BIOLOGY FORM4&5

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COLLECTION OF BIOLOGY ESSAYS F
PREPARED BY :
MOHD IKMAL BIN ASMUNI
NUR HAFIZAH BINTI SAZALI

ALLAH HELPS THOSE WHO HELP THEMSELVES

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BIOLOGY FORM4&5



Phagocytosis
The pseupodia are also used for
feeding.
Amoeba sp. engulfs food by
phagocytosis.
Amoeba sp. is a holozoic
organisms which feed on
microscopic organisms such as
bacteria.
The presence of food causes
Amoeba sp.to advance by
extending its pseupodia.
The pseupodia encloses the food
which is then packaged in food
vacoule.
The food vacoule fuses with
lysosome and the food is digested
by hydrolitic enzyme called
lysozyme.
The resulting nutrients are
absorbed into the cytoplasm.
Facilitated Diffusion


Simple Diffusion
Net movement of molecules or
ions from a region of higher
concentration to a region of lower
concentration.
Going down concentration
gradient until an equilibrium is
achieved.
The particles are distibuted
equally throughout the system.
The concentration gradient
provides energy to move the
molecules into and out of the
cells.

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Osmosis: the diffusion of water
 Net movement of freely moving
water from a region of lower
solute concentration to a region of
higher solute concentration
through a semi-permeable
membrane.//
 Net movement of water from
region higher water concentration
to a region of lower water
concentration.//
 Net movement of water from
hypotonic region to hypertonic
region.
**Choose any one

Active Transport

Animal and plant cells in an isotonic
solution

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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

For
water
soluble
molecules//molecules which are
not soluble in lipids (ions, nucleic
acid, amino acids and glucose)
 Carrier Protein
 The carrier protein function by
binding to the molecules to
pass through the plasma
membrane.
 The molecules move to the
carrier protein which is specific
for the molecules.
 Molecules bind with the carrier
protein at the active site.
 Carrier protein changes its
shape and pass the molecules
through
the
plasma
membrane.
Hypotonic solution
Concentration of solute outside a cell is
lower than concentration of solute inside
cell.
Animal cells
 Is said to be hypotonic solution.
 Cell placed in hypotonic solution.
 Net movement of water into the
cells via osmosis.
 Cell swells up.
 When extremely hypotonic, cells
will eventually burst
 Cannot withstand the osmotic
pressure because of thin plasma
membrane.



Movement of molecules or ions
against the concentration
gradient across the plasma
membranes.
Requires both carrier proteins and
expenditure of energy.
Energy from ATP (adenosine
triphosphate) that is generated
during respiration in the
mitochondria.
Has active sites which bind to the
ATP molecules.
The carrier protein changes shape
when the phosphate group from
the ATP molecule binds to it
Then the solute is moved across
the plasma membrane.

Hypertonic solution
The concentration of solute in the
solution is higher than the concentration
of solutes within the cell.
Animal cells
 Net movement of water from
inside to the outside of the cell.
 Cells shrink//shrivel, internal
pressure decrease.
 Red blood cells immersed in
hypertonic solution , the cell
shrink and the plasma membrane
crinkles up.
 Cell undergone crenation.



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Solution in which the solute
concentration is equal to that of
the cytoplasmic fluid.
Water diffuse in and out of the
cells at equal rate.
No net movement of water.
Cells retain its normal shape.

Preservation of fish and vegetables
Fish
 Fish is covered by salt solution
which is hypertonic to body
fluid/cell/tissue.
 More water diffuses out from
tissues into salt solution via
osmosis.
 Fish becomes hydrated.
 Prevents bacterial growth in fish
tissues.
 Bacteria cells are also
plasmolysed//crenated.
 Prevent decay/last longer.
Vegetables
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Plant


E.g : red blood cells (haemolysis)

cells
Do not burst
Rigid cell wall.
Water diffuse into vacoule of cell
via osmosis.
 Cell swells up and becomes turgid
 Tugor pressure in plant.
 Supporting the plant.

Plant cells
 Water diffuse out via osmosis.
 Vacoule and cytoplasm shrink and
plasma membrane pulls away
from the cell wall.
 This process called plasmolysis.
 Cell becomes flaccid.




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Vegetables are immersed in
vinegar which is acidic//has low
pH.
Vinegar diffuses into vegetables
tissues.
Vegetables tissues becomes
acidic//has low pH.
Prevents bacterial growth in
tissues.
Preventing decay//last longer.

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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

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Differences between facilitated diffusion and active transport

D5

Facilitated diffusion
Down the concentration gradient
Molecules moves from higher concentration to
lower concentration
Molecules move in both direction across the
plasma membrane
Molecules can move through pore protein
or/and carrier protein
No ATP/energy used
Molecule can move through pore protein
without binding
Molecules need carrier protein and pore
protein to help the movement
Could achieve equilibrium

D6

Not depended in cellular respiration

D1
E1
D2
E2
D3
E3
D4

Similarities between facilitated
diffusion and active transport
 Both (ways of transportation)need
carrier protein.
 To bind with
molecules/ion/substrate/examples
 Both transport specific molecules
only.
 Because the carrier protein have
specific site to certain molecules.
 Both processes occur in living
cell.
 Because carrier protein need/can
change shape to allow substances
to move across.

Active transport
Against the concentration gradient
Molecules moves from lower
concentration to higher concentration
Molecules move in one direction across
the plasma membrane
Molecules move through carrier protein
But

The Importance of water





Water is a polar molecule and act
as a solvent.
Transport medium in the blood,
lymphatic, excretory and
digestive systems and in the
vascular tissues of plant.
As a medium for biochemiocal
reaction.
Helps in lubricant.
Regulates/maintaining body
temperature.
Providing support to the cell.
High surface tension and

ATP/energy is used
Energy needed for binding/bind with
active site
Need carrier protein only to help
movement
Will not achieve equilibrium/result in
accumulation
Depend on cellular respiration/energy
General characteristics of enzymes





Alter or speed up the rates of
chemical reactions
Remain unchanged at the end of
reaction.
Do not destroyed by reactions
they catalysed.
Have specific sites called active
site to bind with specific
substrates.
Needed in small quantities.
Reaction are reversible
Can be slowed down or stopped
by inhibitors. E.g: lead and
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Extracellular enzyme


