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Mathematics: Paper – III LINEAR ALGEBRA AND VECTOR CALCULUS Part A: Linear Algebra Unit-I: (25 Hours)
(3 hrs/ week)
Vector spaces, General properties of vector spaces, Vector subspaces, Algebra of subspaces, linear combination of vectors. Linear span, linear sum of two subspaces, Linear independence and dependence of vectors, Basis of vector space, Finite dimensional vector spaces, Dimension of a vector space, Dimension of a subspace. Linear transformations, linear operators, Range and null space of linear transformation, Rank and nullity of linear transformations, Linear transformations as vectors, Product of linear transformations, Invertible linear transformation. Unit-II: (20 Hours)
The adjoint or transpose of a linear transformation, Sylvester’s law of nullity, characteristic values and characteristic vectors, Cayley- Hamilton theorem, Diagonalizable operators. Inner product spaces, Euclidean and unitary spaces, Norm or length of a vector, Schwartz inequality, Orthogonality, Orthonormal set, complete orthonormal set, Gram - Schmidt orthogonalisation process. Prescribed text book: Linear Algebra by J.N.Sharma and A.R.Vasista, Krishna Prakasham Mandir, Meerut250002. Reference Books: 1. Linear Algebra by Kenneth Hoffman and Ray Kunze, Pearson Education (low priced edition), New Delhi 2. Linear Algebra by Stephen H. Friedberg et al Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. 4th edition 2007 Part B : Multiple integrals and Vector Calculus Unit-III: (25 Hours)
Multiple integrals: Introduction, the concept of a plane, Curve, line integral- Sufficient condition for the existence of the integral. The area of a subset of R 2 , Calculation of double integrals, Jordan curve, Area, Change of the order of integration, Double integral as a limit, Change of variable in a double integration. Lengths of Curves, surface areas, Integral expression for the length of a curve, surfaces, surface areas.
Spiegel. 2. Wiley Eastern Ltd. Divergence. Prescribed text Book: Vector Analysis by Murray. Unit-IV: ( 20 Hours) Vector differentiation. Mathematical Analysis by S.K. Reference Books: 1. . Mallik and Savitha Arora. 4.6.C. and 7. S. K. Curl operators. Formulae involving these operators. Gradient. S. Chapters 3.Mittal. Continuity. Theorems of Gauss and Stokes. New Delhi.Text book of vector Analysis by Shanti Narayana and P. R. Vector integration. Space curves.Mathematics 2 of 10 Prescribed book: A Course of Mathematical Analysis by Santhi Narayana and P. Chand & Company Ltd.5. Green’s theorem in plane and applications of these theorems. Chand Publications. Differentiability. Chapters 16 and 17. Mittal. Schaum Series Publishing Company. Ordinary derivatives of vectors.
Numerical integration. Interpolation with unevenly spaced points. Curve fitting by a sum of exponentials Numerical Differentiation and Numerical Integration: Numerical differentiation. End conditions. Newton-Raphson method. Muller’s method UNIT-II: (25 hours) Interpolation :Errors in polynomial interpolation.Mathematics 3 of 10 Mathematics: Paper IV(a) NUMERICAL ANALYSIS UNIT-I: (20 hours) 90 hrs (3 hrs/ week) Errors in Numerical Computations: Numbers and their Accuracy. Ramanujan’s method. Errors in numerical differentiation. Errors and their Computation.Tables. Stirling’s central difference formula. Simpson’s 3/8 – rule. Error in Lagrange’s formula. The iteration method. Divided differences and their properties. UNIT-III: (20 hours) Curve Fitting: Least-Squares curve fitting procedures. Central Differences. Error in a series approximation. nonlinear curve fitting. Newton’s general interpolation. Relative and percentage errors. Maximum and minimum values of a tabulated function. Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations: The bisection method. The method of false position. Newton’s formulae for interpolation formulae. A general error formula. Differences of a polynomial. Trapezoidal rule. fitting a straight line. Backward differences. . Forward differences. Detection of errors by use of D. Absolute. Simpson’s 1/3 – rule. Derivation of governing equations. Symbolic relations. Generalized Newton-Raphson method. Gauss’s central difference formula. Boole’s and Weddle’s rule. Lagrange’s formula.
. 3.2-7.1. Solution of linear systems – Direct methods. New Age International Publishers.2. Picard’s method of successive approximations.5.2. 6. Saxena S.5(5. Chapter .5.4.2 (2.3 (3.4.3. Prentice Hall India (4th Edition. Method of factorization. Prescribed text Book: Scope as in Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis by S. Chapter .3. Solution by Taylor’s Series. 4. 3.1.2). 1. 1.7 (7. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations : Introduction. 2.2. Predictor – Corrector methods.Mathematics 4 of 10 UNIT-IV: (25 hours) Linear systems of equations. 6.10.6).3.2). 3. Finite Differences and Numerical Analysis by H. 1. Chapter .2 – 2. (4.2.9. Chand and Company. Chapter . 3. New Delhi . 2. Euler’s method.6 ( 6. 1. 3.2). Ill-conditioned linear systems. Iterative methods: Jacobi’s method.7. Milne’s method.4. Sastry. Chapter . Chapter.10.9.7.4). Shankar Rao.). Runge – Kutta methods.S. 7.7). Numerical Analysis by G.6.C.3.2 – 5. Gaussian elimination method. Hyderabad.1 (1. Gauss-siedal method. Reference Books: 1.5). 3. Matrix inversion method. Modified Euler’s method. Chapter . 6.
