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DISCOURSE ON THINKING .

Glenn Gray Colorado College Also by Martin Heidegger BEING AND TIME .MARTIN HEIDEGGER WORKS General Editor J.

Anderson and With an E. PURLISHERS NEW YORK .MARTIN HEIDEGGER DISCOURSE ON THINKING A Translation of Gelassenheit by John M. Hans Freund by Introduction John M. Anderson HARPER & ROW.

New York.Originally published by Verlag Giinther Neske. Publishers. New York. For information address Harper & Row. Copyright © 1966 in the English translation this Harper & Row. No part of Printed in the United States of book may be used or repro- duced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. New York 16. 49 East 33rd Street. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER: 65-15041 D-Q . Publishers. Pfullingen under the Gelassenheit. copyright title © 1959 by Verlag Giinther Neske English translation by John M. America. All rights reserved. Hans Freund by- DISCOURSE ON THINKING. Anderson and E. Incorporated.

CONVERSATION ON A COUNTRY PATH ABOUT THINKING 58 GLOSSARY 91 .CONTENTS PREFACE 7 INTRODUCTION 11 DISCOURSE ON THINKING 41 I. MEMORIAL ADDRESS 43 n.

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It comprises a statement of the point of view of his later thought. Discourse on Thinking has two parts: a Memorial Ad- honor of the German composer. an introduction via is meditative thinking. in the last few years. which pressed in the 1. and a scholar. theologians.PREFACE translated here. Conradin Kreutzer. Gelassenheit Gunther Neske Verlag. The Memorial Address (Pfullingen : Martin Heidegger. . and a dialogue or conversation. Discourse on Thinking a particularly it is so good example for this purpose not only because re- cent. Since Heidegger's later thought has evoked so much interest among it philosophers and. but because of its format and style. it seems important to have significant examples of is avail- able in English. a scientist. easily intelligible as ex- Memorial Address. which Heidegger delivered to a general audience. Martin Heidegger's Discourse on Thinking* which is was published in 1959.in which the theme stated in the address is developed in a more specialized and profound dress in — — way. The dialogue was written from more extended notes on a conversation dating from 1944—45 between a teacher. 1959). The work of provides an introduction to the later thought his conception of it is Martin Heidegger.

the goal of the enterprise reflected in the attitudes of the speakers. and it states his claim that such thinking has a most important part to play in our today. and will be able to appreciate why the fulfillment of this undifficult. the word and metaphor. without elaborating the details of its fundamental nature. which should be of help in rounding out an awareness of the vision Heidegger has of the place of man in Being. And for the philosopher or theologian as yet unacquainted with Martin Heidegger's thought. Nonetheless the Memorial Address makes clear Heidegger's understanding of the relation of meditative thinking to contemporary human life. In addition. for it not. the explanatory Conversation provides a transitional introduction into the complexities of Heidegger's philosophy. and the Address has a poetic tone which conveys the high seriousness of the subject. Further. But the reader will be is able to see why is Heidegger's undertaking important. free use of offer The interplay of thought and argument. This is is not to say that the Conversation is easily understood. dertaking so extraordinarily Those well versed in the intricacies of Heidegger's thought may find the Conversation a refreshingly concrete presentation of one of the fundamental points in his philosophy. life there no technical terminology. the Memorial Address and . is and the free and significance poetic tone of the speech emphasizes the human of the undertaking. the style of the Address is is clear. It does so by virtue of being a conversation the characters of the protagonists can be seen in relation to the ideas they are discussing.PREFACE formulates Heidegger's concern for meditative thinking. all a new perspective on an abstract argument. the poetic summaries.

We thank him for these and for much other help in this enterprise. y Conversation might well provide a tempting taste of a phi- We wish to acknowledge our indebtedness to Professor Glenn Gray for many valuable suggestions which have materially improved the translation.PREFACE losophy which already has a place in history. Hans Freund . The Pennsylmade possible the John M. Anderson E. We are indebted to the Central Fund for Research of vania State University for grants which completion of this work.

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They find hard to enjoy. a hard calculative view of life and its possibilities. There have always been such people in the vari- ous epochs of those human history. Recall the captive elephants How sharply such admonitions contrast with the mystical ! messages of the Upanishads lating the problems How clear they are in formu- and methods of human survival. In early Hindu thought. have always been for example. by casting them in the terms of animals and their ways and how opaque and obscure are the Upanishads in their efforts to reveal the ultimate 11 unremitting nature of things : . seems to them vague and obscure just as there nonsense.INTRODUCTION There are many who it resist a certain kind of philosophy. make friends. The beast fables of the Panchatantra describe and point up a science of survival. abstract. It and apparently of no great practical value. and an unsentimental evaluation of its content: strong Make friends. who find the revelations of speculative thinking to be of utmost importance. the contrast between the beast fable and the Upanishads reflects this difference in outlook. however Or weak they be That mice set free.

the sharp and realistic view. With implicit in this Heidegger contrasts another kind of calls thinking which he is meditative. it it. and which. but the myths and tales of Hesiod's Theogony have another both more obscure and more fundamental point to make. claim- . It is this age-old difference in outlook which forms the basis for Martin Heidegger's Memorial Address in honor of the German composer Conradin Kreutzer. Indeed. nothing sprang from The same split occurs in early Greek thought. he says. the unsentimental outlook quick to take advantage of circumstances to attain an end. in this And he would also make evident to us that to think way requires two attributes not at all common. even one of which every man is is capable. it dies not. depends upon such thinking. Here is the clear realism of animal life. By this insistence he also drives home the importance of such thinking to man's very being. Heidegger relieves these attributes somewhat the cryptic character of by showing their relevance to human life by showing that man's integrity. It is man's nature. his autochthony.12 INTRODUCTION The knowing Self is not born. one of to inspire us the exhortations of his Address with the courage and persistence that are necessary to think in this way. and which he calls releasement to the toward things and openness mystery. Heidegger fables present to us the lessons in calculation finds the outlook of the beast fables represented in modern society by the calculative thinking of contemporary science and its applied disciplines. two stands which man can take. sprang from nothing. Aesop's which are the points of the Panchatantra. evident that he finds mediif it tative thinking a difficult is also and cryptic enterprise.

Heidegger has chosen a different approach. toward a commitment which will enable them to pass out of their bondage to what is clear and evident but shallow. on to what is ultimate. in-dwelling. there are essentially only three. the peculiarity of the not a bar to understanding and participating in Heidegger's enter- . Yet in the Memorial Address and in the dialogue that develops its theme. indeed.INTRODUCTION ing. It is true also that Heidegger often illustrates his points by reference to earlier works in the history of philosophy and to earlier thinkers in complex and original ways. Since these words are so integrally con- nected with the goal of the Address and the dialogue. translated here as releasement. by the context as make their meaning words is In any case. however obscure and difficult that applications are discerned in may be. one may say that their meaning is made clear a whole (or that the context fails to clear) . that even the ultimate tive thinking of 15 modern science meaning of the calculaand its humanly significant and through meditative thinking. the difficulty of carrying a reader toward it is not increased in the Memorial Address or the explanatory Conversation It is by technical terminology or philosophical jargon. But fundamentally Heidegger is urging his hearers and readers toward a kind of transmutation of themselves. something which makes many of his essays and books uncommonly involved. is true that Heidegger notorious for the use of coined words and phrases. There are almost no technical or coined terms . and in many of his writings this in itself makes a grasp of his goal difficult. indeed. even by philosophical standards. Whatever the its difficulty of Heidegger's enterprise and of goal. and that- which-regions.

Was ist Metaphysik? pp. then. for the INTRODUCTION what is of being words only sum up and stand for the whole said.14 prise. words are used with the directness of reference which only poetic handling can and dialogue are not especially is achieve. He strives for simile the soil and growth. no veil of words standing between the audience and Heidegger's conception of man's authentic nature . but phrases and words oc- curring in the larger context often evoke overtones of feeling associated with the land. which is to be grasped on the basis is. 1. How of does Heidegger lead us toward the transmutation man he desires. rather. Heidegger writes in the manner and might be to with the poetic tone of the mystics. want take us with them beyond the ordinary and the familiar. with fields. 50 ff. and Unterwegs zur Sprache (Pfullingen: Gunther Neske. Thus his enterprise conceived as similar in difficulty to the task of the mystics who. if not by making extensive use of tech- nical terminology as in his earlier works? part. although the former much simpler than the latter. Actually. 1929. by an extraordinary and poetic use of words. Yet the Address easy to follow. Eckhart to as for example Meister whom he refers.: Klostermann. 1960). . For Heidegger's views on language and its function cf. (Frankfurt a. in by using a language that is simple and has the flavor of the earth.M. 1 There is. for not. and by is this and metaphor involving means he achieves a poetic paragraph organi- tone. of the entire presentation. Not that his sentence structure or it is zation poetic. and with is what the ground of things. 8th ed. He does it. That the meaning of these special words as we should come to we are led toward see the goal Heidegger sets for us. 1959). to what is ultimate.

In Being Mac(juarrie and Robinson Being and Time (Tubingen: Niemeyer. Indeed. 1. and Time. claimed that Heidegger in Being and Time failed to accomplish what he intended. English translation by (New York: Harper & Row. as beyond experience. Heidegger states the nature of the enterprise succinctly in the first pages of this work Do we raise in our time have an answer of the to the question of is what we really mean by the word "being"? Not anew the question at all. Fortunately. So it fitting that meaning of Being. 1962). such mastery is not essential to an understanding of the outlines of the enterprise itself. Heidegger follows a method nature. and to provide an account of its nature. This is a bold enterprise. method for It is dealing with the ultimate than is to be found in his earlier often writings. Evidently. and one which belongs in the mainstream of Western philosophy. Those who have read Being and Time will remember that one of its major themes is the claim that the traditional approaches to Being have failed that the conception of Be3 ing as a generic object. provide a better 15 This raises the question of whether Heidegger's methods. . to work out the 2 we must reawaken an underOur aim in the followquestion of the meaning of Being and to do so concretely. 1929). particularly in Being and Time. Heidegger intends to reawaken modern man to the significance of the nature of Being.INTRODUCTION typical of his later writings. So first of all standing for the meaning of this question. p. we should But are we now- adays even perplexed at our inability to understand the expression "Being"? Not ing treatise is at all. But what did he intend? The amount if of technical terminology that must be mastered we are to judge whether the enterprise projected in Being and Time succeeds or not is very great. has misled philosophical efforts to grasp its by 2. contrast with that tradition.

one might say that Heidegger's method is to develop. transcendental. many and Time have of completion found the enterprise incomplete and incompletable. for example. he comes : to authentic existence as temporal 5 and. man as that being He then proceeds to show that such lead a being as man is through and through temporal.16 INTRODUCTION man and claims to proceed from his au- that begins with thentic existence to an understanding of Being. To restate this analysis of experience when and to the extent that man comes to define himself as aware that his own being is at stake. The logical analysis of experience in Being directed toward this end uses method. or. Logithe difficulty standing in the way . takes a place in and comprehends Being. Such structures ultimately reveal the temporal ground of man's being. Finally. it elicits what is from a variety of and Time which is called the phenomenoof experi- ences certain pervasive structures experience. that is. when we come to see that in them man is actively engaged in caring. as Heidegger all calls them. man's temporal being in the terms of these transcendental structures enables Heidegger to carry out his eliciting enterprise and to formulate the nature of Being. As has readers of Being been indicated. an account of experience which for discloses whom his own being is at stake. he adumbrates an account which would from time to Being. If a rich and complex analysis may be stated in a few sentences. These pervasive structures are. first. The question we must ask next is whether a method they structure of experience. ontological. that is. the structures called being toward death and resolve do. cally. as. to use the Kantian term. as authentic.

In part. initially. the projected but . and not merely in the terms of man himself. Thus it seems impossible to escape from subjective distortions and to learn anything about Being as such by means of the method Heidegger used in Being and Time. reveals formulation reveals this solely as man as temporal but man sees it. The formulation of the horizons. nature as such. for example. These structures constitute the horizons of human awareness. for we have Heidegger's word on the matter. parts of this study We know what were intended to contain. There jective orientation poral in terms of its ground. the conditions of awareness. although it is probable that it was written. What seems to be necessary in order to comprehend Being is a method of understanding which can grasp man's nature as tem- terms. These structures provide a grasp of man's being as temporal but because they are the structures of man's experience. to include material not published in the book. of the horizons of experience. We know. they can do this in a limited way only. But there is circumstantial as well as logical evidence for believing that the enterprise of Being and Time remains incomplete.INTRODUCTION seems to 17 be that the transcendental structures of experience which Heidegger elicits are formulated as static and final. rather than simply in terms Such a method could reveal man's temporality in relation to what was beyond man. Being and Time as published consists of but a part of a the unpublished longer projected study. solely 3 such a in hu- man is in such a method an ineluctably subwhich must characterize its results. and a method which explicitly formulates them extends our understanding beyond the contents of awareness to its deeper . that Heidegger outlined this work.

