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Vehicle Data - Complete - Gillespie

# Vehicle Data - Complete - Gillespie

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05/12/2014

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## Sections

• 1. Introduction
• 2. Making Runs
• CarSim Run Control
• 3. Vehicle Size and Weight
• Vehicle: Classifications
• Vehicle: Sprung Mass
• Vehicle: Assembly
• 4. Powertrain
• Powertrain: Engine
• Powertrain: Torque Converter
• Powertrain: Transmission
• Powertrain: Upshift Schedule
• Powertrain: Downshift Schedule
• Powertrain: Front Differential
• Powertrain: Rear Differential
• Powertrain: Transfer Case
• 5. Steering
• Steering System
• Steering System: Rear-Wheel Gain
• Steering: Kinematics for One Wheel
• Steering System: Compliance
• Steering-Wheel Torque
• 6. Brakes
• Brakes: Four-Wheel System
• Brakes: Torque
• Brakes: Proportioning/Limiting Valve
• 7. Suspension
• Suspension: Independent System
• Suspension: Spring
• Suspension: Shock Absorber
• Suspension: Auxiliary Roll Moment
• Suspension: Toe Angle
• Suspension: Camber Angle
• 8. Aerodynamics
• Aerodynamics: Main Screen
• Aerodynamics: Fx (Drag) Coefficient
• Aerodynamics: Fy (Side Force) Coefficient
• Aerodynamics: Fz (Lift) Coefficient
• Aerodynamics: Mx (Roll Moment) Coefficient
• Aerodynamics: My (Pitch Moment) Coefficient
• Aerodynamics: Mz (Yaw Moment) Coefficient
• 9. Tires
• Tires: MSC Model
• Tire: Longitudinal Force
• Tire: Lateral Force
• Tire: Aligning Moment
• Tire: Camber Thrust Coefficient

The aerodynamic drag is a longitudinal force acting on the vehicle at the aerodynamic
origin, and is calculated from an equation of the following form (T. D. Gillespie,
Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, SAE, 1992):

DragForce =1

2 AirDensity• AirVelocity2

• DragCoefficient•FrontalArea

The drag coefficient is a dimensionless number that quantifies the efficiency with which
the air flows over the vehicle. This coefficient is dependent on the relative wind sideslip
angle and the type of vehicle (see figure below). It is a minimum at zero angle and
increases with sideslip angle up to 20 degrees. Above this angle it decreases reaching
zero at 90 degrees.

— 40 —

25

20

15

10

5

0

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Sideslip Angle

Drag Coefficient

Pickups

SUVs

Vans

Sedans

Sports
Cars

Typical values (T. D. Gillespie, unpublished data) for different kinds of vehicles are as
follows:

Sedans

0.33 ± 0.03 increasing to 0.38 ± 0.04 at 20 degrees

Sports cars

0.35 ± 0.03 increasing to 0.42 ± 0.02 at 20 degrees

Pickup trucks

0.45 ± 0.03 increasing to 0.56 ± 0.04 at 15 degrees

SUVs

0.42 ± 0.03 increasing to 0.52 ± 0.08 at 20 degrees

Vans

0.36 ± 0.03 increasing to 0.44 ± 0.03 at 20 degrees

Examples are provided in CarSim.

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