sign, grip and word, and a silver medal, which serves as a token of membership; on one side of which, under six stars, the number of colleges where the Order is in vogue, and above a hand, are engraved the initials 13. K. while on the other is marked the date of its

PHI BETA KAPPA. An
colleges.

American

The

first

<I>.

;

foundation,

"

S. P.,

December

5,

1776."

stand for Societas Philosophies.

The letters S. P. The three Greek initials
Philosophy, the guide

signify "Philosophia biou Kubernetes" of life.

PHILADELPHIA'S. This was the appellation of a lodge erected at Narbonne, France, in which the Kite of Narbonne and also the Primitive rite had their seats. This rite claims to rest upon a scientific study of Masonry. Thory "Hixtoire du Grand Orient" says: " Suivant I'ecrit: notion generate sur
I'objei du rite primitif, le regime est forme par de Masons, qui regoivent dix degres d' instruction. Ces degres, ou classes ne sont pas la designation de tels ou tels grades, mais des de nominal ions de collections, qn'il sujfit de
te

caractere et

trois classes

PHI.

295

derouler autant qu'elles en sont susceptible, pour en fairs willir un nombre presque infaii de grades!'* Thus, for example, the 4th degree, under the titles of Perfect Master, Elect, Architect, designates an acquaintance with the greater part of the degrees analogous to them.

This name a compound Greek" Friends or Lovers of Truth," was signifying the given to an order which originated in the "Loye des Amis The rite or system of degrees was Eeunis,'' A. D. 1773. divided into twelve classes:

PHILALETHEANS.

word

1. 2. 3.

Apprentice. Fellow-Craft Master.
Elect.

8. 9.

Unknown
Initiated.

Knight of the Temple.
Philosopher.

10. 11. 12.

Sublime Philosopher.
Phiklethean, Lover of Truth, or Master of all Degrees.

4. 5.
6. 7.

Scottish Knight. Knight of the East. Knight ot the Kose-Oroix.

Like the sect of St. Martin, it had a mystical formation, but most of its teachings were of an elevated character, and discussed the profoundest questions of philosophy in an able manner. It attracted the attention of many distinguished men, who became active members of it; among whom were Count de Gebelin, Dutrousset d'Hericourt, the Landgrave Fredrich Ludwig of Hessen Darmstadt, Baron Gleichen, Abbe Rozier, etc. The soul of the Order was Savaletto de Langes, who was also its founder.

PHILOCHOREITES, ORDER OF.
composed
of

men and women, founded by some

This was a secret society
officers

connected with the French army, in Spain, A. D. 1808, and was afterward carried by them into France. It was also diffused by the Spanish army through many other parts of Europe. It was a system of Adoptive Masonry, with initiation and mysteries. The Lodge was Each Knight bore an Order name.

styled the Circle.

PHILOSOPHERS UNKNOWN,

ORDEK

OF.

This Order,

sometimes called also the Order of Unknown PhilosopherJudges, was a Masonic society, and had two degrees. It belonged to the Templar-Jesuitical system, and its tendency, on the whole, was unmasouic, although it wrapped itself in a Masonic form. The jewel of the Order was a dagger, with the words Tain and Revenge.
* According to the MSS. "a general idea of the character and objects " of the Primitive Bite, the system includes three classes of Masons who receive ten degrees of instruction. These classes are not the designation of such and such degrees, but of collections, which, being properly developed, may produce an infinite number of degrees.

296

PHI.
degrees, above the

PHILOSOPHICAL DEGBEES. The
18th, are distinguished

this name; but why they should be thus named it is difficult to explain. Only one of them the 28th, or Knight of the Sun can lay any claim to the Nearly all the rest are historical and moral, appellation. and are, for the most part, amplifications of preceding de-

by

During the last century, however, there were several philosophical rites practiced among Masons, but they have gradually been dropped. Only one the 28th of our system remains. The name Philosopher is given to a largo number of degrees in several Masonic rites. In the Lodge of des Amis Reunis we find the degrees of Cabalist Philosopher, Philosopher of the Grand Circle, Hermetic Philosogrees.

Elsewhere we find pher, and Philosopher of Hermes. Cabalistic Philosopher, Cabalistic Philosopher of the Sublime number Five, Christian Philosopher degree of the African Architects, Grand Mistress Philosopher in the Chapter of the Dames of Mt. Tabor, Grand Philosopher, Perfect Mason
Philosopher, Perfect Master Philosopher, Sublime Philosopher, Philosopher of the Sublime number Nine, Philosopher of Samothrace, etc. The foregoing by no means completes the list, but these will serve to show the character of the Masonic mind during the last half of the 18th century. There was a yearning for the attainment of the highest truth, and these rites, with their multifarious degrees, were considered as so many steps leading thereto.

PHILOSOPHIC SCOTCH EITE.
lished in Paris,

This system was estaband adopted by the Grand Lodge in 1776.

years previously a Mason named Pernetti founded a rite, to which he gave the name of " Hermetic, or Sublime Masters of the Luminous Ring," the object of the contriver being to instruct his disciples, not only in the higher degrees of Masonry, but also in the art of transmuting metals and preparing the elixir of life. Pernetti had for a pupil a physician named Boileau, who did away with the alchemy, and made it more purely Masonic, and then gave this reformed rite the name above affixed to it. This rite, which Clavel says is still practiced in France, has twelve degrees, the three degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry being necessary pre -requisites, though they do not form a part of the rite. The degrees are: 1, 2, and 3, Knight of the Black Eagle or Bose-Croix, divided into three parts; 4. Knight of the Phcrnix; 5. Knight of the Sun; G. Knight of Iris; 7. True Mason; 8. Knight of the Argonauts; 9. Knight of the Golden Fleece; 10. Grand Inspector, Perfect Initiate; 11. Grand Inspector, Grand Scotch Mason; 12. Sublime Master of the Luminous Bing. The ioctrine taught in this rite was that

Some few

-

PHI.

297

Freemasonry was founded by Pythagoras; and t.ae lectures consisted of an explanation of the philosophy and peculiar doctrines of the Samian sage, asserting, for instance, that the symbols he adopted in his secret instruction were chiefly derived from geometry thus, the right angle was au emblem of morality and justice; the equilateral triangle was a symbol of God, the essence of light and truth; the square referred to the divine mind; the cube was the symbol of the mind of man after it had been purified by acts of piety and devotion, and thus prepared for mingling with the celestial The point within a circle, and the dodecahedron or beings. figure of twelve sides, were symbols of the universe; the triple triangle was an emblem of health; and the letter Y a representation of the course of human life, in which there were two diverging paths, the one of virtue leading to happiness, and the other of vice conducting to misery.*
;

PHILOSOPHY OF MASONRY. This expression opens an immense field for the intelligent Mason to explore, and one so rich in materials that it can never be exhausted. The
Philosophy of Freemasonry involves the history of its origin, an inquiry into the ideas that lie at its base, an investigation of its peculiar form, an analytical study of its several

has now arrived at a period in its history when the prosperity of the Order imperatively demands a deeper insight In this country, for nearly into its character and teachings. half a century. Masons have occupied themselves merely with the outward and material forms of the institution. Not knowing in what ideas the system had its birth, what truths were symbolized by the rites, what notions were intended to
"Pythagoras, in pursuit of knowledge, traveled into Chaldea and Egypt, and is said to have been instructed in the sacred lore of the Hebrews, either by the Prophet Ezekiel or Daniel. Dr. Oliver asserts that he was initiated into the Jewish system of Freemasonry, and that "his mysteries were the most perfect approximation to the original science of Freemasonry which could be accomplished by a philosopher bereft of the aid of revelation." Jamblicup relates, as evidence of their brotherly love and of their means of mutual recognition, the following incident: A Pythagorean, traveling in a distant country, fell sick and died at a public inn. Previously to his death, however, being unable to compensate the landlord for the kindness and attention with which he had been treated, he directed a tablet, on which he had traced somo Some tim enigmatical characters, to be exposed on the public road. after another disciple of Pythagoras passed that wny, perceived the tablet, and learning from the inscription that a brother had been there sick and in distress, and that he had been treated with kindness, hi stopped and reimbursed the innkeeper for his trouble ami expense.

and a development of the ideas which are illustrated by its ritualistic emblems, myths and allegories, and which speak through its sublime system of symbols. Freemasonry
degrees,

298
be illustrated by
significance.
its

PHCE PLA.
symbols, they have not been able to rise sublime spirit and profound The superior intelligence and culture of tho
this.

to a true appreciation of its

present age require more than

The questioning

spirit

of the times demands aieason for this and for that; it cannot Masons should rest in a dead form, an outward sign. acquaint themselves with the philosophy of Masonry, seek and find the sense of its rites, study its symbols until they " see them all aglow with infinite and eternal truths. Symbols are the speech of God," and through them Eternity lookjs into Time, and the Infinite holds communion with the finite, the divine with the human through them the mysterious currents of life from the over-world stream into our human world of prosaic reality, and light it up with a living There is that latent in Freemasonry which makes it glory. But to be exactly the institution most needed in this age. an effective agent in elevating and advancing man to a more perfect condition, the sense of its mysteries must be better
its philosophy must be studied, and grand and ancient emblems and symbols must be made to speak their immortal meanings as of old. In other words, Freemasonry must be idealized. Masonic literature is exceedingly poor in works touching upon this point. The lectures of Kagon, "Cours Philoxophique" in France, and the "Rationale and Ethics of Freemasonry" by Arnold, in the United States, are the only works we have any knowledge of

understood by Masons,

its

in this department.

PHCENIX. A Phoenix, burning, with the words written beneath, "Perit ut uu</" he dies that he may live alluding to Jacques de Molay, was adopted as the seal of the Order of the Temple, according to the accoiint of the Baron Hunde, by Harris, the second Grand Master after Molay, A. D. 1313; or according to Starck's assertion by Aumont, Molay's successor, 1312-13.

PLATONIC ACADEMY. An institution having Masonic emblems, which was founded at Florence, 1480, during the It was devoted to the study of reign of Cosmo de Medici.
the Platonic Philosophy.* Clavel supposes drawing his conclusions from the Masonic symbols that adorn their hall, which yet exists that they were a society of Masons, who, even at that early period, had abandoned the operative for the speculative art.
*

Plato believed

and that he lormcil
matter, according

God to be nn infinitely wise, just and powerful Spirit; t;u: visible universe out. of proi'-xistent aniorphorus to perfect patterns or ideas eternally existent in his own

mind.

Philosophy he coiisidered as being a knowledge of the true nature of things, us discoverable in those eternal idc.is after which uiJ things were ftwuionecL

PLE PEE.
PLENTY.
an abundance.

209

Literally denoting a full or adequate supply; As an emblem of Masonry it is symbolized by a sheaf of wheat (commonly called corn), suspended near a waterfall.

The Hebrew word

Shibboleth,

which

occupies an important part in the ceremonies of the Fellow-Craft's degree, signifies an ear of corn, also a rapid stream or flow of water. In the Eleusinian Mysteries the goddess Ceres was represented with a flaming torch in her right and an ear of corn in her left hand, and a wreath about her head, as emblems of peace and plenty. This goddess is nearly always several gems and medals are now extant, represented thus where the ears of corn appear with her image.
;

POMEL. Literally a round knob. The term is used to designate the globes which rested on the summit of the pillars that stood at the entrance of the temple.
PONTIEEX. This title was borne by the members of one of the great colleges among the ancient Romans, instituted by Nunaa, for the purpose of preserving and cultivating the highest order of knowledge, particularly of a religious character. Their duties embraced the regulation of all the religious rites and ceremonies (public and private) of the state. They were a self-elected body down to the latter ages of the republic, when the power of election was sometimes held by the people. It was finally vested in the emperors, who added as many to their number as they The chief of the pontifices was called the thought fit. Pontifex Maximus. His station was one of great dignity and power, as he not only had supreme authority in religious
matters, but, in consequence of the close connection between the civil government and religion of Home, he had also considerable political influence.

PRELATE. An

officer in

a Council of

Red

Cross Knights

and Commandery of Knights Templar, whose title is "Excellent." His duties are to officiate at the altar and rehearse
His the lessons of divine inspiration. position is at the right of the Generalissimo in the East. His jewel is a triple triangle, with a passion cross in the center of each, which is the emblem of the
Eternal Jehovah, and
of the sacred trust
is

to

remind him

of the importance

reposed in him.

gOO

FBI.

Cohen. One who officiates in the pcblio of God, especially in making expiation for sin, being worship " ordained for men in things pertaining to God, to offer both In the Old Testament the gifts and sacrifices for sins." was not annexed to a certain family until after priesthood

PRIEST, Hebrew,

Before that time the promulgation of the law by Moses. the first born of each family, the fathers, the princes, the kings, were the priests in their own. cities, and in their orrn In the solemnity of the covenant, made by the houses. Lord with his people, at the foot of Mount Sinai, Mosos performed the office of mediator, and young men were chosen from among Israel to perform the office of priests. But after the Lord had chosen the tribe of Levi to serve him in his tabernacle, and the priesthood was annexed to the family of Aaron, the right of offering sacrifices and oblations to God was reserved to the priests of this family. The High-Priest was at the head of all religious affairs, and was the ordinary judge of all difficulties that belonged thereto, and even of the general justice and judgment of the Jewish nation. God had appropriated to the person of the High-Priest the oracle of his truth; so that when he was habited in the proper ornaments of his dignity, and with the Urim and Thummim, he answered questions proposed to him, and God disclosed to him secret and future things. He was forbidden to mourn for the death of any of his relations, even for his father or mother; or to enter into any place where a dead body lay, that he might not contract or hazard the contraction of uncleanness. He had the privilege of entering the sanctuary only once a year, on the day of solemn expiation, to make atonement for the sins of the

In general, no priest who had any corporeal defect could offer sacrifice, or enter the holy place to present the shew-bread. The consecration of Aaron and of his sons was performed by Moses in the desert, with great and imposing solemnities. The garments worn by the High-Priest consisted of the following articles Short linen drawers; over this was a shirt or tunic of fine linen, embroidered, reaching to the feet, and with sleeves extending to his wrists; over this again was another garment called the robe of the

whole people.

:

ephod, woven entire, blue, with an ornamented border around the neck, and a fringe at the bottom, made up of pomegranates and golden bells. Above all these vestments was placed the ephod, made without sleeves, and open below the arms on each side, consisting of two pieces, one of which covered the front of the body, and the other the back, and reaching down to the middle of the thighs. They were joined together on the shoulders by golden buckles set with

HIGH-PRIEST IN FOI/L EOBES.

PEL
gerns,

303

and two large precious stones set in gold, on which were engraved the names of the twelve tribes of Israel, six on each stone, according to their order. The material of which the ephod was wrought was extremely costly of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine-twined linen, with rich golden em;

broidery; also a girdle of fine linen, woven with blue, purple, scarlet and gold* passed twice around the body. Just above the girdle, on the breast of the ephod, and joined to it by golden chains attached to rings at the upper corners, was suspended the breastplate, which was made of the same rich material as the ephod; it was about ten inches square; the front of which was set with twelve precious stones, ou each of which was engraved the name of one of the sons of Jacob; these stones were divided from each other by golden partitions, and set in four rows. Upon his head was the miter. This was made of fine linen or silk, blue, wrapped in several folds, in the manner of a Turkish turban. In front, and around the base of the miter, as a band, secured with blue ribbon, was a plate of gold, called the "plate of the holy crown of pure gold," upon which was inscribed, " HOLINESS TO THE LORD," in Hebrew characters. These vestments should be worn by the High-Priest of a Royal Arch

Chapter at every convocation, and when worn each of them will convey to the possessor important lessons of symbolical instruction. The various colors of the robes are emblematic of the graces and virtues which should adorn the human

mind; the white, of innocence and purity; the scarlet, of fervency and zeal; the purple, of union; and the blue, of The miter is to remind him of the dignity oi friendship. his office, and the inscription on its plate to admonish him of his dependence on God. Lastly, the breastplate, upon which is engraved the names of the twelve tribes, is to teach him that he is always to bear in mind his responsibility to the laws and ordinances of the institution, and that the honor and interests of the Chapter and its members should alwaj s be near his heart.* In the United States the High-Priest is the first officer of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons. He represents Joshua, the High-Priest, who, with his com*

the several parts of these vestments. He says, being made of linen signified the earth the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of its bells The ephod showed that God had made the resembling thunder. universe of four elements, the gold relating to the splendor by whicn all
ical interpretation to
Ifcat
;

According to Josephus the ancient Jews gave an interesting symbol-

The breastplate in the middle of the ephod things are enlightened. resembled the earth, which has the middle place of the world. The declare the sun and moon. The twelve stones are the twelve sarJonyxes months or signs of the zodiac. The miter is heaven, because blue.

304
pinions,

PHI.
Zerubbabel, Prince of Judah, and Haggai, the second temple.

scribe, assisted in building the

PEIMITIVE SCOTCH KITE. This system was first introduced at Namur, in 1770, and consisted of thirty-three degrees, mos.tly taken from the Scottish series of Heredom. Its principal author was Bro. Marchot, an eminent advocate at Nivellea It never extended beyond Namur. Clavel says it is principally practiced in Belgium, and has its see at Namur, in the Lodge de La Bonne Amitie. PRIMITIVE SCOTCH EITE, OK THE PHILADELPHI CP NAEBONNE, was established at Narbonne, on the 19th of April, It consisted of three classes of Masons, who received 1780. ten degrees of instruction a degree meaning a certain amount of instruction, and some of them including several Masonic degrees. Thus, the first class had for its three degrees, the three symbolic degrees in all the rites; the second class had for its first (4th) degree the Perfect Master, Elu and Architect; for its second (5th) the Sublime Scottish; for its third (6th) the Knight of the Sword, Knight of the East and Prince of Jerusalem; while the third class had for its four degrees, all being in the Chapter of Rose Croix, instruction in all branches of knowledge, especially Masonic, This rite physical, philosophical, psychological and occult. was reconstituted in the Low Countries in 1819.

PRINCE OF JERUSALEM. The 16th degree of the The history of this degree is Ancient and Accepted rite. founded upon the incidents that occurred during the building of the second temple, at which time the Jews were much annoyed by the constant and malicious interference of the Samaritans, their ancient enemies. This degree is closely connected with, and a continuation of, the degree of the Knight of the East and Sword, to which the reader is referred for a more detailed statement. There should be two principal apartments in addition to the ante-room. The first apartment represents the court of Zerubbabel at Jerusalem. The hangings are of saffron color, except the East, which is hung with white, blue, red, and violet colors, in stripes. The second apartment represents the council
chamber of Darius, King of Persia. The hangings are green, the throne and canopy saffron color. In it is no Masonic furniture. The Senior Warden presides and represents Darius, King of Persia, dressed in royal robes, and wearing a crown. In the first apartment the presiding officer represents Zerubbabel, and is styled Most Illustrious. The apron is of crimson, lined and edged with saffron color. On the In the flap is an equal balance, held by a hand of Justice.

PEL
middle of the apron, a representation of The jewel is a medal the second temple. on which is engraved a hand, of gold holding an equal balance a double-edged on one sword, surrounded by five stars side of which is the letter D, and on the other the letter Z, the initials of Darius and Zerubbabel. The Princes of Jerusalem are sometimes styled "Chiefs* of Masonry," and are authorized to visit and inspect all
; ; ;

305

lodges of inferior degrees.

V

PEIXCE OF MERCY, OK SCOTCH TRINITARIAN. The 26th It is a highly degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. philosophical degree, and its ritual very impressive; its title
The body is clearly designates its character and intention. The hangings are green, supported by 9 styled a Chapter. columns, alternately white and red; upon each of which is n Near the altar is a statue of chandelier, holding 9 lights. white marble, the figure of a virgin, covered with thin gauze. This represents TRUTH, and the palladium of the Order of the Princes of Mercy. The presiding officer is styled
Most Excellent Chief Prince.

The jewel

is

an equilateral triangle of bars of gold, with
a flaming heart, of gold, in the center. On the heart are the letters I. H. S; and on the on the respective sides of the triangle, on the bottom. right, F on the left, and The jewel is suspended from a small collar of narrow watered purple ribbon, and hangs on the left breast.

H

W

PRINCE OF EOSE CROIX,

sometimes called KNIGHT
1

OF THE EAGLE AND PELICAN. The 18th degree of the Anciei't and Accepted rite. It is the most ancient, interesting, an most generally practiced of the philosophical degrees Masonry. It is found in all the principal rites, and wher it does not exist by name its place is supplied by other s whose symbols do not differ materially from it. To thowho have not gone beyond the symbolic degrees, the naii:o. is perhaps more familiarly known than any other of tLo higher degrees. Of its origin nothing satisfactory is know-. Baron Westerode, in 1784, supposes it to have been institute by the Knights Templar in Palestine, in the twelfth centu- v, and asserts that Prince Edward, afterward King Edward 1, was then admitted into the Order, under the auspices Raymond; he also says that the Order was derived fro Oruiesius, its founder, an Egyptian priest, who had bt j
(

f

;

;

1

'

-

>

26

306

PEL

converted to Christianity. Kagon has elaborately imestigated the subject, and attributes its origin to a pious and learned monk, named John Valentine Andrea, who nourished in the latter part of the 16th century; and the same author says that Andrea, grieved at seeing the principles of Christianity
forgotten in idle and vain disputes, and that science *vas subservient to the pride of man instead of contributing to his happiness, passed his days in devising what he supposed to be the most appropriate means of restoring each to its legitimate, moral and benevolent tendency. Clavel affirms that the degree was founded by the Jesuits, for the purpose of counteracting the insidioiis attacks of freethinkers upon the Romish faith, but offers no evidence in support of his assertion; when, in fact, they were the great enemies of Masonry, and so far from supporting it wrote a treatise " Oliver says that the earliest notice that against the Order. he liiids of this degree is in a publication of 1613, entitled La Reformation universdle du monde entier avec la fa ma raAnd he ter nitatis de I'Ordre respectaJ)le de la Itose-Croix.'"*

made

'

f

known much sooner, although not probably as a degree in Masonry; for it existed, as a cabalistic science, from the earliest times, in Egypt, Greece, and Home, as well as among the Jews and Moors in times more recent, "f The
adds: "It was
Landmarks, vol. ii. p. 63 n. 35 Am. ed. There is a tradition among the Masons of Scotland, that after the dissolution of the Templars, many of the Knights repaired to Scotland a-ud placed themselves under the protection of Robert Bruce, and that after the battle of Bauuockburu, which took place on St. John the Baptist's day, in the year 1314, this monarch instituted the Royal Order of Heredom and Knight of the Rosy-Cross, and established UK- chief seat of the Order at Kilwiiming. From that Order, it seems to us by no means improbable that the present degree of Rose-Croix de Heroden may have taken its origin. In two resj ects, at least, there seems to be a very close connection between the two systems: they both claim the kingdom of Scotland and the Abbey of Kilwiiinmg as having been at one time their chief seat of government, and they both seem to have been instituted to give a Christian explanation to Ancient Craft Masonry. There is, besides, a similarity in the names of the degrees of "Rose-Croix de lEeroden," and "Heredom and Rosy-Cross," amounting almost to au identity, whick appears to indicate a very intimate relation of one to the The subject, however, is in a state of inextricable confusion, and other.
t
*

we

confess that after all our researches we are still unable distinctly to to the period when, and to the place where, the present degree of ose-Croix received its organization as a Masonic grade. Ejint No matter, however, where precisely it received its origin, nor who has the honor of having been its inventor, it is at least certain that the degree of RoseCroix is to be placed among the most ancient of the higher degrees of Masonry; and that this antiquity, in connection with the importance of its design and the solemnity of its ritual, has given to it a universality in the Masonic world, inferior only to the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry. It is to be found, as we have already said, in nearly all the rites.' under Borne name and in some modification, and in many of them it in placed *i the fninmit of the ritual.