The adequate reproduction the fact that vision of the . Where one might have supposed that the later book would be a completion of the 3. Heidegger's claim that Being can be man's authentic exwhich is fundamentally temporal. 1959). is This view supported also by the fact that the book. In this last part. was to have been justified by showing the way to Being. solved. There is evidence that a new formulation of "Time and Being" exists and : will eventually be published. 178. but from a quite different direction. presumably.M. deals with the problem of Being. Introduction to Metaphysics* published some years after Being and Time. constitutes historical evidence that the method and categories of Being and Time were somehow inadequate to deal with the problem effectively. English translation by Ralph (Yale University Press. 4. Vber den Humanismus (Frankfurt a. it seems clear. An Introduction to Metaphysics.18 INTRODUCTION unpublished sections of the book were to have dealt with an analysis of the history of philosophy. of and participation in this other thinkis ing that leaves subjectivity behind indeed rendered difficult by when Being and Time was published. 1949). Klostermann. the problem how Being could be seen in relation to man's being as temporal was to have been discussed explicitly and. was held back because thinking and did not achieve its 3 goal by of the language of metaphysics. and in part they were to have included an account of the relation between Time and of Being. . That this part of the book has not yet been published. That is. p. the third Difirst Part. Manheim . in question . and that in the years immediately following the publication of Being and Time none of Heidegger's writings offers the solution. entitled "Time and Being" was held back. Heidegger himself says of this part disclosed along a path beginning in istence. The Division means failed in adequately articulating this turn.

appearance. and finally. To Heidegger asks again the to this question it Why does something exist. Third. offers the suggestion that a return to the naive but unnot very distorted intuition of Being in the earliest Greek philosoit is phers could put us on the right path. criticism. for ex- ample the Memorial Address and Conversation which folwe must view them in the light of the uncompleted enterprise formulated in Being first. by contrast to this sophisticated approach. What he to present an illuminating criticism of European philosophy. we should ask. same as the earlier one. We should ask. In this he shows how the tradition of European philosoand so on. we want to know whether the enterprise has at last succeeded. since would would al- reveal the relation of particulars to their ground. they can not be said to does is have provided the answer. Yet while Heidegger's efforts to answer this ultimate question are most as interesting as the question. such as becoming. turn to Heidegger's later writings. and Time. it seems to be an independent in- quiry. of course. But clear in the Introduction to Metaphysics what this path could be. and Be- then has tried to transcend these opposites ing. rather than nothing? Evidently an answer reveal something about the nature of Being. When we low.INTRODUCTION enterprise 19 begun earlier. to arrive at And he. or at least an experiment in a define this different approach traditional question : new approach. If it is the same. whether the methods used and the orientation to the problem are similar. phy has concerned itself with an analysis of the opposites of Being. . second. whether the enterprise is in general the In the Memorial Address in honor of Conradin Kreutzer.

.20 INTRODUCTION to Heidegger seeks show his audience that it is time to re- meaning. Indeed. and that the ground of meaning has been overlooked in the modern world where applied science and calculative thinking dominate our lives. at least. For is Heidegger's use of language later writings. difficult though it is in terms of releasement . and that the proper exercise of this capacity. Is But that answer raises the second question the method is in these later writings the same as in the earlier ones? It has been noted already that the answer to this question partially negative. the enterprise of reawakening an awareness of the significance of Being. the same. and of determining the nature of Being. it might be the search for a of new new ground sense of the importance of such a The interesting thing in this analysis is that if the phrase "new ground of meaning" is substituted for the word "Being" in the passage quoted from Being and Time on page 1 5 above.. it is not the whole story and there is at least one sense in which Heidegger's method in the Memorial Address and the Conversation is the same as in his earlier writing's. In the Memorial Address it is claimed that man's nature includes the capacity for meditative thinking. Here he does not rely upon technical terminology. but upon poetic directness. This answers our first : question. it has been noted that markedly different in his and particularly in those translated here. however arduous it may be. seems characteristic of both the earlier and the later Heidegger. the enterprise formulated in the Memorial Address and that in Being and Time would be exactly completed. and to undertake this task. However important this is. He goes so far as to suggest that if this task is undertaken. He calls upon us to reawaken to a task we have forgotten.

.INTRODUCTION toward things and openness vides the basis through to 21 mystery. 1959). then. to observe in this connection that is the method of the Conversation the same. and Time himself has said I have forsaken an earlier position. Heidegger clearly indicates that there has been a nature of Being if is still thought is still major change. pp. and conceived as moving toward this end the Conversation which de- through man. as in other later works. if the the end at which thought aims. can lead to a new ground of meaning. 5 In this reference to his earlier thought. Yet. is it conceived there? It is way in which man is involved immediately : Unterwegs zur Sprache (Pfullingen Giinther Neske. for there each stage in the approach to Being depends ment of a stage in the nature of upon the developthinking. It is interesting. But in the Memorial Address and the Conversaunderstood tion. this is the method of Being and Time carried over. How. then. is the same. In Being and character Time this understood as the transcendental structure of experience. 98 ff. which is man's nature. in what does the change consist? The Memorial Address and velops its theme is reflect this change in the conception of the defining character of man's nature. This is the claim that man's nature prowhich one wins an understanding of Being. the approach in Being and in the Memorial Address and the Conversation to a new ground of meaning. In a very general way. not to exchange lasts in it for another. Clearly. What thinking is the way. Yet this similarity must not remain unqualified. but because even the former position was only a pause on the way. conceived as the 5. this character is quite differently. for Heidegger to Being.

But waiting need not be so definitely colored by our nature. the subjective. waiting involves our desires. But. the specifically and merely human. and that it is terminated at a point where the participants once again approach human habitation : the symbolic significance should not be missed. the Conversation begins with a cryptic statement of this new conception at- who is says that concerning man's nature not a ". Implied in this claim. and Some aspects of this new understand- ing are evident in the Conversation. is of the subsequent discussion. We may wait. Heidegger also develops this claim explicitly in a number of ways. goals.. which could . "Conversation.22 INTRODUCTION directly in Being. but Heidegger wants to show that has a deeper significance and involves a reference beyond the merely human. consider the nature it is of waiting as analyzed in the Conversation. There is a sense in which we can wait without knowing for what we wait. tributed to the Teacher. without waiting for anything for anything. Waiting is a human it activity. third." is This seems gestion is to be a paradoxical statement. of course. For one example. When we wait in this human way. 58 below. that is.. in this sense. 6. that man's nature is to be found in relation to something a suggestion that to comprehend man one must transcend subjective. and needs." It worth noting that the Conversation begins at a distance from what is merely human." p. Normally. and yet the sugto that the development of this idea be a theme else. the question 6 question about man. First. when we wait we wait for something which interests us or which can provide us with what we want. . the Heidegger expresses this claim metaphorically by placis ing the Conversation "far from human habitation.

Let us." This is to say that man's true nature may relate directly to what transcends him. The traditional 7. however difficult it of "for" to subjective human expectations of is." p. which found in man's true nature. is developed as a transcendence Yet one may object that while is two kinds that the suggestive. a gift. Waiting upon does not evoke Bethough the suggestion is that if anything responded to such waiting. . this possible transcendence. but it is human in at and usual view of thinking sees it as the representing of what is typical of things.INTRODUCTION be grasped and expressed in subjective this sense 25 human terms. course. it would be Being. therefore. 68 below. consider another aspect of the relation of man to what transcends him. The different prepositions are intended to refer in the case some sort. The difference be- tween these two kinds of waiting may be expressed by saying that when we wait in a merely human way we wait for. The comprehension of meditative thinking is as a structure of man is relating directly to Being clearly the central theme of the Address and Conversation. and in this sense waiting may come to have a reference beyond man. even is discerned. but As Heidegin the case of "upon" to what ger says: "In waiting [upon] we leave open what we are 7 waiting for. if given. as a kind of human activity leading to an understanding two senses. to Being. whereas in the deeper sense of waiting we wait upon. thinking least Of peculiarly human. In we simply wait. it is an analysis of waiting into hardly conclusive in showing to movement from man Being can be made if the correct path ing. that is. may be to state this in ordinary terms. "Conversation. In the context of is the Conversation.

that it does not construct a world of objects. In this sense a kind of willing. throughout the whole Conversation. it is thinking which allows content to emerge within awareness. Meditative thinking to its content. objects of ordinary understanding. It is to be found. an awareness of the horizon rather than of the begins with itself. By contrast to representative thinking. To begin comprehend what is involved in this kind of thinking. by a practitioner. : transcends reference to thinking. one of these properties has just been is thinking which open open to what is given. Indeed. somewhat negatively.24 INTRODUCTION it is of objects. Meditative thinking be- gins with an awareness of this kind. to it is about something. the field of awareness as When viewed from within. certain properties of meditative thinking pointed out. Now thinking which constructs a world of objects understands these objects 5 but meditative thinking begins with an awareness of the field within which these objects are. which is characterized by human methods of approaching things. and by the fact that in calculative thinking we deal seen as something specifically and merely extreme this is with things in our terms for our advantage. that it does not represent. we may observe. for one example. At one what Heidegger calls calculative thinking. Yet there of waiting. thinking which is open to content. And such thinking has a content. human affairs this is meditative Thinking of this second sort does exist. and so it content which is given to it. A man engaged in meditative thinking might well characterize what he was . in is a second sense of thinking. for ex- ample. may is be discerned. and so to be human. analogous to the second sense which thought refers beyond the human.

through rect and immediate reference beyond man to Being. to speak of this thinking as a suggestive higher kind of activity than is ." 8 distinction between activity and passivity. ". Yet such thinking does not involve what to is ordinarily called an act of will. along the path referred to in the Conversation symbolizes such an activity and such a portant that leasement. the property of openness. Heidegger is calls it re- Releasement a defining characteristic it. To be open difficult for it is man. an annulling of the such thinking is not a passive affair either. for one does not will be open. he might comprehend medita- tive thinking as a fundamental property of human nature. meditative thinking involves will. relatively simple account of the preceding para- One goal of the Conversation is to provide a devel- oping comprehension of releasement 8. as a higher kind of activity than is involved in the exercise of any subjective it. But perhaps the real point that this kind of think- ing lies. Let us regard meditative thinking. . man does not come is to be open through indifference or neglect. man's true nature involving openness and. as it involves and is "Conversation. 61 below. as the to Being. activity of walking along a path which leads conversation Cer- tainly metaphorically. . this higher activity of it is thinking in relation to the openness involved in it so imof di- needs a special name." p. willing. human power.INTRODUCTION doing as 25 being open that 5 is. Since openness involves meditative thinking. Releasement involves openness. then. beyond the . direction. Quite the contrary. In any case. but ing to suppose that that involvement is it would be mislead- adequately sketched by the graphs. as Heidegger says. clearly. . . Yet. We might think of the metaphorically.

81 S." p. In meditative thinking. 73 below. it is which reveals Being. a kind of which when ing. 10. The being- transcendental structure of experience analyzed in Being and Time tion in such terms as being-in-the-world. Heidegger speaks of two aspects of releasement. This in- ner nature of releasement must be considered later in this introduction it is mentioned here only to emphasize the 5 complexity of the relation of releasement and openness. "Conversation. The intention of this change is revealed as a deliberate effort of Heidegger to assure the possibility of moving through man to Being. . releasement has hidden in steadfastness it. and to be called "in-dwell(releasement Meditative thinking not a simple opening to Be- ing. authentic releasement. and the second. a kind of dwelling in Being. he says. is conceived in the Conversation in a radically different from that in way Being and Time. may be described as being released to." p. below.26 INTRODUCTION first involved in Being. for another example. and temporality replaced in the Conversa- by an analysis of the higher activity of meditative thinking which involves Being directly. In consequence. There is no doubt that Heidegger believes this to be pos- sible in the terms of meditative thinking. The defining character of man's nature . the of which is being released from." 10 fully which is related to a comprehended is is resolve for truth. for he does not 9. as the nature of authentic releasement to) might suggest. is toward-death. for its it involves a resolve in regard to Being. 9 Again. "Conversation. for example. resolves for disclosure. man opens to Being and is Such a resolve 5 not an exercise taking a stand of subjective human powers rather. (meditative thinking) then.