Extracellular enzyme is produced
in a cell, then packed and
secreted from the cell.
It catalyses its reaction outside
the cell. An example is amylase.
The nucleus contains DNA which
carries the information for
synthesis of enzymes.
Protein that are synthesised at
the ribosomes are transported
through the spaces within the
rough ER.
Proteins that depart from the
rough ER wrapped in vesicles
tehat bud off from the membrane
of the rouhg ER.
These transport vesicle then fuse
with the mebranes of the golgi
apparatus and empty their
contents into the membranous
space.
The proteins are further modified
during their transport in the Golgi
apparatus. For example,
carboohydrates are added to
protein to form glycoproteins.
Secretory vesicles containing
these modified protein bud off
from the Golgi apparatus and

cohesion.
Providing miosture (respiratory
surfaces such as alveoli).
Maintaining osmotic balance and
turgidity.
‘Lock and key’ hypothesis




The substrate molecule fits into
the active site of the enzyme
molecule.
The substrate is the ‘key’ that fits
into the enzyme ‘lock’.
Various types of bonds such as
hydrogen and ionic bonds hold
the substrate
in the active site forming the
enzyme-substrate complex.
Once the complex is formed, the
enzyme changes the substrate to
its product.
The product leaves the active
site.
The enzyme is not altered by the
reaction and it can be reused.

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mercury
 Require helper molecules, called
cofactors.
 Inorganic cofactor : ferum, copper
 Organic cofactor: water soluble
vitamins, B vitamins .
Effects of temperature on enzyme
activity
 At low temperature, reaction
takes place slowly.
 As temperature increases,
movement of substrate increase.
 Increase their chances of colliding
with each other and with the
active site of the enzymes.
 At optimum temperature, the
reaction is at maximum rate.
 Beyond the optimum
temperature, rate of reaction will
not increase.
 Bonds that hold enzyme
molecules begin to break.
 Actives sites destroyed.
 Enzyme denatured.

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travel to the plasma membrane.
Enzymes are released.
Prophase
Chromosomes in the nucleus
condense.
Chromosomes appear shorter and
thicker.
Consist of sister chromatid joined
at the centromere.
Spindle fibres begin to form.
Centrioles migrate at opposite
poles.
At the end, nucleolus disappears
and the nuclear membrane
disintegrates.

Telophase
Chromosomes reach the opposite
poles of the cell.
Chromosomes uncoil and revert
to their extended
state(chromatin).







Metaphase
Chromosomes align at the
metaphase plate//equatorial
plate//middle of the cell.
Mitotic spindle are fully formed.
Two sister chromatids are still
attached to one another at the
centromere.
Ends when the centromere
divides.

Cytokinesis
Process of cytoplasmic division.
Begins before nuclear division is
completed.
Actin filament formed contractile
ring.
Contracts and constrict pull aring
of plasma membrane inwards.
Groove of cleavage furrow
pinches at the equator between
two nuclei.
Vesicles join to form a cell plate.
Cell plate grows until it edges
fuse with the plasma membrane
of the cell. Cell divides.
Cellulose are produced by the cell
to strengthen the new cell walls.








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Anaphase
Two sister chromatids separate at
the centromere.
Sister chromatids pulled apart at
opposite poles.
Chromatids are referred to as
daughter chromosomes.

Uncontrolled mitosis
Cell divides through mitosis
repeatedly without control.
Produce cancerous cells.
Cancer is a genetic disease
caused by uncontrolled mitosis.
Disruption of cell cycle.
Cancerous cells divides freely and
uncontrollably not according to
the cell cycle.
These cells compete with
surrounding normal cells for
energy and nutrients.
Cancer cells formed tumour.
Tumour invade and destroy
neighbouring cells.
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Animal cloning
Somatic cells (from the mammary
gland cells) are removed and
grown in a culture.
Cells stop dividing and enter a
non-diving phase.
Unfertilised egg is obtained. The
nucleus is sucked out, leaving the
cytoplasm and organelles without
any chromosomes.
Electric pulse stimulates the
fusion between the somatic cells
and egg cell without nucleus.
Cells divide repeatedly forming an
embryo.
The embryo is then implanted in a
surrogate mother.
The cloned sheep of the somatic
cell donor is born.












Disadvantages of cloning
Long-term side effects are not yet
known.
May undergo natural mutations.
Disrupt the natural equilibrium of
an ecosystem.
Clones do not show any genetic
variations.
Has the same level of resistance

Tissue culture
Small part of plant is cut. E.g :
shoots, bud.
The part is called explant.
Enzymes are used to digest the
cell walls of tissue.
Cells are naked (protoplast).
Explant/protoplast are steriled
then placed in a glass container
which contains a nutrient
solution.
Culture medium (glucose, amino
acids).
Apparatus must be steriled to
make sure free from
microorganisms (bacteria).
pH and temperature must be at
optimum level.
Explant divides by mitosis.
Develops into callus.
Callus develops into somatic
embryo (planlet).
Then transferred to soil for
growth.

Meiosis I
1. During prophase I, homologous
chromosomes pair up (synapsis)
and crossing over between non
sister chromatids occurs.
2. During Metaphase I, homologous
chromosomes align at the
metaphase plate (equator,
middle) of the cell.
3. During Anaphase I, homologous





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Advantages of cloning
Biotechnologists to multiply
copies of useful genes or clones.
Clones can be produced in a
shorter time and in large
numbers.
Cloned plants, however, can
produced flowers and fruits within
a shorter period.
Clones are better quality.
Delayed ripening.
Does not need polinating agents.
Propagation can take place at any
time.

Meiosis II
1. During Prophase II, synapsis of
homologous chromosomes and
crossing over between non-sister
chromatids do not take place.
2. During Metaphase II,
chromosomes consisting of two
sister chromatids align at the
metaphase plate (equator/middle)
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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

towards certain disease.
Certain transgenic crops contain
genes that are resistant to
herbicides.
These genes may be transferred
to weeds through viruses. These
weeds would then become
resistant to herbicides.
Cloned animals has shorter
lifespan.

chromosomes separates and
move to opposite poles. Sister
chromatids are still attached
together and move as a unit.
4. At the end of Telophase I, two
haploid daughter cells are formed.
Each daughter cell has only one
of each type of chromosomes,
either the paternal or maternal
chromosomes.

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of cell.
3. During Anaphase II, sister
chromatids separate, becoming
daughter chromosomes that
move to opposite poles.
4. At the end of Telophase II, four
haploid daughter cells are formed.
Each daughter cell has the same
number of chromosomes as the
haploid cell produced in Meiosis I,
but each has only one of the
sister chromatids.