PEL

307

ceremonies of the degree are of the most imposing and impressive character. Its ritual is remarkable for elegance of diction, while the symbolic teaching is not only pleasing, but consistent, figuratively expressing the passage of man through the valley of the shadow of death, accompanied and sustained by the Masonic virtues FAITH, HOPE, and CHARITX and his final reception into the abode of light, life, and immortality. VIRTUE and HUMILITY are the foundations and characteristics of this sublime degree. "A man's life," it has been beautifully said, "is laid in the loom of time, to a pattern which he does not see, but God does; and his heart is a shuttle. On one side of the loom is sorrow, and on the other joy; and the shuttle, struck alternately by each, flies back and forth, carrying the thread, which is white or black, as the pattern needs, and in the end, when God shall lift up the finished garment, and all its changing hues shall glance out, it will then appear that the deep and dark colors were as needful to beauty as the light and high colors." Some writers have labored to give an exclusive Christian character to this degree; but the following words of one oi the most eminent students of Masonry, and an ardent admirer of the Ancient and Accepted rite, may very properly be quoted,* and a study of the ritual will further prove the correctness of the remarks: "If anywhere bi'ethren of a
particular religious belief have been excluded from this degree, it merely shows how gravely the plans and purposes of Masonry may be misunderstood; for, whenever the door of any one degree is closed against him who believes in one God and the soul's immortality, on account of the other tenets of his faith, that degree is no longer Masonry." Bodies of this degree are styled Sovei'eign Chapters. In cases of reception, there are three apartments, beside the

ordinary reception room. The presiding officer is styled Most Wise Master. The recipient is created and constituted "a Knight of the Eagle and Pelican, and Prince of the Order of Rose-Croix." To give the degree full effect music is required. The Knights are dressed in black, with black gloves and a sword. The collar should be reversible, of velvet or silk, crimson on one side and black on the other; plain, without device or embroidery on the crimson side, and with a passion-cross of scarlet on the black side. The apron is, on one side, white satin, bordered with crimson; on the On the white side is painted or other, black velvet. embroidered the pelican side of the jewel. On the black side is a red passion-cross. The jewel hangs at the bottom of the collar, or is suspended to a narrow crimson watered
*

Albert Pike.

308

PRI.
is
;

ribbon on the breast. The jewel resting on the segment of a circle
side, is

a compass, its points at the bottom, on one
slightlj

an eagle, with

its

wings extended and head

depressed; and on the other a pelican piercing its breast to feed its young, which are in a nest beneath it; between the legs of the compass is a red cross, and above a red rose in full bloom; on the summit of the compass is an antique crown. On the segment of the circle are the letters I. N. R. I. The jewel is of gold, with the pelican and eagle of silver. In this jewel are included the most important symbols of the degree. The cross, the rose, the pelican, and the eagle, are all important symbols, the explanation of which will go far to a comprehension of what is the true design of the Rose Croix degree.

PRINCE OF THE TABERNACLE. The

24th degree

ol

the Ancient and Accepted rite. It is intended to illustrate the directions for constructing the tabernacle, which God ordered Moses to build, the particulars of which may be found in the 25th chapter of Exodus. This was a movable chapel, and so contrived as to be taken to pieces and put together at pleasure, for the convenience of carrying it from place to place, during the wandering of the Israelites in the

PEL

309

The body is styled a Court. wilderness for forty years. officer represents Moses, and is called Most Puissant Leader. The second officer represents Eleazar, the The candidate represents High-Priest, the son of Aaron. Phinehas, the son of Eleazar the High-Priest. Two apartments are required when conferring the degree. The hangings are red and black. The jewel is the letter fc$ susThis degree pended from a violet colored watered ribbon. is most intimately connected with, and should be considered a continuation of, that of the Chief of the Tabernacle. The especial duties of a Prince of the Tabernacle are to labor incessantly for the glory of God, the honor of his country, and the happiness of his brethren; to offer up thanks and prayers to the Deity in lieu of sacrifices of flesh and blood.
The presiding

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS. A

term applied to the Wor-

shipful Master and the Senior and Junior Wardens. are called the three principal officers of the Lodge.

They

officer in a Chapter oi represents the leader of a party of Jews, who sojourned in Babylon for a time after the departure of Zerubbabel with the

PRINCIPAL SOJOURNER. An
He

Royal Arch Masons.

main body, and who subsequently came up to Jerusalem to assist in rebuilding the His duties in the Chapter are temple. similar to those of the Senior Deacon in He wears a black the symbolic Lodge. robe, with a rose-colored border, and a slouched hat and pilgrim's staff. His station is on the left, His jewel is a triangular plate, on in front of the Council. which a pilgrim is engraved.

^

PRINCIPALS. The first three officers in an English Royal Arch Chapter are the First Principal, who represents Zerubbabel, the prince of the people; the Second Principal, whc represents Haggai, the prophet; and the Third Principal,
who
represents Josluva, the High-Priest.

310

PKO PEU.

preserving order among the vast number of craftsmen engaged in the construction of the temple, appointed seven Provosts and Judges, in order that all complaints among the workmen might be heard, disputes settled, and justice administered. The apartment represents the middle chamber of King Solomon's Temple; the hangings are red, with a sky-blue canopy in the East. The room is lighted with 5 Thepiesiding lights, 1 in each corner, and 1 in the middle. The officer is styled Venerable Chief Provost and Judge. apron is white, edged with red; in the middle is a pocket, On the flap is painted, or with a red and white rosette. embroidered in gold, a key. The sash is crimson, worn from right to left; from it hangs the jewel, which is a key of gold.
(contracted from Procuracy). The agency of one acts as a substitute for another, or as his principal; authority to act for another, or for a body, especially in a legislative body. Every Lodge is entitled to be represented in its Grand Lodge, by its Master and Wardens. Should these, or either of them, be unable to attend the Grand Lodge at any communication, a brother or brothers may be appointed. Such substituted representatives, in the

PROVOST AND JUDGE. The 7th degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. The legend of this degree is founded upon the principles of Impartiality and Justice. After the death of the Grand Master Workman of the temple, King Solomon, for the purpose of strengthening his means of

PROXY

person

who

absence of their principal, succeed to all his powers and Persons privileges, but in his presence they cannot act. appointed proxies must be Master Masons, and members of some subordinate Lodge under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge, and must be furnished with a written certificate of their appointment, under the seal of the Lodge or party A proxy cannot appoint a proxy. An appointing them. officer of the Grand Lodge cannot, as such officer, appoint a proxy, unless the constitution specifically give him such power. The Grand Master is the only officer who has the power or right of appointing his proxy, for any purpose, unless such power be granted by the particular constitution. In the selection of an agent for the proper discharge of a Masonic duty, preference should always be given to able and experienced Masons; it is, therefore, suggested that as a general rule a Master or Past Master should have the
preference.

PRUDENCE. One of the four cardinal virtues, the practice
of

which

is

beautifully explained in the

Entered Apprentice

degree.

PYT.

311

PYTHAGOKAS, SYMBOLS OF. The esoteric or secret instructions of Pythagoras were explained with the aid ol symbols, as the readiest and most efficient method of impressing upon the mind of the candidate for the mysteries the sublime truths and moral lessons for which the school A of that justly celebrated philosopher was distinguished. few of the most important symbols are here explained. The Equilateral Triangle, a perfect figure, was adopted among the ancient nations as a symbol of Deity, the principle #nd author of all sublunary things; the essence of Light and
who was, and is, and shall be. The Square comprehends the union of the celestial and terrestrial elements of power; and was the emblem of Morality and Justice. The Tetractys was a sacred emblem, which was expressed by ten jods disposed in the form of a triangle, each side containing This was the most expressive symbol of Pythagoras. four.
Truth,

TKTBACTY8.

the obligation to the aspirant was propounded; and it was denominated the Trigonon mysticum, because it was the conservator of many awful and important truths, which are explained as follows: The one point represented the Monad, or active principle; the two points the Duad, or passive principle the three points the Triad, or the world proceeding from their union; the four, the Quarternary, or the liberal sciences. The Cube was the symbol of the mind of man, after a well-spent life in acts of piety and devotion, and thus prepared by virtue for translation into the society of the
it
;

On

POINT WITHIN A CIRCLE.

TKIFLK TBIANQLC.

47TH PBOBLHH.

celestial gods.

the universe. this emblem is coeval with the first created man the creation was the circle and himself the center. The Dodeccedron, or figure of twelve sides, wag also a symbol of the universe. The Triple Triangle a unity was a symbol of health, and was called of perfectness The Forty-seventh proposition of Euclid was inHygeia. * -juted and explained by Pythagoras, and is so extensively

The Point The use of

within a Circle

was the symbol

of

312

PYT.

useful that it has been adopted in all Lodges as a significant symbol of Freemasonry. The letter Y was a symbolical representation of the course of human life. Youth, arriving at manhood, sees two roads before him, and deliberates which he shall pursue. If he meet with a guide that directs him to pursue philosophy, and he procures initiation, his life shall be honorable and his death happy. But if he omits to do this, and takes the left hand path, which appears broader and better, it will lead to sloth and luxury; will waste his estate, impair his health, and bring on an old age of infamy and misery.*

of the four great national year in honor of Their institution is variously referred Apollo, near Delphi. to Amphictyon, son of Deucalion, founder of the council of Amphictyons, and Diomed, son of Tydeus but the most common legend is, that they were founded by Apollo himself, after he had overcome the dragon Python. The festivities were similar to those at Olympia, and the victors were rewarded with costly gifts, fruits of various kinds, medals prepared for the purpose, and garlands of laurel, etc.
festivals of Greece, celebrated every fifth
;

PYTHIAN FESTIVAL. One

*PYTHAGOBAS, the celebrated philosopher, \vas born at Samos, about 540 B. c. His father, Mnesarchus, was a person of distinction, and therefore the son received that education which was best calculated to enlighten his mind and invigorate his body. Like his contemporaries, he was made acquainted with poetry and music; eloquence and astronomy became his private studies, and in gymnastic exercises he often bore the palm for strength and dexterity. At an early age he left his native country and began his travels in pursuit of knowledge; he visited Egypt, Chaldsea and India, where he gained the confidence of the priests, and availed himself of an understanding of the mysteries and symbolic writings by which they governed the princes as well as the people of those countries; and after he had spent many years in gathering all the information which could be collected from antique traditions concerning the nature of the religions and the immortality of the soul, he revisited his native island. The tyranny of Polycrates, at Samos, disgusted the philosopher, who was a great advocate of national independence; and, he was a great favorite of the tyrant, he retired from the island though and settled in the town of Crotona, in Southern Italy, where he founded a sect which received the name of The Italian, or Pythagorean Fraternity; and he soon saw himself surrounded by a great number of
pupils, which the recommendations of his mental, as well as his personal accomplishments, had procured. Pythagoras was, perhaps, the most virtuous, and taught the purest doctrines of all the heathen philosoHe distinguished himself particularly by his discoveries in phers. geometry, astronomy and mathematics; and it is to him that the worli* is indebted for the demonstrations of the 47th proposition of the first book of Euclid's elements, about the square of the hypothenuse. The time and the place of the death of this great philosopher are nnknowii; yet many suppose that he died at Metapontum, about 487 B.C. ;m<l so great was the veneration of the people of Magna Graicia for him that he received the same honors as were paid to the immortal gods, and his house became a sacred temple.
;

QUA.

313

QUALIFICATIONS OF CANDIDATES. The
As the source
it is

Masonic

institution, like other societies, is composed of individual members, which, in the aggregate, make up a body or Lodge.

of

important to consider who should compose the body or be admitted into the Order. The qualifications which aro indispensable in a candidate for initiation into the mysteries

power

is,

primarily, vested in the members,

Freemasonry are four-fold in Physical, Intellectual and I'ot-uical.
of

their character
'
'

Moral,

The Moral character

is

intended has
\

to secure the respectability ot the Order, because, by the worthiness of its candidates, their virtuous de-

portment and good reputation,

will

a fool's mouth is his said, destruction, and his lips are the '' ana re of his soul. The Political qualifications art intended to maintain the independ-

the character of the institution be ence of the Fraternity; because its judged, while the admission of obligations and privileges are thus irreligious libertines and contem- confided only to those who, from ners of the moral law would neces- their position in society, are capable sarily impair its dignity and honor. of obeying the one, and of exercising The Physical qualifications con- the oilier without the danger of let or tribute to the utility of the Frater- hindrance from superior authority. Of the Moral, Physical and Poiinity, because he who is "deficient in any of his limbs or members, litical qualifications of .1 candidate and who is not in the possession of there can be no doubt, as they are all his natural senses and endow- distinctly laid down in the Ancient The ments, is unable to perform, with Charges and Constitutions. pleasure to himself or credit to the Intellectual are not so readily those peculiar labors in decided. These essential qualificaFraternity, which all should take an equal part. tions may be briefly summed up in He thus becomes a drone in the tne following axioms: hive, and so far impairs the usefulMorally, the candidate must be a ness of the Lodge, as ;x place man of irreproachable conduct, a T in the existence of God, where Freemasons assemble to work, and to instruct and improse and living "under the tongue of themselves in the mysteries of their good report ancient science." Pkysicully, he must be a man of The Intellectual qualifications re- at least twenty-one ye;irs of age, fer to the security of the Fraternity: upright in body, with the senses of because they require that its mys- a man, not deformed or dismemteries shall be coutided only to those bered, but with hale and entire whose mental developments are limbs as a man ought to be. such as to enable them properly to Intellectually, he must be a man in appreciate, and faithfully to pre- the full possession of his intellects, not so young that his mind shall not serve from imposition, the secrets thus entrusted to them. It is evi- have been formed, nor so old that it dent, for instance, that an idiot shall have fallen into dotage ueithei could neither understand the hid- a fool, an idiot, nor a madman; and den doctrines that might be com- with so much education as to enable municated to him, nor could he so him to avail himself of tbe teachings secure such portions as he might of .Masonry, and to cultivate at his remember, in the "depository of leisure a knowledge of the principles his heart," as to prevent the de- and doctrines of our royal art. must be in the signing knave from worming them 1'oiiticuliy, he out of him; tor, as the wise Solomon unrestrained enjoyment of his civil
1

'

;

314

QUA.
|

The Lodge which strictly deand personal liberty, and this, too, by the birthright of inheritance, and mands these qualifications of its not by its subsequent acquisition, candidates may have fewer members
in

hereditary

consequence of his release from than one less strict, but it will un doubtedly have better ones. jondage.

But the importance of the subject demands for each class of the qualifications a separate section, and a more extended Dr. Oliver, in his "Institutes of Masonic consideration. Jurisprudence," enumerates the following as the qualifications of candidates, according to the English Book of Constitutions, and we here show how easily our transatlantic brethren can change a provision which has, from time immemorial, been regarded as an unchangeable landmark:
"1. Every candidate for the honors of Masonry ought to lead an uncorrupt life, and do the thing which is right, always speaking the truth from his heart; to use no deceit in his tongue, nor to do evil, or slander his neighbor. He must be lowly in his own eyes, and give due honors
to good and pious men. If he swears unto his neighbor he must not disappoint him, even though it should subject himself to temporary inconvenience, neither must he lend money to his brother on exorbitant usury, or take reward against the innocent. In conformity with this primitive recommendation, our constitutions pronounce that 'every candidate must be a free man, and his own master, and at the time of his initiation, be known to be in reputable circumstances. He should be a lover of the liberal arts and sciences, and have made some progress in one or other of them. "In 1763, the worthy candidate was described to be one 'who to a well-informed and accomplished mind added elegance of manners and a conduct guided by principle one who would not have injured the rights of the meanest individual who contracted no debts that he could not pay, and thought every
' ; ;

and maintains a leading posiamongst the existing societies which are professedly devoted to works of benevolence and charity. It would be well if the Masters of Lodges were to give themselves the trouble of examining, more particularly than they generally do, whether
cies,

tion

their candidates are able to substantiate a valid claim to these

preliminary qualifications.
2. According to the customs and regulations of our ancient brethren, every candidate was formerly required to be 'a free man, born of a
' '

was an unchangeable landmark but on the extinction of negro slavery by the
tree

woman.'

This formula
;

originally considered to be

British

parliament,

arguments were used at a Grand Lodge, holdeu Sept. 1, 1847, in favor of its alteration. The Grand Master
(Earl of Zetland) requested the brethren to consider the propriety of remodeling the form by which a candidate for initiation declares

the following

places who are free by the law of emancipation, and yet, their mothers

himself to be free born. There are,' he said, 'at the present moment, many men in Jamaica and other
'

having

been

slaves,

they cannot

conscientiously sign such a declarabreach of morality unbecoming the tion, knowing it to be untrue; and character of a gentleman, and who in the absence of that preliminary studied to be useful to others so act, we cannot initiate them. I far as his opportunity or abilities should be glad to see it altered, enabled him. This standard of qua- and, therefore, move that in future lification may be considered rather we substitute the words free arjeni high, and, indeed, it is, and ought for free born, and that the declaration to be, so in an institution which be thus revised.' The amendment plumes itself on its moral tenden- was unanimously adopted.
'

QTJE.

315

VI. This curious docuQUESTIONS OF KING ment, which has been printed in many works on Masonry, has elicited a vast amount of discussion among Masonic It first appeared in the " Genwriters as to its genuineness. tlemen's Magazine" for 1753, where it purports to be a reprint of a pamphlet of 12 pp., published in 1748, in Frankfort, Germany. It is entitled "Certayne questyons, with answeres to the same, concernynge the mystery of Masonrye; writtene by the hande of Kynge Henrye the Sixthe of the name, and faythfullye copyed by me, Johan Leylande, Antiquarius, by The magazine above the commands of his Highnesse." referred to states that this document was copied by one John Collins, from a MS. in the Bodleian library, and to have been enclosed in a letter from John Locke, the celebrated metaphysician, to Thomas, Earl of Pembroke, dated May 6, 1696. For the still further preservation of this singular paper, it is here repeated, together with the explanatory notes of Mr.

HENRY

Locke:
Ques.

Whattmoteyttbe?*

Ans. Ytt beeth the skylle of Nature, the understondynge of the myghte that ys hereynne, and its

ynge

Ans. The Venetians,* whoo begrate merchaundes, corned

ffyrste ffromme the este ynn for the cominodyte of tia,

Veuemer-

sondrye
the

werkynges;

sonderlyche,

of of reckenyngs, skylle waii*htes and metynges, and the true

chauiKlysynge beithe este and weste bey the redde and myddlonde sees
Ques.

Howe comede

ytt

yn Eng-

nianere of liwjonnynge a] thyn^s for elonde ? Ans. Peter Gower,f a Grecian manues use; headlye, dwellinges. and buyldynges of alle kindes, and journeyedde ffor kunnynge yn and in Syria, and yn all other thyuges that make gudde Egypte,
to

manne.
Ques.
Atis.

*The

ffyr.ste

ffyrste inenne of the weste; and comyiuge westlye, ytt

were before thej

monkish ignorance it is no wonder that Where dyd ytt begynne ? Ytt dydd begynue with the the Phoenicians should be mistaken for the Venetians. Or, perhaps, which were not taken one for theif the people menne yn the este,t other, similitude of sound illicit deceive the clerk who took down the examination. The Phoericians were the greatest voyagers among the ancients, and were in Europe thought to be the inventors of letters, which, perhaps, they brought from the east with other arts. This must be another t Peter (iower.J mistake of the writer. I was puzzled at first to guess who Peter Grower should be, the name being perfectly English; or how a Greek should come by such a name. But as soon as I thought of Pythagoras, I could scarce forbear smiling, to find that philosopher had undergone a metemp. sychosis he never dreamt of. We need only consider the French prouunciatiou of his name, Pythagore, that is, Petagore, to conceive how easily such a mistake may be made by au unlearn id clerk. That Pythagoras travelled for knowledge into Egypt, o.c., is known to all the learned; f ad that he was initiated into several different Orders of priests, who in those d:\ys kept all their learning secret from the vulgar, as is well known. Pythagoras also made CV-TV geometrical theorem a o ihe secret, and admitted only such
first

Venetians, &c.]

In the times ot

iiAlhe broughte herwyth alle coinfoitej to the wylde and comfortlesse.
Qneti.

Who dyd brynge ytt westlye?
That
it

*What mote ytt be?] That is, what may this mystery of Masonry be ? The
answer imports.
natural,

consists

in

mathematical, and mechanical knowledge. Some part of which (as apwhat follows) the Masons pretend pears by to have taught the rest of mankind, and some part they still conceal. ft Ffyrste inenne yn the este, &c.] It should see in by this, that Masons believe there were men in the east before Adar. who is called the " ffyrste manne of the weste ;" and that arts and sciences began in the east. Some authors of great note for learning have been of the same opinion;
,

and

it is certain that Europe and Africa, (which, in respect to Asia, may be called western countries.) were wild and savage, long atcer arts and politeness of manners n-ere iiignut pcrfeotiou in China ami the
:

adieu.

316

QUE.

everyche londe, whereas the Vene- yn euylle haundes, oder soche as ne tians had de plaunted ma9onrye, and myghte be holpynge wythouten the wynnynge entraunce yn al lodges techynges to be joynedde herwythe of maconnes, he lerned muche, and in the lodge, oder soche as do bynde retournedde, and woned yn Grecia the fres more stronglyche togeder,

wacksynge and becornmyghtye wyseacre, f and gratelyche renowned, and her he framed a grate lodge at Groton,| and maked manye Ma9onnes, some whereoffe dyde journeye yn Fraunce and maked mauye Ma9onnes wherefromme, yn processe of tyme, the
Magna,

*

mynge

a

bey the proffyte and commodyte com yuge to the confrerie herfrorume. Whatte artes haueth the tyues.

Ma9onnes techedde mankynde *? Ans. The artes agricultura,
chitectura,

ar-

;

astrouornia, geometria, numeres, musica, poesie, kimistrye,

governemente, and relygyonne.
Ques.

kynde soch of her secrettes as gen- onelyche bey chaunce, and herfore erallyche myghte be usefulle; they but lytel I tro. hauthe keped back soche allein as Ques. What dothe the Ma9onneg shulde be harmfulle yff they corned concele and hyde ?
knowledge of them as had first undergone a five years' silence. He is supposed to be the inventor of the 47th proposition of the first book of Euclid, for which, in the joy of his heart, it is said he sacrificed a hecatomb. He also knew the true system of the world, lately revived by Copernicus ;
* CrRficiA AGNA, a part of Italy formerly BO called, in which the Greeks had settled a large colony. t Wyseacre.] This word at present siggnifies simpleton, but formerly had a quite contrary meaning. Wiseacre, in the old Saxon, is philosopher, Wiseman, or wizard; and having been frequently used ironically, at length came to have a direct meaning in the ironical sense. Thus Duns Scotus, a man famed for the subtilty and acuteness of his understanding, has, by the same method of irony, given a general name to

theless Ma9onnes hauethe|| alweys, hem plesethe, and the treu way of yn everyche tyme, from tyme to techynge the same. Whatt odher out, ffynde ys tyme, communycatedde to mann- menne doethe

descouer more techers than odher meune ? Ans. The hemselfe huuthe allein Ans. Peter Gower, whenne he jour- in arte of ffyndynge ueue artes, f was ffyrste made, whyche arte the ffyrste Ma9onnes neyede to lerne, and anonne techedde; evenne soe receaued from Godde; by the shulde all odhers beyn recht. Na- whyche they fyndethe what artes
Ques. Dothe Ma9onnes here artes unto odhers ?

Arte passed in Engelonde.

Howe commethe Ma9onnea

Ans. Thay concelethe the arte of ffyndynge neue artes, and thatt ys for here owne proffytte, and preise:J thay concelethe the arte of kepynge secrettes, that soe the worlde may* The artes agricultura, &c.] It seems a
bold pretence, this of the Masons, that they have taught mankind all these art*. They have their own authority tor it; and I know not how we shall disprove them. But what appears most odd is, that tliey reckon religion among the arts. t Arte of n'yndynge neue artes .] The art of inventing arts must certainly be a most useful art. My Lord Bacon's Novum Orgauum is an attempt towards somewhat of the same kind. But I much doubt, that if ever the Masons had it, they have now lost it; since so few new arts have been lately invented, and so many are wanted.
in all the sciences generally, as alegabra ii iu numbers, by the help of which new rules of arithmetic are, and may be found. It seems the Masons have t Prcise :] great regard to the reputation as well as the profit ot their Order; since they make it one reason for not divulging an art in common, that it may do honour to the possessors of it. I think in this particular they show too much regard for their ov/n soci'ty. and too little for the rest of mankind. Arte of knpynge secrettos.] What kind ot an art this is, I ca:i by no means

and was certainly a most wonderful man. See his Life by DION HAL.

M

modern dunces.
Groton is the name of a $ OJroton.] place in England. The place here meant is Crotona, a city of Grecia Magna, which in the time of Pythagoras was very populous.
'

The idea I have of such an art is, that it must be something proper to be employed

The word MADE I Ffyrste made.] suppose has a particular meaning among the Masons; perhaps it signifies initiated. Magonnes hauethe communycatedde, This paragraph hath something rekc.] markable in it. It contains a justification of the secrecy so much boasted of by Masons, and so much blamed by others; asserting tha~ they have iu all ages discovered such things as might be useful, and that thej conceal such only as would be hurtful either to the world or themII

selves.

