# ASME UG 37 Nozzles

d 1066 := Hole Diameter
t 25 := Actual Shell Thickness, Corroded
t
r
7.117 := Required Shell Thickness From Calculations
t
n
25 := Nozzle Wall Thickness, Corroded
t
rn
4.477 := Required Nozzle Thickness From Calculations
f
r1
1 := Sn/Sv For Set In Nozzle Only, Maximum =1 Note:- Design Stress Notation
Sv = Vessel Shell
Sn = Nozzle Design Stress
f
r2
1 := Sn/Sv Maximum =1
f
r3
1 := The Lesser Of Sn or Sp /Sv Maximum =1
f
r4
1 := Sp/Sv
E
1
1 := 1 if in solid plate or cat B Joint
Limits Nozzles less than 1/2 D AND 508mm, in cylindrical shells < = 1520mm Dia
Nozzles less than 1/3 D AND 1000mm, in cylindrical shells > 1524mm Dia
No restriction on Formed Heads (UG 36)
Set Through Nozzles
h 0 := Distance nozzle extends below shell; must not exceed the smaller of 2.5 x t or 2.5 x tj
t
j
t
n
:= Wall thickness of nozzle below shell
D
p
0 := Diameter Of Reinforcing Pad, must not extend beyond reinforcement limit
t
e
0 := Thickness of Reinforcing Pad
Correction Factor F Fig UG37
θ 0° := Plane of Interest Relative to Longitudinal axis, Always = 0 except when considering
F
1 cos θ ( )
2
+
2
:= F 1 =
Required Area A
A d t
r
⋅ F ⋅ 2 t
n
⋅ t
r
⋅ F ⋅ 1 f
r1
− ( ) ⋅ + := A 7.587 10
3
× =
The second term of the above equation is to compensate for the portion of a set in nozzle adjacent to
tr that has a lower allowable design stress than the shell. If the nozzle is set on, or if set in has the
same design stress as the shell, and F = 1: this equation reduces to A = d x tr.
Area Available In Shell, Larger Of
A
11
d E
1
t ⋅ F t
r
⋅ − ( ) ⋅ 2 t
n
⋅ E
1
t ⋅ F t
r
⋅ − ( ) ⋅ 1 f
r1
− ( ) ⋅ − := A
11
1.906 10
4
× =
A
12
2 t t
n
+ ( ) ⋅ E
1
t ⋅ F t
r
⋅ − ( ) ⋅ 2 t
n
⋅ E
1
t ⋅ F t
r
⋅ − ( ) ⋅ 1 f
r1
− ( ) ⋅ − := A
12
1.788 10
3
× =
The compensation area extends the larger of d or Rn+t+tn. A11 calculates the compensation area
based on it extending d, A12 calculates it based on it extending Rn+t+tn. The second term of the
above equations is discussed in the note above concerning A.
A
1
max A
11
A
12
, ( ) := A
1
1.906 10
4
× =
Area Available In Nozzle, Smaller Value
A
21
5 t
n
t
rn
− ( ) ⋅ f
r2
⋅ t ⋅ := A
21
2.565 10
3
× =
A
22
2 t
n
t
rn
− ( ) ⋅ 2.5 t
n
⋅ t
e
+ ( ) ⋅ f
r2
⋅ := A
22
2.565 10
3
× =
Nozzle compensation extends a distance from the surface of the shell to the smaller of :-
2.5 x t (Considered in equation A21) or 2.5 x tn + te (Considered in equation A22).
A
2
min A
21
A
22
, ( ) := A
2
2.565 10
3
× =
Reinforcement Area Below Shell (Set Through)
A
3
5 h ⋅ t
j
⋅ := A
3
0 =
Fillet Welds leg 9 :=
A
4
leg
2
:=
All fillet welds within the reinforcement limit can be considered as contributing to compensation, and
as there is a fillet weld on either side of the joint, the area for each joint is equal to the leg length of
the weld squared. This area may have to be factored by fr2, fr3, or fr4 depending on weld location
and design stresses.
A
5
D
p
d − 2 t
n
⋅ − ( ) t
e
⋅ f
r4
⋅ := A
5
0 =
Reinforcement Limit For Shell, Measured from Bore of Nozzle
Limit_shell max
d
2
t
n
t + ,
|