Synthesis of enzymes
1. The information for the synthesis of enzymes is carriied by the DNA
- The sequences of bases on the DNA are codes to make proteins
2. In the nucleus, the DNA double helix unwinds and exposes its two strands for the synthesis of a messenger RNA
(mRNA) strand
- The messenger RNA is synthesised according to the instruction on the DNA
3. The messenger RNA then leaves teh nucleus and moves to a ribosome
4. The messenger RNA attaches itself to the ribosome
- The ribosome acts as a workbench for the messenger RNA
- The messenger RNA contains information which codes for the sequence of amino acids
5. This genetic information is translated into the primary structure of specific protein
6. Each amino acid is bonded to the next and as a result, a chain of amino acids (polypeptide) is formed and is ready for
release into the cytoplasm.

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Digestion in mouth
Secretion of saliva by three pairs
of salivary glands
Saliva contains the enzyme
salivary amylase
Begins the hydrolysis of starch to
maltose.

Salivary
Starch + water
amylase

maltose

An additional digestive process
occurs further along the
alimentary canal to convert
maltose to glucose.
pH is maintained at 6.5-7.5





Digestion in stomach
Epithelial lining of the stomach
contains gastric glands.
These glands secrete gastric
juice. Consists of mucus, HCL and
enzyme pepsin and renin.
HCL make the pH around 2.0.
High acidity destroy bacteria.
Acidity stop the activity of
salivary amylase enzyme.

pepsin
Protein + water


polypeptides

Renin coagulate milk by
converting the soluble milk
protein, caseinogen into soluble
caesin.
Stomach contents become a
semi-fluid called chyme.
Chyme gradually enter the
duodenum.












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Digestion in small intestine
Duodenum received chyme from
stomach and secretion from the
gall bladder and pancreas.
Starch, protein and lipids are
digested.
Bile which produced by the liver
and stored in the gall bladder
enter the duodenum via the bile
duct.
Bile helps neutralise the acidic
chyme and optimise the pH for
enzyme action in duodenum.
Bile salts imulsify lipids, breaking
them down into tiny droplets.
Providing high TSA for digestion.
Pancreas secrete pancreatic juice
into duodenum via pancreatic
duct.
Pancreatic juice contains
pancreatic amylase, trypsin and
lipase.
Pancreatic amylase complete the
digestion of starch to maltose.
Trypsin digests polypeptides into
peptides.
Lipase complete the digestion of
lipid into fatty acid and glycerol.
Glands in the ileum (small
intestine) secrete intestinal juice
which contain digestive enzyme
needed to complete the digestion
of peptides and disaccharides.
Peptides digested by erepsin into
amino acids.
Maltose digested by maltase into
glucose.
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Digestion of cellulose by ruminant

Digestion of cellulose by rodent

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Disaccharides digested by its own
enzyme into monosaccharides
and glucose.

Digestion
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BIOLOGY FORM4&5






Partially chewed food is passed to
the rumen (largest compartment
of the stomach).
Cellulose is broken down by
cellulase produced by bacteria.
Part of the breakdown products
are absobed by bacteria, the rest
by the host.
Food enters the reticulum.
Cellulose undergoes further
hydrolysis.
The content of the reticulum,
called the cud, is then
regurgitated bit by bit into the
mouth to be thoroughly chewed.
Helps soften and break down
cellulose, making it more
accessible to further microbial
action.
The cud is reswallowed and
moved to the omasum.
Here, the large particles of food
are broken down into smaller
pieces by peristalsis.
Water is removed from the cud.
Food particles moved into
obamasum, the true stomach of
the ruminant. (e.g : cow).
Gastric juice complete the
digestion of protein and other
food substances.
The food then passes through the
small intestine to be digested and
absorbed in the normal way.



Caecum and appendix are
enlarged to store the cellulosedigesting bacteria.
The breakdown products pass
through the alimentary canal
twice.
The faeces in the first batch are
usually produced at night.
Faeces are then eaten again. To
absorb the products of bacterial
breakdown.
The second batch of the faeces
are harder and drier.
Allows rodent (give example) to
recover the nutrients initially lost
with the faeces.

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Protein
- In stomach, pepsin breakdown
protein into polypeptides.
- HCL being secreted to provide
acidic medium for the
digestion to occur.
- In duodenum, trypsin
breakdown polypeptides into
peptides.
- In small intestine, arepsin
break dwon peptides into
amino acids.

Fats
- Bile salts breaking up fats into
small fat droplets in the
duodenum.
- In duodenum/small intestine,
lipase breaks lipids into fatty
acids and glycerol.

Carbohydrates
- In mouth, salivary amylase
hydrolyse starch into maltose.
- In duodenum, pancreatic
amylase hydrolyse starch into
maltose.
- In small intestine, maltase
hydrolyse maltose into
glucose.

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Absorption of digested food
 Absorption of digested food occur
in the ileum.
 Glucose/amino acids initially
diffuse into blood capillaries.
 The remaining of the
glucose/amino acids actively
transport into blood capillaries.
 All blood capillaries converge into
hepatic portal vein, which lead to
the liver (and transport to all
parts o fthe body).
 Glycerol and fatty acids diffuse to
the epithelial cell which lining the
ileum) and combine to form fat
droplets.
 Fatty acids and glycerol then
enter the lacteal (lymphatic
system).
 Return back to the blood stream
at left subclavian vein.

Assimilation of digested food
Explain the assimilation of glucose and
amino acid in body cells.

Glucose is oxidised to produce
energy, carbon dioxide and water
by cellular respiration.
Amino acid is used to synthesis
protoplasm (the component of
cell). By this way new cells will be
synthesised causing growth.
Amino acid also can be used to
synthesis enzyme, hormone or
antibody.

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Formation faeces
Faeces which contain dead cells
that are shed from intestinal
linings, toxic substances and bile
pigments enter the colon by
action of peristalsis.
In colon, more water is absorbed.
The undigested food residues
harden to become faeces.
Faeces contain undigestible
residues that remain after the
process of digestion and
absorption of nutrients that take
place in the small intestine.

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Photosynthesis mechanism
The formation of starch in plants
is by the process
ofphotosynthesis which occurs in
chloroplasts.
The two stages in photosynthesis
are the light and dark reactions.
Light reaction:
P3:Takes place in grana.
P4: Chlorophyll captures light
energy which excites the
electrons of chlorophyll molecules
to higher energy levels.
P5: In the excited state, the
electrons can leave the
chlorophyll molecules.
P6: Light energy is also used to
split water molecules into
hydrogen ion (H+) and hydroxyl
ions (OH-) (Photolysis of water).
P7: The hydrogen ions then
combine with the electrons
released by chlorophyll to form
hydrogen atoms.