What

these secrets are,

we

see

afterwards.

imagine. But certainly such an art the Mar-ons must have; for though, a.s some people suppose, l^uy should have no secret t all, even that must be a secret, which, being discovered would expose thorn

U

QUE.
eth nothynge concele from them. Thay concelethe the arte of wunderforesayinge werckynge, and of thynges to comme, that so thay same artes may not be usedde of the wyckedde to an euyell ende. Thay al* so coxicelethe the arte of chaunges. the wey of wynnynge the facultye of Abrac, f the skylle of becommynge gude and parfyghte wythouten the hoJpyuges of fere and hope; and the universelle longage ot

317

Ques. Wylle he teche me thay same artes?

Ans. Ye shalle be techedde yff ya be werthye, and able to lerne.
Ques. Dothe all Muyonnes kunne more then odher menne ? Ans. Not so. Thay onlyche haueth recht and occasyonne more

then odher menne to kunne, butt manye doeth fale yn capacity, and manye more doth want industrye, that ys pernecessarye for the gaynynge all kunnynge. the highest ridicule; and therefore it reQues. Are Mayonnes gudder men quires the utmost caution to conceal it. * Arte of chaunges.] I know not what than odhers ? this means, unless it be the transmutation Ans. Some Ma9onues are not so of metals. virtuous as some odher menne but, Here I am utterly t Facultye of Abrac.] yn the most parte, thay be more In the dark. An gude then they would be yf thay J Universelle longage of Magonnes.] universal language has been much desired war not Ma9onnes. by the learned of many ages. It is a thing Ques. Dothe Ma9onnes love eidher rather to be wished than hoped for. But odher ntyghtlye as beeth sayde ? it seems the Masons pretend to have such a thing among them. If it be true, I guess Ans. Yea verylyche, and yt may It must be something like the language of not odherwise be: for gude menne the Pantomimes, among the ancient and true, kennynge eidher odher to Romans, who are said to be able, by signs always love the only, to express and deliver any oration be soche, doeth to meu of all nations and lan- more as intelligibly they be more gude. guages. A man who has all these arts and endethe aud
;

advantages is certainly in a condition to be envied: but we are told that this is not the

[Here

thequestyonncs

awnawnres.]

casewitli all Masons; for though these arts are among them, and all have a right and an opportunity to know them, yet some want capacity, and others industry, to acquire them. However, of all their arts and secrets, that which I most desire to know is, " The skylle of becoinmyuge gude

and parfyghte;" and I wish it were com municated to all mankind, since there il
nothing more true than the beautiful sentence contained in the last answer, " That
the better

men are, the more they love one another:" Virtue having in itself something so amiable as to charm the hearts of all that behold it.

This document has always been regarded as authentic, and even the life of Leland asserts its genuineness. But this has recently been disputed by Mr. J. O. Halliwell, the distinguished antiquarian, in a work entitled, "The Early History
of
*

Freemasonry
"It
is

in

England," published in London, 1844.*

singular," says Mr. Halliwell, "that the circumstances attending its publication should have led no one to suspect its authenticity. A few years since I was at the pains of making a long search in the Bodleian Library, in the hope of finding the original, but without success, and I think there is little doubt but that this celebrated and well-known document is a forgery. In the first place, why should such a d >cument have been printed abroad? Was it likely that it should have found its way to Frankfort, nearly half a century afterward, and been published without any explanation of the source whence it was obtained? A^ain fche orthography is most grotesque, and too gross ever to have been penned either by Heniy the Sixth or Leland, or both combine,!. Foi instance, we have Peter Gowere, a Grecian, explained in a note by the A fabricator for who else could have solved it ? to be Pythagoras a whole, it is but a clumsy attempt at deception, and is qa very L** parallel to the recently discovered one of the first Enylishe Mercuric. us add that Freemasonry is not in any degree dishonored by the rejection of this evidence from its history.
!

27

318

QUE RAM.

Before the candidate the privileges and mysteries of Freemasonry can be admitted to a participation in its ceremonies he is required to give his free and full assent to the following questions, respecting the motives that influenced his desire to become
for

QUESTIONS TO CANDIDATES.

a Mason:
1. Do you seriously declare, upon knowledge, and a sincere wish of your honor, that, unbiassed by the being serviceable to your fellowimproper solicitation of friends, and creatures ? uninfluenced by mercenary motives, 3. Do you seriously declare, upon you freely and voluntarily offer your- your honor, that you ifiU cheerfully self a candidate for the mysteries of conform to all the ancient usages Freemasonry. an( j .established customs of the
i
|

!

i

2. -Do you seriously declare, upon Fraternity? 4. Do you solemnly declare, upon your honor, that you are prompted to solicit the privileges of Freema- your honor, that you have never soniy by a favorable opinion con- petitioned any other Lodge for iniceived of the institution, a desire of! tiation and been rejected?
i i

'

R.

Hebrew word signifying Teacher or RABBI, or RABBOXL The ancient Jews employed it as a title co designate Master. their learned men, particularly the professors in the schools of the Nabiim or Prophets. Gamaliel, the celebrated PharThis title isee, and preceptor of St. Paul, was one of these.
was never formally bestowed on more than In John xx. 16, Christ is thus called " Jesus She turned herself, and saith unto Mary. which is to say, Master-." It is an important word in Freemasonry.
:

A

sevon persons.
saith unto her,

him, Rabboni,

and

significant

MICHAEL, better known as the CHEVAat Ayr, Scotland, June 9, 1686. He was the son of a baker, in good circumstances, and received a liberal education, first at the school of his native place, and afterward at the University of Edinburgh. Becoming dissatisfied with the condition of affairs, particuof the religious character, in Scotland, he repaired to larly the continent, and at the University of Leyden, he made the acquaintance of Mr. Poiret, a mystic divine, who induced him to adopt the doctrines of that system of theology. In 1710, he visited the celebrated Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambray, who had imbibed the fundamental principles of mysticism, and by that amiable prelate he was persuaded to become a Roman Catholic. Fenelon's influence procured him the appointment of preceptor to the Duke de Chateau-Thiery and the Prince de Turenne, where ho was raad a knight of
LIER DE RAMSAY,

RAMSAY, ANDREW

was born

RAM.

v

31

the Order of St. Lazarus, and about the same time became a member of tlie Masonic Fraternity, in which he soon became a conspicuous and active member. He was also one of the most faithful and zealous adherents of the Pretender (James III.), of whose son he was for a time the tutor ; in this position he sought to identify the influence and progress of Freemasonry with the fortunes of the house For this purpose he endeavored to obviate the of Stuart. objections of the French nobility to the mechanical origin of the institution, by asserting that it arose in the Holy Land during the Crusades, as an order of Chivalry.* In the year 1740, he delivered his celebrated discourse at Paris, in which he set forth his theory in regard to the origin of " That the first Freemasons Freemasonry, as follows, viz were a society of knights, who had devoted themselves to the purpose of rebuilding the sacred edifices which had been destroyed by the Saracens; that the latter, with a view of preventing the execution of this pious design, sent emissaries among them, who, disguised as Christians, mingled with the builders, and paralyzed their efforts; that the knights, having discovered the existence of these spies, became more careful in the future, and instituted certain signs and words for the purpose of guarding against them; and, as many of their workmen were new converts to Christianity, they adopted certain symbolic ceremonies, in order more readily to instruct their proselytes in the new religion. Finally, the Saracens becoming more powerful, the Knight
:

to abandon their original occupation; but, being invited by a King of England to remove into his dominions, they accepted the invitation, and there devoted themselves to the cultivation and encouragement of the arts of Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, and Music. Ramsay attempted to support his theory by the fact of the building of the College of Templars, in London, which

Masons were compelled

was actually constructed in the 12th century by the In fraternity of Masons who had been in the holy wars." 1728, Ramsay attempted a Masonic reform according to this sya^m. He proposed to the Grand Lodge of England to substitute, in place of the three symbolic degrees, three others of his own invention; those of Scotch Mason, Novice
edifice

and Knight of the Temple, which he pretended were the only true and ancient degrees, and had their adminis* "The constitutions of English Masonry appeared too coarse for the tefined taste of our neighbors, and they must make it more like the Therefore, the degrees of Apprentice, occupation of a gentleman. Fellow-Craft, aud Master, were called symbolical; and the whole contrivance was considered either as typical of something more elegant. 01 as a prepiiration for it." Robifon.

820

BAM

REG.

trative center, from time immemorial, in the Lodge of St. Andrew, at Edinburgh. His proposition was at once rejected by the Grand Lodge of England, which has ever been averse to any innovations in Ancient Craft Masonry.* He, however, carried his degrees to Paris, where they met with astonishing success, and gave rise to all those higher grades which have since been known by the name of the Ancient Scottish Rite, and which afterward became so popu lar on the continent, and gave birth to innumerable other These first degrees, introduced by Ramsay, wero degrees. called " Scottish Degrees," because they were supposed to have been instituted by James II., in Scotland, in 1688.

incorrectness of this assertion is, however, historically proven; for in the records of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, we find no mention of any other than the three symbolic degrees prior to the year 1763. In this year, we find the first mention of the Royal Arch Degree in Scotland, whither it had been introduced from England, where it had already been practiced as early as 1752. Thus, prior to 1763, all these pretended Scottish degrees were absolutely unknown in Scotland, and could not therefore have been instituted there in 1688. During a visit to his native country, he offered to settle an annuity on his relations, but they indignantly refused to accept it, on the ground of his having renounced the Protestant religion. After his return to France he resided at Pontoise, a seat of the Prince de Turenne, in whose family he continued, in the capacity of
intendant,
till

The

Laye,

May

6,

his death, which happened at St. Germain-de1743. He was the author of several works

which were very popular.

RECEIVED.
on being
degree,

In the

first

degree of Masonry the candidate,

initiated, is described as "entered;" in the second " raised." The as "passed," and in the third, as

is used in the sixth, or Most Excellent Master's degree, to express the same condition.

word "received"

TIECHABITES. A religious order among the ancient Jews, instituted by Jonadab, the son of Rechab, from whom they derived their name. It comprised only the family and posterity of the founder, who was anxious to perpetuate among them the nomadic life; and, with this view, prescribed to them several rules, the chief of which were to abstain from wine, from building houses, and from planting vines. These rules were observed by the Rechabites with great strictness. (See Jer. xxxv. 6.) In modern times, societies
*

Kloss contradicts

this,

and that in 1730,

to receive the degree of Doctor of

and says that he was only once Law.

in

England,

EEC REF.

321

bearing the name ol Rechabites, for the avowed object oi abstaining from the use of wine, and promoting the cause of temperance, have been organized in various parts of the world, particularly in the United States.* Many of these recent organizations have adopted ceremonies of initiation,
pass-words, grips,
etc.

Literally, the chief judicial officer of a exercising within it, in criminal matters, the jurisdiction of a court of record; one who enrolls or records. Masonically, an officer in a Commandery of Knights Templar, and a Council of Royal and Select Masters, who has charge of the records and seal of those bodies; his duties are equivalent to those of the Secretary of a symbolic Lodge.

RECORDER.
city,

borough or

This right came from and was a modisystem of the Templars. It was adopted in 1782, by the Lodges of Strict Observance (Rite Templier); bat was subsequently practiced only by some Scottish Directories, the last of which, that of Zurich, was in existence and working as late as 1844. It may be regarded as extinct, since that Directory has been united with the National Grand Lodge of Berne, and has formed with it a new power, styled Grand
fication of the

RECTIFIED RITE.

of Alpina, sitting alternately at Berne and Zurich. works the modern English rite; but some of the Lodges under it havo reserved to themselves the power of giving the

Lodge
It

higher degrees that are conferred in foreign countries, not to propagate them, but by way of historical instruction, and to enable their members to be admitted to visit all bodies

working the high degrees.
OF. A room adjoining the asylum Knights Templar in which the candidate is placed during the ceremonies of the order. In tb-~ French and Ancient and Accepted rites the candidate is placed in this room, where he remains for serious reflection, and until he is introduced into the higher and more sublime

REFLECTION, CHAMBER
Commaiidery
of

of a

mysteries of initiation.

RITE. This was a reformation of the Rite which had been established in 1754, rejecting the connection which the latter had with the Knights Templar. The Reformed rite was established by an assembly of Masons at Wilhelnisbad, under the auspices
of Strict Observance, In 1851 the Grand Lodge of the United States, Independent Order oi Fellows, established a degree specially for the use of the wives ol the members of the order, called the Degree of Rebekah, which has become very popular throughout this country in connection \viththot widely extended institution.
*

REFORMED

Odd

322

REF

REJ.

of Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick, in the year 1782, assuming in the first instance, the title of the "Order of Beneficent Knights of the Holy City." M. de St. Martin's system was merged into this; and the Lodges that had adopted Martinism adopted the Reformed rite. The ritual of initiation is divided into two parts; the External Order, comprising

the three symbolic degrees, and the Internal Order, composed of three degrees, forming a religious system based on These two orders are connected by an intermechivalry. diate degree, the Scotch Master of St. Andrew, in which candidates were selected for the Beneficent Knights of the

This system produced different Directories, "Scottish," having special names and particular magistral sees, and each exercising, within its jurisdiction, a pretended Masonic Supremacy. These distinct establishments, united by the same principles, the same doctrines, and the same Masonic formulas, styled themselves "The

Holy

City.

styled

French Tongue," Langue Franqaise. They corresponded with Chambery, which had the Directory of Italy, or of
Austrian Loinbardy. Many Provinces of France, among others Alsac, Frauche-Comte, Dauphine and Provence, had The rite was Lodges constituted by these Directories. extended into Switzerland. Its supreme body is at Zurich, under the title of the " Directory of Switzerland."

RITE. The same as the rite Described in the preceding article, with some changes introduced by Mon. Glayre, of Switzerland, who carried the rite into Poland in 1784, where it was adopted by the Grand It is still practiced, but to a limited extent, in that Orient.
country.

REFORMED HELVETIC

REINSTATED. This term is applied to a Mason who has been expelled or suspended from the Lodge of which he was a member. On his restoration he is restored to all the No other Lodge rights and privileges of the Fraternity. than the one which inflicted the punishment has the uower to restore to membership in a Lodge. The Grand Lodge, which is the supreme authority within the territorial jurisdiction, has the power to restore an expelled Mason to the privileges of the order, on proper application being made to
that body.

REJECTION. In the United States an applicant for initiation can be received only by a unanimous vote. One black ball ensures rejection, and the rejected candidate can apply to no other Lodge for admission, without the consent of the one which first received his proposition. In the absence of

REL.

323

any local regulations to the contrary a candidate who has been rejected may renew his application at any time when he may have reason to expect a more favorable consideration
of his petition.

RELAXED OBSERVANCE, CLERKS OF. This system grew out of a schism which occurred in the order of the Strict The new order had as Observance, at Vienna, in 1767. chiefs, among others, the Baron von Caven and the preacher Stark.* They pretended to have exclusive possession of the secrets of the association, and to know the mysterious cavern in which were hidden the riches of the ancient Templars. The regime comprised ten degrees: 1. Apprentice; 2. Fellow3. Master ; 4. African Brother 5. Knight of Craft St. Andrew; 6. Knight of the eagle, or Master Elect; 7. Scottish Master; 8. Sovereign Magus; 9. Provincial Master of the Red Cross; 10. Magus, or Knight of Splendor and Light. The last degree was divided into five parts, viz: Knight Novice of the third year; Knight Novice of the fifth year; Knight Novice of the seventh year; Knight Sevite, and
; ;

Knight Priest. Von Stark, by means of this new system, exercised a powerful influence among the Knights and Commanders of the several branches of Templars then existing in France, Germany and Russia. The rite met with great success until 1800, when the Mother Lodge Royal York a 1' Amitie, at Berlin, declared that it renounced the high degrees, and would thenceforward work only the symbolic The same schism produced the HIGH OBSERVANCE, degrees. in which they dealt with alchemy, magic, the cabala, divinations, and other fanciful practices; and the EXACT OBSERVANCE, in which the teaching partook of that of the two first Observances, that had for their bases the systems of Jesuitism and Catholicism.

RELICS. The name given

in theological

and

historical

nomenclature to what may be in general described as the personal memorials of those among the dead who have been distinguished during life by eminent qualities. The term is
also applied to certain emblems of mortality in the Templar system of Masonry, which, in connection with the Holy Scriptures, teach us that a faithful reliance in the truth revealed in that sacred volume will afford us consolation in the gloomy hour of death, and secure to us inevitable happiness in the world that is to come.
.

liant intellect

JOHN AUG. VON STABK, commonly called the Preacher, a man of briland great ambition, was born at Schweriu, October 29, 1741, graduated with the highest honors at Go'ttingen; initiated iu a French Military Lodge in 1763; died 1816.

324:

BEL.

RELIGION. " Speculative Masonry is so far interwoven with religion as to lay us under obligations to pay that rational homage to the Deity which at once constitutes our duty and cur happiness. It leads the contemplative mind to view with reverence and admiration the glorious works of creation, and inspires him with the most exalted ideas of That Freemasonry the perfection of his divine Creator." should be spoken of as a religious institution, or as imparting religious instruction, undoubtedly sounds strange to those who think religion must necessarily be confined to a particular set of theological dogmas, or, in other words, be sectarian. But why should it be thought necessary to make religion traverse simply the narrow circle of sectarian ideas ? Is it not a degradation to confine it to so limited a The Masonic idea is that religion is absolute, sphere ? everlasting and unchanging; that it is not a dogma, or a collection of dogmas, but rather reverence and humility before the awful Ideas of Infinity and Eternity ; a sense of subjection to the great law of Justice which stretches through the universe, and of obligation to love and serve man on earth, and God in heaven. The ideas of God, retribution, a future life these great facts of religion are not the property of any one sect or party; they form the groundwork of all creeds. and immutable.
forever.

Religion,
It is the
is

we have
the

said, is everlasting

same yesterday,
but

Sectarianism

material

changeable and perishable, which, men countries have raised around it. This material and human investiture of sectarian dogmas changes with the times and seasons but that religion, in the light of which all Masons, whatever their particular creed, desire to walk that religion, sent forth into the world with the awful sanction of the DEITY upon it, which, as an Ancient says, " is to visit the widow and the fatherless in their afflictions, and keep one's self unspotted from the world" that religion, the essence of which is to love God supremely and our neighbors as we love ourselves, can never change being absolute, it can never pass away, and it may be taught, with all its obligations,
;
;

and framework, in different ages and
to-day,

duties

and hopes, and

all its

beautiful applications to

life,

without being trammelled by any sectarian dogmas whatever. About religion, in its absoluteness, neither men nor sects ever dispute or quarrel. No; it shines over the human eoul clear and bright, like the eternal stars, visible to all; and always, and everywhere, has her voice been heard, consoling the sorrowful, fortifying the weak, and bidding the sons of men aspire to a celestial communion. Such is the Masonic idea of religion. Freemasonry recognizes God as irimanent

KEP.

325

in all created things, working in each blade of grass, and swelling bud, and opening flower, and looks upon all tho sciences as so many divine methods through which the Infinite Artist reveals his mysteries to man. Should any Masonic brother, or any other, think that we are claiming too much for Freemasonry in this respect, we have only to ask him to turn to the " charges" and " lectures" published

in our books, to find "

abundant proofs of what we assert. The universe is the temple of the Deity whom we serve: Wisdom, Strength and Beauty are around his throne, as pillars of his works; for his wisdom is infinite, his strength is omnipotent, and his beauty shines forth through all his creation." Ancient Freemasonry invariably
There we read
:

united all the sciences to the religious sentiment. Of Arithmetic it says: "All the works of the Almighty are made in number, weight, measure, and, therefore, to understand them rightly, we ought to understand arithmetical calculations, and be thereby led to a more comprehensive " knowledge of our great Creator." Astronomy," it says, " is that sublime science which inspires the contemplative mind to soar aloft and read the Avisdom and beauty of the Creator in the heavens. How nobly eloquent of God is the celestial hemisphere, spangled with the most magnificent
discover the power, wisdom and goodness of the Grand Artificer, and view with delight the order and beauty of his works and the proportions which connect all Freemasonry, therefore, parts of his immense universe." the in the spirit of true reverence, consecrates all to God worlds with their sublime mysteries, and the human mind with its mighty powers and the sciences which it has disit

symbology of his "
says,

infinite glory."

Discoursing of Geometry,

By

it

we

covered and explained.

REPEAL. A resolution adopted at a regular meeting of a Lodge, cannot be repealed or reconsidered at any special or
extra session.

KEPEESENTATIVES, GRAND LODGE. The system oi Representatives in Grand Lodges originated in the United The system States, with the Grand Lodge of New York. has now become almost universal throughout the world,
and much good
is being accomplished from its influence, as producing a closer union between the various Masonio bodies thus represented. The Masonic costume is that of the Grand Lodge they represent, and they are also entitled to bear a banner with the name and colors peculiai to tha

body represented.

826

EIG
of fidelity,
it

KIT.
is

EIGHT-HAND.
emblem
the Order,

In Freemasonry, the right hand

an

and hence, in the

fraternal greetings oi

plays a conspicuous part.

In the ancient

Roman, Collegia Fabrorum, a goddess Fides or Fidelity was worshiped by the members. She was symbolically represented by two right hands joined, or by two female The Jewish figures holding each other by the right hands. historian, Josephus, speaking of the [Persians and Parthians, relates an incident where the right hand was given as a " This pledge of security, and says, in regard to the custom
:

of the greatest force there, with all these barbarians, and affords a firm security to those who hold intercourse with them; for none of them will deceive, when once they have given you their right hands ; nor will any one doubt their fidelity when that is once given, even were they before suspected of injustice."
is

AND LEFT SIDE. The ancients held that the some peculiar excellence above the left, and hence the Latin words " dexter" right, and " sinister" left, also convey the sense of lucky, or good; and unlucky, or evil. The right side has always been considered the place of
right side- possessed

RIGHT SIDE

honor, and the Scriptures abound in passages illustrative of this idea as in Matt. xxv. 33-4: "And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the king say to those on his right hand, Come ye blessed of my
Father,"
etc.

RITE. This word is defined to be a formal act of service established by law, precept or custom; a symbolical ceremony and method of representing ideas. Freemasonry, although uniform and immutable, in its principles and general laws, exists, nevertheless, in a variety of methods or forms, which are called rites. These differences, however, are unimportant, and do not affect in the least the fundamental plans of the Order, nor disturb its interior harmony; for Masons, whatever may be the legal rite which they profess, recognize no less, as brothers, Masons of a different These remarks will apply with great force to a memrite. ber of the Symbolic Lodge a Master Mason who is, in all rites and in all countries, acknowledged as such, and entitled to all the privileges which that universal degree confers. Until within a recent period, there was but one system, known as Ancient Craft Masonry, consisting of only three degrees Entered Apprentice, Fellow-Craft and Master Mason. Many rites and systems have sprung up in various

The parts of Europe, but without permanent existence. following list will serve to show to what extent the ingenuity

KIT.

327

and industry of man may be exerted to gratify his personal interest or vanity. Very few of these degrees or rites are now practiced: 1. York Rite. This system is the tem of degrees of immense popumost ancient, simple, and scientific, larity for many years, in Germany, having existed from time immemo- founded by Baron Von Hund, in It derives its name from the 1754. rial. city of York, in the north of Eng5. Chapter of Clermont, with seven land, where, in 926, the first Grand degrees, organized in France about of England was organized. the Lodge year 1Y50, by the Chevalier de In this, the present rite of pure Ma- Bonneville. This was the first sysconsisted of the tem of what is now termed the sonry, originally "high three primitive degrees. Entered A pdegrees." From this sprang and Master prentice, Fellow-Craft, 6. the first The Rite Mason, under the title of Ancient of the series of of Perfection, the Ineffable degrees, Craft Masonry. To them have been
added, in modern times, four other degrees, viz Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master, and the Royal Arch. The York rite is the most extensively diffused of the
:

established in 1754.

or Modern Rite, was 7. French, established by the Grand Orient o/ France, about the year 1786.
8.

Rite of Elected Cohens, or Priests,

rites,
is

embracing

four-fifths of the

It globe. the predominating rite in England, Scotland. Ireland, their dependencies, and the United States of America, and is practiced, in a modified form, by several of the

Masons of the habitable

was founded some time between 1754 and 1760, by Martinez Paschalis. in
France.
9. Rite of St. Martin, or Martinism, was instituted by the Marquis de St. Martin, at Lyons, France, about the year 1767.