Linearity property. Beta function and Gamma functions. Chand & Company. Functions of exponential order and of class A. Heaviside’s expansion formula (with proofs and applications).IV: (20hours) Applications of Laplace and Fourier transforms : Applications of Laplace transforms to the solution of ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients and variable coefficients. Chapter 10. Theorems. Change of scale property. Existence of Laplace transform. Definition of Inverse Laplace transform. Parseval's identity. First and second shifting theorems of inverse Laplace transform.Laplace transform of derivatives. Division by t. Finite Fourier sine transform. Dirichlet's conditions. UNIT . linearity property. Fourier sine and cosine transforms and their inversion formulae. Convolution theorem of Fourier transforms.Mathematics 5 of 10 Mathematics: Paper IV(b) FOURIER SERIES AND INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS UNIT . Division by p. First and second shifting theorems of Laplace transform. Change of scale property. Linearity property of Fourier transforms.III: (25 hours) Fourier transforms : Dirichlet's conditions. Half range Fourier series. Inverse Theorem for Fourier transform. Inversion formula for sine transform. Simultaneous . UNIT .Piecewise continuous function. Finite Fourier cosine Transform. Laplace transform of periodic functions and error function.II: (25 hours) Laplace transforms: Definition of Laplace transform. Fourier integral formula (without proof).K Mittal. Inversion formula for cosine transform. Initial value problems. Published by S. Multiplication by t. Other forms of Fourier series Prescribed text Book: Scope as in A course of Mathematical Analysis by Shanthi Narayan and P. UNIT .I: ( 20 hours) Fourier series : 90 hrs (3 hrs/ week) Fourier series. Fourier series for even and odd functions. Convolution theorem. Change of scale property. Fourier transform. Laplace transform of integrals. Modulation theorem. Shifting theorem.
1.V.3 and 2. Chapter VII: Sections 7. Applications of Fourier transforms to initial and boundary value problems. Prescribed text Book: Scope as in Integral transforms by A.R.1 to 6.3. 3.2. Meerut. Chapter VIII: Section 8.K.) Reference Book: Operational Mathematics by R.4. R. Chapter I. McGraw Hill Company .2.20 except 6.16. Gupta Published by Krishna Prakashan Media Pvt. Chapter VI: Sections 6. 3.18. Vasistha & Dr.Mathematics 6 of 10 ordinary differential equations. 3. Ltd. Chapter II: all sections except 2. Partial differential equations.1 to 7.4.Churchil. Chapter III: sections 3.
Simple pendulum. Newton’s experimental law. Equilibrium of a rigid body acted on by three coplanar forces. Direct and oblique impact of two spheres. Work. Simple equivalent pendulum. Relative velocity. Polygon of forces. Parallelogram laws of acceleration. Parallelogram law forces.Mathematics 7 of 10 Mathematics: Paper – IV( c ) MECHANICS Part A: STATICS Unit-I: (25 hours) of 90 hrs (3 hrs/ week) Introduction. AITBS . Simple harmonic motion. theorem. resultant of two parallel forces acting upon a rigid body.Loney. Composition and resolution of forces. Collision of elastic bodies. Energy. Limiting friction.L.L. (20 hours) Unit-IV: Projectiles. Principle of conservation of energy. Laws of friction. Moments. New Delhi. Part B: DYNAMICS Unit-III: (25 hours) Velocity. Examples of simple harmonic motion. Coefficient of friction and simple problems. Lamis theorem. 2. Part-I – Statics by S. The elements of Statics and Dynamics. Moments of a force about a point and about an axis. Motion under gravity. Resultant of a finite number of coplanar forces acting upon a particle. (20 hours) Unit-II: Couples. Loney. Range on an inclined plane. Newton’s laws of motion and their applications to simple problems. Triangle law of forces. The elements of Statics and Dynamics. Parallel forces. Acceleration. Friction. Impact of sphere on a plane. General conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body under coplanar forces. Prescribed text books: 1. Kinetic and potential energies of a body. Impulse. Conditions of equilibrium. Book palace. Loss of kinetic energy by impact. Generalized theorem of moments. Part-II-Dynamics by S.
Chand and Company limited. S. Muthamizh Jaya Prakasan. . Durai Pandian. Delhi Reference Book: Mechanics by P.Mathematics 8 of 10 Publications and distributions (Regd). Laxmi Durai Pandian.