moreover. The first two have been answered. but its method different from. it is possible to designate a region as inherently dynamic by using the phrase that-which-regions. It expands into the abiding 11 . to use the verb regioning to express this activity directly. . But let us quote from such a direct account of illustrate the point Being in these new terms to we are making. us. and. but that they claim to give an explicit account of Being. however. and it remains before brief introduction to formulate 11. That a region inherent openness and activity of Being. for we concluded that the goal of his later thought is the same as. Does Heidegger's enterprise. The region ing is gathers. each to each and each to into an abiding. It in his later thought. Three questions were asked above about the characteristics of Heidegger's later thought. So the region itself It abides into the at once expanse of resting. - Now the point not that these sentences be clear out of context. that of his as developed earlier thought. of that-which-regions and that this account has been reached from the starting point of meditative thought. while resting in itself. would be impossible in this an answer to such a basic 66 below. Region- a gathering and re-sheltering for an expanded resting in an is abiding. is open ." p.INTRODUCTION hesitate to speak directly about 27 to give Being and an acan count of its nature. succeed? This was the third question. Heidegstress ger does not use the word Being $ but in order to region and cognates instead. "Conversation. In the Conversation. just as if nothing all were happening. 5 of man's nature. an expanse and an abiding. of what has freely turned toward itself. he uses the word its is. even further. is .

he argues that the given. an opening. too. openness and. of course. Meditative think- ing characterizes man's true nature. To do so. This evi- dence amounts to showing that Being as reached through meditative thinking is partly identical with the nature and movement of such thinking. which is important for an understanding of Heidegger's general claim. meditative thinking would be powerless to reach Being. as openness in which he is partly identified with the given. Thus we may observe first that meditative thinking is an opening of man to something. Fortunately. as is emphagestion of the argument and its results sized by calling such thinking releasement. The details given in the Conversation must be studied carefully to understand the point fully. and here a sug- must suffice. In the Conversation. The whole of the claim implicit in the account Heidegger gives of Being in the Conversation rests the analysis of man's nature. three kinds of evidence seem to be offered for the justification of this assumption. and not its details. What we may is : ask. does man open to In a word. his being. man is open. is the answer to the given. is ? an openness. of its justification. Man be- . for he wishes to justify the identity he is claiming. and to the evi- dence which Heidegger gives for able insight into the problem it. is an as we shall see.28 INTRODUCTION 5 question but the key to its answer can be suggested. as ing. In releasement then. that is. it is the nature of the evidence. Certainly if this were not so. provides the upon the assumption that found in meditative thinkapproach to Being. But Heidegger not content to present this answer. Close will provide consider- key to a direct attention to the nature of this assumption.

indeed. meditative thinking consists in becoming aware of the horizon ing out and so as as such. as it were. But what is this openif ness as such. But the possibility of : but only a horizon.INTRODUCTION comes partly identified with the given by opening in turn. but the side facing us of an openness which surrounds us. the given opens to him. is What is is evident of the horizon openness]. an openness which filled with views of the appearances of what In consequence the horizon . tative thinking is an opening to what is of such knowing. an awareness of the horizon of the consciousness of objects. In part. . If one comprehends this situation fully. Let us consider this argument somewhat more carefully. . as an open- standing open. then. [and] this something else the horizon is and so the same as itself. this field of awareness has no fixed limits. someis thing else besides a horizon other side of itself. You say that the the openness which surrounds us. As already noted. our consciousness of the world of objects is an unbounded field of awareness." p. and. The openness calls which the horizon of consciousness is set Heidegger [its the region. to is our re-prestill senting are objects. viewed from within. . . below. meditative thinking involves an aware- ness of the field of awareness. we disregard that it can also appear as the horizon of our re-presenting? It strikes 12. } 64 ft. or. that is. as Heidegger likes to say. me as something like a region. upon the openness of that. one sees that medi- beyond the horizon any such opening must depend to some degree upon what lies beyond the horizon. "Conversation. But an awareness of the is horizon in this explicit sense as an openness because the horizon is set possible just it is within an openness of which in but one side. 29 to it as. To restate the argument viewed from within. .

". the openness of higher activity. a kind of The openness of the region also if which as it the ground of man's opening must ment. Man's opening must occur in his awareness of the givenness of the transcendental horizon. ." p. as the we have opening what supports and manifests itself in part of man. That-which-regions surrounds us and reveals itself to us as the horizon. As Heidegger says. "Conversation. horizon is but the side of that-which-regions turned toward 13 our re-presenting. In the opening of the region. It seems a region holds what comes forward to meet us.. be grasped movenot a we name properly as is The openness it of the region vacuum . given of which we A more important part of common is this identity is to be found in a activity." Or again. the point being made is just that the region is an opening. if it were. and that that is not perfectly stated in these quotations. we can and must refer to it we can refer to its opening as that-which-regions and as such. If now we comprehend basic sense in take the region itself as that which comes to meet us. 65 below. "Conversation. the . ". . regioning. However. but we also said of the horizon that out of the view which the horizon through the region. his meditative thinking." p. would go unnoticed by man. below. something which is easier that-which-regions.. the appearance of objects comes to meet us. As we is have noted. 4 it encircles. Now it is true that since that-which-regions 72 ff. is a region- 13." we The which the region is an opening is complex. that its is. 14. man an opening. to region- ing.30 INTRODUCTION That openness of is of the region man which is grounded in the openness but a part of the identity of man and the are speaking. .

. given development. meditative thinking in-dwelling. . Essentially. the resolve for truth is a requirement that the regioning of that-which-regions as think- be an unveiling. 31 movement. expresses the requirement of becoming true for that-which-regions. That-which-regions is a dynamic ground in which man's nature emerges. Yet there a is something unsatisfactory as if the matter is left here. thinking open to to its ground as given. for such an account seems to place man and meditative think- ing but a moment : in the given development of that- which-regions it stresses the identity of man and that- which-regions. but for a 15 receiving of the is regioning of that-which-rea gions. ". Through truth. . . In such disclosure.INTRODUCTION ing." Evidently there says. The reference of meditative thinking to that-which-regions as partly identical with man may be seen in releasement as such. 81 below. As in-dwelling. to impose structure. what is required by him is independent of him. man's nature ing serves not to create or ". mutual relation here. . In reis leasement as such. It man is able to express a resolve for is important not to misunderstand this requirement as a subjective one for while the resolve for truth 5 is made by man. Truth is not subjective. "Conversation. Clearly. for Heidegger the nature of man is released to 15." p. Such an account hardly touches upon the fact that meditative thinking does not simply occur as a part of a more inclusive. such thinking is more than an instance of such development 5 it also serves to receive the development. we can understand man's nature as brought forth in this movement. But the reference of thinking ceiver of it that-which-regions as recalls in- may be seen only in what Heidegger dwelling.

is the peculiar being with respect to whom him that-which-regions unveils and discloses. dwelling." p. the coming forth of natures. we might say. natures is as important Thus. stands within that-which-regions and effectively resolves for its disclosure. to proceed from man's nature to Being. Or.32 INTRODUCTION it so that-which-regions because this belongs to that without essentially. man that-which-regions can not be a coming it is. openness and the opening and openness of that-whichregions expresses only the relation of so is man and but a partial identity. 83 below. for is that-which-regions much more complex than all the sense in which meditative thinking: receives and necessary for the coming forth of as this identity. in this sense. is compatible with that- which-regions and can play a positive part in this respect. Heidegger needs to produce a second kind of evi- dence that this nature as it is possible. makes the standard for and the recipient of the disclosure of that-which-regions. then. the identity noted in man's opening and to the given. Man. man. expressed in his resolve for truth. . But how can this disclosure take place? How is this aspect of man's nature interwoven compatibly with the underlying identity already noted? The difficulty of showing how this is done is just the difficulty of showing how man is brought forth in the regioning of that-which-regions and yet comes 16. all natures." 16 forth of closure. as Man is essential to this dis- Clearly. its coming forth in truth. man stands out in order to be where as in- that-which-regions unveils. "Conversation. This is the evidence that man's expresses the requirement of all becoming true. This dis- tinction of man. The relation between is man and this.

Identitat und Differenz. solve for truth. that-which-regions is disclosed in history. Heideg- ger refers to this process when it results in things as deter- mining. is fundamental in history but." p. There is a sense in which. consist in the happenings and deeds not obvious of the world. and results in this man contrasts with the nature of things. 18.INTRODUCTION forth in such a distinctive is 33 is. 19 knowing and is understood broadly. rather. 51. way — of showing. . as a consequence of man's recult analysis history. Yet Heidegger holds is that man's requirement of truth of the basis of the relation man to things and that this relation occurs as history. and yet is emergent as a nature which resolves for and receives the disclosure of its ground. but with respect sizes when to it man." From this perspec17. Put in as man's nature it he calls it regioning way. Heidegger seeks to make the diffi- which will clarify this point. that history is. For a general account of history see Identitat lingen: Giinther Neske. . takes place in two To emphasize this difference. Cf. p. . . 79 below. this duality emphainvolved in and involving truth. Nor in the cultural achievements of is man. 1957). 17 To understand this we must of that-which-regions." 18 What sequential . the concept of the historical means a mode of Thus ". To . its observe initially that the process regioning. be grasped as functioning in this way. first in terms of and then in an interesting generalization with respect to truth based upon his interpretation of history. 64 and elsewhere. as ". quite different ways. und Differenz (Pful- . 19. p. its character historical thinking. a which does not . history must be understood in a very fundamental sense. that how it that man's nature is necessary because of having its ground in the givenness of that-which-regions. "Conversation.

As a mode of knowing. lates metho- As these examples suggest. in consequence. articulation. that resolving for . for this is a by man's requirement Such an become is requirement that the nature of things be brought forth. of an aspect. articulation. such history re- man to things because through that they it things are sustained true. a disclosure an aspect of the diswhich takes is place in relation to man. To comprehend fully this bringing for forth of all natures. as a mode of knowing. noble. Historical knowing necessarily has origins which are prior to it. But it is a return to origins not merely in the sense of recounting an intelligible story of development and change. word. But what are these origins? thing more about them history if We may all understand some- we look at the more general which to re- circumstances of the bringing forth of is natures.34 tive INTRODUCTION we should look for history where the articulation of the natures of things occurs. Now history. and it comprises an intelligible expansion which develops in the terms of these origins. It what the source of all must abide in is in this most fundamental sense that history involves a beginning. it is a return to origins in the sense in which intelligibility must have its is roots in what is prior to thought. in a set aside subjective demands and pretensions. such history. closure of that-which-regions. one must observe that man solve for truth and so to serve that-which-regions in this movement is to to be. a kind of re- collecting. as in the evolution of the subject-object relation or in the sciences understood dologically. a returning to origins as well as an articulation of the nature of things. Now nobility connotes heritage and origins 3 and suggests.

. 20 The resolve for truth which expresses that-which-regions of all as the bringing forth it natures. of meditative thinking. 85 below. 51. Cf. As an inner given to man as a gift. but in the awareness that thinking as is the resolve for truth grounded. but it is grounded in two aspects of that-which-regions. not only has tive thinking as an openness and opening may be said to be grounded in that-which-regions as undisclosed. as is it The ground involves a resolve for truth. rather. Identitdt und Differenz. its not that-which-regions. This is the nature Let us pause briefly to note explicitly that our analysis has led us to the nature of that-which-regions. therefore. Meditaing. My italics. p. "In the nature of thinking so understood. is not a subjective expression.INTRODUCTION ward. but a necessity demon- strated to by the nature of thinking as having an origin prior thought. And meditative thinking as involving the resolve for truth may be said to be grounded in that-which-regions as dis20. "Conversation. Meditative think- two aspects corresponding to the two kinds of evidence we have been examining. . His service in this exalted way is not accident. This "step backthis return becomes explicit." p. but nature." literal 55 truth involves a return to man's origins. a gift which justifies man in serving that-which-regions as the being for whom the unveiling of that-which-regions occurs. as veiled. And what is this origin? It is the nature of thatseek. It is upon man from without. we may have found what we of that-which-regions. . which-regions. 21." 21 . necessity springs from an inner which man can come to not a understand as the ground of his thinking necessity forced necessity it is itself. not in going back to a beginning.