Photosynthesis mechanism
P8: The energy from the excited
electrons is used to form energyrich molecules of adenosine
triphosphate /ATP.
P9: Hydroxyl ion loses an electron
to form a hydroxyl group. This
electron is then received by
chlorophyll.
P10: The hydroxyl groups then
combine to form water and
gaseous oxygen.
Dark Reaction:
P11: Take place in stroma.
P12: Do not require light energy.
P13: The hydrogen atoms are
used to fix carbon dioxide in a
series of reactions catalysed by
photosynthetic enzymes
P14: and caused the reduction of
carbon dioxide into glucose.
P15: The glucose monomers then
undergo condensation to form
starch which is temporarily stored
as starch grains in the
chloroplasts.

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Uses of enzyme (Chapter 4)
 Enzymes are used as biological
detergents.
· Protease degrades coagulated
proteins into soluble short-chain
peptides.
· Lipase degrades fat or oil stains
into soluble fatty acid and
glycerol.
· Amylase degrades starch into
soluble shorter-chain
polysaccharides and sugars.

Enzymes are used in the baking
industry.
· Protease is used in the
breakdown of proteins in flour for
the production of biscuits.
· Amylase is used in the
breakdown of some starch to
glucose in flour for making white
bread, buns and rolls.

Enzymes are used in the medical
field.
· Trypsin is used to remove blood
clots and to clean wounds.
· Various other enzymes are used
in biosensors.

Enzymes are used in industries
because:
·They are effective.
·They are cheap and easy to use.
·They can be re-used, thus only
small amounts are needed.
· They don't require high
temperature to work, thus this
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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

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reduces fuel costs.

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Aerobic respiration






Continuous supply of oxygen.
Glucose molecules are oxidised
by oxygen.
Complete breakdown of glucose
in the presence of oxygen.
A large amount of energy
released.
Carbon dioxide and water are
produced as waste products.
Most of the nergy released is used
to synthesise adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) from
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and
inorganic phosphate.
ATP acts as instant energy source.
ATP consists of phosphate bonds
which can be easily broken down
to release energy.
Energy
released
ADP + phosphate +

ATP
energy

Anaerobic respiration in human
muscle
 During a vigorous exercise
(running), the breathing rate is
increased.
 This is to supply more oxygen to
the muscles for rapid muscular
contraction.
 However, the supply of oxygen to
muscles is still insufficient.
 and the muscles have to carry out
anaerobic respiration to release
energy.
 The glucose is converted into
lactic acid, with only a limited
amount of energy being
produced.
 An oxygen debt builds up in the
body, when no oxygen use in
energy production.
 High level of lactic acid in the
muscles cause them to ache.
 After running, the athlete
breathes more rapidly and deeply
than normal for
twenty minutes.
 There is recovery period after 10
minutes until it reaches 20
minutes when oxygen is paid
back during aerobic respiration.
 About 1/6 lactic acid is oxidized to
carbon dioxide, water and energy.

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Anaerobic respiration in yeast




Yeast normally respires
aerobically.
Under anaerobic condition, yeast
carry out anaerobic respiration.
Produces ethanol.
Process known as fermentation.
Catalysed by the enzyme zymase.
-

Ethanol produced can be used
in making wine and beer.
In bread making, the carbon
dioxide released during
fermentation of yeast causes
the dough to rise.

Similarities between the sturucture of digestive and digestion process of ruminants and rodents
S1
P1


Both alimentary canal contains bacteria/protozoa
To secrete extracellular enzyme//to digest
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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

P2
S2
P1



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To digest cellulose into glucose
Both have large surface area
To increase rate of diffusion //hydrolysed food

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Differences between the sturucture of digestive and digestion process of ruminants and rodents
Aspects
Number of stomach chamber
Size of caecum
Bacteria
Number of times yhe food
passes through the stomach
chamber
Regurgitated

D1
E1
D2
E2
D3
E3
D4
E4

Ruminant (has)
4 stomach chamber
Have to digest cellulose
Small//short caecum
Do not digest cellulose
In reticulum
For secrete cellulase enzyme
Twice
To complete the digestion//

D5

Twice in mouth cavity

Breathing mechanism in man


Diaphragm is a muscular sheet
in the body cavity separating the
thorax from the abdomen.
At the start of inhalation, the
muscles of the diaphragm
contract , making it less arched.
This helps to increase the
volume of the thoracic cavity
and reduce the pressure of the
thoracic cavity. Air rushes into
the lungs.
When the muscles of the
diaphragm relax , it returns to its
arched condition , reducing the
volume of the thoracic cavity
and increasing the pressure of
the thoracic cavity. Air is forced
out of the lungs.
The muscles between the ribs
are known as intercostals



But

Rodent (has)
1 stomach chamber
Do not have to digest cellulose
Big//long size caecum
A place to digest cellulose
In caecum
For secrete cellulase enzyme
Once
To absorb digested food
Once in mouth cavity

Breathing mechanism in man
(continuation)
This helps to increase the volume of
the thoracic cavity and reduce the
pressure of the thoracic cavity. Air
rushes into the lungs.
During exhalation the external
intercostals muscles contract , the
ribs return to their original position ,
reduce the pressure of the thoracic
cavity. Air is forced out of the lungs.
The alveoli are thin-walled air sacs
with the lungs.
These sacs are surrounded by a
network of capillaries.
During inhalation the alveoli are
filled with air and gaseous exchange
occurs between the alveoli and the
capillaries.
Oxygen from the alveoli diffuses into
the capillaries while carbon dioxide
diffuses from the capillaries into the

Transport of O2 and CO2 in human
body
 Gaseous exchange across the
alveolus occurs by diffusion.
 Diffusion of gas depends on
differences in partial pressure
between two regions.
 The partial pressure/
concentration of oxygen in the
air of the alveoli is higher
compared to the partial
pressure/ concentration of
oxygen in the blood capillaries.
 Therefore, oxygen diffuse across
the surface of the alveolus and
blood capillaries into blood.
 The transport of oxygen is
carried out by the blood
circulatory system.
 Oxygen combines with
respiratory pigment called
haemoglobin in the red blood
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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

muscles.
During inhalation the external
intercostals muscle contracts
and raise the lower ribs.

Transport of O2 and CO2 in human
body (continuation)




alveoli.

Explain how energy flows through the
food chain and how it is lost to the
environment.

