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Science
form 2
Chapter 8
Support
Support
and
and
movement
movement
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Content
8.1 Support Systems in Animals
8.2 Support Systems in Plants
8.3 Appreciating the Support System in
Living Things
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8.1
Support Systems in Animals
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Vertebrate and invertebrate


Vertebrates
Vertebrates are animals with backbones.


Invertebrates
Invertebrates are animals without
backbones.
Vertebrates Vertebrates
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Vertebrate
• Vertebrates are supported by
internal
internal
skeleton of bones
skeleton of bones called
endoskeleton.
endoskeleton.
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Vertebrate
The functions of endoskeleton are:
(a) to support the body weight
(b) to protect the internal organs
(c) to maintain the shape of the body
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Land Vertebrate
• The land vertebrates have to support their
own body weight.
• Hence, the endoskeletons of land
vertebrates are normally
big and strong
big and strong.
Horse skeleton
Elephant skeleton
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Aquatic Vertebrate
• The body weight of aquatic vertebrates is
supported by the buoyancy of water.
Hence, the endoskeletons of aquatic
vertebrates are smaller.
whale skeleton
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Invertebrate
The support systems of invertebrates
consist of
i. exoskeleton and
ii. hydrostatic skeleton.
exoskeleton
hydrostatic skeleton
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Invertebrate- Exoskeleton


Cuticle
Cuticle is an exoskeleton which is made of
chitin.
chitin.
• It covers and protects the body.
• Bees, flies, cockroaches , scorpions, crabs
and prawns are supported by cuticle.
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Invertebrate- Hydrostatic skeleton
• Invertebrates which have soft bodies such
as worms, leeches and caterpillars are
supported by the body fluid pressure
called hydrostatic pressure.
Earth worms Leeches
Caterpillars
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8.2
Support Systems in Plants
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Woody plants
• The woody plants are
supported by
woody
woody
tissues.
tissues.
• Some of the examples
of woody trees are
rubber trees, rambutan
trees and durian trees.
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Woody plant
• Some woody plants have additional
features to help them.
(a) Buttress roots
(b) Prop roots
(c) Stilt roots
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Buttress roots
• Casuarina trees have buttress roots to
provide additional support to the stems.
Casuarinas
木麻黄树8Od@uû0du
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Prop roots
• Banyan trees and maize plants have prop
roots to give them extra support
Banyan trees = Pokok Ara
=0uûgód@uû0du榕树
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Stilt roots
• Mangrove trees have stilt roots which
provide extra support to the stem and help
them to obtain sunlight.
Mangrove trees
= pokok bakau
红树8óLL0|0
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Non-woody plant
• Non-woody plants have
soft stems.
• The turgidity of the cells
provides support to these
non-woody plants.
• Some of the examples of
non-woody plants are yam
plant, leafy vegetables and
balsam plant.
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Non-woody plant
• Some non-woody plants have weak stems
which are unable to support the plants.
• However, they have other features to help
them.
(a) Tendrils
(b) Thorns and prickles
(c) Twining stems
(d) Clasping roots
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Tendrils
• Cucumber plants and pumpkin plants
climb and grow upwards using tendrils.
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Thorns and prickles
• Bougainvillea plants, rattan plants and
rose plants climb using thorns
Prickles
Rattan
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Twining stems
• Morning glory plants twine around other
plants to help them climb higher in order to
get enough sunlight.
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Clasping roots
• Money plants and pepper plants climb by
clasping.
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