European Grand Lodges.
this arose
2.

From

The English Kite, adopted by the United Grand Lodge of England and Wales, at the union in 1813, and is now practiced by the Lodges

10. Elect of Truth, or Lodge of Perfect Union, founded and practiced for a short period at Eennes, in France, during a portion of the

last century.
11. Emperors of the East and West, established in Paris, about 1758; the members were at first called Sovereign Prince Masters, Substitutes General of the Royal Art,
' '

under that jurisdiction. 3. Ancient and Accepted
Ineffable

Rite,

or

degrees; first known in France, in 1758, as the Emperors of the East and West, with twentyfive 'degrees. Subsequently these degrees were increased to -thirtyiinder the title of Ancient three, and Accepted Scottish Kite, at the city of Charleston, where, in the year 1801, a Supreme Council for the southern portion of the United States was organized. In 1807 another Supreme Council was established in New York, for the northern portion of the United States. These two bodies are now ^1867) in
active operation, one in New York and the other in Charleston. This
rite,

Grand Superintendents and Officers Grand and Sovereign Lodge John of Jerusalem." This rite had twenty-five degrees, and is the parent of the Ancient and
of the of St.

Accepted Scottish Rite.
12. Philosophic Scotch Rite was established in Paris, by a physician named Boileau, in 1774; it was adopted by the Grand Lodge ia

1776.
13.

Order of African Architects

except the York, is the most widely diffused throughout the,
world.
4.

Prussian named Bancherren, with the approbation of Frederick II. in
,

WAS established in Germany, by a

1767.
14. Rite of Philalelhes, or Searchers after Truth, wan organized by Sal-

Rite of Strict Observance,

a sys-

328
/alette

KIT.
de Langes, at Paris about
the " Grand Royal Mother Lodge of the Three Globes," of which the king, Frederick II., was recorded as Grand Master. This is the popular

the year 1775.
15.

llluminati of

Avignon was

in-

troduced into Paris by a Benedictine

monk, named
1760.

Pernetti,

and Baron

and prevailing

rite

practiced in

Gabrianca, a Polish nobleman, about
16. Rite of

Prussia.

25. Persian Philosophic Rite was founded in France about the year Swedenborg was framed from the system of the llluminati of 1819. It was not much encouraged, and has now ceased to exist. Avignon, by the Marquis de Thomae. This 26. Order of the This rite is still practiced in J.783. Temple. order flourished for a brief period in some parts of Sweden. in France, during the early part of 17. Rite of Zinnendorff, which was a modification of the Swedehborgian the present century. The members and other rites, was promulgated claimed a regular descent from the

by Count Zinnendorff, in Germany,
in 1767.
18.

Knights Templar of Palestine.

This 27. Order of Charles XIII. Charles the order was instituted in bers of this rite assumed the title of 1811, into which distinguished MaOrder of Charitable Knights of the sons were admitted.

by Reformed Rite, established in The mem- Thirteenth, King of Sweden, 1782, at Wilhelmsbad.
' '

Helvetic Rite was introduced into Poland in 1784, by

Holy City." 19. Reformed

Bro. Glayre.

The Grand Orient
it.

of

Poland adopted

28. Rite of Memphis was established in Paris, in 1839, by J. A. Marconis and E. A. Montet. It was a variation of the Rite of Misraim, and its existence was very brief.

20. Order of True Masons, an off" shoot of the Hermetic Bite of Pernetti, was formed at Montpelier, in France, in 1778. 21. Adoniramite Rite was established in France, during the latter part of the last century. The exact date of its rise, and the name of its

29. Rile of Mopses was founded In 1776 it in 1740, in Germany. became an androgynous order, and admitted females as members. 30. Royal Order of Heredom and Rosy Gross, said to have been founded by King Robert Bruce at Kilwin ning, after the battle of Bannock burn, in 1314. This order is

founder, are at present unknown. 22. Fessler's Rite, established by the Lodge ' Royal York of Friendship," at Berlin, in 1798, is still
'

confined exclusively to Scotland, and is given only to those who have attained high positions in the Fraternity.

practiced to
23.

some

extent.

Rite of Mizraim. This rite was first introduced in 1805, at Milan, Italy, and was said to have been

brought from Egypt by a learned 32. tichrceder's Rite was first estabphilosopher of that country, named in It was established in lished at Marburgh, Germany, Ananiah. This rite is still practie&d in Paiis in 1814, but has never been 1766.

The Swedish Rite, or that pracby the sanction of the Grand Lodge of Sweden, was founded upon the above order.
31.

ticed

some parts of Germany. recognized by the Grand Orient of France or any other Grand body. 33. Primitive Rile of Narbonne was
24. Rite of the Grand Royal Mother Lodge of the Tkree Globes. Ou the 13th of September, 1740, a number of brethren residing in Berlin, Ger-

established

ii

t

that city in 1780.

The

degrees were selected from other rites, and were chiefly of a philo-

many, established

royal authority, and without demanding a charter from any other Grand Lodge, the Lodge of the "Three GJobes, which, in 1744, became

"by

sophic character, assuming as their object the reformation of intellectual

man, and his restoration to his primitive rank of purity and perfection. 34. Frercs Po>itives, an association of operative and speculative Ma

BIT EOS.
sons, 1178.

329

was

in afc Avignon, Their principal employment the building and repairing

established

It was a school of instrucorganized upon a peculiar plan, and the lectures were divided into

in 1787.
tion,

and the sections into stone bridges. sections, clauses. Its teaching embodied the 35. Order of Mustard Seed, or the whole art of Masonry. Fraternity of Moravian Brothers of 43. Knight of the Mediterranean the Order of Religious Freemasons, was instituted in Germany, in 1739. Pass, an independent and honorestablished in 13G7, 36. The Kniyht of Malta, as a Ma- ary degree, and conferred only on Knights sonic grade, was established in as Knights of Malta. England, in the early part of the Templar 44. Knight of Constantine, like the seventeenth century. is an honorary, or tide 37. Council of the Trinity was an preceding, degree, and only occasionally conindependent Masonic system, in ferred. which were conferred a number of 45. Knights and XyrnpJis nf the This order was Christian degrees. established by St. Helena, the mother Rose. This was an order of Adoptof Constantiue, A. n. 326, when on ive Masonry, invented toward the close of the eighteenth century, by her visit to Jerusalem. M. de Chaumont, at Paris. It had a 38. Rosaic Rite was instituted in brief existence. Germany, during the last century. 46. Order of the Roman Engle was It was for a short time exceedingly established at Edinburgh, in 1784. popular, but was superceded by the Its ritual was in Latin. Rite of Strict Observance.
39.

at Halle,

Bahrdt's Rite was established Germany, about the close

perity
40.

of the eighteenth century, Its proswas of short duration.

Knights and Ladies of the Dove. organization founded at Versailles, France, in 1784, into which ladies were introduced. It soon ceased tc exist.

An

47. Adoptive Rite, or, as it is sometimes called, Androgynous Masonry, for the initiation of males and females, was first established in France about 1730, under the title of Lodges of Adoption, which were, in consequence of their great popularity, recognized by and placed under the control of the Grand Orient in 1774. In America, there

many of the degrees he attempted to destroy are still flourishing, while his rite is
his endeavors, as

This system was are several androgynous degrcvs, Germany, such as the Good Samaritan, the by Baron de Knigge, having for its Heroine of Jericho, the Mason's object the abolition of the high Daughter, and the Order of the grades, or philosophical degrees, Eastern Star, the last of which is which had, at that period, increased extensively propagated throughout to an extraordinary number. It is the United States. clear the Baron did not succeed in 48. Order of the llluminati. A secret
41.
Eclectic Rite.

established at Frankfort,

society,

instituted in

very
42.

little

known. Grand Chapter of Harodim, an

Weishaupt, in conjunction with several other men of high intellectual attainments, in 1776.
It

Adam

Bavaria, by

institution revived, (it is supposed, by Bro. Win. Preston, ) in London,

flourished for a brief period, and was suppressed in 1784, by order of the Bavarian Government.

ROSAIC RITE. One of the numerous Masonic forms which arose in Germany during the last century. Its author was a clergyman by the name of Rosa. Through the influence of Baron de Prinzen, it was extensively propagated, and continued to flourish until the superior popularity of the rite of Strict Observance threw it into the shade. 28

330

EOS.

Harpocrates, the god of silence, was sometimes represented with a crown of roses; consequently, the rose is properly regarded as a symbol of silence and secrecy. The rose, cross, and pelican are the emblems of the Rose Croix degree. Ragon says, respecting the first two, that they were Egyptian symbols, the cross signifying immormean the tality, and the rose secrecy, and hence they together The rose has no reference to "secret of immortality." The theory that the Book of Canticles, in which Christ. the phrase "Rose of Sharon" is found, is an allegorical description of Christ and his Church, has long since been

ROSE.

rejected by all well-instructed divines.

spirit of Christianity, it is so constructed that men of all As practiced in France, the cerebeliefs can receive it.

and " Prince of Rose Croix," the reader will find the traditions which profess to give the history and origin of the degree of Rose Croix, which is the eighteenth of the series known as the Scotch Rite, Ancient and Accepted. It is an instructive and interesting grade, in many respects resembling the degree of the Royal Arch, of the York rite. But the form and dogma of this degree are such that it must be confined to those who profess the Christian religion. The Rose Croix revised (rectifie), on the contrary, is more comprehensive, and while it is overflowing with the positive
monies of reception are divided into three parts.

ROSE CROIX RECTIFIE.

In the articles "Herodem"

secret society bearing this at the beginning of the Its object was the reformation of seventeenth century. state, church, and individuals, and the study of philosophy and science. At that time alchemy occupied, in a large degree, the attention of the learned, and it is not strange that the Rosicrucians should follow the fashion of the age. It was pretended that the order was founded in the fourteenth century by a person named Christian Rosenkreuz, who was said to have lived long among the Brahmins, in Egypt, etc. ; but the real founder is believed to have been Andrea, a German scholar, of the latter part of the sixteenth century, whose object was to purify religion, which had been degraded by the scholastic philosophy. Others think that

ROSY CROSS, BROTHERS OF. A name became known in Europe

he only gave a new character to a society founded before him, by Agrippa von Neltesheim. Krause says that Andrea occupied himself from early youth with the plan of a secret In 1 614 he pubsociety for the improvement of mankind. lished his famous "Reformation of the Whole Wide World," and "Fama Fraiernilatis." Christian enthusiasts and alche-

ROS.

331

mists considered tbe society, poetically described in those books, as one really existing; and thus Andrei} became the author of the later Rosicrucian fraternities, which extended over Europe and were even brought into connection with Freemasonry. Bailey, in his Dictionary, inclines to the opinion that Rosenkreuz was the real founder of the order. He says: "A German gentleman, educated in a monastery, having learned the languages, traveled to the Holy Land
1378, and being at Damascus, and falling sick, he had heard the conversation of some Arabs and other Oriental philosophers, by whom he is supposed to have been initiated into this mysterious art. At his return into Germany he formed a society, and communicated to its members the secrets he had brought with him out of the East, and died in 1484. They were a sect or cabal of hermetical philosophers, who bound themselves together by a solemn secret which they swore inviolably to observe, and obliged themselves, at their admission into the order, to a strict observance of certain established rules. They pretended to know all sciences, and especially medicine, of which they published themselves the restorers; they also claimed to be masters of
A. D.

important secrets, and, among others, that of the philosopher's stone all which they affirmed they had received by tradition from the ancient Egyptians, Chaldeans, Magi and Gymnosophists. They pretended to protract the period of human life, by means of certain nostrums, and even to restore youth. They are also called the Invisible Brothers, because they have made no appearance, but have kept themselves incog. for several years." Notwithstanding the flippant description of Bailey, and the vile calumniations of Barruel, the Order of the Rosy Cross was eminently respectable, and its purposes praiseworthy. Its ideas, like those of the Illuminati were in advance of the age, and, however objectionable tc such advocates of political and religious despotism, as Robison, Barruel, et aL, are precisely those principles which we, as a nation, have embodied in our institutions and laws, and of which we are justly proud. The Rosicrucians did fraternize with the Freemasons, and it was a very respectable companionship. The twenty-eighth degree of Freemasonry must have been composed by Freemasons who were also members of the Order of the Rosy Cross. The ritual of the Rosicrucians had nine degrees: 1. Zelator;
;

3. Practicus; 4. Philosophus; 5. Adeptus Junior; Adeptus Major 7. Adeptus Exemptus 8. " Magister ; 9. Magus. From this Order originated the German," " " Gold Rose-Croix," and also the Asiatic Brothers." The Masonic degree of "Sovereign Prince of Rose-Croix" has no 2.

Thericus;

6.

;

:

connection with the Rosicrucians.

332

ROT.

ARCH. Sometimes, and more properly, called The fourth of the series oi degrees the HOLY ROYAL AUCH. conferred in a Royal Arch Chapter, and the seventh in grade known as the York rite, as practiced in the order wherever " Dr. Oliver says that it is a degree that rite is established.
more august, sublime and important than any which precede it; and is, in fact, the summit and perfection It impresses on our minds a belief in of ancient Masonry. the being of God, without beginning of days or end of years, the great and incomprehensible Alpha and Omega, and reminds us of the reverence which is due to his Holy Name." The late distinguished brother, Salem Town, has left on
indescribably
of the symbolism inculcated in In advancing to the fourth degree," he says, "the good man is greatly encouraged to persevere He has a name in the ways of well-doing even to the end. which no man knoweth save he that receiveth it. if, therefore, he be rejected, and cast forth among the rubbish of the world, he knows full well the Great Master Builder of the universe, having chosen and prepared him as a lively

ROYAL

record a brief

Capitular Masonry.

summary "

stone in that spii'itual building in the heavens, will bring him forth with triumph, while shouting grace, grace to his divine Redeemer. Hence opens the fifth degree, where he discovers his election to, and his glorified station in, the kingdom of his Father. Here he is taught how much the chosen ones are honored and esteemed by those on earth, who discover and appreciate the image of their common Lord. This image being engraven on his heart, he may look forward to those mansions above, where a higher and most exalted seat has been prepared for the faithful, from the foundation of the world. With these views the sixth degree is conferred, where the riches of divine grace are opened in boundless prospect. Every substantial good is clearly seen to be conferred through the great atoning sacrifice. In the seventh degree the good man is truly filled with heartfelt gratitude to his heavenly benefactor, for all those wonderful deliverances wrought out for him while journeying through the rugged paths of human life. Great has been his re* * * demption from the Egypt and Babylon of this world. Such is the moral and religious instruction derived from the order of the Masonic degrees." This degree brings to light many important matters of great interest to the Craft, which were, for' the space of four hundred and seventy years, buried in darkness, and without a knowledge of which the Masonic character cannot be complete. The incidents on which the degree is founded, may, in part, be understood from the following brief statement: Soon after the close of Solomon's

ROY.

333

glorious reign, the kingdom of Jerusalem the house ol David, was divided. Ten of the tribes separated themselves, and took the name of the kingdom of Israel, leaving the tribes of Judah and Benjamin to constitute the kingdom of Each of these two kingdoms suffered a distinct Judah. That of Israel is called the Assyrian, and that of captivity. Judah the Babylonish captivity; only in the latter captivity is our subject interested. The Jews being thus divided, in the reigns of Jehoiachin and Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar, king of the Chaldees, then reigning at Babylon, with a large army, laid seige to Jerusalem, and after a severe struggle reduced it. He caused the city to be leveled to the ground, the royal palace to be burned, the temple pillaged, and the inhabitants carried captive to Babylon.* They remained in captivity for seventy years, or until the time of Cyrus, king of Persia, who, in the first year of his reign, issued his proclamation, which liberated the Hebrew captives, and permitted them to return to Jerusalem, lo " rebuild the city and house of the Lord." The circumstances connected with the captivity of the Jews, its termination, their liberation, and their return over the rough and rugged roads to the ancient city of their fathers, the holy cause in which they were engaged that of rebuilding the temple the labors performed, and the valuable discoveries brought to light by the zealous workmen, with many other equally interesting incidents are rehearsed in the degrees of the Royal Arch, Knights of the Red Cross, and Knights of the East and West. The children of Judah, after their arrival at Jerusalem, erected a tabernacle, similar in form to that of Moses. Tradition, however, informs us that the tabernacle of Zerubbabel differed from that of Moses in many particulars. The most Holy Place of the original tabernacle contained the ark of the covenant, the table of shew-bread and the golden candlestick, and the whole structiire was designed for the worship of God. That of Zerubbabel was used as a temporary place of worship, and the sanctuary was also used for the meetings of the Grand Council, consisting of Joshua, Zerubbabel and Haggai. This tabernacle, according to the Masonic tradition, was divided into apartments by cross vails of blue, purple, scarlet and white, at which guards were stationed. The ostensible object of the degree is to recover the lost word the Master Mason being
*A Masonic tradition informs \is that the captive Jews were bound by their conquerors with triangular chains, and that this was done by the Chaldeans as an additional insult, because the Jewish Masons were known to esteem the triangle as an emblem of the sacred name of God,

and must have considered

its

appropriation to the form of their fetters

as a desecratior. of the Tetragraininaton.

ROY.

335

in a secret vault, which for a period of nearly five centuries was unknown, it being beneath the first temple, and brought to light by the workmen who were sent to prepare the

foundation for the second temple. The degrees conferred and composing the system of Royal Arch Masonry are: I. Mark Master; 2. Past Master; 3. Most Excellent Master; The officers are 1. The High-Priest, whose 4. Royal Arch. title is Most Excellent, who represents Joshua, the first HighPriest of the Jews, after their return from the Babylonian captivity; 2. The King, whose title is Excellent, represents Zerubbabel, a Prince of Judah, who was the leader of the first colony of Jews that returned from the captivity to rebuild
:

the temple; 3. The Scribe, whose title is, also, Excellent, represents Haggai, the prophet; 4. The Captain of the Host, who represents the general of the troops; 5. The Principal Sojourner, represents the leader of a party of Jews, who sojourned in Babylon for a time after the departure of Zerubbabel with the main body, and who subsequently came up to Jerusalem to assist in rebuilding the temple; (>. The Royal Arch Captain, represents the captain of the king's Grand Master of the Third Vail; 8. Grand 7. guards Master of the Second Vail 9. Grand Master of the First Vail 12. Sentinel and a 10. Treasurer 11. Secretary Chaplain may be appointed. The jewels of a Chapter are of gold or yellow metal, within a triangle, and suspended from a collar. The symbolic color of the Royal Arch degree is scarlet. Candidates receiving the degree are said to be "exalted to the most sublime degree of the Royal Arch." A Royal Arch Chapter represents the Tabernacle erected by our ancient brethren near the ruins of King Solomon's The Chapters are dedicated to Zerubbabel. Temple. appropriate badge and clothing of a Royal Arch Mason, The jewel, worn on are a jewel, an apron and a sash. the left breast, suspended from a scarlet ribbon, is a double triangle within a circle; in the center of the two triangles a sun with diverging rays, within a triangle, and underneath, or suspended to this, the triple tau. On ,the intersecting triangles and outer circle the following Words are engraved on the obverse on the circle, "Si talia jungere possis sit tibi scire satis" If you are able to unite these things your knowledge is sufficient. On the tri" " " We have found it; Invenimus angles E&p^Ka/zev," " " Cultor Dei" JJ Citizen of the WW<//> of God; Civis Mundi" On the ribbon undor the circle, "Nil nisi clavis deest" world. Reverse on the circle: Nothing is wanting except *he key.
; ; ;
;

;

;

"Deo, Civitati, Fratribus, Honor, Fidelitas, Benevolentia" For God* for the State, for the Brethren, Honor, Fidelity, Benev-

336
olence.

BOY.

On the triangles Wisdom, Peace, Strength, Concord, On the ribbon under the circle Exalted, Truth, Beauty. The intersecting triangles denote the elements (with date).

and water, the circle, infinity and eternity, and the sun within the triangle is an emblem of Deity. So important is the triple tau considered, that it is called "the emblem of all emblems, and the grand emblem of Royal Arch MaThe apron is of white lambskin (13x15 inches, or sonry."
of fire

nearly square,) lined and bound with scarlet, or lined with scarlet and bound with blue and scarlet tesselated; on the flap the triple tau within a triangle, and all within a circle, as delineated in the engraving. The sash, worn from right to left, is the tesselated blue and scarlet ribbon, four inches wide, with no ornament except a metal or embroidered "The true triple tau, triangle and circle, at the crossing.

ROY.

337

origin of the Eoyal Arch is an important question that has Seme have lately engaged the attention of Masonic writers.

asserted that it was brought by the Templars from the Holy Land; others say that it was established as a part of Templar Masonry in the sixteenth century; and others again assert Dr. Oliver, in a that it was unknown before the year 1780. work of profound research on this subject, says that 'there
exists sufficient evidence to disprove all their conjectures, and to fix the era of its introduction to a period which

coeval with the memorable schism among the English Masons about the middle of the last century.'* It seems to
is

as the result of a careful examination of the evidence adduced, that, before the year 1740, the essential element of the Royal Arch constituted a part of the third degree, and that about that year it was severed from that degree and transferred to another, by the schismatic body calling itself 'the Grand Lodge of England according to the old Constitutions. '"f It may now be said that never before since the existence of the order was there so general a demand among intelligent Masons for veritable and substantial information on the history of Freemasonry, particularly in regard to For more reliable information this branch of the order. the reader is referred to the most valuable work on the subject of Royal Arch Masonry that has ever been published
in this country.J
century

me

*" Some Account of the Schism which took place during the among the Free and Accepted Masons in England, showing

last

the

Presumed Origin of the Eoyal Arch Degree."
MACKEY'S Lexicon of Freemasonry. " The date of the organization ot this body has been variously stated. Dr. MACKEY gives the date as 1739. PIERSON, in his Traditions,' gives PRESTON asserts that the secedera it as having occurred about 1753. hold their meetings without acknowledging a superior luitil continued to the year 1771, when they chose for their Grand Master the Duke of SANDYS, in his 'Short Athol, then Grand Muster elect of Scotland. View,' says they (.the ancieuts) established their Grand Lodge in London In certain testimony taken by a commission in England, for use in 1757. in the New York Masonic difficulty some years since, Bro. WHITE, at that time the Venerable Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of England, says, under oath, in answer to a question, that the Athol or Awtittit Grand Lodge was formed in 1752. This ought to settle the question."f
'

GOULD.
t Guide to the Royal Arch Chapter: a complete Monitor for Royal Arch Masonry; with full instructions in the degrees of Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master and Royal Arch, according to the text of the Manual of the Chapter. By JOHN SHEVILLE, P. G. H. P. and JAMES L. GOULD, G. H. P. Together with a Historical Introduction, To which are a^.ded Explanatory Notes and Critical Emendations. Monitorial Instructions in the Holy Order of High Priesthood in Royal Arch AiAsourv. with the Ceremonies of the Order.
,

338

EOT.

ROYAL AECH CAPTAIN. An officer in a Chapter of the Royal Arch degree. He represents the Captain of the King's Guards. His station is in front of the Council, and at the entrance of the fourth vail. His duties, in some respects, are similar to those of the Junior Deacon in the Symbolic Lodge.
ROYAL ARCH OF ENOCH.
Knights of the Ninth Arch.

The same

as the degree of

MASTER, The first of the degrees in the Council, or Cryptic system. It is immediately associated with the degree of Select Master, and, with it, is explanatory of the Royal Arch degree, and was originally conferred in a ChapIts ritual is highly interesting. ter of Royal Arch Masons.