Heidegger holds to be correct) a we could understand the relation of the two aspects of meditative thinking. just the opening of given as such and the approaching of what given through the demand in thought that this be artic- ulated and so become true. . If And implicit in this sugis gestion (which. as Heidegger says. And if we so conceive meditative thinking in its two aspects ". 22. "Conversation. .36 closed. 68 below. "Conversation." p. . nearing and distancing. the self that-which-regions itself. then. "Then of thinking referred to here is thinking would be coming-into-the-nearness of distance. Perhaps the relation of the two aspects of meditative thinking which sketch. its nature can't really be two different things of . INTRODUCTION Yet as soon as we state the relation of meditative thinking to its grounds in this way. we suggest strongly that these grounds are related. as . 23. for this movement distinguishes ting the given thinking from its given content. since this movement elicits and reveals. We may conceive of the turnset- ing toward the given and the opening to the given as at a distance. this would give us the clue to the sense in which that-which-regions and its nature are related and together ground meditative think- ing as a whole and so man. And we may conceive of the resolve for truth as a movement of approach." p. since "that-which- regions and . as nearing the given. we have kept apart here is not too difficult to what he Heidegger very early in the Conversation formulates calls a "daring definition" of thinking." 22 is presumably its nature and identical with further insight. as unveiled. 86 below. indeed." The movement thought is is just the turn- ing of thought toward what to the $ given.

to rest in its own identity. cally . "Conversation. This bold characterization of Being has been reached through man." time remaining distant from that-which-regions. Not any part. . In the first place. Then that-which-regions . "Conversation. We refer to the characterthird analysis support- of opening and openness on the one hand. In this analysis there are central strands of three kinds. . gathering everything together and letting everything return to itself. 86 below. Because that-which-regions regions all." p. We have considered these analyses in the last few pages. . They it are analyses that lead characteristics of thinking to from certain specifiable what grounds thinking so far as istics has these characteristics. but the whole of this movement is Being. 25. there are the two analyses which claim to show that meditative thinking can be grounded in that- which-regions as such and in the nature of that-whichregions. this complex movement would provide the concept needed to understand the identity of that-which-regions and by saying that we . it must be comprehended as an intricate movement weaving the given and veiled aspect of that-which-readons into its unveiled and articulated aspect. 86 below.INTRODUCTION perhaps tion 37 we can express our experience during this conversaare coming near to and so at the same . itself would be nearing and distancing a characterization which should not be thought of dialecti[but] in accordance with the nature of thinking. .. The 24. . If so. . for Heidegger's claim to have proceeded from man to Being rests upon his analysis of meditative think- ing. its *nature. and to the resolve for truth on the other.. . This third compatibility of thinking and that-which-regions must not be viewed statically." p.

of ways. as the essentially . . justifies asking such a question "Yet what then would be the is nature of thinking of distance?" analysis. shift- As soon ments as this final analysis is presented ing perspective from man to Being. 87 below. ing. Heidegger cautions us in ! a number ." p. the subjunctive mood. 27. 28. as determined by Being. the nature of think". having stepped beyond our subjective human perspective yet a word of . It is attainable has just been an analysis suggesting that the continuity beis tween the two aspects of thought which found in the movement reflect of "coming-into-the-nearness of distance" must a continuity between the that is. . . 27 if that-which-regions the nearness From the perspective afforded by this final one is able to see man's nature." as. ". its between that-whichit justifies regions as such and nature. to depict this view he uses. for some time we have said everything in the mode of supposition 26. human nature a relation rests on the regioning It into that-which-regions. "Conversation. . "Conversation." p. Evidently truth's independence from to man is of human nature. 86 below. Thus.38 INTRODUCTION is ing Heidegger's claim that Being given. . . 84 below. . caution is necessary And. It justifies such state- as "Truth's nature can come forth independently of man only because the nature of is man (as releasement to that-which-regions) used by that-which-regions in re- gioning both with respect to man and which to sustain determina relation ing. we stand here in the midst of the ultimate." 28 Evidently human relation to that-which-regions. "Conversation. apparently different grounds of these aspects. — . indeed." p. and says he uses.

We may is be inclined to forget. 85 below. . 32. If we forget this. John M." p. that the intoxicating moment when we specific it is. 31. 89 below. the continuity achieved just that continuity which and particular. Anderson 29. 30. still "Which And." p. "Conversation. and the resolve for truth on the other. "Conversation. and until 30 it name 31 for what we have found. "Conversation. we are seeking.INTRODUCTION only." finally. strict Heidegger wishes terpretation of and too an in- what can be said from the midst of the ulti- mate. we shall forget." in its But point he adds. attained in the inter- weaving in thinking of opening and openness on the one hand." By such cautionary words and modes to prevent too literal of expression." p." p. that provides the final step to Being. he personifies Being in the imaginative figure of Night and recasts the argument imaginatively. nevertheless. "Conversation. that the continuity of thinking as specific and particular must reflect and particular about the movement identifying that-which-regions as such and its nature." 29 39 its Thus. that it is and that it probably will vanish. nature. 89 below. he then deliberately reads meaning into "the best it back upon the seems to be at just this Greek word comprising Heraclitus' 122nd Fragment. to name the nature of thinking in falls de- pendence upon that-which-regions. if We may understand the significance of this caution we recall that it is the continuity. 89 below. in stand on this step. too. somesomething specific thing of the vanishing which is an aspect of Being. for "the child in man.

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DISCOURSE ON THINKING .

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If a we are to honor all.MEMORIAL ADDRESS* Let my first public word in my home it town be a word has given of thanks. I thank Mayor Schiihle for his warm-hearted welcome. above is duly honor his work.) Conradin Kreutzer (1780-1849). I And am especially grateful for the privilege of giving the at today's memorial address ceremony. Friends and Neighbors! We are gathered together in commemoration of the composer Conradin Kreutzer. chamber and church music. I thank the path of this my homeland for all that my life. German composer and conductor. Country Path (Tr. He was highly productive in concert. In the case of a musician this done through the performance of his compositions. 2. Honored Guests. we must. operas and musical plays.) 1. a native of our region. Of his works some of his choruses for men and one of his operas are still well known in Germany. Conradin Kreutzer's compositions ring forth today in * This speech was presented at the celebration of the 175th birthday of the composer Conradin Kreutzer on October 50. man whose calling it is to be creative. in Messkirch. choruses and songs. I have tried to those me along explain the nature of endowment in first which 1 few pages entitled "Der Feldweg" appeared in 1 949 in a book honoring the hun- dredth anniversary of the death of Conradin Kreutzer. 43 . 1955. (Tr.

one in : which we think? Hardly! And been put on the program. are often enough thought- . All of think professionally. Yet what are we to think and to say at a memorial which is devoted to a composer? Is it not the distinction of music to "speak" through the sounding of tones and so not to need ordinary language. us.44 DISCOURSE ON THINKING artist song and chorus. But at bottom we merely allow ourselves to be entertained by such a talk. the himself is is present. In these sounds the master. including those Let us not fool ourselves. In listening to such a story. joyful Kreutzer's and recount and describe his is Through such a relating we can find much that and sorrowful. for the master's pres- ence in the work the only true presence. to his come we relate the story of Conradin works. The musicians and come to singers who take part in today's cele- bration are a warrant that Conradin Kreutzer's work will be heard on this occasion. much that is instructive and exemplary. as who were. the language of words? So they say. that we think. in opera and in chamber music. These memories It is to help us to think back both composer we honor and alive as soon as life. The greater the more completely his person vanishes behind his work. Thus even a memorial address gives no assurance that we will think at a memorial it celebration. no reflecting is demanded on what concerns each one of us immediately and continuously in his very being. no thinking at all is needed. to the so a "memorial address" has work. And yet the question remains Do playing and singing alone make our celebration a thoughtful celebration. But does this alone constitute a memorial celebration? A memorial celebration means that we think back.

He and quite rightly that there were at no time such far-reaching plans. research carried on as passion- course. And this display of ingenuity . many and many Of areas. : We rather use this capacity implicitly. Commemorative celebrations grow poorer and poorer in thought. instantly. we can grow deaf only because we only because hear.MEMORIAL ADDRESS poor is . But even while we are thoughtless. get loose from that which we knowingly or unknowthoughtlessness must. Commemoration and thoughtlessness are found side by side. where Just as nothing grows. We can only lose or. Still only that can lie fallow which in itself a ground for growth. we do not give up an uncanny today's world. spring at the ingly possess. so inquiries in so ately as today. Man today will even flatly deny this flight will assert the opposite. is. For our capacity to think. we can grow old we can grow thought-poor or even thought-less only because man at the core of his being has the capacity to think. only to forget it just as quickly. This nor admit flight- from-thought this flight the ground of thoughtlessness. But part of that man will neither see it. 45 we all are far too easily thought-less. just as so we were young. cannot be a fallow field. therefore. He will say — from thinking. Thus one gathering follows on the heels of another. The growing today : from some process that gnaws very marrow of man man is today is is in flight from thinking. Thoughtlessness visitor who comes and goes everywhere in nowadays we take in everything in the quickest and cheapest way. though strangely that in thoughtlessness we let it lie is fallow. has "spirit and reason" and is destined to think. as the phrase goes. An expressway. such as a field.

not thinking which contemplates the meaning which reigns in everything that is. It is worthdealing with current business. medi- tative thinking does not just happen by itself any more than . In this "above" the reach of ordinary excuse only this much is true. itself. that is mere meditative thinking. There are. It neither works with numbers nor uses an adding machine or computer. two kinds of thinking. ever more promising and at the culative thinking races same time more economical possibilities. and organize. finally. Such thought remains indispensable. understanding. This calculation is the Thus we mark of thinking that plans and investigates. This meditative thinking is what we have is in mind when we say that contemporary : man in flight-from-thinking. Yet you floating less for may protest mere meditative thinking finds itself unaware above reality. research. It profits nothing in carrying out practical And you may say. persevering meditation. Calculative think- computes ever new. It loses touch. then. each justified and needed in its own way calculative thinking and medi: tative thinking. Its — it also remains true that it is peculiarity consists in the fact that whenever we plan. we always reckon with conditions that are given. Such thinking reif it mains calculation even ing computes.46 DISCOURSE ON THINKING its deliberation has own great usefulness. But thinking of a special kind. affairs. never collects culative thinking is Cal- not meditative thinking. We take them into account with the cal- culated intention of their serving specific purposes. Calculative thinking never stops. can count on definite all results. Calfrom one prospect to the next.

Silesia." {Works. ed. It is in need of even more effort.MEMORIAL ADDRESS does calculative thinking. a meditating being. We grow thoughtful and ask : does not the flourishing of any genuine work depend upon its roots in a native soil? Johann Peter Hebel once wrote: "We are plants which whether we like to admit it to ourselves or not must with our roots rise out of the earth in order to bloom in the ether and to bear fruit. 314. Ether . we cannot help remembering at once that during the last two centuries great poets and thinkers have been brought forth from the Swabian land. each one of us. on this patch of home ground now. But it must also to bide its time." It is enough if we dwell on what lies close and meditate on what is closest upon that which concerns us.) The poet means to say: For a truly joyous and salutary human work to flourish. 5 in the present hour of history. 47 At times it requires a greater more practice. cause man is a thinking. What does this celebration suggest to us. Why? Bemeditative thinking need is. It demands delicate care than any other genuine craft. to be able await as does the farmer. Thinking about is it further makes clear at once that Central Germany and likewise such a land. whether ripen. Thus by no means be "high-flown. the seed will come up and Yet anyone can follow the path of meditative thinking in his own manner and within his own limits. As we hold this simple fact in mind. Bohemia. in case we are ready to meditate? Then we notice that a work of art has flowered in the ground of our homeland. here and now here. and so are East Prussia. that 5 . man must be able to mount from — the depth of his home ground up into the ether. Altwegg III.

And those who have stayed on in their homeland? Often they are still more homeless than those who have been driven from their homeland. and daily they are chained to radio and television. closer than the change from night to day. that is. Week after week the movies carry them off into uncommon. : We — . grow more thoughtful and ask What is happening here with those driven from their homeland no less than with those who have remained? Answer: the rootedness. realms of the imagination. and have resettled in the leave their villages and towns. have had to from their native soil. and give the illusion of a world that is no world. have yet wandered off. They have been caught up in the turmoil of the big cities. closer than the sky over the earth. Hourly wastelands of industrial districts. but often merely common. All that with techniques of communication stimulate. the open realm of the spirit. Picture magazines are everywhere available. be autochthonic? Many Germans have lost their homeland. and drive man — all that is already much closer to man today than his fields around his farmstead. We grow more thoughtful and ask: does this claim of Johann Peter Hebel hold today? Does man still dwell calmly between heaven and earth? Does a meditative spirit still reign over the land? Is there still a life-giving homeland in whose ground man may stand rooted. than the tradition of his native world. which modern assail.48 DISCOURSE ON THINKING here means the free air of the high heavens. Countless others whose homeland was saved. closer than the conventions and customs of his village. have been driven They are strangers now to their former homeland.

this 3. does not stand idly by. Nuclear physicists everywhere are busy that is 5 The age now beginning with vast plans energy.MEMORIAL ADDRESS the autochthony. first of all England. atomic energy this can develop a gigantic business. can man's work in the future still be expected to thrive in the fertile ground of a homeland and mount into the ether. The into loss of autochthony springs from the all spirit of the age can which of us were born. eighteen Nobel Prize winners The German Bodenstandigkeit literal or a is translated rootedness or autochthony depending on a more figurative connotation. of organization and automation? If we reflect upon what our celebration today suggests. then we must observe the loss of man's autochthony with which our age is threatened. Thus in July of year at Lake Constance. man. It publicly proclaims this era of happiness. to implement the peaceful uses of atomic have figured out already that into The great industrial corporations of the leading countries. (Tr. too. of 49 its man is threatened today at is core! Even more The : loss of rootedness caused not merely by it circumstance and fortune. Nuclear science. : We grow still more thoughtful and ask If this is so. into the far reaches of the heavens and the spirit? Or will everything now fall into the clutches of planning and calculation. And we ask What really is happening in our age? By what is it characterized? : has been called of late most conspicuous symbol is the atom the atomic age. is Through atomic business a new era of happiness en- visioned. But this symbolizes only the obvious for it was recognized at once that atomic energy can be used also for peaceful purposes. Its bomb.) . nor does stem only from the negligence and the superficiality of man's way of life.

