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Interaction Diagram for Concrete Columns

# Interaction Diagram for Concrete Columns

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# 2/20/2007

E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns

D.D. Reynolds ,K.W. Kramer

Problem Statement: Draw a interaction diagram for a 12" x 12" non- slender tied(non-spiral) column reinforced w/ 4 - # 8 bars bending around it's x-axis. Y 2-1/2"

f'c = 4000 psi b = 12" fy = 60000 psi

h = 12" Notes Calculate ΦPnmax

2-1/2"

7"

X

ACI-318 05 Reference Due to the fact concrete structures placed monolithically are continuous, a minimum eccentricity or minimum moment is assummed in this calculation, the code reduces the maximum axial load by 20% to account for this minimum moment. Section R10.3.6 & R10.3.7

φPn = .8φ [.85 f ' c (Ag − Ast ) + Ast f y ]
Ag = b × h = 12"×12"
Ag = 144 in2

(Eq. 1-1)

Section 10.3.6.2 Eq (10-2)

(Area of 1 - #8 bar = .79 in2) Ast = (4 * .79) = Find Φ Φ=
2 3.16 in

0.65

Section 9.3.2.2

φPn = .8(.65)[.85(4ksi)(144in 2 − 3.16in 2 ) + 3.16in 2 (60ksi)]
ΦPnmax = Calculate points on curve 347.60 kips

It is possible to derive a group of equations to evaluate the strength of columns subjected to combined bending and axial loads. These equations are tedious to use, therefore interaction diagrams for columns are generally computed by assuming a series of strain distributions. These strain distributions correspond fo a particular point on the interaction diagram, P and M. Each steel strain is selected by multiplying an arbitrary "Z" factor and the yield strain of your steel.

ε s1 = Z × ε y

(Eq. 1-2)

The "Z" factors can range from 1 to -1000 and increments between "Z" depend on the required detail of diagram. The smaller the increment the more detailed the diagram will be.

1

5 (fs1 = -0.5).5 (-2.0. This point marks the change from compression lap splice being allowed on all longitudinal bars to a tension lap splice. εs1 = -εy) This is the point of balanced failure. -0.5fy. Reynolds . (one with the column entirely in compression) (Z = 0. Kramer Notes ACI-318 05 Reference With the wide range of possible "Z" factors.K.00207) This point corresponds to the tension controlled strain limit of 0. the importance of each point will now be discussed.005.70 up to 0. 2 .5εy) This strain distribution affects the length of tension lap splice in a column & is customarily plotted on an interaction diagram.5. the tension controlled zone (Z = -5.Also marks beginning of transition zone for Φ for columns in which Φ increases from 0. Z = -1.1). For this example points will be calculated in the compression controlled zone. .W.0) and the transition zone (Z = -1.65 or 0. Z = -0.-1.These four points "Z" factors are 0. This strain distribution marks the change from compression failures originating by crushing of the compression surface of the section to tension failures initiated by yield of the longitudinal reinforcement. Z = 0 (εs1 = 0) .Strain εt = 0 in extreme layer in tension.90 Z = -2.2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns D.417 if εy = .. every designer must understand there are four mandatory points that must be calculated for each interaction diagram.9.5.0 (fs1 = -fy. εs1 = -0.-2.D. -0.

2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns D. Reynolds .K. Kramer 3 .D.W.

Strain curve for a column entirely in compression Given: Calculate ΦPn & ΦMn for point in compression contolled zone & column entirely in compression d1 = 9.9 εc = 0.58 in2 As2 = 1.001862 As shown in Figure 1. Calculate C ⎛ ⎞ 9.1 .003 − .003 Section 10.003⎜ ⎜ .2.3 For f'c ≤ 4000 psi For f'c ≥ 4000 psi β1 = .85 β1 = . 1-3) Section 10.3 f y = Esε y ∴ ε y = fy Es = 60ksi 29000ksi (Eq.002069) ε s1 = 0.7.05( f ' c −4000 ) β1 ≥ .2. Reynolds . from previous page calculate εs1 ε s1 = .003⎜ .2.05") = 21.W. Kramer ACI-318 05 Reference Compression Controlled zone ε s1 ≥ ε y Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis "c" c Section 10.2.001862 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ s1 ⎠ ⎝ (Eq.5" d1 ⎛ ⎞ c = .003 − ε ⎟ = . 1-5) a = β 1C a≤h "a' must be less than depth of column Section 10.85(25.85 12.D.50 in d2 = 2.002069 Using Equation 1-2.4 εy = Calculate εs1 Strain in 1st row of steel 0.85 − .1: "c" (distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis) can be calculated using similar triangles.000 in 4 .58 in2 Z = .2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns Notes D.05 in (Eq.7.50 in Es = 29000 ksi As1 = 1.3.3 Section 10.2 εs1 d2 d1 εs2 εc Figure 1.29" ≥ 12" (Eq. 1-6) β1 = a= 0.9(.K.1 Section 10.65 a = . 1-4) c = Calculate "a" (equivalent stress block) 25.2.