Oxyhaemoglobin dissociates to
release oxygen.
Carbon dioxide released by
repairing cells can be
transported by dissolve carbon
dioxide in the blood plasma.
Bind to the haemoglobin.
As carbaminohaemoglobin.
In form of bicarbonate ions.
Carbon dioxide is expelled with
water vapour from the lung.

Colonisation and succession in
mangrove swamps



Energy flows through the food chain
in one direction .
In the food chain, the plant is the
producer, the rat is the primary
consumer, the snake is the
secondary consumer and the eagle
is the tertiary consumer.
In the food chain, the plant is the
producer, the earthworm is the
primary consumer, the bird is the
secondary consumer and the snake/
eagle is the tertiary consumer. Each
level of food chain is called a trophic
level.
Energy is transferred from one
trophic level to another trophic level.
When energy is transferred from

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cells.
To form oxyhaemoglobin.
When the blood passed the
tissue with low partial pressure
of oxygen,

The pioneer species of a
mangrove swamp are the
Sonneratia sp. and Avicennia sp.
The presence of this species
gradually changes the physical
environment of the habitat.The
extensive root systems of these
plants trap and collect
sediments, including organic
matter from decaying plant
parts.
As time passes, the soil
becomes more compact and
firm. This condition favours the
growth of Rhizophora sp.
Gradually the Rhizophora sp.
replaces the pioneer species.
The prop root system of the
Rhizophora sp. traps silt and
mud, creating a firmer soil
structure over time.
The ground becomes higher. As
a result, the soil is drier because
it is less submerged by sea
water.
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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

one trophic level to another level as
much as 90% of the chemical energy
in the food consumed by primary
consumer is used for its metabolic
activities and lost as heat.
Only 10% of the energy in an
organism is passed on to the
organism at the next trophic level.

Green house effects



Green house effect.
Ultra violet(uv) from solar
radiation is absorbed by the earth
and some of them is reflected
back to the atmosphere in the
form of heat/infra red.
Heat or infrared radiation cannot
be reflected back to the
atmosphere.
Because it is trapped by green
house gases such as CO2,
nitrogen dioxide and methane.
Heat/infrared warmed the

Explain briefly why humans carry
out the activity as shown in
diagram above

Explain the impacts of the activity
shown above on the environment



The human population grows
rapidly. The demands for food and

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The condition now becomes
more suitable for the Bruguiera
sp., which replaces the
Rhizophora sp.
The buttress root system of the
Bruguiera sp. forms loops which
extend from the soil to trap
more silt and mud.
As more sediments are
deposited, the shore extends
further to the sea. The old shore
is now further away from the
sea and is like terresterial
ground.
Over time, terrestrial plants
like nipah palm and Pandanus
sp. begin to replace the
Bruguiera sp.


Deforestation causes soil erosion ,
landslides, flash floods and global
warming.
Causes the soil to become loose
and less stable.
Without the protection of green
plants, the soil is exposed to the
forces of wind and rain.
The top layer of soil is washed
away gradually by the rainwater.
This is known as soil erosion.
Soil erosion causes the depletion
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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

surface of earth.
Earth temperature increases.


housing areas have increased.
Vast areas of forest are cleared
for agricultural and commercial
purposes.
Urbanization and industrialization
have caused more forests to be
cleared for road construction and
housing areas.
Deforestation is also caused by
the demands for timber and fuel
wood.




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of minerals from the soil,
therefore the soil becomes
infertile and unsuitable for
agriculture.
Landslides may happen on steep
hillsides during heavy rain.
It is because rainwater flows
quickly and causes the top layer
of the soil to crumble.
Rivers and drains are silted and
the flow of water is blocked.
Therefore, water flows inland and
this causes flash floods in the
lower areas during rainy seasons.

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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

Human blood vessels
Arteries
- carries blood away from heart
- transport blood quickly, at high
pressure
- muscle of tissue enables the
artery to constrict and dilate
- walls of arteries are strong and
elastic, have small lumen
Capillaries
- thin walled blood vessels
- allow rapid gaseous exchange via
diffusion
- nutrients, wastes and hormones
are also exchanged across here
- one cell thick
Veins
- blood returns from capillaries to
heart through veins
- blood flows in low pressure
- have large lumens and valves
(prevent back flow)
Difference between blood and
lymph
- lymph has a large numbers of
lymphocyte compare to blood
- lymphocyte is produced by lymph
nodes in lymph system
- lymph has lower content of
oxygen compare to blood

Circulatory system in fish and
human
Similarities
- both have closed circulation
- both have a heart
Differences
Fish
Has single circulation
Heart divides into 2 chambers
Septum is absent
Deoxygenated blood flows from
heart to gills
Oxygenated blood flows from gills
to body cells

clumped platelets, damaged cells,
clotting factors form activators
(thromboplastins)
- activators together with calcium
ions and vitamin K, converts
prothrombin to thrombin
- thrombin catalyses the
Has doubleconversion
circulationof soluble protein
Heart is divided
into 4into
chambers
fibrinogen
insoluble fibrin.
Septum- is present
fibrin is a fibrous protein which
Deoxygenated
blood to
flows
from
combines
form
a mesh of long
heart to lungs
threads over the wounds,
Oxygenated blood flows from lungs
trapping red blood cells and
to heart
sealing the wound.
- blood clot hardens when exposed
to air forming scab
-

Type of immunity
-

-

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Blood clotting

active immunity, body produces
its own antibodies in response to
stimulation by an antigen
passive immunity, body receive
an antibodies from outside source

Phagocytosis
-

-

the phagocyte is attracted by
chemicals produced by bacterium
Phagocytes extend its
pseudopodium (legs) towards
bacterium to engulf it.
ingestion of bacterium forms
phagosome
phagosome combines with
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-

Lymph – formed - brought back into
the blood circulatory system.
when blood flows from arteries
into capillaries, there is higher
hydrostatic pressure at artial end of
capillaries
high pressure causes some
plasma to pass through capillary
walls into intercellular spaces
interstitial fluid fills the spaces
between cells and constantly
bathes the cells
90% of interstitial fluid diffuses
back into blood capillary
10% of interstitial fluid goes into
the lymph capillaries and known as
lymph
lymph capillaries unite forming
larger lymphatic vessels
from lymphatic vessels, lymph
eventually passes into thoracic
duct
hence lymph drains back into
blood