\
|
|
¹
:= Limit_shell 533 =
Reinforcement Limit For Nozzle, Measured from Shell Surface below any Reinforcing Pad
Limit_Nozzle min 2.5 t ⋅ 2.5 t
n
⋅ t
e
+ , ( ) := Limit_Nozzle 62.5 =
Therefore Area Required A < = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5
A 7.587 10
3
× =
< =
A
1
A
2
+ A
3
+ A
4
+ A
5
+ 2.171 10
4
× =
External Pressure Compensation, UG37 d) 1.
A 7.587 10
3
× =
< =
2 A
1
A
2
+ A
3
+ A
4
+ A
5
+ ( ) ⋅ 4.342 10
4
× =
Note:- F is always equal to 1 and tr and tn are calculated using external pressure rules
Large Opening Check
1-7a) For al nozzles outside the limits in UG36 (See Above) two thirds of the required reinforcement
must fit in :- half the limit along the shell measured from the nozzle bore or 3/4 d measured from the
centre (assuming limit is based on d ) plus the full limit along the branch.
A
13
1
2
d E
1
t ⋅ F t
r
⋅ − ( ) ⋅ 2 t
n
⋅ E
1
t ⋅ F t
r
⋅ − ( ) ⋅ 1 f
r1
− ( ) ⋅ − :=
A
1
max A
13
A
12
, ( ) :=
2
3
A ⋅ 5.058 10
3
× =
< =
A
1
A
2
+ A
3
+ A
4
+ 1.218 10
4
× =
1-7b) For Radial Nozzles with no internal projection, In Cylinders.
Nozzles greater than :- 1016mm ID AND 3.4 Sqr( Ri t) Diameter, in cylindrical shells > 1524mm ID

Rn / R < 0.7 (Inside Nozzle Radius / Inside Shell Radius)
P 1.233 :=
Design Pressure
R
1620
2
|

\
|
|
¹
:=
R
m
R
t
2
+ :=
R
n
d
2
R
nm
R
n
t
n
2
+ := Mean Radius Of Nozzle
l
s
R
m
t ⋅ := l
s
143.396 = Length Of Shell Considered
l
n
t
e
t + R
nm
t
n
⋅ + := l
n
141.78 = Length Of Nozzle Considered
l
p
max D
p
d − 2 t
n
⋅ − ( ) l
s
,

:= l
p
143.396 = Length Of Pad Considered
A
s
t l
s
⋅ ( ) l
p
t
e
⋅ + t
n
l
n
⋅ ( ) + 40 + := A
s
7.169 10
3
× =
Membrane Stress, must not exceed S
S
m
P
R R
n
t
n
+ R
m
t ⋅ + ( ) ⋅ R
n
t t
e
+ R
nm
t
n
⋅ + ( ) ⋅ +
A
s

⋅ := S
m
110.704 =
Bending Stress
l
s
max R
m
t ⋅ 16 t ⋅ , ( ) := l
s
400 =
l
n
max t
e
t + R
nm
t
n
⋅ + ( ) t
e
t + 16 t
n
⋅ + ,

:= l
n
425 =
l
p
if D
p
d − 2 t
n
⋅ − ( ) l
s
> D
p
d − 2 t
n
⋅ − ( ) , l
s
,

:= l
p
400 = Length Of Pad Considered
Note: The value for ls and ln is the greatest value from Fig 1-7-1 and 1-7-2
_______________________________________________________________________
Calculate neutral axis and second moment of inertia of nozzle and shell
Width
t
n
l
s
l
p
|

\
|
|
|
|
¹
:= Depth
l
n
t
t
e
|

\
|
|
|
|
¹
:= Y
l
n
2
t
2
t
t
e
2
+
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
¹
:=
Ybar
0
2
j
Width
j
Depth
j
⋅ Y
j

( )

=
0
2
i
Width
i
Depth
i

( )

=
:=
Ybar 115.53 = a Ybar :=
I
0
2
j
Width
j
Depth
j
( )
3

12

Width
j
Depth
j
⋅ Y
j
Ybar −
( )
2

+

=
:=
_______________________________________________________________________
a 115.53 = Distance To Neutral Axis
I 3.665 10
8
× = Second Moment Of Area I, for greatest shaded area in Fig 1-7-1 and 1-7-2
e a
t
2
− :=
M
R
n
3
6
R R
n
⋅ e ⋅ +
|