ROYAL

ROYAL ORDER OF SCOTLAND.
of

This

is

an order com-

parts, viz: that of H.-R.-M. and R.-S.-Y. C.-S. he former took its rise in the reign of David L, King of ?osed Scotland, and the latter in that of King Robert the Bruce. The last is believed to have been originally the same as the Most Ancient Order of the Thistle, and to contain the ceremonial of admission formerly practiced in it. The Order of H.-R.-M. had formerly its chief seat at Kil winning; and

two

there is reason to suppose that it and the Grand Lodge of St. John's Masonry were governed by the same Grand Master. The introduction of this order into Kilwinning appears to have taken place about the same, or nearly the same period as the introduction of Freemasonry itself into Scotland. The Culdees, as is well known, introduced Christianity into Scotland, and, from their known habits, there were good grounds for believing that they preserved among them a knowledge of the ceremonies and precautions adopted for their protection in Judea. In establishing this degree in Scotland, it is more than probable that it was done with the view to explain, in a correct Christian manner, the symbols and rites employed by the Christian Architects and Builders; and this will also explain how the Royal Order not Roman Catholic, but adapted to all is purely catholic, who acknowledge the great truths of Christianity, in the eame way that Craft or Symbolic Masonry is intended for all, whether Jew or Gentile, who acknowledge a Supreme God. The second part, or R.-S.-Y. C.-S., is an order of knighthood, and perhaps the only genuine one in connection with Masonry, there being in it an intimate connection between the sword and the trowel. The lecture consists of a of the ceremonial both of H.-R.-M. figurative description and R.-S.-Y. C.-S., in simple rhyme, modernized, of course, by oral tradition, and breathing tbo, purest spirit of Chris-

CUYPT.

UOYA1, MASTER.

RUL SAL
tianity. said, the

341

These two degrees constitute, as has been already Royal Order of Scotland. Lodges or Chapters cannot legally meet elsewhere, unless possessed of a charter from it, or by dispensation from the Grand Master or his Deputy. The office of Grand Master is vested in the person of the King of Scotland, (now of Great Britain,) and one seat is invariably kept vacant for him, in whatever country a Chapter is open, and cannot be occupied by any other member. RULE. A well-known instrument by which measurements It is employed as an are made or straight lines are drawn. important emblem in the degree of Past Master, admonishing the newly-elected Master to punctually observe his duty, press forward in the path of virtue, and, neither inclining to the right nor to the left, in all his actions to have eternity
in view.

8.

SAINT JOHN THE ALMONER, born
550,

at Cypress,

A. D.

" Celui a are dedicated. qui elles sont dediees est St. Jean I'aumonier, qui etait le Grand Maitre des chevaliers de St. Jean de Jerusalem, au xiii e siede, et qui a toujours ete le plus bel ornement de I'Ordre, et le patron des Templiers."* It requires no little credulity, and some imagination, to believe that a man who died A. r>. 616 was Grand Master of the Knights of St. John A.D. 1250!

was made patriarch of Alexandria, A. D. 606, and died Nov. 11, 616. He has no connection with Freemasonry, and is mentioned here merely because Commanderies of Knights Templar and the 30th degree (Kadosh), Ancient and Accepted rite, claim that it is to him, and not to St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist, that Masonic bodies

SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST,

DISCIPLES OF.

A

society

which has existed in Asia for many hundred years, but the exact date of its origin is unknown. Tradition asserts that it was founded by the immediate disciple of John the Baptist, who fled from Judea directly after the latter was beheaded. Their religious and philosophical doctrines have a mystical character. Their moral system is pure and elevated, and the highest virtues are inculcated and rigidly practiced. Their priests are divided into three degrees. They have some peculiarities which remind one of the early Christian Brotherhood, especially their "Agape," or love-feast, which is the prototype of the Masonic Table-lodge. * "He to whom they are dedicated is St. John the Aimoner, who wae
the

Grand Master of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, in the I3tb century, and who was always the greatest ornament of the order knd patron of the Templars."

29

SAI

SCA.
OF.

SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST, KNIGHT
became
rite,

A

division of

ffemplar Masonry which, toward the end of the last century flrose in Ireland, flourished for a brief period, and then
extinct.
^ OF. The 7th degree of the Swedish also of the imperial Grand Lodge of Prussia. Oliver calls it the 6th in the series comprised in the degrees of the Knights of the East and West.

SAINT JOHN,
and

FAVORITE

SAINT JOHN,

or

HOLY SAINT JOHN OF JERUSALEM. This

expression, so common in our Lodges, is, by its needless tautology, offensive alike to the ear and to a refined literary taste. Holy and Saint are the same word, both signifying The French Masons do not say "Saint the same thing. Saint Jean," nor in the German Lodges do we hear the phrase, "Heiligen Saint, i. e., Heiligen Johann," but simply "Saint
Jean,"

and "Heiligen Johann."

SAINTS JOHN, FESTIVALS OF. The 24th of June is consecrated to Saint John the Baptist, and the 27th of December It is the duty of Masons to to Saint John the Evangelist. assemble on these days, and by a solemn invocation of the past, renew the ties and strengthen the fraternal bonds that bind the present to the brotherhood of the olden time.
It is

androgynous degree in Masonry. an impressive and interesting degree, founded on the well-known parable. It is communicated to the wives of Royal Arch Masons.

SAMAKITAN, GOOD. An

SANCTUARY. That part of the Temple at Jerusalem which was the most secret and most retired; in which was the ark of the covenant, and wherein none but the HighPriest might enter, and he only once a year, on the day of holy expiation. The same name was also given to the most
sacred part of the Tabernacle, set

up

in the wilderness,

which remained until some time after the building of the Temple. SCANDINAVIAN MYSTERIES. These rites were introduced into the north of Europe, near the beginning of the Christian era, by Sigge, a Sythian priest and chieftain, who is known in the Northern mythology by the name of Odin. The principal feature of the initiation seems to have been a modified form of the Isianic rite. Balder was slain by Loke, with a branch of mistletoe, and the initiation represented a search for his body. The myth preserved in the " Ancient Edda," which describes the descent of Odin into the regions
of Hela, seeking for his

murdered

son, conveys a very clear

SCH

SCO.

343

idea of the ceremony. The candidate meets with difficulties and troubles of the most appalling kind, but finally reaches the palace "roofed with golden shields," which resounds

with songs of triumph. Balder, physically, represents the sun, and, morally, the truth, and Loke is a symbol of winter, and also of evil. Thus here, again, is seen an attempt to illustrate the everlasting conflict between Truth and Error, Good and Evil, in which, after divers defeats, Truth and Goodness gain the empire of the universe.

SCHRODER'S KITE.
name
established at

In 1766, a person bearing this

Marburgh a Chapter of "True and Ancient Rose-Croix Masons," which met with so much success that he was encouraged to introduce into a Lodge at Sarrebourg certain mystical and alchemistical degrees.
This system recognized the three symbolical degrees as the foundation of Masonry, and, at one time, was considerably disseminated. The rite is still acknowledged as legitimate Masonry by the Grand Lodge of Hamburg, under which, it is said, there are several Lodges now at work.*

In the French, or modern rite, the degree. It is intended to throw light on the events which are the subject of the Royal Arch degree, and, iu substance, is nearly identical with the degree of Select Master.
fifth

SCOTCH MASON.

SCOTCH RITE, more familiarly known as the Ancient and Accepted Scottish rite. The degrees of this rite are, for the most part, elaborated from the system invented by Ramsay, who claimed that he found them in Scotland, where
Hamburg, with Ignace Fessler, of Berlin, took toward the end of the 18th century, and they together determined to introduce them into the German Lodges, wherein the higher degrees had become so dangerous. In their place they do 'sired to introduce the Masonic degrees of Symbolism and Light. A profound investigation as to the origin, genius and history of Freemasonry. and an exposition of the different systems of the Lodges and of theii higher degrees, necessarily awakened in the brethren a more general desire to*eimplify the object and constitution of the society, and tc guard for the future against the invasions of a mystical and dangerous Schroder introduced these degrees without any ceremony ol reverse. reception, so that they might not have even the appearance of the higher Fessler preserved particular ceremonies. The latter, though degrees. beautiful and solemn, resembled those of the Roman Catholic worship;
Schroder, of

*" Louis

up the old English

rituals,

their founder, who probably retained a secret liking for it, being, perhaps, unconscious of the Fast. The Grand Lodge of Hamburg constitiited itself, according to the system of Schroder, at the beginning of the and many Lodges have since followed its example; as present century; also the Grand Lodge Royal York, of Friendship, at Berlin, has. since 1800, made great progress in propagating the system of Schroder with the improvements of Fessler." BOBBICK. Hist, de la Fr. May.

,-544

SCO.

they had been planted by Knights of the Temple and of Malta, on their return from Palestine. It is needless to say that these pretensions have no foundation in truth. The Councils and Lodges of this rite are governed by Supreme

of which there are one at Charleston, S. C., and the This rite is, next to the York, the other at Boston, Mass. most extensively diffused throughout the Masonfc world.
f

Grand Inspectors General,
States,

two in

tl!e

United

It consists of thirty-three

Symbolic Lodge.
1.

degrees, divided as follows: 7. ProTOst and Judge.
8.
1).

Entered Apprentice.
Fellow-Craft.

2. 3.

Intendant of the Building. Elected Knights of the Nine.
Elect of the Fifteen.
ol

Master Mason.
Lodge of Perfection.
Secret Master. Perfect Master.

10. Illustrious 11.

Sublime Knights Elected

the Twelve.
12.

4.
5.
6.

Grand Master

Architect.

Intimate Secretary.

13. Knights of the Ninth Arch, or Royal Arch of Solomon.

SCK SEC.
14.

345
or,

Grand

Elect,

Perfect,

and

22.

Knight Royal Axe;

Prince

Sublime Mason.
Council of Princes of Jerusalem. Knights of the Sword, of the East, or of the Eagle. 16. Prince of Jerusalem.
15.

of Libanus.
23. 24. 25. 26.
27.

Chief of the Tabernacle. Prince of the Tabernacle. Knight of the Brazen Serpent Prince of Mercy; or, Scottish
Sovereign

Trinitarian.

Chapter of Rose-Oroix. 17. Knight of the East and West. 18. Knight of the Eagle, Knight of the Pelican or, Sovereign Prince Rose-Croix.
;

Commander
;

of the

Temple. 28. Knight of the Sun
Adept.

or,

Princ*

Consistory of Princes of the
Secret.

29lfcrand Scottish Kn't of St. An drew; or, Patriarch of the Crusades. 30. Knight Kadosch. Royal
31.
32.

Grand Inquiring Commander.

19. 20.
all

Grand

Pontiff; or, Sublime

Sublime Prince of the Royal

Ecossais.

Secret.

Venerable Grand Master of Symbolic Lodges.
Noachite; or, Prussian Knight.

Supreme
33.

Council.

21.

Sovereign Grand Inspector General.

the Jews, Scribes were officers of the There were civil and ecclesiastical scribes. The former were employed about any kind of civil writings or records.
law.

SCRIBE. Among

The

latter transcribed, studied and explained the Holy Scriptures. In the traditions of the Eoyal Arch degree, Haggai,

the scribe, occupies an important place in the Council of the Chapter, and should be regarded as the secretary of the king.

SECRECY. Freemasonry, in laying its foundations in secrecy, follows the Divine order of Nature, where all that is grand and beautiful and useful is born of night and mystery. The mighty labors which clothe the earth with " fruits and foliage and flowers are wrought in darkness." The bosom of Nature is a vast laboratory, where the mysterious work of transmutation of substances is perpetually going forward. There is not a point in the universe, the edges of which do not touch the realms of night and silence. " himself
God
is environed with shadows, and clouds and darkness are round about his throne ;" yet his beneficence is
felt, and his loving Spirit makes itself visible through all worlds. So Freemasonry works in secrecy, but its benignant fruits are visible in all lands. Besides, this principle oi secrecy furnishes a mysterious bond of unity and strength, which can be found nowhere else. The objection often urged against the Order on account of this peculiar feature is too puerile to be considered.

All the great associations of anobjects of which were to civilize and improve the condition of mankind, were secret societies. They werf. sailed "MYSTERIES." The mysteries of India, Egypt* Greece.
tiquity, the

SECRET SOCIETIES.

346
etc.,

SEC.

we- re secret orders great educational institutions, established for the advancement of men in wisdom and virThe wide extension of the secret principle at the tue. present time, and the immense number of secret philanthropic societies which cover all lands, prove that there must be some wants, universally felt, to which political institutions
r

do not respond; some elements of human nature not represented therein, w hich are the cause and groundwork of these secret orders. When society and governments are oppressand all are imperfect, when they do not ive or imperfect provide for all the moral, intellectual, and physical needs of men, the earnest, the loving, the hoping, who, dissatisfied with the present, invoke the future; and the weak, who are crushed to the earth by the oppressive laws which govern all industrial arrangements, become disgusted with these conditions, and fly to the embrace of some secret order, where a higher ideal is revealed, and the prophecy of a better state is announced. We conclude, then, that secret societies have their origin in the deepest and most pressing wants of humanity. They grow out of a social arrangement which is unjust and unequal, and point forward to a time when justice and love shall possess and govern the earth.
4th degree of the Ancient and of the Ineffable degrees, conferred The body is styled a Lodge. in the Lodge of Perfection. The hangings are black, strewed with white tears. The Lodge is illuminated with eighty-one lights, the square of nine. On the altar the Book of Constitutions, closed; and on that lies a key of ivory. No working-tools are used, for the reason that the labors on the Temple are suspended The Master represents King after the death of

SECKET MASTER The
rite,

Accepted

and the first

The East represtyled Puissant Master. of Holies of the first Temple at Jerusalem, with its appropriate decorations and furniture. The sash is a broad blue watered ribbon, worn from right to left.
Solomon, and
sents the
is

Holy

The apron is white, edged with black; the flap is blue, with an open eye embroidered or painted on it. Two branches, one of laurel and the other of olive, cross each uther in the middle of the apron, and at the crossing is the letter Z, embroidered in gold. The gloves are white, turned The jewel of the degree is an over, with black at the wrists. ivory key, on which is engraved the letter Z, referring to Zadoc, who was the High-Priest in the reigns of David and Solomon. The duty of a Secret Master is to keep a careful
watch over the conduct of the Craft in general; to practice virtiie, sbun vice, and remain in silence.

jg~f

/

fc&f,:-

:

\ \

-_

._!

SANCTUARY OF THE TEMPTS
SECRET MASTER.

SEC-SIG.
interesting and useful side defounded on the history of the covenant of friendship which was entered into by David and Jonathan, an account of which is given in the 1st book of Samuel, 20th chapter.
gree,

SECRET MONITOR An

second degree in the Council It accounts for as the Cryptical branch of Masonry. the concealment of important mysteries at the building of the first Temple, which were preserved and brought to light at the erection of the second Temple, and furnishes thj history which connects the incidents of Ancient Craft Masonry with those of the Royal Arch.

SELECT MASTER. The

known

is brought into communication with the by means of five senses, or organs of perception. Seeing, Hearing and Feeling are often referred to in Masonic instructions. They are explained in the degree of

SENSES. Man

external world

Fellow-Craft.

SENTINEL. In Chapters of Royal Arch Masons, and Councils of some other degrees, the Tiler, or. guardian of the door, bears this name.

SHIBBOLETH. The Hebrew word Ji^tC
of corn and a stream or flood of water. test or criterion by which the ancient

signifies

an ear

Ephraimite attempting to cross, they asked him if he was of Ephraim. If he said no, they bade him pronounce the word Shibboleth, which the Ephraimites, from inability to give the aspirate, gave Sibboleth. By this means he was deIn modern tected as an enemy, and immediately slain. times this word has been adopted into political and other organizations as a pass or watchword.

tinguish originated thus: After the battle gained by Jephthah over the Ephraimites, (Judges xii.,) the Gileadites, commanded by the former, secured all the passes of the river; and, on an

The name given to a Jews sought to disThe term true persons or things from false.

SIDE DEGREES. Certain degrees having no real connection with Freemasonry, invented by enthusiastic brethren, are thus designated. Some of them are conferred for their supposed utility, and others for the harmless amusement they afford. The degree of Secret Monitor belongs to the first class, and that of the Knight of Constantinople to the second.
SIGNET. sign, token, or seal. Formerly, rulers had seals or signets with which they invested their ministers, as that they acted by royal authority. The signet oi

A

350

SIX

SOL

of Hiram, kncwiv among Masons, said to have been a token of friendship which the King of Tyre sent to the Hebrew monarch.

King Solomon, or rather

is

ARCHITECT'S. God is said to and rested on the seventh. The "Grand Architect's Six Periods" refer to that event. Hence Masons are instructed to labor during the six days of the week, and devote the seventh to rest, devotion and meditation. These important periods in the world's history, and the manifestation of the Almighty's power and goodness are often and eloquently portrayed during the ceremonies of the

SIX PERIODS, THE GRAND

have created the earth in

six days,

Fellow-Craft's degree.

SKIRBET. In the English ritual, one of the working-tools of a Master Mason. It is an instrument usually made of wood, shaped like a letter T, and acts on a center pin, from which a line is drawn, chalked and struck, to mark out the ground for the
intended edifice. In a speculative sense, it points out that straight and undeviating line of conduct laid down in the sacred volume.

SOLOMON. This celebrated monarch was the son of David by Bathsheba, tnrotujn whose influence he inherited ,he Jewish throne, in preference to his elder brothers. During his long and peaceful reign from B. c. 1015 to 975 His remarkable the Hebrews enjoyed their golden age.
judicial decisions, and his completion of the political institutions of David, show<M a superiority of genius which
t the people. By building the gained him the respecl Temple, which plays so jii.->ortant a role in the symbolism of Freemasonry, exceeding as it did, in splendor and beauty, all former works of architecture, he gave to the Hebrew worship a magnificence that bound the people more closely

This cannot be true. He might have been, and probably was, the first Grand Master of Masons in Judea; for Masonry was not known in that country until it was introduced by
the

He was truly a great ruler; but, while the Jews were naturally proud, of the glory which his great qualities reflected on the nation, his enlarged and liberal views with regard to intercourse with foreign peoples deeply offended the national bigotry. The decorations of the Temple were thought by many to be pagan emblems, Soloand, finally, they accused him openly of idolatry. mon is often styled "the first Grand Master of Masons."'
to the national rites.

Masons

of

Tyre and Sidon, who built the Temple.
a

mon must have been made

Mason

Soloat that time, unless he

SOU

353

had been previously admitted into the society at Tyre or Sidon. To Solomon, however, belongs the honor of having brought the Masonic institution to the knowledge of the Hebrews, through the agency of the Tyrian architects. Yet the society seems not to have made much progress among that people, and even Solomon's great name and patronage could not secure it from misrepresentation and persecution. And this is not strange. A Jew of that age could not comprehend,

much

less appreciate, the

cosmopolitan character

and liberal spirit of such an institution. Consequently, the Masons called, in the Scriptures, Sidonians were often the objects of bitter persecution. Of the writings ascribed " to Solomon, the Proverbs," and the book entitled the
" Wisdom of Solomon," are the best.

The

latter Protestants

in a purely religious point of view, it is the most instructive and valuable book in the Old Testament series.
for,

have unwisely pronounced apocryphal;

In this country Lodges of Sorrow are, however, of very frequent occurrence in Europe, particularly in Germany, where, " Trauer shortly after the death of a worthy brother, the is held, when the virtues, memory, and intellectual Loge"
are

SORROW LODGES.
somewhat
rare.

They

commemorated, and the funereal rites of an impressive character ai e performed. The custom is eminently proper, and strictly in accordance with the fraternal principles of Freemasonry, and one which should be as uniqualifications are
-

On these occaversal as the extent of the institution itself. sions the Lodge-room should be appropriately draped in black, and the several stations covered with emblems of mourning. On the Master's pedestal is a skull and lighted In the center of the room is placed a catafalque, taper. which consists of a rectangular platform, about six feet long by four wide, on which are two smaller platforms, so that three steps are represented. On the third one should be au elevation of convenient height, on which is placed an urn. The platform should be draped in black, and a canopy of black drapery may be raised over the urn. (See engraving.) At each corner of the platform will be placed a candlestick, bearing a lighted taper, and near it, facing the East, will be aeated a brother, provided with an extinguisher, to be used at the proper time. During the first part of the ceremonies the lights in the room should burn dimly. Arrangements should be made to enable the lights to be increased to brilOn the liancy at the appropriate point in the ceremony. catafalque will be laid a pair of white gloves, a plain lambskin apron, and, if the deceased brother had been an officer, tbe appropriate insignia of his office. When the Lodge in
oO

354
held in

SOV.

of several brethren, shields bearing then Vocal and instrucatafalque. mental music are indispensable to the proper effect of the

memory

names are placed around the

Brethren should wear dark clothing and no insignia but the white lambskin apron and white gloves.
ceremonies.
1

,

SOVEREIGN COMMANDER OF THE TEMPLE, sometimes called KNIGHT COMMANDER OF THE TEMPLE, is the 27th degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. The assemblage The degree is entirely chivalric. The is called a Chapter. presiding officer is styled Commander-in Chief; the Wardens are called Marshal and Turcopilier; the members are designated Knights Commanders. The hangings are scarlet, with black columns at intervals, on each of which is a branch holding a light. The hangings and columns are so arranged as to give the room the form of a circle; in the center of which is a large round table, covered with the emblems of the degree; around the table the members sit. In front of the East is a candelabrum, with three circles of lights, one above the other. In the upper circle are six lights; in the second The jewel is :\ nine, and the third twelve.

golden triangle, on which is engraved the letters I. N. R. I.; it is suspended from the collar, which is of white watered ribbon, edged with red; embroidered on each side in black and gold, is the Teutonic cross. This order was founded in 1190, in Palestine, and on the 23d of February, 1192, it was solemnly approved and confirmed by Pope Celestine III. This was the origin of the once famous military order of Teutonic Knights. All the French writers who have investigated the history of this degree concur in connecting it with the Knights Templars, and it certainly has much of the character of that order,
Vassal expresses the following opinion of the degree: "The 27th degree does not deserve to be classed in the Scotch rite as a degree, since it contains neither symbols or allego It deserves still less to ries that connect it with initiation. be ranked among tne philosophical degrees. I imagine that it has been intercalated only to supply an hiatus, and as a memorial of an order once justly celebrated."

SOVEREIGN GRAND INSPECTOR GENERAL.

The

33d and ultimate degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. It is aot certainly known when or where this grade originated.

SPH
The theory which

STA.

355

ascribes it to the King of Prussia has long since been discarded by intelligent Masons. The number of Inspectors in a kingdom or republic must not exceed nine. These organized in a body, constitute the Supreme Council, which

claims jurisdiction over
Ineffable

all

the

and Sublime degrees.

The presiding officer is styled Sovereign Grand Commander. The sash is white, edged with gold, and suspended from the
right shoulder to the left hip.

At the bottom is a red and white rose, and on the part crossing the
breast is a delta, with rays transversed by a poniard, and in the center the number 33. The jewel is a black, double-headed eagle, crowned, and holding a sword in his claws. The beak, The motto of the claws, crown and sword are of gold. " Deus is and

degree

meumque jus," "God

my

right."

In antiquity, an emblematical figure, composed of the head and breasts of a woman, and the body of a lion, and said to be the Egyptian symbol of mystery. This supposition arises most naturally from the fact that these symbols are always found at the entrance of the Egyptian temples. Also, a fabulous monster, said to have infested the country around Thebes. According to mythological history, its father

SPHINX.

was Typhon, the gigantic son of Terra, and it was sent by Juno to afflict the Thebans, which it did by proposing enigmatical questions to persons,

whom

it

killed

if

they could not

expound them. The Egyptian Sphinx had no wings; these appendages were added by the Greeks. As a symbol of mystery, silence and antiquity, it has been adopted as a Vlasonic emblem.

men

with a flag or colors, under which for some common purpose. From the earliest antiquity all nations have been in the habit of using peculiar standards or banners, by which they were distinguished from each other in peace, and rallied to action in war. The ancient Egyptians were, probably, the first to adopt the use of the standard to distinguish their people or a particular tribe during their wars, or wh^n performing
staff

STANDARD. A
are united or

bound

856

STA.

their ceremonies publicly. They are frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. The earliest Eoman standard waa

a bundle of straw fixed to the top of a spear. This was succeeded by figures of animals the horse, the boar, etc. all of which soon gave place to the eagle, which continued to be the

Boman

ensign, and was afterward assumed by the German, and since by the French empe-

rors of the Napoleonic dynasty. Standards are frequently carried in Masonic processions, with appropriate devices painted or embroidered thereon.

The standard appropriate

to

the Order, and that which is designated as the principal or

general standard of symbolic Masonry, is described as follows: "The escutcheon, or shield on STANDARD OF SYMBOLIC MASONRT. the banner, is divided into four compartments, or quarters, by a green cross, over which a narrower one of the same length of limb, and of a yellow color, is placed, forming what is called a cross vert voided or; each of the compartments formed by the limits of the cross is occupied by a different device. In the first quarter is placed a
lion, on a field of blue, to represent the standard of the tribe of Judah; in the second, a black ox, on a field of gold, to represent Ephraim ; in the third,

golden

a man, on a field of gold, to represent Reuben; and, in the fourth, a golden eagle, on a blue ground, to represent Dan. Over all is placed, as the crest, an ark of the covenant, and the motto is Holiness to the Lord.' " Besides this, there are six other standards proper to be borne in BOTAL ARCH STANDARD. processions, the material oi which must be white, bordered with blue fringe or ribbon, and on each of which is inscribed one of the following words
'

STA.