Why? : Because is we forget to ponder. which and by which man is placed in a different world. Nature bestation. It long remained unknown in other continents. From ject this arises a completely it. developed in the seventeenth century first and only in Europe. and it was al- together alien to former ages and histories. Because nature ? we forget to ask What the ground that enabled set free modern technology This is to discover and new energies in due to a revolution in leading concepts has been going on for the past several centuries. It rules the whole beginning to earth." What is the sense of this statement? Does spring from of the reflection? Does ! it ever ponder on the if meaning from a atomic age ? of science. new relation of man to the world and his place in open nothing The world now appears as an ob- to the attacks of calculative is thought. attacks that believed able comes a gigantic gasoline any longer to resist. already man is advance beyond the the earth into outer space. The power concealed the relation of in man to that modern technology determines which exists. No For we rest content with this statement we remain as far as possible reflective insight into our age. in principle a technical one. This relation of man to the world as such. In not quite twenty years. an energy source for modern technology and industry.50 DISCOURSE ON THINKING [and that is stated in a proclamation: "Science modern natural science] is a road to a happier human it life. This radical rev- olution in outlook has come about in modern philosophy. Indeed. such gigantic sources of power have become known through discovery of atomic energy that in the foreseeable future the world's demands for energy of any kind will be ensured .

In circled ever all areas of his existence. drag along. since man has not made them. that accomplishments come most speedily to be known and publicly admired. Thus the decisive question of science and technology today is no longer Where do we find sufficient quantities of fuel ? The decisive question now runs In what way can we tame and direct the unimaginably vast amounts of atomic energies. press and impose upon man under the form of some technical contrivance or other these forces. But this too is characteristic of the new world of technol- ogy. and especially air news reporting. future it will be possible and timber. as the occurrence of coal. which everywhere and every minute claim.MEMORIAL ADDRESS forever. new era of technical developWhat we know now as the technology of transportation. oil. enchain. of transportation be stopped. man will be en- more tightly by the forces of technology. These forces. "run away" and and it de- stroy everything? If the taming of atomic energy is will be successful. then a totally ment will begin. have moved long since beyond his — will and have outgrown its his capacity for decision. and as medical and nutritional technology. Soon the procurement of the 51 new energies will no is longer be tied to certain countries and continents. Thus today everyone will be . No one can foresee the radical changes to come. But technological advance will move faster and faster and can never of film and television. In the foreseeable to build atomic power stations anywhere on earth. and so secure mankind against the danger : : that these gigantic energies suddenly tary actions —break —even without successful. mili- out somewhere. is presumably only a crude start.

We even marvel at the daring of scientific research. no commission of prominent statesmen. Yet it is not that the world is becoming entirely technical which is really uncanny. merely to take notice 5 another thing is. our inability to confront meditatively what is really dawning in this age. Far more uncanny is our being unprepared for this transformation. scientists. to understand what we have heard and read. that to ponder. without thinking about sider that it." We take notice of such a statement. a defenseless and perplexed victim at the pared upon the . Stanley. split and change living substance at will. and technicians. an uncanny change in the world moves upon us. For precisely if the hydrogen bombs do not explode and human life on earth is preserved. But — on the one thing to have heard and read someit is thing. No single man. no group of men. had this to say "The hour is near when life will be placed in the hands of the chemist who will be able to synthesize.52 able to read DISCOURSE ON THINKING what it is this talk says about technology in any it competently managed picture magazine or hear radio. can brake or direct the progress of history in the atomic age. no conference of leaders of commerce and industry. There the American chemist. that is. No merely human organization is capable of gaining dominion over it. then. Is man. The international meeting of Nobel Prize winners took place again in the summer of this year of 1955 in Lindau. We do not stop to conis an attack with technological means life being pre- and nature of man compared with which the explosion of the hydrogen bomb means little.

now what at this is commemoration. Thus we ask now: even lost in this age. Let us give vices. the arrangements. it a trial. For all of us. Meditative thinking demands of us that we engage ourselves with what at first sight does not go together at all. Meditative thinking demands of us not to cling one-sidedly to a single idea. For here we are con- threatened especially in the atomic age the autochthony of the works of man. last occasion work unceasingly and on every here and sidering —hence. It 5 . a foundation and ground out of which man's nature and all his works can flourish in a new way even in the atomic age ? What could the ground and at foundation be for the new autochthony? Perhaps the answer we are looking for lies it. hand to 3 so near that is we is all too easily overlook For the way what near always the longest and thus the hardest for us humans. would be shortsighted to condemn it as We depend on technical devices they even challenge us to ever greater advances. is must be at also. if the old rootedness being may not a new ground and foundation be granted again to man. But once meditative thinking awakens. nor to run down a one-track course of ideas. This way is the way of meditative thinking.MEMORIAL ADDRESS 55 mercy of the irresistible superior power of technology? He would be if man today abandons any intention to pit meditative thinking decisively against merely calculative thinkit ing. deand machinery of technology are to a greater or lesser extent indispensable. But suddenly and unaware we find ourselves so firmly shackled to nology blindly. It would be foolish to attack tech- the work of the devil.

Thus here. But will not saying both yes and no devices this way to technical make our relation to technology ambivalent and insecure? On the contrary! Our relation to technology will become wonderfully simple and relaxed. we may let go of them any time." also has older meanings. We can use technical devices as they ought to be used. it is not a meaningless relation. It gives us clear vision and we notice that while the production and use of machines demands of us Having this another relation to things. Farming and agriculture." and "unconcern. and also let them alone as something which does not affect our inner and real core. let them alone.) . 4. being used by early German mystics (as Meister Eckhart) in the sense of letting the world go and giving oneself to God. as Die Gelassenheit zu den Dingen. We can use technical devices. Gelassenheit. although used today in in the sense of "composure. and at the same time leave them outside. for example. as things which are nothing absolute but remain dependent upon something higher. now have turned into a motorized food industry. that and yet with proper use also keep ourselves so free of them. "Releasement" is not as old a word in English. We let technical devices enter our daily life. it can carry with relative ease the very special and complex meanings which are implicit here and made German explicit in the Conversation which follows. that is. but because it is rare and so free from too specific connotative meanings. comportment we no longer view things only in a technical way." by an old word. releasement toward things. and lay waste our nature. we can act otherwise. confuse.54 DISCOURSE ON THINKING we fall into these technical devices that Still bondage to them. evidently. We can affirm the unavoidable use of technical devices. (Tr. I would call this comportment toward technology which expresses "yes" and at the same time "no. and also deny them the right to dominate us. and so to warp." "calmness.

Why? Just be- war might break out unexpectedly and bring about the complete annihilation of humanity and the cause a third world . Releasement toward things and openness give us a vision of a to the mystery might be fit to recapture the old new autochthony which someday even and now rapidly disappear- ing autochthony in a changed form. I call the comportment which enables us to keep open to the meaning hidden in technology. We do not know the sig- nificance of the technology. openness to the itself mystery. to the mystery They grant us the possibility of dwelling in the world in a totally different way. They promise us a new ground and foundation upon which we can stand and endure in the world of technology without being imperiled by it. There is then in all technical us. we stand at once within the realm of that which hides from us. and hides itself just in approaching us. That which shows itself and at the same time withdraws is the essential trait of what we call the mystery. uncanny increasing dominance of atomic The meaning pervading technology hides itexplicitly But if we and continuously heed the fact that such hidden meaning touches us everywhere in the world of technology. processes meaning.MEMORIAL ADDRESS elsewhere. But for the time being —we do not know for how long man finds himself in a perilous situation. not invented or made by which lays claim to what man does and leaves undone. a profound change tion to nature is 55 taking place in man's rela- and to the world. But the meaning that reigns a in this change remains obscure. Releasement toward things and openness belong together. self.

Perhaps today's memorial celebration will prompt us to- ward this. bewitch. the life-giving powers of his Heuberg homeland. then we should arrive at a path that . Strange indeed. releasement toward things and openness it to the mystery awaken within us. we think of Conradin Kreutzer by thinking of the origin of his work. through If and out of it. And then? Then man would nature is — have denied and thrown away his own special is that he a meditative being. but only as long as In what sense assertion is we do the statement just made valid? This valid in the sense that the approaching tide of technological revolution in the atomic age could so captivate. Yet releasement toward things and openness to the mystery never happen of themselves. Both flourish only through persistent. total thoughtlessness. And it is we who think if we know ourselves here and now as the men who must find and prepare the way into the atomic age. is A strange assertion! not meditate. Therefore. the issue is keeping meditative thinking alive. and beguile man that calculative thinking may someday come way of thinking. They do not befall us accidentally. to be accepted and practiced as the only What great danger then might there might go in calculative move upon us? Then hand in hand with the greatest ingenuity planning and inventing indifference toward meditative thinking. Therefore.56 DISCOURSE ON THINKING dawning atomic age destruction of the earth? No. dazzle. the issue the saving of man's essential nature. In this a far greater danger threatens of a third world — precisely when the danger war has been removed. If we respond to the prompting. cou- rageous thinking.

the truth of what Johann Peter Hebel says should be renewed We not —must with our are plants which —whether we like to admit it to ourselves or roots rise out of the earth in order to bloom in the ether and to bear fruit. In that ground the creativity which produces lasting works could strike new roots. .MEMORIAL ADDRESS will lead to a 57 new ground and foundation. Thus in a different manner and in a changed age.

and a teacher.II CONVERSATION ON A COUNTRY PATH ABOUT THINKING* Scientist: Toward I the last you stated that the question conis cerning man's nature not a question about man. Scholar: But thinking. Scientist: is the case Even It is is so. understood in the traditional way. too. Kant. Teacher: a mystery to me too. a scholar. can be seen only by looking away from thinking. then surely the essence of this nature. at To behold man's nature without looking man! Teacher: Why not? If thinking is what distinguishes man's namely the nature. it is a mystery to me how man's nature ever to be found by looking away from man. 58 . as re-presenting is a kind of willing. under- * This discourse was taken from a conversation written down in 1944-45 between a scientist. Teacher: said only that the question concerning is man's nature makes a consideration whether this unavoidable. so I seek to clarify how far this Scientist: possible. or perhaps even necessary. nature of thinking.

willing. for one thing. Scholar: Non. what remains absolutely outside any kind of Scientist: So that it can never be carried out or reached by any the willing. Scientist: Am I right if I state the relation this of the one sense a non- of non. in answer to your question as to what I really wanted from our meditation on the nature of thinking. I confess that ever have tried it to reflect on what moves our conattention. is is Then the statement that the nature of thinking something other than thinking means that thinking something other than willing. means it a willing in such a way as to involve negation. Teacher: why. will. to the other as follows? You want willing in the sense of a renouncing of willing. see. Scientist: Meanwhile this formulation has proved ambiguthat is : And ous. Teacher: But perhaps first we come nearer to it by a willing in sense of non-willing. has claimed my not chal- lenged me. Scholar: You the two senses of non-willing as standing in a definite relation to each other. or at least prepare to re- . then. further. therefore willingly to renounce willing. which is directed at willing.and renounces : Non-willing means.willing. Scientist: To think to will. be even in the sense of a negation it. and to will is to think. if versation. And the term non-willing means. I replied I want non-willing. Teacher: Not only do since I I see this relation. so that through we may release.CONVERSATION ON stands thinking this A COUNTRY PATH characterizes it 59 as way when he is spontaneity.

. have surpassed both us and yourself titled to — if anyone were en- mete out praise and if that were not contrary to the style of our conversations. . . which . ourselves to the sought-for essence of a thinking that is not a willing. uncovered something should now be tempted to say that you. by the word — who takes us by the hand — or better in this conversation. in your interpretation of the ambiguous talk about non-willing. is why we are still far from human habitato trust in the in- Scientist: Ever more openly I am coming conspicuous guide said. consists in . then I would soon be freed Scholar: So far as we can wean ourselves from willing. Scientist: That I succeeded in this. you state an exciting demand released manner. . you say. Scholar: It leaves us time for meditating by slowing down our pace. Scholar: Will. but if by the gods! as I would say Scholar: I they had not flown from us. which without forcing compels concentration. we contribute to the awakening of releasement. Scholar: We need this guidance. in a Teacher: If only I possessed already the right releasement. you have essential. was not my doing but that of the night having set in. . and not merely willing Scientist: and so. of that task of weaning. Teacher: You are not only right. our conversation becomes ever more Teacher: If by "difficult" you mean the unaccustomed task weaning ourselves from will. because difficult. Teacher: That tion.60 DISCOURSE ON THINKING lease.