\
|
|
¹
P ⋅ :=
M 8.596 10
7
× = Section Bending Moment
S
b
M a ⋅
I
:= S
b
27.0968 = Bending Stress
S
c
S
m
S
b
+ := S
c
137.801 = Combined Bending and Membrane Stress.
Must Not Exceed Sv x 1.5
Note: Nozzle design stress divided by shell design stress, Sn / Sv < 0.8 For above large opening
analysis. If necessary reduce Sv to maintain ratio.
___________________________________________________________________________________
UG45 Minimum Nozzle Thickness
UG45a Max(Nozzle Thickness required for pressure, Nozzle thickness to withstand any nozzle loads
according to UG22 ) + Corrosion Allowance
UG45b Min( b1, b2, b3, b4)
b1 For P > 0 The minimum shell thickness assumong E=1 + Corrosion allowance (must be greater than
the code min thickness defined in UG16b plus corrosion allowance)
b2 For P < 0 (The shell thickness assuming that the External Pressure is acting internally plus
corrosion allowance)
b3 When P can be both > 0 And < 0, The greater of b1 or b2 above.
b4 The Nominal bore pipe size for a pipe of standard thickness minus under-tolerance, typically 12.5%
plus corrosion allowance.
Minimum Nozzle thickness = Max(UG45a, UG45b)

Larger Of A11 := d ⋅ ( E1⋅ t − F⋅ tr) − 2 ⋅ tn⋅ ( E1⋅ t − F⋅ tr) ⋅ ( 1 − fr1) A12 := 2 ⋅ ( t + tn) ⋅ ( E1⋅ t − F⋅ tr) − 2 ⋅ tn⋅ ( E1⋅ t − F⋅ tr) ⋅ ( 1 − fr1) A11 = 1. This area may have to be factored by fr2. A1 := max( A11 . A12 calculates it based on it extending Rn+t+tn. or fr4 depending on weld location and design stresses.788 × 10 4 3 The compensation area extends the larger of d or Rn+t+tn. and F = 1: this equation reduces to A = d x tr. If the nozzle is set on. Smaller Value A21 := 5 ⋅ ( tn − trn) ⋅ fr2⋅ t A22 := 2 ⋅ ( tn − trn) ⋅ ( 2. Area Available In Shell.565 × 10 3 3 Nozzle compensation extends a distance from the surface of the shell to the smaller of :2.5 x tn + te (Considered in equation A22).906 × 10 A12 = 1.906 × 10 4 Area Available In Nozzle.The second term of the above equation is to compensate for the portion of a set in nozzle adjacent to tr that has a lower allowable design stress than the shell. Reinforcing Pads A5 := ( Dp − d − 2⋅ tn) ⋅ te⋅ fr4 A5 = 0 . The second term of the above equations is discussed in the note above concerning A. or if set in has the same design stress as the shell. A2 := min( A21 . the area for each joint is equal to the leg length of the weld squared. fr3.565 × 10 A22 = 2. A12) A1 = 1.5 x t (Considered in equation A21) or 2. A22) A2 = 2. A11 calculates the compensation area based on it extending d.5⋅ tn + te) ⋅ fr2 A21 = 2.565 × 10 3 Reinforcement Area Below Shell (Set Through) A3 := 5⋅ h ⋅ tj Fillet Welds A4 := leg 2 A3 = 0 leg := 9 All fillet welds within the reinforcement limit can be considered as contributing to compensation. and as there is a fillet weld on either side of the joint.