357

In the FAITH, HOPE, CHARITY, WISDOM, STRENGTH, BEAUTY. Royal Arch degree, as recognized in this country, there are five standards. The Royal Arch Captain carries a white standard, which is emblematic of a
-,

purity of heart, and rectitude of conduct. The standard of the Grand Master of the third rail is scarlet, emblematic of fervency and zeal, and is the appropriate color of the Royal Arch degree. The standard of the Grand Master of the second vail
purple, which is emblematic of union, being a due mixture of blue and scarlet, the appropriate colors of the Symbolic
is

and Royal Arch degrees; and
this teaches us to cultivate the spirit of harmony and love between brethren of the Symbolic, and companions of the Sublime degrees, which should ever distinguish the members of a soci-

ety founded upon the principles of everlasting truth, and universal philanthropy. The standard of the Grand Master of the first vail is blue, the peculiar color of the Ancient Craft, or

3RAND STANDARD OF KNIGHTS TEMPLAB.

Symbolic degrees, which

is

em-

blematic of universal friendship and benevolence. In the Royal Arch degree, as practiced in the Chapters of England, twelve standards are used, illustrating the twelve tribes of Israel, which
are as follows: Judah, scarlet, a couchant; Issachar, blue, an ass crouching beneath its burden; Zebulon, purple, a ship;
lion

IV

^

H

\\

Reuben, red, a man;* Simeon, yellow, a sword; Gad, white, a troop of horsemen; Ephraim,

green, an ox; Manassah, fleshcolored, a vine by the side of a wall; Benjamin, green, a wolf; Dan, green, an eagle; Asher, purple, a cup; Naphtali, blue, a hind. The banner or grand standard of the Order of Masonic knighthood is of white silk, six feet in height and five feet

358

STA.

standard, a blood-red Passion Cross, edged with gold, over which is the motto, "In hoc signo vinces," and under, "Non nobis Domine, non nobis, sed Nomini tuo da Gloriam!" The cross to be four feet high, and the upright and bar to be seven inches wide. On the top of the staff, a gilded globe or ball, four inches in diameter, surmounted by the Patriarchal Cross, twelve inches in height. The Beauseant, or the battle-flag of the Ancient Knights Templar, is of woolen or
silk stuff, six feet in height,
five feet in

in width, made tripartite at the bottom, fastened at the top to the cross-bar by nine rings; in the center of the

and

width,

made

tripar-

tite at the bottom, fastened at the top to the cross-bar by nine The upper half of the rings. standard is black, and the lower

half white. The grand standard of the Ancient and Accepted rite is of white silk, three-and-ahalf feet long, by two-and-a-half

edged with gold, gold and tassels. In the center, the double-headed eagle, under which, on a blue scroll, the motto, in letters of gold, "Deus Meumque Jus." On the
feet wide,
gCOTTISH BITE.

fringe

upper part of a triangle, irradiated, the figures 33 in the
center.

" " speaking, this word statistics has reference to the present condition, resources and influence of whatever nation or society one may have under consideration, we shall depart a little from these limits, and introduce a few items which we deem important, that belong more properly to the history of the institution. Masonry now has gained a foothold and influence in nearly every country on*the face of the earth. It exists to-day, and exercises an immense power in every country of Europe; its Lodges cover the American continent, are found in Northern and Southern Africa, in the East and West indies; indeed, the Freemason can hardly travel into any part of the world but he will find Lodges to receive him, and fraternal sympathy and assistance, if he is sick or in distress. In no country, however, excepting England and Germany, has the Order a connected history reaching beyond the year of the revival, A. D. 1717. In the

STATISTICS OF FREEMASONRY.

AJ though, strictly

STA STK.

S69

kingdom the records of the Fraternity have been so well preserved that we gather from them a pretty correct view of its administration and condition through a long period of
years.
officer in Grand Lodge; also His duty is to have of Knights Templar. charge of the banner of the order in processions.

STANDARD-BEARER. An
Commandery

in a

STEWARDS' LODGE. The Grand
some
jurisdictions, is a

Stewards' Lodge, in kind of court of adjudication for

hearing complaints considering applications for charity and, in some instances, trying and punishing Masonic The Stewards' Lodge was founded in England, offenses. 1735, under the Grand Mastership of Lord Weymouth. It was entitled to twelve representatives in the Grand Lodge.

STRICT OBSERVANCE, RITE OF. This was the third attempt at innovation upon the purer systems of Freemasonry by the Jesuits. It encouraged in its adepts the hope of coming into possession of the wealth of the ancient Templars. The chronological history of its Grand Masters is nothing more than the history of the generals of the
was established in Germany, in 1754, by Baron (Charles Gotthelf), and a few of his associates. Six degrees only were conferred. They were, 1. Apprentice; 2. Fellow Craft; 3. Master Mason; 4. Scotch Master; on the trestle-board of this degree were represented a lion, emblem of fearlessness, courage and calm fortitude; a fox, the symbol of prudence; an ape, signifying the faculty of The imitation, and a sparrow-hawk, typical of swiftness. Scotch Master, having been found worthy of advancement, was then received in the fifth degree as a Novice; and in the This latter degree sixth was created a Knight Templar. was divided into three branches, viz Armiger, those who were not of noble birth or rank Socii et Amid, or those who were already Knights of some order, and Equites, or Knights. Each Armiger, Socius or Eques, received on his initiation a knightly name, coat of arms and motto. Von Hund afterward instituted a seventh degree, styled Eques Prqfessus, which he surrounded with an unusual amount of mystery, and conferred the degree on those only who could be of the greatest service to him or his schemes. The whole of Europe was apportioned into nine "Provinces," the seventh of which included the northern part of Germany, between the Elbe and Oder, The order was subordinate to a Grand Master, who was supposed to be unknown to all, except a few of the privileged knights, Von Hund being in reality the head of
Jesuits.

^

It

von

Hund

:

;

860

STB.

The superior officer of each Province -rc as termed the order. " Heermeister" Von Hund assuming command of the seventh Province, under the distinctive title of Carolus Eques ab Ense, The Lodges were called Comnianderies, the Masters being
Commendatur domus." The Masters were subordinate styled, to the Prefects, and these again to Sub-priors and Priors. The seats of these officers were called by names taken from the rolls of the old Knights Templar and Knights of Malta.
"

The Preceptory

of

Hamburg was termed Foenack; Copen-

hagen, Eydendorp; Brunswick, Brunopolis, etc. Many plans were concocted and attempted, in order to furnish a revenue to these office-holders. While Von Hund was in Paris, he actually contemplated the establishment of colonies in North America and on the coast of Labrador, and afterward in Russia. In 1768, he endeavored to dispose of his property to the order, at a very low price, in order to furnish dwellings for the officers, but, owing to the mistrust of the brethren, the arrangement fell through, and this plan cost him more than one-half his wealth. In 1766 a brother, by the name of Schubarth, proposed a so-called "Economical Plan," by which he proposed a regular system of graduated assessments upon the Lodges, a sort of sliding-scale of fees, which, on paper, presented a beautiful design and an enormous The plan, however, failed, a large majority of the result. brethren not being sufficiently credulous to embark in the Some Lodges, however, who had, in accordance speculation. with the plan, commenced the collection of a fund for the above purpose, soon found themselves enabled to erect handsome halls for their accommodation, and thus laid the foundation for acquiring considerable property. Von Hund, as " Heermeister" of the seventh Province, dwelt at Sonnen-

from whence he governed Ins This order was well organized, gave proof of great strength and exercised a powerful influence over all similar organizations during ite The Provincial Grand Lodge existence throughout Europe. of Hamburg, which had been constituted by the Grand Lodge of England in 1740, went over to the Strict Observance in 1765, and each of its members was obliged to sign an act of obedience, abjuring its former system of York Masonry, and vowing implicit obedience and allegiance to
burg, on his
estates,

own

Province and issued his decrees.

the superiors of the order.

The

latter, fearing lest

they

might be persecuted in some way, as being the successors of an order which had been abolished by royal command, and desirous of insuring the existence of their order, began now to look around for some noble patron. The first reigning prince who acceded to their wishes was the Margrave

STB.

361

Charles Alexander, of Bayreuth, who was received as Equea a Munimento in 1766, and appointed as Protector Ordinis in He arranged elegant rooms in his chateau at Franconia. Anspach for the accommodation of the chapters, and had in contemplation the restoration of the Order of the Swan, (an order which flourished in the fifteenth century,) as a cloak beneath which should be concealed the actual Order of This plan was, however, suddenly abandoned, Templars. In the year 1767, a certain for what reason is not known. Dr. Stark, rejoicing in the cognomen of Frater Archidemides
ab aquilafulva, made his appearance at Wismar, and pretended that he and some of his friends belonged to another branch of the Templar order, viz: the Clerical or ecclesiastical branch, who alone possessed the true secrets of the order, and that he had been invested with full powers by his superiors to He exhibited a patent, take charge of the secular brethren. in which he was styled "fils etfrere des peres de lafamille des Sgavans I'Ordre des Sages par tous les generations de I'univers," and which empowered him to initiate those whom he deemed worthy. The clerks, as they styled themselves, pretended to be descendants of the pious Essenes, who employed themselves in the study of the secrets of nature, and who had attained the highest perfection in this secret knowledge. After the institution of the Order of the Temple in the Holy Land, they became acquainted with some of the members of that order, among whom was a nephew of St. Bernard,

by name Andreas Montisbarrensis.

They then united with

this order, obtained a rule from St. Bernard, and chose Andreas as> their first ecclesiastical Prior. These clerical brethren became the guardians of the laws and mysteries -of the order, and to them mainly was due its future importance and wealth. At the dissolution of the order, their most secret documents and treasures were rescued by the Knight John Eures, and a part of these were still in their

Stark brought with him rituals, instructions, and other manuscripts, interlarded with Latin and old French sentences, which he pretended to have received in Auvergne, and which contained the forma and ceremonies of initiation of the Novices and Knights, as practiced in the French and Italian provinces. At that date, however, (1765-73,) no trace of the Strict Observance was to be found in those countries. It is most likely that Stark received his knowledge of the higher degrees in St. Petersburg, (1763Toward 65,) and manufactured the rituals to suit himself. the end of the year 1770, Duke Ferdinand, of Brunswick, was initiated as sodi et amid into the Strict Observance, or so-called Order of Templars and, in the following year.
possession.
;

362

SUB.

his brother, the reigning Duke Charles, was likewise initiated. These initiations reanimated the spirit of the whole order, which had for some time shown signs of being about to fall In May, 1772, a general convention of the officers to pieces. and deputies of the seventh Province was held at Kohlo, at

which the clerical branch was also represented. Von Hund, by request, presented his patent, which, although no one was The clerical able to decipher, was pronounced genuine. branch was acknowledged by an act of union, signed on either part, and Duke Ferdinand was chosen Magnus Superior Ordinis and Grand Master of all the United Scottish Lodges.

The

ritual of the first four degrees, as practiced in the united Lodges, was adopted, the explanation of the same being made to conform with the actual object of the order. A directory, under the title of a capitular government, was also established at Dresden, in order to lighten the labors The seventh Province was of the Heermeister, Von Hund. now fully organized; up to this time it had been the only In 1773, Major Von Weiler, a spica aurea, went to one. France, and instituted at Strasburgh. the fifth province, Burgundy; at Lyons, the province Auvergne; and at Montpelier, the third Province, Occitania; the principal seat, however, remained at Bordeaux. All these provinces recognized the Duke Ferdinand as Grand Master. In 1776, Von Hund instituted the eighth Province of Southern Germany, and constituted several Prefectures. In 1775, a convention was held at Brunswick, at which Prince Charles of Hesse was acknowledged as Protector Ordinis, and the capitulary government was transferred to Brunswick for three years. Von Hund, having a presentiment of his approaching end, confided to the Duke Ferdinand all his papers, correspondence, and the rolls and registers of the order, and on the 7th November, 1776, he died.

SUBLIME. The Master Mason's degree is thus styled on account of the grand and sublime doctrines it teaches.

SUBLIME GKAND LODGE. A
Lodge
of Perfection.

term applied to the

ILLUSTIIIOUS KNIGHTS.

sometimes called TWELVE of the Ancient and Accepted rite. This degree completes the series of Elect degrees, viz: Elect of Nine, Elect of Fifteen and Sublime Knight Elect. The legend of this degree specifies that after vengeance had been taken on the traitors, Solomon, to reward those wh:> had remained faithful to their trust, as

SUBLIME KNIGHT ELECT,

The llth degree

well as to

make room

for the exaltation of others to the

SUB.
degree of Elect of Fifteen, appointed twelve of these latter, chosen by their companions, to constitute a new degree, on which he bestowed the title of Sublime Elect, and endowed them with a certain command to provide supplies for the king and his household; to see that the taxes were fairly assessed; to superintend the collection of the revenue; and to protect the people against rapacity and extortion of the In this degree is shadowed forth the great tax-gatherers. free constitutions, without which liberty would principle often be but a name the trial by jury of twelve men, whose unanimous verdict is necessary to convict of crime. The assembly is called a Chapter. It is lighted with twelve lights, by threes, in the East, "West, North, and South; each three forming an equilateral triangle. The presiding officer represents King Solomon, and is styled Thrice Illustrious
Sovereign; the two Wardens are styled Inspectors; the Chapter consists of twelve members only. The apron is white, lined, edged and fringed with black, and the flap is black. In the middle of the apron is painted or embroidered a flaming heart. The sash is a black ribbon, worn from right to left, and on which, over the breast, ia

painted or. embroidered, a flaming heart; and over that the words, Vincere aut Mori. The jewel is a sword, worn suspended to the sash.

SUBLIME PRINCE OF THE ROYAL SECRET. The
32 d degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite, and for many years, or until the institution of the 33d degree, this was the highest degree, or ne plus ultra of Masonry. The body 18 styled a Consistory, and should be held in a building of two stories. The officers are, a Thrice Illustrious Commander, First and Second Lieutenants, a Minister of State, a Grand Chancellor, a Grand Treasurer, a Grand Secretary, ard a Grand Captain of the Guard. In the East is a throne.

364

SUP.
is

elevated on seven steps, which
Illustrious

the seat of the Thrice

Commander, who wears a robe of royal purple, and he and the Lieutenants, wear swords. The collar of this degree is black, lined with scarlet, and in the center, at
the point, a double-headed eagle, of silver or gold, on a red cross. The apron is of white satin, with a border of gold lace, one inch wide, lined with scarlet; on the flap is a double-headed eagle, on each side of which is the flag of the country in which the body is located, the flag of Prussia and the Beauseant of the Kadosh degree; on the apron is the camp of the Crusaders, which is thus explained; it is com~osed of an enneagon, within which is inscribed a heptagon, within that a pentagon, and in the center an equilateral Between the heptagon triangle, within which is a circle. and pentagon are placed five standards, in the designs of which are five letters, which form a particular word. The first standard is purple, on which is emblazoned the ark of the covenant, with a palm tree on each side; the ark has the motto Laus Deo. The second is blue, on which is a lion, of gold, couchant, holding in his mouth a golden key, with a collar of the same metal on his neck, and on it is the device, Ad mqjorem Dei gloriam. The third is white, and displays a heart in flames, with two wings; it is surmounted by a crown ' of laurels. The fourth is green, and bears a double-headed black eagle, crowned, holding a sword in his right claw, and a bleeding heart in his left. The fifth bears a black ox, on a field of gold. On the sides of the enneagon are nine tents, with flags, representing the divisions of the Masonic army; on the angles are nine pinions, of the same color as the flag of the tent that precedes it. The hall of the Consistory is

Teutonic

hung with black, strewed with tears, of silver. The jewel is a doubleheaded white and black eagle, resting on a Teutonic cross, of gold, worn attached to the collar or ribbon. The members are called Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret. The moral of the degree teaches

opposition to bigotry, superstition, and all the passions and vices which disgrace

JEWEL.

human

nature.

SUPER EXCELLENT MASTER. A degree formerly conferred in councils of Royal and Select Masters. Its legend is associated with circumstances that occurred at the destruction of the first temple. Its presiding officer is styled

SWE.
of Israel. It is occasionally conferred in Chapter as an honorary degree.

365

Most Excellent King, and represents Zedekiah, the last King a Koyal Arch

SWEDENBORG,

BITE

OF.

This

rite

Emanuel Swedenborg, the eminent philosopher, who was born at Stockholm,- January 29, 1688, and died at London, March 29, 1772.* His rite was composed of eight degrees, divided into two Temples. The first Temple contained the degrees of Apprentice, Fellow-Craft, Master and Elect. The
doctrines of these degrees related to the creation of man, his disobedience and punishment, and the penalties inflicted on the body and soul; all of which is represented in the initiation. The second Temple comprises the degrees of

was established by

Companion Cohen, Master Cohen, Grand Architect and Knight Commander, and Kadosh. The enlightened Mason
SWEDENBOBG was well versed in the ancient languages philosophy, metaphysics, mineralogy and astronomy were equally familiar to him. He devoted himself to profound researches in regard to the mysteries of Freemasonry, wherein he had been initiated; and in what he wrote respecting it, he established that the doctrines of the institution came from those of the Egyptians, Persians, Jews and Greeks. He endeavored to reform the Roman Catholic religion, and his doctrines were adopted by a great number of persons in Sweden, England, Holland, Kussia, Germany, and lastty, in the United States. His religious system is expounded in the book entitled " The Celestial Jerusalem, or the Spiritual World." If we are to believe him, he wrote it from the dictation of angels, who, for that purpose, appeared to him at fixed periods. Swedenborg divided the Spiritual World, or the Heavenly Jerusalem, into three Heavens; the upper, or third Heaven the Spiritual, or second, which is in the middle, and the lower or first, relatively to our world. The dwellers in the third Heaven are the most perfect among- the angels; they receive the chief portion of the divine influences immediately from God, whom they see face to face. God is the sun of the invisible world. From him flow Love and Truth, of which heat and light are but emblems. The angels of the second Heaven enjoy, through the upper Heaven, the divine influence. They see God distinctly, but not in all his splendor; he is to them a star without rays, such as the moon appears to us, which gives more light than heat. The dwellers in the lower Heaven receive the divine influence mediately through the other two Heavens. The attributes of the two latter classes are Love and Intelligence. Each of these celestial kingdoms is inhabited by innumerable societies; the angels which compose them are male and female. They contract marriages that are eternal, because it is similarity of inclinations and sympathy that attract thorn to each other. Each pair dwell in a splendid palace, surround, by delicious gardens. Below the celestial regions is the realm of spirit* Thither all mankind go immediately upon their death. The divinb influence, which their material envelope had prevented them from feeling is revealed to them by degrees, and effects their transformation into The remembrance of the angels, if they are predestined to that.
; ;

*

world which they have left is insensibly effaced from their memory; their proper instincts are unrestrainedly developed, and prepare them for heaven or hell. So full as heaven is of splendor, love and delight, so full is hell of darkness and misery, despair and hate. Such were the reveries on which Pernetti and (Jabrianca founded their Illuminism.

31

866
will

SWE

SYM.

find much of the elements of Freemasonry in tho writings of Swedenborg, who, for forty-eight years of his life, devoted himself to the cultivation of science, and produced a great number of works, in which he broached many novel and ingenious theories in theology, which obtained for him a remarkable celebrity in several parts of the world. The Marquis de Thome, in 1783, taking up the system that had been adopted in the Lodge of Avignon, in 1760, modified it to suit his own views, and instituted what afterward became known as the Rite of Swedenborg.

the

RITE. This rite was composed in 1767, for Grand Lodge at Stockholm, by Count Zinnendorf, who had created a similar rite for the National Grand Lodge of Germany, at Berlin; he preserving, however, in
the Swedish rite something of the religious system of the philosophic Mason, Swedenborg. It is composed of twelve degrees: 1. Apprentice; 2. Fellow-Craft; 3. Master; 4. Elect Master, forming, in the system of Zinnendorf, the Scottish Apprentice and Scottish Fellow-Craft, called also Apprentice and Fellow-Craft of St. Andrew; 5. Scottish Master, called also Master of St. Andrew, or Grand Scottish Elect, and conferring the rank of civil nobility in the kingdom; 6. Knight of the East, or Novice, called by Zinnendorf, the Favorite of St. John, and composed of the Knights of the East, and a part of the Knights of the West, called by Thory, the Brothers Stuart, and said by him to be composed of the degrees of Knight of the East and Prince of Jerusalem; 7. Knight of the West, or True Templar, or the Favorite Brother of Solomon, in the system of Zinnendorf called the Perfect Elect, and also styled True Capitulate, Templar Master of the Key; 8. Knight of the South, Commander, Master Templar, Grand Dignitary, Elect, called also Favorite Brother of St. John, or of the Blue Cordon 9. Favorite Brother of St. Andrew, or the Violet Cordon, called also Knight of the Purple Cordon; 10, 11 and 12, Brother of the Red Cross, divided into three classes, thus: 10. Dignitary Member of the Chapter; 11. Grand Dignitary of the Chapter, held by the Prince Royal; 12. The Master Regnant, which can be held by
;

SWEDISH

the King of Sweden only, whose title is "The Stadtholder," or Vicar of Solomon. This rite was never, we believe. practiced out of Sweden.

SYMBOL. Latin, Symbolum. A word derived from the Greek mmfefon, from sumballein, to suspect, divine, compare; a word of various meaning, even with the ancients, who used
it

ring, etc.

to denote a sign, a mark, watchword, signal, token, sealIts meaning is still more various in modern times.

TAB.
Symbol

367

is generally used as synonymous with emblem. It is not confined, however, to visible figures, but embraces every representation of an idea by an image, whether the latter is presented immediately to the senses, or merely brought before the mind by words. Men, in the infancy of society, were incapable of abstract thought, and could convey truths only by means of sensible images. In fact, man, at all times, has a strong propensity to clothe thoughts and feelings in images, to make them more striking and living; and in the early periods of our race, when man lived in intimate communion with nature, he readily found, in natural objects, forms and images for the expression of moral truths; and even his conceptions of the Deity were derived directly from natural objects. Freemasonry is a complete system of symbolic teaching, and cannot be known, understood or appreciated only by those who study its symbolism, and make themselves thoroughly acquainted with its occult meaning. To such, Freemasonry has a grand and sublime significance. Its symbols are moral, philosophical and religious, and all these are pregnant with great thoughts, and reveal to the intelligent Mason the awful mystery of life, and the still more awful mysterv of death.

T.

TABEKNACLE. The Hebrew word
handsome
tent.

among

properly signifies three public tabernacles the Jews previous to the building of Solomon's

There

were

Temple. The first, which Moses erected, was called "the Tabernacle of the Congregation." In this he gave audience,

368

TAL.

heard eauses, and inquired of God. The second was that which Moses built for God, by his express command. The third public tabernacle was that which David erected in Jerusalem for the reception of the ark when he received it from the house of Obed-edom. But it is the second of these, called the Tabernacle, by way of distinction, that we have more particularly to notice. This tabernacle was of an oblong, rectangular form, 30 cubits long, 10 broad, an 1 10 in height, which is equivalent to 55 feet long, 18 broad, and 18 high. The two sides and the western end were formed of boards of shittim wood, overlaid with thin plates of gold,

and

fixed in solid sockets or vases of silver. It was so contrived as to be taken to pieces and put together again at It was covered with four different kinds of curpleasure. tains. The first and inner curtain was composed of fine linen, magnificently embroidered with figures of cherubim, in shades of blue, purple and scarlet; this formed the beautiful ceiling. The next covering was made of goat's hair; the third of rams' skins died red; and the fourth, and outward covering, was made of other animals' skins, colored red. The east end of the tabernacle was ornamented with five pillars, from which richly-embroidered curtains were suspended. The inside was divided, by a richly-embroidered vail of linen, into two parts, the holy place and the holy of holies; in the first of which were placed the altar of incense, the table with the shew-bread, and the seven-branched candlestick; in the latter place were the ark, the mercy-seat, and the cherubim. Besides this vail of fine linen which separated the most holy place, the tabernacle was furnished with other vails of divers colors, viz: of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine-twined linen, (white,) from which are derived the emblematic colors of the several degrees of Masonry. Within the chamber of a Royal Arch chapter, a temporary structure, after the plan of the one built by Moses, may be erected, as a representation of the tabernacle constructed by Zerubbabel, near the ruins of the first temple, after the return of the captives from Babylon, while the people were building the

second temple.