You speak without letup of a letting-be and give the impression that All the same. lies — activity. . . . because releasement does not belong to the domain Scientist: of the will. to keeping awake for releasement. Thus releasement is effected from somewhere else. as is the case with old masters of thought such as Meister Eckhart. is found in all the actions within the world .CONVERSATION ON Scholar: A COUNTRY PATH 61 Teacher: Say rather. into releasement is And still the more. Why not. it is think understand that in no way a matter of weakly allowing things to slide and drift along. Then releasement . Scientist: lie —beyond . The transition difficult to all what seems Teacher: from willing me. still Scholar: Especially so because even releasement can be thought of as within the domain of will. . Scholar: To be sure I don't know yet what the word releasement means but I seem to presage that releasement Scientist: 5 awakens when our nature with that which Scientist: is is let-in so as to have dealings not a willing. . but let in. . and in the machinations of all mankind which higher acting is yet no . Scholar: Perhaps a higher acting is concealed in release- ment than Teacher: . to the awakening? Teacher: Because on our own we do not awaken release- ment in ourselves. Teacher: Not effected. I what I is meant is a kind of passivity. if we may use the word the distinction between activity and pas- sivity Scholar: . . since the nature of release- ment is hidden.

Scholar: Certainly . . Teacher: We are to do nothing. Teacher: Poor or not. But by forgetting too quickly we give up thinking. Yet perhaps the nature of thinkfixed in releasement. as soon as we stop fooling are still ourselves. is Scholar: That poor consolation. all Teacher: the same. I know less and less what we are talking about.62 DISCOURSE ON THINKING From whom. I we are seeking Scientist: With the best of will. not that. Teacher: Precisely because this will of yours and your mode Scholar: of thinking as re-presenting prevent it. knows that. much can be learned. what in the world am I to do? am asking myself that too. Scientist: I But then. We way ing are trying to determine the nature of thinking.. but wait. we should not await consolation be doing if something consolate. But at the same time. but evidently does not what we have called releasement mean casting off sinful selfishness and letting self-will go in favor of the divine will. And yet we have our path? it Teacher: To be sure. What has releasement to do with thinking? if Teacher: Nothing we is conceive thinking in the traditional as re-presenting. Scientist: In many respects it is clear to me what the word releasement should not signify for us. Scientist: we would still we became dis- Then what I we to wait? hardly of us Teacher: Scholar: None we to wait for? And where are know anymore who and where I am. can not re-present to my- self this nature of thinking. Teacher: No.

if I understand correctly. this in the appearance of a bowl. Scholar: That tional means that you would not discard the I tradi- view of the nature of thinking? said in our earlier Teacher: Have you forgotten what conversation about what is revolutionary? to Scientist: Forgetfulness does seem be an especial danger in such conversations. . and of animals as that view into which we look when one thing confronts us in the appearance of a tree. Teacher: goes beyond the appearance of the objects. in order to and into the nature of thinking which we have not yet come to know? Teacher: Why. of a stone. Scientist: Previously. Scholar: This re-presenting. Teacher: mean exactly that. Scholar: So now. even though we hardly know and above I all are unable to place it properly. of a bowl. we are to view what we it call releasement in connection with the nature of thinking as talked about. of a pitcher. places before us what is typical of a tree. Scholar: Just as transcendence-passes beyond the perception of objects. another thing in the appearance of a pitcher. about that from whence alone such a transipass over to tion can happen. many in the appearance of plants.CONVERSATION ON Scientist: A COUNTRY PATH 63 What are we still to think about. we had come to see thinking in the form of transcendental-horizonal re-presenting. the horizon circles the view of a thing — which en- the field of vision. once again. of plants. for instance. of animals. and many in the appearance Scientist: You It describe. various things in the appearance of stones.

is said this something as itself. is Teacher: What evident of the horizon. is but the side facing us of an openness which surrounds us. . Teacher: Horizon and transcendence. then. Scholar: Likewise jects. .64 DISCOURSE ON THINKING we determine what . which the view within a . rather that comes out of this to meet us. Therefore its Teacher: We say that we is the field of vision something open. into this openness Scientist: . What do you have in mind in this statement? look into the horizon. . are experienced and determined only presenting them. consequence the horizon the other side of is still Scientist: In something so the else besides a horizon. . Teacher: Thus is called horizon and transcendence by means of this going beyond and pass- ing beyond Scholar: . we dis- regard that presenting? can also appear as the horizon of our re- . . . Yet after what has been itself. . an with views of the appearances of openness which is filled what to our re-presenting are objects. thus. we . else is You it say that the horizon is this same the openness which and if surrounds us. do not place the appearance of obfield of vision offers us. Scholar: relative to objects and our re- Why To is do you stress this? Teacher: suggest that in this way what lets the horizon be what it Scientist: has not yet been encountered at all. but openness is not due to our looking. But what openness as such. which refer back to objects and our re- presenting of objects.

CONVERSATION ON
Teacher:
It strikes

A

COUNTRY PATH
like a region,

65

me

as

something
it rests.

an en-

chanted region where everything belonging there returns to that in which
Scholar: I'm not sure I understand

what you say now. Teacher: I don't understand it either, if by "understanding" you mean the capacity to re-present what is put before us as if sheltered amid the familiar and so secured for I, too, lack the familiar in which to place what I
tried to say about openness as a region.

Scientist:

That

is

perhaps impossible here,

if for call

no other
a region

reason than because presumably what you
is

exactly that
I

which alone permits

all

sheltering.

Teacher:
Scholar:

mean something like this; but not only this. You spoke of "a" region in which everything
itself.

re-

turns to
is

Strictly speaking, a region for everything

not one region

among many, but

the region of

all

regions.

Teacher:
Scientist:

You

what is in question is the region. And the enchantment of this region might well
are right 5
its

be the reign of
it that.

nature,

its

regioning,

if I

may

call

Scholar: It seems a region holds
5

what comes forward

to

meet us but we also said of the horizon that out of the view which it encircles, the appearance of objects comes to meet us. If now we comprehend the horizon through the region, we take the region itself as that which comes to meet us. Teacher: In this way, indeed, we would characterize the
region through
its

relation to us, just as

ago with the horizon

—whereas we

we

did a

moment

are searching for the

66

DISCOURSE ON THINKING
nature, in
itself,

of the openness that surrounds us. If

we now say this is the region, and say it with the meaning we just gave it, then the word must name something
else.

Scientist:

Moreover, the coming

to

meet us

is

not at

all

a

basic characteristic of region, let alone the basic char-

Scholar: In

word imply? "Gegnet" and means open expanse. Can anything be learned from this about the nature of what we now call the region ? Teacher: The region gathers, just as if nothing were
acteristic.

What

does this

its

older

form

it is

happening, each to each and each
while resting in
itself.

to all into
is

an abiding,

Regioning

a gathering

and

re-sheltering for an expanded resting in an abiding.

Scholar: So the region

itself is at

once an expanse and an

abiding. It abides into the expanse of resting. It expands
into the abiding of

what has

freely turned toward

itself.

In view of

this

usage of the word,

we may

also

say "that-

which-regions" in place of the familiar "region."
Teacher: That-which-regions gathering
all,
is

an abiding expanse which,
that in
it

opens

itself, so

openness

is

halted

and held,

letting everything

merge in

its

own

resting.

Scientist: I believe I see that-which-regions as

withdrawing

rather than coming to meet us
1.

.

.

.

for region is Gegend. What is in question here, not region in general, but as Heidegger says, "the region of or the region. Heidegger ("die Gegend aller Gegenden") all regions" uses an old variant of Gegend as the word for the region: die Gegnet a word that still occurs in spoken German although only in South German dialects. Since an analogous variant is not available for the English counterpart, die Gegnet has been rendered in the text by the phrase that-whichregions. That-which-regions reflects a movement attributed by Heidegger to die Gegnet and further emphasized by his use of the verb gegnen (to re-

The German word
is

however,

gion). (Tr.)

CONVERSATION ON
Scholar:

A

COUNTRY PATH

67

...

so that things

which appear in that-whichstand opposite us, they

regions no longer have the character of objects.

Teacher:

They not only no longer
at all.

no longer stand
Scientist:

Do they lie, then,
They
lie, if

or

Teacher:

by

this

how about them? we mean that resting which

was

just discussed.

Scientist:

But where do things rest?

What

does resting

consist of?

Teacher:

They

rest in the return to the abiding of the

expanse of their self-belonging.
Scholar: But in this return, which after
all is

movement,

can there be rest?
Teacher: Indeed there can,
of
all

if rest is

the seat and the reign

movement.

Scientist: I

must confess that I can't quite re-present in my mind all that you say about region, expanse and abiding, and about return and resting.
it

Scholar: Probably

can't be re-presented at

all,

in so far
object

as in re-presenting everything has

become an

that stands opposite us within a horizon.
Scientist:

Then we

can't really describe

what we have

named?
Teacher: No.

Any

description
it

Scholar: Neverthless

lets

would reify it. itself be named, and being
.
. .

named
Teacher:
Scientist:

it
. .

can be thought about
.

only

if

thinking
else

is

no longer re-presenting.
it

But then what

should

be?

Teacher: Perhaps
Scholar:

we now

are close to being released into
.
. .

the nature of thinking
.

.

.

through waiting for

its

nature.

. waited for something without knowcould wait? ing for what. but as soon as and fix we wait we always wait for something. Scientist: But openness . .. but without re-presenting anything Teacher: Yet you have thought something. it in whose nearness is it finds the abiding in which Scientist: remains. if Scientist: Yet Scholar: Certainly. we really wait no longer. . . Teacher: In waiting Scholar: we leave open what we are waiting itself into for. Then thinking would be is ness of distance. lets I should say that waiting It really lets re-presenting entirely alone. Teacher: Because waiting releases Scholar: . we re-present to ourselves upon that for which we wait.. Why? openness . which Scientist: when we think. Scholar: But how come you suddenly . for But remaining itself Scholar: Openness would be that which we could do nothing but wait. for await- ing already links itself with re-presenting and what go of that. itself is that-which-regions . . Teacher: . . has no object. . into the expanse of distance . to myself. Scientist: Or. Scientist: I only brought together that which we have named. into which we are released by way of waitcoming-into-the-nearnature.68 DISCOURSE ON THINKING all Teacher: Waiting. . . a returning. . but never awaiting. re-presented. however. or rather is Scholar: Waiting. really. right . Teacher: ing. Scholar: That a daring definition of its we have chanced upon.

CONVERSATION ON
Scientist:

A

COUNTRY PATH
now,
all

69

As

I see

more

clearly just

during our

conversation I have been waiting for the arrival of the

nature of thinking. But waiting
to
all

itself

has become clearer

me now

and therewith

this too, that

presumably

we

became more waitful along our path. Teacher: Can you tell us how this is so?
Scientist:
I'll

be glad

to try,

providing

I

don't have to run
to particular

the risk that you will at once pin

me down

words.

Teacher: In our conversations,
Scholar: Rather,

we

don't usually do that.

we

see to

it

that

we move

freely in the

realm of words.
Teacher: Because a word does not and never can re-present

anything but
5

signifies

something, that
its

is,

shows some-

thing as abiding into the range of
Scientist: I

expressibility.

am to

say

why I

came to wait and the

way

I

suc-

ceeded in clarifying the nature of thinking.

I tried to re-

lease myself of all re-presenting, because waiting

moves

into openness without re-presenting anything. And, re-

leased

from re-presenting,

I tried to release

myself purely

to that-which-regions because that-which-regions is the

opening of openness.
Teacher: If
I

have

it

rightly, then,

you

tried to let yourself

into releasement.
Scientist:

To be

honest, I did not think of this partic-

ularly, although

we

just spoke of releasement.

which led me to let myself into waiting in mentioned was more the course of the conversation than
casion

The octhe way

the re-presentation of the specific objects
Scholar:

we

spoke about.
fittingly

We can hardly come to releasement more

than through an occasion of letting ourselves

in.

70

DISCOURSE ON THINKING
all

Teacher: Above

when

the occasion

is

as inconspicuous

as the silent course of a conversation that

moves

us.

Scholar: But that means, the conversation brings us to that

path which seems nothing
Teacher:
Scholar:
. .
.

else

than releasement
like rest.

itself

.

.

.

which

is

something

At

this point,

how movement comes from
suddenly becomes clearer
to

rest

and remains
Teacher:

let into rest

me.

Then releasement would be not only

a path but

a movement.

Scholar:

Where does this strange path go? Where the movement proper to it rest? Teacher: Where else but in that-which-regions, in
tion to

does

rela-

which releasement

is

what

it is.

Scientist: Finally I
it

really

must now go back and ask, how far releasement into which I tried to let myself?

is

Scholar: This question causes us great embarrassment.

Teacher: In which
along our path.
Scientist:

we have found

ourselves constantly

How

so?

Teacher: Because what

we have

designated
it

by

a

word

never has that word hanging on
Scientist:

like a

name

plate.