2. 1-7) Calculate stress in each row of steel (fs1 & fs2) f sx = ε sx E s f s1 = .2 .D.85(4ksi)) F1 = 79.85f'c a a b /2 Section 10.003⎜ ⎟ = . Calculate εs2 Strain in 2nd row of steel ⎛ C − d2 ⎞ ⎛ 25.85(4ksi)) F2 = 89. 1-11) 5 .85 f'c is assumed uniformily distributed over an equivalent compression zone.5" ⎞ ε s 2 = .85(4ksi)(12")(12") C c = 489.1 Cc Figure 1. Reynolds .95 kips F2 = 1. Kramer ACI-318 05 Reference As shown in Figure 1.001862(29000ksi) f s1 = 54 ksi f sx ≤ f y (Eq.05"−2.6 Section 10. 1-9) Calculate force in each row of steel Tension Steel: (Eq.58in 2 (60ksi − .Equivalent rectangular stress block diagram An average stress of .K. 1-10) Compression Steel: (must subtract concrete stress when in compression since concrete will be replaced by steel) F1 = 1.2. Caclulate Cc (Concrete Compression Force) Using Figure 1.W.2.7 Section 10.7.2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns Notes D.85 f 'c ) (Eq.58in 2 (54ksi − .002701 (eq.05" ⎠ ε s2 = 0.33 ≥ 60 f s 2 = 60 ksi Fx = f sx Asx Fx = Asx ( f sx − .1: εs2 can be calculated using similar triangles.2 .85 f 'c ab = .Caclulate Cc Cc = .4 f s 2 = .60 kips (Eq.2.43 kips .002701(29000ksi) = 78.003⎜ ⎟ ⎝ C ⎠ ⎝ 25. 1-8) Section 10.

33 kips 1. calculate Mn by summing moments about steel in line d1: (counterclockwise being positive moment) ΣM = 0 = 489.3 from previous page.98 φM n = (.2.2 φPn = (.3: Column free body diagram for a "Z" of .95 kips 489.3.98 kips Using Figure 1.3.83 kip-ft 6 .5") 89.65)2.60kips + 89.60 kips 89.43kips − Pn Pn = 658.9 φPn = φM n = 428.95kips + 489. M n = 2.82 kip-ft Calculate ΦPn & ΦMn φ = . Reynolds . must convert to feet for desired Units.5") + − − Mn 12" 12" 12" 1' 1' 1' Moment arms will be in inches.65 Section 9.6kips(3.K.D.5" a/2 = 6" d1 = 9.43 kips d2 = 2.98kips(3.5" Figure 1. Calculate Pn by summing vertical forces: ΣFv = 0 = 79.W.43kips(7") 658.65)658.2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns Notes D.82 Point on curve for "Z" = . Kramer ACI-318 05 Reference b/2 = 6" Calculate Pn & Mn by applying forces to free body diagram Pn Mn 79.9 Using Figure 1.

001938(29000ksi) (Eq.85(7.85 (Eq.003⎜ ⎜ . 1-9) (Eq.06"−2.W.003 − (− .5(.4 .21 kips (Eq. 1-2) (Eq.001938 Calculate stress in each row of steel (fs1 & fs2) Calculate force in each row of steel f s1 = −. Reynolds .00 ksi f s 2 = 56.003 0. 1-8) f s1 = -30.06" ⎠ (eq.21ksi − .001034) ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ c = 7.Strain curve for a column in compression & tension Calculate ΦPn & ΦMn (column in compression & tension) Given: d1 = 9. 1-7) 0.5 εc = Calculate εs1 Strain in 1st row of steel 0.K.004 in ε s 2 = . Kramer ACI-318 05 Reference εs1 c εs2 d2 d1 εc Figure 1.58 in2 Z = -.85(4ksi)) F1 = -47.001034 (Eq.00" ≤ 12" a= Calculate εs2 Strain in 2nd row of steel 6.5" c = .50 in d2 = 2.50 in Es = 29000 ksi As1 = 1.D.5" ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 7.06 in β1 = Calculate "a" 0.003⎜ ε s2 = ⎛ 7.2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns Notes D. 1-10) F1 = 1. 1-4) Calculate C ⎛ ⎞ 9.40 kips 7 F2 = 83.06") = 6.002069) ε s1 = -0.001034(29000ksi) f s 2 = .58in 2 (− 30ksi) F2 = 1. 1-5) a = .44 kips .58 in2 As2 = 1.002069 εy = ε s1 = −.58in 2 (56.