Logical inferences. 3. Rules of inference for quantified prepositions. First order logic and other methods of proof. Binary trees. .Rosen. Hamiltonian graphs. Properties of special binary relations. Directed trees. Methods of proof of an implication. Prentice. 6. 5. Discrete Mathematical structures by Bernard Kolman.Hill. UNIT – II: (25 hours) Recurrence Relations: Generating functions of sequences. Discrete Mathematics and its applications by Kenneth H. Calculating coefficients of generating functions. Euler’s formula. Mathematical induction. Fundamentals of logic. Solutions of in-homogenous linear recurrence relations. Planar graphs. Chromatic numbers. Boolean functions.Hall of India 2. Lattices and enumerations . Trees and their properties. Minimization of Boolean functions. Four – color problem. Solving recurrence relations by substitution and generating functions. Spanning trees. Multi graphs and Euler circuits. Isomorphisms and subgraphs. Some methods of proof and problem solving strategies. Printice-Hall of India (Second edition) Chapters 1. Tata McGraw.Mott. Abraham Kandel.Baker. UNIT – III: Graph Theory: Basic concepts.Paper –IV(d) DISCRETE MATHEMATICS UNIT – I: (15 hours) 90 hrs (3 hrs/ week) Sets and Operations of sets. Theodore P. Recurrence relations. Relations and functions. Prescribed text book Scope as in Discrete Mathematics for computer Scientists and Mathematicians by Joe L. Sharon Ross.Mathematics 9 of 10 Mathematics . UNIT – IV: (25 hours) (25 hours) Boolean Algebra: Relations. The method of characteristic roots. Reference text Books: 1. Robert C. Equivalence relations. 4. Switching mechanism. Ordering relations. Busby. Boolean algebra.
Reading Mass Addison – Wesley. 2nd Edition. The Möbius inversion formula. Sums of two squares. An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers – I. . The greatest common divisor. 2nd Edition. Some properties of the Phi-function. Elementary Number Theory & Its Applications – Kenneth Rosen 1987. Basic properties of congruence. Fermat numbers. John Wiley & Sons. Wilson’s theorem. Reference Books: 1. The greatest integer function UNIT – III : (25 hours) Euler’s Phi-function. Universal book Stall. New Delhi. Sums of more than two squares Prescribed text Book: Scope as in Elementary Number Theory – David M. The functions τ and σ. Quadratic reciprocity UNIT – IV : (20 hours) The search for perfect numbers. The Euclid algorithm.Mathematics 10 of 10 Mathematics: Paper – IV(e) NUMBER THEORY UNIT – I : (25 hours) 90 hrs (3 hrs/ week) The division algorithm. The Diophantine equation ax + by = c. Ruler’s criterion. 2. Linear congruencies UNIT – II : (20 hours) The Little Fermat’s theorem . Niven and H. Zuckerman 1980. Burton. Mersenne primes. Ruler’s theorem. New York. 4th Edition. The Legendre’s symbol and its properties. Special divisibility tests.
Find such that ( ) ( ) ( ) is ) over the domain * ( ) ( ) + over the domain bounded by .A carries 6 marks and each question in Section-B carries 16 marks. ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) defined as ( ) ) is a linear transformation from 4) Define orthogonal set.A and 4 questions from Section –B choosing atleast one from each unit. Show that any orthogonal set of non-zero vectors in an inner product space V is linearly independent. Each question in Section. UNIT-III 5) Evaluate ∬ 6) Evaluate ∬( UNIT-IV 7) Define irrotational vector. March/April 2011 MATHEMATICS PAPER-III Time:3Hrs Maximum Marks:100 NOTE: Answer 6 questions from Section. Show that the mapping ( in to UNIT-II 3) Find all eigen values of the matrix [ ]. 2) Define Linear transformation.A/B. III Year Examination. SECTION-A (6 6=36) UNIT-I 1) Define a subspace. Show that Irrotational.Sc. Prove that the intersection of two subspaces is again a subspace.Model Question Paper (Theory) B.
. b) Show that linear operator And hence find UNIT-II 11) a) Prove that distinct characteristic vectors of are linearly independent. b) Apply the Gram. are two subspaces of a finite dimensional vector Space ) ( ) ( ) then 10) a) State and prove Rank and Nullity theorem in linear transformation. Prove that any two basis of a finite dimensional vector Space b) If ( . the matrix [ ] Prove that 12) a) State and prove schwarz’s inequality . which is represented in standard ordered basis by is diagonalizable. b) Let be the linear operator on corresponding to distinct characteristic of defined on by ( ) ( ) is invertible.Schmidt process to the vector ( UNIT-III 13) a) Prove the sufficient condition for the existence of the integral. SECTION-B (4 16=64) UNIT-I 9) a) Define Basis of a vector space. ) where the domain R is the triangle ( ) ( ) ) to obtain an orthonormal basis for ( ) with the standard inner product.8) Evaluate ∬ where A=18zi-12j+3yk and S is that part of the plane 2x+3y+6z=12 which is located in first octant. b) Verify that ∬ ( bounded by the lines ) ∬ ( . ( ) have same number of elements.
.14)a) Prove the equivalence if a double integra with repeated integrals. -. b) Verify stoke’s theorem for surface of the sphere ( ) and where is the upper half is the boundary. b) Evaluate the following integral:∬ over .( ) ) ( )- 16) a) State and prove Green’s theorem in a plane. UNIT-IV 15) a) For any vector b) If Prove that ( Evaluate ) ( .