Respiratory gases
Transportation in respiratory gas.
- oxygen enters alveoli during
inhalation
- gaseous exchange occurred at
alveoli (oxygen diffused into
blood capillaries while carbon
dioxide diffused out)
- the diffusion of these gases
caused by different of partial
pressure of both gaseous
- partial pressure of oxygen in
alveoli is higher than partial
pressure of oxygen in blood
capillaries
- oxygen diffused in cytoplasm of
red blood cell
- oxygen combines with
haemoglobin forming
oxyhaemoglobin
- oxyhaemoglobin then sent to all
parts of body
- heart pumped the oxygenated
blood to all body cells
- oxygen diffused from blood

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lysosome
lysosome releases lysozyme into
phagosome
bacterium inside the phagosome
will be destroyed by lysozyme
phagocyte releases the digested
products from cell

Active immunity – Passive immunity
Active immunity
- obtained by vaccination
(artificially acquired)
- vaccine contains dead/weakened
bacteria/pathogen/virus
- white blood cells stimulated to
produce antibodies against
pathogen
- also obtained when an individual
has recovered from certain
diseases(naturally acquired)
- a ready made supply of antibody
will give immunity towards the
disease
Passive immunity
- obtained by injecting
antibodies/antiserum (artificially
acquired)
- no antigen is put into body, so
body does not produce its own
antibodies
- obtained by a baby when
antibodies from mother’s blood
plasma diffuse into foetus through
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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

-

-

capillaries to cell because partial
pressure of oxygen in blood
capillaries is higher than in cell
carbon dioxide diffuse from cell to
blood capillaries because partial
pressure of carbon dioxide in cell
is higher than in blood capillaries
deoxygenated blood going back
to heart by vena cava and to
lungs by pulmonary artery

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placenta (naturally acquired)

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Movement of water froom root to
leaves
Movement of water from root to leaves
aided by root pressure, capillary action
and transpirational pull.
Root pressure
 cell sap of root hair(usually)
hypertonic to surrounding soil
solution
 water diffuses into root by
osmosis
 cell cap becomes more dilute
compared to neighbouring cell
 water moves to these adjacent
cells which become more diluted
themselves, so osmosis continues
across the cortex
 (at the same time) ions from soil
are actively secreted into xylem
vessels and causes osmotic
pressure to increase
 Water flows continuously into
xylem and create a pressure(root
pressure)
 Root pressure gives an initial
upward force to water and
mineral ions in xylem

Movement of water from root to
leaves
Capillary action
 water moves up through xylem in
stems by capillarity
 capillary action is due to
combined force of cohesion(water
molecules have attraction for
each other) and adhesion(water
molecules are attracted to the
side of vessels)
 water molecule form a continuous
water column in xylem vessel
(due to cohesion and adhesion)
 the cohesion of water prevent the
water column in xylem breaking
apart
 the adhesion of water prevents
gravity from pulling the water
down the column
Transpirational pull
 the lost of water from mesophyll
cells during transpiration is
replaces by water which flows in
from xylem vessels in leaves
 this creates a tension/suction
force in water column because
water has cohesive properties
called transpiration pull
 the transpiration pull draws water
from xylem in the
leaves/stem/roots

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Effect of no lignin formation on the
function of tissue xylem
 lignin is important to make tissue
xylem strong
-

without lignin, tissue xylem will
collapse
therefore, it cannot form a
continuous hollow tube
to allow water to flow upwards
continuously

lignin makes the tissue become
impermeable

-

materials cannot pass in xylem
cells
causes the tissue to become
hollow
allows continuous flow of water

-

(choose one of the * and the
explanations below)

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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

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the continuous flow of water
through plant is known as
transpiration stream

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light intensity and stomata and
cells effect the rate of water loss








F1- from 0500 to
0170(time/hours), rate of water
loss increases
E1- light intensity increases
E2- stimulates photosynthesis in
guard cells
E3- this makes energy available
for potassium to move into guard
cells by active transport
E4- guard cells become
hypertonic(compared to cell sap)
of epidermal cells
E5- water molecules from
epidermal cells diffuse into guard
cells by osmosis
E6- causing guard cells to bend
outwards
E7- stoma opens (allows water to
escape)
F2- from 0170 to
0300(time/hours) rate of water
loss decreases
E8- lisght intensity decreases/rate
of photosynthesis decreases
E9- guard cells become flaccid
and bend inwards
E10- stoma closes, prevents
water from escaping
Notes: (F1 + any 5Es) + (F2 +
3Es)

Adaptation of the muscle which
enables it to contracts
-

-

-

-

the skeletal muscle consist of
bundles of muscle fibres and a
large supply of nerves and blood
vessels
a muscle fibre is made up of
bundles of smaller units called
myofibrils
each myofibril is made up of 2
types of protein filaments: the
actin and the myosin which
interact and cause muscle
contractions
the muscle’s nerve endings
control its contractions

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Movement takes place involves
muscles, tendons, bones, ligaments
and joints
Muscle
- quadriceps femoris contract while
biceps femoris muscles relax (leg
straightened)
- biceps femoris contract while
quadriceps femoris relax (leg
bent)
- calf muscles contract to lift up the
heels
- feet push downwards and
backwards
- repeated contraction and
relaxation of muscle result in
running movement
Ligaments
- it connects 2 bones together
- give support and strength to
joints for movement
- strong and elastic
Joints
- a hinge joint allow the movement
of leg to swing back and forth
Tendon
- connect muscles to bones
- strong and non elastic
- force is transferred to bones
through tendons
Bones
- femur/ thigh bone is long, heavy
and strong
- provide support to body weight
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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

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Adaptation of plant which enable it
to float
- have fine aerenchyma wall
tissues (plants become more
lighter)
- have air spaces/air sacs (becomes
more easy to float)
- have big and swell stem/petiole
(increase the air to help plant
floating)
- have fine and many roots (trap
gas bubbles)

Skeletal system of earthworm and
fish adapted for its movement
Movements in earthworm
- earthworm has hydrostatic
skeleton
- moves by changing hydrostatic
pressure of fluid in its segment
- each segment of the body has its
own set of muscles
o
an outer layer of circular
muscles running around the
body causes the worm to
become long and thin when
they contract
o
an inner layer of
longitudinal muscles causes
the worm to get short and
thick when they contract
- as the circular muscles contract,
the longitudinal muscles will relax
simultaneously in antagonistic
action
- causes the hydrostatic pressure
to be transferred from anterior
part to posterior part causing the
worm to move forward
Movements in fish
- fish has an endoskeleton
- it provides place for attachment
of muscles
- when the left myotome contracts,
right myotome will relax in
antagonistic action