44 kips 244.98 kips d2 = 2.5 Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in axial and flexural calculations of reinforced concrete.44kips − Pn Pn = 281.98 kips b/2 = 6" Calculate Pn & Mn by applying forces to free body diagram Pn Mn -47.5") 83.6 C c = 244.5: Column free body diagram for a "Z" of -.2.5") + − − Mn 12" 12" 12" 1' 1' 1' M n = 99.67 kips 64.5 φPn = φM n = 182.98kips + 83. 1-11) Section 10.44kips(7") 281.K. calculate Pn by summing vertical forces: Section 10.41 kip-ft Calculate ΦPn & ΦMn φ = .02 φM n = (. Reynolds .4kips + 244. Kramer ACI-318 05 Reference Caclulate Cc Cc = .5" Figure 1.2.002" d1 = 9.98kips(6.2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns Notes D.5.02kips(3. Using Figure 1. calculate Mn by summing moments about steel in line d1: (counterclockwise being positive moment) ΣM = 0 = 244.65)281.5 .85(4ksi)(6.65)99.5" a/2 = 3.W.65 φPn = (.4 kips 83.41 Point on curve for "Z" = -.02 kips Using Figure 1.004")(12") (Eq.62 kip-ft 8 .D.5 ΣFv = 0 = −47.

00 ksi f s 2 = 46.1(.50 in Es = 29000 ksi As1 = 1.001612(29000ksi) f s1 = -60. 1-11) Cc = .401961 (Eq.2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns Notes D.59" ≤ 12" a= Calculate εs2 Strain in 2nd row of steel 4.85 (Eq.003 0.59")(12") C c = 187.003⎜ ⎟ ⎜ .4") = 4. 1-5) β1 = a = . Kramer ACI-318 05 Reference Transition Zone Calculate ΦPn & ΦMn (column in compression & tension) Given: .002069 ) ⎞ ⎛ 9.002 ≤ ε s1 ≤ .75ksi − . Reynolds .005 d1 = 9.40"−2. 1-8) (Eq.49 kips (Eq.58 in2 εc = Calculate εs1 Strain in 1st row of steel Calculate C 0.D.K. 1-4) c= Calculate "a" (equivalent stress block) 5.85(5.001612 (Eq.85(4ksi)(4.002069 εy = ε s1 = −1.40 in 0.003⎜ ε s2 = ⎛ 5. 1-10) F1 = Caclulate Cc -94.75 kips Calculate force in each row of steel F2 = 1.W.003 − (− .85(4ksi)) 2 F1 = 1. 1-9) (Eq.40" ⎠ (eq.002276) ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ε s1 = 5.80 kips F2 = 68.58in (46.590 in ε s 2 = .5" c = .5" ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 5.27 kips 9 . 1-8) Calculate stress in each row of steel (fs1 & fs2) f s1 = −. 1-7) 0.002276(29000ksi) = −66 ≥ 60ksi f s 2 = .58 in2 As2 = 1.58in 2 (− 60ksi) (Eq.50 in d2 = 2.

96kips(3.5" Figure 1.65 + (.1 70.6: Column free body diagram for a "Z" of -1.673)105.45 φPn = φM n = 108.96 φM n = (.65 + (ε s1 − .49 kips 187.45 kip-ft Calculate ΦPn & ΦMn φ = .673 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ Figure R9.2 φPn = (.D.8 kips 68.96 kips Using Figure 1.27kips(7. Kramer ACI-318 05 Reference b/2 = 6" Calculate Pn & Mn by applying forces to free body diagram Pn Mn -94.1 Using Figure 1.002 )⎜ ⎟ = .002 )⎜ ⎛ 250 ⎞ ⎛ 250 ⎞ ⎟ = . Reynolds .205") 68.8kips + 68.3.002276 − .27 kips a/2 = 2.33 kips Point on curve for "Z" = -1.27 kips − Pn Pn = 160.295" d2 = 2.49kips(7") 160.5" d1 = 9. calculate Pn by summing vertical forces: ΣFv = 0 = −94.6.6 calculate Mn by summing moments about steel in line d1: (counterclockwise being positive moment) ΣM = 0 = 187.49kips + 187.97 kip-ft 10 .5") + − − Mn 12" 12" 12" 1' 1' 1' M n = 105.W.673)160.2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns Notes D.K.