Whatever we designate has been nameless before this is true as well of what we name releasement. What do we go by, then, in order to estimate whether and

how

far the

name
all

is

adequate?

Scholar:

Or does
is it

designation remain an arbitrary act

with regard
Teacher: But
at all?

to the

nameless?
is

really settled that there

the nameless

There

is

only because the

much which we often cannot say, but name it has does not occur to us.

CONVERSATION ON
Scholar:

A

COUNTRY PATH
of designation

71
it

have
tion.

its

By virtue name?

of

what kind

would

Teacher: Perhaps these names are not the result of designa-

They are owed to a naming in which the namable, the name and the named occur altogether. Scientist: What you just said about naming is unclear to me.
Scholar: Probably that
is

connected with the nature of

words.
Scientist:

However, what you noted about designation, and about the fact that there is nothing nameless, is clearer
me.

to

Scholar: Because releasement.

we can

test it in

the case of the

name

Teacher: Or have tested
Scientist:

it

already.

How
What

so?
is it

Teacher:

that

you designated by the name

re-

leasement?
Scientist: If I

may say so, not I but you have used this name.
have done the designating.
did it?

Teacher:
Scholar:

I,

as little as you,

Then who
is

None

of us?

Teacher: Presumably, for in the region in which
everything
doing.
Scientist:

we

stay

in the best order only

if it

has been no one's

A
to

mysterious region where there

is

nothing for

which

be answerable.
it is

Teacher: Because
answerable to
Scholar: For us

the region of the word, which

is

itself alone.
it

remains only to

listen to the

answer
only

proper to the word.

Teacher: That

is

enough even when our
5
. .

telling

is

a retelling of the answer heard

.

but what is already designated. we as thinking beings (that we were not. Scholar: Thus to go into that-which-regions. were held in its own nature by that to which Teacher: The relation to that-which-regions : is waiting. as the experience I referred a first retelling or to indicates. Scientist: That sounds as if before then we had been side that-which-regions. and when it doesn't matter in this if there who does it. releasement. Insofar as beings who at the same time re-present transcendentally) stay within the hori- zon of transcendence. What is this waiting? Scientist: Insofar as waiting relates to openness and openis ness is that-which-regions. insofar as waiting releases itself to that-whichregions. let us consider only what it is we name by it. all the more since one often doesn't know whose tale he retells. we are not and never could be is outside that-which-regions. and yet is. we can say that waiting a relation to that-which-regions. Scholar: Then it a relation to something would be the true relation if it relates.72 Scientist: is . Teacher: And so not something nameless. and in doing so lets that-which-regions reign purely as such. Scientist: And that is waiting. And waiting means to release oneself into the openness of that-which-regions. DISCOURSE ON THINKING . . out- Teacher: That we were. Yet the horizon but the . Teacher: Perhaps it is even the relation to that-which- regions. Scholar: So let's not quarrel over who first introduced the name.

Scientist: Something which happens in waiting. insofar as he originally belongs to it He belongs to insofar as he is appropriated initially to thatitself. regions and. me that as the horizon rather con- Teacher: Certainly. so far as And yet again we are still not in we have not released ourselves for that-which- regions. in his being. re-presenting transcendentally. yet that does not hit alone exhaust Scholar: it. Teacher: As you have said. through this it He is released to it. is without necessarily being preceded by such being-reto be the proper reif this relation is and de- termined solely by what it is related to. Scientist: This being-released-from is the first aspect of relet leasement. which-regions and. out into the horizon. we step it. and must have received from cause in releasement it movement toward it. That-which-regions surrounds us to us as the horizon. indeed. in waiting we are released from our transcendental relation to the horizon. Scholar: It seems to ceals itself. indeed. Scholar: If authentic releasement lation to that-which-regions. through this . then authentic releasement must be based upon that-which-regions. as such. How not? may come about Teacher: So far as authentic releasement leased-from horizontal transcendence. Teacher: Releasement comes out of that-which-regions be- man stays released to that-whichitself. its nature exactly.CONVERSATION ON A COUNTRY PATH and reveals it 75 side of that-which-regions turned toward our re-presentitself ing. nevertheless we are in that-which- regions when.

is cause its nature lies Teacher: But by this you say that the nature of thinking not determined through thinking and so not through waiting as such.) . waiting which is essenis 2 that is. Teacher: Yet the nature of this waiting that-which-regions. Teacher: Out of the experience of and in relation to just such waiting upon the opening of that-which-regions. waiting came to be spoken of as releasement. if I since resting in so. of its belonging to that- then thinking changes in releasement from such a re-presenting to waiting upon that-which-regions. lets releasement belong to lies.74 DISCOURSE ON THINKING it is Scholar: In fact (supposing that tial. 23. See Introduction for comment on the use of "waiting upon." p. Scientist: heretofore the reigning essence of think- ing has been that transcendental-horizonal re-presenting from which releasement. that-which-regions. (Tr. 2. which then it. But because it is is releasement to that-which-regions it. all-decisive) . all as regioning first brings forth this nature. waiting upon something based on our belonging in that upon which we wait. and regionall the same I can re-present nothing of to myself. that is. the nature of thinking may say in the re- gioning of releasement by that-which-regions. after a fashion. Scholar: Thinking is releasement to that-which-regions bein the regioning of releasement. because which-regions. about releasement. Scientist: I that we have it said now ing. through that-which-regions which can follow. Scholar: Thus waiting upon that-which-regions But if is named adequately. releases itself. but through the other-than-itself.

Scientist: It can't is What are we to call the regioning of that-which-regions with respect to things? be regioning with respect to man for that the relation of that-which-regions to releasement. to its — if you think what was accordance with said in accordance with Scientist: nature. . a regioning which releases releasement into that-whichregions. sage the nature of thinking as releasement.CONVERSATION ON Scholar: A COUNTRY PATH 75 You aren't supposed. You mean that we wait upon it in is. Scholar: We are suspended as it were between the two. is Teacher: Yet our stand in this betweenness Scholar: That the nature of releasement into which the regioning of that-which-regions regions man. Scholar: However. that-which- regions is thinking only as the regioning of releasement. and so into belonging to it. We pre- Teacher: Only to forget releasement again as quickly. Teacher: But regions? Scientist: if we are already appropriated to that-which- What good does that do us if we aren't truly appropriated? Scholar: Scientist: Thus we are and we are not. so that this releases our nature into that-whichregions. Teacher: We are to bear in mind that thinking is in no way Releasement to self-subsisting releasement. which I myself have experienced as waiting. the changed nature of thinking. that-which-regions also makes things endure in the abiding expanse. Again this restless to and fro between yes and is no. Scientist: That. waiting. Scholar: That wait upon the regioning of that-which- regions.

little indeed That-which- regions in 5 its regioning is neither the horizon of release- ment nor is it the horizon of things. Scientist: Similarly. . also. but only as regioning. you shouldn't hesitate to speak in a scholarly manner. Teacher: . . To state it still more briefly and more generally: the relation between if it that-which-regions and releasement. . .76 DISCOURSE ON THINKING and releasement is said to shelter in itself the nature of thinking. as as that-which-regions effects releasement. can still be con- sidered a relation. Teacher: Evidently things are things through the region- ing of that-which-regions as an earlier conversation on the abiding of the pitcher in the expanse of that-which- regions showed. whether we experience them only as objects or take them as "thingsin-themselves" and in addition to objects. whereas things themselves do not think. However. can be thought of neither as ontic nor as ontological . the relation between that-which- regions and the thing is neither a connection of cause to . Teacher: After that scholarly reservation. the relation of that-which-regions to releasement is neither a connection of cause to effect. Scholar: As you state it. the regioning of that-whichregions does not cause and effect things. nor the transcendental-horizonal relation. Scholar: What you now I say seems to me so decisive that I would course like to try fixing it in scholarly terminology. Of know that such terminology not only freezes it thought. but at the same time also renders ambiguous with just that ambiguity which unavoidably adheres to ordinary terminology.

Teacher: What are we then to call the relation of thatif which-regions to the thing. that is even now in bringing a certain clarity into this variety Still.. is But determining not making and effecting. . precisely that relation remains unde- fined whose characterization concerns the relation of me most of all. . Teacher: . thing abide in itself? that-which-regions lets the Scientist: It determines the thing. Scientist: is it it is best called the determining. by learning to become aware of the nature of thinking Scholar: . by waiting upon determining and regioning with respect to man. Scholar: But evidently. A COUNTRY PATH 77 nor the transcendental-horizonal relation. and hence neither an ontic nor an ontological relation. the relation of that-which-regions to the thing also is not regioning with respect to man's nature. I mean Scholar: man to the thing. . Why are you so persistent about this relation? Scientist: Earlier we began by illuminating the relation re- between the ego and the object by way of the factual lation of thought in the physical sciences to nature. .. . . such naming is also of some help . the often The men- . of relations. Scientist: Nevertheless. . . Scholar: Therefore. .CONVERSATION ON effect. relation between the ego and the object. but only the determining. nor rendering possible in the sense of the transcen. . We must first learn to think what determining . as thing. dental Teacher: Scientist: is .

which I took to be most general. you said that way of looking at it was historical. . . human being to an ego . something which belongs to the history of man's nature. . . Scholar: You strongly objected to that statement. . which likewise emerged before the nature of itself . Scientist: providing we do not regard the coining of as final . man into the . However. Scholar: The same . but from what we call that-which-re- gions and its regioning.78 DISCOURSE ON THINKING tioned subject-object relation. even have become objects before they at- tained their nature as things. For when decided in favor of the methodological type of analysis in the physical sciences. . . Scientist: I can't follow you that far relation yet. I am content if some obscurity in the is between ego and object its removed for me by this I insight into historical char- acter. something else has become clear to me. animal rationale Scholar: which would hardly be possible after today's conversation. In the relation between ego and object there is concealed something historical. . . . this . Scientist: I hesitate to decide upon this so quickly. does the history you presage become the history of that-which-regions. . so far as things can become . . . man to the thing. its Teacher: Only so far as man's nature does not receive stamp from man. Teacher: . is true of the corresponding historical change of the Teacher: . is apparently only an historical variation of the relation of objects . man could return to . .

The program of mathas ego to the ematics and the experiment are grounded in the relation of man its thing as object. Scholar: Nor in the cultural achievements of else? man. Teacher: When we let ourselves into releasement to that- which-regions. Scholar: Here the concept of the historical signifies a of mode knowing and is understood broadly. A nature we have hardly it experienced as yet. com- Scientist: But in what Teacher: The historical rests in that-which-regions. It rests what occurs Scholar: ing to pass in man. presumably. historical. Scientist: If any examination which focuses on what is a part of history called historical. as that-which-regions. Teacher: fold They even constitute this relation in part and unis historical character.CONVERSATION ON Scientist: A COUNTRY PATH 79 Now I see what was meant. regions posing him into his nature. which still conceals its we belong own nature. and in in what. sup- has not yet been realized in the rationality of the animal. Teacher: Understood. Scientist: we will non-willing. indeed. Scholar: We presage releasement to that-which-regions as the sought-for nature of thinking. Teacher: Wait in a releasement through which to that-which-regions. then the methodolog- ical analysis in physics is. Scientist: In such a situation we can do nothing but wait for man's nature. as focused upon a history which does not consist in the happenings and deeds of the world. is Releasement indeed the release of oneself from transcendental re-presentation and so a relinquishing of .

Scholar: Certainly the fact that on the one hand both the all regioning with respect to man and the determining of effecting that-which-regions. Such relinquishing no longer stems from a willing. vanishes while releasing oneself and is completely extinguished in rereleasement related to what leasement. Teacher: For every will wants to actualize. although I don't fail to recognize that such names at once misinterpret releasement as per- taining to the will. and causing are essentially and mutually exclusive. .80 DISCOURSE ON THINKING the willing of a horizon. the denial of the will to live Scholar: Do you like then consider it possible misunderstanding something Scientist: all by showing in what respect power of action and resolve also reign in releasement? Yes I do. shows how alien that is to anything pertaining to the will. necessary to counter this basically. it is hardly possible to speak of that-which-regions as will. This trace. and. about letting rest in returning. and to have actuality as Scientist: its element. Scholar: But in is what ways all is not willing? Teacher: After we said about the enduring of the abid- ing expanse. is all power a will-less letting in of everything and. about the regioning of that-which-regions. and on the other hand. this could easily get Someone who heard us say the impression that releasement floats in the realm of unreality and so in nothingness. except that the occasion for releas- ing oneself to belonging to that-which-regions requires a trace of willing. however. lacking of action.