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Adaptive features which helps in
birds and fish locomotion
Bird
- aerofoil wing – to generate the
upward lift
- a pair of antagonistic muscle
(pectorolis major and minor)
pulled down and up the wings
- single organ (one
testes/kidney)//small skull – to
reduce weight
- streamlined body shape – reduce
air resistance
- waterproof feather – avoid
increase in body weight during
raining
Fish
- streamed lined body – reduce
water resistance
- myotome muscle are W/V –
shaped which act antagonistically
- air sac – maintain buoyancy in
water
- fins
o dorsal and ventral fin –
prevent/helps in yawing
and rolling
o tail fin – provides thrust
and controls direction
o pelvin and pectoral fin – act
as brakes/to slow down

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-

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causes the vertebral column to
curve toward the left
the fish also has fins with
different functions for locomotion

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Support is achieved in submerged
and floating plants

Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis
happen - prevented

Submerged plants
- posses air sacs within the leaves
and the stem to help the plant to
stay upright in water
- water buoyancy provides support
- have very few woody
tissue/vascular tissue
- thin/narrow/flexible leaves –
provide little resistance to water
flow
Floating plants
- stem have plenty of air sacs
- aerenchyma tissues helps to stay
afloat in water
- do not have woody tissues
- natural water buoyancy to help
them float
- have broad leaves that are firm
but flexible to resist being torned
by wave action

Osteoporosis
- a disease in which bone mass is
reduced and the boned become
porous and lighter
- occurse most often in old people,
partially women who have gone
menopause
- bodies of postmenopausal women
do not produce sex hormone,
oestrogen
- causes more bone minerals to be
lost than deposited
- as a results, bones become soft
and brittle
- can be prevented by
o doing weight-bearing
exercise, strengthen the
muscles and bones
o taking diet rich in calcium,
phosphorus and vitamin D
o takin in vitamin C, increase
bone mass
o refraining from smoking
Osteoarthritis
- Osteoarthritis is part of ageing
process due to wear and tear of
cartilage between bones at
certain joints
- Patient has painful, swollen stiff
knees which restrict daily

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Important to have healthy
musculoskeletal system - ways
maintaining a healthy
musculoskeletal
The musculoskeleton system where
bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons
work together like a machine to bring
about movement
-

-

musculoskeleton helps to support
our body
if any part of system injured, we
will experience discomfort, pain
and loss of mobility
it also affect othe organs and
physiological processes in body
(respiration/digestion)

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-

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activities (walking, climbing)
If treatment fails to relieve the
pain, a surgeon can replace the
damaged joints with artificial ones
made of plastic or metal

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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

Important to have healthy
musculoskeletal system - ways
maintaining a healthy
musculoskeletal
Ways to maintain
- having balanced diet. Take diet
rich in proteins, vitamins A, C n D
together with minerals
(calcium,phosphate n iron) for
building strong bones. Drinking
fluoridated water will also harden
the bones
- adopt a good posture while
standing, sitting, walking and
while performing certain tasks to
ensure that our body is always
supported. This is important
because bad posture will put
undue pressure on our muscles
and spine and this will in turn
affect the functions of our internal
organs (lungs, heart and
stomach)
- wear proper attire for daily
activities. Wear loose and
comfortable clothes. Tight clothes
restrict our movement. Woman
wearing high heels tilt the body
forwards. To counteract this, the
woman bends her knees and
throws her trunk forwards,
causing the spine to curve even
more
- taking precautions during
vigorous activities

Osteoarthritis and arthritis gout
occur - effect of the diseases
Muscular dystrophy
- muscle destroying disorder
- weakness/weaking of muscles
- mostly in male
- affect the heart muscle – heart
attack
- results in poor
balance/wobbling/poor movement
Osteoporosis
- condition characterized by lost of
normal density of bone
- resulting in fragile bone
- bone fracture
- no symptom before any bone
fracture
- consequences – fracture of
vertebrae//reduction of in height
over time//stooped posture

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Support system in woody plants
differs from that of non-woody
plants
Non-woody plants (herbaceous plants)
- (support in herbaceous plants is)
provided by the turgidity of
parenchyma/collenchyma cells
- (when there is enough warm in
the ground) the cells take in
water by osmosis and become
turgid
- The turgor pressure of fluids in
the vacuoles pushes the cell
contents/plasma membrane
against the cell wall
- Creating support for its
tem/roots/leaves
- The thin thickening die cell walls
with cellulose/collenchyma cells
gives support to herbaceous
plants

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-

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practice correct and safe
techniques when exercisingto
prevent serious injuries to the
musculosketonn system

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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

Support system in woody plants
differs from that of non-woody
plants
Woody plants
- woody plants have specialized
tissues/sclerenchyma
tissues/xylem vessels.tracheids to
give them support
- these tissues have cellulose walls
which have deposits of lignin for
added strength
- sclerenchyma cells have very
thick walls (do not allow water to
pass through)
- (these cells are dead cells) their
function is to provide support
- Xylem vessels have thick walls of
lignin which are deposited during
the plant’s secondary growth
- The lignified xylem vessels form
the woody tissues of the stem
- This makes the plant stronger and
also provides support for the
plant
- Tracheids are also dead cells with
thick walls and very small
diameters
- They are found with xylem
vessels and together they support
the plants

Synapse – The event as a nerve
impulse is transmitted across a
synapse
 Synapse is a narrow gap between
an axon terminal and a dendrite
of another adjacent neuron. A
chemical is used by neuron to
transmit an impulse across a
synapse. The chemical is called
neurotransmitter

-

-

 The transmission of information
across a synapse involves the
conversion of electrical signal into
chemical signal in the form of
neurotransmitter
 Neurotransmitter is produced in
vesicles in a swollen part of the
axon terminal called synaptic
knob
 Synaptic knob contains abundant
mitochondrion to generate energy
for the transmission
 When an impulse arrived at the
synaptic knob, the vesicles
release the neurotransmitters into
the synapse
 The neurotransmitters molecules
diffuse across the synapse to the
dendrite of another neurons
 The dendrite of another neurons
is stimulated to trigger a new
impulse which travel down a long
neuron

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Knee jerk

-

-

-

the knee jerk action involves two
types of neurons named afferent
and efferent neurons
when a hammer hits a tendon
that connect to quadriceps
muscle in the thigh to a bone in
the lower leg
as the hammer strike, the force
stretches the quadriceps muscle
and stimulates the stretch
receptors in the muscles,
triggering nerve impulse
afferent neurons transmit the
information to the quadriceps
muscle and the muscle contracts
swing the leg forward
if the patient is able to swing the
leg forward, it indicates that the
patient’s nerve system is still
functioning
if there is no response, it shows
that the patient’s nervous system
fails to function properly