TALMUD. A word
ho has learned.
It

derived from the

Hebrew verb

lainad,

means doctrine. Among the modern Jews, it signifies an immense collection of traditions, illustrative of their laws and usages, forming twelve folio volumes tke Mishua and the Gemara. It consists of two parts The Mishua is a collection of Rabbinical rules and precepts, made in the second century of the Christian era. The whole civil constitution and mode of thinking, as well as language oi the Jews, had gradually undergone a complete revolution,

TAS TAT.

369

and were entirely different, in the time of our Savior, from what they had been in the early periods of the Hebrew commonwealth. The Mosaic books contained rules no longer adapted to the situation; and its new political relations, connected with the change which had taken place in the religious
views of the people, led to many difficult questions, for which no satisfactory solution could be found in their law. The rabbins undertook to supply this defect, partly by commentaries on the Mosaic precepts, and partly by the composition of new rules, which were looked upon as almost equally binding with the former. These comments and additions were called the oral traditions in contradistinction to the old law or written code. The rabbi Juda surnamed the Holy was particularly active in making this collection 150 B. c. which received the name of Mishna, or second law. The
later rabbins busied themselves in a similar manner in the composition of commentaries and explanations of the Mishna. Among these works that of the rabbi Jachanan (composed

the most celebrity, under the name ) acquired Chaldaic for completion or doctrine. This Mishna and Gemara, together, formed the Jerusalem Talmud, relating chiefly to the Jews of Palestine. But after the Jews had mostly removed to Babylon, and the synagogue of Palestine had almost entirely disappeared, the Babylonian rabbins gradually composed new commentaries on the Mishna, which, about 500 A. D., were completed, and thus formed the

about 230

A. D.

of G-emara

Babylonian Talmud. Many Masonic traditions are drawn from the Talmud; and it contains a more comprehensive description of Solomon's Temple than can be found anywhere else.

TASTING. One of the five human senses. The sense by which we perceive or distinguish savors; or the perception of outward objects through the instrumentality of the tongue or the organs of taste. This sense is fully explained in the
Fellow-Craft's degree.

used in a two Persian officeis who bore a peculiar enmity to the Jews, and endeavored to interrupt the building of the second temple, which had been commenced by Zerubbabel. Reports of their interference having been made to Darius, the Persian king, that monarch issued a decree commanding the above-mentioned officers not only to desist from interrupting that labor, but also to render such assistance in the work as he should, from tim* to time, prescribe. Vide Ezra v., 3.
Masonic degree.

TATNAI AND SHETHAR-BOZNAI. Words
They
are the

names

of

370

TEA.

TEACHINGS, SYMBOLIC, OF THE DEGREES. Freemasonry teaches by symbols and symbolical ceremonies, and hence each degree, through these agencies, illustrates and inculcates some particular virtue, or commemorates some important event. The following is an analytical summary of the ideas, which the several degrees of the Order seek to enforce; thus in Ancient Craft Masonry:
1. Dependence; the weak aud helpless condition of the human family on their entrance into the world; the ignorance and darkness that surround man until the moral r.nd intellectual light of reason and revelation breaks in upon his mind;

sake of harmony and order, be governed by well regulated laws. 6. The completion and dedication

obedience, secrecy and humility, aud the practice of charity.
2. The struggle for after the release of the

which man must erect in his soul that "house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens; an acknowl'"

of the temple; the spiritual edifice

knowledge mind from the bondage of darkness and ignorance; its attainment, and the reward due to industry and perseverance.
3. Progress in the great duties of aiding humanity from the thraldom of vice and error; man's regeneration; higher sphere of happiness; integrity; mortality of the body, and the immortality of the soul.

edgement that the labors of man s earthly toil are over, and he is received into the abode of the just

and
7.

perfect.

4. Order, regularity, and a proper system of discrimination between the worthy and the unworthy; the just reward to the industrious and

The revelation of the divine law; an exhibition of the toils and vicissitudes of man's pilgrimage through life; a realization of the sublime truths promised, when the vails which obscure the mental vision are drawn aside, and man, raised and regenerated, shall enjoy the blessings of peace and joy in the heavenly temple.
8.

The mysteries

revealed;

man

faithful.

the Alpha the last.

rewarded according to his work; and Omega the first and

5. Virtue and talent the only 9. Skill and ingenuity appreciated; proper distinctions of position. All justice and mercy accorded to the associations of men must, for the faithful and worthy.

In the Ancient and Accepted Scottish rite, which is now widely diffused throughout the world, the principles and teachings are: 1. Development of Freemasonry; 6. Necessity of knowing the founinstructions regarding its laws and tain of so many precious discoveries, uses. and the danger of a vain curiosity.
Labor, wisdom, and virtue, the 7. Equity, in judging both th* means of securing enduring actions of others and our own. happiness. 8. A spirit of order and analysis. 3. Homage rendeied to inflexible 9. Zeal and talent; gocd example; honor which esteemed duty more generous efforts to advance the than life. cause of truth and destroy error. 4. Discretion of the watch2.

true

wise;

fulness of the
5.

good workman.

10.

Extinctic n of wicked passions
inclinations.

of the mind and heart; knowledge of sublime truths, and the tribute of respect due to the viituous.

Perfection

and perverse
11.

Reformation of manners, and

the dissemination of true and useful

knowledge.

TEM.
12 Persevering courage. Tribute to the memory of some of the first instructors of men.
13.

14. Adoration of the tect of the Universe. 15.

Grand Archito the libera-

23. Oversight of the conservators of Freemasonry. 24. Preservation of the doctrineb of the Order.

25.

Emulation

\*

hich creates useto

The honor due

ful plans.
26.

tors of their country.
16.

Esteem and rewards due

Joyfulness inspired by the genius. heroism of the Knight-liberators of 27. Superiority and independence the East. given by talents and virtue. 17. Advantages promised by Free28. Truth harmonized and unvailed with respect to all things masonry. of 18. The over which concern the happiness of

triumph

light

darkness.
19. Pontificate

man.
29.

of

the universal

A

degree consecrated to Anof Free-

and regenerated

religion.

cient Scotch Masonry.
30.

20. On the duties of the Masters of Masonic Lodges. 21.

The purpose and aim
in all its degrees.

masonry

31. The exalted justice of the The dangers of selfish ambiand the necessity of sincere Order. 32. Military government of the repentance therefor.
tion,

22. Ancient chivalry propagative of generous sentiments. Devotion to the Order.

Order.
33.
rite.

Administration of the Supreme
' '

Ne plus

uliru.

"

TEMPLARISM, SCOTTISH. This is a form of the KnightTemplar system which does not recognize the three symbolical degrees as its foundation, and, consequently, does not its members to be Freemasons. It is constituted in two divisions: 1. Novice and Esquire; 2. Knight Templar. The latter is composed of three degrees: 1. Knights of

require

2. Knights Commanders, elected from the Knights; Knights Grand Crosses, nominated by the Grand Master. The Grand Conclave assembles four times a year, and the

Priories;
3.

Officers are elected at the March session. They conGrand Master, Past Grand Masters, Grand Seneschal, Preceptor and Grand Prior of Scotland, Grand Constable and Mareschal, Grand Admiral, Grand Almoner, Grand Chancellor, Grand Treasurer, Grand Secretary, Grand Prelate, Grand Provost, Grand Beaucennifer, or Standard Bearer, Grand Bearer of the Vexillum Belli, Grand Chamberlain, Grand Steward, and two Grand Aids-de-Camp. With the exception of some slight resemblance to our Templar system,
sist of
"

Grand

it

has no Masonic character whatever, classed as a Masonic society.

and can scarcely be

TEMPLE. An edifice erected for religious purposes. As the grand symbols of Freemasonry are a temple and its ornaments, and to construct temples was the business of the original Masons, some remarks upon these structures cannot

372

TEM.

but be instructive. The word temple is derived from the Latin Templum, and this word templum seems to have been derived from the old Latin verb, Templari, to contemplate. The ancient augurs undoubtedly applied the name templa to those parts of the heavens which were marked out for observation of the flight of birds. Temples, originally, were all

open; and hence most likely came

their name. These structures are among the most ancient monuments. They were the first built, and the most noticeable of public edifices. As soon as a nation had acquired any degree of civilization the people consecrated particular spots to the worship of In the earliest instances they contented themtheir duties. selves with erecting altars of earth or ashes in the open air, and sometimes resorted, for the purposes of worship, to the

At length they acquired the solitary woods. practice of building cells or chapels within the enclosure of which they placed the image of their divinities, and assembled to ofl'er up their supplications, thanksgivings, and sacrifices. These were chiefly formed like their own dwellings. The Troglodytes adored their gods in grottoes; the people who lived in cabins, erected temples like cabins in shape. Clemens, Alexandrinus, and Eusebius refer the origin oi temples to sepulchers; and this notion has been illustrated and confirmed from a variety of testimonies.* At the time when the Greeks suspassed all other people in the arts
depths of
introduced among them from Phoenicia, Syria, and Egypt, they devoted much time, care and expense to the building of temples. No country has surpassed, or perhaps equaled, them in this respect; the Romans alone successfully rivaled them, and they took the Greek structures for models. According to Vitruvius, the situations of the temples were regulated chiefly by the nature and characteristics of the Thus the temples of Jupiter, Juno, and various divinities. Minerva, who were considered by the inhabitants of many cities as their protecting deities, were erected on spots sufficiently elevated to enable them to overlook the whole town, or, at least the principal part of it. Minerva, the tutelary deity of Athens, had her seat on the Acropolis. In like manner the temple of Solomon was built on Mount Moriah.

BAR. A gate between Fleet street and the Strand, London. This handsome piece of Masonry, demonstrating the architectural skill of the Craft, was erected after the great fire, under the Grand Mastership of Sir Christopher Wren.
'

TEMPLE

It is

work below, and
Vide
' '

composed of Portland stcne, of rustic of the Corinthian order. Human Spirits, " by Farmer,
p. 373.

Treatise

on the Worship of

TEM.

373

From the court of the women fifteen steps of the Gentiles. led to the court of the temple, which was enclosed by a colonnade, and divided by trellis-work, into the court of Jewish men and the court of the priests. In the middle of this enclosure stood the temple, of white marble, richly gilt, 100 cubits long and wide, and 60 cubits high, with a porch 100 cubits wide, and three galleries, like the first temple, which it resembled in the interior, except that the most holy place was empty, and the height of Herod's Temple was double the height of Solomon's. The fame of this magnificent temple, which was destroyed by the Romans, and its religious significance with Jews and Christians, render it more interesting to us than any other building of antiquity. Each of these temples holds an important place in the symbolism and instructions of Freemasonry, and furnishes the traditions for a large number of degrees.

TEMPLE OF HEEOD THE GREAT. This temple far exceeded both of its predecessors in magnificence and perIt was surrounded with four courts, rising above fection. each other like terraces. The lower court was 500 cubits square, on three sides surrounded by a double, and on the " fourth by a triple row of columns, and was called the Court of the Gentiles," because individuals of all nations were admitted into it indiscriminately. A high wall separated the court of the women, 135 cubits square, in which the Jewish females assembled to perform their devotions, from the court

TEMPLE OF SOLOMON. When

Solomon had matured

his design of a temple to bo consecrated to the Most High, he found it impossible to carry that design into execution The Hebrew nation, constantly withoiat foreign assistance. struggling for its material existence, and just rising to the condition of a civilized people, had made little proficiency in science and architecture, and especially the ornamental arts. There were few artificers and no architects in Judea. Solomon, consequently, applied to Hiram, King of Tyre, for assistance, and that monarch sent him a company of Tyrian architects, under the superintendence of Hiram Abif, by whom the temple was erected. It was an oblong stone building, 150 feet in length, and 105 in width. On three sides were corridors, rising above each other to the height of three stories, and containing rooms, in which were preserved the holy utensils aiid treasures. The fourth, or front side, was open, and was ornamented with a portico ten cubits in width, supported by two brazen pillars Jachin and Boaz. The interior was divided into the most holy place, or oracle, 20 cubits long, which contained the aik of the covenant, and was separated by a curtain, or vail, from the sanctuary or holy plaoo, in

374

TEM

TES.

which were the golden candlestick, the table of the s2iew and the altar of incense. The" walls of both apartments, and the roof and ceiling of the most holy place, were overlaid with wood-work, skilfully carved. None but the High-Priest was permitted to enter the latter, and only the The priests, devoted to the temple service, the former. temple was surrounded by an inner court, which contained the altar of burnt offering, the brazen sea and lavers, and such instruments and utensils as were used in the sacrifices, which, as well as the prayers, were offered here. Colonnades, with brazen gates, separated this court of the priests from the outer court, which was likewise surrounded by a wall. This celebrated temple certainly reflected honor on the builders of that age. It was begun on the 2d day of the month Zif, corresponding with the 21st of April, in the year of the world 2992, or 1012 years before the Christian era, and was completed in little more than seven years, on the 8th day of the month Bui, or the 23d of October, in the year 2999, during which period no sound of axe, hammer, or other metallic tool, was heard, everything having been cut and prepared in the quarries or on Mount Lebanon, and brought, properly carved, marked and numbered, to Jerusalem, where they were fitted in by means of wooden mauls. So of Freemasonry, it has always been the boast that its members perfect the work of edification by quiet and orderly methods, " without the hammer of contention, the axe of division, or any tool of mischief." The excellency of the Craft in the days of our Grand Master Solomon was so great, that, although the materials were prepared so far off, when they were put together at Jerusalem, each piece fitted with such exactness that it appeared more like the work of the Great Architect of the Universe than of human hands. The temple retained its pristine splendor but thirty-three years, when it was plundered by Shishak, King of Egypt. After this period it underwent sundry profanations and pillages, and was at length utterly destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, A. M. 3416, B. c. 588, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem carried as captives to Babylon.
bread,

TEMPLE OF ZERTJBBABEL.

This edifice was built on

the site of the first temple, under the direction of ZerubIt was considerably larger than the babel, B. c. 536-15. former one, but very inferior to it in beauty and splendor.

TESSELATED PAVEMENT. The word tesselated is
rived

de-

from the word tessela, diminutive of tessera. The pavement which is thus designated is of rich Mosaic work, made of curious square marbles, bricks or tiles, in shape and

B I bd 5

I
3 *

O

H

TET TEU.

377

Various ancient specimens of disposition resembling dice. these have been, from time to time, exhumed in Italy, and other countries of Europe. The tesselated pavement, in the symbolism of Freemasonry, is significant of the varied
experiences and vicissitudes of

human

life.

TETEACTYS. A Greek word
It

tetraktus meaning four. was a Pythagorean symbol represented by a delta formed

by points, so arranged that each of the three sides consisted of four. The one point, or Monad, represented God; the two points, or duad, matter; the / three, the worlds which were formed by the action of the one, or Monad, upon the duad; and the four points referred to the divine reason and those sciences which On this symbol the initiate into are the revelations of it.* the Pythagorean mysteries was sworn. According to Jamblichus, the oath was as follows:
i

"Ou ma Pagan

ametere genee, paradonta tetraktun, aeenaou phuseos rizomd* V echousan."

"On

the sacred tetraktus, eternal fountain of Nature, I swear to thee."

is nearly related to the inaton; probably derived from it.

This word

Hebrew Tetragram-

TEUTONIC ORDER. A religious order of knights, founded
by Frederick, Duke of Suabia, during a crusade in the Holy Land, at the time of the siege of Acre, and intended to be confined to Germans of noble rank; hence its name. The rule of the order was similar to that of the Templars. The original object of the association was to defend the Christian religion against the infidels, and to take care of the sick in the Holy Land. As the order was dedicated to the " Brethren Virgin Mary, the knights called themselves also of the German house ox bur Lady of Jerusalem." The dress of the members was black, with a white cloak, upon which was worn a black cross with a silver edging. The Grand Master lived first at Jerusalem, but afterward, when the Holy Laud fell again under the power of the Turks, at Venice, and, from 1297, at Marburg. The order was abolished by Napoleon, April 24th, 1809. The Teutonic cross forms a part of the decorations of the 27th degree of the
in 1190,

Ancient Scotch
*

rite.

The sum of all the principles of Pythagoras is this: "The Monad ia From the Monad came the indeterminate the principle of all things. Duad, as matter subjected to the cause of Monad; from the Monad and the indeterminate Duad, numbers ;from numbers, points; from points, lines; from lines, superficies; from superficies, solids; from these solid bodies, whose elements are four Fire, Water, Air, and Earthof all which transmuted, and totally changed, the WORLD consists."
3-2

378

THE.

VIRTUES. Faith, Hope and Charity are thus named, and are said to constitute the chief rounds of the Masonic ladder, by the aid of which the good Mason expects at last to ascend to the perfect Lodge above. These virtues are enforced in various parts of the rituals, and enlarged upon in the first lecture of Craft Masonry. The great duties of man to God, his neighbor and himself, are the precepts most strongly enforced; hence the points to direct the steps of the aspirant to higher honors are Faith, Hope and
Charity.

THEOLOGICAL

THEOPHILANTHROPISTS. Lovers of God and man from Theos, God; philos, friend; and anthropos, man. This was
religious society formed at Paris The object of its founders was to revive public religious ceremonies, which had altogether ceased during the reign of terror. The temples were

the

title

assumed by a

during the French He volution.

appropriately fitted up, and adorned with moral and religious inscriptions, an ancient altar, with a basket containing flowers, as an offering to the Supreme Being; a pulpit, and allegorica! paintings, and banners with inscriptions and emblematic devices. The assemblies were held weekly, on Sunday; the exercises consisted of prayer, moral discourses, and singing. The liturgy of the Theophilanthropists was simple and touchThe festivals of nature, love of country, of conjugal ing. The society served a fidelity, were scrupulously observed. very useful purpose in that remarkable period of French

history, but Christianity.

soon disappeared on the reestablishment of

THEOSOPHISTS. Those who inquire into the science of divine things. Many eminent Freemasons belonged to this class during the last century. The speculations of the Theosophists, however, were generally of a mystical character. Several Masonic systems were theosophical, as, for example, the rites of Swede nborg, St Martin, Zinnendorff, etc.

THEURGY. The name
part of magic which

which the ancients gave to that
call white magic,

we

or the white

art.

formed from Theos, God, and ergon, work, as denoting the art of doing divine things, or things which God alone can do. It is the power of working extraordinary things, by invoking the names of God, the saints, angels, etc. Accordingly, those who have written of magic in general divide it into three parts: theurgy, which operates by divine or celestial means; natural magic, performed by the powers of nature; and necromancy, which proceeds by invoking demons. Theurgy, probably, originated with the Chaldeans
is

The word

THR- TRA.

379

or Persians, among whom the magi chiefly occupied themselves with it. The Egyptians also pretended to great proficiency in the art. The former considered Zoroaster its author; the latter, Hermes Trismegistus. It occupied largely the attention of the Cabalists, and, in the last century, entered into the speculations of many distinguished Freemasons.

THREE GLOBES,
Lodge

RITE OF THE GRAND LODGE

OF.

The

of Three Globes was founded at Berlin, September On the 24th of June, 1744, it assumed the title 23d, 1740. of Grand Royal Mother Lodge of the Three Globes; and on the 5th of July, 1772, it took the name of Grand National Mother Lodge of the Prussian States. At first it confined its work to the three symbolical degrees, but afterward added the French, or modern rite. The rite of the Three

Globes

is

practiced by nearly two hundred Lodges.

THRESHING-FLOOR. Oman, the Jebusite, owned a threshing-floor on Mount Moriah, which David purchased for six hundred shekels of gold. He erected there an altar, and consecrated it to the service of God, by sacrifices and The Temple of Solomon was afterward built prayers.
upon
it.

TILER. An officer of the Lodge, whose duty is to guard and keep the doors of the Lodge. The name is derived from operative Masonry. A Tiler is one who covers the roof of a building with tiles. So the guardian or sentinel of a Lodge is said to tile or cover the Lodge from all inspection or intrusion on the part of the uninitiated.

TRANSIENT BRETHREN. No stranger should be admitted to the Lodge until he has proved himself a Freemason. When he has done this he should be received with
fraternal courtesy. traveling brother, away friends, naturally longs for companionship, and expects to find it around the altars of Freemasonry. Hospitality to strangers is, always and everywhere, a sacred The brother from duty, but it is doubly so to Freemasons.
cordiality from his

and

A

home and

abroad should be greeted with such warmth and brotherly kindness and interest as will make him feel at home, and that he is surrounded with friends, upon whose sympathy he can rely. Lodges are sometimes too remiss in regard to this duty, and many a warm-hearted brother, when visiting a strange Lodge, has been chilled and grieved by the iciness
of his reception.

TRAVELING FREEMASONS. As early as the lime of Solomon the Tyrian and Sidonian builders traveled to foreign

380

TEA.
and and and

countries, to exercise their calling. They visited Judea built the temple at Jerusalem. They went to Rome, furnished the idea and form of the Colleges of Artists

Builders, whose history extended through the whole period These Colleges were succeeded by of the Roman empire. All of these the Building Corporations of the middle ages. societies seem to be identical, possessed the same characteristics, especially the practice of traveling from place to place, to erect public buildings, as their services might be needed. They traveled through all the countries of Europe; the numerous Gothic churches, monasteries, and cathedrals which are there found are the monuments of their skill. Protected by the charters of the clerical and secular powers, and united in one great society for the construction of each great building, as the cathedrals, etc., these societies erected those gigantic monuments many of them larger than the temple of Solomon generally termed Gothic, find these traveling which excite our amazement. societies everywhere. They were composed of members from Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, France, England, Scotland, and other countries, and united under very similar constitutions; for instance, at the erection of the convent of Batalha, in Portugal, about A. D. 1400; of the minster of Strasburg, 1015 to 1439; that of Cologne, 950 and 1211 to 1365; of the cathedral of Meissen, in the tenth century; of the cathedral of Milan, the convent of Monte Cassino, and of the most remarkable buildings of the British isles. That these societies of traveling builders at last gave rise to one, not occupied with actual building that is to say specula! Lve Masonry, is demonstrated beyond a doubt. Among their symbols were the square, the plumb, the compasses, which are among the most important emblems of modern Freemasonry. They held a convention at Ratisbon in 1459, where it was resolved to constitute a Grand Lodge at Strasburg, of which the architect of that cathedral, for the time have a being, should be, ex-officio, the Grand Master. copy of the constitutions, charges, rules, etc., of this Fraternity in Latin, and some of them are almost, verbatim et literatim, the same as many of our own which we designate

We

We

"the Ancient Charges."

intelligent Freemason who visited Cologne, in 1847, thus writes: "During the interval

An

between 1248 and 1323, there were not only fifty Masters, and three times as many Fellow-Crafts, daily employed, but a large number of Entered Apprentices from all parts of Christendom, who had come to study the operative and speculative branches of the art, and who carried away with them the principles which directed the erection c f almost

^-

TJDELITAS MQRIBIrS UNICA

TRESTLE BOARD OP THE 18TH CENTUKt.

TRE.

3S3

every Gothic monument of the age. After the secession of the Masons from the church, the works were suspended, leaving only the choir, with its side aisle, completed." This structure, commenced by the traveling Masons six centuries ago, has, within a few years, been finished after the original Another writer,* remarking on the same class of plans. builders, says: "The architects of all the sacred edifices of the Latin church, whenever such arose North, South, East, and West thus derived their science from the same central school; obeyed in their designs the same hierarchy; were directed in their constructions by the same principles of propriety and taste; kept up with each other, in the most distant parts, to which they might be sent, the most constant

correspondence; and rendered every minute improvement the property of the whole body, and a new conquest of the art. The result of this unanimity was that, at each successive period of the monastic dynasty, on whatever point a new monastry or church might be erected, it resembled all those raised at the same period in every other place, however distant from it, as if both had been built in the same place
artist.- For instance, we find, at particular epochs, churches as far distant from each other as the north of Scotland and the south of Italy to be minutely similar in all the essential characteristics.''

by the same

TRESTLE-BOARD. "As

the operative

Mason

erects his

temporal building in accordance with the designs laid down upon the Trestle-Board by the master-workman, so should we, both operative and speculative, endeavor to erect our spiritual building in accordance with the designs laid down by the Supreme Architect." What is here masonically
" designated the Trestle- Board" artists, pcets, and philosophers denominate the Ideal. All things thai exist, save God, are created by the ideal, or are reflections of it. The visible creation is God's ideal, wrought out in material forms; and
all

the works of man are copies of ideal types which he discovers traced on the Trestle-Board of his soul. Every nation exists according to an ideal which is reflected in its life, its institutions, and manners; and the life of man, as an individual, is high or low, as his ideals of life are high or low; or, in other words, it is fashioned after the designs that are traced on the moral Trestle-Board. Societies, also, are constructed from the ideal. If a society have no ideal, it can have no influence, and can exist but for a brief period, because it has no ability to arouse the enthusiasm, or command the respect and allegiance of men. The Masonic
'

Hope "History

of Architecture," p. 239.