1-4) β1 = Calculate "a" a = .14" ⎠ ε s2 = -0. Reynolds .50 in d2 = 2.85(2.010345 (Eq. 1-8) f s1 = -60.58in 2 (− 14.003⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2. 1-7) Calculate stress in each row of steel (fs1 & fs2) f s1 = −. Kramer ACI-318 05 Reference Tension Controlled Zone Calculate ΦPn & Given: ΦMn for point in Tension controlled zone & column in compression & tension d1 = 9.65 kips F1 = 1.65ksi) F2 = -23.22 kips 11 .K. 1-11) Cc = 74.010345(29000ksi) = −300 ≥ 60ksi f s 2 = −.010345) ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ c= 2.W.50 in ε s1 ≥ . 1-2) Calculate C ⎞ ⎛ 9.2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns Notes D.00 ksi Calculate force in each row of steel f s 2 = -14.000505 (Eq.58in 2 (− 60ksi) F1 = -94.14 in 0.D.15 kips (Eq.003 0.819" ≤ 12" (Eq.85 (Eq.003⎜ ⎟ ⎜ . 1-9) Caclulate Cc Cc = .85(4ksi)(1.5" c = .14"−2. 1-8) (Eq.003 − (− . 1-5) a= Calculate εs2 Strain in 2nd row of steel 1.002069) ε s1 = -0.002069 εy = ε s1 = −5(.005 Es = 29000 ksi As1 = 1.14") = 1.58 in2 As2 = 1.80 kips F2 = 1.58 in2 Z = -5 εc = Calculate εs1 Strain in 1st row of steel 0.000505(29000ksi) (Eq.5" ⎞ ε s 2 = .819")(12") (Eq.819 in ⎛ 2.

15kips + 74.22kips − Pn Pn = -43.73) φM n = (.15kips(7") − 43.W.91" d2 = 2.3.7: Column free body diagram for a "Z" of -5 Using Figure 1.9)52.9 )(− 43.73 kips Using Figure 1.38 kip-ft Calculate ΦPn & ΦMn φ = .22kips(8.D.9 Section 9.5" Figure 1.22 kips a/2 = .5") − − − Mn 12" 12" 12" 1' 1' 1' M n = 52.59") 23. Reynolds .2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns Notes D. calculate Pn by summing vertical forces: ΣFv = 0 = −94. Kramer ACI-318 05 Reference b/2 = 6" Calculate Pn & Mn by applying forces to free body diagram Pn Mn -94.36 kips Point on curve for "Z" = -5 47.38 φPn = φM n = -39.7.K.73kips(3.7 calculate Mn by summing moments about steel in line d1: (counterclockwise being positive moment) ΣM = 0 = 74.2.8 kips -23.14 kip-ft 12 .2 φPn = (.15 kips 74.5" d1 = 9.8kips − 23.

16 in Pnt = 3.D.62 70.9(− 189.9 Section 9.14 0.79) = 2 3.00 50.010345 ΦPn 347.64 ΦMn 0.00 -200. Reynolds .00 30.00 0.00 40.00 ΦPn (Kips) 100.36 -170. Kramer ACI-318 05 Reference When column is entirely in tension the designer shall assume the concrete in the column will not contribute to tension strength.002069 0.W.00 -100.2 φPnt = .79 in2) Ast = (4 * . εs1 0.K.0018621 -0.00 Column Interaction Diagram 400.83 64.33 -39.3.00 200.00 ΦMn (k-ft) 13 .60 kips Find Φ Φ= 0.67 108.6kips) ΦPnt = -170.002276 -0.64 kips Draw interaction diagram using points calculated.#8 bar = .00 80.2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns Notes D.00 60.00 0.00 20.00 10.2.60 347. Calculate ΦPnt Section 10.00 70.16in 2 (60ksi) Pnt = -189.97 47.00 1. only reinforcement shall resist tension.5 Pnt = − Ast f y (Area of 1 .60 182.00 300.2.001034 -0.

00 300.00 -100.00 0. to get a more detailed curve.00 60.00 50.00 80.00 70.00 10.00 ΦPn (Kips) 100. Reynolds . Kramer ACI-318 05 Reference Finally an actual iteraction diagram will be shown with using more values of "Z".W.00 20.00 ΦMn (k-ft) 14 .00 200.00 30.2/20/2007 E702 Example Problems Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns Notes D. Column Interaction Diagram 400.00 40.00 -200.00 0.D.K.

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