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When the hand touches a hot object

-

-

-

the heat on the object stimulates
the nerve endings (receptors) in
skin
impulses are triggered
impulses travel along the
sensory/afferent neuron to spinal
cord
in spinal cord, the impulses are
transmitted first across a synapse
to the interneurone and then
across another synapse to the
motor/efferent neurone

At synapse
- when an impulse reach a
presynaptic membrane, it triggers
the synaptic vesicles to release
neutrotransmitter into the
synaptic cleft
- the neurotransmitter diffuse
across the synaptic cleft
- and bind to receptors which are
attached to the postsynaptic
membrane
- the binding of the
neurotransmitter to the receptors
leads to the generation of a new
impulse
- impulses leave the spinal cord
along the motor/efferent neurone
to the effector

Roles of cerebellum and medulla
oblongata - reflex action when
finger being stung by a bee
Cerebellum
- coordination of movement
- controls of balance/posture
Medulla oblongata
- controls/increase breathing
- controls/increase heart rate
- controls blood pressure/sweating
Reflex action
- receptors in the skin of the finger
detects pain
- nerve impulse is generated in
pain receptor
- electrical impulses are sent via
the afferent(sensory) neurone to
spinal cord
- impulses are transferred to the
interneurone in the spinal cord
- interneurone sents impulses to
the efferent neurone
- efferent neurone sents impulses
to biceps/muscle
- biceps/muscle contract (triceps
relax) causing the arm to bend

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Glomerular filtrate formed

-

-

-

when blood enters the
glomerulus, ultrafiltration takes
place
because blood from the aorta
reaches the nephron/glomerulus
at high pressure
and due to the different artiole
and efferent arteriole
the high pressure forces fluid
through the filtration membrane
into capsular space forming
glomerular filtrate

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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

-

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the effector is the biceps muscle
which then contracts. This brings
about a sudden withdrawal of the
hand

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BIOLOGY FORM4&5

Structure and the role of nephron formation of urine
Structure and the role of nephron
- nephron is the functional unit of a
kidney
- a nephron consist of 3 major parts
(glomerulus, and its associated
vessels)
- the Bowman’s capsule
- a long narrow tube called the
renal tubule, which made up of
proximal convoluted tubule, loop
of Henle and distal convoluted
tubule
- the distal convoluted tubules of
several nephrons join to a
common collecting duct
- the loop oh Henle is a long
hairpin-shaped region of the
nephron that descends into the
medulla and then returns to the
cortex

Formation of urine
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ultrafiltration, reabsoprtion and
secretion
blood is under relatively high
pressure when it reaches the
nephron
high blood pressure in
glomerulus, forces fluid to filter
through the filtration membrane
into the lumen of Bowman’s
capsule
forming glomerular filtrate
contains water, glucose, amino
acids, mineral salts and other
small molecules
the glomerular filtrate will flow
into proximal convoluted tubule
selective reabsoption occurs
by active and passive transport
forming relatively high solute
concentration in the peritubular
capillaries
thus large volume of water is
reabsorbed into the blood by
osmosis
increase the concentration of
urea in the convoluted tubule
glomerular filtrate then flow into
loop of henle and distal
convoluted tubule
more water and minerals being
reabsorbed back into the blood

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Consequences of kidney failure
-

-

-

if both kidneys stop functioning,
the blood osmotic pressure and
blood volume cannot be
maintained
the built up of toxic wastes in the
body can result in life-threatening
conditions
they have to undergo
haemodialysis
another treatment for impaired
kidney functions is the transplant
of a healthy kidney from a donor
to the patient

take place in the distal
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Avoid drug and alcohol – why –
affects - coordination systems
Drugs
- some drugs are
stimulants/cocaine
- increases the activities of the
central nervous system
- excessive use leads to temporary
euphoria followed by depression
- causes the user to
see/hear/perceive things that do
not exist
- some drugs like
narcotic/heroin/morphine
- block pain signals
- induce feelings of euphoria/slows
down nerve impulses
Alcohol
- strong depressant
- affects coordination and
judgement
- inhibits releases of ADH from
posterior pituitary
- less water will be absorbed into

convoluted tubule
- urea/toxins/ammonia/ect being
secreted by passive diffusion and
active transport from blood
capillary into distal convoluted
tubule
- filtrate reaches the collecting duct
(now called urine). flows down the
ureter, the bladder and urethra
and is finally excreted
Geotropism is brought about in a
plant root and shoot - advantages
Shoot
- the auxin that is produced at the
tip of shoot
- auxin moves
downwards/accumulate on the
underside of the shoot tip due to
the pull of gravity
- the high concentration of auxin
accelerates the growth
- stimulating greater cell
elongation on the underside
relative to the cells on the upper
side
- this differential elongation causes
the shoot to bend away from
gravity/grow upwards
Root
- the auxin that is produced at the
tip of root
- auxin moves
downwards/accumulates on the
underside of the root tip due to

ikmal hafizah

Tips of shoot contribute to growth
in oat seedlings
- *without tip of a shoot, an oat
seedling cannot grow
- this proves elongation of plumule
is dependent on the presence of
the tip of the shoot
- *if the tip of the coleoptile is first
removed and placed on an agar
block which is transferred onto
the cut stump of another oat
seedling the plumule still grows
straight upwards
- this means that the tip of the
shoot carried chemical
messengers which has diffused
into the agar block
- the chemical messenger then
diffuses into the plumule and
causes the plumule to elongate
- *if the agar block is placed
asymmetrically (a little to one
scale of the center), the shoots
bend away from the scale with
41

BIOLOGY FORM4&5

blood stream/ more urine
produced
-

-

alcohol/drugs are addictive
develop dependence on
alcohol/drugs/develop severe
withdrawal effects
long term usage can damage
organs
brain damage/stomach ulcers

-

-

the pull of gravity
the hight concentration of auxin
inhibits the growth
slowing down cell elongation on
the underside relative to the cells
on the upper side
this differential elongation causes
the shoot to bend towards gravity

-

-

-

ikmal hafizah

the agar block as though it is
growing towards the light
This is because a higher
concentration of the growth
promoting chemical messenger
accumulates below the agar block
This means that the agar block
contains a chemical messenger
produced in the shoot
The chemical stimulates growth
as it diffuses down into the shoot
The chemical messenger is auxin

42

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