This resting in it releasement. we are aware of the nature of truth as a dis-closure and If. . still lacks a 3. for example. which-regions which Dasein (Tr. by him for Teacher: Scholar: . . is presumably the hidden coming forth of Scientist: Then the nature of thinking. which lets belong to the region- ing of that-which-regions with respect to Teacher: Scientist: . one needs to understand "re- understood in Being and Time: as the particularly undertaken opening of openness . and after a fashion . would be a resolve for the coming forth of truth's nature. . would be a receiving of the regioning of that-which-regions. Teacher: Releasement. in accordance with recovery. Scholar: That would be behavior which did not become a swaggering comportment. itself of but it could not. . man 3 . namely. Teacher: There could be a steadfastness hidden in release- ment. Greek story and thought. residing simply in the fact that releasement be- comes increasingly clearer about being steadfast. this steadfastness of a to that- name. this nature. man . At a friend's I once read a few lines which he rests in itself. . . . . Scholar: Perhaps the word "in-dwelling" could name some of this. Scientist: This composed steadfastness. then that-which-regions. to determining as well belonging . this. . stands within its inner nature and.CONVERSATION ON solve" as it is A COUNTRY PATH 81 Scholar: So. thus composedly steadfast. which we think of as that-which-regions. we are reminded. could be said perhaps to correspond to the highest willing. but which collected itself into and remained always the composure of releasement. . in which the nature of releasement rests. release- ment to that-which-regions.) . .

thinking would be commemoration. They read In-dwelling Never one truth alone To receive intact The coming forth of truth's nature In return for boundless steadfastness Imbed the thinking heart In the humble patience Of unique high-minded And noble memories. Teacher: So you mean exulting in waiting. Scholar: Noble is what has origins. .. I still remember them. Teacher: In-dwelling in releasement to that-which-regions would be noble-mindedness Scientist: It tices itself. does. Scholar: And. in his very nature belongs to that-which-regions. in respect releasement can be akin to what is noble. seems to me that this unbelievable night en- you both it to exult. Scientist: Now is authentic releasement consists in this : that man i. if Scholar: Apparently emptier. akin to what is noble.82 DISCOURSE ON THINKING had copied somewhere. following the quoted lines. Teacher: The in-dwelling in releasement to that-whichregions would then be the real nature of the spontaneity of thinking. but richer in contingencies. he released to it. Scientist: Then what please tell me also. its Teacher: Not only that. but abides in the origins of nature.e. in your curious empti- ness. through which we become more waitful and more void. They contain an explanation of this word.

: through that-which-regions Teacher: gioning. If to be brief we say truth in place of that-which-regions.CONVERSATION ON Scholar: A COUNTRY PATH shall 83 prior Not occasionally. then the statement of the relation of human nature to . but —how we say it to everything." Scientist: That may be so. doesn't there remain an insurmountable in the statement of the essential relation of human na- ture to that-which-regions? We have just characterized that-which-regions as the hidden nature of truth.. Scientist: So itself. all so is. Scholar: Which It is why we also added at once and. Teacher: cannot be conceived at long as we want to re-present it to ourselves. prior. to that-which-rer Thus man's nature is released gions in what is prior to thought. indeed. Scholar: Evidently the nature of man is released to thatit so which-regions because this belongs to that without essentially. as This It hardly conceivable. . But even if we are mindful of difficulty that. ing forth of Scientist: natures. . Teacher: Scientist: because the nature of thinking begins there. Nevertheless we have neglected to consider* me at once —why man's nature man all is —something is that struck appropriated by that- which-regions. its appropriates man's nature for own re- we have explained releasement. . Scientist: The . that-which-regions can not be a comit is. that forcibly bring be- fore ourselves an objectively given relation between an object called "man" and an object called "that-which- regions. of which we really can not think . .

then. a relation which rests on the regioning of human nature into that-which-regions. for this reason alone that man of himself has no power over truth and it remains independent of him. because truth needs man. Scientist: For the present. Neverthe- in order to if make clearer upon to consider this relation what we have to reflect by itself. to be what independent of man? you touch upon a difficulty Scholar: Here indeed discuss only after we can we have explained the nature of truth as such. would abide in the origin of his nature. Yet now the guishing characteristic of truth lation to man — — particularly in it is re- is. is it not. what you are to say about it will be an assertion only. Now we we way to both. Evidently truth's independence from to Scholar: If this were so. Teacher: less.84 DISCOURSE ON THINKING that-which-regions is this : human nature is given over distinits to truth. man is a relation human nature. I would like paraphrase the statement about the relation of truth man. and have more clearly determined the nature of are but on our man. Truth's nature can come forth independently of man to : — only because the nature of which-regions) is man (as releasement to that- used by that-which-regions in region- ing both with respect to man and to sustain determining. as in-dwelhng in re- leasement to that-which-regions. then man. Teacher: Assuredly. and I mean this the nature of man is released to that-which-regions and used by it accordingly. which in consequence we may parais phrase : man is he who made use of for the nature of .

because it — even to the expanse can wait the longest. which. Scholar: Noble-mindedness would be the nature has released itself to of thinking and thereby of thanking. as Scientist: All the you have noted perhaps. He would have a presentiment of the noble mind.CONVERSATION ON truth. that-which-regions were the abiding expanse. its seems to me to Scholar: You mean to say that you are near to nature and yet are distant from that-which-regions itself? . renouncing willing. we have everything in the mode I of supposition only. patience would extend the furthest of the abiding. Teacher: Of that thanking which does not have to thank for something. same its can no longer hold back the confes- sion that while itself nature has neared. man would be drawn what is noble in his nature. we may that in to rest. to A COUNTRY PATH 85 And so. what is not will. is Teacher: Because this only supposed. let us add that for said some time. abiding in his origin. Scientist: This presentiment could hardly be anything other than waiting. On the supposition that we have found which everything in our conversation appears This is the nature of that-which-regions. Scholar: In the nature of thinking so understood. Teacher: A patient noble-mindedness would be pure rest- ing in itself of that willing. for the in-dwelling of releasement has been thought of Scholar: So if as waiting. but only thanks for being allowed to thank. have found what Scientist: we seek. that-which-regions be further away than ever before.

. from to that-which-regions $ although such remaining sure. Teacher: Yet what then would be the nature of thinking so if And that-which-regions is the nearness of distance? . and the distance of nearness a characterization which should not be thought .. Teacher: Because that-which-regions regions all. itself Scientist: Then that-which-regions would be nearing and distancing. .. Scientist: . Then what is that nearness and distance within which that-which-regions opens up and veils itself. be Scholar: Only the nature of waiting and of releasement Scientist: would be named in what you say. Scholar: by waiting. Teacher: . of dialectically . gather- ing everything together and letting everything return to itself. approaches and withdraws? Scholar: This nearness and distance can be nothing outside that-which-regions. . Scholar: That-which-regions itself would be the nearness of distance. by in-dwelling in releasement. to rest in its own identity. . .86 Scientist: DISCOURSE ON THINKING But that-which-regions and be two different things at all. is presumably its nature and identical with Teacher: Then perhaps we can express our experience during this conversation by saying that near to and so at the we are coining same time remaining distant is. a returning. . — its nature can't really if we may speak here of things Scholar: The self of that-which-regions itself. but how? Scientist: In accordance as with the nature of thinking so far determined solely by that-which-regions.

Scientist: if the word divulge to us at is no longer suitable. It too soon. Scientist: And thus. for in the course of we often threw in words and sentences from this Greek thought. Scientist: I Scholar: It would like to hear this word. I had this in mind when I remarked at the beginning of today's conversation that I owed a valuable suggestion to our first conversation on a country path. . Several times in the course of today's conversation. Teacher: You mean the nature of thinking (that in-dwellis ing releasement to that-which-regions) which sentially the es- thing human we presage Even it relation to that-which-regions. I was about to fit less to propose this word but each 3 time it seemed what neared us as the nature of thinking. someas the nearness of distance. Also would have suited well the style of today's conversation. you might end of our conversation for we the 3 again near break off human habitation. But now word no longer suits what we are attempting to name by a single word.CONVERSATION ON word. if I may put say so. Still I A COUNTRY PATH 87 Scholar: Probably this can no longer be said in a single appropriate know a word which up to now seemed to me to name the nature of thinking and so of knowing. Scientist: You is talk mysteriously about this thought of to reveal yours. must our discussion. and in any case. an historical it reminder? Scholar: If you want it to it that way. is a word which had occurred to me as early as our first conversation. as if you I didn't want your discovery Scholar: it is The word have in mind was not my discovery merely a scholarly thought.

and. one could use this Greek word is make clear the fact that scientific research a kind of attack on nature. but one which nevertheless allows nature to be heard. word is Heraclitus' word. for the character of advancing and moving toward objects pressed in it. Scientist: From which fragment did you take it? Scholar: This word struck me because it stands alone. of the action. "going toward" I could think of Heraclitus' word as keyword in an essay on the nature of modern science. earlier esteemed by you as a valuable suggestion. constitutes Fragment 122. to Scientist: Actually. the achievement. it could make meanwhile we have come to confront something Scholar: This ineffable. 'Ayxipaab].88 DISCOURSE ON THINKING Teacher: And even if this word. I have hesitated to utter the : . Scientist: How does the fragment read? Scholar: 'Ayx^aofrn Scholar: What does it mean? The Greek word translates as "going toward. the modern scientific knowledge. clear to us that is no longer suitable. Scholar: For that reason. because one can do hardly anything with a single word. Scientist: I don't know this shortest of Heraclitus' Frag- ments. too. all by itself. which. when we spoke work inherent in all. It is that word. is strikingly ex- Scholar: It appeared so to it occurred to me too." Scientist: I regard this word as an excellent name for desigScientist: nating the nature of knowledge. above in research. Scholar: It is scarcely noticed by others either. That is also probably why me in our first conversation.

Teacher: ens . Scientist: Indeed. .. we are still this Then seeking. so it seems to The word me now. . night neighbors the stars.. although not for the exact scientist. and perhaps the best name. Scholar: 'Ayx^aaiT] : "moving-into-nearness. Scientist: . . be the name for . our walk today along this country path. Scholar: She binds together without seam or edge or thread. waiting really almost a counter-move- ment to going toward. Teacher: Which. for what we have found. and overwhelms the ." it Teacher: Perhaps into-nearness. . Scholar: word might be the name. nevertheless. . ." could rather. at least for the naive observer." Scientist: we could think of also as: "moving- You mean that quite literally in the sense of "let- ting-oneself-into-nearness" ? Teacher: About that. because it nears their distances in the heav- . . . . . us deep into the night .CONVERSATION ON word thinking which A COUNTRY PATH to 89 at this point $ for it does not hit that nature of we have come is assume along our way. Teacher: Scientist: Which guided . . that gleams ever more splendidly stars . . Teacher: Or simply that 'kyyifiaa'w] rest. Scholar: . . . Scholar: Not to say a counter-rest. in its nature. Teacher: Ever to the child in man. Yet has it been definitely decided means going toward ? it Scholar: Translated literally says "going near.

locked? Teacher: . . and human nature remains appropriated to . . . from whence we are called. . is Then wonder can open what Scientist: By way of waiting . . . . if this is released .90 Scientist: ness. Teacher: .. . . . . Teacher: Scholar: . . DISCOURSE ON THINKING She neighbors because she works only with near3 Scholar: If she ever works rather than rests . . . Scholar: that . while wondering upon the depths of the height. ..

appropriate (d) to region gegnen 91 . sich einlassen noble mind. ahnen Ausdauer to presage steadfastness Bedingnis besinnliches determining. regioning with respect to things Denken meditative thinking steadfastness Bestandnis Boden bodenstandig Bodenstandigkeit foundation. let oneself in. release oneself to. ground. autochthony Edelmut eigentlich einlassen.GLOSSARY This glossary includes only those words especially important to the argument which are translated in more or less unusual ways. geeignet appropriated. autochthonic soil rootedness. release. rooted. noble-mindedness authentic let in. engage in Entschlossenheit resolve Feldweg fern country path distant Feme distance ge-eignet.

) released unheimlich uncanny appropriated by regioning (with respect to man) vereignet Vergegnis .92 GLOSSARY that-which-regions released Gegnet gelassen Gelassenheit Gelassenheit zu den Dingen releasement releasement toward things Grund Grund und Boden ground ground and foundation Haltung Herkunft comportment origins. das openness openness to the mystery ' Offenheit fur das Geheimnis rechnendes Denken calculative thinking Technik transzendental-horizontal technology transcendental-horizonal iiberlassen (adj. origin In-sich-beruhen Instandigkeit resting in itself in-dwelling Menschenwesen human nature nahe Nahe near nearness Offene.

essence (rarely) Weite Weite der Weile. upon abiding abiding expanse expanse expanse of the abiding nature. Gegnet west.GLOS S ARY verhalten (adj. die Wesen wesende Wahrheit west. coming forth of forth a nature truth's nature first that-which-regions truth's nature brings Wahrheit comes forth . die to reign to wait for.) Verhaltenheit 95 verweilen verweilende Weite vorstellen composed composure to abide. endure abiding expanse to re-present walten warten auf Weile Weile der Weite.

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