4 Sqr( Ri t) Diameter. A13 := 1 2 d⋅ ( E1⋅ t − F⋅ tr) − 2 ⋅ tn⋅ ( E1⋅ t − F⋅ tr) ⋅ ( 1 − fr1) A1 := max( A13 . in cylindrical shells > 1524mm ID Rn / R < 0.Reinforcement Limit For Shell. A = 7.171 × 10 4 External Pressure Compensation. 2.7 (Inside Nozzle Radius / Inside Shell Radius) P := 1. tn + t   2  Limit_shell = 533 Reinforcement Limit For Nozzle.half the limit along the shell measured from the nozzle bore or 3/4 d measured from the centre (assuming limit is based on d ) plus the full limit along the branch.587 × 10 3 < = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5 = 2.1016mm ID AND 3. Measured from Shell Surface below any Reinforcing Pad Limit_Nozzle := min( 2.218 × 10 4 1-7b) For Radial Nozzles with no internal projection.5 Therefore Area Required A < = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5 A = 7. A12) 2 3 ⋅ A = 5. Nozzles greater than :.F is always equal to 1 and tr and tn are calculated using external pressure rules Large Opening Check 1-7a) For al nozzles outside the limits in UG36 (See Above) two thirds of the required reinforcement must fit in :. UG37 d) 1.058 × 10 3 <= A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 = 1.5⋅ tn + te) Limit_Nozzle = 62.5⋅ t . In Cylinders.233 R := Design Pressure Inside Radius Of Shell Mean Radius Of Shell  1620   2    t 2 R m := R + .587 × 10 3 < = 2 ⋅ ( A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5) = 4.342 × 10 4 Note:. Measured from Bore of Nozzle d Limit_shell := max .

704 Bending Stress ls := max ( ( Rm⋅ t . ( Dp − d − 2⋅ tn) .R n := d 2 tn 2 Inside Radius Of Nozzle R nm := Rn + Mean Radius Of Nozzle Shaded Area As.169 × 10 3 Membrane Stress. must not exceed S Sm := P⋅   R⋅ ( Rn + tn + Rm⋅ t) + Rn⋅ ( t + te + Rnm⋅ tn)   As   Sm = 110.396 Length Of Shell Considered ln := te + t + Rnm⋅ tn ln = 141. 16⋅ t ) ) ls = 400 ln := max te + t +  Rnm⋅ tn .396 Length Of Pad Considered As := ( t⋅ ls) + lp⋅ te + ( tn⋅ ln) + 40 As = 7. Fig 1-7-1 ls := R m⋅ t ls = 143. te + t + 16⋅ tn  ln = 425 lp := if ( Dp − d − 2 ⋅ tn) > ls .78 Length Of Nozzle Considered lp := max( Dp − d − 2 ⋅ tn) . ls   lp = 143. ls   lp = 400 Length Of Pad Considered Note: The value for ls and ln is the greatest value from Fig 1-7-1 and 1-7-2 _______________________________________________________________________ .

Calculate neutral axis and second moment of inertia of nozzle and shell  tn    Width :=  ls  l   p  ln    Depth :=  t   te     ln   2     t  Y :=  2   t  t + e   2 ∑ (Widthj⋅Depthj⋅Yj) Ybar := j =0 2 ∑ (Widthi⋅Depthi) i=0 2 Ybar = 115.0968 Bending Stress .665 × 10 t 2 8 Distance To Neutral Axis Second Moment Of Area I. for greatest shaded area in Fig 1-7-1 and 1-7-2 e := a −  Rn3   M := + R ⋅ R n⋅ e ⋅ P  6  M = 8.596 × 10 7 Section Bending Moment Sb := M⋅ a I Sb = 27.53 a := Ybar I := ∑ j =0 2  Width ⋅ Depth 3   j( j)   2   + Widthj ⋅ Depthj ⋅ ( Yj − Ybar)  12    _______________________________________________________________________ a = 115.53 I = 3.

___________________________________________________________________________________ UG45 Minimum Nozzle Thickness UG45a Max(Nozzle Thickness required for pressure.801 Combined Bending and Membrane Stress. Sn / Sv < 0. If necessary reduce Sv to maintain ratio. b2.5% plus corrosion allowance. b4 The Nominal bore pipe size for a pipe of standard thickness minus under-tolerance. b3. Minimum Nozzle thickness = Max(UG45a. Nozzle thickness to withstand any nozzle loads according to UG22 ) + Corrosion Allowance UG45b Min( b1. UG45b) .8 For above large opening analysis. typically 12.Sc := Sm + Sb Sc = 137. Must Not Exceed Sv x 1. b4) b1 For P > 0 The minimum shell thickness assumong E=1 + Corrosion allowance (must be greater than the code min thickness defined in UG16b plus corrosion allowance) b2 For P < 0 (The shell thickness assuming that the External Pressure is acting internally plus corrosion allowance) b3 When P can be both > 0 And < 0.5 Note: Nozzle design stress divided by shell design stress. The greater of b1 or b2 above.