384

TRI.

society has been able to adapt its-elf to various and changing circumstances of mankind, with facility, because its ideals of society, of benevolence and virtue, rose higher, and shone It is a part of its mission brighter, as the ages rolled away. to keep the minds of its adepts fixed intently upon the designs pictured upon the Trestle-Board, or, to speak more

and the world

correctly, to establish a perpetual of glorious ideals.

communion between man

TEIAD.
masonry.
antiquity.

Three- in one.

An

important symbol in Free-

The number three was thought holy in the earliest This Numbers, xix. 12, furnishes an instance.

its reason in the nature of the number. It represents to us unity and opposition, the principle and its development or opposition, and the connecting unity synthesis. It is the first uneven number in which the first even one is found herein lie its peculiar signification and perfection. Even in antiquity it could not escape attention, that
:

must have

number is to be found wherever variety is developed. Hence we have beginning, middle, end, represented in the heavenly rise, point of culmination and setting; morning, noon, evening, and evening, midnight, morning; and in
this

general, in the great divisions of time, the past, the present, and the future. In space, also, this number three occurs, as in above, midst, and below; right midst, and left; and in general, in the dimensions of space, as length, breadth, and thickness, or depth. To the eye, the number is represented in the regular figure of the triangle, which has been applied to numberless symbolical representations; the ear perceives it most perfectly in the harmonic triad. As the triple is also the basis of symmetry, that three-figured form

found in architecture, and in simple utensils, without any particular reference to symbolical or other significations. Of this kind are the triglyphs in architecture, the tripod, trident, the three thunderbolts of Jupiter, the ancient threestringed-lyre, though the number has in these objects, as well as in the three-headed Cerberus, other more symbolical relations. The Triad, represented by the delta, is a significant emblem in a large number of Masonic degrees.
is

TKINOSOPHISTS, LODGE
if

or.

A

body

of

Masons

once,

not at present, very popular and influential in Paris. It was at one time the most intelligent society of Freemasons <iver known. It adhered to the ancient Landmarks, but gave clearer and more satisfactory interpretations of the symbols of Freemasonry than are afforded in the symbolical Lodges It practiced five degrees as follows: 1. Apprentice; 2. Fel low-Craft; 3. Master; 4. Rose Croix, reformed rectifie

TEL

385

We have elsewhere given 5. Grand Elect Knight K.'. S.'. an account of the Rose Croix degree as it is practiced in this Lodge. The following extracts from the preliminary instructions to a candidate for initiation into the third degree will be found interesting, and will serve to illustrate the way in

which these Trinosophical Masons explain the ceremonies and symbols of Freemasonry. " Man, cast, as it were, by accident, upon the earth, feeling that he is born free, and yet seeing himself a slave, seeking the good, and yet often finding the bad, and not being able to attribute to the same author both good and evil, imagined that there were two principles distinct and separate, eternally antagonistic to
It is thus that the ancient Persians recognized Orornazdes, the good principle, and Arimanius, the principle of evil; the Jews, Jehovah and the serpent, and the Egyptians Osiris and Typhon. Masons who form an elect family in the social order, who study and seek the true and the good, also have their traditions and allegories. They have the history of the death and resurrection of H.'. A.'., the perfect workman, assassinated by three wicked fellows, notwithstanding the efforts of the nine good F.' C's.'. to save him. This
.

each other.

legend, it is true, has been mutilated, and made insignificant and often ridiculous by ignorant expounders of the Masonic mysteries; but all enlightened Masters know that this Perfect Master is the genius of beneficence and truth both in the physical and moral order. In the physical order he is the sun, that glorious luminary which gives life to all nature, and which makes his revolution in the regular space of twelve months, which become, so to speak, his eternal and These twelve months form the inseparable companions. The first nine spring, the summer, the autumn, and winter. of these give the flowers, the fruits, warmth and light. They are the nine good F.'. C's.'. who love and wish to preserve their master. The three last are the authors of the rains, the It may be said that they kill nature frosts, and darkness. and the sun himself. They are the three bad F.'. C's.'. In the moral and spiritual order, H.* M.' is the Eternal Reason by which all things are weighed, governed, and preserved. He is also Knowledge, Justice, and Truth, by which the Eternal Reason is manifested. The <jood F.'. C's.'. are the virtues that honor and bless humanity; the wicked F.' C's*' are the vices which degrade and kill it."
.

.

.

given, in the middle ages, to the three of the seven liberal arts: grammar, rhetoric, and The other four, consisting of arithmetic, music, logic. geometry, and astronomy, were called the quadriuwm.
first

TRIYTUM. The name

386

TRO TRU.

TROWEL AND SWORD. Emblems in the degree of Knights of the East. They are borrowed evidently from a religious and mechanical society, called the Brethren of the Bridge, which was founded at an early period in France, when a state of anarchy existed, and there was little security for travelers, particularly in passing rivers, on which they were subject to the rapacity of banditti. The object of this society was to put a stop to these outrages by forming fraternities for the purpose of building bridges and establishing ferries and caravansaries on their banks. Always prepared for an attack from the marauders, they carried a sword in one hand and a trowel or hammer in the other. Ramsay says that they adopted this custom in imitation of the Jews at the building of the second temple; and he endeavors to establish some connection between them and the Knights of the Temple, and of St. John of Jerusalem.

TROWEL, OBDEB OF. A Berlin periodical of April, 1791, gives the following account of the formation of this society: "Vasari, in his 'Life of the Painters,' makes mention of a society of artists, called the 'Brotherhood of the Trowel,' which arose as follows. In the course of the fifteenth century several artists were supping one night in a garden at Florence. By accident their table was placed near a heap of lime, in which a trowel was sticking. One of the guests seized the trowel, and threw, sportively, some lime into the mouth of another guest, exclaiming, at the same time The trowel! the trowel!' This circumstance led to the establishment of a fraternity which chose a trowel for its emblem, and St. Andrew for its patron Saint." It is possible, as Clavel conjectures, that this society might have borne some relationship to the Traveling Masons.
' :

TRUE MASONS, ORDER OF. Baileau, a Masonic mystic, founded, 1778, a Lodge of Hermetic Masonry at Montpelier, and gave it this name. It practiced six degrees: 1. The True Mason; 2. The True Mason in the Right Way; 3. Knight of the Golden Key; 4. Knight of the Rainbow; 5. Knight oi the Argonauts; 6. Knight of the Golden Fleece.
TRUE PATRIOTS, SOCIETY OF. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, patriota signified a native, in contradistinction to peregrinus, a foreigner who did not enjoy the rights of citizenAs the native, i. e., citizen, was considered to be ship. attached by his interests to the commonwealth, the word gradually received the meaning of a citizen who loves his Here, however, it has a wider sense still the country.

TKU TWE.

387

True Patriots style themselves the friends of mankind. This brotherhood appeared at Frankfort in the year 1787. Its object was to unite all classes of men together, " through the agency of the learned the society of Freemasons, and other closely-allied fraternities, for the promotion of their mutual interests." The order conferred several degrees, and appears to have had some connection with the Order of Jerusalem, or the Order of Freemasonry, aprioin.
of the great tenets of a Freemason's profoundation of all Masonic virtues; it is one of our grand principles; for to be good men and true is a part of the first lesson we are taught; and at the commencement of our freedom we are exhorted to be fervent and zealous in the pursuit of truth and goodness. It is not sufficient that we walk in the light, unless we do so in the
fession. It is the

TRUTH. One

All hypocrisy and deceit must be banished from Sincerity and plain dealing complete the harmony of a Lodge, and render us acceptable in the sight of him unto whom all hearts are open, all desires known, and from whom no secrets are hid. There is a charm in truth, which draws and attracts the mind continually toward it. The more we discover, the more we desire; and the

truth also.

among

us.

is wisdom, virtue, and happiness. This is an founded on a rock, which malice cannot shake or time destroy. In the ancient mythology of Rome, Truth was called the mother of Virtue, and was depicted with white and flowing garments. Her looks were cheerful and She was the protectress pleasant, though modest and serene. of honor and honesty, and the light and joy of human society.

great reward
edifice

are in Masonry," say the ancient lectures, " twelve original points which form the basis of the system, and comprehend the whole ceremony of initiation. Without the existence of these points, no man ever was, or can be, legally and essentially received into the Order. Every person who is made a Mason must go through all these twelve forms and ceremonies, not only in the first degree, but in every subsequent one." Esteeming these points of the highest importance in the ceremonies of the Order, our ancient brethren exercised

TWELVE GRAND POINTS OF MASONRY.

"There

great ingenuity in giving them symbolical explanations, and refer the twelve parts of the ceremony of initiation to the twelve tribes of Israel. Notwithstanding the value and importance our ancient brethren deemed these points to possess, the Grand Lodge of England thought proper, at the union in 1813, to strike them from its rituals, and " substitute three new " points. Neither of these systems

38

TWE.

have ever been practiced in this country; the "four perfect The points" constitute an adequate substitute for either. symbolism embraced in the explanation of the "Twelve " Grand Points may not be uninteresting or unacceptable to the reader:
a thriftless and indolent tribe, they 1. The opening of the Lodge was symbolized by the tribe of Reuben, required a leader to advance them because Keuben.was the first-born to an equal elevation with the other
of his father Jacob, who called him "the beginning of his strength," the door, as it were, by which the children of Israel entered the world.
tribes.
7. The advancing to the altar was symbolized by the tribe of Dan, that the candidate might be taught by appropriately contrast to advance in the way of

He

was,

adopted

therefore, as the emblem
is

ceremony which

of that essentially the

truth and holiness as rapidly as this
tribe

was among the tribe of Dan that beginning of every initiation. 2. The preparation of the candi- the serpent was first set up for date was symbolized by the tribe of adoration.
8. The obligation referred to the Simeon, because Simeon prepared the instruments for the slaughter of tribe of Gad, in allusion to the the Shecliemites, which excited the solemn vow which was made by

advanced to idolatry,

for it

and, therefore, to perpetuate abhorof his cruelty, candidates for initiation were deprived of all weapons, both offensive and defensive.

heavy displeasure of his parent; Jephthah, Judge of
of that tribe.

Israel,

who was

rence

3. The report of the Senior Deacon referred to the tribe of Levi, in commemoration of the signal or report which Levi was supposed to have given to his brother Simeon when they assailed the men of Shechem at a time when they were incapable of defending themselves, and put them all to the sword, because of the affront which Dimth, their sister, had received from Shechem, the son of Hamor. 4. The entrance of the candidate into the Lodge was symbolized by the tribe of Judah, because they yere the first to cross the Jordan and enter the promised land, coming from the darkness and servitude, as it were, of the wilderness by many

9. The intrusting of the candidate with the mysteries was symbolized by the tribe of Asher, because he was then presented with the rich

fruits

of Masonic knowledge, as Asher was said to be the inheritor of fatness and royal dainties.

10. The investure of the lambskin, by which the candidate is declared free, referred to the tribe of Naphtali, which was invested by Moses

with a peculiar freedom, when he said, "O, Naphtali, satisfied with favor and full with the blessing of the Lord, possess thou the West and the South."
11. The ceremony of the northea&t corner of the Lodge referred to Joseph, because as this ceremony reminds us of the most superficial part of Masonry, so the two half tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, of which the tribe of Joseph was

dangerous and wearisome journeys composed, were accounted to be and liberty of Canaan. more superficial than the rest, as 5. The prayer was symbolized by they were the descendants of the because the blessing and grandsons only of Jacob. Zebulun, of Jacob were given tc Zebu12. The closing of the Lodge was Krayer preference to his brother in, in symbolized by the tribe of Benjamin, Issachar. who was the youngest of the sons
into the light
6.

The circumambulation

referred

of Jacob,

and thus closed his Ikthor's

to the tribe ot Issachar, because, as

strength.

TTP UNL
of Osiris.

389

TYPHON. In the Egyptian mythology, a deity, the brother He was considered the author of all the evil in

He aspired to the sovereignty of Egypt, possessed by his brother Osiris. His designs were, for a long time, frustrated by Isis, the wife of Osiris; but the latter, while on his return from a tour round the world, was killed by Typhon, who cut his body to pieces, and concealed it. The ceremonies in the Egyptian mysteries were symbolical
the world.

representations of the various events attending the struggles between Typhon evil, and Osiris goodness; their alternate victories and defeats ; the destruction of Osiris, and the search for and restoration of his body; the final annihilation of Typhon evil, and the spread of peace, happiness and virtue over all the world. Typhon is the analogue of the three evil principles personified in the Master's degree. Vide articles "Isis," and "Osiris."

u.

UNANIMOUSLY. In order to secure and perpetuate the peace and harmony of the Craft, it has long been the settled policy of the Masonic Fraternity to receive no person to membership, only by the consent of all the brethren who may be present at the time the ballot is taken. Among the regulations of the Grand Lodge of England we find the " No man can be entered following in regard to this subject: a brother in any particular Lodge, or admitted a member thereof, without the unanimous consent of all the members of the Lodge then present, when the candidate is proposed, and when their consent is formally asked by the Master. They are to give their consent in -their own prudent way, either virtually or in form, but with unanimity. Nor is this inherent privilege subject to a dispensation ; because the
members
of a particular

Lodge

are the best judges of

it;

and because, if a turbulent member should be imposed upon them, it might spoil their harmony, or hinder the freedom of their communications, or even break up and. disperse the Lodges, which ought to be avoided by all true and faithful brothers."

The introduction to all the decrees and official documents of the Supreme Council of the 33d degree of the Ancient and Accepted rite. It is the Latin for the Engli sh phrase " .To the Glory of the Grand Architect of the Universe."
:

AD GLORIAM INGENTIS.

UNIVERSI TERRARUM ORBIS ARCHITECTONIb

33

390

UPRr VA1

UPRIGHT. Every Freemason remembers the instructions
given him in the Lodge at the time of his reception, in " " God created man to be regard to the upright posture." i. e., to stand erect. This is the peculiar prerogative upright" of man. All the outward forms and features of the sentient world, whether human or brutal, are created by the nature, The disposition or spirit of each race and each individual. nature of beasts and reptiles is earthly. Prone to the earth, they move horizontally, with downward gaze, or crawl in the dust. To them the ideal world is closed. The glory of the heavens, the grandeur of nature, the beauty of flowers, the wonderful harmonies of sight and sound, which so inspire and elevate man, are unknown to them. Their gaze is downward, and their life is extinguished in the dust, Man, on the contrary, stands erect, and his eyes sweep through the immense regions of space which stretch above his head. His mind, endowed with a divine ernergy, reaches to the
star, and measures it, in weight and size, as accurately as one measures the apple that is held in the palm of the hand? The "upright posture" also has an important moral significance for the intelligent Mason. As it reminds him of his relationship to the celestial powers, and that he is endowed with some of the attributes of the Divinity, and with a life which will endure forever, he is admonished thereby, that he should live in a manner worthy of so illustrious an origin, and so glorious a destiny.

most distant

URIM AND THUMMIM. Hebrew
light

words, signifying
a kind of

and perfection or

truth.

They were

ornament

placed in the breast-plate of the High-Priest, by means of which he gave oracular answers to the people.* Critics and commentators are not agpeed as to what these attributes of the breast-plate were, or the mode in which the divine Avill was communicated to the High-Priest by means of them-. Some exegetical writers have given positive explanations of them, but they are not satisfactory. The breast-plate was

undoubtedly of Egyptian

origin.

V.
VAILS.
Attributes of the decorations and furniture of a
is

Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, which copy of the ancient Jewish Tabernacle.
*

intended to be a

The Tabernacle had

Thummim

shalt put in the breast-plate of judgment the Urim and tho and they shall be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth in before the Lord: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children at " Idrael upon his heart before the Lord continually. Exodus xxviii. 30.
;

"And thou

VAI

VIS.

391

colors adopted by rails of purple, scarlet blue and white Freemasoiiry; each one having its symbolical signification.

VAILS, MASTERS OF. In a Koyal Arch Chapter there are three who bear this title. Their duty is to guard the blue, purple and scarlet vails, and each one is armed with a sword,
officers

banner of a color corresponding to that of the which he is stationed. The Royal Arch Captain acts as Master of the white vail.
carries a
vail before

and

VENERABLE. The title of the Master in French Lodges, equivalent to Worshipful in English and American Lodges.

VENERABLE BROTHER. A title given
the

to each officer of

Grand Orient

of France.

in cathedrals and churches in former In Freemasonry, Verger is the name of an officer who discharges important duties in a Council of Knights of His office is analogous to that of the the Holy Sepulcher. Senior Deacon of a Master's Lodge.

VERGER. An official

times.

VISITATION. Masonic usage
Master and other
odically visit the
officers of

the

requires that the Grand Grand Lodge should peri-

Subordinate Lodges, to examine their books and work, and make a general inspection of their affairs. This formal visit is called a visitation. When such an event occurs, the Grand Officers, after being received with the usual honors, take charge of the Lodge. According to the English Constitutions, "the Grand Master has full authority to preside in any Lodge, and to order his Grand Officers to attend him; his Deputy is to be placed on his right hand, and the Master of the Lodge on his left hand. His Wardens are also to act as Wardens of that particular " The Deputy Grand Master Lodge during his presence." has full authority, unless the Grand Master or Pro-Grand Master be present, to preside, with the Master of the Lodge on his right hand. The Grand Wardens, if present, are to act as Wardens."

VISIT, RIGHT OF. While the right of a Mason to visit any Lodge, where he may happen to be, is generally conceded, various regulations, limiting this right, have been made at different times, and in divers jurisdictions, concerning the propriety and necessity of which intelligent Masons enter-

By the most ancient charges ordered, "That every Mason receive and cherish strange fellowes when they come over the countrie, and sett them ou worke, if they will worke, as the manner is; that is to .ay.
tain quite different opinions.
it is

392

VIS

VOY.

if the Mason have any mould-stone in his place, he shall give him a mould-stone, and sett him on worke; and if he have none, the Mason shall refresh him with money unto the

This regulation recognizes the right of a But, as early as 1GG3, it was ordered by a General Assembly held on the 27th of December of that year, "That no person hereafter, who shall be accepted a Freemason, shall be admitted into any Lodge or assembly, until he has brought a certificate of the time and place of his acceptation, from the Lodge that accepted him, unto the Master of that limit or division where such a Lodge is kept." In 1772, the Grand Lodge of England
next Lodge."
traveling brother as absolute.

renewed this statute, and some Grand Lodges in this country have adopted it. Of course, no stranger can be admitted to a Lodge without "due trial and examination," or unless he is vouched for by a known brother present. The Grand Lodge of England also has the following regulation, which has been adopted in many other jurisdictions: "A brother who is not a subscribing member to some Lodge shall not be permitted to visit any one Lodge in the town or place where he resides, more than once during his secession from the Craft." The object of the above rule is to exclude all drones from the hive of Masonry. Whoever partakes of the advantages of Freemasonry should contribute something to
its

support.

VISITOR.
of

A Freemason who presents himself to
is

a

Lodge

which he

not a member.

VIVAT. A word of acclamation, used in connection with the battery in the French rite.

VOUCH, VOUCHER, VOUCHING. To vouch is to bear witness, or give testimony, and a voucher accordingly is a witness. When a person applios for admission to the Masonic society, his application should bear the signatures of two brethren, one of whom is called the voucher, because he thus testifies that the petitioner possesses the required qualifications. So a stranger can visit a Lodge without trial or examination, if a brother present knows him to be a Mason and vouches for him.
name given, in some countries, to a part of VOYAGE. the trials and labors to which the neophyte is subjected. The symbolical pilgrimage was common to all the ancient mysteries, and has, to-day, in Freemasonry, the same significance as in the old rites. This voyage around the altar, from East to West, has a triple sense 1. Physical; 2. Social;

A

WAG.

39*

and. 3. Moral. In the first, it refers to the apparent coarse of the sui- and stars front East to West; in the second, it represents the progress of society through toil and suffering and darkness, from the savage to the civilized state, and still onward, from one degree of perfection to another; and, in the third, the advancement of man, as an individual, and his unceasing progress in virtue and intelligence.

w.
MASON. The operative Mason, in ancient times, received, as compensation for his labor, corn, wine and oil the products of the earth or whatever would contribute to his physical comfort and support. His labor being material, his wages were outward and material. The Free and Accepted Mason, on the other hand, performs a moral work, and hence his reward is interior and spiritual. The enlightened brother finds his reward in the grand and gratifying results of his studies, and in the joyful fruits of his Masonic deeds. He sees the glory of the Divinity permeating all worlds, and all parts of the universe reveal to his soul celestial meanings. All nature overflows with beauty, love, melody and song, and unspeakably rich are the If he delights he derives from communion with her spirit. be a child of fortune, and raised above the necessity of labor, he finds the purest pleasure in the practice of charity and the exercise of benevolence; for charity, like mercy, brings
its

WAGES OF A

own recompense.
"
It droppeth, as the gentle rain

from heaven,

the place beneath: it is twice bless'd; It blesseth him that gives, and him that takes."

Upon
If,

our ancient brethren, he is a laborer, his wages are ample and enduring. Thus, while the ignorant man toils on, drearily, cheered by no bright and living thoughts, his mind destitute of all ideas, and his heart moved by no glad inspiration, the Masonic laborer welcomes his toil with joy, because Freemasonry has taught him that labor is "
like
still

a divine vocation, Laborare est orare." He goes forth in the morning, and the world on which he looks, swimming in sunbeams, and glittering with dewey diamonds, is less bright and fair than the world that lays in his heart, and which science has illuminated with her everlasting light. The mountains, barren, rocky and storm-blackened, or crowned with sylvan splendors the valleys, flower-robed and ribboned with meandering streams; the rivers, hastening to the sea, and making music as they go; the trees, and
;

394

WAG

WOE.

rocks, and flowers ; all the activities of nature, and the great enterprises of man, speak with eloquence to his soul, and reveal to his enlightened spirit the glad secrets of Nature and of Nature's God. These noble, ample and enduring enjoyments are the wages of the true Mason.

WAGES OF THE WOKKMEN ON THE TEMPLE.
Masonic writers have wasted much time in useless and puerile conjectures in regard to the wages paid to the artists and artisans who were employed in the construction of
Solomon's temple. English writers place the sum at about $15,000,000, and Dr. A. G-. Mackey thinks that not far from $4,000,000,000 were expended for labor and material. A little reflection will show the unreasonableness of these structure like that of the temple could not estimates. All the monarchies of that age, have cost $4,000,000! together, could not have raised, by the severest system of And how could taxation, one-tenth part of $4,000,000,000. the Jewish people, a poor and feeble race of shepherds and rude agriculturists, raise such an enormous sum to expend on one public work ? The richest modern nation could not
!

A

do

it;

and

it

may be doubted whether
So
far

all

modern

nations,
this

united, could.

as

Freemasonry

is

concerned

subject

is of

no consequence whatever.
In the middle ages, -a beadle or staff-man, at the gate of a tower or palace, to take

WARDER.
account of

who kept guard

all persons who entered. An officer in a Commandery of Knights Templar; his position is in the West, and on the left of the second division, when formed in line, and is guard of the inner door of the asylum.

As Masonry, at its origin, and through many was occupied solely with physical labors, in which females do not participate, the instructions of ancient Masonry are only suited to the male sex; consequently women would not find themselves interested in our symBut there are Masonic rites which unite bolical Lodges. the wives, sisters, and daughters of Freemasons, who may The rite practiced by the desire it, to our venerable Order. Grand Orient of France, and the American Adoptive rite, or Order of the Eastern Star, are extremely interesting forms oi Masonic instruction, and adapted to the circumstance of tho Vide art. "Adoptive Masonry" female sex.
centuries,

WOMAN.

The highest duty of a Freemason expressed by th